Bahá'í Library Online
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Chronology of the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths and related history

This chronology was based on A Basic Baha'i Chronology by Glenn Cameron and Wendi Momen (used with permission).
Cameron has continued to add to his database in the years since it was published, and helps maintain this online version.
see also:     1. A note from the publisher
2. Abbreviations and Bibliography    
3. Index (from the original book, as published)
4. Export (use this data for your own spreadsheet)
5. Search & tips
 Enter the first part of a date or an entire date, with or without hyphens, in the form Year-Month-Day. Examples:
century:18-- decade:184- year:1848 month:1848-03 day:1848-03-03

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Browsing from the earliest dates in our system, 1753 - 1840:

date event locations tags firsts see also
1753 Birth of Shaykh Ahmad Ahsá’í in the village of Mutayrafí in the Ahsá region, the hinterland of Bahrayn. Mutayraff; Bahrayn Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i; Shaykhism Bibliography; Wikipedia
1771 Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Fath-Ali Khan; Fath-Ali Shah
c. 1778 Birth of Siyyid Muhammad Riday-i-Shírází, the father of the Báb. Shiraz; Iran Mirza Muhammad Rida; Siyyid Muhammad Rida Bahaikipedia
c. 1783 Birth of Mírzá `Abbás-i-Irivání, later Prime Minister Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, in Máh-Kú. Mah-Ku; Iran Mirza `Abbas-i-Irivani; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran; Haji Mirza Áqasi
1798 c. Mar Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaims himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. Persia; Iran Áqa Muhammad Khan; Qajars; Qajar dynasty; Shah
1797 Birth of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, in Rasht. Rasht; Iran Shaykhism; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
1797 17 Jun Assassination of Muhammad Sháh in Ádhirbáyján. Ádhirbáyján Muhammad Sháh
1797 c. Aug Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumes leadership of Persia. Iran; Fath-`Ali Mirza
1798 21 Mar Fath-`Alí Khán is crowned second Qájár Sháh during Naw-Rúz festival.
1799 in the year Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.

The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]

Akka Napoleon; Siege of Akka
1799 21 Mar Fath-`Alí Sháh's son, `Abbás Mírzá (aged 9), is designated Crown Prince of Persia.
c. 1806 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Khán-i-Farahání, later Prime Minister of Persia, in Hizávih. Hizávih; Iran Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran
1808 5 Jan Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh. Iran Muhammad Mírzá; `Abbás Mírzá; Fath-`Alí Sháh
c. 1812 Birth of Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat. Hujjat Hujjat; Mulla Muhammad-'Ali
c. 1813 Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn). Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushru'i; Mulla Husayn
c. 1817 Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd. Ardikán; Yazd; Iran; Persia Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Haji Amin; Hand of the Cause of God
1817 Shaykh Ahmad travels to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He is in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz; Tehran; Iran Shaykh Ahmad; Shaykhism
1817 The birth of Fátimih Umm-Salamih, Táhirih (the Pure One), Qurratu'l-'Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold). [BBD220; GPB7, 73, 75]
  • In BBRSM16 her name is given as Fátimih Bigum Baragháni and birth year is 1814.
Persia; Iran Fatimih Umm-Salamih; Tahirih; Pure One; Qurratu'l-'Ayn; Solace of the Eyes; Zarrin-Taj; Crown of Gold
1817 12 Nov Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh).
  • He is of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He is a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
  • He is born in Tihrán. His father is Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father is also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
  • His mother is Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
  • He is born at dawn. [LOG353]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378.
  • RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
Tehran; Núr; Iran Baha'u'llah; Mirza Buzurg; Khadijih Khanum BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh
1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Najafábád; Iran Mulla Zaynu'l-`Ábidin; Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin; Apostle
1819 Death of Shaykh `Alí, son of Shaykh Ahmad. Shaykh Ahmad considers this loss as a sacrifice for `the Alí whose advent we all await'. [MH24] Iran; Persia Shaykh `Ali; Shaykh Ahmad
1819–1831 `Abdu'lláh Páshá becomes the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians take `Akká he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverts to Turkish rule. [BBD5] `Akká; Israel; Egypt `Abdu'llah Pasha; governor of `Akka
1819 20 Oct Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
  • The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
  • The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
  • Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
  • His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
  • His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
  • He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
  • Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
  • See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
Shíráz; Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad; Bab; Primal Point; Promised One; Siyyid-i-dhikr; Lord of Remembrance; Fatimih-Bagum; Zajra Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; House of Hashim; `Abdu'dh-dhikr; Servant of Remembrance; Babu'llah; Gate of God; Hadrat-i-A`la; His Holiness Most Exalted One; Qa'im
1820 Birth of Khadíjih Bagum (daughter of Mírzá `Alí, a merchant of Shíráz), first wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran Khadijih Bagum First wife of the Báb
1820 Birth of Ásíyih Khánum (Navváb), first wife of Bahá'u'lláh, in Yálrúd. The only daughter of Mírzá Ismá'íl. Yálrúd; Iran Ásiyih Khanum; Navvab First wife of Bahá'u'lláh
1821 `Abdu'lláh Páshá builds the Mansion at Bahjí. [BBD5, 42] Acre; Israel `Abdu'llah Pasha; Mansion at Bahji
1822 Birth of Mírzá-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (Quddús), the 18th Letter of the Living. Iran Mirza-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi; Quddus; Letter of the Living
c. 1823 Bahá'u'lláh's father dreams that his son is swimming in a sea with multitudes of fish clinging to the strands of His hair. He relates this dream to a soothsayer, who prophesies that Bahá'u'lláh will achieve supremacy over the world. [DB199–20] Baha'u'llah; father; dream
c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran Áqa Husayn-i-Isfahani; Mishkin-Qalam; Apostle; calligrapher
1826 27 Jun Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2; MH20]
  • At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí becomes his designated successor. [BBD12]
  • BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
  • See CH11 and MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
  • See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life.
  • See MH22 for a picture.
Haddíyyih; Medina; Saudi Arabia Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhism
1828 Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
  • The Báb is placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He is a leading merchant of Shíráz and is the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He is one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
  • According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
Shíráz; Iran Mirza Muhammad Rida; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali; Khal-i-A`zam First, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in Shíráz
1828 Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. [BBRSM55] Persia; Iran Defeat; Persians; Russians
1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. Naw-Firist; Birjand Nabil-i-Akbar; Apostle; Aqa Muhammad-i-Qa'ini
1830 Mullá Husayn leaves his home in Mashhad to pursue his religious studies in Karbalá. [MH113] Mashad; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Mulla Husayn
c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. Iran; Persia Marriage; Tahirih; Mulla Muhammad; Mulla Taqi
1830 Jan c. Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád. Ishqabad; Haji Mirza Muhammad Taqi Afnan; Vakilu'd-Dawlih; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1831 At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went on to Mashad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1831 he relocated to Karbila to study under Siyyid Kázim. MH7-8 Karbila; Mashhad; Bushihr; Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim
c. 1831 Birth of Mírzá Yahyá (Subh-i-Azal), half brother of Bahá'u'lláh. Persia; Iran Mirza Yahya; Subh-i-Azal
1831 The passing of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá’í (1753–1831), who was the founder of the Shaykhí School and the first of the “twin luminaries that heralded the advent of the Faith of the Báb”. [KA239n171] Shaykhi School; Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsa’i
1831 – 40 Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
  • 'Abdu'lláh Páshá is the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
Akka; Israel Egyptian; occupation; `Akka
1831 17 Jul Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh. Iran Nasiri'd-Din Mirza; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. Nabil-i-A`zam; Muhammad-i-Zarandi; Apostle
1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabil-i-A’zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandi. BHC85 (Note: an unsubstantiated source places this date as 29 March, 1829 and another in 1828.)
1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
Iran; Fath-`Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Grand Vizier; Qa'im Maqam; Haji Mirza Áqasi
1835 Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Áqa Jan-i-Kashani; Khadimu'llah; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; amanuensis
1835 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán; Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn; Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada'; Beloved of Martyrs
1835 Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad moved to Bushihr to manage his uncles’ business interests in that city. HotD19 Bushihr
1835 Oct Marriage of Mírzá Husayn-`Alí to Ásíyih Khánum. [BKG23; RB1:382]
  • She was the daughter of a nobleman Mirza Isma’il-l-Vazie from Yalrud. [CoB117, BKG23, RoB1p382, BPP44, SoG6]
Mirza Husayn-`Ali; Ásiyih Khanum
1835 Nov c. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí becomes Prime Minister of Persia. Iran Haji Mirza Áqasi; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran
1837 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán; Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan; Sultanu'sh-Shuhada'; King of Martyrs
c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Mirza Muhammad Mustafay-i-Baghdadi; Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1838 Manúchihr Khán is appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167] Isfahán; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Governor
1839 Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body is taken to Najaf, Iraq. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4; MBW175] Najaf; Iraq Mirza Buzurg
1839 Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Persia; Iran British defeat Persia; war; Britain
1840 The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] `Akká; Israel Britain; British take `Akka; Egyptians
1841 Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
  • The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
  • BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
Najaf; Karbalá; Iraq Siyyid `Ali Muhammad; Bab; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran; Persia Haji Ákhund; Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi; Hand of the Cause
1842 Aug The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382, DoH107]
  • See B80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
Shíráz; Iran Siyyid `Ali Muhammad; Bab; marriage; Khadijih-Bagum
1843 Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
  • The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
Iran; Persia Ahmad; son of Bab
1843 The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks.Thousands of it's citizens were killed even those taking refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás.. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36] Karbalá; Iraq Karbala; Turks
1843 Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6]
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • Bahá'u'lláh condemns him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
Karbalá; Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhi school; Siyyid `Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykh Ahmad; Islam
1843 10 Jan The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24
  • His wife had an indication of His calling after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. [HotD27]
Bab; dream; blood; Imam Husayn
1843 10 Jan
1844 Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpáygán; Iran Gulpaygani; Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1844 Edict of Toleration The relaxation of the order for the exclusion of the Jews from the Holy Land. GPBiv Luke21:24 Israel; Edict of Toleration
1844 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
  • See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
Karbalá; Isfahán; Mashhad; Najaf; Búshihr; Shíráz; Iraq; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim; mourning; fasting
1844 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvín; Iran Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí; Apostle Bahá'u'lláh
1844 c. Apr Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognizes her husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission'. He bids her to keep this knowledge concealed. [DB191–2; KB10–14] Khadijih Bagum; Bab; Qa'im
1844 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
  • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
  • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
  • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
Shíráz; Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad; declaration; Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i; Qayyumu'l-Asma'; Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab; Babi Qur'an; Baha'u'llah; Adamic Cycle; Baha'i Cycle; Cycle of Fulfillment; Apostolic; Heroic; Primitive; Age; Shi'i Muslim; Babu'l-Bab; Siyyid-i-dhikr; Fort Tabarsi; Jinab-i Bab; Qa'im; Promised One First, the greatest, and mightiest of all books in the Bábí Dispensation
1844 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran `Abdu'l-Baha; `Abbas Effendi; Baha'i; Baha'u'llah; Ghusn-i-A`zam; Most Great Branch; Sirru'llah; Mystery God; Áqa; Master; Sarkar-i-Áqa
1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
Persia; Iran Declaration; Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Mulla Husayn; Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad; Promised One; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
  • The Báb addresses the Letters of the Living, giving each a specific task. [DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19] .
Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum Bab; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; Tablet Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid; Tablet Bab First to embrace the Cause of the Báb in the city of Isfahán; first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist aid of Muhammad Sháh
1844 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Constantinople; Istanbul; Iraq; Baghdád; Najaf; Karbalá Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Shaykhi; Mulla `Ali; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Shi`i; Sunni; `ulama; martyr; Babi; Mulla Hasan Gawhar; Babism First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation; first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader
1844 30 Sep The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
  • Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
  • GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
  • See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
Iran; Bab; Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; letter; pilgrimage
1844 30 Sep The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
  • DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14October to 11 November, 1844).
  • SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
  • Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
Iran; Persia; Saudi Arabia; Shíráz; Búshihr; Mecca Bab; Quddus; Haji Mulla Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi; Ethiopian; servant; Mubarak
1844 2 or 3 Oct The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
  • He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
  • He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
  • The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
  • He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
Karbalá; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia Bab pilgrimage; Mulla Husayn; Futuh-ar-Ras`ul
1844 c. Dec The Báb and His companions arrive in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
  • See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
  • Quddús walks from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Mecca; Saudi arabia Bab; sea voyage; Mecca; Quddus
1844 12 Dec The Báb arrives in Mecca and performs the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
  • See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
Mecca; Saudi Arabia Báb; pilgrimage; pilgrim
1844 20 - 21 Dec The Báb offers 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133] Mecca; Saudi Arabia Bab; lambs; sacrifice
1844 c. 20 Dec The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
  • He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
Mecca; Saudi Arabia Bab; declaration; Ka`bih; Qa'im; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani; Muhit; Shaykhi; Sharif
c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Persia; Iran Mirza `Ali-Muhammad-i-Khurasani; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Hand of the Cause of God
1845 c. Jan Crowds gather in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them Táhirih. [BI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Karbalá; Iraq Bab; Tahirih
1845 10 Jan The beginning of the Islamic new year. Messianic fervour grows, particularly among Shaykhís. [BBRSM15]
1845 10 Jan The Báb reached Medina. From there He proceeded to Jiddah where He look a boat bound for Búshihr. [B75] (See 16 January below.) Medina
1845 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád.A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdád; Iraq trial; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami
1945 c. 13 Jan A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. Baghdád; Iraq fatwa; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Bab
1845 16 Jan The Báb arrives in Medina from Mecca. [dhut bíy-i-jiddih]
  • He reveals `The Epistle between Two Shrines' en route. [B73–4]
  • He stays 27 days. [MS2]
  • B75 and DB140 indicate that the Báb arrived 10 January. The Research Department at the Bahá`í World Centre states that the date 16 January accords with the Báb's own writings. [report 20 jan 1994]
Medina; Mecca; Saudi Arabia Bab; Epistle between Two Shrines
1845 12 Feb The Báb leaves Medina for Jiddah. [MS2] Medina; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia Báb
1845 27 Feb The Báb leaves Jiddah. [MS2]
  • He disembarks at Muscat and remains there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
  • He sends a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
  • SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
Jiddah; Jeddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; trial; letter; Imam of Muscat
1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave is life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Búshihr; Iran; Shíráz Bab; Quddus; uncle; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali; dhasa'il-i-Sab`ih; Seven Qualifications; martyrdom first to embrace the Cause after the Letters of the Living.
1845 c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí is removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he is sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul; Iraq; Bagdad; Iraq Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí; prison
1845 Jun Quddús meets Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz. Mullá Sádiq, following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, sounds the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. [B78; DB144]
  • This provokes a public commotion. [B78; DB145; BBRSM16]
Shíráz; Iran Quddus; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas; Tablet Bab
1845 23 Jun The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
  • The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
  • Búshihr,
  • The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
Fárs; Iran; Shíráz; Iran; Búshihr; governor; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani; Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; arrest; torure; Husayn Khan
1845 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Tehran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russian
1845 30 Jun The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
Dálakí; Fars; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bab; governor; arrest
1845 c. July In Kirmán, Karím Khán, the leading Shaykhí cleric, has a number of Bábís expelled from the city. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman Karim Khan; Shaykhism
1845 c. July Karím Khán writes a number of refutations of the Báb. The first, Isháqu'l-Bátil (The Crushing of Falsehood) is published in July. This causes some Bábís to dissociate themselves from Shaykhism. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman Karim Khan; Shaykhism
1845 c. 7 Jul The Báb arrives in Shíráz.
  • Note: Other estimates for the time of His arrival in Shíráz are from about the 8th to 16th of August based on the fact that Husayn Khán ordered His arrest after the beating of Mullá Sádiq and Quddús. "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D." [DB146n2]
  • B105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
  • SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
  • He is publicly interrogated, struck in the face and later released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [B85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
  • Note: DB155 states that after He was released and "regained His home" He was able to celebrate Naw-Rúz that fell on 10 Rabí'u'l-Avval, 1261 (19 March, 1945. This is an error. GPB11 says He was able to "celebrate the Naw-Rúz of that and the succeeding year in an atmosphere of relative tranquillity in the company of His mother, His wife and His uncle.'' This too appears to be in error. If He left Shíráz in September of 1846 He would not have been present In March of 1847.
  • Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, and others, with the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
Shíráz Bab; uncle; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali
1845 Jul and months following The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
  • He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
  • The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
Shíráz; Isfahán; Khurásán; Yazd; Kirmán; Nayríz; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Bab; Mosque Vakil; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; uncle; Babi; Shah; Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi; Vahid; scholar; Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani; Hujjat; Qayyumu'l-Asma'; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; learned; Tahirih; Shaykhi; Shi`ism; Karim Khan; Shaykhi; Ishaqu'l-Batil; Crushing Falsehood; Shaykhism
1845 July and months following In Karbalá Táhirih revives the remnant of the Bábí community there. She is considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believes that the Shaykhí tradition has been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement causes the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18] Karbalá Tahirih
1845 1 Nov The Times of London carries an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This is the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article is reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shíráz; Iran; London; England arrest; torture; Quddus; Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani; Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib First known published reference to The Báb. First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
1845 30 Dec The Báb's birthday falls on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who is in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructs her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This causes a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih is arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217]
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Baghdád; Karbalá; Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum; Greatest Holy Leaf; daughter Baha'u'llah; Navvab; sister `Abdu'l-Baha; Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i Dispensation; Babi; Bab; Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
1846 c. Feb - Mar 1846 The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]

The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]

Tihrán; Tehran; Isfahán; Iran Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab; wife; Fatimih
1846 Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russian; Russia; ambassador
1846 Summer The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13] Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia Bab; mother; wife; prayer; martyrdom; uncle; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali; Babi
1846 Summer The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, is instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where He had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower are taken away along with His books and Writings. It is widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14] Shíráz The Bab
1846 23 Sep The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
  • See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
  • DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
Shíráz; Iran; Persia Husayn Khan; governor; Bab; `Abdu'l-Hamid Khan; cholera; epidemic; Shah
1846 23 – 24 Sep The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
  • TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
  • B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia Bab
1846 Sep - Oct On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
  • See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
  • It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
Isfahán; Iran; Persia Bab; Manuchihr Khan; governor-general; Siyyid Muhammad; Imam-Jum`ih
1846 c. Nov Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9] Iran; Persia Manuchihr Khan; Bab; death-warrant
1846 Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. Constantinople; Istanbul Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; martyr; Babi First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation
1847 Feb - Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihrán; Tehran; Isfahán; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Bab; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen
1847 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield; Massachusetts; America; United States Thornton Chase; birth; American; Bahá'í First American Bahá'í
1847 21 Mar En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22] Tihrán; Tehran; Káshán; Iran; Persia Báb; Hájí Mírzá Jání; dream
1847 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihrán; Tehran; Kulayn; Iran Báb; fortress Kinár-Gird; Muhammad Big; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; prime minister
1847 29 Mar The Báb arrives in Kulayn where He stays for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11] Kulayn; Iran Báb
1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kázimayn; Baghdád; Iraq; Persia; Iran; Hamadán; Kirmánsháh Tahirih; Babi; Siyyid `Ali Bishr; Bab; Mah-Ku; Hakim Masih; Jewish; doctor; Baha'i; Najib Pasha First Bahá'í of Jewish background
1847 Apr The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Máh-Kú; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; Shah; prime minister; Haji Mirza Áqasi; fortress Mah-Ku
1847 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bab; letter; gifts; Baha'u'llah
1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bab; disappear
1847 c. 17 Apr The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
Iran; Persia; Tabríz; Zanján; Bab; letter; Shah; prime minister; Bab; Shah; Grand Vizier; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
1847 c. May Birth of Fátimih (Munírih) Khánum, wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Isfahán.
  • See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See CH84 for her account of a dream she had as a young child.
  • She was first cousin to the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. [CH86]
Isfahán; Iran; Persia Fatimih Khanum; Munirih; wife; `Abdu'l-Baha
1847 c. May - Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12] Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; Mah-Ku
1847 Jul The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
  • See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
Máh-Kú; Iran; Persia Bab; prison
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Máh-Kú; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbalá; Iraq Bab; `Ali Khan; Babi; commentary; commentaries; Qur'an; Persian Bayan; Arabic Bayan; Bayan; Dala'il-i-Sab'ih; Seven Proofs; Christian; Muhammad; Tablet Muhammad Shah
1847 Aug Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten. Hamadán; Iran Persia Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

Hamadán; Qazvín; Mashhad; Khurásán; Shíráz; Máh-Kú; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Persia Tahirih; Arab; Babis; Haji Mulla Taqi; Shaykhis; Mulla Husayn; pilgrimage; Baha'u'llah First meeting of Mullá Husayn and Táhirih
1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
Khurásán; Máh-Kú; Qazvín; Tihrán Mulla Husayn; Tahirih
1847 Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.

  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
Shíráz; Iran; Persia murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; uncle; Tahirih; Mulla `Abdu'llah
1847 Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Tahirih; assassination; uncle; Babis; arrested; Khusraw Khan
1847 Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati First imprisonment of Bahá'u'lláh; first martyr on Persian soil
1848 early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihrán; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Babis; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
1848 The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. [BBD155]

Tehran Mirza Mihdi
1848 Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Khurásán; Iran; Persia Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; Vahid
1848 20 March Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
  • MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
  • See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
  • The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran Mulla Husayn; Bab Mulla Husayn
1848 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
Mázindarán; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Tehran; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; Báb Mulla Husayn
1848 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Báb; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Russian; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov
1848 10 Apr The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
  • He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
  • He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
Chihríq; Iran; Persia Báb; fortress; Chihríq; `Jabal-i-Shadíd'; Grievous Mountain; Yahyá Khán; Muhammad Sháh; Máh-Kú
1848 Apr-Jul The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
  • Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
  • Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
  • So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
  • See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
  • A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
  • The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
Chihríq; Iran; Persia; India Bab; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Mirza Asadu'llah; Khuy; Dayyan; Babis; honey; dervish; navvab; Lawh-i-Hurufat; Tablet Letters
1848 late Spring Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
Bárfurúsh; Mázindarán; Mashhad; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Quddus; hidden treasure; Babiyyih; Babi; Centre; Center; Sam Khan
1848 summer Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
Mashhad; Badasht; Iran; Persia Quddus; Mulla Husayn; soldiers; confinement
1848 c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht; Tabríz; Sháhrúd; Chihríq; Iran; Persia Conference Badasht; Baha'u'llah; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab; Bayan
1848 Jul After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
  • En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
  • A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9]
  • See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
Chihríq; Tabríz; Urúmíyyih; Iran; Persia Bab; trial; horse; sketch; portrait
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí; Tehran; Tihrán; Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Quddus; arrest; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shah; pilgrimage; Tablet; Bab; Black Standard; green turban; new name; Siyyid `Ali
1848 c. 17 Jul The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
Badasht; Mázindarán; Níyálá; Núr; Bandar-Jaz; Iran; Persia Babis; attack; Baha'u'llah; Tahirih; Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
1848 21 Jul Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216] Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn
1848 last week
in Jul
The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
  • The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
  • He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
Tabríz; Badasht; Iran; Persia Bab; Crown Prince; Nasiri'd-Din Mirza; Qa'im; declaration; bastinado; punishment; Irish; physician; Dr William Cormick; fatwa; death; heresy First formal punishment of the Báb Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
1848 Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
Mázindarán; Badasht; Khurásán; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; prophecy; death; Muhammad Shah
1848 Aug The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
  • B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
  • On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
  • The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
Chihríq; Iran; Persia Bab; Haji Mirza Áqasi; Hujjat; Arabic Bayan
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz; Táliqán; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; arrest; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Haji Mirza Hasan; Adib; Hand Cause; Apostle
1848 1 Sep Birth of August Forel, renowned entomologist and Bahá'í, in Switzerland. Switzerland August Forel
1848 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran; Persia Muhammad Sháh; Grand Vizier; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Bahá'u'lláh; arrest
1848 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
Tabríz; Síyáh-Chál'; Iran; Persia; Iraq Násiri'd-Dín Sháh; Báb; Bahá'u'lláh'; martyrs; Bábí; Bahá'í; prime minister; Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání First time the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against the Faith
1848 10 Oct Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
  • MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
  • In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
  • It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Sa`idu'l-`Ulama
1848 12 Oct The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5] Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia Bábís; Bábí; shrine; Shaykh Tabarsí
1848 Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
    • The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
    • it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
Iran; Persia Shrine; Shaykh Tabarsi; Babis'; Babi; Baha'u'llah; fortress; Mulla Husayn; Quddus Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
1848 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1848 19 Dec The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí begins in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
  • DB361 says this was 1 December.
  • There are about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
  • The supply of bread and water to the fort is cut. A rainfall replenishes the water supply and ruins the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampers the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
Persian; Iran Shrine; Shaykh Tabarsi; `Abdu'llah Khan
1848 21 Dec The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
  • For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
Persia; Iran Bábís; Bábí; Quddús; attack; `Abdu'lláh Khán; Tálár River
1849 Bahá'u'lláh marries his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb.
  • Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
Persia; Iran Baha'u'llah; marriage; wife; Fatimih Khanum Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Malik-Nisa Khanum; Mirza Buzurg; Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
1849 early Jan Arrival of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá and 3,000 royal troops in the vicinity of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí. [B173–4; BW18:381; DB363]

  • He sets up camp and his headquarters in the village of Vás-Kas. [DB363]
Vás-Kas; Persia; Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza; troops; shrine; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849 11 Jan Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]

DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.

  • Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá flees barefoot. [DB366]
  • Mullá Husayn's sword is broken in the attack and he uses Quddús'. His companions bring him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]

    At daybreak the soldiers mount a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]

  • In this encounter Quddús is wounded in the mouth and is rescued by Mullá Husayn who disperses the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
Persia; Iran Quddus; Mulla Husayn; attack; army; Babis
1849 27 Jan The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]

  • This is the third army to be mustered.
  • The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
Persia; Iran ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání; army; Mullá Husayn
1849 1 Feb The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; turban; Bab
1849 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; death; Babis; burial; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; martyred
1849 c. 11 Mar On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
  • DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
  • Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; death; ‘Abbas-Quli Khan; attack
1849 27 Mar Renewed forces under Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá encamp in the neighbourhood of the fort, build fortifications and begin to bombard the shrine. [BW18:381; DB390–3]
  • DB391 says this was the ninth day after Naw-Rúz.
Persia; Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza; fort; shrine
1849 c. end Mar The army continues to fire on the shrine for a few days. Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir and 18 others attack the new fortifications and destroy some of them. [DB393–4] Persia; Iran army; shrine; attack; Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849 early Apr Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar arrives with more troops. [BW18:381] Persian; Iran Sulayman Khan-i-Afshar
1849 26 Apr A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán is repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]

  • A few days later some of the Bábís leave the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they are put to death. [DB396–9]
Iran; Persia Sulaymán Khán; Bábís; Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849 9 May Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá sends an emissary to the fort to invite two representatives to his camp to conduct negotiations. On the strength of assurances written on a Qur'án, Quddús leaves the fort and enters the Prince's camp. [B175; BW18:381; DB399–400] Persia; Iran Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá; Quddús; fort
1849 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.

  • They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
Iran; Persia Shaykh Tabarsi; fort; shrine; Babis
1849 11 May Quddús is taken to Bárfurúsh and handed over to the priests. [DB408] Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia Quddús
1849 16 May Quddús is tortured and, in the public square, he is struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]

  • As he dies he begs God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains are gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia Quddus; torture; death; burial
1849 c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
  • DB430 says he languished in despondency and sorrow for five months.
Chihríq; Iran; Persia Bab; prison; massacre; Shaykh Tabarsi; martyr; Quddus
1849 1 Aug Death of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí at Karbalá. [B147; BBD19; BBR156] Karbalá;
1849 26 Nov The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431] Persia; Iran Báb; Mullá Ádí-Guzal; grave; Quddús; Mullá Husayn; pilgrimage
1850 early weeks Vahíd clashes with the authorities in Yazd. He escapes and makes a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B178 says this took place in the early weeks of 1850; B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
Yazd; Fárs; Iran; Persia Vahid
1850 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mázindarán; Iran; Persia Mullá Ádí-Guzal; Báb
1850 14 Feb Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381] Iran; Persia Bábí; informer; arrest
1850 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850 spring The house of Vahíd in Yazd is attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd is dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd leaves Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Yazd; Iran; Persia Vahid; house; attack; Mulla Muhammad-Rida
1850 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]

  • Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
Zanján; Iran; Persia Hujjat; Babi; ‘ulama Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
1850 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanján; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Shaykh Muhammad-i-Tub-Chi
1850 19 May The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Governor; Hujjat; Mír Saláh; Zaynab; Bábí
1850 27 May-
21 Jun
First Nayríz upheaval.

Vahíd travels from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He goes to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascends the pulpit and proclaims the Cause of God. The Governor makes moves against him and Vahíd orders his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that follows lasts a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]

  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
Nayríz; Yazd; Shíráz; Vahid; Mosque; Jum‘ih; Governor; fort Khajih; siege First Nayríz upheaval
1850 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]

  • His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
Chihríq; Tabríz; Urúmíyyih; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab; American; missionaries; Mulla Baqir; Letters Living; ‘Jinab-i-Baha'; Baha'u'llah; Tablet; ‘Baha'
1850 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd receives a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leaves the fortress and is received into the camp of his enemies where he is entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayríz; Iran; Persia Vahíd; truce
1850 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]

  • Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
Nayríz; Iran; Persia Vahíd; Bábí
1850 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shíráz; Nayríz; Iran; Persia severed head; Bábí
1850 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayríz; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Vahid; martyrdom; Bab
1850 29 Jun At some point near the end of His life The Báb consigns His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and HIs last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In HIs last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Aií Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49) Tabríz The Bab; Mirza 'Abdu'l-Karim Qazvini
1850 29 Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz. [BBR76]
  • BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
Tabríz The Bab
1850 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; turban; sash; barracks; Mirza Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Zunuzi; Anis; martyr
1850 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]

At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]

  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.

The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]

  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.

    At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]

Tabríz; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Bab; Anis; Sam Khan; Christian; colonel; Armenian
1850 10 Jul The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]

  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
Iran; Persia Russian; Consul; Bakulin; sketch; Báb
1850 11 Jul The bodies are removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]

  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8 for the story of the recovery of the bodies.
  • The soldiers report that the bodies have been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
Iran; Persia silk; factory; bodies
1850 Jul The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
Iran; Persia; Iraq Bab; Faith Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
1850 Aug c. Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí. Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Haji Amin; Hand Cause; Babi
1850 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting begun in May continues. He takes charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]

  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
Zanján; Iran; Persia ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí; commander-in-chief; army; Ashraf; mother
1850 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions are executed in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran; Persia Vahid
1850 Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tries to deceive Hujjat into surrender by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responds by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who has them thrown into a dungeon. This signals the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanján; Tabarsí; Nayríz; Iran; Persia Muhammad Khan; Hujjat
1850 early Dec Hujjat is wounded in the arm. His companions lay down their arms and rush to his assistance. The royal forces take advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]

  • About 100 women and children are taken captive. They are left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
  • The remaining Bábís, about 140, shelter in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]

The bombardment of the fortress is stepped-up and Hujjat's house particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby are killed. [B187; DB572–3]

Hujjat; wounded; killed; Babis
1850 29 Dec Hujjat dies of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
Zanján; Iran; Persia Hujjat; death
1851 Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), a prominent mujtahid, becomes a Bábí, in Najafábád. Najafábád; Iran Mulla Zaynu'l-'Abidin; Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin; mujtahid; Babi
1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]

  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
Zanján; Iran; Persia death; Hujjat; Babi
1851 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Bábís; executed
1851 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl; executed
1851 1 May Áqá Husayn is blown from a cannon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Husayn; cannon
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihrán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Baha'u'llah
1851 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání; death
1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591] Kirmánsháh; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah
1851 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák is blown from a cannon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák; canon; death
1851 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stays here for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]

  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
Karbalá; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; pilgrimage; Babis
1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
Karbalá; Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab; amanuensis; Baha'u'llah; Imam Husayn; shrine
1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, is put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]

  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
Siyyid Basir-Hindi; Indian; death; Ildirim Mirza
1851 13 Nov Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám, is dismissed from his post and told he is only in charge of the army. [BBR163; BKG71]

  • He is succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí. [BBRXXIX, 482; DB598]
Mírzá Taqí Khán; Amír-Nizám; dismissed; Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí
1851 Dec After learning of the death of the Bab, his mother Fáṭimih Bagum moves to Karbilá with her closest companions. Karbila Faṭimih Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida Bahaikipedia
1852 Birth of Mírzá Buzurg-i-Khurásání (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran; Persia Mirza Buzurg-i-Khurasani; Badi‘; birth; Apostle; Baha'u'llah
1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán is killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]

  • He chooses to have his veins opened and he bleeds to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Káshán; Iran; Persia Mirza Taqi Khan; death; Shah; mother; Mirza Áqa Khan
1852 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York City; United States Isabella Brittingham; American; Bahá'í
1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]

  • He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
Karbalá; Iraq; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Grand Vizier
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavásán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Ja‘far-Quli Khan; Grand Vizier
1852 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran; Persia Sháh; Ja‘far-Qulí Khán; Bahá'u'lláh
1852 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]

  • Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
Zargandih; Iran; Persia Bahá'u'lláh; Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí; Russian; Sháh; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Vizier; arrest
1852 days following
16 Aug
For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]

He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Siyah-Chal
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Babis; arrest; execute; execution; Siyah-Chal; martyrdom
1852 16 – 27Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tehran Tahirih
1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís are distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] execution; Babis
1852 Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihrán; Tehran; Tákur; Iran; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Siyah-Chal; prison; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; martyr; poison; chain; Mirza Yahya
1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; vision; maid; angels; Manifestation; Moses; Burning Bush; Zoroaster; Seven Visions; Buddha; Bodhi tree; Dove; Jesus; Gabriel; Muhammad; Bab; Declaration
1852 27 Oct The Bábí Faith is first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez” („To the History of Education in Persia”) where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reports on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá’ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary First mention of the Faith in Hungary
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran; Persia; Iraq Baha'u'llah; release; Siyah-Chal; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Áqa Khan
1853 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Írán; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; brother; wife; son; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Bahiyyih Khanum; Mirza Musa and Mirza Muhammad-Qul; Russia
1853 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
Khániqayn; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Naw-Ruz
1853 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayríz; Iran; Persia Bábís; upheaval; murder; governor
1853 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrive in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gives birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
Baghdád; Iraq Bahá'u'lláh; Navváb; son
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]

  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]

  • The revelation of this Tablet points up Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
Baghdád; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; birth; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘am; Tablet All Food; Mirza Yahya' First son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá; first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival Baghdád
1853 summer Bahá'u'lláh reveals His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. [BKG109–11; GPB115–16] Karbalá; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Mirza Áqa Jan a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
1853 Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]

  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
Nayríz; Iran; Persia upheaval; Mirza Na‘im-i-Nuri; Babi
1853 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayríz; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bábí; prisoner; martyr; Islam; prophecy; Qá'im
1853 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia Bábí; executed
1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]

  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]

  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
Kurdistán; Baghdád Baha'u'llah; dervish; cave; Sar-Galu; Darvish; Muhammad-i-Írani; Moses; Sinai; Buddha; Christ; Muhammad; Áqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani; poem; Qasidiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqa'iyyih; Bab; Babi; son; Navvab Mirza Yahya; Sufi; Daoud Toeg; cave; Sar-Galu
1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point, joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home. See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals. Baghdád; Iraq;
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; England John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hand of the Cause of God
1855 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. USA; America; United States Robert Turner; Bahá'í First black American Bahá'í
1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Írán Anglo-Persian War
c. 1856 – 1857 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Samadiyyih Khanum; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya First daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period are so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He reveals a vast number of works and then commands that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; writing
1856 – 1863 It is in this period that Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh describes the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150]

  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA1507.
Baghdád; Iraq; Kurdistán Baha'u'llah; Seven Valleys; Sufi; Shaykh Muhyi'd-Din; Qadi Khaniqayn
1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returns from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán.

"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
Baghdád; Iraq; Sulaymáníyyih; Kurdistán Baha'u'llah; Sulaymaniyyih
1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
c. 1857 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Four Valleys, addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání and describing four stages of the spiritual life. [SA157–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Four Valleys; Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahman-i-Talabani
1858 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Hidden Words; Kalimat-i-Maknunih; Fatimih; Tigris
1858 Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Írán; Persia Mirza Áqa Khan; prime minister; Babi; Shah
c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq Mirza Mihdi; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1860 Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] Naw Firist; Bírjand; Iran; Persia Shaykh Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Qa'ini; birth; Apostle of Baha'u'llah
c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdád; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran; Persia ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan; commentary; Islam; Hidden Treasure; ‘Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Ákhund; Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Hand Cause; Babi; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ismu'lahu'l-Asdaq; Ibn Asdaq; Baha'u'llah
1861 25 Jun Death of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz to the Ottoman throne. [BBR485]
  • Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey death; Sultan ‘Abdu'l-Majid; Sultan ‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz; Ottoman; throne
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Baghdád; Iraq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Kitab-i-Íqan; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Babi; prison; death; ‘Abdu'l-‘Ali Khan-i-Maraghi'i; Nasiri'd-Din Shah First (probably) of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print
c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; ring; shawl; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Iraq
1862 – 1868 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]

  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
Shanghai; Hong Kong; China Haji Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; cousin; Bab; Babi; Baha'i; Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn First record of Bábí or Bahá'í living in China
1862 - 1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís are arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They are banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí will spend the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, Delight of Hearts 32-66] Egypt
1862 c. Mar - Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdád; Iraq Sadhijiyyih; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requests that the Ottomans move the Bábís farther from Persia. Constantinople
1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offers Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offers Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]

  • Bahá'u'lláh declines the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
Baghdád; Iraq; India; Britain; Colonel; Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British; Consul-General; Baha'u'llah; Ottoman
1863 c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdád; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Baha'u'llah; governor; Namiq Pasha; Grand Vizier; ‘Ali Pasha First of ‘five successive commands' to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople
1863 Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrates the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh; Tigris; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Naw-Ruz
1863 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Bahá'u'lláh; Tablet; Holy Mariner; Naw-Rúz; Mírzá Áqá Ján; Námiq Páshá
1863 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdád; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Baha'u'llah; deputy; governor; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship; removal
    1963 Mar - Apr At some point prior to the public declaration in the Garden of Ridván, Bahá'u'lláh confides in His Son that He is the One promised by the Báb. [CH82] Baghdád; Iraq;
    1863 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston; Massachusetts; USA William Henry Harry Randall; Disciple; ‘Abdu'l-Bahá
    1863 22 Apr - 3 May Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

    The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki]

    Garden of Ridván; Najibiyyih Garden; Iraq Declaration Baha'u'llah
    1863 22 Apr Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
    • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
    • For the first time, He wears a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]

      Bahá'u'lláh enters the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer is being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]

    On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]

    • ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
    • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
    • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
    • This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
    • This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]

    On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:

    1. He forbids the use of the sword.
    2. He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
    3. He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

    On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]

    During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

    • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
    Najíbíyyih Garden; Iraq Naw-Ruz; Baha'u'llah; Garden Ridvan; taj; Bab; Baha'i; Heroic Age; Apostolic Age; Kitab-i-Badi‘; Kitab-i-Aqdas; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; ‘Abdu'l-Baha First time Bahá'u'lláh wears tall táj as symbol of His station; First Day of Ridván; first epoch of Heroic or Apostolic Age
    1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
    • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
    • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
    • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
    • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
    Baghdád; Mosul; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Iran; Persia Mirza Yahya
    1863 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joins Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]

    • This initiates the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
    Najíbíyyih Garden; Iraq Bahá'u'lláh; family; Ridván; ninth day
    1863 3 May Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.

    • This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
    • As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
    • His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
    • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

    Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

    • They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
    • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
    Najíbíyyih Garden; Firayját; Iraq; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Ridvan; Twelfth Day; Tablet; Áqa Mirza Áqa; horse; donkey; taj; Tigris
    1863 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

    • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
    • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
    • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
    • They pass through the following:
      
      Judaydih
      Dilí-'Abbás
      Qarih-Tapih
      Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
      Dúst-Khurmátú
      Táwuq
      Karkúk (stay two days)
      Irbíl
      By the River Záb
      Bartallih
      Mosul (stay three days)
      Zákhú
      Jazírih
      Nisíbín
      Hasan-Áqá
      Márdiín
      Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
      Ma'dan-Mis
      Khárpút (stay two or three days)
      Ma'dan-Nuqrih
      Dilik-Tásh
      Sívás
      Túqát
      Amasia (stay two days)
      Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
      Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
    • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
    • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
    Firayját; Sámsún; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dilí-'Abbás; Qarih-Tapih; Saláhíyyih; Dúst-Khurmátú; Táwuq; Karkúk; Irbíl; Bartallih; Mosul; Zákhú; Jazírih; Nisíbín; Hasan-Áqá; Márdiín; Díyár-Bakr; Ma'dan-Mis; Khárpút; Ma'dan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tásh; Sívás; Túqát; Amasia; Iláhíyyih; Baha'u'llah; journey; Black Sea; Tablet; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
    1863 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
    • They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    Sámsún; Sinope; Anyábulí; Istanbul; Constantinople;
    1863 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Constantinople at noon. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
    • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and new numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
    • See The Baha’i Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha’i History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge
    Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Mirza Yahya
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

    • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
    • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]

    News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]

    Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]

    Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]

    • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.

      On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]

    Constantinople; Istanbul; Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Mathnavi-i-Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya; Sultan ‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz; Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Vizier
    1863 c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body is buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Death; Sadhijiyyih; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Ádirnih Gate
    1863 19 Oct Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Bell (Subhánika-Yá-Hú). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
    • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
    Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Tablet Bell; Subhanika-Ya-Hu
    1863 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

    • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih
      Buyúk-Chakmachih
      Salvarí
      Birkás
      Bábás
      Bábá-Iskí
      
    • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
    Constantinople; Istanbul; Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; winter; journey
    1863 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Adrianople. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

    • This is the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reaches and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
    • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lives in during this period.
    • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey; Europe Bahá'u'lláh; Europe First time Manifestation of God had lived on European continent
    1863 probably near end Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336]
    • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directs His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
    • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
    • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dates this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

    Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
         Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
         Virtual Extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
         Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
         Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
         Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
         Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
         Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
         Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
         Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
         Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
         Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
         Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
         Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
         Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
         Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
         Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
         Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
         Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
         Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
         Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
    Adrianople; Constantinople Suriy-Muluk
    1864 Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran; Persia Mirza Hadi Shirazi; father; Shoghi Effendi
    1864 Mírzá Yahyá makes an attempt on Bahá'u'lláh's life in the public bath see Ch60, BKG227–30, CB82–3, GPB166 and RB2:158–61. Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya; attempt; bath
    1864 27 Mar Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas, who later becomes an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516] Rasht; Iran; Europe A. L. M. Nicolas; Báb
    1864 Apr Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeds Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both are admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH59, BBR487; BKG254] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey; Sulayman Pasha; Sufi; Muhammad Pashay-i-Qibrisi; Governor
    1864 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád
    • Several hundred Bahá'ís are arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He is dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners are executed, 18 are sent to Tihrán and the remainder are sent back to Najafábád where they are severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán are put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these are beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
    Najafábád; Isfahán; Tehran; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
    1864 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh; son; Bahá'u'lláh; wife; Mahdi-‘Ulyá
    1864 Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He is succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who is not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Governor Sulayman Pasha; ‘Árif Pasha; Baha'u'llah
    1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá invites Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shares a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh is ill for 21 days following this attempt and is left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life. [CH60, BKG225; GPB165]
    • Bahá'u'lláh is attended by a foreign doctor named Shíshmán who dies shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him. [BKG225; GPB166]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya; attempt; poison
    1864 c. During time in Adrianople At some point near the end of His life The Báb consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and HIs last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In HIs last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Aií Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these article remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these article Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey
    1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaint to the authorities. They complained that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria with the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
    • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya; Àqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad; Azal
    1864 c. At some point during this period After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name is mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akk´and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

    Baghdád; Iraq; Adrianople House of Baha’u’llah; Abdu'r '-Rasul-Qumi
    1865 French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau publishes Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. [BBR17]

    Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]

    France; Russia French; Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale; Babi; Mirza Kazem-Beg; Petersburg University; Bab Babidy First Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion
    c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
    • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
    • See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
    • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
    • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
    • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
    Adrianople; Edirne; Yazd; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad
    1865 Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He is buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] Qum; Iran; Karbalá; Iraq Prime Minister; Mirza Áqa Khan; death
    1866 c. Mar 1866 The Most Great Separation. Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166]
    • This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • Bahá'u'lláh directs his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. He becomes very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
    • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
    • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Suriy-i-Amr; Surih Command; Mirza Yahya; Bab; Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Tahirih; Rida Big; Tablet; people Baha; people Bayan; The Most Great Separation. First Tablet Bahá'u'lláh uses term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers
    1866 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
    • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
    • This is the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Tahirih; Rida Big first...first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers
    1866 Mar Khurshíd Páshá takes up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Khurshid Pasha; governor
    1866 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]

    • He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
    • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.

    Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]

    • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
    • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Bahá'u'lláh; house; Amru'lláh; Ridá Big; Azal; Most Great Separation
    1866 10 Mar - c. Mar 1867 Bahá'u'lláh reveals numerous Tablets in the months that follow.

    • See GBP170–1 for a description of the number of verses revealed every day.
    • See BKG245 and GPB171 for list of Tablets revealed before Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in the house of ‘Izzat Áqá.
    • In addressing the Tablets to the Kings and the Queens of the earth Baha'u'lláh addressed them as "Servants of the Most High God and Guardians under Him of the people entrusted to their guidance" and called on them to join with Him in establishing an International Arbitration Council so that humanity should never again suffer the misery of war. His approach was now more direct, He claimed Divine authority and that He was the Chosen One, Whom, under various names, all the religions of the world were awaiting. [CH63]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Tablet; ‘Izzat Áqa; International Arbitration Council; kings
    1866 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]

    • The falling of stars is predicted in MATT. 24:29.
    • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
    • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
    • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
    The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

    The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gives the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

    '...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

    star-fall; falling stars; symbol; Baha'u'llah; Bible; Matthew; The Times; Rev Robert Main
    1866 Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís are arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabríz; Iran; Persia Baha'i; arrest; Babi
    1866 1 Dec Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as ‘General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.

    See LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.

    Saint John; New Brunswick; Canada Marion Jack; Bahá'í; pioneer; General jack
    1867 Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Badi'u'llah; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i‘Ulya
    1867 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
    • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
    Tabríz; Iran; Persia Baha'i; arrest; execution; Azali
    1867 Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

    Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

    Zanján; Tihrán Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí; Bahá'í; physician; executed; Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání; Hujjat
    1867 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moves back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
    • He stays for about three months. [GPB168]
    • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Amru'llah
    1967 16 March An appeal by 53 Bahá’ís is sent from Shushtar, Iran addressed to the US Congress. Shushtar; Iran Petition; United States Congress 1867 Petition
    1867 Apr An appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrives at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers] Baghdad; Shushtar Petition; US Congress 1867 Petition
    1867 c. Jun Bahá'u'lláh rents the house of ‘Izzat Áqá. [BKG239; GPB168]

    • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; ‘Izzat Áqa; house
    1867 c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]

    • Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
    • Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Baha'u'llah; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]

    • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]

    • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
    Adrianople; Turkey; Baha'u'llah; Suriy-Muluk; Surih Kings; Kitab-i-Badi‘; Munajathay-i-Siyam; Prayers for Fasting; Napoleon III; Lawh-i-Sultan; Nasiri'd-Din Shah; Suriy-i-Ra'is; Suriy-i-Ghusn; Tablet of the Branch; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Allah-u-Abha'; Bayan; Mirza Yahya First time Bahá'u'lláh directs His words collectively to entire company of monarchs of East and West; first Egyptian centre established; first pilgrimages to residence of Bahá'u'lláh
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tihrán instructing them to transfer secretly the remains of the Báb from the Imám-Zádih Ma‘súm, where they were concealed, to some other place of safety. [GPB177] Iran; Shrine of the Bab
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 In this period the extent of the Faith is enlarged, with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]

    The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá' supersedes the Islamic salutation and is simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176]

    The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, is discarded and is supplanted by the term ‘the people of Bahá'. [BKG250; GBP176]

    Caucasus; Egypt; Syria; Persia; Adrianople; Mirza Yahya; the people of the Bayan; the people of Baha; Allah-u-Abha
    1967 Sep Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenges Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím, thinking that He will not accept. In the end, it is Mírzá Yahyá who does not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]

    • The incident gains Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
    • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya; Mir Muhammad; Baha'u'llah; confrontation; mosque Sultan Salim; challenge
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] Ádharbáyján; Zanján; Níshápúr; Tihrán. persecutions
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam is dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
    • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
    • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
    • For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]
    Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq; Nabil-i-A‘zam; pilgrimage; Khadijih Khanum; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad The first pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad
    1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh reveals a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
    • President Grant of the United States is in office when Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
    `Akká `Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Czar Alexander II; Queen Victoria; Pope Pius IX; President Grant; Lawh-i-Ra'is; Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'
    1868 Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
    • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
    Tihrán; Haji Mulla `Ali-i-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Mulla `Ali Kani; Hand of the Cause of God
    1868 Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople are arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it is to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
    • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
    • Among those arrested is Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He is particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these are given to him. [BKG252]
    Constantinople Mishkin-Qalam
    1868 c. May Bahá'u'lláh sends Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He is thrown into prison and befriends a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
    • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
    • Fáris Effendi is probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10]
    Cairo Nabil-i-A`zam; Haji Mirza Haydar-`Ali; Faris Effendi First Christian to become a Bahá'í
    1868 c. 7 Jun Nabíl has a dream in which Bahá'u'lláh appears to him in his cell and assures him that he will have reason to rejoice within the next 81 days. [BKG267] Cairo Nabil
    1868 c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
    • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
    • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
    • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
    • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
    • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
    Baghdád; Mosul King of Martyrs; Beloved of Martyrs; charity fund First charity fund
    1868 c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází is arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] Egypt Mirza Abu'l-Qasim-i-Shirazi
    1868 26 Jul Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]
    • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
    • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
    • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
    Adrianople; Baghdád Sultan `Abdu'l-`Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; firman
    1868 Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house is surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants are rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They are told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
    • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
    • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62]
    • The Consuls of European powers offer assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and are prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refuses these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
    • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
    • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís are sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
    • Group and individual photographs are taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
    Adrianople
    1868 Aug Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh is poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383] Yazd Mulla Muhammad-Rida; Rida'r-Ruh
    1868 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
    • En route they pass through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
    Adrianople; Gallipoli
    1868 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrive in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli
    1868 16 Aug They arrive in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
    • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
    • They remain there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
    • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
    Gallipoli
    1868 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
    • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
    • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
    • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touches on Madellí and stops for a few hours. It continues on to Smyrna the same night. [BKG264]
    • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, are sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
    Gallipoli; Madellí; Smyrna; Famagusta; Mirza Yahya; Mishkin-Qalam
    1868 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
    • It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
    • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá can return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá makes arrangements with the local funeral director. They hold a simple funeral and burial takes place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
    • This young and vibrant man arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
    Smyrna Mirza Áqay-i-Kashani
    1868 23 Aug The steamer leaves Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gains on a morning two days later. [BKG265] Smyrna; Alexandria
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docks at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
    • The exiles change ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
    • Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl is detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognizes him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
    • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which are delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returns with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
    • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles leaves Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
    Alexandria Nabil and Faris Effendi
    1868 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa
    1868 30 Aug The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa
    1868 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
    • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
    • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
    A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
    • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
    The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
    • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
    • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
    • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
    • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
    • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
    • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
    • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
    • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
    • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
    • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
    • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
    • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
    • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
    • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
    • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
    Haifa; Famagusta; `Akka; citadel Mishkin-Qalam; Áqa `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Ra'is; Dr. Petro; Mirza Ja'far First night in citadel in `Akká
    1868 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
    • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowerw of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
    • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
    • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
    • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His
    Mosque of Al-Jazzár firman
    1868 5 Sep Mírzá Yahyá arrives with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
    • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
        Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
        Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
        Áqá ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
        Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
    • With their arrival Cyprus becomes the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
    • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
    Famagusta Mishkin-Qalam; (Áqa Hussain Isfahani); Mirza ‘Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghih'i; (Mulla Ádi-Guzal); Áqa ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffar; Áqa Muḥammad-Baqir; (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
    1868 c. Oct Nabíl is released from prison in Egypt and departs for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
    • He visits Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
    Cairo; `Akká; Cyprus Nabil; cave of Elijah
    1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, land in Haifa. Hardegg remains in Haifa to head the colony, while Hoffman goes to Jaffa to found a colony there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2 15–16; DH133]
    • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
    • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
    • Bahá'u'lláh several times stayed in the houses of the colony. [BBR234]
    • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
    Haifa; Jaffa Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templers
    1868 end Oct Nabíl enters `Akká in disguise but is recognized and after three days is thrown out of the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
    • He spends the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68]
    `Akká Nabil
    1869 – 1872 A great famine occurs in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population dies and a further 10 per cent emigrates. [BBRSM86; GPB233] Iran famine
    1869 Early in the year Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrives in `Akká from Iran and is the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
    • He is `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This is the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817]
    `Akká; bath of Al-Jazzár Haji Amin-i-Ilahi First pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká
    1869 Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but fails to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116] Jerusalem Franz Josef
    1869 The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrives in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He is able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
    • He is still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
    • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
    • For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
    Badí` sees `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and is able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` enters the citadel and goes into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He meets Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
    • Badí` asks Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestows it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
    • The journey takes four months; he travels alone. [BKG298]
    • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
    • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.

    “Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. - The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)

    'Akká; Mosul; Áqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri; Badi`; Lawḥ-i-Sulṭan; Tablet to Naṣiri’d-Din Shah
    1869 Feb Nabíl makes a second attempt to enter `Akká. He is able to remain for 81 days and meets Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but does not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
    • DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
    `Akká Nabil
    1869 1 May Nabíl meets Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57] `Akka; citadel Nabil
    1869 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London Clara Davis Dunn; Hand of the Cause of God
    1869 Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
    • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
    • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
    • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
    • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
    • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
    • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
    Írán Badi`; Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' (Pride of Martyrs); Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Shah
    1869 25 Dec A mob attacks the Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, Iran, and two are severely beaten. [BW18:383] Faran; Khurasan; Iran
    1870 Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
    • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
    Iraq Nasirid-Din Shah
    1870 In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf is arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
    • He is the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
    • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
    • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
    • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
    Zanján; Áqa Siyyid Ashraf; Mir Jalil
    1870 `Údí Khammár completes the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH106-107]
    • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
    'Akká; `Údi Khammar; `Abdu'llah Pasha
    1870 14 Jan Birth of May (or Mary) Ellis Bolles, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in Englewood, New Jersey. Englewood; New Jersey May Ellis Bolles
    1870 22 Jun Mírzá Mihdí, the Purest Branch, falls through the skylight in the roof of the prison in `Akká onto a crate lying on the floor below. [BKG311–12; GBP188; RB3:205]
    • It was a normal practice for prisoners to go onto the roof in the summer evenings for fresh air. [RB3:205]
    • He was chanting the verses of Bahá'u'lláh's Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih. [RB3:206]
    • He is so badly injured that his clothes have to be torn from him. [RB206]
    • Bahá'u'lláh comes to him at His bedside and asks His son whether he wishes to live; the Purest Branch begs Bahá'u'lláh to accept his life as a ransom for the opening of the gates of the prison to pilgrims. Bahá'u'lláh accepts this sacrifice. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
    `Akká; citadel Mírzá Mihdí; Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih
    1870 23 Jun Mírzá Mihdí dies from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
    • See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
    • He is interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
    • Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
    `Akká Mirza Mihdi; The Purest Branch
    1870 Jul The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulates the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attack the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54] Rome Pope Pius IX
    1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
    • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
    Franco-Prussian War; War
    1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
    • Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
    Sedan; France Napoleon III
    1870 29 Sep Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effects his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306] Cyprus; `Akka Mirza `Abdu'l-Ghaffar
    1870 Oct Bahá'u'lláh is moved to the house of Malik in the Fákhúrah quarter, in the western part of `Akká. [BBRXXIX, 209; BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
    • Movements of troops required use of the barracks. [BKG315; RB3:221]
    • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts three months. BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
    • This is four months after the death of the Purest Branch. [BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
    House of Malik
    1871 Muhammad-Hasan Khán-i-Káshí dies in Burújird, Iran, after being bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Three Bahá'ís are executed in Shíráz. [BW18:383]

    Burújird; Shíráz Muhammad-Hasan Khan-i-Kashi
    1971 c. Jan Bahá'u'lláh is moved to the house of Khavvám, across the street from the house of Malik. [BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
    • His occupation of this house lasts a few months. [BKG319]
    House of Khavvám house of Khavvam
    1871 c. May Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
    • His occupation of this house lasts four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
    'Akká; tags (separated by commas)House of Rabi`ih
    1871 mid-year `Údí Khammár, a wealthy Maronite Christian merchant, and his family move into the recently restored mansion at Bahjí, leaving their `Akká house empty. [BKG316–17; DH203] Bahjí `Údi Khammar
    1871 4 Aug Shaykh `Alíy-i-Sayyáh, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, dies, allegedly of poisoning. [BBR306, Four on an Island, Forward]
    • Subsequently Mishkín-Qalam marries the widow of Sayyáh. [BBR 306, Four on an Island pg.24]
    Cyprus Shaykh `Aliy-i-Sayyah; M; ishkin-Qalam
    1871 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
    • The house is so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions take up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
    • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts two years. [BKG319]
    • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
    • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
    House of `Údí Khammár; Khán-i-`Avámíd Údi Khammar; Ilyas `Abbud.
    1871 16 Oct The famous British writer and critic, Matthew Arnold, made a brief reference to the Faith in an address that he gave to the Birmingham and Midland Institute. (See M. Momen, Babi and Bahá'í Religions). This reference was probably because of Comte de Gobineau's book Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale which was published in 1865. [First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK] Birmingham; Matthew Arnold; Comte de Gobineau first public mention of the Faith in England
    1871 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore); Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; Herald of the Covenant; Mother Teacher of the West
    1871 End of the year Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet). It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh states that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the his nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31] Akka Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun; Fire Tablet; Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji
    1872 Restoration of the House of the Báb begins at the request of Khadíjih Bigum. On its completion she takes up residence there. [EB232] House of the Báb; Shíráz Khadijih Bigum
    c. 1872 Bahá'u'lláh tasks Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She travels from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stays with the wife of the Báb then to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she travels to `Akká. [MKBM]
    • DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872.
    • BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
    • See CH75–79 (Visit to Shíráz) and CH80-90 (Her journey and subsequent marriage) for Munírih Khánum's own account.
    Isfahan; Iran; Shiraz; Mecca; Akka; Munirih Khanum; Fatimih Khanum
    1872 Birth of Joseph H. Hannen, a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Joseph H. Hannen
    1872 22 Jan Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
    • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí these four kept vigil near the land gate to ensure no one would meet Bahá’u’lláh. They kept watch from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate so that if a pilgrim, after spending some six months traveling on foot, intended to enter the city they could somehow prevent his entrance. This situation lasted for some time. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the prison. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and during the night went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, P 31]
    • Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
    • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
    • Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
    • See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
    `Akká; House of `Údí Khammár Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas `Abbud; Antichrist of the Baha'i Revelation
    1872 31 May Birth of Thomas Breakwell, considered the first English Bahá'í, in Woking, Surrey, England. Woking; Surrey; England Thomas Breakwell First English Bahá'í
    1872 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio Martha Root; Hand of the Cause of God
    1872 22 Nov Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, dies. [BBR306]
    • He had begun his service to Bahá'u'llá'h in Baghdad and was a member of the entourage that accompanied Him to Constantinople in 1963 and further served in His household in Adrianople. See Four on an Island 9-12 for a brief description of his service.
    • This leaves Mishkín-Qalam as the only Bahá'í in Cyprus. [BBR306]
    Cyprus Muhammad-Baqir-i-Mahallati; Mishkin-Qalam
    1872 Last months Munírih Khánum arrives in `Akká. She stays in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
    • Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
    `Akká Munirih Khanum; Mirza Musa
    1873 Ibn-i-Abhar is arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for 14 months and 15 days. [BW18:383] Tehran Ibn-i-Abhar
    1873 Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) becomes Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
    • His governorship lasts two years. [BKG337]
    • This `sagacious and humane governor' meets `Abdu'l-Bahá and is greatly impressed by Him. The governor peruses some of the writings, which also impress him. [BKG334; GPB191]
    • In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion is made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
    • See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct.
    • See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.
    `Akká Ahmad Big Tawfiq (Ahmad Bey); Mutasarrif of `Akka
    1873 Early part Bahá'u'lláh completes the revelation of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
    • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
    • For the significance of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
    • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
    • The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
    • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
    • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
    House of `Údi Khammar The Kitab-i-Aqdas; Napoleon III; Huququ’llah
    1873 c. Mar Ilyás `Abbúd offers to provide a room in his house for `Abdu'l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum after their marriage. He furnishes a room, opens a doorway into it through the dividing wall and presents it to Bahá'u'lláh for `Abdu'l-Bahá's use. [BKG348; DH45] House of `Abbúd Ilyas `Abbud; Munirih Khanum
    1873 1 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Vision, "Lawh-i-Rú'yá" in Arabic. See the Provisional Translation by Stephan Lambden. Akka Tablet of the Vision; Lawh-i-Ru'ya
    1873 8 Mar Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
    • DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
    • See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
    • For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
    • She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
    • See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
    • See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
    • The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
    'Akká; Munirih Khanum; Mirza Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Nahri; Diya'iyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-?asan; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad
    1873 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris Hippolyte Dreyfus; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha First French Bahá'í
    1873 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh; Pennsylvania Amelia Engelder Collins; Hand of the Cause of God
    1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquires the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moves to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
    • He lives here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
    • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
    House of `Abbúd Ilyas `Abbud
    1873 Latter part of the year The existence of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is made known to the Bahá'ís. [SA248] The Kitab-i-Aqdas
    1874 Apr Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the Wolf, has 20 or more Bahá'ís arrested in Isfahán. [BW18:383] Isfahan Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; the Wolf
    1874 8 May The arrival of the eldest son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, Zillu's-Sultán, arrives in Isfahán as governor. [BBR269]

    Within a few days of the arrival of Zillu's-Sultán in Isfahán, a general persecution of Bahá'ís begins. [BBRXXXIX, 269–70]

    • This can be traced to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the `Wolf'. [BBR270]
    • See SDH104 for comment by Bahá'u'lláh on a challenge made by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir.
    • For Western reports of this outburst see BBR270–3.
    Isfahán Sultan-Mas'ud Mirza; Zillu's-Sultan; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; the Wolf
    1874 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen; Scotland John Ebenezer Esslemont; Hand of the Cause of God
    1874 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina Louis George Gregory; Hand of the Cause of God
    1874 14 Nov Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Montreal William Sutherland Maxwell; Hand of the Cause of God
    1875 The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís are imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383] Sidih; Isfahán; Nayyir; Sina
    1875 Bahá'u'lláh sends Sulaymán Khán Ilyás, Jamál Effendi, to India. [BW4:285; GPB195; MC155]
    • See EB120–1, 122–8 and MF134–8.
    • BBRSM90, 193 say he was sent in 1871 and left in 1878. EB122 says he reached Bombay in 1878 and stayed 11 years on the subcontinent.
    • His work helps establish Bahá'í communities in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras as well as in Burma. [BBRSM91; GPB225]
    • Among those he teaches is Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, who later founds the Bahá'í community of Burma. [BW10:517]
    Bombay; Calcutta; Madras; India; Burma; Sulayman Khan Ilyas; Jamal Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi first..
    1875 `Abdu'l-Bahá rents a small garden near `Akká for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BBD196–7; DH95]
    • See DH95 for its situation.
    • This garden on the river Na`mayn is later named Ridván by Bahá'u'lláh. [DH95]
    'Akká; Ridvan Garden
    1875 `Abdu'l-Bahá writes The Mysterious Forces of Civilization, a treatise on the establishment of a just, progressive and divinely-based government. [SDCV]
    • It was lithographed in Bombay in 1882. It was first published in English under the title The Mysterious Forces of Civilization in London in 1910. [SDCV] It was re-issued in 1918 and later translated as The Secret of Divine Civilization by Marzieh Gail and published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette in 1957.
    • Shoghi Effendi calls it `Abdu'l-Bahá's outstanding contribution to the future reorganization of the world'. [WOB37]
    Bombay The Secret of Divine Civilization; The Mysterious Forces of Civilization
    1875 21 Jul Birth of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause, in Hawaii.
    • She is a granddaughter of two of Hawaii's most famous missionary families, the Baldwins and the Alexanders.
    Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hand of the Cause
    1875 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Qazvin Tarazu'llah Samandari; Hand of the Cause of God
    1875 Notes
    1876 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383] Tehran persecution
    1876 The conversion of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání, a leading clerical philosopher. [BBRSM88; EB264]
    • See EB263–5 for details of his life.
    • See BKG262 for details of his conversion.
    Iran Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani
    1876 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hand of the Cause of God First American Bahá'í martyr
    1876 30 May Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz is deposed. [BBR485] Sultan `Abdu'l-`Aziz
    1876 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either commits suicide or is assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
    • Bahá'u'lláh predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. RB3:87]
    • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
    • Bahá'u'lláh addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
    Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
    Constantinople Sultan `Abdu'l-`Aziz; Nasiri'd-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fu'ad; Suriy-i-Muluk
    1876 14 Jun Birth of George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God, in Dublin. George Townshend; Hand of the Cause of God
    1876 31 Aug Deposition of Murád V. Accession of `Abdu'l-Hamíd II becomes Sultan, upon which the banishment decree of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Aziz is relaxed. Constantinople Murad V; `Abdu'l-Hamid II
    c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Mazra`ih
    1877 – 1878 War between Russia and Turkey, freeing some 11 million people from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople is occupied. [BKG262; GPB225]
    • See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
    Adrianople
    1877 Spring `Abdu'l-Bahá holds a banquet for the notables of `Akká in a pine grove near Bahjí. [BKG358; DH54, 87]
    • Permission is given him by its Christian owner, Jirjis al-Jamál. [DH54]
    • The acceptance of the invitation by the notables signals the fact that the firmán of `Abdu'l-`Azíz, though still in force, is a dead letter. [DH54; GPB193]
    Pine grove near Bahjí Jirjis al-Jamal; firman
    1877 Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
    • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
    • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
    Ridván Garden First visit of Bahá'u'lláh to Ridván Garden outside `Akká
    1877 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh takes up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
    • It takes the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
    • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
    • Bahá'u'lláh resides here for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continue to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
    • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
    • Also see DH8994.
    Mazra`ih Shaykh `Aliy-i-Miri; Mufti of `Akka; Greatest Holy Leaf; Navvab
    1877 Sep Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí is executed in Mashhad. [BW18:383] Mashhad Haji `Abdu'l-Majid-i-Nishapuri
    1877 26 Sep Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Fürth; Bavaria; Germany Siegfried Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God
    1877 Dec Mullá Kázim-i-Tálkhunchi'í is executed in Isfahán. [BBR273–4; BW18:383] Isfahán Mulla Kazim-i-Talkhunchi'i
    1877 Near the end of the year Conversion of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí in Calcutta, while he is travelling with Jamál Effendi. [RSLG] Calcutta; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
    1878 to 1881 The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
    • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
    • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
    • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
    Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tehran Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Jinab-i-Shah Muhammad; Aminu'l-Bayan; Trustee of the Bayan; Remains of the Bab; Mosque of Imamzadih Zayd; Huququ’llah The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah
    1878 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí arrives in Burma with Jamál Effendi.
    • He marries into a well-to-do Indo-Burman family of traders and settles in Rangoon, remaining in Burma to build up the Burmese community. [BW10:517; PH23]
    • See BW10:517–18 and MC155 for his conversion of Daidanaw, the first all-Bahá'í village in the world outside Iran.
    • See BW10:517–20 for an account of his life.
    • His is named a Hand of the Cause of God by the Guardian after his passing. In the village of Daidanaw, Burma (Rangoon) there is a building they call "the Shrine of Siyyid Mustafa Rumí" in his honour. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p5]
    Daidanaw; Burma; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Village; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi; Hand of the Cause of God First all-Bahá'í village outside Iran
    1878 19 Feb Birth of George Adam Benke, German-Russian Bahá'í, who after his death was named by Shoghi Effendi as the first European Bahá'í martyr, in the Ukraine. [BW5:416–18] George Adam Benke First European Bahá'í martyr
    1878 12 Jul The British government takes over the administration of Cyprus. BBR306] Cyprus
    c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Tihrán. She is buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Tihrán Sarih Khanum
    1879 `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Beirut at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, the Válí of Syria. [BKG378]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá is still officially a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. BKG379]
    • Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet marking the occasion. [BKG378–9; GPB243; TB227–8]
    • Among the important figures `Abdu'l-Bahá meets in Beirut are Midhat Páshá himself and Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, the future Grand Muftí of Egypt. [BKG379]
    Beirut Midhat Pasha; Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh; Grand Mufti of Egypt; Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions
    1879 12 Mar The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130] Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan; the `King of Martyrs'; Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn; the `Beloved of Martyrs'
    1879 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
    • Their martyrdom is instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owes the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
    • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
    • The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
    • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
    • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
    • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
    Isfahán Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan; the `King of Martyrs'; Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn; the `Beloved of Martyrs'; Mir Muhammad-?usayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; the `Wolf'; Zillu's-Sultan
    1879 Summer An epidemic of plague breaks out in `Akká and environs. Among others who feel its effects are `Údí Khammár and his family who leave the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194] `Akká; Bahjí `Údi Khammar
    1879 20 Jun Mishkín-Qalam is given permission to move from Famagusta to Nicosia. [BBR307] Famagusta; Nicosia Mishkin-Qalam
    1879 Sep Bahá'u'lláh moves to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]
    • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
    Bahjí
    1879 Nov 30 Birth of Laura Clifford Barney (Laura Dreyfus-Barney) in Cincinnati, Ohio. She compiled Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acca between 1904 and 1906. (d. Paris 18 August 1974) Cincinnati; Paris Some Answered Questions
    1879 or 1880 Birth of Túbá Khánum, second daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH93, 95, ABMM] Akka Tuba Khanum
    1880 Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67]
    • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93.
    Persia Zoroastrians First Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís
    1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
    • Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
    • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
    Sultánábád; Tihrán Siyyid Muhammad-Baqir-i-Mujtahid; Sayyidih Khanum Bibi; Tuba Khanum
    1880 18 or 19 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits the Druze village of Yirkih (Yerka). `Abdu'l-Bahá joins Him for the last four nights. [DH123]
    • See DH123 for other Druze villages visited by Bahá'u'lláh.
    Yirkih Druze
    1880 15 Aug Mishkín-Qalam addresses a petition to the High Commissioner of Cyprus begging to be released from his confinement. [BBR307]
    • See BBR307–11 for consequences of this.
    Cyprus Mishkín-Qalam; High Commissioner of Cyprus
    1881 The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden are purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
    • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden are brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
    Akka; Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden
    1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
    • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
    • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
    Akka; BWC Trustee of the Huququ'llah; The second Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Haji Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Amin-i-Ilahi; Jinab-i-Shah; Hand of the Cause; Apostles of Baha'u'llah; Haji Ghulam-Rida; Amin-i-Amin; Huququ’llah
    1881 24 Mar Mírzá Yahyá is granted freedom by the British administration of Cyprus. [BBR311]
    • He asks for British citizenship or protection so that he may return to Iran or Turkey in safety but is denied so stays on in Cyprus for the rest of his life. [BBR311]
    Cyprus
    1882 Ibn-i-Asdaq is given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq; Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid (Martyr; son of the martyr)
    1882 In the year Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá is arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he is imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383] Yazd; Isfahan Mirza `Ali-Muhammad Varqa
    1882 11 Jul The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested 'Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes] Alexandria; Egypt
    1882 15 Sep The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. [BBD127; EB235; KB35] Shiraz Khadijih-Bagum; In Memoriam
    1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
    • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community are arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some are confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences are not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
    • This is occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
    Tihrán The Tihran Upheaval
    1883 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

    Four Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz persecution
    1883 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar are arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht; Lahijan
    1883 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha
    1883 June 21 Thornton Chase appears in Newspaper coverage of poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thorton Chase; newspapers Thornton Chase in the newspapers
    1883 Aug Bahá'u'lláh travels to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted about three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
    • He stays in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house. The building is located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH109]
    Haifa; Bayt-i-Fanduq Templar colony First visit to Haifa by Bahá'u'lláh
    1884 Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabríz; Valiyu'llah Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God
    1885 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurasan Mulla `Aliy-i-Namiqi
    1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdád Musa Banani; Hand of the Cause of God
    1886 In the year Birth of Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil, the first Hindu to become a Bahá'í in Surat Gajarat, India. Surat; Gujarat; India Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil first Hindu to become a Bahá'í.
    1886 In the year `Abdu'l-Bahá writes A Traveller's Narrative. [TN40] A Traveller's Narrative.
    1886 In the year The death of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
    • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
    • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet for her in which He calls her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
    • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
    • She is interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
    • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demands that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
    House of `Abbúd; Ásiyih Khanum; Navvab; Muhammad-Yusuf Pasha; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi)
    1886 14 Sep Mishkín-Qalam, who had been living in Larnica, leaves Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311, Four on an Island pg 24] Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam
    1887 Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
    • He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
    • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
    `Akká; Mirza Musa; Áqay-i-Kalim; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Karbala'i Hasan Khan; Karbala'i Sadiq
    1887 Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistán; Fárs Karbala'i Hasan Khan and Karbala'i Sadiq
    1887 test 3 published from new event directly test test
    1887 7 Apr Birth of Horace Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, in Torrington, Connecticut. Torrington; Connecticut Horace Holley; Hand of the Cause of God chrono-edit/971
    1887 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq; Hand of the Cause of God First mention of concept of `Hand of the Cause'
    1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spends 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey is to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
    • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
    • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
    Persia E. G. Browne
    1888 Nabíl begins his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII]

    Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarks on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java, Siam, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22]

    Burma; Java; Siam; Singapore; Kashmir; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; Afghanistan Nabíl; Jamál Effendi; Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí; Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative
    1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') is given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Newcastle; England E. G. Browne First lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
    1888 c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and are sent to Shíráz, where one is imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz
    1888 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He is hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body is buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Isfahan Mirza Ashraf of Abadih
    1889 In the year The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
    • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
    • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
    • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
    • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
    • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
    • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
    • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
    • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
    • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
    • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
    Hamadán; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ism'llah'l-Asdaq
    1889 Jun E. G. Browne gives a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

    Royal Asiatic Society; London; E. G. Browne; Áqa Najafi
    1889 Jun Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiates a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383] Isfahán; Sidih; Najafábád Son of the Wolf
    1889 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drives over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They take sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
    • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
    Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan Aqa Najafi
    1889 18 Jul The Bahá'ís are persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they will receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383] Isfahán
    1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help or protection, go to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihrán; Sidih; Najafábád
    1889 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
    • Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
    • Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
    • Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
    • The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
    `Ishqábád Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání; Czar Alexander III; Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl First time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for attack on Bahá'ís
    1889 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Shu`a`u'llah `Ala'i; Hand of the Cause of God
    1890 In the year Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

    Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

    In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

    `Akká; Haifa; Tihrán; Qazvín; Kalát-i-Nadírí; Mashhad; Haji Ákhund; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; (Khayru'llah)
    1890 In the decade Bahá'í books are published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo. [GPB195; SA250] Bombay; Cairo First time Bahá'í books published in Bombay and Cairo
    1890 c. Nabíl presents his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers, to Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá for approval. [DBXXXVII] Nabil; The Dawn-Breakers
    1890 Ibrahim George Kheiralla (Khayru'lláh) becomes a Bahá'í in Cairo under the tutelage of `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání. [BFA1:19]
    • It is probable that he is the first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background. [BFA19]
    • See BFA1:175 for pictures.
    Cairo; Egypt Ibrahim George Kheiralla; `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani. first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background
    1890 E. G. Browne is in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh is staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrives. [BBR253] 'Akká; Haifa; E. G. Browne; Templer colony
    1890 By 1890 about a thousand Bahá'ís have settled in `Ishqábád. [BBRSM91, SDOH99] `Ishqábád
    1890 A number of people of the Jewish, Zoroastrian and Buddhist Faiths become Bahá'ís. [BBR248–9; GPB195 Jewish; Zoroastrian; Buddhist
    1890 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection secure a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they are killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih; Tihran
    1890 Apr Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for a third time. He spent about two weeks there on this visit. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He first stays near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
    • He then moves to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent is pitched on a piece of land opposite (currently on Ben Gurion 6). The plot upon which the tent of Bahá’u’lláh was pitched, is now a centre for soldiers named General Pierre Koenig Soldier Centre. [BKG374; BPP173]
    Haifa; Oliphant House; Bayt-i-Zahlan German colony
    1890 15–20 Apr E. G. Browne is granted four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí. [BBD43; BBR225; BKG371; GPB193]
    • See BBR225–32 for Browne's own account of the visit.
    • See BBR229–31, BKG371–3 and DH110 for Browne's pen portrait of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives Browne the manuscript of A Traveller's Narrative: the Episode of the Báb in the handwriting of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín for his to translate. [EGB54, BW11p510]
    • BFA1:445; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne And The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
    Bahjí E. G. Browne; A Traveller's Narrative; Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin
    1890 Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers are arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarcháh; Bírjand Mulla Hasan
    1891 On the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published for the first time in Bombay. [SA250]
    • It is published in Arabic. [SA250]
    Bombay The Kitab-i-Aqdas; A Traveller's Narrative; Kitab-i-`Ahd; Epistle to the Son of the Wolf; Crimson Book First publication of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in Bombay
    1891 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40]
    • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
    • Bahá'u'lláh alludes to it in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
    • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
    Bahjí Kitab-i-`Ahd; Crimson Book; Covenant
    1891 A Traveller's Narrative is published in two volumes by the Cambridge University Press. [BBD226; EGB55]

    It is an historical account written by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá around 1886 and first published anonymously in Persian in 1890. The English translation was prepared by Professor Edward G. Browne and first published by Cambridge University Press in 1891.

    Cambridge; A Traveller's Narrative
    1891 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith, given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London.
    • He gave a lecture to Pembroke College Literary Society in England (Martletts), at which the Faith was discussed at length.
    Southplace Institute; London E. G. Browne First public lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
    1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

    Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih, at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

    • For their names see BW18:384.
    • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
    • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5, 357–8.
    • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
    Yazd Jalalu'd-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari
    1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounts the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7, Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Bahjí The Times; The Times of London
    1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvín; Tíhran; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Hand of the Cause of God
    1891 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
    • It is during this visit that Bahá'u'lláh points out to `Abdu'l-Bahá the site for the Shrine of the Báb. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
    • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
    • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
    • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
    • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
    • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
    • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
    Haifa Shrine of the Bab; Carmelite monastery; cave of Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Shrine of the Bab; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templar title; title
    1891 Jul-Aug Members of the Afnán family meet Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa during His visit. [BKG374, 406]
    • For details of this visit see BKG406–13.
    • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 26-31>.
    Haifa Afnan
    1891 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd Mulla Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalu’d-Dawlih; Zillu’s-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd
    1891 See also BKG420–5; RB4:419–20.

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; GPB219; RB4:368]

    • It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. GPB220]
    • It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
    • For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
    • For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
    Bahjí; Yazd Epistle to the Son of the Wolf; Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Tablet to the Times
    1892 Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih is poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384] Tihrán Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
    1892 c. `Abdu'l-Bahá writes Risáliy-i-Siyásiyyih (Treatise on Politics). [ABMM] Risaliy-i-Siyasiyyih; (Treatise on Politics)
    1892 8 May Bahá'u'lláh contracts a slight fever. [GPB221]
    • See RB4:414–17 for the progress of this illness.
    Bahji
    1892 c. 24 May Bahá'u'lláh calls to His bedside all the believers, including many pilgrims, for their last audience with Him. [GPB222] Bahji
    1892 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

    Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

    • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
    • Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
    • He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
    • The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
    • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
    • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
    • See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
    • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
    • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
    • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
    Bahji Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Qiblih
    1892 After the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh `Abdu'l-Bahá asks Nabíl to choose a number of passages from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh to be used as a Tablet of Visitation. This Tablet is also used at observances commemorating the Martyrdom of the Báb. [BBD234; BKG427; GPB222; RB4:419]
    • For an analysis of this Tablet, see SA121–2.
    `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house now known as the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226]
    Pilgrim House at Bahji Nabil-i-Akbar; Tablets of Visitation; Iskandar Hawwa'; Nabil-i-Akbar
    1892 Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, commits suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG427–8; DH81; EB270; GPB222]
    • He leaves a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
    • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
    • He is buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
    • He is one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Akka Nabil-i-Akbar; suicide
    1892 7 Jun On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd, is read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20]
    • See CB150, 164 for the effect this has on the believers.
    Bahji Kitab-i-`Ahd; Most Holy Tomb
    1892 16 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world calling for steadfastness. [AB48–9; DH113]
    • This is `Abdu'l-Bahá's first message. [AB48–9; CH110]
    • For the text of the message see AB48–9, CH110–11, DH113 and SWAB17–18.
    First message of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1892 summer `Abdu'l-Bahá goes to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolates Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188]

    Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who has been in prison for five years, is executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]

    Anton Haddad arrives in the United States. [BFA1:26]

    • He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
    Mount Carmel; Shíráz; USA lower cave of Elijah; Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán; Anton Haddad First Bahá'í to reach American soil
    1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'Ini. He was born in Naw- Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i- Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • Bukhárá; Uzbekistan; Naw- Firist; Iran; Nabil-i-Akbar Áqa Muhammed-i-Qa'Ini; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
    1892 20 Dec Ibrahim Kheiralla arrives in New York. [BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88]
    • See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
    New York; USA Ibrahim Kheiralla
    1893 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
    • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
    Yazd Áqa Muhammad-Riday-i-Muhammadabadi; martyr; persecution First to suffer martyrdom in ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
    • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
    World Parliament of Religions; Chicago Rev. Henry H. Jessup First public reference in North America to Bahá'í Faith
    1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

    Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

    A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

    Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

    Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; USA; Níshápúr; Hamadán; Dastjirdán; Khurásán; Fárán; Khurásán Sarah J. Farmer; Haji Yari; Áqa `Abdu'l-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1894 FLESH OUT THIS STORY before publication Tolstoy discovered late in his life the then still relatively new Revelation of Baha’u’llah, the Baha’i Faith, with its beginnings in 1844 in the Babi Faith. This was destined to happen as he had committed himself to seek out the wisdom of the world, near and far, new and ancient. In fact it was in 1844 at age 16 that he became a student of oriental languages. His encounter with the Baha’i Writings came much later, being in 1894. His interest in world religions was well known far and wide and a few early Baha’is either sent him Baha’i pamphlets or books or brought these to him in person. In 1902 Abdu’l-Baha, son of Baha’u’llah, Interpretor and Perfect Exemplar of the Faith, sent Mirza Aziz’u’llah Jadhdhab Khurasani to meet Count Leo Tolstoy and to bring him this message: “Act that your name may leave a good memory in the world of religion. Many philosophers have come, each one raising a flag, let us say five meters high. You have raised a flag ten meters high; immerse yourself in the ocean of unity, so that you may remain confirmed eternally.” Leo Tolstoy
    1894 Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settles in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII]
    • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America is soon formed in Chicago. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179]
    Chicago Ibrahim George Kheiralla First Bahá'í community in North America formed in Chicago
    1894 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
    • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
    • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
    • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
    • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
    Chicago Thornton Chase First American Bahá'í Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
    1895 Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts becomes a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] Orleans; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; USA Mrs Kate C. Ives First woman born in United States to become a Bahá'í
    1895 c. summer Miss Marion Brown becomes a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London Miss Marion Brown First European to become a Bahá'í
    1895 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York; USA Leonora Stirling Armstrong; Mother of South America; Leonora Armstrong
    c. 1896 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129] Akka Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-Breaker
    1896 In the year `Abdu'l-Bahá is forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77] Tiberias; Hisár; Khurásán; Tabríz; Khúzistán Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-Breakers
    1896 in the year Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, marries Mírzá Hádí Afnán of Shíráz. [BW4:234 (GENEALOGY); DH59–60]
    • These are the parents of Shoghi Effendi.
    • For a picture of Díyá'íyyih Khánum see MA105.
    'Akká. Diya'iyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Afnan; Shoghi Effendi
    1896 In the year Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán are persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384] Hisár; ; Kh; urásán persecution
    1896 In the year Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabríz Áqa Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Yazdi; persecution
    1896 In the year Mullá Hasan Khazá'í is arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384] Khúzistán persecution; Mulla Hasan Khaza'i
    1896 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. Wilmington; Illinois Leroy C. Ioas; Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh is assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BKG455]
    • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
    • His assassin is a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran. [BBRSM87; GBP296]
    • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
    • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
    • He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
    • See also CBM546.
    Nasiri'd-Din Shah
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
    • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22.
    • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
    • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Baha named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
    • Also see World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
    • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
    • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
    Yazd; Tihrán; Iran; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Varqa
    1896 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo; Sicily Dr Ugo Giachery; Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 Jun - Jul Several Bahá'ís are beaten and four are imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stir up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari persecution
    1896 21 Jul Hájí Muhammad Sádiq is stabbed to death in Turbat-i-Haydarí. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari Haji Muhammad Sadiq
    1896 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís are executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
    • BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
    • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
    • Their martyrdom is the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís are erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
    Turbat-i-Haydarí Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Shuhaday-i-Khamsih; The Five Martyrs
    1896 c. Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
    • He establishes it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
    • See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
    Akka; `Abdu'llah Pasha; House of `Abdu'llah Pasha
    1897 In the year The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Muhammad-Ridá in a Tehran prison.
    • born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He is provided a good education and he becomes a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
    • Becomes a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognizes Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
    • He became well-known for his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse. He was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, while a elderly man, withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. (A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing.) [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
    Muhammad-Ábád; Yazd; Tehran; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
    1897 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. He was born in Muhammadábád, Yazd in 1814. [LoF21-27]
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badi, no one has surpassed Mulla Rida's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Baha'i Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • Muhammadábád; Yazd; Hand appointed by 'Abdu'l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause; Shaykh Muhammad-riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Rida
    c. 1897 Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181]
    • For the story of his downfall see CB181–92.
    Mirza Áqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breaker
    1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

    The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

    • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
    Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

    Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

    The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

    China; Bombay; Tihrán; Saysán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Nayríz; Hamadán Haji Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Áqa Najafi; Iranian persecution First Bahá'í to have settled in China
    1897 Feb Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three are bastinadoed and three are imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz
    1897 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Jalal Khazeh (Jalal Khadih); Hand of the Cause of God
    1897 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
    • He is descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother is the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father is an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
    • He is the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
    • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá commands everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá gives him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who are all called Afnán. Rabbání is also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1]
    • See GBF6 for the schools he attends.
    • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl;

      Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith;

      Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.

    House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá Shoghi Effendi; Ghusn-i-Mumtaz; Haji Mirza `Abu'l-Qasim
    1897 21 May Lua Getsinger becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII] Chicago Lua Getsinger
    1898 `Abdu'l-Bahá instructs that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]

    Tihrán; Remains of the Bab; Haji Muhammad
    1898 The first anti-Bahá'í polemical tracts are published by Christian missionaries in Iran. [SBB111:69] First anti-Bahá'í polemics by missionaries in Iran
    1898 The Tarbíyat School for boys is established in Tihrán by the Bahá'ís. [BBD221] Tehran Tarbiyat School Founding of the first Tarbíyat School for boys
    1898 Several Bahá'ís are arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Muhammad is set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

    Qazvín; Hisár; Khurasan Persecution in Iran
    1898 1 Jan Eighteen people become Bahá'ís in Kenosha, Wisconsin, following the visit of Kheiralla in the autumn of 1897. [BFA1:XXVIII]
    • This marks the establishment of the third Bahá'í community in North America. [BFA1:110]
    Kenosha; Wisconsin Kheiralla
    1898 Feb Kheiralla arrives in New York and begins classes on the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:XXVIII, 116] New York Kheiralla
    1898 9 Feb Hájí Muhammad-i-Turk is shot, beaten and then burned to death in a main street in Mashhad by four religious students. [BBRXXX, 406; BW18:384]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR406–17.
  • Mashhad Haji Muhammad-i-Turk
    1898 Apr Nine Bahá'ís attending a Ridván meeting are arrested, beaten and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384] Hamadán
    1898 Jun In New York City, 141 people become Bahá'ís in the five months since Kheiralla's arrival. [BFA1:XXVIII, 125] New York City Kheiralla
    1898 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd Aqa Ghulam-Husayn-i-Banadaki
    1898 Jul or Aug Phoebe Hearst becomes a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139]
    • SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
    California Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger
    1898 20 Aug Jamál Effendi passes away in `Akká. [EB128] `Akká Jamal Effendi
    1898 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
    • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140]
    • There are 15 pilgrims in all. [AB68]
    New York Pilgrimage; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; BWC Pilgrimage First Western pilgrims
    1898 11 Nov Kheiralla arrives in `Akká. [BFA1:XXVIII, 141]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá confers titles on him: `Bahá's Peter', the `Second Columbus' and `Conqueror of America'. [BFA1:142; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
    `Akka Kheiralla
    1898 13 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá commemorates Kheiralla's arrival by ending the period of mourning for Bahá'u'lláh and by opening His Tomb to pilgrims for the first time. [BFA1:142–3; SBBH2:112] Bahjí Kheiralla First time Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh opened to pilgrims
    1898 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13]
    • They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
    • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
    • Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
    • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
    • Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
    • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
    • Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
    • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
    `Akka; Cairo; House of `Abdu'llah Pasha Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; The Kitab-i-Aqdas; Anton Haddad; pilgrimage; BWC Pilgrimage First Western pilgrims; first group of first Western pilgrims; first member of black race to become Bahá'í
    1898 c. 20 Dec The second group of Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká, staying three days before returning to Cairo. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those included in this group.
    `Akká
    1898 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Beecher Baker; Hand of the Cause of God
    1899 Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New New York City; Miss Olive Jackson First black American woman Bahá'í
    1899 The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, is published in Chicago. This is probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago First published essay written by American Bahá'í
    1899 The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]
    • Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
    Tehran; first National Assembly of Iran
    1899 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others carry to the Holy Land the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to hold the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517] Haifa; Mandalay; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Shrine of the Bab; Remains of the Bab
    1899 31 Jan The remains of the Báb arrive in the Holy Land. [BBD209; DH66; GPB274]
    • They are stored in the room of the Greatest Holy Leaf in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá until the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [DH66]
    Holy Land; House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá remains of the Bab; Greatest Holy Leaf; Shrine of the Bab
    1899 Feb The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America. [BFA1:143]
    • See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
    America First Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America
    1899 c. Feb - Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá, accompanied by Kheiralla, lays the foundation stone for the Shrine of the Báb. [BFA1:XXVIII, 142; BBD209; GPB275; SBBH2:112] Mount Carmel Kheiralla; Shrine of the Bab
    1899 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrives in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
    Birth of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God, in Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina, into a family of German background.
    House of `Abdu'llah Pasha; Rosario de Santa Fé; ; Argentina Hermann Grossmann; Hand of the Cause of God
    1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles establishes the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
    • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the `first English believer', and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith', see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259.
    • Lady Sara Bloomfield and her daugher Mary heard about the Faith from the Paris group and made a significant contribution to the Faith in England. [SCU17]
    Paris May Bolles; Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus First Bahá'í group on European continent
    1899 9 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád. [BBRXXX, 426; BW18:384–5]
    • Mírzá Báqir-i-Há'í is arrested, several Bahá'ís are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted in Najafábád. [BBR426; BW18:384–5]
    • Some 300 Bahá'ís occupy the British telegraph office hoping that the Sháh will intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [BBR427–8]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR426–30.
    Najafabad Mirza Baqir-i-Ha'i
    1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin council board; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1899 c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
    • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; SBBH194, 239]
    • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
      • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
      • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
      • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
      • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
    • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
    Kheiralla; Haji `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl
    1899 Summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepts the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW55-64, SCU17]
    • For her biography see Rob Weinberg's, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg.
    • She visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá several times in the first decade of the century. [SCU17]
    Ethel Jenner Rosenberg First English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land
    1899 Oct - Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacks the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111]
    • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha are Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
    Kenosha; Wisconsin Stoyan Vatralsky; Truth-knowers
    1899 19 Nov Birth of Yan Kee Leong, the first believer in Malaya, in Selangor, Malaysia. Selangor; Malaysia Yan Kee Leong First believer in Malaya
    1899 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey becomes a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris Charles Mason Remey; May Bolles
    c. 1900 For the state of affairs in Haifa just after the turn of the century see CB2234. Haifa
    c. 1900 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is translated by Anton Haddad. It is not published but circulates in typescript form. [BFA2:27; SA251] North America Kitab-i-Aqdas
    c. 1900 A Bahá'í group is established in Italy. [BBRSM:106] Italy First Bahá'í group in Italy
    1900 Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, is published in the United States. [BFA2:26]
    • It is the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. [BFA2:26]
    • It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
    Chicago Tablets; Communes and Holy Utterances; Anton Haddad; Behais Supply and Publishing Board; Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Baha'i summer school; Publishing Trust First prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in West
    1900 Early part `Abdu'l-Bahá begins to build the foundations of the Shrine of the Báb. [CB223] Mount Carmel Shrine of the Bab
    1900 Sarah Farmer puts Green Acre at the disposal of the Bahá'ís after her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1900. [BFA2:144–5; GPB261]
    • After 1900 Green Acre effectively became the site of the first Bahá'í summer school in the world, although it was not officially so until 1929. [BBRSM:104; BW5:29–30; SBBH1:125]
    Eliot; Maine First Bahá'í summer school site
    1900 Jan The Behais Publishing and Supply Board is created in Chicago. [BFA1:XXIX] Chicago Behais Publishing and Supply Board; Publishing Trust
    1900 8 Mar At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announces his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117]
    • He allies himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
    • The Bahá'ís effectively divide into two camps. [SSBH1:96]
    • For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
    Kenosha; Wisconsin Kheiralla; Muhammad-`Ali
    1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organizes by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters are on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago Board of Council; Kheiralla
    1900 Apr Dr Yúnis Khán arrives in `Akká to act as translator for `Abdu'l-Bahá. He remains for nine years. [BW12:679] `Akká Dr Yunis Khan
    1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York Haji `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani; Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie First Persian Bahá'í to visit North America
    1900 5 Aug Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání leaves the United States, his efforts to win Kheiralla back to the Faith having failed. [BFA176] New York Haji `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani; Kheiralla
    1900 4 Nov The arrival Persian teachers in America. Mírzá Asadu'lláh (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. [BFA2p35-37]
    New York; NY Mirza Asadu'llah; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg
    1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
    • She hears of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
    • On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she becomes the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
    Rome; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Charlotte Dixon First Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii
    1900 26 Nov Agnes Alexander accepts the Faith in Rome after hearing the message from Mrs Dixon. She stays in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travels to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. She leaves Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. [BFA1p159] Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; England; Honolulu Agnes Alexander; Mrs Dixon
    1900 29 Nov Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání and Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání arrive in the United States to assist the Bahá'ís to deepen their knowledge of their Faith. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání remained in the country for a while then returned to the Holy Land. He did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America however shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143]
    New York Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani
    1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the affect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; NY Counsel Board; Arthur Dodge; Hooper Harris; William Hoar; Andrew Hutchinson; Howard MacNutt; Frank Osborne; Edwin Putnam; Charles Sprague; Orosco Woolson
    1901 The Junaynih Garden northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, is registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD 124]

    William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, is asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51]

    Junaynih Garden Junaynih Garden; William Hoar; Iranian persecution First effort of American Bahá'í community to alleviate persecution of Persian brethren
    1901 Arthur Pillsbury Dodge publishes his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93] Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; The Truth of It First introductory book on Bahá'í Faith written by Western believer
    1901 22 Jan The passing of Queen Victoria.
    • Of all the leaders addressed by Bahá'u'lláh only she is reputed to have made a courteous reply. [CBM47; PDC65]
    • See CBM47–8 for Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy concerning the success of her reign.
    London Queen Victoria
    1901 Apr The Iranian ambassador to the Ottoman government at Istanbul, `Ala'u'l-Mulk, filed a report with the Office of Foreign Ministry in Tihran which was subsequently presented to the Shah. Constantinople Report to the Shah
    1901 May Ghulám-Ridá is killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385] Najafábád Ghulam-Ri?a; Iranian persecution
    1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elect a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago Board of Council
    1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council is raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago Board of Council
    1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
    Chicago Board of Council; House of Justice
    1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elect their own Board and hold the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago Women's Auxiliary Board First business meeting of `Women's Auxiliary Board'
    1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learns of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he becomes a believer and immediately writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
    • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
    • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
    • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
    • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
    • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
    Paris Thomas Breakwell; May Bolles; Huququ'llah First male British Bahá'í; first English believer; first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh
    1901 Hippolyte Dreyfus hears of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepts it. [AB81–2]
    • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
    • He is the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
    • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney he adopts the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
    Paris Hippolyte Dreyfus; May Bolles; Laura Clifford Barney First Frenchman to embrace the Faith; first European Bahá'í to visit Iran
    1901 Mid-Jul Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání leaves the United States. [BFA2:38] New York Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani
    1901 Aug Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl arrives in North America. [BFA2:XV]
    • See BFA2:80–7 and BW9:855–60 for accounts of his visit.
    • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. is sent to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání. He remains and works at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translates much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returns to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejects the authority of Shoghi Effendi and is expelled. [APD155]
    New York Mirza Abu'l-Fadl; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia); Mary Hanford Ford (Wikipedia)
    1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá writes His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
    • It is written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
    • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
    • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
    `Akká Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Baha
    1901 20 Aug Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
    • This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
    • For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
    • He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
    • For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
    `Akka; Egypt Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1901 Sep Thomas Breakwell goes on pilgrimage to `Akká, the first Englishman to do so. [BFA2:154; BW7:709]
    • For an account of this pilgrimage see AB77 and BW7:710.
    `Akká Thomas Breakwell; pilgrimage First Englishman to go on pilgrimage to `Akká
    1901 2 Nov Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Waterloo; Ontario; Canada John Robarts; Hand of the Cause of God
    1901 26 Nov The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant, the `Master's Day', in North America. [BFA2:XV, 56; SA245] New York Day of the Covenant; the `Master's Day' First celebration of Day of the Covenant
    1901 26 Dec Agnes Alexander arrives back in Hawaii, the first Bahá'í to set foot in the islands. [BFA2:159–60] Hawaii Agnes Alexander First Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii
    1902 The house in Bandar Anzalí in which Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí is staying is attacked and only the intervention of the governor saves the Bahá'ís. [BW18:385] Bandar Anzalí; Haji Mirza Haydar-`Ali
    1902 In Shíráz, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan is beaten so severely on the order of the mujtahid that he dies a few months later from the effects. [BW18:385] Shiraz; Iran Haji Abu'l-Hasan
    1902 Pilgrims from the East and the West are once again permitted to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB232] Haifa; Akka Pilgrims
    1902 Joseph Hannen, future Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and Pauline Hannen become Bahá'ís in Washington DC. Washington; DC Joseph Hannen; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; Pauline Hannen
    1902 Bahá'í groups are established in Canada and in the Hawaiian Islands. [BBRSM:106-7; BFA2:160; SBBH1:135] Canada; Hawaii
    1902 Shanghai is re-opened to the Bahá'í Faith by the arrival of two Bahá'ís from`Ishqábád, Áqá Mírzá Mihdí Rashtí and Áqá Mírz `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí, who open a branch of the Ummi'd company, an import-export firm. [PH25] Shanghai; `Ishqábád Áqa Mirza Mihdi Rashti; Áqa Mirza `Abdu'l-Baqi Yazdi; Ummi'd company
    1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad and Abarqu; Fars; Aqa Muhammad-Zama-i-Sabbagh; Siyyid Ja`far; Iranian persecution
    1902 - 1903 `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions the restoration of the House of the Báb in Shíráz under the supervision of Áqá Mírzá Áqá, an Afnán and nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB108; EB236; GPB300]
    • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 219-222.
    Shiraz House of the Bab; Aqa Mirza Aqa; Afnan
    1902 8 May May Bolles marries Sutherland Maxwell in London and moves to Montreal. [BW8:635; GPB260]
    • BFA2:156 says they married `late' in 1902.
    London; Montreal May Bolles; Sutherland Maxwell
    1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago House of Justice; House of Spirituality
    1902 12 May Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání leaves the United States. [BFA2:VI] Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani
    1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell dies from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá appears to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
    • Shoghi Effendi designates him one of three `luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
    • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
    • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
    • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
    Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam
    1902 Sep c. Kanichi Yamamoto, the first Japanese to accept the Faith, becomes a Bahá'í in Hawaii. [BFA2:160; BW13:932; SBR179]
    • He writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá in Japanese. [SBR179]
    • See also BW13:931–3 and SBR176–86.
    Hawaii Kanichi Yamamoto First Japanese to accept the Faith
    1902 15 Sep Mírzá `Azízu'lláh visits Count Leo Tolstoy, speaking to him at length about the history and teachings of the Faith and of the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB185; RB3:172-3]
    • For Mírzá `Azízu'lláh's own account of the interview see EB186–9.
    • See BW10:569–70 for Tolstoy's response to the Faith.
    Russia Mirza `Azizu'llah; Count Leo Tolstoy
    1902 10 Oct The Behais Supply and Publishing Board incorporates as the `Bahai Publishing Society', a non-profit company. It is the first Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated. [BFA2:XVI, 74] Behais Supply and Publishing Board; Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trust First Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated
    1902 12 Oct Birth of `Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Bahá'í scholar, author and translator, in Mashhad. Mashhad `Abdu'l-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari
    1902 28 Nov Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
    • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
    • The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
    • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
    • Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
    • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
    • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
    `Ishqábád Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; the Vakilu'd-Dawlih; Volkov; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; the Vakilu'd-Dawlih; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratu'l-Quds
    1903 The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of The Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276] Mosul; Najafábád; Rajab;
    1903 Feb Mírzá Badí`u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, writes to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
    • His letter gives details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
    • This reconciliation is short-lived. [AB102]
    `Akka Mirza Badi`u'llah; Muhammad-`Ali
    1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] `Ishqabad; Chicago Temple; House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1903 May Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
    • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
    Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
    • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
    • The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–85.
    Rasht; Isfahan Iranian persecution
    1903 May Russian poet Isabella Grinevskaya wrote the play "Báb" which was performed in St. Petersburg in 1904 and again in 1914 and once again in 1917. It was translated into French and Tatar (and later into German by Friedrich Fiedler) and lauded by Leo Tolstoy and other reviewers at the time. It is reported to have been Tolstoy's first knowledge of the Faith.
    • In 1910-11 she spent two weeks in Ramleh as a guest of `Abdu'l-Bahá and after she returned to Russia she had several letters and Tablets from Him.
    • Immediately upon her return from Egypt in January of 1911 she began work on the book "A Journey in the Countries of the Sun", an account of her visit with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. This work was not completed until 1914 because in the summer of 1912 she made a trip to Paris to work with the French translator of "Báb", Madame Halperin, and when she returned to Leningrad she began work on the drama entitled Bahá'u'lláh. It was published in Leningrad in 1912 but was never performed. "Journey", a book of some 550 pages did not get published because of the disruption cause by the advent of the war. See BW6p707-712 for the article "Russia's Cultural Contribution to the Bahá'i Faith" by Martha Root.
    • For a photo see BW6p709 or here.
    • Also see Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories by Graham Hassall.
    • Isabella Grinevskaya (the pen name of Beyle (Berta) Friedberg), born in Grodno in 1964, died in Istanbul in 1944. [Revolvy]
    St Petersburg; Ramleh; Istanbul; Grodno; Russia; Isabella Grinevskaya; Leo Tolstoy
    1903 28 May A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385] Isfahan Iranian persecution
    1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá is received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár First Tablet approving building Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America
    1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrives from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan Iranian persecution
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
    • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
    • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
    • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
    • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
    Yazd Iranian persecution; Haji Mirzay-i-Halabi-Saz
    1903 Sep At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí writes Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the year 1903 AD. It can be found in the Bahá'í-Library. Yazd; Isfahan Persecutions in Iran; Hiji Mirza Haydar 'Ali
    1904 The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali Isfahani; Baha'i Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD
    1904 c. The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3] Tihrán; Tehran; Zikrullah Khadem; Hand of the Cause of God
    1904 At this point there are separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
    • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
    Hamadán; Tihrán; iran
    1904 Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirring up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
    • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
    • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
    These actions result in the arrival of a Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
    • The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
    Haifa; Akka Covenant-breakers; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid
    1904 Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-`Ulya; Fatimih Khanum; Covenant-breaker
    1904 A compilation of Bahá'í writings in English is published by the Board of Counsel of New York. [BW10:179]
    1904 Laura Clifford Barney makes a number of extended visits to `Akká in this period. She brings with her questions to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá, the answers to which she notes down. These questions and answers result in the book Some Answered Questions. [AB81–2; BFA2:238]
    • See AB81–2 for information about Laura Clifford Barney.
    • The translator during this period was Dr Yúnis Afrukhtih (Yúnis Khán), whose memoirs, not yet published in English, make a valuable contribution to the history of the Faith. [BW12:679–81]
    • He arrived in `Akká in 1900 and remained nine years. [BW12:679]
    `Akká Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions; Dr Yunis Afrukhtih (Yunis Khan)
    1904 28 Oct Ali Kuli Khan marries Florence Breed, the first marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í. [BFA2:147]
    • For details of this marriage see SUR223–20.
    Ali Kuli Khan; Florence Breed First marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í
    1904 Dec Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl leaves the United States. [BFA2:XVI] Mirza Abu'l-Fadl
    1904 1 Dec Sidney Sprague arrives in India. [BFA2:XVI]
    • He is the first American Bahá'í travelling teacher in Asia. [BFA2:XVI]
    India Sidney Sprague; travel teacher First American travelling teacher in Asia
    1905 Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.

    A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]

    Alaska; Germany; `Akká Agnes Alexander; travel teacher; Baha'i group; Commission of Inquiry; `Árif Bey First Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit Alaska
    1905 -1906 The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]

    Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.

    “To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]

    In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]

    The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

    France; America The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; Kitab-i-Íqan and the Hidden Words; Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan
    1905 A second Commission of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of `Árif Bey, arrives in `Akká further to investigate the charges laid against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB117–25; BBR320 3; CB234–7; GPB269–71]
    • See BBR322 for difficulties in dating this event. All Bahá'í sources indicate that this took place in 1907 but documents in the Ottoman State Archives indicate that it took place in 1905.
    • The Commission returns to Turkey amid political upheavals and its report is put to one side. [AB122–3 ; CB237; GPB271]
    Istanbul; Turkey Commission of Inquiry
    1905 The passing of Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) in Tehran at the age of 100. He was born in Yazd in 1805. A Flame of Fire by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi. Tehran Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad
    1905 c. 30 Mar Hájí Kalb-`Alí is shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386] Najafabad Haji Kalb-`Ali; Iranian persecution
    1905 29 Apr Birth of `Alí-Akbar Furútan, Hand of the Cause of God, in Sabzivár, Khurásán. Sabzivar; Khurasan Ali Akbar Furutan; Hand of the Cause of God
    1905 23 May The first Nineteen Day Feast celebrated in the West is held in New York City, the first known to have been held in North America. [BFA2:XVI, 245]
    • It consists of a devotional portion and a social part. The administrative aspect of the Feast is developed in the 1930s. [BFA2:245; SA208]
    • Howard and Mary MacNutt, along with Julia Grundy, had been on pilgrimage early in the year and had been encouraged to hold Feasts by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    New York Nineteen Day Feast First Nineteen Day Feast celebrated in West
    1905 - 1911 The `Constitutional Revolution' takes place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
    • The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
    • The Constitutional Movement fails to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffer as a result. [BBR366 g]
    Iran Constitutional Revolution
    1906 c. Birth of `Abu'l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qum. Qum `Abu'l-Qasim Faizi; Hand of the Cause of God
    1906 The first Bahá'í of Hungarian origin, Countess Aurelia Bethien, declares her faith in the USA. [http://www.bahai.hu] Hungary First Hungarian Bahá'í
    1906 Mar Mrs Whyte, the wife of a well-known Scottish clergyman, makes a pilgrimage to `Akká with Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper. In answer to a letter Whyte leaves for `Abdu'l-Bahá upon their departure, He reveals the Tablet the `Seven Candles of Unity'. [AB361–2]
    • See AB360–2 and SWAB29–32 for text of the Tablet.
    • See AB355–9 and SBR20–1 for accounts of Mrs Whyte's pilgrimage.
    • See also Anjam Khursheed's, The Seven Candles of Unity pg45-54.
    • Her account of the meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]
    `Akka Mrs Whyte; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; pilgrimage; Seven Candles of Unity'
    1906 summer Bahá'ís in Sangsar, Khurásán, are persecuted such that they take to the hills. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Khurásán Iranian persecution
    1906 summer/autumn Hippolyte Dreyfus and Laura Barney visit Iran. [BFA2:XVI]
    • They are the first Western Bahá'ís to do so. [BFA2:XVI]
    Iran Hippolyte Dreyfus; Laura Barney First Western Bahá'ís to visit Iran
    1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar and Shahmírzád Iranian persecution
    1906 10 Nov Hooper Harris and Harlan Ober sail from Hoboken, New Jersey, for Naples and `Akká en route to India. [BFA2:266]
    • See BFA266–71 for details of the trip.
    India Hooper Harris; Harlan Ober
    1906 30 Dec The Constitution of Iran is re-established. The Bahá'ís are not included among the recognized religions. [BBR354; B114; CB57; GPB298]
    • For the prophecies of Bahá'u'lláh about the constitution see CBM56–8.
    ran Constitution of Iran
    1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá starts to move His family to the house that He has designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
    • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
    • Some members of the family occupy it as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
    Haifa; house of `Abdu'l-Baha; Laura Clifford Barney
    1907 Six rooms of the Shrine of the Báb are completed. [GBF103]
    • See BBD8 and DH103–4 for information on Mullá Abu-Tálib, the master mason from Bákú, Ádharbáyján, who worked on the Shrine.
    Haifa; Bákú; Adharbáyján; Shrine of the Bab; Mulla Abu-Talib
    1907 Lady Blomfield and her daughter Mary learn of the Faith at a reception in Paris. [CH1–2; ER95; SBR22; SEBW101]
    • For accounts of Lady Blomfield's life see ER88–97 and SEBW101–10.
    Paris Lady Blomfield; Mary Bloomfield
    1907 It is estimated that there are from 1000 to 1100 believers in North America by this date, with about 12 believers in Montreal and six Bahá'ís in other localities in Canada. [BFA2:230] North America; Montreal; Canada
    1907 Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, is shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386] Nayríz; Iran persecution
    1907 Pritam Singh, an Assistant Master of Economics at Chiefs College in Lahore, accepts the Faith, the first Sikh to do so. [BFA2:269] Lahore Pritam Singh First Sikh to accept Faith
    1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffari'd-Din Shah
    1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. [BBR354, 482]
    • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
    Iran Muhammad-`Ali Shah
    1907 Feb Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
    • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
    `Akká Corinne True; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1907 spring A census of religions in the United States counts 1280 Bahá'ís. [BFA2:XVI] United States census of religions
    1907 31 Mar The Bahá'í calendar is used in North America for the first time. BFA2:247–8] North America Bahá'í calendar First time Bahá'í calendar used in North America
    1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz Karbala'i Sadiq; Iranian persecution
    1907 summer The first Universal Congress of Esperanto is held in Boulogne. [BW2:270] Boulogne Universal Congress of Esperanto First Universal Congress of Esperanto
    1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' files an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
    • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
    Chicago Bahai Assembly; incorporation First Bahá'í community to acquire legal status
    1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
    • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
    Chicago national conference; House of Spirituality; Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar First national Bahá'í conference
    1908 `Abdu'l-Bahá's house in Haifa is completed. [BBD 107] Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha's house in Haifa
    1908 `Alí Ádharí is martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386]

    Kirman; Iran persecution; martyr; `Ali Adhari
    1908 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Bahá'ís are attacked by Qavámu'l-Mulk from the pulpit of the Masjid-i-Naw in Shíráz. [BW18:386] Shiraz; Iran
    1908 The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád is completed and the dome is in place. [AB110, EB267]
    • The outer decoration will not be completed until 1919.
    • For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
    `Ishqábád House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1908 Mar Some Answered Questions is published in English. [AB82; BBD212–13; BFA2:238]
    • The Persian edition is published the same year. [AB82]
    • It is the only pilgrims' notes to be considered part of Bahá'í sacred literature. [BFA2:238; BW12:98–107]
    Some Answered Questions; pilgrims' notes
    1908 9 Apr Two building plots for the future House of Worship are purchased in Wilmette for the sum of $2000. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179, GPB262] Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
    • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
    • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
    • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
    New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Ta`irih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham
    1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-`Ali Shah; Constitution
    1908 23 Jul The Young Turks issue a declaration demanding the restoration of the old constitution of Midhat Páshá and threatening the overthrow of the government. [AB123] Istanbul Young Turks; Midhat Pasha
    1908 24 Jul In Constantinople, a bomb intended for Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd as he returned from the mosque on Friday, killed and injured a number of people. This event prompted the authorities to recall all the members of the Commission. Some months later the "Young Turk" revolutionaries demanded the release of all political and religious prisoners. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was free by the summer. [AB123; BBD4; BBRXXX; CB237; DH71; GPB272]
    • A cable is sent to Constantinople to enquire whether `Abdu'l-Bahá is included in the amnesty. `Abdu'l-Bahá is set free. [AB123; GPB272]
    Constantinople
    1908 31 Aug BW2:22 says that `Abdu'l-Bahá walked free on 31 Aug. Haifa
    1908 Sep
    Bahá'í Bulletin Published September, 1908 to May 1909
    Link (Will open in this window)
                  Dates             
                  URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
    Volume 1, Issues 1
    September 1908
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_1
    Volume 1, Issues 2 and 3
    October 1908
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_2-3
    Volume 1, Issue 4
    December 1908
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_4
    Volume 1, Issue 5
    January-February-March 1909
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_5
    Volume 1, Issue 6
    April-May 1909
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_6

    The Bahá'í Bulletin was succeeded a year later by the Bahá'í News which became Star of the West a year after that. See 1910 21 March
    Baha' Bulletin
    1908 7 Sep The birth of Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God. [SBBR5:XI] Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi; Hand of the Cause of God
    1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society is founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago Baha'i Publishing Society; Publishing Trust
    1909 Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá'í. [BFA2:156] Montreal; QC; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Hand of the Cause of God
    1909 Karl Kruttner, a professor in Bohemia, becomes a Bahá'í, the first person to do so in the Austro-Hungarian empire. Bohemia; Germany Karl Kruttner; find reference The first person to become a Bahá'í in the Austro-Hungarian empire..
    1909 Jan c. Isabella Brittingham organizes 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294] New Jersey; US Isabella Brittingham; Unity Band
    1909 Mar Eighteen or 19 Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayríz Constitutionalists; Iranian persecution
    1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
    • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
    • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
    • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
    • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
    Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Chicago Shrine of the Bab; marble sarcophagus; Baha'i Convention; Corinne True; Baha'i Temple Unity; Temple
    1909 21 Mar The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
    • It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
    • It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
    • The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
    Chicago; American Baha'i Convention; Corinne True; Baha'i Temple Unity; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar American Bahá'í Convention
    1909 21 Mar The first printing of Volume 1 of Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago. Chicago Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Baha find reference
    1909 months following Mar Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
    • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, is given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composes an inscription that it place above the entrance that reads, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
    • This is the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
    Haifa; Eastern Pilgrim House; Mirza Ja`far Rahmani; Áqa Mirza Ja’far Shirazi; BWC Pilgrimage First property granted tax exemption
    1909 Mar–Apr Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, are attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl is killed. [BW18:386] Námiq; Khurásán; Kad-khudá Kad-khuda Isma'il; Iranian persecution
    1909 22 Apr Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386] Hisar; Khurasan Iranian persecution
    1909 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Hamid II is deposed. [BBR486]

    Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had earlier suspended, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.

    Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]

    The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk.

    Istanbul; Turkey `Abdu'l-Hamid II; Muhammad; Rishad) V
    1909 Summer Sir Ronald Storrs, then a student of Arabic of Edward Granville Browne, visits 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka. [BW10p192] Akka
    1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicates and the Iranian Constitution is resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
    • The country soon deteriorates and anarchy prevails. It is effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
    Iran Muhammad-`Ali Shah; Iranian Constitution
    1909 18 Jul The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. [BBR482; CBM57] Iran Ahmad Shah
    1909 July 23 Louis George Gregory joins the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis George Gregory; Hand of the Cause
    1909 28 Jul Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, are killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan Iranian persecution
    1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
    • His given name is `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
    Chicago Paul Haney; Hand of the Cause of God
    1909 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gradually moves His family from `Akká to Haifa. [DH214] Haifa House of `Abdu'l-Baha
    1909 Nov Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
    • They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
    Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; Singapore; Burma; India; `Akká Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; travel teaching First teaching trip to circle globe
    1909 8 Nov Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, is shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
    • BRXXX and BW18:387 say this occurred on 5 November.
    • For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
    Isfahán Haji Haydar; Iranian persecution
    1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
    • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
    • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
    Tihrán Dr Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Dr Sarah A. Clock; Miss Elizabeth Stewart
    1909 Dec Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven speak at the first Bahá'í public meeting held in Honolulu. [BFA2:348; SBR189] Honolulu Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; public meeting First public meeting in Honolulu
    1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
    • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
    Tihrán; Tehran; Shahmírzád; Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Haji Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Haji Akhund; Hand of the Cause of God
    1910 c. Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsíyyih Ashraf) arrives in the United States, the first Persian woman to travel to the country. [BFA2:358]
    • See Ahmad Sohrab's letter to her in SW6, 10:77–9.
    USA Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsiyyih Ashraf); Ahmad Sohrab The first Persian woman to travel in the USA.
    1910 Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven arrive in Shanghai and meet with Áqá Mírzá `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí. They are probably the first Bahá'ís from the West to go to China. [PH25] Shanghai Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Áqa Mirza `Abdu'l-Baqi Yazdi First Bahá'ís from West to go to China
    1910 Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
    • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrives in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 and was replaced by Genevieve Coy in 1922. and was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929 who was joined by her mother, Clara Sharp in 1931. [BFA2p361]
    Tehran Tarbiyat School for Girls; Dr. Susan Moody; Miss Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Dr Susan Moody First Tarbíyat School for Girls
    1910 The publication of The Oriental Rose, or, The teachings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which trace the chart of "The Shining Pathway" by Mary Hanford Finney Ford.
    • See page 158-159 for her pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    New York; NY Mary Hanford Finney Ford; Mary Hanford Ford; The Oriental Rose
    1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
    • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
    Washington DC.; Iran Persian-American Educational Society; Tarbiyat School
    1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihrán `Ali-Akhar-i-Shahmirzadi (Haji Ákhund); Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam
    1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News is published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179]
    • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
    • It is the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
    • Star of the West is published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
    • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]

    Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
             Volume # / Dates (links)   
    Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
    Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
    Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

    For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info/. This site is not searchable.

    Chicago; IL; Star of the West; Baha'i News; Baha'i Magazine First issue of Bahá'í News; first Bahá'í magazine
    1910 10 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to some American pilgrims. Haifa;
    1910 13 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to a number of Jewish, Zoroastrian, Christian and Mohammedan Bahais. Haifa;
    1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moves from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145] Haifa House of `Abdu'l-Baha
    1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York City Mary Sutherland Maxwell; Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hand of the Cause of God
    1910 10 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá departs for Egypt, accompanied by two attendants, Mírzá Munír-i-Zayn and 'Abdu'l-Husayn. [BBRXXX; GPB280, AB134-135, Bahá'í News #12 16Oct1910 pg206]
    • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated August 29, 2010.
    • GPB280 says he departed in September.
    • After one month in Port Said He embarks for Europe but turns back to Alexandria owing to His health. [GPB280]
    • He stays for a few days in the Victoria Hotel but then moves to a rented house in Ramleh, a suburb of Alexandria, where He stays for about one year. [GPB280, AB136]
    • Early in May of 1911 he moves to Cairo and takes up residence in nearby Zaytún. [AB138]
    • It was during this period that a sudden change occurred. Journalist who had previously been hostile towards Him took a new tone. [AB136]
    • The Russian poet Isabel Grinevsky, the Oriental Secretary of the British Agency, Ronald Storrs, Lord Kitchener, George Zaydán, eminent writer and celebrated editor as well as clerics, aristocrats, administrators, parliamentarians, men of letters, journalists and publicists, Arabs, Turks and Persians all seek out His company and meet Him. This period could be considered the first public proclamation of the Faith. [MRHK348, AB136-139]
    • See AB138-139 for a description of His triumphs during this period.
    Ramleh; Egypt Isabel Grinevsky The first public proclamation of the Faith.
    1910 20 Sep Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh is martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387] Najafabad Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbagh; Iranian persecution
    1911 A systematic teaching campaign is launched in India with the assistance of two American women and a 19-member teaching council is elected. [BBRSM:194 220]

    India; teaching council
    1911 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk is killed near Rasht. [BW18:387] Rasht; Mirza Ibrahim Khan; Ibtihaju'l-Mulk; persecution
    1911 3 May Aurelia Bethlen, a Hungarian who had come to the United States in 1892 and had become a Bahá'í in New York City about 1905-6, departs from San Francisco on the first around the world teaching trip undertaken by a Bahá'í woman. [BFA2:351–3] San Francisco; Hungary Aurelia Bethlen; travel teaching First around the world teaching trip by Bahá'í woman
    1911 15 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa on the day of the commemoration of the Báb's Declaration. Haifa;
    1911 18 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to Mr. Charles Mason Remey and Mr. Howard C. Struven on the day of their departure. Haifa;
    1911 26 - 29 Jul The First Universal Races Congress was held at the University of London. It was the first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated. It was an international symposium on the theme of the brotherhood of humankind and attracted leading politicians, theologians and scholars from the whole of the British Empire and from Europe as well as North America. During the Congress itself there were several presentations from Bahá'ís including the reading of a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá who was in Egypt at the time. [NBAD45]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Letter.
    • A bibliography of the presentions, papers and contributions and secondary literature by Ralph Dumain can be found here.
    London; Universal Races Congress; Marion Jack first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated.
    1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, is buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182] Haifa Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan; Vakilu'd-Dawlih; Baha'i cemetery; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar First known use of the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa.
    1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá departs from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22]
    • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
    • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
    Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; London S. S. Corsica; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha' First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Bahá'
    1911 Star of the West volumes chronicle both the first and second Western journeys of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Star of the West; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha' First Western journey of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá stops briefly at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman. [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
    • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at the time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
    • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
    • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
    • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lilian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
    • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
    Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Siena; Italy First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; New York Council; Zillu's-Sultan; Juliet Thompson; Annie Boylan; Boilin' Annie; Horace Holley; Bertha Holley; Hertha Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lilian Kappes
    1911 4 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in London accompanied by His secretary, Mírzá Mahmúd and Khusraw, His servant. [ABL53, AB140; GBP280; SBR22, 148, BW4p378, In the Footsteps of the Master p.5]
    • CH149 says He arrived 8 September and 3 September as per the UK Bahá'í site.
    • Those Bahá'ís who assembled to meet him were listed as: Lady Blomfield (in whose home at 97 Cadogan Gardens He stayed), Mrs Thornburg-Cropper, Miss Ethel Rosenberg, Miss Gamble, Miss Herrick, Mrs Scaramucci, Miss Elsie Lee, Mr Catanach, Mr Cuthbert, Mr and Mrs Jenner, Miss Yandell, Miss Julia Culver, Mrs Stannard, Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond, The Rev Harrold Johnston, The Rev Cooper Hunt, Miss Juliet Thompson, Mrs Louise Waite, Mrs Movius, Mrs Claudia Coles, Mr Mountfort Mills, Mr Mason Remey and Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney provided translation. In addition there were a number of Persians who took the opportunity to meet Him. [BW4p377]
    • As described by Lady Blomfield those who came to see him were: "Ministers and missionaries, Oriental scholars and occult students practical men of affairs and mystics, Anglican-Catholics and Nonconformists, Theosophists and Hindus, Christian Scientists and doctors of medicine, Muslims, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. There also called: politicians, Salvation Army soldiers, and other workers for human good, women suffragists, journalists, writers, poets and healers dress-makers and great ladies, artists and artisans, poor workless people and prosperous merchants, members of the dramatic and musical world, these all came; and none were too lowly nor too great to receive the sympathetic consideration of this holy Messenger, who was ever giving His life for others' good." In addition there was a representation from the Bramo-Somaj Society, a Hindu reform group. [CH150-152]
    • See BW4p377 where Lady Blomfield reports that Prince Jalalu'd-Dawlih entreated to be received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and when in His presence fell prostrate and implored pardon for his crimes. (see 1891 19 May) [BW4p377]
    • Among the list of visitors were: Professor Edward Granville Browne, Mr Tudor-Pole, Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [BW4p377]
    • See BW4p381 for the story of a homeless, suicidal man who had seen a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a newspaper in a shop window.
    • See BW4p382-383 for the story of the persistent journalist who imposed upon the appointment of two ladies from Scotland who had journeyed all that day and intended to make the return voyage that same evening.
    • For details of His stay in England see AB140–58 and GPB283–5.
    • It is implied that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was attended by Dr Lutfu-lláh Hakím while in London. [BW4p380]
    • During His stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá received death threats by anonymous letter and he was advised to give up He planned journey to Egypt. He ignored them. [BW4p 387]
    • During His stay in London He has professional photographs of Himself taken. "...to have a picture of oneself is to emphasise the personality, which is merely the lamp, and is quite unimportant. The light burning with the lamp has the only real significance." [SBR25, BW4p383-384]
    London First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Mrs Thornburg-Cropper; Miss Ethel Rosenberg; Miss Gamble; Miss Herrick; Mrs Scaramucci; Miss Elsie Lee; Mr Catanach; Mr Cuthbert; Mr and Mrs Jenner; Miss Yandell; Miss Julia Culver; Mrs Stannard; Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond; The Rev Harrold Johnston; The Rev Cooper Hunt; Miss Juliet Thompson; Mrs Louise Waite; Mrs Movius; Mrs Claudia Coles; Mr Mountfort Mills; Mr Mason Reme; Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney; Jalalu'd-Din-Dawlih; Mirza Mahmud; Khusraw; Professor Edward Granville Browne; Mr Tudor-Pole; Emmeline Pankhurst
    1911 5 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was interviewed by the editor of The Christian Commonwealth, Mr Albert Dawson, and later met with the Rev R. J. Campbell. The Christian Commonwealth was a weekly newspaper. On 13 September it printed, on its front cover, an article which included the interview between ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Rev R. J. Campbell that had taken place on 5 September. The following week the front cover had another article, entitled ‘The Vanishing of the Veil’, about ‘Abdu’lBahá’s visit to St John’s, Westminster. Other issues also had substantial articles about His visits. [In the Footsteps of the Master p.7] London First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Albert Dawson; Rev R J Campbell; The Christian Commonwealth
    1911 8 Sep 'Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Ethel Jenner Rosenberg for a Unity meeting at White Lodge, 8 Sunnyside, Wimbledon (since demolished). [ABL44-45, In the Footsteps of the Master p.9] London; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha; Miss E J Rosenberg
    1911 9 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper at 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria.

    In the afternoon ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Anett Schepel and Miss Alice Buckton, Vanners, Byfleet, Surrey (since demolished), some 20 miles out of London. He spoke with a number of working women from the Passmore Edwards' Settlement who were visiting while on holidays. (The Passmore Edwards' Settlement began in 1890 as one of the first “settlements” run by socially-conscious middle-class educators for the benefit of local working people and their children.)

    Alice Mary Buckton (1867-1944) wrote many plays and poems. Her play Eager Heart was seen by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on His second visit to England. She became a member of the Froebelian Society which was formed to reform educational methods. She persuaded Anett Schepel who had worked at Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus in Germany to move to England and together they worked to improve child education, opening a school in St John’s Wood. [ABL85-86, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9-10]

    Byfleet; Passmore Edwards' Settlement; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Anett Schepel; Alice Buckton
    1911 10 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá gives His first public address in the West in the City Temple Church in Holborn, London to an audience of over 2,000 people. He proclaimed that “This is a new cycle of human power…the gift of God in this enlightened age is the knowledge of the oneness of mankind and the fundamental oneness of religion.” [ABL17-20, AB140; BW2:227; GPB283–4, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p11]
  • He spoke at the invitation of The Reverend R J Campbell. Mr.Wellesly Tudor-Pole read the translation. [CH154]
    • For the text of His talk see AB140–2.
    • For the words He wrote in the pulpit Bible see AB145. The church was bombed in World War II and the pulpit Bible was destroyed. The church was rebuilt in 1958.
    • For a photo see BWNS792.
  • London City Temple; public address; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha' first public address in West by `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1911 13 Sep Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper gave a reception for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá at her home 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria for about 45 people. [ABS46-47, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p12]
    • Note: Star of the West Vol. II No. 11, records this meeting as having taken place on 12th September.
    London First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Mrs Thornburg-Cropper
    1911 17 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the congregation of St John's, Westminster, His second address to a Western audience. He also met with members of the Salvation Army who were singing outside. [ABL21-25, AB145; SBR8, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p13]
    • For text of His talk see AB147–8.
    • He spoke at the invitation of Archdeacon of Westminster, Albert Wilberforce, grandson of famed abolitionist William Wilberforce. The invitation had been extended to Him during a private audience in the home of lady Blomfield. [CH153-154]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent an invitation to the Archdeacon asking him to meet with Him. He turned Him down with a message, "We are all one behind the veil." 'Abdu'l-Bahá replied, "...and the veil is thinning quite." When Wilberforce met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá he found that there was no separation between them. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
    • See also Star of the West Vol. II No. 12, p. 12.
    London St John's; Westminster; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'
    1911 22 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Misses Marion Jack and Elizabeth Herrick, at 10 Cheniston Gardens, Wright's Lane (sometimes given as 137a High Street, Kensington. About 80 people were present. [ABL48-49, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p14]
    • The talk was stenographically recorded and published as Discourse by 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Unity Meeting of Misses Jack and Herrick. September 22nd, 1911. For full text see NBAD233-234.
    London First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Elizabeth Herrrick; Marion Jack
    1911 23–25 Sep Abdu’l-Bahá travelled by train from London to Bristol going from Paddington to Bristol Temple Meads. He stayed at the Clifton Guest House at 17 Royal Crescent which was owned by Major Wellesley Tudor Pole. He departed for London by train on the morning of the 25th of September. [AB156, ABL81-84, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p15-16]
    • See also Star of the West Vol II No. 12.
    Bristol First Western tour by Abdul-Baha; Wellesley Tudor-Pole
    1911 28 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited Byfleet for a second time by motorcar. He stayed the night and returned the evening of the next day. [ABL86, 99, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.17]
    • Mrs Thornburgh Cropper had place her motorcar at His service. She and Ethel Rosenberg who had visited Him in 'Akká were lovingly attentive to Him. [BW4p384]
    Byfleet; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'
    1911 29 Sep A farewell reception was given for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the hall of the Passmore Edwards' Settlement in Tavistock Place. It was attended by a capacity crowd of some 460 people. [ABL31-39, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.18] Byfleet; Passmore Edwards' Settlement; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'
    1911 30 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the Theosophical Society in London, His last talk in England on this visit. He met the Theosophical society at their new Headquarters at the express request of their president Mrs. Annie Besant. After a general history of the movement and sympathetic words of welcome by Mr. A. P. Sinnett, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá rose and delivered to the crowded assembly an address upon the distinctive notes of the Bahá’í teaching, warmly commending the eagerness of the Society in its search for Truth. [ABL26-30, 58 AB152, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.19] London Theosophical Society; First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Annie Besant
    1911 1 Oct A young Persian couple asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá to marry them. The union was blessed at the Higher Thought Centre, 10 Cheniston Gardens, Kensington. The bride, Regina Núr Mahal Khánum, had travelled from Baghdad to meet and marry her bridegroom, Mírzá Yuhanna Dáwud. [AB:77, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] London First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'
    1911 2 Oct Abdu’l-Bahá breakfasted with the Lord Mayor of London at the Mansion House, City of London. The Lord Major of London at the time of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit was Sir Thomas Vezey Strong (1858- 1920). He was a teetotaler and a temperance advocate. He traded in paper and was the holder of a number of honours. [In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] London First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha; Mayor of London; Thomas Vezey Strong
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
    • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
    • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
    • He remains in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
    • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
    London; Paris First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Marion Jack
    1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l- Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46]

    In the afternoon all are invited to meet Him at #22 rue Seeden Rollin pre Saint Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.

    Paris First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'; Alice Beede; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih; Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf
    1911 10 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk later entitled "The Evolution of the Spirit" at 15 Rue Greuze, Paris. [Paris Talks p88-94] Paris First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'
    1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Paris and returns to Egypt where He takes up residence in Rameh again. He passed the winter here and then embarked on His Second Western tour in March of 1912. [AB167; GPB280; SBR25] Egypt; Paris First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Baha'
    1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam passes away in the Holy Land. [BBD157; EB272] Haifa Mishkin-Qalam
    1912 By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets have been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4]

    There are about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]

    Canada; Tihrán; Bárfurúsh; Mázandarán `Ali Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Mu`inu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
    1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tehran; Iran `Ali Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God
    1912 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, , and his wife are killed in Bárfurúsh, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Bárfurúsh; Mázandarán persecution
    1912 Margaret Stevenson was the first believer in New Zealand. [New Zealand Bahá'í News, May 1997] New Zealand; Margaret Stevenson first believer in New Zealand.
    1912 The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
    • The publication of this book marks the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London..
    Chicago The Brilliant Proof; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani; The Promulgation of Universal Peace; Paris Talks; 'Abdu'l-Baha in London
    1912 In the year The first publication of the book that has come to be titled Paris Talks initially called Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris. Prior to this, in the autumn of 1911, Mornings Spent with Abdul Baha Abbas in London and Paris had been published which, of course, did not include information from His visit the following year.

    In 1924 the title was changed to The Wisdom of Abdul Baha from Addresses delivered in Paris 1910-1911. Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris...with supplementary historical note and introduction was printed in 1936 with the following editions starting in 1945 using the title that is currently used Paris Talks: Addresses Given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912

    Counting the initial publication, there have been 19 editions in English including one in Braille and an audio recording. In addition, there have been multiple editions in some 25 other languages. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in France 1911 to 1913 p726-730]

    Paris Talks first publications of Paris Talks.
    1912 3 Jan In Sárí, Mázandarán, a mob attacks houses of Bahá'ís and four Bahá'ís are killed; a few days later another Bahá'í is killed. [BW18:387] Sari; Mazandaran Iranian persecution
    1912 4 Feb Two Bahá'ís are killed in Máhfurúzak, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Mahfuruzak; Mazandaran Iranian persecution
    1912 25 Mar-17 Jun 1913 `Abdu'l-Bahá's second Western tour begins. `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 25 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá sails from Alexandria on the S.S. Cedric to New York via Naples. [AB171; CWB281]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá prefers the slower S.S. Cedric to the Titanic, about to make her maiden voyage. [AB171]
    Alexandria S.S. Cedric; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 29 Mar The S.S. Cedric stops at Naples.
    • Shoghi Effendi is taken off the ship owing to an eye infection. [AB171–2]
    Naples `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Shoghi Effendi
    1912 30 Mar The S .S. Cedric leaves Naples for New York. [BHC93] Naples; New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 11 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York. [AB172; GPB281, APD3-5]
    • During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visits 32 cities and makes numerous addresses of which 185 are recorded. [SBBH1:110]
    • For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8.
    • For details of His journey see AB171–339.
    • Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP3]
    • He was accompanied by:

      -Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí,

      -Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience he and his father were both expelled from the Faith.

      -Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]

      -Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]

    New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Mr and Mrs Edward B. Kinney; Edward Kinney
    1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
    • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7]
    New York; Howard McNutt; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Miss Phillips
    1912 13 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten, 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York [PUP9] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Alexander Morten
    1912 14 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks from the pulpit of the Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York. [239D:22–3, PUP11]
    • Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers, Carnegie Lyceum, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP14]
    New York Church of the Ascension; Advanced Thought Center; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 15 Apr Talk at Home of Mountfort Mills, 327 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP16] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Mountfort Mills
    1912 16 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Baha’i’ Friends of New Jersey, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP18] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Ansonia
    1912 17 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP20] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Ansonia Hotel
    1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Edward Kinney
    1912 18 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall L. Emery, 273 West Ninetieth Street, New York. [PUP25] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Marshall Emery
    1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá visits The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]

    New York; NY Earl Hall; The Bowary; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 20 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Washington DC from New York by train. He is accompanied by Dr Getsinger, Dr Fareed, Mírzá Valiyu'lláh Nakhjavání and Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [239D:37–8; AB178; SBR78, APD9]
    • Talk at Orient-Occident-Unity Conference, Public Library Hall, Washington, D.C. [PUP35]
    Washington DC; New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 21 Apr Talk at Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP37, APD14]

    Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, Washington, D.C. [PUP39, APD16]

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Studio Hall; Universalist Church
    1912 22 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24] Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
    1912 23 Apr Talk at Howard University, Washington, D.C. [PUP44, APD29]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP46]

    Talk to Bethel Literary Society, Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, M Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP49]

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Howard University; Bethel Literary Society; Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church
    1912 24 Apr Talk at Children’s Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45]

    Washington; DC Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Studio Hall; Andrew Dyer; Arthur Parsons
    1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58]

    Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP62, APD46-49]

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Arthur Parsons; Esperantists
    1912 26 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá speaks al the (All Souls) Unitarian Church to the Women's Alliance on the subject of equal rights to men and women. Later in the morning He spoke in the home of John J. White and in the evening He addresses a gathering in the Parsons' home on the subject of "Human and Divine Spirit in Man" before leaving for the (Memorial) Continental Hall. (This was perhaps the most prestigious meeting place in Washington, the public meeting hall of the Daughters of the Revolution..) [APD50-53] Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 27 Apr During lunch at the Parsons' home 'Abdu'l-Bahá speaks about the proper method of taxation. [APD53-57]
    • For His discourse on taxation see FWU38-43]

    In the evening there is a grand reception for some 300 people in honour of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on behalf of the Orient-Occident Unity Society. Among the guests and dignitaries are General Adolphus Greely, Admiral Wainwright, a Washington judge, Admiral Peary, a bishop, the chargé d'affaires of Switzerland, a member of Congress, the head of the United States Patent Office, the General Consul, the President of the Peace Congress and others. [MD64-65]

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; General Adolphus Greely; Admiral Wainwright; Admiral Peary; Agnes Parsons
    1912 28 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá give private interviews in the morning then calls on the Turkish Ambassador. [APD56-59]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Washington for Chicago. [239D:46; AB184; SBR81]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Chicago. [239D:47]

    Washington; DC; Chicago `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 29 Apr Mírzá Yahyá dies in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
    • He had been deserted by most of his followers and is given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
    • Years later his sons and their relatives reconcile themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Ch237-238]
    Famagusta Mirza Yahya; Covenant-breakers; Subh'i'Azal
    1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]

    Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]

    Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]

    Chicago; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Baha’i Temple Unity; Hull House; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Handel Hall; NAACP; National American Woman Suffrage Association
    1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143]
    • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
    • The cornerstone has been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá asks delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. [AB186–7]
    Wilmette Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Mrs Nettie Tobin; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 2 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois, [PUP72]

    Talk to Federation of Women’s Clubs, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP74]

    Talk at Bahá’í Women’s Reception, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP77]

    Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP78]

    Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP79]

    Chicago; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Plaza Hotel; Federation of Women's Clubs; Baha'i Women's Reception
    1912 3 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP83]

    Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP84]

    Chicago; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Plaza
    1912 4 May Talk to Theosophical Society, Northwestern University Hall, Evanston, Illinois. [PUP87] Evanston; Illinois; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Northwestern University Hall
    1912 5 May Talk at Children’s Meeting, Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PSBW134–5, PUP91]

    Talk at Plymouth Congregational Church, 935 East Fiftieth Street, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP93]

    Talk at All-Souls Church, Lincoln Center, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP97]

    Chicago Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Plymouth Congregational Church; Talk at All-Souls Church; Children’s Meeting; Hotel Plaza; Lincoln Center
    1912 6 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago, arriving in Cleveland the same day. [239D:57; AB189]

    Talk at Euclid Hall, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP101]

    Talk at Sanatorium of Dr. C. M. Swingle, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP104]

    Chicago; Cleveland `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Euclid Hall; Sanatorium of Dr. C. M. Swingle
    1912 7 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Cleveland for Pittsburgh, arriving the same day. [239D:63; AB189]

    Talk at Hotel Schenley, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The hotel is now the University of Pittsburgh's Student Union building, known as the William Pitt Union. [PUP105, Schenley Hotel]

    Cleveland; Pittsburgh `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Schenley
    1912 8 May `Abdu'l-Bahá takes a morning train from Pittsburgh, arriving in Washington DC that night for His second visit to that city. [239D:64; AB189; SBR81]

    He and His entourage moves into the apartment of William P. Ripley who have vacated it for this purpose. [APD59-60]

    Pittsburgh; Washington DC Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 9 May `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks to a capacity gathering at the Parsons' home. He noted that religious ministers in Washington were denouncing Him and the Cause. [APD61-63] Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Agnes Parsons
    1912 10 May `Abdu'l-Bahá's sits for sketches by Mr Theadore Spicer-Simon. See Medallions for pictures of his work.

    In the morning Agnes Parsons takes 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they take the elevator to the top.

    He speaks to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]

    In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons
    1912 11 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Washington for New York City, arriving the same day. [239D:64–5, AB190, APD66-67]

    Talk at the Hudson Apartment House at 227 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP111, DJT282]

    Washington; New York; Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 12 May `Abdu'l-Bahá takes a ferry to New Jersey. He takes a train for Montclair where He addresses the congregation of the Unity Church before returning to New York to speak to the International Peace Forum at the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church West 104th Street, New York. [239D:66; AB191, PUP113, PUP116] Montclair; New Jersey; New York Unity Church; International Peace Forum; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Grace Methodist Episcopal Church
    1912 13 May `Abdu'l-Bahá, very unwell, attends a reception and gives a talk to the New York Peace Society at the Hotel Astor. [239D:67; AB192, PUP123, APD67] New York Hotel Astor; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; New York Peace Society
    1912 14–16 May `Abdu'l-Bahá attends the Conference on International Peace and Arbitration at Lake Mohonk, delivering an address on the first evening. [239D:67–9; AB193] Lake Mohonk; New York Conference on International Peace and Arbitration; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 19 May In the morning He spoke at the Church of the Divine Paternity, Central Park West, New York. [PUP126]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Jersey City to speak in the Unitarian Church, the Brotherhood Church, Bergen and Fairview Avenues, of which Howard Colby Ives is the pastor. [239D:70–1; AB194, PUP129] ]

    Jersey City; New Jersey; New York; Unitarian Church; Howard Colby Ives; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Church of the Divine Paternity; Brotherhood Church
    1912 20 May Talk at Woman’s Suffrage Meeting, Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP133] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Woman’s Suffrage Meeting; Metropolitan Temple
    1912 22 May `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Boston, arriving the same day. [239D:71; AB198] New York; Boston Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 23 May The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrate `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday with a cake bearing 68 candles. `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138] Cambridge; Massachusetts Bab; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Francis Breed
    1912 24 May Talk at Free Religious Association, or Unitarian Conference, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP140] Boston; MA `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Free Religious Association; or Unitarian Conference
    1912 25 May Huntington Chambers, 30 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP143] Boston; MA `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Huntington Chambers
    1912 26 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Boston and returns to New York, arriving in the evening. [239D:73; AB201]

    Talk at Mount Morris Baptist Church, Fifth Avenue and 126th Street, New York. [PUP147]

    Boston; New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Morris Baptist Church
    1912 28 May `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party are evicted from their hotel because of the `coming and going of diverse people' and the `additional labours and troubles' caused to the staff. [239D:74]

    Talk at Reception at Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP150]

    New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Metropolitan Temple
    1912 25 May Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP154] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Edward Kinney
    1912 30 May Talk at Theosophical Lodge, Broadway and Seventy-ninth Street, New York. [PUP156] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Lodge
    1912 31 May `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Fanwood, New Jersey. [239D:75; AB207]

    Talk at Town Hall, Fanwood, New Jersey. [PUP161]

    Fanwood; New Jersey `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Fanwood Town Hall
    1912 1 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB206]
    • He has His first sitting for the portrait painted by Juliet Thompson. [DJT299]
    New York Juliet Thompson; portrait; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 6 Jun Talk at Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York. [PUP163] New York; Church of the Ascension; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 3 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Milford, Pennsylvania. [AB208] Milford; Pennsylvania `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 4 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB208] New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 8 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, [PUP171]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Philadelphia. [239D:88; AB209]

    New York; Philadelphia Abdul-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 9 Jun Talk at Unitarian Church, Fifteenth Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP172]

    Talk at Baptist Temple, Broad and Berks Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP176]

    PHILADELPHIA Unitarian Church; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Baptist Temple
    1912 10 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Philadelphia and returns to New York, arriving the same day. [239D:88; AB211] New York Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 11 Jun Talk at Open Committee Meeting, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP183]

    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP183]

    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP186]

    New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Edward Kinney
    1912 12 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP187] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 15 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP189] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 16 Jun Talk at Fourth Unitarian Church, Beverly Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP190]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP194]

    Talk at Central Congregational Church, Hancock Street, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP197]

    New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Fourth Unitarian Church; Howard MacNutt; Central Congregational Church
    1912 17 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP204] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 18 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP205] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 19 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá names New York the `City of the Covenant'. [239D:93; AB22; BBD55]
    • See 239D:92–3 and DJT311–17 for a description of this event.
    New York City of the Covenant; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 20 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP206] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 21 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Montclair, New Jersey. [239D:97; AB221] Montclair; New Jersey `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 23 Jun Talk at Montclair, New Jersey. [PUP210] Montclair; New Jersey `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá hosts a Unity Feast in the Evergreen Cabin at the Wilhelm properties in West Englewood, New Jersey. [239D:102; AB223, PUP213]
    • For pictures of this event see 239D:100–1.
    • Some years later, in 1953, Curtis Kelsey helped to rebuild and enlarge Evergreen Cabin, built on the spot where 'Abdu'l-Baha was host at the first Unity Feast in America. [BW15p470]
    West Englewood; New Jersey Unity Feast; Roy Wilhelm; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Evergreen cabin
    1912 30 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York after visiting Mr Topakyan, the Persian Consul General, in Morristown. [239D:103; AB225–6] New York; Morristown; New Jersey Mr Topakyan; Persian Consul General; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 1 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP216]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the subject of poverty and the alleviation of the discrepancy between the rich and the poor.
    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP218]
    New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; poor; poverty; rich
    1912 5 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP218]

    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]

    New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 6 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP225] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 14 Jul Talk at All Souls Unitarian Church, Fourth Avenue and Twentieth Street, New York. [PUP228] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; All Souls Unitarian Church
    1912 15 Jul Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP236] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Florian Krug
    1912 23 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves New York, arriving in Boston the same day for His second visit. [239D:117; AB233]

    Talk at Hotel Victoria, corner of Newbury and Dartmouth Sts, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP238]

    • For an interesting story about Nancy Douglas Bowditch see Wikipedia.
    • Also see The Artist's Daughter: Memoirs, 1890 - 1979 the autobiography of Nancy Douglas Bowditch.
    Boston `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Victoria
    1912 24 Jul Talk to Theosophical Society, The Kensington, Exeter and Boylston Streets, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP239] Boston; MA Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Society; The Kensington
    1912 25 Jul Talk at Hotel Victoria, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP244]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Boston, arriving in Dublin, New Hampshire, the same evening. [239D:117; AB233; SBR82, APD72-73]

    Dublin; New Hampshire; Boston; MA. Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Victoria
    1912 26 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's and His companions took up residence at one of the two Parsons home in Dublin, NH, a resort area. The house in question is named "Day-Spring". [APD7376] Dublin; New Hampshire; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Agnes Parsons
    1912 28 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's speaks at the Parsons home. [APD79-80] Dublin; New Hampshire; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 5 Aug Talk at Dublin Inn, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP245] Dublin; New Hampshire `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Dublin Inn
    1912 6 Aug Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247] Dublin; New Hampshire; Arthur Parsons; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 16 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá journeys to Green Acre by car, arriving the same day. [239D:123; AB240]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP253]

    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's activities while in Green Acre see AB240–51.
    • For the story of Fred Mortensen see 239D:126–9 and AB247–51.
    • See also Green Acre on the Piscataqua.
    Green Acre Fred Mortensen; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 17 Aug Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP261]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP263]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP264]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP270]

    Eliot; MA; . `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Green Acre
    1912 23 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Malden, Massachusetts, for a week-long stay, making trips to Boston and Cambridge. [239D:131; AB251–2] Malden; Massachusetts; Boston; Cambridge Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 25 Aug Talk at the New Thought Forum, Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP276] Boston; MA New Thought Forum; Metaphysical Club; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 26 Aug Talk at Franklin Square House, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP280] Boston; MA Franklin Square House; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 27 Aug Talk at Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP284] Boston; MA `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Metaphysical Club
    1912 29 Aug Talk at Home of Madame Morey, 34 Hillside Avenue, Malden, Massachusetts. [PUP289] Boston; MA Madame Morey; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 30 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Malden for Boston. He leaves Boston by train for Montreal, arriving at midnight. [239D:132; AB132; BW8:637]
    • He stays in Montreal for ten days, living for four nights at the Maxwell residence. [239D:132]
    • See also `Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada.
    Boston; Montreal Maxwell residence; Montreal Shrine; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 1 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá give a talk at the Church of the Messiah, corner of Simpson and Sherbrooke Sts in Montreal. (Architects: The Maxwell Bros. Built 1907, destroyed by fire 1937) [PUP297]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell, 716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP302]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell, 716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP306]

    Montreal; QC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Church of the Messiah; May Maxwell; Sutherland Maxwell
    1912 2 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell, 716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP308] Montreal; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; May Maxwell; Sutherland Maxwell
    1912 5 Sep Talk at St. James Methodist Church, 463 Saint Catherine Street, West, Montreal, Canada. [PUP312] Montreal; St. James Methodist Church; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 9 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Buffalo by train from Montreal. [239D:139; AB265] Montreal; Buffalo `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 12 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Buffalo for Chicago, arriving the same day. [239D:142]
    • He stays at the home of Corinne True. [239D:142; AB266]
    Buffalo; Chicago Corinne True; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 15 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Kenosha, Wisconsin. [239D:145; AB267]
    • He misses His train and tells the Bahá'ís not to be concerned over this, as there is a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
    Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 16 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP320]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Minneapolis, arriving the same night. [239D:146; AB273]

    Chicago; Minneapolis `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912 20 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. Albert L. Hall, 2030 Queen Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. [PUP325]

    Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Clement Woolson, 870 Laurel Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. [PUP329]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Minneapolis for Omaha, Nebraska, arriving the same night. [239D:20]

    • AB279 says this was 21 September.
    Omaha; Nebraska; Minneapolis; Minnesota `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Albert Hall; Clement Woolson
    1912 21 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Lincoln, Nebraska, then leaves for Denver. [239D:151] Lincoln; Nebraska; Denver; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 23 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Denver in the afternoon. [239D:152; SoG221-222] Denver `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 24 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Roberts Denver, Colorado. [PUP334] Denver; CO Mrs Roberts; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 25 Sep Talk at Second Divine Science Church, 3929 West Thirty-eighth Avenue, Denver, Colorado . [PUP337] Denver; CO `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Second Divine Science Church
    1912 26 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Denver and arrives in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. [239D:158] Denver; Glenwood Springs; Colorado `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 27 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Glenwood Springs for Salt Lake City. [239D:159] New York City `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 27 Sep Louisa Mathew and Louis Gregory, an interracial Bahá'í couple, are married in New York City. [239D:169] New York; Louisa Mathew; Louis Gregory First interracial Bahá'í marriage.
    1912 28 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Salt Lake City. [239D:159] Salt Lake City `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 30 Sep Thornton Chase, the first American Bahá'í, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in California before 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í and His retinue arrive. He is buried at Inglewood. [BBD71; BFA2:XVII] California Thornton Chase; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour First American Bahá'í
    1912 1 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in San Francisco about midnight. [239D:165; AB286] San Francisco `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 7 Oct Talk to Japanese Young Men’s Christian Association, Japanese Independent Church, 576 Sycamore Street, Oakland, California. [PUP343] Oakland; CA Japanese Young Men’s Christian Association; Japanese Independent Church; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 8 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks at Leland Stanford Junior University in Palo Alto. [239D:166 AB288, PUP348]
    • There are two thousand in the audience. [AB288]
    Palo Alto Stanford Junior University; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Leland Stanford Junior University
    1912 10 Oct Talk at Open Forum, San Francisco, California [PUP355] San Francisco; CA Open Forum; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 12 Oct Talk at Temple Emmanu-El, 450 Sutter Street, San Francisco, California. [PUP361] San Francisco; CA `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Temple Emmanu-El
    1912 13 or 14 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Phoebe Hearst at her estate, at her invitation. [239D:168; AB307]
    • She is estranged from the Faith because one or two individuals had tried to extort money from her but her invitation is sincere. AB307–8]
    Hearst estate; California; Phoebe Hearst; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 16 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to San Francisco. [AB308] San Francisco `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 17 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá discovers His signet ring is missing and for the rest of His trip He signs, rather than seal, every Tablet He writes or dictates. [Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith pg. xxxvii] Oakland `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Signet ring
    1912 18 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Los Angeles, arriving the same day. [239D:169; AB309] Los Angeles `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 19 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the grave of Thornton Chase in Inglewood. [239D:169; AB309]
    • The purpose of His journey to Los Angeles is to visit the grave of Thornton Chase. [AB309]
    Inglewood Thornton Chase; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 21 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Los Angeles for San Francisco. [AB310] Los Aneles; San Francisco `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 25 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Sacramento, arriving at noon the same day. [239D:171]

    Talk at Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP370]

    San Francisco; ; Sacramento `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Sacramento
    1912 26 Oct Talk at Assembly Hall, Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP376]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Sacramento for Denver. [239D:172; AB316]

    Sacramento; Denver `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Assembly Hall; Hotel Sacramento
    1912 28 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Denver at midnight. [239D:175; AB316] Denver `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 30 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Denver for Chicago. [239D:175] Denver; Chicago `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 31 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Chicago. [239D:176]

    Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP381]

    Chicago `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Hotel Plaza
    1912 1 Nov Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP383] Chicago; Corrine True; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 4 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago and arrives in Cincinnati the same day. [239D:179] Chicago; Cincinnati `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 5 Nov Talk at Grand Hotel, Cincinnati, Ohio. [PUP388]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Cincinnati for Washington DC. [239D:179]

    Chicago; Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Grand Hotel
    1912 6 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Washington DC. [239D:179]

    Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP390]

    Washington DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Universalist Church
    1912 7 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400]

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons
    1912 8 Nov Talk at Eighth Street Temple, Synagogue, Washington, D. C. [PUP411]

    Washington; D. C. `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Eighth Street Temple; Synagogue
    1912 9 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]

    Talk at Bahá’í Banquet, Rauscher’s Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418]

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Rauscher’s Hall
    1912 10 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. .[PUP425]

    Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428]

    Washington; DC `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen
    1912 11 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Baltimore by train and arrives at Camden Station at 11AM. He is accompanied by Dr. Ameen Fareed and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (interpreters), Mirza Mahmud, Mirza 'Ali Akah, Mirza Valiollah Khan, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, and Saya Assadollah [239D:183; AB329]
    • At noon He speaks at the chapel of the Unitarian Church on the unity of religions and the oneness of God. The chapel is packed with Johns Hopkins University faculty members and many local professional men.
    • After the address he shares lunch at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Struven with more than 50 people.
    • He leaves Baltimore about 3PM and on his return to New York He passes through Philadelphia, where He meets the Bahá'ís on the train platform. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett]
    Baltimore; Philadelphia `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 12 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York at 1:00 a.m. [AB329] New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 15 Nov Talk at Home of Miss Juliet Thompson, 48 West Tenth Street, New York. [PUP431] New York; Juliet Thompson; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 16 Nov Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 17 Nov Talk at Genealogical Hall, 252 West Fifty-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Genealogical Hall
    1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the library of J. Pierpont Morgan and inscribes his album with a blessing for his philanthropy. [239D:186–7]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank K. Moxey, 575 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP422]

    New York J. Pierpont Morgan; J P Morgan; J P Morgan Library; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Frank Moxey
    1912 23 Nov A farewell banquet is held for `Abdu'l-Bahá at the Great Northern Hotel, 118 West Fifty-seventh Street, in New York. [239D:187; AB331, PUP447]
    • The hotel does not allow the black Bahá'ís to attend. [239D:187]
    New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Great Northern Hotel
    1912 24 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá and the white Bahá'ís serve the black Bahá'ís at a dinner at the Kinney's. [239D:187] New York Kinney; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 29 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP449] New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Edward Kinney
    1912 2 Dec Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP452]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP453]

    New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Edward Kinney
    1912 3 Dec Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP457]

    Talk to Mr. Kinney’s Bible Class, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP458]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP460]

    New York; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Forian Drug; Mr. Kinney's Bible Class
    1912 4 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses His last meeting in North America with a talk to Theosophical Society, 2228 Broadway, New York. [239D:193, PUP462] New York `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Society
    1912 5 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sails on the S. S. Celtic from New York to Liverpool. [239D:193–4; AB337; GPB281]
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's final words to the Bahá'ís, spoken while on board ship, see PUP468.
    • For Ahmad Sohrab's account of the sea crossing see SW3, 16:2.
    New York; Liverpool S. S. Celtic; Ahmad Sohrab; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 Dec-Jun 1913 `Abdu'l-Bahá's second visit to Europe. `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 13 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Liverpool aboard the S. S. Celtic at about 9PM. He is met by dozens of Bahá'ís from Liverpool, Manchester and Leads as well as Hippolyte Drefus-Barney who had come from Paris. [AB343; SBR38, ABTM273-4] Liverpool S. S. Celtic; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 14 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed in Liverpool at the Adelphi Hotel. His first talk was to the Theosophical Society. [ABTM274, SoW Vol III No17 9Jan1913 p3] Liverpool `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Adelphi Hotel
    1912 15 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Pembroke Chapel and was introduced by Rev Donald Fraser. [ABTM275, SoW Vol III No 17 9Jan1913 p4] Liverpool `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 16 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá and his entourage departed Liverpool for London by train from the Lime Street Station. When they arrive at Euston Station they are met by a group of about 50 Bahá'ís. He is taken by motorcar to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens which she again offered to Him during His stay in London. After resting He gave a talk to newspaper reporters and later gave a talk to the gathering of Bahá'ís. [AB343, ABTM276] Liverpool; London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 17 De A Bahá'í arrived from Ireland to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá, possibly Joan Waring, after travelling all day and all night.
    • He made comments on the character of the American people.
    • In the afternoon He spoke to a large gathering at Caxton Hall in Westminster. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p3-4, ABTM276-277]
    London; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Joan Waring; Caxton Hall
    1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at which E. G. Browne is present. He visits `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]

    Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrives in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]

    London E. G. Browne; Haji Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakani; Haji Amin; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 19 Dec Hájí Amín, the Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, presented 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a gift from a poor workman in 'Ishqábád. He had nothing monetary to offer so he gave Hájí Amín his mid-day meal, two small loaves of bread and an apple wrapped in a handkerchief. 'Abdu'l-Bahá took the offering tenderly, ate a small piece of the stale bread and gave the rest to be passed around to the rest of the table. [SoW Vol III No 19 2Mar1913 p5, ABTM278] London; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 20 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá interviewed E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens who had come from Southhampton to meet Him. Three years prior she had spent 3 or 4 months in 'Akka and Haifa gathering material for her book, published in 1911, about the second coming of Christ. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6] Mountain of God]

    He discussed the question of "spiritual communication" and gave the prerequisites. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6]

    In the evening He was driven to Westminster for a meeting at the Palace Hotel, His first public talk since returning to London. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6, [SoW Vol III no 17 19Jan1913 p510]

    London; Westminster `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Ethel Stevens; Mountain of God; Palace Hotel
    1912 21 or 22 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
    • He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
    • Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255]
    Westminster Alice Buckton; Eager Heart; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; drama; stage; Church House; Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom First time `Abdu'l-Bahá attends a theatre performance
    1912 c. Dec On another occasion He gave an outline for a play to his hostess for the evening, Mrs Gabrielle Enthoven, which He called Drama of the Kingdom. It was put to print by Lady Blomfield's daughter, Mary Basil Hall, approved by the Reviewing Committees for the National Assemblies of both the British Isles and the United States and Canada. It was published in 1933. In 1994 a production based on this outline was premiered in Perth, Australia entitled The Face of Glory: A Musical Rendezvous with the Soul. [CH155-156, Bahá'ís and the Arts: Language of the Heart by Ann Boyles, also published in 1994-95 edition of The Bahá'í World, pp. 243-272] London; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Drama of the Kingdom; Mary Basil Hall; The Face of Glory: A Musical Rendezvous with the Soul; Ann Boyles
    1912 24 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá received many expensive Christmas gifts; He turned them all away by returning them and asking the donors to sell them and give the money to the poor.

    That evening He visited the Salvation Army Shelter in Westminster. That night there were 1,000 men present. After His talk He departed but not before leaving twenty gold sovereigns and many handfuls of silver with Col Spencer for a similar dinner to be held on New Year's Eve. [ABTM282-283]

    London; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 29 Dec In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá received a visit fro the Maharajah or Jhalawar. [ABTM283]

    In the afternoon He spoke at the home of Miss Annie Gamble. [SoW Vol. 9 No 2 9Apr1918 p 24]

    In the evening He gave a talk at the King's Weigh House Methodist Church hosted by Rev E W Lewis. [SoW Vol. 4 No 17 19Jan1914 p284-285]

    London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1912 30 Dec The 19 Day Feast was held at the home of Mrs Robinson. [AB352] London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Mrs Robinson
    1912 31 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Oxford at the invitation of Dr T. K. Cheyne to address a meeting at Manchester College. [BW4p384-385, AB352–354, ABIM284, Journey West 20130210, [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
    • For biographical information see a paper by Crawford Howell Toy entitled Thomas Kelly Cheyne.
    • See Hurqalya Publications for a translation by Stephen Lambden of a Tablet to Dr Cheyne as well as the address to Manchester College.
    • After the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá the elderly and infirmed professor, who was unable to walk and had difficulty speaking, went on to write the book, The Reconciliation of Races and Religions.
    • A paper by Judy Greenway, a grand neice of Elizabeth Gibson entitled "From the Wilderness to the Beloved City: Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne" pays tribute to the woman whom 'Abdul'-Bahá lauded. This paper was given at the invitation of the Oxford Bahá’í Community in December 2012, as part of the celebration of the centenary of Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to Oxford.
    Oxford `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Dr T. K. Cheyne; Elizabeth Gibson; Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne; Stephen Lambden; Judy Greenway
    1913 In the year In 1913 `Abdu'l-Bahá writes to Dr Augur advising him to take the Bahá'í message to Japan. Japan Dr Augur
    1913 5 Jan The Master spoke at the home of Miss Herrick's to some 150 people. He gave a very "spiritual" lecture about the negligence of the people about God and their submerging in the sea of materialism. London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 6 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party, Síyyíd Asadu'lláh-i-Qumí, His attendant, Ahmad Sohrab, His interpreter and Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání, His secretary, depart by train and arrive in Edinburgh's Waverly Station in the late afternoon. [SCU68]

    On the train He told the story of Miss Wardlaw-Ramsay of the Church Missionary Society who was a missionary in 'Acca for some 40 years. She was antagonistic to the Cause but the Master showed her all manner of kindness because she was very faithful to her Christ. When she left Akka and returned to Scotland He gave a party for her. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p5]

    Upon arrival He is taken to the home of Mrs Jane Elizabeth Whyte (neé Barbour) (1857-1944) at 7 Charlotte Square. She had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá before. She and her friend, Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper, had been invited to visit her sister who was on an extended stay in Egypt during the winter of 1905-6. In March they made a visit to 'Akká. By 1912 she had become a member of the "Council" established to promote the Faith in Britain. The Whytes, along with the Theosophical Society, had been instrumental in arranging Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Edinburgh.

    Mrs Whyte's account of her meeting in 1906 is in her book Seven Candles of Unity, pp 47-49. and in her book entitled Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]

    Her husband, Mr Alexander Whyte (1837-1921) was a Scottish divine; a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, he became colleague and successor of Dr R S Candlish at Free St Georges (now St George's West, 58 Shandwick Place), and then principal and professor of New Testament literature at New College, Edinburgh. [AB355, 363–8; SBR26]

    Miss Isobel Fraser served as the advance publicity agent for the visit.

    Edinburgh `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Isobel Fraser
    1913 7 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a crowd of several hundred Theosophists. The Theosophical Society (founded 1875) promoted brotherhood, the importance of Eastern philosophies and the search for spiritual and psychic truths. Edinburgh had one of the most active centres in Europe.

    In the late morning they had a tour of Outlook Tower, 549 Castlehill, Edinburgh EH1 2ND. Outlook Tower was an educational institution which taught astronomy, natural geography, cartology etc. The tour guide was Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) who was a Scottish biologist and botanist, known also as an innovative thinker in the fields of urban planning and education; as a town-planner in Palestine he had involvement in the cypress avenue leading up to the Shrine of the Báb, and he also planned a Bahá'í House of Worship in India. [AB447, Leroy Ioas, p218]

    In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to the Esperanto Society at Freemason's Hall, 96 George Street, Edinburgh EH2 3DH. There were 1,000 people in the hall and some 300 outside. This was His first public address in Scotland. [ABTM294, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913]

    Edinburgh `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Patrick Geddes; Esperanto; Theosophical Society; Outlook Tower; Sir Patrick Geddes first public address by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Scotland.
    1913 8 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was given a tour of the Edinburgh College of Arts conducted by the President. (74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF) This was followed by a tour of a school in the poorer district, North Canongate School.

    In the afternoon He spoke to a capacity attendance at Rainy Hall, New College, the Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LX.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a charity performance of Handel's Messiah at St Giles Cathedral. (Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1RE) St. Giles was also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh. It was Edinburgh's religious focal point for at least 900 years.

    And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, ABTM297]

    Edinburgh `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; St Giles Cathedral; Handel's Messiah; Edinburgh College of Arts; North Canongate School
    1913 9 Jan After a morning of receiving visitors 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a woman's group that included those of a wide spectrum of conviction on the role of women from suffragists to suffragettes to those opposed of giving women the vote.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá visited the painter, John Duncan, (1866 Dundee-1945) a foremost Celtic revivalist painter, on the Management Board of the College of Arts, who was guided along by Patrick Geddes. He married Christine Allen in 1912 and immediately moved to 29 Bernard's Crescent as his home and studio, where this visit took place. Both were members of the Theosophical Society. Christine Duncan née Allen (c1886-) was a spiritualist with connections to Wellesley Tudor Pole and Alice Buckton.

    He was driven north of the city to see the Forth Railway Bridge, Edinburgh EH30 9TB. This engineering marvel, stretching 2.5 km from South to North Queensferry opened on the 4th of March 1890 and has been designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [UNESCO]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at the Theosophical Society meeting at 28 Great King Street, Edinburgh EH3 6QN. "Several hundred" attended. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p.14]

    Edinburgh `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Forth Railway Bridge; Forth Bridge; Theosophical Society; John Duncan; Christine Duncan
    1913 10 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to London departing Waverly Station at 11AM and arriving at Euston at 7PM. He returned to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens. She devotedly placed her whole apartment at His disposal, whilst she herself (certainly in 1913) stayed a few moments away with Lady Elcho in 62 Cadogan Square (now likely 58). [AB368, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p8] London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 11 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was most anxious that follow-up be done in Scotland. In and interview with Miss Buckton and Miss Schepel He encouraged them to go as soon as possible. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p17]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Caxton Hall in Westminster and after entertained a small crowd of people at His residence where He recounted stories of Bahá'ulláh's suffering. [AB368, ABTM299]
    London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 12 Jan He attended a dinner party at the home of Sir Richard and Lady Shapely. Dinner was followed by a talk. [AB369, ABTM299] London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Richard Shapely
    1913 13 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Cadogan Gardens on the darkness of superstitions and imitations. [AB369, ABTM299] London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 14 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in the East End of London at a Congregational Church. [CH168, AB369, ABTM299] London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Congregational Church
    1913 15 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bristol and stays at the Clifton Guest House which belonged to Mr and Mrs Tudor-Pole. He was accompanied by the Persian ambassador, Dúst-Muhammad Khán. In the evening He addressed a meeting in the Guest House. [AB369] Bristol `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Tudor-Pole; Dust-Muhammad Khan
    1913 16 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to London and spoke at 97 Cadogan Gardens. He spoke about the diversity of those entering the Faith and the recommended way to conduct a meeting. [AB370, ABTM302-303] London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 18 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá received guests from the Muslim Community of Britain and was asked to speak at the Shah Jehan Mosque at Woking, one of the two mosques in England at the time and the first built in England and perhaps Western Europe. He spoke on the subject of the Unity of Religions and translation was done by Mírzá Ahmad Sohrab. [CH152, AB370, BW3p278-279, BW4p377]
    • Note ABTM303 reports that this event took place on the 17th of January.
    • Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (1840–1899) was the builder of the Oriental Institute, founded to train Asians living in Europe for the learned professions, to the study of linguistics and culture, and for the teaching of languages to Europeans who wished to travel to the East. To cater for the spiritual needs of students of all major faiths and to provide for any who lived within reach, Dr. Leitner intended to build a synagogue, a church, a temple and a mosque. Only the Shah Jehan Mosque was completed. (Oct-Nov 1889). The Institute relied too heavily upon Dr. Leitner’s personal enthusiasm and wealth and it did not survive his early death in March of 1899. The Mosque was closed and practically empty between 1899 and 1912. Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, a prominent Kashmiri lawyer and founder of the Woking Muslim Mission, worked to repair and re-open the Mosque in 1913. It was the first formal place of Islamic worship in England and became a centre of Islam in the UK. [Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner]
    • For a photo of the gathering see BW3p280 or BWNS818.
    Woking; Surrey; Woking Mosque; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Woking
    1913 19 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of Rev Dr R J Campbell for luncheon. A number of divines had also been invited. [AB371] London; Woking; Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 20 Jan Dr Felix Mosscheles held a reception for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in his home that was attended by a number of notable people.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of a Rajput prince who gave a dinner party for Him.

    In the evening He spoke at the Higher Thought Centre, His last engagement in London. [AB371]

    London `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB371]
    • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
    Paris; London; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 6 Feb `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Versailles. [AB376] Paris; Versailles `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 12 Feb Date on the last of the 12 letters sent to Edward Granville Browne by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. The first of these letters was written on the 4th of August, 1890. Edward Granville Browne find reference
    1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in the Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Khazeh Fananapazir site.
    • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
    Paris Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá travels from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
    • He tells His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
    • He does not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
    Stuttgart; Paris; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
    • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
    Bad Mergentheim Consul Schwarz; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; monument; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 8 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to Stuttgart, then leaves in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there are no resident believers. [ABM316]
    • The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'i Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá is accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
    Stuttgart; Budapest; Hungary Leopold Stark; Lipót Stark; Wilhelm Herrigel; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 9 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Budapest and He is met by a delegation at Keleti pu Ostbahnhof (Eastern Train Station). Another welcoming party has been waiting for Him at the Western station where a train had arrived from Vienna. He is escorted to the Ritz Hotel (now called the Hotel Forum) on the Pest side where He is further welcomed by a delegation of citizens. To compensate for the fact that many have missed His arrival at the train station He holds a press conference in the hotel lobby. [AB384, SBBR14p110]
    • For details of His visit see AB384–8 and MRHK362–70 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest by Alice Schwartz-Salivo and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest by György Lederer found in SBBR14p109.
    “…it was His hope that Budapest might become a centre for the reunion of the East and the West, and that from this city the light might emanate to other places.” 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest p1
    Budapest; Hungary `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 10 Apr While walking `Abdu'l-Bahá crosses the Chain Bridge and attracts a crowd of curious onlookers who had seen His picture in the newspaper. [MRHK363]
    • He receives visitors at His hotel. Among them are Dr Agnes Goosen, the Rector of the University of Budapest, Dr Alexander Giesswein, a member of Parliament and Sirdar Omrah Singh of Punjab. Professor Julius Germanus, a young Orientalist from the Eastern Academy, brings a group of Turkish language students. {MRHK364]
    • He visits the homes of several families.
    • In the evening He speaks to 50 people at the Theosophical Meeting, praising the organization and its goals. Dr Germanus interpretes the talk into German.
    Budapest; Hungary Julius Germanus; Dr Agnes Goosen; Dr Alexander Giesswein; Sirdar Omrah Singh; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 11 Apr Julius Germanus from the Eastern Academy calls upon 'Abdu'l-Bahá at His hotel accompanied by his Turkish students. [SBBR14p112]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá visits Hungarian Orientalist Professor Ignáz Goldziher in his home. He was the first person of the Jewish Faith to occupy a professional chair in the University of Budapest. and he has previously written about the Bahá'í Faith. Some time later Professor Goldziher received a carpet and a tablet as a gift from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBR14p116, AB386]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivers a lecture in the old Parliament organized by the Peace Society and the Esperanto Association to an audience estimated to be 500, 800 or 1,000 depending on the source. He is flanked by Catholic prelate Dr Alexander Giesswein and Dr. Goldziher, a Jewish Orientalist. The significance of seeing an eminent Jewish scholar and a Catholic clergyman on the same stage on either side of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is not lost on the audience and they break into applause. [SBBR14p116-117. MRHK362]
    • After the lecture a dinner is given in His honour at the Hotel Pannonia. [MRHK366]
    Budapest; Hungary Julius Germanus; Ignaz Goldziher; Dr Alexander Giesswein; Dr. Goldziher; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 12 Apr He receives many visitors at His hotel including the president of the Túránian Society, Jewish-born Arminius Vambéry. He is an orientalist and one of the most colourful figures of the nineteenth century. He has some prior knowledge of the Bahá'í Faith. Some time later he wrote a much-publicised tribute to the Bahá'í Faith. [AB8, 386–7, SBBR14p114]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the home of Arminius Vambéry. [SBBR14p115]
    • He is invited to speak at the former House of Magnates in the National Museum Building by the founder of the Hungarian Turanian Society, Alajos Paikert. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest p4]
    Budapest; Hungary Arminius Vambéry; Alajos Paikert; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 13 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá is sick and the weather is bitterly cold. He goes to the studio of Professor Robert A. Nadler of the Royal Academy of Art to sit for a portrait. He gives him a total of three sittings during His visit to Budapest. [AB387, MRHK368-9]
    • "The portrait is remarkable not only because of its art, but also because of its later miraculous fate. Reportedly, after heavy bombing in 1945, only that part of the building in which the painting was hung remained unharmed." [Renée Szanto-Felbermann Two Portraits p3, Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p159]
    • The painting is purchased and taken to the Bahá'í World Centre in 1972. [SBBR14p118]
    • In the afternoon He visits the home of Sirdar Omrah Singh. [AB387]

    • In spite of a raging blizzard a good many attend His address at the hotel in the evening. [AB387]

    Budapest; Hungary Professor Robert A. Nadler; portrait; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 14 Apr His plan had been to leave but His departure is delayed due to a request from the president of the Túránian Society, Count Pal Teleki, who later becomes the Hungarian Prime Minister two times.
    • In the afternoon 'Abu'l-Bahá visits Arminius Vambéry at his home again and some time later sends him a tablet and a carpet by the post. It was reported in "Star of the West" (February 1929) that this tablet was in possession of Arminius's son, Rusztem Vámbéry. [SBBR14p115, 125, AB387, SoW9Vol9p24]
    • At a meeting of the Túránian Society in the grand hall of the National Museum 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a lecture entitled "Peace Between Nations and Religions" to some 200 people. The talk is translated into Hungarian by Leopold Stark and into English by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. [SBBR14p113, ABM318]
    • 'Alí Abbás Áqá, a Tabrízí carpet merchant, hosts a dinner party in His honour. Among those attending is the Turkish Consul. [AB387, MRHK367, SBBR14p113]
    Budapest; Hungary Arminius Vambéry; Leopold Stark; Count Pal Teleki; 'Ali Abbas Áqa; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 15 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá's planned departure is delayed a second time due to a severe cold. He is attended by Mr and Mrs Stark as well as Sirda Omrah Singh. He continues to meet visitors in His hotel during this period. [MRHK369] Budapest; Hungary Mr and Mrs Stark; Sirda Omrah Singh; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 18 or19 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Budapest and travels to Vienna by rail, reaching the city in the evening and taking residence in the Grand Hotel. It is estimated that some 30 people accepted the Faith during His visit. [AB388, SBBR14p120] Vienna; Budapest; Hungary `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 24 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Vienna and returns to Stuttgart, where He arrives in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389] Stuttgart; Vienna `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Stuttgart and returns to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Paris `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 13 May Birth of H. Collis Featherstone, Hand of the Cause of God, at Quorn, South Australia. Quorn; South Australia H. Collis Featherstone; Hand of the Cause of God
    1913 12 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]

    In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.

    3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days          
     21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days          
           1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days          
                          Total   171 days          
    Marseilles; Paris `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 13 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Marseilles on the S. S. Himalaya for Port Said. [AB395]
    • He sends a telegram to Haifa instructing the many pilgrims awaiting his return to come to Port Said. Because of the great numbers who come, there isn't sufficient hotel accommodations and a large tent is erected on the roof in which to hold meetings. SoW Vol 4 No 7 p121.
    Marseilles; Port Said S. S. Himalaya; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
    1913 13 Jun - 2 Dec At some time during His stay in Egypt 'Abdu'l-Bahá meets with Sir Ronald Storrs who presents Him to Lord Kitchener. [BW10p192,194]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá presents him with a specimen of writing by Mishkín-Qalam and His own Persian pen box.
    Egypt Sir Ronald Storrs; Lord Kitchener; Mishkin-Qalam
    1913 10 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá goes to Ismá`ílíyyah, where the weather is less humid. [AB399–400] Isma`iliyyah
    1913 17 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Ramleh. [AB400] Ramleh
    1913 23 Jul Lua Getsinger arrives at Port Said. [AB400] Port Said Lua Getsinger
    1913 1 Aug Shoghi Effendi, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in Egypt. [AB401]
    • During this period Tamaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during His first visit) attempts to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402]
    Ramlih; Egypt Greatest Holy Leaf; Covenant-breakers
    1913 14 Oct Daniel Jenkyn, from England, makes a two-week trip through the Netherlands, the first time a Bahá'í journeys to the country to teach the Faith. [SBR43–4] Netherlands Daniel Jenkyn; travel teaching First teaching trip to the Netherlands
    1913 Dec Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Isfandábádí is killed by two assailants in Qúzih-Kúh, Bavánát, Fárs. [BW18:387] Qúzih-Kúh; Bavánát; Fárs. Áqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Isfandabadi
    1913 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá boards a Lloyd Triestino boat bound for Haifa. [AB402] Haifa; Lloyd Triestino
    1914 Hippolyte Dreyfus and Laura Barney travel around the world teaching the Faith. [BFA2:353]

    Hippolyte Dreyfus; Laura Barney; travel teaching; The Great War
    1914 Mr Husayn Uskuli and two Bahá'ís friends arrive in Shanghai from 'Ishqábád. His family joins him. [PH28-29, BW13p871-872] 'Ishqábád; Shanghai; Husayn Uskuli
    1914 The publication of Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár written by Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. by Elegant Photo-Litho Press in Bombay. The English translation, Mahmúd's Diary, was published in 1998 by George Ronald Publisher. [APD151]

    "Mírzá Mahmúd was a careful and faithful chronicler and engaged in assembling and publishing his work with the permission of the beloved Master . . ." (The Universal House of Justice - a letter dated April 30, 1984 addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States).

    Bombay; Mahmud's Diary; Mirza Mahmud-i Zarqani.
    1914 9 Jan John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Southsea, England. Southsea; England John Ferraby; Hand of the Cause of God
    1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
    • For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
    • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
    • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
    Cairo Mirza Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpaygani; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Lua Getsinger; Baha'i cemetery; In Memoriam
    1914 Jun George Augur arrives in Japan. [BFA2:53; sBR191]
    • He is the first Bahá'í to reside in the country. [SBR191]
    • For a biography of George Augur see SBR187–98.
    Japan George Augur First Bahá'í to reside in Japan
    1914 28 Jun The heir to the Austrian throne is assassinated in Sarajevo. Sarajevo
    1914 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá instructs the remaining pilgrims in the Holy Land to leave. [AB406]
    • CH191 says the American pilgrims left on the last boat from Haifa to Alexandria on 15 Jan. 1915.
    Haifa
    1914 Middle of the year The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, becomes publicly known. [AB407]
    • For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
    Dr Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers
    1914 28 Jul The Great War (1914–18) breaks out in Europe. (28 July, 1914 to 11 November, 1918)

    Austria declares war on Serbia.

    Europe The Great War
    1914 4 Aug England declares war on Germany. The Great War
    1914 27 Aug Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní is killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387] Mashhad Aqa Mirza Yusif-i-Qa'ini; Iranian persecution
    1914 1 Nov Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.
    • Palestine is blockaded and Haifa is bombarded. [GPB304]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá sends the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304]
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
    • See CH209–10 for other villages inhabited by Bahá'ís.
    Palestine; Abu-Sinan The Great War; Central Powers
    1914 6 Nov Agnes Alexander arrives in Japan. [TR30]
    • She lives there for a total of thirty–two years. [PH32]
    • See also W2:42–4 and Sims, Traces That Remain.
    Japan Agnes Alexander
    1915 (in the year) Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, is put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
    • For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
    • He threatens to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB304, 317]
    Haifa; Akka Jamal Pasha; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; ‘Abdu’l-Baha
    1915 A plan to fund part-time travelling Bahá’í teachers in the USA and Canada is approved. There had been a great deal of reluctance to take this measure for fear of creating a "clergy" class but the vastness of the country and the fewness of believers of independent means as well as the impetus to teaching sparked by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit helped to take the decision. [BBRSM:105, 219] USA and Canada subsidizing of travel teachers
    1915 Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá is martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387] Urúmíyyih; Iran; Mirza Husayn-i-Huda; martyr
    1915 14 Mar Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání is shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9] Mashhad Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání; Iranian persecution
    1915 19-25 Apr The Panama-Pacific International Exposition is held in San Francisco and the 24th of April is declared International Bahá'í Congress Day. [BW8:797-808] San Francisco International Baha'i Congress; Panama-Pacific International Exposition
    1915 May The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká return to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147] Haifa; `Akká; Abú-Sinán
    1915 16 Jun Miss Margaret Green of Washington DC arrives in Alaska, the first known resident Bahá'í. Washington DC; Alaska Margaret Green Margaret Green is the first know resident Bahá'í in Alaska.
    1915 Latter half `Abdu'l-Bahá's Memorials of the Faithful takes shape. [AB417; MFXII]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá tells stories of Bahá'í heroes and heroines to the weekly gatherings of Bahá'ís in Haifa. These are compiled and published as a book. [AB417]
    • The book is not published until 1924. [AB417; MFXII]
    `Abdu'l-Baha; Memorials of the Faithful
    1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
    • For biographies see BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
    • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
    • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
    Freeport; New York Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; In Memoriam
    1916 The United States census shows 2,884 Bahá'ís. [BBRSM:105; SBBH1:117] USA statistics
    1916 (in the year) Anthony Yuen Seto and his wife Mamie Lorettta O'Connor become Bahá'ís in Hawaii. Mr Seto is the first Chinese Bahá'í in the Hawaiian Islands and the first Chinese-American Bahá'í in the United States. [PH30] Hawaii Anthony Yuen Seto; Lorettta O'Connor The first Chinese-American Bahá'í in the United States.
    1916 22 Feb In Sultánábád Mírzá `Alí-Akbar, his wife, his sister-in-law (aged 12) and their four children (aged from 46 days to 11 years) are killed by having their throats cut. [BW18:387; GPB299]
    • See DB610 for picture.
    Sultanabad Mirza `Ali-Akbar; Iranian persecution
    1916 26 Mar-22 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá reveals eight of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB420; BBD219 BBRSM157; SBBH132-3; TDPX]
    • For the order and place of their revelation see AB420-2 and TDP.
    • For a description of their content see AB422-3.
    • Shoghi Effendi characterizes them as a `mandate' and a `supreme charter for teaching'. [GPB255; TDPVII]
    • The Tablets can be found at TDP on the pages indicated:
    • 1st (Page 1) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on March 26, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá’ís of nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
    • 2nd (Page 2) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Southern States. Revealed on March 27, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, addressed to the Bahá’ís of sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
    • 3rd (Page 3) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Central States. Revealed on March 29, 1916, outside the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
    • 4th (Page 4) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Western States. Revealed on April 1, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá’ís of eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
    • 5th (Page 5) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on April 5, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
    • 6th (Page 6) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 8, 1916, in the garden outside the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
    • 7th (Page 8) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 11, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
    • 8th (Page 11) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 19, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí; on April 20, in the pilgrims’ quarters of the house in Bahjí; on April 22, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
    Haifa `Abdu'l-Baha; Tablets of the Divine Plan
    1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. [PH29-30]
    • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
    • He returns to China in December 1916.
    China; Chicago Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen); Dr Zia Baghdadi The first Chinese Bahá'í in China

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