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Abstract:
Guide to spelling and pronunciation of Arabic and Persian words encountered in Baha'i history and writings.
Notes:

Oriental Words in Bahá'í Literature, Transliteration, and Pronunciation

published in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983), pages 893-904
Haifa: Bahá’í World Centre, 1986
page 893

III
ORIENTAL TERMS

1. TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL WORDS FREQUENTLY USED IN BAHÁ'Í LITERATURE

`Abá `Azíz Fárs Isfahán
Ábádih Farsakh Ishqábád
`Abbás Báb Fath-`Alí Ishráqát
`Abdu'l-Bahá Bábí Firdaws Ishtihárd
`Abdu'l-Hamíd Bábu'l-Báb Firdawsí Islám
`Abdu'l-Husayn Baghdád Ismá`ílíyyih
`Abdu'lláh Bahá Ganjih `Izzat
Abhá Bahá'í Gílán
Abu'l-Fadl Bahá`u'lláh Gul Jalál
`Adasíyyih Bahíyyih Gulistán Jamádíyu'l-Avval
Adhán Bahjí Gurgín Jamál
Ádhirbáyján Balúchistán Jamál-i-Mubárak
Afnán Bandar-`Abbás habíb Jamál-i-Qidam
Aghsán Báqir Hadíth Jásb
`Ahd Baqíyyatu'lláh Hadrat Jubbih
Ahmad Bárfurúsh Hájí
Ahsá'í Basrih Hájí Mírzá Áqásí Ka`bih
Ahváz Bátúm Hájj Kad-Khudá
Akbar Bayán Hamadán Kalántar
`Akká Bayt Haram Kalimát
`Alá' Big Hasan Kamál
`Alí Bírjand Hawdaj Karand
`Alí-Muhammad Bishárát Haydar-`Alí Karbilá
Alláh-u-Abhá Bismi'lláh Haykal shán
Alváh Bukhárá Hazíratu'l-Quds Kashkúl
Alváh-i-Salátín Burújird Hijáz Kawmu's-Sa`áyidih
Amatu'l-Bahá shihr Hijrat Kawthar
Amín Bushrú'í Himmat-Ábád Kázim
Amír Bushrúyih Hujjat Kázimayn
Amír-Nizám Husayn Khalkhál
Amru'lláh Chihríq Khán
Ámul Ibráhím Khániqayn
Anzalí Dalá'il-i-Sab`ih Íl Khaylí Khúb
Áqá Dárúghih `Ilm Khurásán
Aqdas Dawlat-Ábád Imám Khuy
`Arabistán Dhabíh Imám-Jum`ih Kirmán
Asmá' Duzdáb Imám-Zádih Kirmánsháh
Astarábád Íqán Kitáb-i-`Ahd
`Aváshiq Fará'id Írán Kitáb-i-Aqdas
Ayádí Fárán `Iráq Kitáb-i-Asmá'
Azal Farmán `Iráqí Kitáb-i-Badí`
`Azamat Farrásh-Báshí `Iráq-i-`Ajam Kitáb-i-Íqán


page 894

Kuláh Mustafá Rafsanján Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá'
Kurdistán Mustagháth Rahím Sunní
Muzaffari'd-Dín Rahmán Súratu'l-Haykal
Láhíján Rahmat Súrih
Lár Nabíl Ra'ís Súriy-i-Damm
Lawh Nabíl-i-A`zam Ramadán Súriy-i-Ghusn
Luristán Najaf Rasht Súriy-i-Ra'ís
Najaf-Ábád Rawhání Súriy-i-Sabr
Madrísih Náqidín Ridván
Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá Nasír Rúhu'lláh Tabarsí
Mahd-i-`Ulyá Násiri'd-Dín Tabríz
Máh-Kú Navváb Sabzivár Táhirih
Mahmúd Naw-Rúz Sadratu'l-Muntahá Tajallíyát
Maláyir Nayríz Sáhibu'z-Zamán Tákur
Man-Yuzhiruhu'lláh shápúr Sahífatu'l-Haramayn Taqí
Maqám Nuqtih Sa`íd Tarázát
Marághih Núr Salsabíl Tarbíyat
Marhabá Samarqand Táshkand
Marv Sangsar Tawhíd
Masá'il Pahlaví Sárí Thurayyá
Mashhad Párán Saysán Tihrán
Mashíyyat Sha`bán Túmán
Mashriqu'l-Adhkár Qádí Sháh Turkistán
Masjid Qádíyán Shahíd
Maydán Qahqahih Shahmírzád `Ulamá
Mázindarán Qá'im Sháhrúd Urúmíyyih
Mihdí Qájár Sharaf `Uthmán
Mihráb Qalyán Sharí'ah
Mílán Qamsar Shaykh Vahíd
Mírzá Qawl Shaykh-Tabarsí Valí
Mi`ráj Qasr-i-Shírín Shaykhu'l-Islám Valí-`Ahd
Mishkín-Qalam Qayyúm Shí`ah (Shí`ih) Varqá
Mu'adhdhin Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' Shíráz Vazír (also Vizír)
Muftí Qazvín Shúshtar
Muhammad Qiblih Simnán
Muhammad-`Alí chán Sístán Yá-Bahá'u'l-Abhá
Muhammarih Quddús Síyáh-Chál Yahyá
Muharram Qudrat Siyyid Yazd
Mujtahid Qum Súfí
Mulk Qur'án Sulaymán Zanján
Mullá Qurbán Sultán Zarand
Munírih Qurratu'l-`Ayn Sultán-Ábád Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín


page 895

2. GUIDE TO TRANSLITERATION AND
PRONUNCIATION OF THE PERSIAN ALPHABET

a . . . as in
account
á . . . as in
arm
i . . . as (e) in
best
í . . . as (ee) in
meet
u . . . as (o) in
short
ú . . . as (oo) in
moon
aw . . . as in
mown

The `i' added to the name of town signifies `belonging to'. Thus Shírází means native of Shíráz.

3. NOTES ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF PERSIAN WORDS

The emphasis in Persian words is more or less evenly distributed, each syllable being equally stressed as in French. For example, do not say Tabríz or Tabarsí; stay as long on one syllable as on the next; Tabríz; Tabarsí. (While there are many exceptions to this rule, it is the most generally correct method of treating the question of stress.)
A frequent mistake is the failure to distinguish between broad and flat `a's.' This differentiation makes the language especially musical and should be observed: in in the word Afnán, for example, pronounce the first `a' as in account. and the second syllable to rhyme with on. Americans are apt to pronounce short `a' plus `r' like the verb form are; this is a mistake; `ar' should be pronounced as in the word hurry--cf. Tarbíyat.
The same differentiation should be observed in the case of long and short `i' and long and short `u'. As the guide to the transliteration indicates, short `i' is like `e' in best, and long `í' like `ee' in meet; for example, Ibráhím is pronounced Eb-ráheem; Islám is Ess-lahm. Short `u' being like `o' in short, and long `ú' being like `oo' in moon, the following would be pronounced:


page 896

Quddús--Qod-dooss; Bárfurúsh--Bár-foroosh.
Pronounce `aw' to rhyme with low, or mown; Naw-Rúz is No-Rooz.
The following consonants may be pronounced like z: dh, z, z*, d*.
The following consonants may be pronounced like ss: th, s, s*.
Zh is pronounced like the `s' in pleasure. Kh is pronounced like`ch' in Scottish loch or German nacht. Do not pronounce it as `k'. Westerners often experience difficulty in pronouncing `gh' and `q'; a guttural French `r' will serve here; otherwise use hard `g' as in good.
H and h*, approximately like the English aspirate `h', should never be dropped. Tihrán is Teh-ron; madrisih is mad-res-seh; Mihráb is Meh-rob.
In the case of double letters pronounce each separately: `Ab-bás.
The character transliterated (') represents a pause; it is not unlike the initial sound made in pronouncing such a word as every. The word Bahá'í is phonetically as follows: `a' as in account; `á' as in hall; ('), pause; `í' as ee in meet.
The character transliterated (`)may also be treated as a pause.
N.B. As Persian often indicates no vowel sounds and and as its pronunciation differs in different localities throughout persia and the Near East as well as among individuals in any given locality, a uniform system of transliteration such as the above, which is in use by Bahá'í communities all over the world, is indispensable to the student.

picture at bottom of page with the caption: An example of Mishkín-Qalam's calligraphy, dated AH 1303 (1885), to be seen in the house at Maza`ih.

* Ed. note: This letter has a dot underneath it, which does not show up on the screen.(D.B.)


page 897

4. DEFINITIONS OF SOME OF THE ORIENTAL TERMS USED IN BAHAÁ'Í LITERATURE


Ab Father Al-Abhá The Most Glorious (See Bahá'u'l-
Abá (See Abú.) Abhá.)
`Abá A loose, sleeveless cloak or mantle `Alí The first Imám and rightful successor of
open in front. Muhammad; also the fourth Caliph accord-
`Abd Servant, bondsman; worshipper (of ing to the Sunnah.
God). Alláh God.
`Abdu'l-Bahá Servant of Bahá: title of the Alláh-u-Abhá God is Most Glorious: The
eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh, and Centre of Greatest Name, adopted during the period
His Covenant. of Bahá'u'lláh's exile in Adrianople as a
Abhá Most Glorious. (See Alláh-u-Abhá; greeting among the Bahá'ís.
Bahá'u'l-Abhá.) Alláh-u-Akbar God is Most Great: Muslim
Abí (See Abú.) salutation, and opening words of the call to
Abjad notation System whereby each letter prayer, superceded by Alláh-u-Abhá as a
of the Arabic alphabet is assigned a specific greeting among the Bahá'ís during the
numerical value. Adrianople period.
Abú, Abá, Abí Father of. Al-Madínah Literally The City (of the Pro-
Adhán Muslim call to prayer. phet). (See Mecca.)
Adíb Refined, cultured, learned; writer, Amih Maid(servant), handmaid(en). Amatu'l-
scholar, man of letters. Title of one of the Bahá: Maidservant of Bahá; Amatu'lláh:
early Hands of the Cause. Handmaiden of God.
`Adl Justice. (See Baytu'l-`Adl-i-A'zam.) Amín Faithful, trustworthy, honest; trustee.
Afnán Literally Twigs: the Báb's kindred; Title bestowed by Bahá'u'lláh upon Hájí
specifically, descendants of His three ma- Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí and Hájí
ternal uncles and His wife's two brothers. Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, first trustees of
Ághá Originally lord, nobleman; officer, the Huqúqu'lláh.
commander: placed after a woman's name Amír Prince, ruler; commander, governor.
Ághá is a courtesy title comparable with Anís Literally companion, friend, associate:
Áqá; may also form sort of a compound appellation given by the Báb to Mírzá
proper name. Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zunúzí, the youthful
Aghsán Literally Branches: denotes sons disciple who shared His martyrdom.
and male descendants of Bahá'u'lláh. Áqá Master; The Master: title given by
A.H. Anno Hegirae (in the year of the Emi- Bahá'u'lláh to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Also used,
gration): denotes the Muslim Era, reck- preceding a name, in an honorific sense:
oned from the year of Muhammad's flight Mister, Sir. (See Sarkár-Áqá.)
from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622. (See Aqdas Most Holy. (See Kitáb-i-Aqdas.)
Hijrat.) Ard Earth, land, territory. (See Sád; Shín;
Ahd Covenant, bond, treaty; The Covenant Sirr; Tá.)
(of God). `Ashúrá Tenth day of the month of Muhar-
Ahsanu'l-Qisas Literally The Best of Stories: ram, anniversary of the martyrdom of the
a name for the Súrih of Joseph. Tafsír-i- Imám Husayn.
Ahsanu'l-Qisas: the Báb's Commentary on Asmá' Names: ninth month of the Badí`
the Súrih of Joseph, the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. calendar.
Akbar Greater, greatest. (See Alláh-u-Akbar; Ayádí Literally hands; Hand(s) of the Cause.
Kabír.) Ayyám Days. (See .)
Al- The definite article in Arabic. A'zam Greatest. (See Baytu'l-`Adl-i-A'zam;
A`lá Most Exalted. (See Hadrat-i-A`lá;
Ism-i-A`zam; Sadr-i-A`zam.)
Qalam-i-A`lá.) `Azamat Grandeur: fourth month of the
`Alá' Loftiness: nineteenth month of the Badí` calendar.
Badí` calendar. (See .) `Azím Literally mighty, great, glorious; title


page 898

given by the Báb to Mullá Shaykh `Alí of Big Literally lord, prince; governor, bey:
Khurásán. placed after the given name, Big was used as
Báb Gate: title assumed by Mírzá `Alí- a courtesy title for middle-ranking officials.
Muhammad after the declaration of His (See Khán.)
Mission in Shíráz on 23 May 1844. Bishárát Glad Tidings: title of one of the
Bábí Follower of the Báb. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the
Bábu'l-Báb The Gate of the Gate: title of Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
Mullá Husayn, the first Letter of the Bismilláhi'r-Rahmáni'r-Rahím In the Name
Living. of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful:
Badí` Wonderful: (1) Title of Áqá Buzurg of invocation prefixed to all but the ninth
Khurásán, the seventeen-year-old bearer súrih of the Qur'án, and composed (in
of Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet to Násiri'd-Dín Arabic) of nineteen letters.
Sháh. (2) Style of the new nineteen-month Caliph Vicar, deputy: successor of the Prophet
calendar of the Bahá'í Era. (See B.E.) Muhammad, supreme civil and spiritual
Bagum Lady (of rank), dame, begum: placed head of the Islamic world, a title claimed
after a woman's given name Bagum is a by successive dynasties.
courtesy title comparable with Big. Caravanserai, -sera, -sary (See Khán.)
Bahá Glory, splendour, light: (1) The Great- Dárúghih High constable.
est Name. (See Bahá'u'lláh.) (2) First Darvísh (Religious) mendicant, dervish,
month of the Badí` calendar. Muslim mystic. (See Súfí.)
Bahá'í Follower of Bahá'u'lláh. Dawlih State, government.
Bahá'u'l-Abhá The Glory of the Most Glor- Dayyán Literally conqueror, ruler; Judge (an
ious. Yá Bahá'u'l-Abhá! O Thou the Glory epithet of the Godhead): title conferred by
of the Most Glorious! Báb on Mírzá Asadu'lláh, learned
Bahá'u'lláh The Glory of God: title of Mírzá divine of Khuy.
Husayn-`Alí: born in Tihrán on 12 Novem- Dhabíh Literally slain, sacrificed, offered up:
ber 1817; ascended in Bahjí, near `Akká, (1) Designation of Áqá Siyyid Ismá`íl-i-
on 29 May 1892. Zavári'í, enraptured follower of Bahá'u'lláh.
Bahjí Literally delight, gladness, joy: de- (2) Title given by Bahá'u'lláh to Hájí
notes that part of the Plain of `Akká where Muhammad-Ismá`íl-i-Kashání, ardent early
the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá'u'lláh are teacher of the Cause.
situated. Dhi'b The Wolf: appellation applied by
Baní-Háshim Literally Sons of Háshim Baá'u'lláh to Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir
(great grandfather of Muhammad): clan of who, together with Mír Muhammad-Husayn
Quraysh from which Muhammad was de- (the Raqshá), precipitated the deaths of
scended. the King and Beloved of Martyrs, and
Baqíyyatu'lláh Remnant of God: traditional instigated the martyrdom of many other
appellation of the Qá`im, derived from the Bahá'ís, particularly in Isfahán and Yazd.
Qur'án; designation of the Báb as the (See Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá; Sultánu'sh-Shu-
Promised One of Islám, and applied by hadá.)
Him to Bahá'u'lláh. Dhikr Mention, remembering; remembrance
Bayán Literally exposition, explanation, lu- of God; praise and thanksgiving; recital of
cidity, eloquence, utterance: title given by the names of God, religious exercise or
the Báb to His Revelation, and to two of ceremony; The Qur'án, The Word of God.
His Writings, one in Persian, the other in (Plural: Adhkár; see Mashriqu'l-Adhkár.)
Arabic. Dhi'l-Hijjih Twelfth month of the Muslim
Bayt House. lunar calendar.
Baytu'l-`Adl-i-A`zam The Supreme House of Dhi'l-Qa`dih Eleventh month of the Muslim
Justice: a title of the Universal House of lunar calendar.
Justice. El-Abhá (See Al-Abhá.)
B.E. Bahá'í Era: denotes the Badí` calendar, Farmán Order, command, firman, edict,
reckoned from the year of the Báb's royal decree.
declaration of His Mission in 1844. Farrásh Footman, lictor, attendant. Farrásh-


page 899

shí The head-farrásh. ministrative activity in a particular country
Farsakh Unit of measurement, approximately or region.
3-4 miles or nearly 5.5 kilometres. Hijrat, Hijra(h) Literally Emigration; Hegira:
Fátimih Daughter of the Prophet, wife of the date of Muhammad's flight from Mecca
the Imám `Alí and mother of the Imám to Medina in A.D. 622: the basis of Islamic
Husayn. chronology.
Fatvá A legal pronouncement or decree by a Hill Non-sacred ground, an antonym of
Muslim muftí. Haram.
Firdaws Garden; Paradise. Howdah (See Hawdaj.)
Firmán (See Farmán.) Hujjat Literally proof, argument, reason:
Ghusn Literally Branch: son or male descen- title of Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjá;ní,
dant of Bahá'u'lláh. (Plural: Aghsán.) hero of the Zanján upheaval.
Ghusn-i-Athar The Purest Branch: title con- Huqúqu'lláh Right of God: payment by the
ferred by Baháu'lláh on Mírzá Mihdí, believers, instituted in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
brother of `Abdu'l-Bahá who died in the Husayn The third Imám, second son of `Alí
Most Great Prison in `Akká. and Fátimih, martyred on the plains of
Ghusn-i-A`zam The Most Great Branch: title Karbilá on 10 Muharram A.H. 61 (A.D. 680).
conferred by Bahá'u'lláh on `Abdu'l-Bahá. Husayníyyih A place where the martyrdom
The thirty-first letter of the Persian of the Imám Husayn is mourned, or where
alphabet, with a numerical value of five. Muslim passion-plays may be presented.
Ayyám-i-Há Literally The Days of Há: the The term is the designation that was given
Intercalary Days, so named by Bahá'u'lláh to Bahá'u'lláh's Most Great House in
in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, where He also Baghdád after its forcible occupation by
ordained that they should immediately the Shí`ah community.
precede the month of `Alá', the month of -i- Sound inserted in pronunciation (though
fasting which closes the Bahá'í year. Every not represented in Persian script) at the
fourth year the number of the Intercalary end of a word to indicate that the following
Days is raised from four to five to acccom- word stands in a possessive or adjectival
modate the the extra day of the leap year. relation to it.
Hadíth Literally report, account; Prophetic Ibn Son.
Tradition. The whole body of the sacred Íl Clan, tribe.
tradition of the Muslims is called the `Ilm Knowledge : Twelfth month of the Badí`
Hadíth. (Plural: Ahádíth.) calendar.
Hadrat Literally presence. Placed before a Imám Head, chief, leader. (1) Muslim cleric
name, in the form of Hadrat-i- --, the word who leads the congregation in prayer. (See
is a courtesy title signifying `His Majesty', Imám-Jum`ih.) (2) Title applied by the
`His Holiness'. Shí`ahs to each of the twelve successors of
Hadrat-i-A`lá His Holiness, The Most Exalted Muhammad in the line of `Alí. (See `Alí;
One: a title of the Báb. Husayn.)
Hájí, Hájj A Muslim who has performed the Imám-Jum`ih Muslim clergyman who per-
pilgrimage to Mecca. forms the Friday prayers, the leading Imám
Haram Sanctuary, sacred precinct or court in a town or city; chief of the mullás, who
(See Hill.) recites the Friday prayers for the sovereign.
Haram-i-Aqdas The Most Holy Court: a Imám-Zádih Descendant of an Imám or his
designation given by the Guardian to the Shrine.
north-western quadrant of the garden sur- In-shá'u'lláh If God wills.
rounding the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. Íqán Literally Certitude: title of Baháu'lláh's
Hawdaj Howdah: a litter carried by a camel, Epistle to Hájí Mírz á Siyyid Muhammad, a
mule, horse or elephant for travelling maternal uncle of the Báb.
purposes. Ishráqát Splendours: title of one of the
Hazíratu'l-Quds The Sacred Fold: official Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the
designating headquarters of Bahá'í ad- Kitáb-i-Aqdas.


page 900

Ism Name. (Plural: Asmá`.) Kamál Perfection: eighth month of the Badí`
Ism-i-A`zam The Greatest Name. calendar.
Ismu'lláh Literally The Name of God: title Karbilá'í Style of a Muslim who has per-
bestowed by Bahá'u'lláh on a number of formed the pilgrimage to Karbilá; as a title
believers. it is placed before the given name.
Isráfíl Angel who sounds the trumpet on the Kawthar Literally plentiful, abundant, sweet
Day of Judgement. (potion): a river in Paradise, whence all
`Izzat Might: tenth month of the Badí` other rivers derive their source.
calendar. Khádimu'lláh Servant of God: title of Mírzá
Jabal Mountain. Jabal-i-Básit The Open Áqá Ján, amanuensis of Bahá'u'lláh.
Mountain, Jabal-i-Shadíd The Grievous Khalífih (See Caliph.)
Mountain: the Báb's allusions to the for- Khalíl Friend: (1) (See Khalílu'lláh.) (2)
tress of Máh-Kú and the Castle of Chihríq Title of Hájí Muhammad-Ibráhím-i-
respectively. Qazvíní, conferred on him by the Báb.
Jáhilíyyih The Age of Ignorance: denotes the Khalílu'lláh Friend of God: title given to
state of paganism prevailing in Arabia Abraham in the Qur'án.
before the advent of Muhammad. Khán (1) Prince, lord, nobleman, chieftain.
Jalál Glory: second month of the Badí` Originally used as a courtesy title for
calendar. officers and high-ranking officials. Khán
Jamádíyu'l-Avval Fifth month of the Muslim came to denote--placed after a given
lunar calendar. name--simply `gentleman'. (See Big.) (2)
Jamádíyu'th-Thání Sixth month of the Mus- Exchange, market; inn, caravanserai: an
lim lunar calendar. inn constructed around a central court
Jamál Beauty: third month of the Badí` where caravans (trains of pack animals)
calendar. may rest for the night.
Jamál-i-Mubárak Literally The Blessed Khánum Lady; wife. Placed after a woman's
Beauty: a title of Bahá'u'lláh. given name, Khánum is a courtesy title
Jihád Literally striving, endeavour; crusade; meaning `gentlewoman' comparable with
holy war, enjoined in the Qur'án, abrogated Khán.
by Bahá'u'lláh. Khidr The Green One: a prophet, companion
Jináb Literally threshold: placed before a of Moses according to Islamic tradition,
name, in the form of Jináb-i- --, the word is a associated with the unnamed personage
courtesy title signifying `His Excellency', mentioned in Qur'án 18:60-82; believed to
`His Honour'. have drunk from the fountain of life and to
Jubbih An outer coat or cloak. be its custodian, he symbolizes the true
Ka`bih The Kaaba: ancient shrine at Mecca, guide.
chosen by Muhammad to be the entre of Khutbih Sermon delivered in the mosques
pilgrimage for Muslims. The most holy on Fridays at noon by the imám.
shrine in Islám and Qiblih of the Muslim Kiblah (See Qiblih.)
world. Kitáb Book.
Kabír Literally great, big, old. (See Akbar.) Kitáb-i-Aqdas The Most Holy Book: title of
Kad-Khudá Chief of a ward or parish in a Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Laws and Ordinances.
town; headman of a village. Kitáb-i-Íqán (See Íqán.)
Kalántar Mayor. Koran (See Qur'án.)
Kalím Speaker, interlocutor. Title given by Kuláh The Persian lambskin hat worn by
Bahá'u'lláh to His faithful brother, Mírzá government employees and civilians.
Músá. (See Kalímu'lláh.) Kull-i-Shay' Literally all things: the term,
Kalimát Words: seventh month of the Badí` whose numerical value is 361, signifies
calendar. 19 cycles of 19 years in the Badí` calendar.
Kalímu'lláh He Who Conversed With God: Lawh Literally slate, sheet, table; Tablet.
title of Moses, given to Him in the Islamic (Plural: Alváh.)
Dispensation. Madínih (See Medina.)


page 901

Madrisih Seminary, school, religious college. signifies `Prince'; when prefixed, it either
Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá Beloved of Martyrs: denotes a clerk, secretary, scribe or scholar,
title conferred by Bahá'u'lláh on Mírzá or conveys a merely honorific sense: Mister.
Muhammad-Husayn, martyred in Isfahán Mishkín-Qalam Literally the musk-scented
together with his brother, the Sultánu'sh- pen: title applied to Mírzá Husayn-i-
Shuhadá. (See Dhi'b.) Isfahání, a distinguished Bahá'í calli-
Mahdí (See Mihdí.) graphist.
Makkah (See Mecca.) Mu'adhdhin Muezzin: the one who sounds
Man-Yuzhiruhu'lláh He Whom God Will the adhán, the Muslim call to prayer.
Make Manifest: title given by the Báb to Mubárak Blessed. (See Jamál-i-Mubárak.)
the Promised One. Muftí Expounder of Muslim law; gives a
Marhabá Welcome! Bravo! Well done! fatvá or sentence on a point of religious
Masá'il Questions: fifteenth month of the jurisprudence.
Badí` calendar. Muharram First month of the Muslim lunar
Mashhadí Style of a Muslim who has per- calendar, the first ten days of which are
formed the pilgrimage to Mashhad; as a observed by the Shí`ahs as part of their
title it is placed before the given name. mourning period for the Imám Husayn,
Mashíyyat Will: eleventh month of the Badí` whose martyrdom occurred on the tenth
calendar. day, `Áshúrá.
Mashriqu'l-Adhkár Literally The Dawning- Mujtahid Muslim doctor-of-law. Most of the
place of the Praise of God: title designating mujtahids of Írán have received their
a Bahá'í House of Worship. diplomas from the most eminent jurists of
Masjid Mosque: a Muslim place of worship. Karbilá and Najaf.
Maydán A square or open place. Mulk Dominion: eighteenth month of the
Mecca Birthplace of the Prophet Muham- Badí` calendar.
mad and scene of the early, difficult years Mullá Muslim trained in theology and Islamic
of His ministry before His emigration to jurisprudence; theologian, priest.
Medina. (See Hijrat; Ka`bih.) Mustagháth He Who Is Invoked (for Help),
Medina The `City of the Prophet', Muham- God: term used by the Báb in reference to
mad's adoptive home after His flight from the advent of Bahá'u'lláh on the Day of the
Mecca, and scene of the latter years of His Latter Resurrection.
ministry, during which His Faith spread Mutasarrif Governor: lower in rank than a
throughout the Arabian Peninsula, and its válí.
social teachings were promulgated. (See Nabíl Learned, noble: title bestowed by
Hijrat.) Bahá'u'lláh on a number of the believers,
Mihdí Literally directed, guided; one who is most prominent among whom were Mullá
rightly guided; The Mahdi: a designation of Muhammad-i-Zarandí, author of The
the Twelfth Imám; title of the Manifestation Dawn-Breakers (Nabíl-i-A`zam.), and
expected by Islám. Mullá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-
Mihráb A niche in the wall of a mosque Akbar.)
indicating the direction of Mecca, before Navváb An honorific implying Grace, High-
which the Imám stands when leading the ness: title of Ásíyih Khánum, wife of
congregation in prayer; the most important Bahá'u'lláh and mother of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
part of a mosque. Naw-Rúz Literally New Day: Bahá'í New
Mír A contraction of amír, used, when Year's Day, the vernal equinox;
prefixed to a name, to denote descent from according to the Persian calendar, the day
the House of the Prophet. (See Siyyid.) on which the sun enters Aries.
Mi`ráj The Ascent: Muhammad's mystic Nuqtih Point.
vision of the `night journey' in which He Nuqtiy-i-Úlá The Primal Point: a title of the
ascended into heaven. Báb.
Mírzá A contraction of amír-zádih,meaning Núr Light: fifth month of the Badí` calendar.
`son of an amír'. When affixed to a name it Pahlaván Athlete, champion: term applied


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to brave and muscular men. Ra'ís President, head, leader. Lawh-i-Ra'ís:
shá Honorary title formerly given to a Tablet addressed by Bahá'u'lláh to `Alí
Turkish officer of high rank such as military shá, the Ottoman Grand Vizier.
commander or provincial governor. Rajab Seventh month of the Muslim lunar
sh-Kish Present, tip, douceur. calendar.
Qádí Muslim judge--civil, criminal, or ec- Ramadán Ninth month of the Muslim lunar
clesiastic. calendar in which the Fast is observed.
Qá'im He Who Shall Arise: title designating Raqshá The She-Serpent: appellation applied
The Promised One of Islám. by Bahá'u'lláh to Mír Muhammad-Husayn,
Qalam Pen. the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accomplice of
Qalam-i-A`lá The Pen of the Most High: a Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. (See Dhi'b.)
designation of Bahá'u'lláh. Ridván Literally good-pleasure, favour, ac-
Qalyán Narghile, hookah, hubble-bubble ceptance; garden, Paradise; name of the
pipe. Oriental pipe in which the smoke is custodian of Paradise. The holiest and
drawn through water in a vase by means of most significant of all Bahá'í festivals,
a long tube. commemorating Bahá'u'lláh's Declaration
Qawl Speech: fourteenth month of the Badí` of His Mission to His companions in 1863,
calendar. a twelve-day period extending from 21
Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (See Ahsanu'l-Qisas.) April to 2 May, and celebrated annually.
Qiblih Literally that which faces one; prayer- Sád The seventeenth letter of the Persian
direction; point of adoration: the focus to alphabet. Ard-i-Sád Literally Land of Sád:
which the faithful turn in prayer. The Isfahán.
Qiblih for Muslims is the Ka`bih in Mecca; Sadratu'l-Muntahá The Divine Lote Tree,
for Bahá'ís, the Most Holy Tomb of the Tree beyond which there is no passing:
Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí: `the Heart and Qiblih symbolic of the Manifestation of God. (See
of the Bahá'í world.' Sidrih.)
Quddús Literally Pure, Holy, Blessed: title Sadr-i-A`zam Grand Vizier, Prime Minister.
conferred by Bahá'u'lláh on Mullá Mu- Safar Second month of the Muslim lunar
hammad-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí, last of the calendar.
eighteen Letters of the Living at the Sáhibu'z-Zamán Lord of the Age: one of the
Conference of Badasht. titles of the promised Qá'im. Yá Sáhib'uz-
Qudrat Power: thirteenth month of the Badí` Zamán! Rallying-cry of the early Bábís,
calendar. Salám Peace, salutation. Salámun `Alaykum
Qur'án The Reading; The Recitation; That Peace be with you! a greeting among
Which Ought To Be Read. The Book Muslims. Va's-Salám And peace (be with
revealed to Muhammad: The Koran, Holy you): formula used to conclude an epistle
Book of the Muslims. or dissertation, indicating that the author
Qurbán Sacrifice. has nothing further to say.
Qurratu'l-`Ayn Literally Solace of the Eyes: Salsabíl Pure, limpid water. A fountain in
a term applied to an object of affection. (1) Paradise.
Title conferred upon Táhirih by Siyyid Samandar Literally salamander; phoenix. A
Kázim of Rasht. (2) Term used by the Báb mythical creature indestructible by fire.
in the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' to refer both to Title bestowed by Bahá'u'lláh on Shaykh
Bahá'u'lláh and to Himself. Kázim-i-Samandar of Qazvín.
Rabb-i-A`lá Exalted Lord: one of the desig- Sarkár-Áqá; Literally The Honourable Master.
nations of the Báb. A designation of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
Rabí`u'l-Avval Third month of the Muslim Sha`bán Eighth month of the Muslim lunar
lunar calendar. calendar.
Rabí`u'th-Thání Fourth month of the Mus- Sháh King, especially of Írán.
lim lunar calendar. Sháh-Bahrám World Saviour and Promised
Rahmat Mercy: sixth month of the Badí` One of the Zoroastrians, identified by
calendar. Bahá'ís with Bahá'u'lláh.


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Shahíd Martyr. (Plural: Shuhadá; see geon in Tihrán to which Bahá'u'lláh was
Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá; Siyyidu'sh-Shuhadá; consigned in August 1852. Here, chained
Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá.) in darkness three flights of stairs under-
Sharaf Honour: sixteenth month of the Badí` ground, in the company of some 150
calendar. thieves and assassins, He received the first
Sharí`at, Sharí`ah Literally path, way; intimations of His world Mission; regarded
custom, law. Muslim canonical law. by Bahá'ís as the holiest place in Írán's
Shavvál Tenth month of the Muslim lunar capital.
calendar. Siyyid Literally chief, lord, prince: descen-
Shaykh Venerable old man; tribal or village dant of the Prophet Muhammad.
chief, patriarch, sheik; learned man, elder, Siyyidu'sh-Shuhadá Prince of Martyrs: title
professor; clerical dignitary, superior of of the Imám Husayn.
dervish order. (See Shaykhu'l-Islám.) Sufí An exponent of Sufism, a Muslim
Shaykhí (Follower) of the school founded mystic or darvísh.
by Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í. Among his Sultán Sovereignty: (1) Seventeen month
doctrines, in addition to the imminent dual of the Badí` calendar. (2) King, sovereign,
Advent, was that the Prophet Muhammad's monarch, sultan.
material body did not ascend to heaven on Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá King of Martyrs: title
the night of the Mí`ráj. conferred by Bahá'u'lláh on Mírzá Muham-
Shaykhu'l-Islám High Priest, Grand Muftí: mad-Hasan, martyred brother of the
highest rank in the Muslim religious hier- Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá.
archy; also, title of the head of a religious Sunnah Literally way, custom, practice; The
court, appointed to every large city by the Way of the Prophet as reported in the
Sháh. Hadíth. Designates by far the largest sect
Shí`ah, Shí`ih Literally faction, party, sect: of Islám, which includes the four so-called
partisans of `Alí and of his descendants as orthodox sects: Hanbalites, Hanafites,
the sole lawful `Vicars of the Prophet'. The Malikites and Shafites. Sunnis accept the
Shí`ahs reject the first three Caliphs, believ- Caliphs as legitimate, believing that the
ing that the successorship in Islám belonged position of Caliph is elective. (See Shí`ah;
by divine right to `Alí (first Imám and Caliph.)
fourth Caliph) and and to his descendants. Sunní, Sunnite Muslim of the Sunnah branch
Originally, the successorship was the vital of Islám.
point of difference, and Islám was divided Súrih Name of a chapter of the Qur'án; used
because Muhammad's (albeit verbal) ap- by the Báb and Baháu'lláh in the titles of
pointment of `Alí was disregarded. (See some of Their Own Writings.
Sunnah; Imám.) Súriy-i-Mulúk Súrih of the Kings. Tablet
Shí`í, Shiite Member of the Shí`ah (or Party) revealed by Bahá'u'lláh while in Adrianople.
of `Alí; Muslim of the Shí`ah branch of The nineteenth letter of the Persian
Islám. alphabet, with a numerical value of nine.
Shín The sixteenth letter of the Persian Ard-i-Tá Literally Land of Tá: Tihrán.
alphabet. Ard-i-Shín Literally Land of Táhirih Literally The Pure One: title con-
Shín: Shíráz. ferred on Zarrín-Táj by Bahá'u'lláh at the
Sidrih Lote tree. (See Sadratu'l-Muntahá.) Conference of Badasht.
Sirát Literally path, way; The Way of God; Táj Literally crown. Tall felt head-dress
the Religion of God; `The Bridge' leading adopted by Bahá'u'lláh in 1863, on the day
to heaven. Denotes the True Faith of God. of His departure from His Most Holy
Sirr Secret, mystery. Ard-i-Sirr Literally The House in Baghdád.
Land of Mystery: Adrianople. Tajallíyát Effulgences: title of one of the
Sirru'lláh The Mystery of God: a designation Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the
of `Abdu'l-Bahá, conferred on Him by Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
Bahá'u'lláh. Takyih Religious house, monastery; hostel
Síyáh-Chál Black Pit: the subterranean dun- for pilgrims; religious theatre for presenting


page 904

Muslim passion-plays; place at which the Varaqiy-i-`Ulyá Literally The Most Exalted
martyrdom of Husayn is commemorated. Leaf; The Greatest Holy Leaf: title of
(See Husayníyyih.) Bahá'íyyih (or Bahíyyih) Khánum, saintly
Tarázát Ornaments: title of one of the daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and `the outstand-
Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the ing heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'.
Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Varqá Bird, nightingale; The Heavenly Dove.
Túmán Discontinued unit of Iranian currency. Va's-Salám (See Salám.)
`Ulamá Literally learned men, scholars; Vazír Vizír, minister (of state), vizier.
clerical authorities, theologians, divines: Vizír-i-A`zam: Grand Vizier, Prime Minis-
the Muslim religious hierarchy. (Singular: ter.
`Álim.) Viláyat Guardianship.
Umm. Mother. Waqf Literally bequeathing (for charitable
`Urvatu'l-Vuth The Sure Handle, Firm uses); pious bequest, religious endowment,
Cord: a Qur'anic term, used in the Bahá'í estate held in mortmain. Denotes landed
Writings to symbolize the Covenant and property endowed to the Muslim com-
Testament. munity; in Írán, the estate of the expected
Ustád Teacher, professor; mechanic, artisan, Imám.
craftsman. Vocative particle meaning `O'. (See
Vahíd Single, unique, peerless: title of Siyyid Bahá'u'l-Abhá; Sahibu'z-Zamán.)
Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, hero of the Nayríz up- Zádih Born; offspring, son. Used as a suffix
heaval. after a proper name it means `Son of --'.
Váhid Literally unity; one, single, unique; (See Imám-Zádih; Mírzá.)
The One, Indivisible God. The word, whose Zarrín-Táj Literally Crown of Gold: title by
numerical value is nineteen, denotes: (1) A which Fátimih, daughter of Mullá Sálih-i-
`unity' or section of the Bayán. The Persian Baraqání of Qazvín--better known as
Bayán consists of nine Váhids of nineteen Táhirih--was designated by her family and
chapters each, except the last, which has kindred.
only ten chapters. (2) The eighteen Letters Zawrá' A term signifying Baghdád.
the Living (the Báb's first disciples) and Zamzam Literally copious (water): sacred
the Báb Himself, who together constitute well within the precincts of the Great
the first Váhid of the Bábí Dispensation. Mosque in Mecca. Though salty, its water
(3) Each cycle of nineteen years in the is much esteemed for pious uses, such as
Bádí` calendar. (See Kull-i-Shay'.) ablutions, and drinking after a fast.
Valí Guardian. Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín Literally Ornament of
Válí Governor (of a province). the Near (or Favoured) Ones. Title be-
Valí-`Ahd Crown prince, heir to the throne. stowed by Bahá'u'lláh on Mullá Zaynu'l-
Varaqih Leaf; often used metaphorically in `Ábidín of Najaf-Ábád, faithful apostle
the Bahá'í Writings to refer to a woman. and trusted scribe.

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