1. "'110 Years Back a Persian Prophet Took the Road to Martyrdom'." Sunday Pictorial (Colombo, Ceylon) 1 (29 19 Dec. 1954): 11.
2. "'A New Religion'." The Nation (New York) 2 (59 June 22, 1866): 793-5. 11.740a.
3. "'A New Religion: Babism'." The Open Court 18 (June 1904): 355-72. Bjorling 901.
4. "'Babist Movement'." The Nation (New York) 87 (Dec. 24, 1908): 627.
5. "'Babizm'." In [Philosophical Encyclopaedia], 120. Moscow: 1960.
6. "'Die Babis in Persien' [Review of Gobineau, Religions et philosophies (item x)]." Allgemeine Zeitung (Tubingen) (March 1866):
7. "'How They Punish Treason in Persia'." The Times (London) (13 October 1852b): 4, col. 4. An account of the executions of two Babis, Haji Sulayaman Khan Tabri zi and Qurrat al-'Ayn, following the attempt on the life of Nasir al-Di Shah. Momen speculates that this report has been taken from another newspaper. Reprinted: Allen's Indian Mail (London), 16 October 1852, p. 588; New York Times, 28 October, p. 6; Southern Cross (Auckland, New Zealand), 22 February 1853, p. 3; Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, p. 132.
8. "'Mahometan Schism'." Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, etc. (London) (1504 Nov. 15, 1845): 757. Reprinted in Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art (New York, Philadelphia), Jan-Apr. 1846, p.142. (Also Times?) The earliest mention of Babism in the Western press: records the arrest and punishment of followers of the Bab after his return to Shiraz in 1845 (see Momen, p.).
9. "'One Hundred Years Ago "the Bab" Proclaimed His Faith'." News Review (London) 17 (22 June 1, 1944): 22.
10. "'Persia'." Sun (London) (7 October 1852b): 4, col. 3. A brief account of the Babi attempt on the life of Nasir al-Di Shah, based on a letter from Tabriz dated 26 August 1852. Reprinted The Times (London), 8 October 1852, p. 6; Daily News (London), 8 October, p. 5; Guardian (London), 13 October, p. 674; Allen's Indian Mail (London), 16 October, p. 588; Southern Cross (Auckland, New Zealand), 22 February 1853, p. 4 (from the Melbourne Argus).
11. "'Persia'." The Times (London) (1 November 1845): 5, col. 3. The very first mention (though not, of course, by name) of Babism in any print medium. An abbreviated version was subsequently widely reprinted. For details, see Cadwalader, 'Persia' [item x], Momen, 'The Babi and Baha'i Religions' [item xx], pp. 4, 69-70. See also items x, xx, xxx, xxxx, xxxxx.
12. "'The Bab'." The Oxford Magazine (May 25, 1892): 394.
13. "'The Babys'." The Church Missionary Intelligencer (London) (June 1872): 161-75.
14. The Standard (London) (1 November 1852): 3. Brief account of executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di n Shah, based on a report in the Journal de Constantinople, following a letter from Tabriz dated 27 September 1852.
15. MacEoin, Denis. "'Muhammad 'Ali Barfurushi'." In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ????? ????? Leiden: E.J. Brill, ?????
16., 'A. A'in-i Bab. [Iran]: [Privately published by the Azali Babis], n.d.A short (98 pp.) but fairly comprehensive introduction to the Babi religion, from an Azali perspective. The sections on doctrine and legislation consist mainly of quotations from works of the Bab, in many instances taken from otherwise unpublished manuscripts.
17. "'L'Influence de Babisme'." A Travers le Monde (Paris) 13th. year (1907): pp.17-20.
18., A. Le Bab, prophe`te-martyr, un precurseur de la civilisation universelle. 2. n.p. [France?]: n.d. [193-?]. [c/r to biography?]
19. A composite volume, the chief item of which is a lengthy letter ('Tanbi h al-na'imi n' [A rebuke to those asleep]) written between 1891 and 1904 in refutation of the claims of the Baha'i leader Baha' Allah by his half-sister, 'Izziyya Khanum. Her work is preceded by the letter from 'Abd al-Baha', to which it is a reply; two pieces by the Azali apologist, Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi ; and an autograph will allegedly written by Baha' Allah in Baghdad.
20. A Persian translation from the Arabic version [item xxx] of Shoghi Effendi's re-write of Zarandi's Persian original. The original Persian text has still to be published. This version ignores Shoghi Effendi's numerous footnotes and appendices.
21. A Study Guide to The Dawn-Breakers, Nabtl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Baha'i Revelation. n.p. [New York]: National Teaching Committee, 1932. 30 leaves. idem. Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 1946. 30 p.; 1953. 35 p. idem. Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1959, 1967, 1978. 35 p. 1932.
22. Afnan, Muhammad. "'Marahil-i da'wat-i Hazrat-i Nuqta-yi Ula' [The stages of the Bab's proclamation]." Mutali'a-yi Ma'arif-i Baha'i (Tehran) 10 (132 badi '/1976):
23. Afnan, Muhammad; Hatcher, William S. "'Western Islamic Scholarship and Baha'i Origins'." Religion (London) 15 (1985): 29-51. Comments?
24. al-Baghdadi, Aqa Muhammad Mustafa. Risala amriyya. (in 1 vol. with A. Suhrab, al-Risala al-tis'a 'ashrata -- item xx) ed., Cairo: 1338/1919. A short historical reminiscence of Babism in Baghdad, containing numerous details of the Babi heroine Qurrat al-'Ayn. The author's father was one of the first converts in Baghdad and one of her companions. Muhammad Mustafa himself accompanied Qurrat al-'Ayn from Iraq to Iran when he was a child.
25. al-Baha', 'Abd. A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bab (see section x, item x).
26. al-Hasani, Sayyid 'Abd al-Razzaq. al-Babi yun fi 'l-ta'ri kh (The Babis in history). Sidon: 1349/1930-31.
27. Amanat, Abbas. Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, 1844-1850. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989. An important study based on Amanat's 1980 [?] doctoral dissertation [item XX], this is a crucial demythologizing study by a modern Iranian historian working in the West. Many of Amanat's historical facts are suspect, but his overall interpretation of the socio-political significance of the movement is broadly sound. (See also MacEoin [review])
28. Amanat, Abbas. "The Early Years of the Babi Movement: Background and Development." D. Phil., Oxford, 1981, vi, 472 pp.. A comprehensive study of the first two years of the movement, with a detailed analysis of the emergent Babi community in Iran and Iraq. This thesis formed the basis for Amanat's chronologically more extended study Resurrection and Renewal (item xx).
29. Amero, Constant. "'La Secte des Babis: les nihilistes de la Perse'." Journal des voyages (Paris) (June 1892): 353-63.
30. Andreas, F.C. Die Babis in Persien, ihre Geschichte und Lehre. 68. Leipzig: 1896. A short booklet surveying the history of Babism/Baha'ism to about 1880. Andreas, a philologist, travelled in Iran in the late 1870s. Acording to Momen, this work was disproportionately influential, being widely reviewed in Germany and even as far afield as Finland. Browne (Materials p. 176) describes it as 'A slight and popular work... adding little if anything to our knowledge'.
31. Anon. "Review of Zarandi, Dawn-Breakers [item xx],Theology Digest, v. I9 no.3 , p. 280." ((Autumn 1971)):
32. Arakelian, A. Babizm. Tiflis:
33. Arakelian, H. "'Le Babisme en Perse'." Actes du 1er Congre`s international d'histoire des religions 2e`me partie (fasc. 1 1900): 93-104.
34. Arakelian, H. "'Le babisme en Perse'." Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (Paris) 43 (1901): 333-344.
35. Arbab, Ruhi. Nujum-i bazigha (The rising stars). 2nd. ed., 119 B.E./1962-63, Tehran, Baha'i Publications Committee, 143 pp. ed., 122. Tehran: Baha'i Youth Committee, 1323/1944-45. Material adapted from Nabil's Narrative.
36. Arbuthnot, Robert H. "'The Bab and Babeeism'." Contemporary Review (London) (11; 12 Aug. 1869, Oct. 1869): 581-601; 245-66. Based on Gobineau and Kazem Beg.
37. Arsharuni, A. M. Babizm: istoricheskii ocherk. Moscow, OGIZ Moskovskii rabochii, 1931, 78 pp.
38. Bahthi dar radd-i yad-dashtha-yi majhul muntasib-bi kinyaz-i Dalgoruki (A discussion refuting the forged memoirs ascribed to Count Dolgorukov). 2nd. ed., [Tehran]: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 129 B.E./1972-73. A useful Baha'i critique of the notorious (and unquestionably forged) account of the origins of Babism attributed to Count Dolgorukov and first published in Iran in the 1940s (see item XX).
39. Balteau, J. "'Le Babysme' (lecture par M. J. B., membre titulaire, a` la Seance du 22 Mai 1896)." Travaux de l'Academie Nationale de Reims (Reims, France) 99 (1897): 195-222. Also issued as an offprint.
40. Balyuzi, H.M. Khadijih Bagum: The Wife of the Bab. Oxford: George Ronald, 1981. A brief hagiographic account of the Bab's first wife, his cousin Khadija Bagum, supplementing in some respects the author's biography of the Bab himself [item xx].
41. Balyuzi, Hasan M. The Bab. xiv, 256. Oxford: George Ronald, 1973. One of a series of biographies of central Babi/Baha'i figures by this author. The text leans heavily on Zarandi's semi-official history of Babism [item xxx], but the author has also used fresh MS materials from the Bab's family and other sources. The style is hagiographic but intelligent.
42. Barbier de Maynard. "Review of Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies (item x), 3rd. ed." Journal Asiatique (Paris) 14 (9e`me serie 1899): 568-71.
43. Barbier de Meynard. "Review of Browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." Journal Asiatique (Paris) 20 (8e`me serie 1892): 297-302.
44. Batyushkov, Georgy. "'Babidy: Persidskaya Sekta'." Vestnik Europy (Moscow) Vol.7 (1897): pp.334-56. A general survey of the Babi/Baha'i movement by the Russian Consul-General in Beirut, following travels in Iran, assisted by the Russian 1st. Dragoman at Tehran, I.G. Grigorovitch.
45. Bayat, Mangol. Mysticism and Dissent: Socioreligious Thought in Qajar Iran. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1982. A general study of socioreligious thought in nineteenth-century Iran, this work contains three chapters of direct relevance to Babism: 2. 'The Radicalization of Dissent in Shia Thought: Early Shaikhism'; 3. 'The Socialization of Dissent in Shia Thought: Kirmani Shaikhism'; and 4. 'The Politicization of Dissent in Shia Thought: Babism'. Should be read in conjunction with Amanat [item x] and MacEoin [item xx].
46. Bellecombe, A. "'Une Reformatrice Contemporaire: La Belle Kourret oul Ain, ou la Lumie`re des Yeux'." L'Investigateur (Paris, L'Institut Historique de France) 4th. ser., Vol.10 (1870): pp.161-67. One of many 19th-century European articles devoted to the legend of the Babi heroine Qurrat al-'Ayn. Inspired by the French articles of Mirza Kazem-Beg [item XXX].
47. Bernasovskii. Babizm: Istoriia Vozniknoveniia. Tiflis: 1909.
48. Bi-yad-i sadumin sal-i shahadat-i nabigha-yi duran Qurrat al-'Ayn. [Iran]: [Privately published by the Azali Babis], 1368/1949. A short account of the life of the female Babi leader, Qurrat al-'Ayn, published on the hundredth anniversary (by the Muslim calendar) of her martyrdom. The second half contains selections from her poetry and prose, many of them not available elsewhere. c/r biography.
49. Bixby, James T. "'Babism and the Bab'." The New World (Boston) 6 (1897): pp.722-50. An early article by an American Unitarian clergyman.
50. Bliss, Edwin E. "'Bab and Babism'." Missionary Herald (Cambridge, Mass.) 65 (1869): pp.146-48. A short piece by an American missionary resident in Constantinople.
51. Boniface, L. Le Constitutionnel (Paris) (310 5 November 1852): 2, col. 2. Brief account of executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di Shah. Reprinted: Giornale di Roma (Rome), 16 November 1852, p. 1049.
52. Bonzon, Jacques. "'Le Babysme'." Revue Chretienne (Paris) 4 (1896): 25-37.
53. Brocherel, Jules. "'Le Babisme, levain des Revolutions en Perse'." A Travers le Monde (Paris) (1905): pp.134-35. Advances the theory of wide Babi involvement in the Iranian constitutional movement.
54. Browne, E. G. and Moojan Momen (ed.). Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Babi and Baha'i Religions. 528. Oxford: George Ronald, (List contents).
55. Browne, E.G. "'Bab, Babis'." In Hastings Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, pp.299-308. 2. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1909. A detailed survey of the subject by the authority of the period; still of interest.
56. Browne, E.G. "'Babiism'." In Encyclopaedia Britannica, pp.94-95. 11th. ed., Vol. 3. Cambridge: 1910. A brief summary of the Babi-Baha'i movement by the leading western authority of the period in a particularly influential edition of the encyclopaedia.
57. Browne, E.G. "'Babiism'." In Religious Systems of the World, pp.333-53. 2nd. ed. ed., Vol. London: 1892. A short, popular article summarizing Browne's early view of Babism. Reprinted in several later eds.; also photomechanic reprint with editorial footnotes in Momen, Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne on the Babi and Baha'i Religions [item xx].
58. Browne, E.G. "'The Babis of Persia'. I: Sketch of their History, and Personal Experiences amongst them. II: Their Literature and Doctrines." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Vol.21 (pp.485-526, 881-1009 1889): Browne's first venture into the field, incorporating material gleaned by him during his journey to Iran in 1887-88. The section on Babi/Baha'i literature is the first comprehensive description of such writings in any language and is still of much value. Photomechanic reprint with additional footnotes in Momen (ed.), Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne on the Babi and Baha'i Religions [item xxx], pp.144-315.
59. Cadwalader, Robert. "'Persia: An Early Mention of the Bab'." World Order (Wilmette, Ill.) 11 (2 1976/77): pp.30-34. An interesting investigation of the earliest mention of Babism -- a reference to the arrest of disciples of the Bab in Shiraz -- in European sources.
60. Chahardihi, Murtada Mudarrisi. Shaykhigari, Babigari. 2nd. ed., Tehran: Furughi, 1351/1972. A highly confused and amateurish compilation of facts and fallacies relating to Shaykhism and Babism. The book's chief value lies in its copious quotation from earlier sources.
61. Chaplin, Dr. Thomas. "'The Babs of Persia'." The Times (London) (5 October 1871): 8.
62. Christensen, Arthur. "'Babier'." In Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon, 458-9. 2. Copenhagen: 1935.
63. Christensen, Arthur. "'Babisme'." In Illustreret dansk Konversationsleksikon, 185. 2. Copenhagen: 1933.
64. Christensen, Prof. Arthur. "'Babismen in Persien'." Dansk Tidsskrift (Copenhagen) (1903): 526-39. Christensen was Professor of Iranian Philology at the University of Copenhagen.
65. Cottrell, H. "'Babism'." The Academy (Syracuse, N.Y.) Vol.47 (1192 9 Mar. 1895): p. 220.
66. Dolgorukov, Dimitri Ivanovich. "'Excerpts from Dispatches written during 1848-1852 by Prince Dolgorukov, Russian Minister to Persia'." World Order (Wilmette, Ill.) 1 (1 1966): pp.17-24. A collection of diplomatic correspondence from the Russian Minister in Tehran, containing valuable references to the growth of militant Babism and revealing statements regarding Dolgorukov's pressure on the Iranian government to have the Bab removed from the Russian border region.
67. Dorn , Bernard. "'Die vordem Chanykov'sche, jetzt der Kaiserl. offentlichen Bibliothek zugehorige Sammlung von morgenlandischen Handschriften'." Bull. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Pet. (St Petersburg) 8 (1865): pp.245-91. Includes an account of a Babi text brought to Russia in 1864 by N.V. Khanykov, Russian Consul in Tabriz. The text is described as 'The Qur'an of the Babis'; it was identified by Subh-i Azal at Browne's request as a copy of the Kitab al-asma'. It is plausibly said to have been presented to Khanykov by the Bab's secretary, presumably Sayyid Husayn Yazdi. Also published in Melanges Asiatiques, Vol.5, St. Petersburg, 1864-68, pp.221-313; printed separately as Die Sammlung von Morgenlandischen Handschriften welche die Kaiserliche offentliche Bibliothek zu St Petersburg im Jahre 1864 von Hrn. V. Chanykov erworben hat, St. Petersburg, 1865.
68. Dorn, Bernard. "'Nachtrage zu dem Verzeichniss der von der Kaiserlichen offentlichen Bibliothek erworbenen Chanykov'schen Handschriften und den da mitgetheilten Nachrichten ubder die Baby und deren Koran'." Bull. Acad. Imp. Sc. St Pet. 9 (1865): pp.202-3. The second of two articles [see also item xxx] read by Dorn to the Historico-Philological Section of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1865. This deals with a manuscript dialect history of the Babi uprising in Mazandaran, obtained by Dorn while travelling in that region in 1860. Also published in Melanges Asiatiques, Vol.5, St Petersburg, 1864-68, pp.377-419; printed separately as Morgenlandische Handschriften der Kaiserlichen Offentlichen Bibliothek zu St Petersburg: Nachtrage zu dem Verzeichniss der im Jahre 1864 erworben Chanykov'schen Sammlung, St Petersburg, 1865
69. Duval, Rubens. "Review of Browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." Revue Critique d'Histoire et de Litterature (Paris) 34 (1-8 August 1892): 77-79.
70. Elwell-Sutton, L. P. "Review of H. M. Balyuzi, The Bab (item x)." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1 (1975): 67. Collins 7.520.
71. Elwell-Sutton, Lawrence and Denis MacEoin. "'Kurrat al-'Ayn'." In Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden: E.J. Brill.
72. Ethe, Herman. "'Ein Moderner Prophet des Morgenlandes'." In Essays und Studien, Berlin: 1872. Based mainly on Gobineau (item x).
73. Ethe, Herman. "Review of Browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." Deutsche Literaturzeitung (Berlin) 13 (30 July 1892): 1014-15.
74. Evans, E. P. "'A New Religion'." All the Year Round (London) 22 (July 17, 1869): 149-54. An article in a popular magazine (edited by Dickens) based on Gobineau's work. One of the earliest full English-language references to the subject.
75. Evans, Edward P. "'Bab and Babism'." Hours at Home (New York) 8 (1869): pp.210, 222, 292. A survey for a popular magazine by the Professor of Modern Languages at Michigan University. Based on Gobineau [item XX], Kazem-Beg [item xx], and M. Nicolas [item xx]. Greatly exaggerates the size and influence of the movement.
76. Franck, Adolphe. "Review of Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies (item x), 1st. ed." Journal des Savants (Paris) (1865): 665-81, 767-87. Reissued as 'Une Nouvelle Religion en Perse' in the author's Philosophie et Religion, Paris, 1867, pp. 281-340. Some comments in Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, pp. 23-24.
77. "'L'influence du Babisme'." A Travers le Monde (Paris) 13th. year (1907): 17-20.
78. Gazetta Uffiziale di Venezia (Venice) (12 September 1850): A short report concerning the execution of the Bab and the Babi uprising in Zanjan, based on information received from Tabriz and dated 31 July. (See Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, p. 11, f.n.)
79. Giornale di Roma (Rome) (20 October 1852): 961-62. Brief account of executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di Shah, based on a report in the Osservatore Trieste).
80. Gobineau, Joseph Arthur Comte de. Religions et philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale. 1st. 2nd. ed., Paris, Didier & Cie [Perrin?], 1866; 3rd. ed., ed. Ludwig. Schemann, Paris, Editions Ernest Leroux, 1900; reprinted, Paris, Cres & Cie, 1923, 1928; reprinted, Paris, Librairie Gallimard, 1933, 1957; new ed. as vol. 2 of Oeuvres, Paris, Gallimard, Bibliothe`que de la Pleiade, 1983, texte presente par Jean Gaulmier, etabli et annote par Jean Gaulmier et Vincent Monteil; reissued Paris, 1988, Editions du Trident ed., Paris: Didier & Cie [Perrin?], 1865. Approximately half of this famous work by the 19th-century French diplomat, philosopher, belle-lettrist and race theorist is devoted to a history of Babism, largely based on official Persian sources. Immensely popular, it drew attention within Europe to the Babi movement more than any other single work. On its influence, see Momen, Babi and Baha'i Religions, item XX pp.17-26, esp. pp.23-26. The appendix is a translation of the Bayan al-'Arabi under the title 'Kitab-e`-hukkam'.
81. Goeje, M[ichael] J[an] de. De Babis, Amsterdam (?), 1893, 20 pp. Reprinted from De Gids 10, 1893. Published with Andreas Die Babis in Persien [item x]
82. Goldsmid, F. J. "Review of Hamadani, The Tarikh-i-Jadid (item x)." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1894): 640-46. Collins 7.1251
83. Goldziher, Ignaz. "'Verhaltnis des Bab zu fruheren Sufi-Lehren' [The relationship between the Bab and the earliest Sufi teaching]." Der Islam (Berlin) Vol.11 (pp.252-54 1921): A short piece by an eminent orientalist intended to demonstrate links between Babi doctrine and early Sufi teaching.
84. Grinevskaya, Izabella. Bab, dramaticheskaya poema. St Petersburg: 1903. A dramatic poem in five acts devoted to the Bab, performed in St Petersburg in 1904 and again in 1917. The historical content is virtually worthless. [Transfer to Literature.]
85. Guliet, B. "'Les Babys et Nasr ed Din [sic]'." Journal des voyages (Paris) (14 June 1896): 17-19.
86. Gulpaygani, Mi rza Abu 'l-Fadl. "'al-Bab wa 'l-Babiyya' (The Bab and Babism)." al-Muqtataf 20 (7 1 July 1896): An English translation is available in Gulpaygani, Letters and Essays (section x, item xx)
87. Gulpaygani, Mirza Abu 'l-Fadl and Sayyid Mahdi Gulpaygani. Kashf al-ghita' 'an hiyal al-a'da'. Tashkent: n.d. [?1919]. A rare work begun by the leading Baha'i scholar of his day and completed by his nephew, Sayyid Mahdi. The book's aim is to correct the 'mistakes' contained in the Kitab-i nuqtat al-kaf [item XX], with numerous side-swipes at the integrity of its editor, E.G. Browne. Some of the historical information is interesting, but the book's extreme tendentiousness makes it unreliable. Most copies were burnt on the orders of 'Abd al-Baha'.
88. Hamadani, Mi rza Husayn, , and Ed. and trans. Edward Granville Browne. The Tarikh-i-Jadid: or, New History of Mirza 'Ali Muhammad the Bab. Photographic reproduction, 1975, Amsterdam, Philo Press, as The New History (Tarikh-i-Jadid) of Mirza 'Ali Muhammad, the Bab ed., lii, 459, 26. Translated by E. G. Browne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1893. Composed about 1880 by an otherwise obscure Baha'i writer, the Tari kh-i jadi d is an expanded and bowdlerized version of the earlier Kitab-i nuqtat al-kaf [item xx] and represents the first step toward the production of an 'official' Baha'i history of Babism. There are, in fact, several recensions of the original. Browne's translation is based on two texts, one in the British Library, the other now in Cambridge University Library. See MacEoin, Sources, chapter VII. c/r in this section under 'Browne'. Collins 7.1250-1.
89. Himes-Cox, Florence. The Dawn-Breakers: Chronological Study Outline. 15 [i.e. 39] leaves. n.p. [Wilmette, Ill.?]: Study Outline Committee, n.d. [195-?]. Collins 7.1175
90. Horn, Paul. "Review of Browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." Literarisches Zentralblatt (Leipzig, Germany) (23 July 1892): 1043-44.
91. Huart, Clement. "'Babi s'." In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. T. W. Arnold et al. 1st.; also in French ed., Paris, A. Picard, C. Klincksieck, 1913-38 ed., Vol. I. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1913-38.
92. Huart, Clement. "'Edward G. Browne. Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion'." Journal Asiatique (Paris) 12 (11e`me serie 1918): 465-68.
93. Huart, Clement. "'La Religion du Bab'." Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (Paris) 18 (1888): 279-96.
94. Huart, Clement. "'Le Babisme et le Behaisme -- Edward G. Browne, Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion'." Journal des Savants (Paris) (1918): 312-20.
95. Huart, Clement. "Reviews of Nicolas, Seyye`d Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (item x) and Nicolas' translation of Le Beyan Arabe (section x, item x)." Revue de l'Histoire des Religions 53 (1906): 384-92.
96. Huart, M. La Religion de Bab. Bibliotheque Orientale Elzeverienne, Editions Ernest Leroux, Paris: 1889. A short (64 pp.) volume summarizing information then available about Babism, with translations from texts by Subh-i Azal.
97. I'tidad al-Saltana, ['Ali Quli Mi rza], , and Ed. 'Abd al-Husayn Nava'i. Fitna-yi Bab. 2nd. printing ed., Tehran: Intisharat-i Babak, 1351 Sh./1972. The present volume actually represents the last section of a longer unpublished work on false prophets, the Kitab al-mutanabbi'i n, one of several books by the Qajar prince and government minister, 'Ali Quli Mi rza I'tidad al-Saltana (d.1880). Nava'i 's edition contains expansive notes supplementing the author's text. Much of I'tidad al-Saltana's information is derived from official histories of the period.
98. Ivanov, Mikhail S. Babidskie vosstaniya v Irane (1848-1852) [Babi Uprisings in Iran 1848-1852]. Trudy Instituta Vostokvedeniya XXX, Moscow: 1939. Originally a dissertation submitted to the University of Leningrad (1937), this important is the only full-length Marxist study of the Babi movement. Ivanov had access to Russian state documents relating to the movement, and his books contains an appendix citing dispatches from the Russian diplomat Dolgorukov (see also item xx).
99. Jablonowski, Aleksandr W. "'Babyzm: Spoleczno-religijny ruch w Persyi. Nowe stanowisko kobiety' [Babism: Socio-Religious Movement in Persia. New Position of Women] (Polish)." Bluscz (Warsaw) 7 (12, 13, 15 27, 28, 30 Sept., 1 Oct. 1875): A general article by a Polish ethnographer who had met the Baha'is in Baghdad. Emphasizes the role of women in the movement.
100. Jessup, Henry H. "'The Babites'." The Outlook (London) 68 (22 June 1901): pp.451-56. 574. A hostile account by an American Presbyterian missionary based in Beirut, this article records an interview with 'Abd al-Baha'. The author argues for a link between Babi/Baha'i and Nusayri doctrine. [move?] Condensed version as 'Babism and the Babites', (give item number below) in Missionary Review of the World, vol.25, Princeton, N.J., Oct. 1902, pp.771-5
101. Jessup, Henry Harris. "'Babism and the Babites'." The Missionary Review of the World (Princeton, N. J.) 25 (Oct. 1902): 771-75. Condensed version of 'The Babites' (item x)
102. Journal de Constantinople (Istanbul) (14 October 1852): Brief account of executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di Shah. This report is based on a letter from Tabriz dated 27 September 1852. It was subsequently the basis for several reports in European newspapers (see Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, p. 12).
103. Justi, Ferdinand. "Review of 3rd. ed. of Gobineau, Religions et philosophies (item x)." Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft (Tubingen) 4 (1901): 75-78.
104. Kashani, Hajji Mirza Jani and Ed. with Introduction by Edward G. Browne. Kitab-i nuqtat al-kaf [English title-page reads Kitab-i Nuqtatu'l-Kaf, Being the Earliest History of the Babis Compiled by Hajji Mirza Jani of Kashan between the years A.D. 1850 and 1852, Edited from the Unique Paris MS Suppl. Persan 1071]. Unauthorized photomechanic reprint, [Iran], n.d. [197-?] ed., Leyden/London: E.J. Brill/Luzac & Co., 1910. An immensely controversial work, regarded by Baha'i writers as an Azali forgery, but unquestionably the earliest extant full-length history of Babism (see MacEoin, Survey, chapter VI). It is unlikely that the entire text was written by Kashani , but there is no reason to doubt its basic authenticity. Some text approximating to that of Browne served as the basis for later accounts, notably the Tari kh-i jadi d [item XXX].
105. Kazem-Beg, Mirza Aleksandr. "'Bab et les Babis, ou Le Soulevement politique et religieux en Perse, de 1845 à 1853'." Journal Asiatique 7; 8 (26, 27, 29, 30, 31 1866): pp.329-84, 457-522, 196-252, 357-400, 473-507.A French version of Kazem-Beg's history of Babism, published in Russian in the previous year [item xxx].
106. Kazem-Beg, Mirza Aleksandr. Bab i Babidui: religiozno-politicheskiya smutui v Persy v 1844-1852 godakh. St Petersburg: 1865. The first complete book published on Babism, serialized in a French version in the following year [item xxx]. Kazem-Beg covers the origins of the movement, the Mazandaran, Nayriz, and Zanjan insurrections, the life of the Bab, and religious doctrine. His chief source was the official Iranian history, Nasikh al-tawarikh, supplemented by two memoirs written by Europeans resident in Iran.
107. Kazemi, Farhad. "'Some Preliminary Observations on the Early Development of Babism'." The Muslim World 53 (2 April 1973): pp.119-31. An insubstantial article dealing cursorily with socio-political issues in the emergence of Babism, with very little knowledge of the movement's history.
108. Kazemzadeh, Firuz. "'Two Incidents in the Life of the Bab'." World Order (Wilmette, Ill.) 5 (3 1971): pp.21-24.
109. Keddie, N. R. "'Religion and Irreligion in Early Iranian Nationalism'." Comparative Studies in Society and History 4 (3 1962): pp.265-95. One of the first modern studies in nineteenth-century Iranian socioreligious trends to examine Babism and, in particular, Azali Babism in some detail.
110. Khan, Bahadur Agha Mirza Muhammad. "'Some New Notes on Babism'." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society ??? (1927): pp.442-70. Material on the early history of Babism extracted from a manuscript history of Iran by Ahmad ibn Abu 'l-Hasan Sharif Shirazi. There is little fresh information, but one or two details are of interest, especially those relating to the origins of the movement in Shiraz.
111. Kojanen, R. "'Muhammedilainen babi-lakho'." Valvoja (Helsingfors, Finland) (1897): 416-23. Based on Andreas, Die Babis in Persien (item x).
112. Kolnische Zeitung (Cologne) (30 November 1852): 2. Brief account of executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di Shah.
113. Kolnische Zeitung (Cologne) (8 October 1852): A brief account of the Babi attempt on the life of Nasir al-Di Shah, based on information sent from Tabriz dated 28 August and originally printed in the Hamburger Nachrichten.
114. Lambden, Stephen. "'An Episode in the Childhood of the Bab'." In In Iran, ed. Peter Smith. pp.1-31. 3. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1986. A rare attempt at demythologisation by a Baha'i writer. The article examines several narratives relating to the Bab's childhood, in which he is said to have demonstrated innate knowledge on his first day at school. The narratives are traced back to Islamic stories about the child Jesus.
115. Le Constitutionnel (Paris) (286 13 October 1852a): 2, col. 4. A letter from Istanbul on the events following the Babi attempt on the life of Nasir al-Di Shah. Reprinted: Morning Herald (London), 14 October 1852, p. 3; Daily News (London), 15 October, p. 5.
116. Lessona, Michele. I Babi. 66. Turin, Italy: Vincenzo Bona, 1881; reprinted Rome: Casa Editrice Baha'i. A short account of the Babis by an Italian physician attached to the Italian diplomatic mission to Tehran. Lessona's material is based on discussions with an Iranian named Dawud Khan, the Comte de Gobineau, and some other informants, as well as Gobineau's seminal study [item xx]. See Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, p. 27. [double listing]
117. MacEoin, Denis Martin. "'Babism'." In L.P. Elwell-Sutton, Bibliographical Guide to Iran, Brighton/Totowa: Harvester Press, 1983. A short bibliography of works relating to Babism. Transfer to Bibliography
118. MacEoin, Denis Martin. "'Early Shaykhi Reactions to the Bab and his Claims'." In M. Momen (ed.), Studies in Babi and Baha'i History, 1. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1983. An analysis of Shaykhi accounts of Babism, mainly based on works by the Bab's chief rival, Hajj Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani.
119. MacEoin, Denis. "'Afnan, Hatcher and an Old Bone'." Religion 16 (1986): 193-95. Last word in the debate between the author and Hatcher/Afnan (see items XX, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX).
120. MacEoin, Denis. "'Azali Babism'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp.179-81. 3. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988.
121. MacEoin, Denis. "'Bab, Sayyed 'Ali Mu'ammad Shirazi'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp.278-84. 3. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988.
122. MacEoin, Denis. "'Babism: i The Babi Movement'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp. 309-15. 3. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988.
123. MacEoin, Denis. "'Babism: ii Babi Executions and Uprisings'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp. 315-17. 3. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988.
124. MacEoin, Denis. "'Baha'i Fundamentalism and the Academic Study of the Babi Movement'." Religion 16 (1986): pp.57-84. A response to an article by Hatcher and Afnan (item XX) critical of the author's earlier 'The Babi Concept of Holy War' (item XXX).
125. MacEoin, Denis. "'Bayan'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp. 878-82. 3. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988. A general survey of Babi scripture under the technical term bayan. [under scripture?]
126. MacEoin, Denis. "'Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866)'." Studia Iranica (Leiden) 18 (1 1989): pp. 93-129. A continuation of the author's earlier 'Hierarchy, Authority and Eschatology' (item XX), examining the issue of succession after the death of the Bab, the schism between Baha' Allah and Subh-i Azal, and the development of Baha' Allah's claims as the most extreme expression of charismatic authority in the movement.
127. MacEoin, Denis. "'From Shaykhism to Babism: a Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shi'i Islam'." Ph.D., Cambridge, 1979. A study of the emergence of Babism from the Shaykhi school of Shi'ism, with emphasis on the problem of religious authority. The contents include a history of early Shaykhism and an account of Babism to about 1848. (University Microfilms XXXXXXXX)
128. MacEoin, Denis. "'Hierarchy, Authority and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought'." In P. Smith (ed.), In Iran, pp.95-155. 2. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1986. The first part of a longer study investigating the doctrinal basis of authority in Babism up to the middle period (1860s). This section examines the earlier period, with extensive reference to the Bab's writings. (For part two, see item XX.)
129. MacEoin, Denis. "'Molla 'Ali Bestami'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, p.860. 2nd. ed., Vol. 1. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
130. MacEoin, Denis. "'Molla Mohammad Hosayn Boshru'i'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, 4:4, p.383.. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1989.
131. MacEoin, Denis. "'Molla Muhammad 'Ali Qoddus Barfurushi'." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, p.794. 3. London/New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988. [Biography?]
132. MacEoin, Denis. "'Muhammad 'Ali Zanjani'." In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ????? ???? Leiden: E. J. Brill, ?????-b.
133. MacEoin, Denis. "'Muhammad Husayn Bushru'i'." In Encyclopaedia of Islam, ????? ????? Leiden: E. J. Brill, ??????
134. MacEoin, Denis. "'Nineteenth-Century Babi Talismans'." Studia Iranica 14 (1 1985): pp.77-98. An examination of a particular form of Babi scripture, the haykal or da'ira, and their relation to gematria.
135. MacEoin, Denis. "'Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in Nineteenth-Century Shi'ism: the Cases of Shaykhism and Babism'." Journal of the American Oriental Society 110 (2 1990): 323-29.
136. MacEoin, Denis. "'Subh-i Azal'." In Who's Who of Religions, ed. John R. Hinnells. London: The Macmillan Press, 1991.
137. MacEoin, Denis. "'Tahira Qurrat al-'Ayn'." In Who's Who of Religions, ed. John R. Hinnells. 397-8. London: The Macmillan Press, 1991.
138. MacEoin, Denis. "'The Babi Concept of Holy War'." Religion 12 (1982): pp.93-129. An examination of how the Babi doctrine of jihad followed and modified traditional Shi'ite theory and practice. The first part deals with theory in the Bab's writings, the second with practice in the Babi uprisings of 1848-50. For criticism and subsequent debate, see items xx, xxx, and xxxx). This article forms a prelude to a study of Baha'i quietism (item XX).
139. MacEoin, Denis. "'The Fate of Mulla 'Ali Bastami'." Baha'i Studies Bulletin 2 (1 1983): p.77. An examination of problems relating to the exile and death of the Bab's first emissary to Iraq.
140. MacEoin, Denis. "'The Identity of the Bab's Lawh-i hurufat'." Baha'i Studies Bulletin 2 (1 1983): pp.78-79. An attempt to identify a work of the Bab's referred to under several names.
141. MacEoin, Denis. "'the Bab'." In Who's Who of Religions, ed. John R. Hinnells. 41-42. London: The Macmilan Press, 1991. [biography]
142. MacEoin, Denis. "(Review of Momen, Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne....)." :
143. MacEoin, Denis. "Review of Abbas Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal (item xx)." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1 (3rd. series) (3 1991): 407-410.
144. MacEoin, Denis. The Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History: a survey. 274 + 7. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992.The only comprehensive survey of this material, discussing the writings of the Bab and his leading followers, primary and secondary historical texts. The appendices include lists of manuscripts of the Bab's writings and historical texts and their locations, and indexes of first lines and titles.
145. Malik-Khusravi, Muhammad 'Ali. Tarikh-i shuhada-yi amr (History of the Martyrs of the Cause). [Tehran]: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 130 B.E./1973-4. An essentially hagiographical account devoted mainly to Babi martyrs. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with the defenders of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi, while volume 3 gives accounts of 149 individuals (of whom 79 are described in some detail) martyred in Tehran between 1263/1847 and 1337/1919, comprising both Babis and Baha'is.
146. Mamaqani , Mi rza Muhammad Taqi . Guft u shunud-i Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad-i Bab ba rawhani yun-i Tabri z (The interrogation of Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad the Bab by the clerics of Tabriz). Tehran, Nashr-i Tarikh-i Iran, 1374 Sh./1995, 185 pp. Ed. Hasan Mursilvand. (Mi rza Muhammad Taqi Mamaqani was the son of Mulla Muhammad Mamaqani , the Bab's principal clerical accuser. His risala recounting the events connected to the Bab's interrogation was previously cited in part by Chahardihi in Shaykhi gari , Babi gari [section x, item xx]. This edition contains the text of Mamaqani 's account of the trial, entitled Namus-i Nasiri , written for Nasir al-Di n Shah in 1306/1889, and is claimed to represent a more accurate version of events than earlier histories. The editor has added notes and an extensive 'Nam-nama' giving biographical information for all the main figures mentioned in the narrative.
147. Maspero, Gaston. "Review of Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies (item x), 3rd. ed." Journal des Savants (Paris) (1900): 407-18.
148. Mazandarani, Mirza Asad Allah, Fadil-i. Kitab-i zuhur al-haqq. Vol. 3. Tehran: n.d. [?1323 Sh./1944]. Part of a projected 9-volume history of Babism and Baha'ism in Iran, this third volume was the first (and for a long time the only) one published. Arranged alphabetically by town or region, the main approach is biographical. The author's extensive reference to rare original materials, his concern for accuracy above apologetic, and the reproduction of numerous original documents make this an invaluable study. See MacEoin, Sources, pp. 174-75.
149. Mehrabkhani, R. La Aurora del dia prometida (The dawn of the promised day). 290, ,  leaves of plates; ill. and maps. Tarrasa: Editorial Baha'i de Espana, 1974.
150. Mehrabkhani, R. Mulla Husayn: Disciple at Dawn. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, c/r biography.
151. Mihrabkhani, Ruh Allah. Qissa-yi 'Ishq-i Mi rza Muhammad 'Ali Zunuzi . n.p.: [text dated 1976]. A short hagiographical account (81 pp.) of the life of Mi rza Muhammad 'Ali Zunuzi , the young disciple executed alongside the Bab in Tabri z in 1850. This text is reproduced from a handwritten original in a legible hand. c/r biography.
152. Minorsky, V. "Review of M. S. Ivanov, Babidskie Vosstaniia v Irane (item x)." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (London) 11 (1947): 878-80.
153. Momen, Moojan. "'The Social Basis of the Babi Upheavals in Iran (1848-53): A Preliminary Analysis'." International Journal of Middle East Studies 15 (1983): pp.157-83. An extremely valuable article providing the first detailed statistical analysis of the background and occupations of participants in the major Babi-state struggles between 1848 and 1853.
154. Momen, Moojan. "'The Trial of Mulla 'Ali Bastami : A Combined Sunni -Shi 'i Fatwa against the Bab'." Iran 20 (1982): pp.113-43. An important contribution to the history of Babism in its earliest phase. Bastami (on whom see MacEoin, items x and xx) was the Bab's emissary to the Shaykhi community of Karbala' and the Shi'i shrine centres of Iraq in general. His trial by a mixed ecclesiastical tribunal provides important evidence for the nature of the Bab's earliest claims and the orthodox reaction to them. Momen's article translates the fatwa issued at the end of the trial.
155. Nabi l-i Zarandi , [Mulla Muhammad]. Matali' al-anwar. Translated by 'Abd al-Hamid Ishraq Khavari, [Tehran]: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 129 B.E./1972-73.
156. Nabi l-i Zarandi , [Mulla Muhammad]. Matali' al-anwar. Translated by 'Abd al-Jali l Sa'i d. 4th. printing Arabic ed., Matali' al-anwar aw Ta'rikh al-Nabi l, Alexandria, 1940 ed. Arabic translation of Shoghi Effendi's English version (item x) of Zarandi 's original.
157. Nabil-i Zarandi [Nabil-i A'zam], [Mulla Muhammad-i Zarandi] and Trans. and ed. by Shoghi Effendi. The Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Baha'i Revelation. 1st. ed..; also a limited ed. of 150 autographed copies; Wilmette, Baha'i Publishing Committee, 1953; Wilmette, Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1962, 1970, 1974; abridged ed., London, Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1953, xxxv, 507 pp. [without illustrations, parts of the introduction, genealogical tables, many footnotes, and most appendices. French footnotes in the US ed. are here translated into English.]; reprinted 1975 ed., lxiii, 685. New York: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 1932. For Baha'is the most popular and authoritative history of Babism, 'Nabil's Narrative' has acquired the status and unchallengeability of a Gospel. The original Persian text has never been published, but reliable Baha'i sources indicate that the translated version is a radical reworking. This and the late date of composition (1888) make this a work to be used with caution. It is, nevertheless, the most detailed early history of Babism. (See MacEoin, Survey, pp. 166-69.)
158. Nava'i , 'Abd al-Husayn. "'Sayyid 'Ali Muh]ammad-i Bab va Kitab al-mutanabbiyi n-i I'tidad al-Saltana." Yaghma (Tehran) 3 : For the Kitab al-mutabbiyin, see section x, item xx.
159. Nazhivin, I. F. "'Babidy'." In Golos Norodov, Moscow: 1908.
160. Nazif, Suleyman. Nasreddin Sah ve Babiler (Nasir al-Din Shah and the Babis). Istanbul, Kanaat Matbaasi, 1923, 103 pp. (Yeni Kutuphane series 11.)
161. New York Times (16 November 1852): 3. Brief account of executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di Shah, based on a report in the Journal de Constantinople, following a letter from Tabriz dated 27 September 1852. This version quotes from the Semaphore of Marseilles, 26 October.
162. New York Times (2 November 1852): 2. A brief account of the Babi attempt on the life of Nasir al-Di n Shah, based on information sent from Tabriz, dated 28 August.
163. New York Times (8 November 1852): 6, col. 4. Letter from a 'Mahommedan gentleman, resident in London, concerning the origins of Babism and the recent attempt on the Shah's life. Reprinted in Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, pp. 13-14.
164. Nicolas , A.L.M. Qui est le successeur du Bab? 16. Librairie d'Amerique et d'Orient, Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1933. A short study (12 pp. of text) in defence of the claim of Mirza Yahya Subh-i Azal to be the appointed successor of the Bab, in response to some contemporary Baha'i claims to the contrary. The issue remains unresolved (for further details, see item XX [MacEoin, Studia Iranica 1989]).
165. Nicolas, A. L. M. "'Le Dossier russo-anglais de Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab'." Revue du Monde Musulman (Paris) 14 (1911): pp.357-63.Selected documents extracted from the Russian and British Consulates in Tabriz, containing references to Babism.
166. Nicolas, A. L. M. "'Quelques documents relatifs au Babisme'." Journal Asiatique (Paris) 224 (1934): pp.107-42. Selections from writings of the Bab, togather with Iranian government materials.
167. Nicolas, A. L. M. Seyye`d Ali Mohammed dit le Bab. Vol. 1. 458 pp. Paris: Dujarric & Cie., 1905, . More a history of the movement than the man. Nicolas utilizes numerous manuscript materials, including writings of the Bab, collected by him in Iran, supplementing these with a number of oral sources, both Baha'i and Azali. The narrative takes the history of the sect up to 1852. Though dated, this is still a useful source of basic information. Volume 2 was to have been on the Bab's teachings (dogme), in the form of a translation of the Arabic Bayan , but this later appeared under a different imprint. c/r biography
168. Nicolas, A.-L.-M. "'A propos de deux manuscrits "Babis" de la Bibliothe`que Nationale'." Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (Paris) 47 (1903): 58-73. Discusses the manuscripts of the Nuqtat al-kaf kept in Paris.
169. Nicolas, A.-L.-M. "'Une Causerie sur le Bab'." : An article to which Nicolas himself referred, the location of which is unknown.
170. Nicolas, A.L.M. "'Le Bab astronome'." Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (Paris) 114 (1 1936): pp.99-101. An extremely slight notice by Nicolas on a statement by the Bab concerning the dark areas on the moon's surface. Issued separately as an offprint.
171. Nicolas, A.L.M. "'Les behahis et le Bab'." Journal Asiatique Vol.222 (pp.257-264 April-June 1933): In spite of the title, the article has very little to do with the Baha'i attitude to the Bab. It consists mainly of quotations from the Bab's works, showing his condemnation of his enemies, including a lengthy passage from the otherwise untranslated Khutba-yi qahriyya. Issued as an offprint, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1933.
172. Nicolas, Michel. "'Le Babysme'." Le Temps (Paris) (14, 19, 20 August, 1868): p.3, col.2; p.3, col.3; p.3, col.2. Three papers based on Gobineau, by a Professor in the Faculty of Protestant Theology at Montauban (not to be confused with A.L.M. Nicolas).
173. Noldeke, Prof. T. "'Orientalischer Socialismus'." Deutsche Rundschau 18 (1879): 284-91. Babi doctrines discussed and compared with those of Mazdakism.
174. Nuqaba'i , Hussam. Tahira -- Qurrat al-'Ayn. [Tehran]: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 128 B.E./1971-72. A hodge-podge of materials, many of them translated from European sources, touching on the female Babi leader, Qurrat al-'Ayn (Tahira). The historical selections are not always informative, but the last section contains a convenient collection of Tahira's poetry and prose taken from published sources.
175. Ottavi, P. "<<Babisme>>." In La Grande Encyclopedie. Inventaire raisonne des sciences, des lettres et des arts par une societe des savants, ed. M. Berthelot & H. Derenbourg. 4. Paris: H. Lamirault & Cie/Societe Anonyme de la Grande Encyclopedie, 1885-1920.
176. Ottavi, P. "Bab." In La Grande Encyclopedie. Inventaire raisonne des sciences, des lettres et des arts par une societe des savants, ed. M. Berthelot & H. Derenbourg. 4. Paris: H. Lamirault & Cie/Societe Anonyme de la Grande Encyclopedie, 1885-1920.
177. Perigord, Emily McBride. Translation of French Foot-Notes of the Dawn-Breakers. New York: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 83 pp. n.d. ; idem. Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1970, 1973, 1977. Collins 7.210-2111
178. Pillon, Francois. "'Une Nouvelle Religion en Asie' (Based on Kazem-Beg, 'Bab et les Babis' -- item x and Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies -- item xx)." L'Annee Philosophique (Paris) 3 (1869): 181-216.
179. Qazvi ni , Hajj Muhammad Nasi r. "'Tari kh-i Hajj Nasi r-i Qazvi ni '." In Shaykh Kazim Samandar et al, Tari kh-i Samandar wa mulhaqat [item xx], ed. 'Abd al-'Ali 'Ala'i . pp.500-520. [Tehran]: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 131 B.E./1974-75. A fragmentary account of the Babi defence of Shaykh Tabarsi (1848-49) by a participant who died in Rasht in 1300/1883. This text is based on a copy made from Hajj Nasi r's original. Copies of the Tari kh-i Samandar have been issued without this history, presumably on the grounds that it did not meet with official approval.
180. Qazvi ni , Mulla Ja'far. "'Tari kh-i Mulla Ja'far-i Qazvi ni '." In Shaykh Kazim Samandar et al, Tari kh-i Samandar wa mulhaqat, ed. 'Abd al-'Ali 'Ala'i . pp.446-500. [Tehran]: Baha'i Publishing Committee, 131 B.E./1974-75. A short and unsystematic historical account by an early Babi from Qazvi n. The text contains information relating to the Shaykhi leaders al-Ahsa'i and Rashti and useful details concerning the early history of Babism in Qazvi n. This text, along with the history of Nasi r-i Qazvi ni [item xx], was deleted from later copies of the Tari kh-i Samandar.
181. Rees, John D. "'The Bab and Babism'." The Nineteenth Century (London) 40 (233 July 1896): pp.56-66. A general essay by a British civil servant and translator resident in India. Reprinted in Littell's Living Age (Boston), Aug. 22, 1896, v. 210, pp. 451-58.
182. Reprinted: Morning Herald (London), 7 October 1852 (last edition); Morning Herald (London), 8 October, p. 4; Daily News (London), 8 October, p. 5; Morning Post (London), 8 October, p. 6; Morning Chronicle (London), 8 October, p. 6; L'Union (Paris), 9 October, p. 2; Le Constitutionnel (Paris), 9 October, p. 2; New York Times, 22 October, p. 6.
183. "Review of Browne's Traveller's Narrative (item x)." Oxford Magazine (1892): 394.
184. "Review of Browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." Athenaeum (London) (28 May 1892): 690-91.
185. "Review of Browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." The Spectator (London) 68 (23 April 1892): 560-61.
186. "Review of H. M. Balyuzi, The Bab (item x)." Choice (Oct. 1973): 1216. Collins 7.520.
187. "Review of H. M. Balyuzi, The Bab (item x)." Theology Digest 22 (3 Autumn 1974): 262. Collins 7.520.
188. "Review of Hamadani, Tarikh-i-Jadid (item x)." The Spectator (London) 73 (Aug. 11, 1894): 185. Collins 7.1251.
189. Reville, Jean. "'Chroniques -- Angleterre: Babisme'." Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (Paris) 24 (1891): 397.
190. Reville, Jean. "Review of Browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." Revue de l'Histoire des Religions (Paris) 25 (1892): 262-63.
191. Ronchaud, Louis de. "'Une Religion nouvelle dans l'Asie Centrale'." Revue Moderne (Paris) 37 (1 May 1866): pp.337-60. Basically a review of Gobineau (item xx). Reprinted in the author's Etudes de'Histoire Politique et Religieuse, Paris, 1872 .
192. Ross, E. Denison. 'Babism'. Great Religions of the World, New York, Harper, 1901.
193. Ross, E. Denison. "'Babism'." North American Review (Boston) 172 (533 Apr. 1901): 606-22. Reprinted Current Literature (London), v.31 (July 1901), pp. 104-5. Brief account by a leading orientalist.
194. Sears, William. Release the Sun. 1st. Rev. ed., Wilmette Ill., Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1975, v, 250 pp. ed., 317. Bombay: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1957. Pop history by a former television performer turned Baha'i Hand of the Cause. Originally intended as the first in a trilogy on the three Baha'i 'Central Figures'; the other two volumes have not been published. Heavily dependent on Zarandi, Shoghi Effendi, and other approved sources. The appendix is a series of apologetics dealing with (largely Biblical) prophecy and Baha'i belief.
195. Sell, Edward. The Bab and the Babis. Vepery, Madras: SPCK Press, 1895. 51 p. 1895.
196. Shedd, John H. "'Babism -- Its Doctrines and Relations to Missionary Work'." Missionary Review of the World (New York) 17 (Dec. 1894): pp.894-904. A general account by an American Protestant missionary resident in Iran.
197. Shedd, William. "'An Interesting Document on the Bab'." The Moslem World (Hartford, Conn.) 5 (1 Jan. 1915): 111-12. The document is Dr. William Cormick's first-hand account of the Bab, prepared after his trial in Tabriz.
198. Smith, Peter and Moojan Momen. "'The Babi Movement: A Resource Mobilization Perspective'." In In Iran, ed. P. Smith. pp.33-93. 3. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, 1986. An important and innovative sociological study of Babism, providing a broad set of theories about the functioning of the movement within the context of mid-nineteenth-century Iranian society. A careful examination is made of Babi goals and ideology, of recruitment and conversion, and, in particular, the social location of the community.
199. Sorabjee, Zena. Nabil's Narrative Abridged. New Delhi: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1 974 . 1 76 p idem. New Delhi: Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1976. 152 p. 1974.
200. Standard (London) (7 October 1852): 3, col. 2. A brief account of the Babi attempt on the life of Nasir al-Di Shah, sent by the paper's Istanbul correspondent, based on a letter from Tabriz dated 28 August 1852.
201. Suhrab, Ahmad Afandi . al-Risala al-tis'a 'ashrata fi ta'ri kh Hadrat al-A'la (The nineteenth epistle concerning the history of His Holiness the Exalted [the Bab]), with Risala amriyya by Muhammad Mustafa al-Baghdadi [item xx]. Cairo: Muhyi 'l-Di n al-Kurdi , 1338/1919. A short collection of nineteen sermons on the lives of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i , Sayyid Kazim Rashti , and the Bab. Originally written on the instructions of 'Abd al-Baha' for the instruction of Baha'i youth in Haifa; corrected and amended by 'Abd al-Baha'. Of small historical value.
202. Sutton, Horace. "'The Bab and Bahaism'." The Spectator (London) 185 (6838 July 14, 1950): 42-43.
203. Tabataba'i , Muhi t. "'Kitabi bi nam ba nami taza' (A nameless book with a new name)." Gawhar (Tehran) 11 & 12 (1353/1974): 952-61. A study of the origin and identity of the Kitab-i nuqtat al-kaf, referring to the existence of manuscripts other than those used by Browne.
204. Tabataba'i , Muhi t. "'Tari kh-i qadi m wa jadi d' (The old and the new history)." Gawhar (Tehran) 5 & 6 (1354/1975): pp.343-8, 426-31. A comparison of the Kitab-i nuqtat al-kaf (item xx) and the Baha'i history based on it, the Tari kh-i jadi d (item xxx).
205. Tag, Abd el-Rahman. "Le Babisme et l'Islam: Recherches sur les origines du Babisme et ses rapports avec l'Islam." Doctorate, Universite de Paris, 1942.
206. Talipov, N. A. [Nurmat Abdullaevich]. Obshchestvennaia mysl v Irane v XIX-nachale XX v., Moscow, Izdvo "Nauka", Glav. red. vostochnoi lit-ry, 1988, 295 pp.
207. The History of the Bab. 1st. English ed. ed., 10 leaves. Cali, Colombia: National Teaching Committee of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Colombia, 1983. Collins 7.1177.
208. Tumanskii, Aleksandr. "'K voprosu ob avtorakh istorii babidov, izvestnoi pod imenem Tarikhe Manukchi,... ili Tarikhe Dzhedid....' [The author of the history known under the name of Tari kh-i Manukji [sic] or the Tari kh-i jadi d] [see item x]." Zapiski Vostochnago Otdeleniya Imperatorskago Russkago Arkheologicheskago Obshestva (St. Petersburg) 8 (1893): 33-45.
209. Vail, Albert. "Review of Zarandi, Dawn-Breakers [item xx], Religious Education (Mount Morris, Ill.), v.27 no.7 , pp. 665-667." ((Sept. 1932)):
210. Vambery, Hermann. "Review of browne, A Traveller's Narrative (item x)." The Academy (London) 40 (12 March 1892): 245-6.
211. Von Gumoens, Capt. Alfred. Oesterreichischer Soldatenfreund 5th year (123 12 October 1852): 513. A much-quoted letter detailed the barbarity of some of the executions of Babis which followed the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di n Shah in 1852. It has been translated by Browne (Materials, pp. 268-71) and in The Times (London, 23 October 1852, p.8); see also Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, pp. 132-4. Reprinted: Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung (17 October 1852); Kolnische Zeitung (23 October 1852, p. 2).
212. Von Kremer, Baron Alfred. "'Bab und seine Lehre'." In Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Islams, Leipzig, Germany: 1868.
213. Von Najmayer, Marie (check spelling). Gurret-l-Eyn: Ein Bild aus Persiens Neuzeit. Vienna: 1874. A poem in six cantos devoted to the female Babi leader Qurrat al-'Ayn. Of no historical value, Najmayer's work contributed to the creation of a European legend of Qurrat al-'Ayn as a champion of women's rights. [Add as c/r to Literature]
214. Warburg, Margit. "'Babisme'." In Den Store Danske Encycklopaedi, 229. 2. Copenhagen: Nationalleksikon, 1995.
215. Williams, Basil. A Brief Sketch of the Rise and Development of Babism. 14. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, [1899?]. Written in explanation of a paper delivered at the Royal Asiatic Society, 14 February 1899.
216. Wilson, Mary F. "'The Story of the Bab'." Contemporary Review (London) 48 (December 1885): pp.808-29. A late article based on Gobineau (item XX). Reprinted in Littel's Living Age, vol.168, Boston, 1885, pp.151 ff, and Eclectic Magazine, vol.106, New York, 1885, pp.264 ff. c/r biography.
217. Wright, A.H. and Trans. Dr. Justin Perkins. "'Bab und seine Secte in Persien'." Zeitschrift ser Deutschen Morgenl<=ndischen Gesellschaft (Leipzig) Vol.5 (pp.384-5 1851): One of the earliest European notices of Babism, written by an American missionary resident at Urmiyya in northern Iran. The original English text was also read at a meeting of the American Oriental Society, but not published by them.
218. Zanjani, Aqa 'Abdu'l-Ahad and Trans. E.G. Browne. "'Personal Reminiscences of the Babi Insurrection at Zanjan in 1850'." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Vol.29 (1897): pp.761-827. A useful account of the Babi-state struggle in Zanjan by an Azali Babi, translated from a MS now in the Browne Collection at Cambridge University Library.
219. Zotenberg, H[ermann]. "Review of Gobineau, Les Religions et les philosophies (item x), 1st. ed." Revue Critique d'Histoire et de Litterature (Paris) 1 (2 June 1866): 349-53.
220. Zwemer, Samuel M. "Review of Zarandi , Dawn-Breakers [item xx], The Moslem World (Hartford, Conn.), v.22 no.4 p. 415." ((Oct. 1932)):
221. ['Izziyya Khanum], ['Abd al-Baha'], [Baha' Allah], and [Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi (Mi rza Ahmad)] Kirmani . Tanbi h al-na'imi n. [Iran]: [Privately printed by the Azali Babis], n.d.
222. "[Abbreviated reprint of article from The Times]." The Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, etc. (London) (15 November 1845): 757. An abbreviated reprint of a piece in The Times (dated 1 November), representing the earliest printed reference to events in Babi history. See under item x.
223. [Bixby], [James T.]. "'A New Religion'." The Nation (New York) 2 (22 June 1866): pp.793-95. Apparently the first full account of the Bab to appear in North America, this was based on a French review of Gobineau (item XX). Authorship has been attributed to Bixby, but Momen challenges this (Babi and Baha'i Religions, p.24).
224. [Cloquet, Ernest?]. "'Perse'." Revue de l'Orient (Paris) 5 (2e`me serie 1849): 263-4. A reference to the Shaykh Tabarsi siege. (See Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, p. 11, where Cloquet's authorship is conjectured.)
225. [Cloquet, Ernest?]. "'Perse'." Revue de l'Orient (Paris) 8 (2e`me serie 1850): 124. Contains references to Babi disturbances in Adharbayjan in 1850, which have no parallel in other sources. (See Momen, The Babi and Baha'i Religions, p. 11, where Cloquet's authorship is conjectured.)
226. [Kirmani], [Mirza Aqa Khan ('Abd al-Husayn Khan)] and [Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi] [Kirmani]. Hasht bihisht (Eight paradises). [Iran]: [Privately published by the Azali Babis], n.d., xvi, , 230,  pp. A lengthy but highly idiosyncratic account of Babi philosophy and history, written in the late 1880s by two active converts to the Azali branch othe movement. The doctrinal sections owe as much to the authors (who later acquired major reputations as freethinkers) as to original Babi thought. The sections on the split between Azali and Baha'i Babism and the defence of the Azali position are of interest.
227. "[Reprint of an article from The Times]." Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art (New York & Philadelphia) (January 1846): 142. Reprint of an article in the London Literary Gazette of 15 November 1845, itself an abbreviated version of a piece in the London Times of 1 November 1845, representing the earliest printed reference to events in Babi history. For details, see item x.
228. "[Reprint of article from the Literary Gazette]." The Times (London) (19 November 1845): 3, col. 6. A reprint of a piece in the Literary Gazette of 15 November, itself a shortened version of an article in The Times of 1 November, representing the earliest printed reference to events in Babi history. For details, see item x.
229. "[Reprint of article from the London Times]." Port Phillip Herald (Melbourne) 7 (659 31 March 1846): 4, col. 3. Reprint of an article in the London Literary Gazette of 15 November 1845, itself an abbreviated version of a piece in the London Times of 1 November 1845, representing the earliest printed reference to events in Babi history. For details, see item x.
230. "[Translation from Ruznama-yi Waqayi'-i Ittifaqiyya]." Giornale di Roma (Rome) (22 October 1852): 969. Translation of an account of the executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di Shah, from the official Iranian government journal. [double listing? - see last item].
231. "[Translation from Ruznama-yi Waqayi'-i Ittifaqiyya]." L'Union (Paris) (18 October 1852): 2. Translation of an account of the executions of Babis in Tehran following the attempted assassination of Nasir al-Di Shah, from the official Iranian government journal.