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Bahá'í Chronology: years 18-

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date event locations tags firsts see also
c. 1806 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Khán-i-Farahání, later Prime Minister of Persia, in Hizávih. Hizávih, Iran Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-i-Farahani, Prime Minister of Persia, Prime Minister of Iran
1808 5 Jan Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh. Iran Muhammad Mírzá, `Abbás Mírzá, Fath-`Alí Sháh
c. 1812 Birth of Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat. Hujjat Hujjat, Mulla Muhammad-'Ali
c. 1813 Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn). Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushru'i, Mulla Husayn
c. 1817 Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd. Ardikán, Yazd, Iran, Persia Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani, Haji Amin, Hands
1817 Shaykh Ahmad travels to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He is in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz, Tehran, Iran Shaykh Ahmad, Shaykhism
1817 The birth of Fátimih Umm-Salamih, Táhirih (the Pure One), Qurratu'l-'Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold). [BBD220; GPB7, 73, 75] Persia, Iran Fatimih Umm-Salamih, Tahirih, Pure One, Qurratu'l-'Ayn, Solace of the Eyes, Zarrin-Taj, Crown of Gold
1817 12 Nov Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh).
  • He is of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He is a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
  • He is born in Tihrán. His father is Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father is also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
  • His mother is Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
  • He is born at dawn. [LOG353]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378.
  • RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
Tehran, Núr, Iran Baha'u'llah, Mirza Buzurg, Khadijih Khanum BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh
1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Najafábád, Iran Mulla Zaynu'l-`Ábidin, Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin, Apostle
1819 Death of Shaykh `Alí, son of Shaykh Ahmad. Shaykh Ahmad considers this loss as a sacrifice for `the Alí whose advent we all await'. [MH24] Iran, Persia Shaykh `Ali, Shaykh Ahmad
1819–1831 `Abdu'lláh Páshá becomes the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians take `Akká he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverts to Turkish rule. [BBD5] `Akká, Israel, Egypt `Abdu'llah Pasha, governor of `Akka
1819 20 Oct Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
  • The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
  • The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
  • Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
  • His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
  • His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
  • He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
  • Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
  • See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Bab, Primal Point, Promised One, Siyyid-i-dhikr, Lord of Remembrance, Fatimih-Bagum, Zajra Bagum, Mirza Muhammad Rida, House of Hashim, `Abdu'dh-dhikr, Servant of Remembrance, Babu'llah, Gate of God, Hadrat-i-A`la, His Holiness Most Exalted One, Qa'im
1819 Notes Free
1819 See also Free
1820 Birth of Khadíjih Bagum (daughter of Mírzá `Alí, a merchant of Shíráz), first wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran Khadijih Bagum First wife of the Báb
1820 Birth of Ásíyih Khánum (Navváb), first wife of Bahá'u'lláh, in Yálrúd. The only daughter of Mírzá Ismá'íl. Yálrúd, Iran Ásiyih Khanum, Navvab First wife of Bahá'u'lláh
1821 `Abdu'lláh Páshá builds the Mansion at Bahjí. [BBD5, 42] Acre, Israel `Abdu'llah Pasha, Mansion at Bahji
1822 Birth of Mírzá-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (Quddús), the 18th Letter of the Living. Iran, Mirza-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi, Quddus, Letter of the Living
c. 1823 Bahá'u'lláh's father dreams that his son is swimming in a sea with multitudes of fish clinging to the strands of His hair. He relates this dream to a soothsayer, who prophesies that Bahá'u'lláh will achieve supremacy over the world. [DB199–20] Baha'u'llah, father, dream
c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran Áqa Husayn-i-Isfahani, Mishkin-Qalam, Apostle, calligrapher
1826 27 Jun Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2; MH20]
  • At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí becomes his designated successor. [BBD12]
  • BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
  • See CH11 and MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
  • See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life.
  • See MH22 for a picture.
Haddíyyih, Medina, Saudi Arabia Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i, Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykhism
1828 Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
  • The Báb is placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He is a leading merchant of Shíráz and is the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He is one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
  • According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
Shíráz, Iran Mirza Muhammad Rida, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, Khal-i-A`zam First, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in Shíráz
1828 Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. [BBRSM55] Persia, Iran Defeat, Persians, Russians
1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. Naw-Firist, Birjand Nabil-i-Akbar, Apostle, Aqa Muhammad-i-Qa'ini
1830 Mullá Husayn leaves his home in Mashhad to pursue his religious studies in Karbalá. [MH113] Mashad, Iran, Karbala, Iraq Mulla Husayn
c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. Iran, Persia Marriage, Tahirih, Mulla Muhammad, Mulla Taqi
1930 Jan c. Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád. Ishqabad, Haji Mirza Muhammad Taqi Afnan, Vakilu'd-Dawlih, Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
c. 1831 Birth of Mírzá Yahyá (Subh-i-Azal), half brother of Bahá'u'lláh. Persia, Iran Mirza Yahya, Subh-i-Azal
1831–40 Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
  • 'Abdu'lláh Páshá is the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
Akka, Israel Egyptian, occupation, `Akka
1831 17 Jul Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh. Iran Nasiri'd-Din Mirza, Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. Nabil-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandi, Apostle
1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
Iran, Fath-`Ali Shah, Muhammad Shah, Grand Vizier, Qa'im Maqam, Haji Mirza Áqasi
1835 Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Áqa Jan-i-Kashani, Khadimu'llah, Apostle of Baha'u'llah, amanuensis
1835 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán, Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada', Beloved of Martyrs
1835 Oct Marriage of Mírzá Husayn-`Alí to Ásíyih Khánum. [BKG23; RB1:382] Mirza Husayn-`Ali, Ásiyih Khanum
1835 Nov c. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí becomes Prime Minister of Persia. Iran Haji Mirza Áqasi, Prime Minister of Persia, Prime Minister of Iran
1837 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán, Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultanu'sh-Shuhada', King of Martyrs
c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Mirza Muhammad Mustafay-i-Baghdadi, Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1838 Manúchihr Khán is appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167] Isfahán, Iran Manuchihr Khan, Governor
1839 Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body is taken to Najaf, Iraq. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4; MBW175] Najaf, Iraq Mirza Buzurg
1839 Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Persia, Iran British defeat Persia, war, Britain
1840 The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] `Akká, Israel Britain, British take `Akka, Egyptians
1841 Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
  • The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25]
  • BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykh Ahmad
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran, Persia Haji Ákhund, Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi, Hand of the Cause
1842 Aug The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382]
  • See B80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, marriage, Khadijih-Bagum
1843 Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
  • The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
Iran, Persia Ahmad, son of Bab
1843 The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253] Bab, dream, blood, Imam Husayn
1843 The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. [BBRSM55] Karbalá, Iraq Karbala, Turks
1843 Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and chosen successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6]
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
Karbalá, Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykhi school, Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani, Shaykh Ahmad, Islam
1844 Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpáygán, Iran Gulpaygani, Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1844 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–3]
Karbalá, Isfahán, Mashhad, Najaf, Búshihr, Shíráz, Iraq, Iran, Persia Mullá Husayn, Siyyid Kázim, mourning, fasting
1844 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvín, Iran Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle Bahá'u'lláh
1844 c. Apr Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognizes her husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission'. He bids her to keep this knowledge concealed. [DB191–2; KB10–14] Khadijih Bagum, Bab, Qa'im
1844 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í. He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph). The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65; GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17]

  • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
  • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • See BBRSM42–3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One could be known.
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100]
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See BBD113, DB383 and MH for information on Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
  • He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
  • In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
  • At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, declaration, Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Surih of Joseph, Tahirih, Bab, Babi Qur'an, Baha'u'llah, Adamic Cycle, Baha'i Cycle, Cycle of Fulfillment, Apostolic, Heroic, Primitive, Age, Shi'i Muslim, Babu'l-Bab, Siyyid-i-dhikr, Fort Tabarsi, Jinab-i Bab, Qa'im, Promised One First, the greatest, and mightiest of all books in the Bábí Dispensation
1844 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in Tihrán at midnight. [AB9]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran `Abdu'l-Bahá, `Abbás Effendi, Bahá'í, Bahá'u'lláh, Ghusn-i-A`zam, Most Great Branch, Sirru'lláh, Mystery God, Áqá, Master, Sarkár-i-Áqá
1844 Jul-Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121; SBBH1:16–17]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
Persia, Iran Declaration, Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Mulla Husayn, Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Promised One, Letters of the Living, Quddus, Tahirih
1844 c. Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119]
  • The Báb addresses the Letters of the Living, giving each a specific task. [DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He assigns the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB857, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • See DB99 for the story of Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, who is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in the city of Isfahán.
  • See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • After Isfahán, Mullá Husayn visits Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, about 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–1 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion. [MH110]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb.
Iran, Persia, Turkey, Káshán, Isfahán, Tihrán, Tehran, Mázindarán, Khurásán, Qum Bab, Letters of the Living, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Tablet Baha'u'llah, Shah, Mulla Ja`far, sifter of wheat, Munirih, wife `Abdu'l-Baha, Muhammad Shah, Sultan `Abdu'l-Majid, Tablet Bab First to embrace the Cause of the Báb in the city of Isfahán; first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist aid of Muhammad Sháh
1844 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA]
Constantinople, Istanbul, Iraq, Baghdád, Najaf, Karbalá Báb, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, Shaykhí, Mullá `Alí, Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, Shí`í, Sunní, `ulamá, martyr, Bábí, Mullá Hasan Gawhar, Babism First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation; first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader
1844 9 Sep The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119] Iran, Persia, Saudi Arabia, Shíráz, Búshihr, Mecca Báb, Quddús, Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí, Ethiopian, servant, Mubarak,
1844 30 Sep The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh. [MH118–19]
  • Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
  • See MH119 for a discussion of this discrepancy.
  • Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129] Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57] See MH119 for a discussion of this discrepancy.
Iran, Bab, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, letter, pilgrimage
1844 2 or 3 Oct The Báb departs on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121]
  • He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
  • He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
  • The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
  • He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
Karbalá, Iraq, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia Bab pilgrimage, Mulla Husayn, Futuh-ar-Ras`ul
1844 c. Dec The Báb and His companions arrive in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
  • See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
  • Quddús walks from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Saudi arabia Bab, sea voyage, Mecca, Quddus
1844 12 Dec The Báb arrives in Mecca and performs the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
  • See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
Mecca, Saudi Arabia Báb, pilgrimage, pilgrim
1844 20 Dec The Báb offers 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133] Mecca, Saudi Arabia Báb, lambs, sacrifice
1844 c. 20 Dec The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
  • He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B73–4; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
Mecca, Saudi Arabia Bab, declaration, Ka`bih, Qa'im, Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani, Muhit, Shaykhi, Sharif
c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Persia, Iran Mirza `Ali-Muhammad-i-Khurasani, Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause
1845 c. Jan Crowds gather in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them Táhirih. [BI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Karbalá, Iraq Bab, Tahirih
1845 10 Jan The beginning of the Islamic new year. Messianic fervour grows, particularly among Shaykhís. [BBRSM15]
1845 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád.A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdád, Iraq trial, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami
1945 c. 13 Jan A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. Baghdád, Iraq fatwa, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Bab
1845 16 Jan The Báb arrives in Medina from Mecca. [dhut bíy-i-jiddih]
  • He reveals `The Epistle between Two Shrines' en route. [B73–4]
  • He stays 27 days. [MS2]
  • B75 and DB140 indicate that the Báb arrived 10 January. The Research Department at the Bahá`í World Centre states that the date 16 January accords with the Báb's own writings. [report 20 jan 1994]
Medina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia Bab, Epistle between Two Shrines
1845 12 Feb The Báb leaves Medina for Jiddah. [MS2] Medina, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia Báb
1845 27 Feb The Báb leaves Jiddah. [MS2]
  • He disembarks at Muscat and remains there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
  • He sends a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
  • SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
Jiddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Muscat, Oman Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, trial, letter, Imam of Muscat
1845 Notes Free
1845 c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí is removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he is sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul, Iraq, Bagdad, Iraq Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, prison
1845 c. late Apr/early May The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his nephew's Cause. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in Feb-Mar; SSBH1:23 says 15 May
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in ah 260. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1:23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá' `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Búshihr, Iran, Shíráz Bab, Quddus, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, dhasa'il-i-Sab`ih, Seven Qualifications, martyrdom
1845 Jun Quddús meets Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz. Mullá Sádiq, following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, sounds the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. [B78; DB144]
  • This provokes a public commotion. [B78; DB145; BBRSM16]
Shíráz, Iran Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas, Tablet Bab
1845 23 Jun The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11]
  • See B78–84 and BBR169–71 for background on Husayn Khán.
  • B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
  • The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
  • The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
  • B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group. The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
Fárs, Iran, Shíráz, Iran governor, Husayn Khan, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib, arrest, torure, Husayn Khan
1845 Jun c. The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105] Shíráz, Iran, Búshihr, Iran
1845 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey, Tehran, Iran Prince Dolgorukov, Russian
1845 30 Jun The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'. BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
Dálakí, Fars, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Bab, governor, arrest
1845 c. July In Kirmán, Karím Khán, the leading Shaykhí cleric, has a number of Bábís expelled from the city. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman Karim Khan, Shaykhism
1845 c. July Karím Khán writes a number of refutations of the Báb. The first, Isháqu'l-Bátil (The Crushing of Falsehood) is published in July. This causes some Bábís to dissociate themselves from Shaykhism. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman Karim Khan, Shaykhism
1845 c. 7 Jul The Báb is publicly interrogated, struck in the face and later released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [B85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
  • Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, and others, with the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
  • B105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
  • SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
  • B105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz; SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
Bab, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali
1845 Jul and months following The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
  • He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
  • The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
  • In Karbalá Táhirih revives the remnant of the Bábí community there. She is considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believes that the Shaykhí tradition has been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement causes the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18]
Shíráz, Isfahán, Khurásán, Yazd, Kirmán, Nayríz, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, Mosque Vakil, Hidden Imam, Mulla Husayn, uncle, Babi, Shah, Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi, Vahid, scholar, Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani, Hujjat, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi, learned, Tahirih, Shaykhi, Shi`ism, Karim Khan, Shaykhi, Ishaqu'l-Batil, Crushing Falsehood, Shaykhism
1845 1 Nov The Times of London carries an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This is the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article is reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shíráz, Iran, London, England arrest, torture, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib First known published reference to The Báb. First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
1845 30 Dec The Báb's birthday falls on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who is in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructs her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This causes a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih is arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217]
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Baghdád, Karbalá, Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum, Greatest Holy Leaf, daughter Baha'u'llah, Navvab, sister `Abdu'l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi, Baha'i Dispensation, Babi, Bab, Tahirih, Shaykh Muhammad Shibl, Mufti Baghdad
1846 c. Feb-
Mar 1847
The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]
  • It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]
Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran Shah, Manuchihr Khan, Bab, wife, Fatimih
1846 Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihrán, Tehran, Iran Prince Dolgorukov, Russian, Russia, ambassador
1846 summer The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13] Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab, mother, wife, prayer, martyrdom, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, Babi
1846 summer The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, is instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where He had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower are taken away along with His books and Writings. It is widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14] Shíráz The Bab
1846 23 Sep The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
  • See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
  • DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
Shíráz, Iran, Persia Husayn Khan, governor, Bab, `Abdu'l-Hamid Khan, cholera, epidemic, Shah
1846 23–24 Sep The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9]
  • TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
  • TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera; B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
  • B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab
1846 Sep-Oct On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
  • See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
Isfahán, Iran, Persia Báb, Manúchihr Khán, governor-general, Siyyid Muhammad, Imám-Jum`ih
1846 c. Nov Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9] Iran, Persia Manúchihr Khán, Báb, death-warrant
1846 Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. Constantinople, Istanbul Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, martyr, Bábí First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation
1847 Feb-Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran Manúchihr Khán, Báb, Gurgín Khán, Nusayrí horsemen
1847 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield, Massachusetts, America, United States Thornton Chase, birth, American, Bahá'í First American Bahá'í
1847 21 Mar En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22] Tihrán, Tehran, Káshán, Iran, Persia Báb, Hájí Mírzá Jání, dream
1847 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihrán, Tehran, Kulayn, Iran Báb, fortress Kinár-Gird, Muhammad Big, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, prime minister
1847 29 Mar The Báb arrives in Kulayn where He stays for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11] Kulayn, Iran Báb
1847 spring-summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kázimayn, Baghdád, Iraq, Persia, Iran, Hamadán, Kirmánsháh Tahirih, Babi, Siyyid `Ali Bishr, Bab, Mah-Ku, Hakim Masih, Jewish, doctor, Baha'i, Najib Pasha First Bahá'í of Jewish background
1847 Apr The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Máh-Kú, Ádharbáyján, Tabríz, Iran, Persia Báb, Sháh, prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, fortress Máh-Kú
1847 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Báb, letter, gifts, Bahá'u'lláh
1847 c. 1–17 Apr One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bab, disappear
1847 c. 17 Apr The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
Iran, Persia, Tabríz, Zanján, Bab, letter, Shah, prime minister, Bab, Shah, Grand Vizier, Tahirih, Haji Sulayman Khan, Hujjat
1847 c. May Birth of Fátimih (Munírih) Khánum, wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Isfahán. Isfahán, Iran, Persia Fátimih Khánum, Munírih, wife, `Abdu'l-Bahá
1847 c. May-Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12] Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bab, Mah-Ku
1847 Jul The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
  • See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia Báb, prison
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia, Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, `Ali Khan, Babi, commentary, commentaries, Qur'an, Persian Bayan, Arabic Bayan, Bayan, Dala'il-i-Sab'ih, Seven Proofs, Christian, Muhammad, Tablet Muhammad Shah
1847 Aug Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten. Hamadán, Iran Persia Táhirih, Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí, Bábi
1847 c. Aug-Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

Hamadán, Qazvín, Mashhad, Khurásán, Shíráz, Máh-Kú, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran Persia Tahirih, Arab, Babis, Haji Mulla Taqi, Shaykhis, Mulla Husayn, pilgrimage, Baha'u'llah First meeting of Mullá Husayn and Táhirih
1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
Khurásán, Máh-Kú, Qazvín, Tihrán Mulla Husayn, Tahirih
1847 Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.

  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
Shíráz, Iran, Persia murder, Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi, uncle, Tahirih, Mulla `Abdu'llah
1847 Oct-Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Táhirih, assassination, uncle, Bábís, arrested, Khusraw Khán
1847 Nov-Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán, Tehran, Qazvín, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Mulla `Abdu'llah, murder, Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi, Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi, Babis, execute, execution, martyrdom, shrine, Imam-Zadih Zayd, Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi, death, prison, Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi, Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati First imprisonment of Bahá'u'lláh; first martyr on Persian soil
1848 The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. [BBD155]

Tehran Mirza Mihdi
1848 Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
Tihrán, Tehran, Qazvín, Khurásán, Iran, Persia Tahirih, escape, Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi, Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi, Vahid
1848 20 March Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
  • MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
  • See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
  • The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
Mashhad, Mah-Ku, Iran Mulla Husayn, Bab Mulla Husayn
1848 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
Mázindarán, Khuy, Urumiyyih, Maraghih, Milan, Tabriz, Zanjan, Qazvin, Tehran, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Báb Mulla Husayn
1848 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku, Chihriq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Báb, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, Russian, Russia, Prince Dolgorukov
1848 10 Apr The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
  • He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
  • He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Báb, fortress, Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd', Grievous Mountain, Yahyá Khán, Muhammad Sháh, Máh-Kú
1848 Apr-Jul The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
  • Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
  • Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
  • So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
  • See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
  • A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
  • The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia, India Báb, Yahyá Khán, Máh-Kú, Mírzá Asadu'lláh, Khuy, Dayyán, Bábís, honey, dervish, navváb, Lawh-i-Hurúfát, Tablet Letters
1848 late spring Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, Mashhad, Iran, Persia Mullá Husayn, Quddús, hidden treasure, Bábíyyih, Bábí, Centre, Center, Sám Khán
1848 summer Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
Mashhad, Badasht, Iran, Persia Quddus, Mulla Husayn, soldiers, confinement
1848 c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht, Tabríz, Sháhrúd, Chihríq, Iran, Persia Conference Badasht, Baha'u'llah, Quddus, Tahirih, Bab, Bayan
1848 Jul After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
  • En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
  • A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9]
Chihríq, Tabríz, Urúmíyyih, Iran, Persia Báb, trial, horse, sketch, portrait
1848 c. 17 Jul The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
Badasht, Mázindarán, Níyálá, Núr, Bandar-Jaz, Iran, Persia Babis, attack, Baha'u'llah, Tahirih, Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
1848 21 Jul Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216] Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia Mullá Husayn
1848 last week
in Jul
The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
  • The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
  • He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
Tabríz, Badasht, Iran, Persia Bab, Crown Prince, Nasiri'd-Din Mirza, Qa'im, declaration, bastinado, punishment, Irish, physician, Dr William Cormick, fatwa, death, heresy First formal punishment of the Báb Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
1848 Jul-Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
Mázindarán, Badasht, Khurásán, Iran, Persia Mullá Husayn, Bábís, Black Standard, prophecy, death, Muhammad Sháh
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí, Tehran, Tihrán, Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Quddus, arrest, Mirza Muhammad-Taqi, Tahirih, Mahmud Khan, Kalantar, Mulla Husayn, Shah, pilgrimage, Tablet, Bab, Black Standard, green turban, new name, Siyyid `Ali
1848 Aug The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
  • B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
  • On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
  • The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Bab, Haji Mirza Áqasi, Hujjat, Arabic Bayan
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz, Táliqán, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, arrest, Muhammad Shah, Russian agent, Russia, Haji Mirza Hasan, Adib, Hand Cause, Apostle
1848 1 Sep Birth of August Forel, renowned entomologist and Bahá'í, in Switzerland. Switzerland August Forel
1848 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran, Persia Muhammad Sháh, Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, Bahá'u'lláh, arrest
1848 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
Tabríz, Síyáh-Chál', Iran, Persia, Iraq Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Báb, Bahá'u'lláh', martyrs, Bábí, Bahá'í, prime minister, Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání First time the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against the Faith
1848 10 Oct Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
  • MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
  • In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
  • It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Sa`idu'l-`Ulama
1848 12 Oct The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5] Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Bábís, Bábí, shrine, Shaykh Tabarsí
1848 Oct-May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
    • The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
Iran, Persia Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, Babis', Babi, Baha'u'llah, fortress, Mulla Husayn, Quddus Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
1848 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1848 early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihrán, Tehran, Ámul, Iran, Persia Bahá'u'lláh, Bábís, Shaykh Tabarsí, arrest, bastinado
1848 19 Dec The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí begins in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
  • DB361 says this was 1 December.
  • There are about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
  • The supply of bread and water to the fort is cut. A rainfall replenishes the water supply and ruins the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampers the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
Persian, Iran Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, `Abdu'llah Khan
1848 Notes Can't seem to find reference to Badi and the delivery of the tablet to the Shah

“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Posted: 11 Feb 2017 05:12 PM PST Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. - The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)

1848 21 Dec The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
  • For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
Persia, Iran Bábís, Bábí, Quddús, attack, `Abdu'lláh Khán, Tálár River
1848 Notes Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht. Káshán, Iran, Persia Ma'ani, Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, Táhirih
1849 Bahá'u'lláh marries his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb.
  • Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
Persia, Iran Baha'u'llah, marriage, wife, Fatimih Khanum Mahd-i-‘Ulya, Malik-Nisa Khanum, Mirza Buzurg, Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
1849 early Jan Arrival of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá and 3,000 royal troops in the vicinity of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí. [B173–4; BW18:381; DB363]

  • He sets up camp and his headquarters in the village of Vás-Kas. [DB363]
Vás-Kas, Persia, Iran Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá, troops, shrine, Shaykh Tabarsí
1849 11 Jan Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]

DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.

  • Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá flees barefoot. [DB366]
  • Mullá Husayn's sword is broken in the attack and he uses Quddús'. His companions bring him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]

    At daybreak the soldiers mount a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]

  • In this encounter Quddús is wounded in the mouth and is rescued by Mullá Husayn who disperses the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
Persia, Iran Quddus, Mulla Husayn, attack, army, Babis
1849 27 Jan The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]

  • This is the third army to be mustered.
  • The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
Persia, Iran ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání, army, Mullá Husayn
1849 1 Feb The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Persia, Iran Mullá Husayn, turban, Báb
1849 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, death, Babis, burial, Mihdi-Quli Mirza, martyred
1849 c. 11 Mar On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
  • DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
  • Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, death, ‘Abbas-Quli Khan, attack
1849 27 Mar Renewed forces under Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá encamp in the neighbourhood of the fort, build fortifications and begin to bombard the shrine. [BW18:381; DB390–3]
  • DB391 says this was the ninth day after Naw-Rúz.
Persia, Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza, fort, shrine
1849 c. end Mar The army continues to fire on the shrine for a few days. Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir and 18 others attack the new fortifications and destroy some of them. [DB393–4] Persia, Iran army, shrine, attack, Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849 early Apr Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar arrives with more troops. [BW18:381] Persian, Iran Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar
1849 26 Apr A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán is repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]

  • A few days later some of the Bábís leave the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they are put to death. [DB396–9]
Iran, Persia Sulaymán Khán, Bábís, Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849 9 May Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá sends an emissary to the fort to invite two representatives to his camp to conduct negotiations. On the strength of assurances written on a Qur'án, Quddús leaves the fort and enters the Prince's camp. [B175; BW18:381; DB399–400] Persia, Iran Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá, Quddús, fort
1849 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.

  • They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
Iran, Persia Shaykh Tabarsi, fort, shrine, Babis
1849 11 May Quddús is taken to Bárfurúsh and handed over to the priests. [DB408] Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddús
1849 16 May Quddús is tortured and, in the public square, he is struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]

  • As he dies he begs God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains are gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddús, torture, death, burial
1849 c. Jun-Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
  • DB430 says he languished in despondency and sorrow for five months.
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Bab, prison, massacre, Shaykh Tabarsi, martyr, Quddus
1849 1 Aug Death of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí at Karbalá. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
1849 26 Nov The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431] Persia, Iran Báb, Mullá Ádí-Guzal, grave, Quddús, Mullá Husayn, pilgrimage
1850 early weeks Vahíd clashes with the authorities in Yazd. He escapes and makes a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B178 says this took place in the early weeks of 1850; B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
Yazd, Fárs, Iran, Persia Vahid
1850 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mázindarán, Iran, Persia Mullá Ádí-Guzal, Báb
1850 14 Feb Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381] Iran, Persia Bábí, informer, arrest
1850 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia seven, Martyr, seven goats, Islam, Qá'im, Bábí, Grand Vizier, Prince Dolgorukov, Sheil
1850 spring The house of Vahíd in Yazd is attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd is dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd leaves Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Yazd, Iran, Persia Vahid, house, attack, Mulla Muhammad-Rida
1850 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]

  • Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
Zanján, Iran, Persia Hujjat, Babi, ‘ulama Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
1850 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanján, Iran, Persia Martyrdom, Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí
1850 19 May The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Tihrán, Tehran, Zanján, Iran, Persia Governor, Hujjat, Mír Saláh, Zaynab, Bábí
1850 27 May-
21 Jun
First Nayríz upheaval.

Vahíd travels from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He goes to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascends the pulpit and proclaims the Cause of God. The Governor makes moves against him and Vahíd orders his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that follows lasts a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]

  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
Nayríz, Yazd, Shíráz, Vahid, Mosque, Jum‘ih, Governor, fort Khajih, siege First Nayríz upheaval
1850 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]

  • His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
Chihríq, Tabríz, Urúmíyyih, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Mirza Taqi Khan, Bab, American, missionaries, Mulla Baqir, Letters Living, ‘Jinab-i-Baha', Baha'u'llah, Tablet, ‘Baha'
1850 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd receives a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leaves the fortress and is received into the camp of his enemies where he is entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayríz, Iran, Persia Vahíd, truce
1850 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]

  • Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
Nayríz, Iran, Persia Vahíd, Bábí
1850 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shíráz, Nayríz, Iran, Persia severed head, Bábí
1850 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayríz, Tabríz, Iran, Persia Vahid, martyrdom, Bab
1850 29 Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz. [BBR76] Tabríz The Bab
1850 29 Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz. [BBR76]
  • BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
Tabríz The Bab
1850 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bab, turban, sash, barracks, Mirza Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Zunuzi, Anis, martyr
1850 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]

At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]

  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.

The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]

  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.

    At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]

Tabríz, Iran, Persia Martyrdom, Bab, Anis, Sam Khan, Christian, colonel, Armenian
1850 10 Jul The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]

  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
Iran, Persia Russian, Consul, Bakulin, sketch, Báb,
1850 11 Jul The bodies are removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]

  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8 for the story of the recovery of the bodies.
  • The soldiers report that the bodies have been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
Iran, Persia silk, factory, bodies
1850 Jul The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
Iran, Persia, Iraq Bab, Faith Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
1850 Aug c. Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí. Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani, Haji Amin, Hand Cause, Babi
1850 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting begun in May continues. He takes charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]

  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
Zanján, Iran, Persia ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief, army, Ashraf, mother
1850 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions are executed in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran, Persia Vahíd
1850 Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tries to deceive Hujjat into surrender by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responds by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who has them thrown into a dungeon. This signals the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanján, Tabarsí, Nayríz, Iran, Persia Muhammad Khan, Hujjat
1850 early Dec Hujjat is wounded in the arm. His companions lay down their arms and rush to his assistance. The royal forces take advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]

  • About 100 women and children are taken captive. They are left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
  • The remaining Bábís, about 140, shelter in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]

The bombardment of the fortress is stepped-up and Hujjat's house particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby are killed. [B187; DB572–3]

Hujjat, wounded, killed, Babis
1850 29 Dec Hujjat dies of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
Zanján, Iran, Persia Hujjat, death
1851 Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), a prominent mujtahid, becomes a Bábí, in Najafábád. Najafábád, Iran Mulla Zaynu'l-'Abidin, Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin, mujtahid, Babi
1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]

  • With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
Zanján, Iran, Persia death, Hujjat, Babi
1851 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán, Tehran, Zanján, Iran, Persia Bábís, executed
1851 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd, Iran, Persia Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl, executed
1851 1 May Áqá Husayn is blown from a cannon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd, Iran, Persia Áqá Husayn, cannon
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihrán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan, Baha'u'llah
1851 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd, Iran, Persia Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání, death
1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591] Kirmánsháh, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah
1851 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák is blown from a cannon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák, canon, death
1851 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]

  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
Karbalá, Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, pilgrimage, Bábís
1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
Karbalá, Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi, Bab, amanuensis, Baha'u'llah, Imam Husayn, shrine
1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, is put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]

  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
Siyyid Basir-Hindi, Indian, death, Ildirim Mirza
1851 13 Nov Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám, is dismissed from his post and told he is only in charge of the army. [BBR163; BKG71]

  • He is succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí. [BBRXXIX, 482; DB598]
Mírzá Taqí Khán, Amír-Nizám, dismissed, Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí
1851 Dec After learning of the death of the Bab, his mother Fáṭimih Bagum moves to Karbilá with her closest companions. Karbila Fáṭimih Bagum, Mírzá Muhammad Ridá Bahaikipedia
1852 Birth of Mírzá Buzurg-i-Khurásání (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad, Iran, Persia Mirza Buzurg-i-Khurasani, Badi‘, birth, Apostle, Baha'u'llah
1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán is killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]

  • He chooses to have his veins opened and he bleeds to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Káshán, Iran, Persia Mirza Taqi Khan, death, Shah, mother, Mirza Áqa Khan
1852 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York City, United States Isabella Brittingham, American, Bahá'í
1852 Apr-May c. Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]

  • He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
Karbalá, Iraq, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Grand Vizier
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih, Lavásán, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Ja‘far-Quli Khan, Grand Vizier
1852 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran, Persia Sháh, Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, Bahá'u'lláh
1852 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]

  • Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
Zargandih, Iran, Persia Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, Russian, Sháh, Prince Dolgorukov, Grand Vizier, arrest
1852 days following
16 Aug
For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]

He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Siyah-Chal
1852 16–22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]

  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Babis, arrest, execute, execution, Siyah-Chal, martyrdom, Tahirih, Ílkhani garden
1852 22 Aug –7 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís are distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] execution, Babis
1852 Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bábí, arrest, torture, prison, Sháh, Mahmud Khán, Kalántar, martyr, Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 companions. [BBIC:6]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100]

Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107]

Tihrán, Tehran, Tákur, Iran, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Baha'u'llah, Siyah-Chal, prison, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi, martyr, poison, chain, Mirza Yahya
1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, vision, maid, angels, Manifestation, Moses, Burning Bush, Zoroaster, Seven Visions, Buddha, Bodhi tree, Dove, Jesus, Gabriel, Muhammad, Bab, Declaration
1852 27 Oct The Bahá’í Faith is first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez” („To the History of Education in Persia”) where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reports on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá’ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu] Budapest, Hungary First mention of the Faith in Hungary
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran, Persia, Iraq Baha'u'llah, release, Siyah-Chal, Russia, Minister, Prince Dolgorukov, Mirza Áqa Khan
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]

  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]

  • The revelation of this Tablet points up Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
Baghdád, Iraq Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, birth, son, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá, Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám, Tablet All Food, Mírzá Yahyá' First son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá; first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival Baghdád
1853 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108] Írán, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, brother, wife, son, Mírzá Ridá-Qulí, Navváb, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahíyyih Khánum, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qul, Russia
1853 Notes CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.

  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Írán, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Báb, Muhammad, Moses, Abraham, exile
1853 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105] Khániqayn, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Naw-Rúz
1853 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayríz, Iran, Persia Bábís, upheaval, murder, governor
1853 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrive in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gives birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Navváb, son
1853 summer Bahá'u'lláh reveals His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. [BKG109–11; GPB115–16] Karbalá, Iraq Baha'u'llah, Mirza Áqa Jan a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
1853 Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]

  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
Nayríz, Iran, Persia upheaval, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, Bábí
1853 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayríz, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Bábí, prisoner, martyr, Islam, prophecy, Qá'im
1853 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz, Nayríz, Tihrán, Tehran, Ábádih, Iran, Persia Bábí, executed
1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]

  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]

  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
Kurdistán, Baghdád Baha'u'llah, dervish, cave, Sar-Galu, Darvish, Muhammad-i-Írani, Moses, Sinai, Buddha, Christ, Muhammad, Áqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani, poem, Qasidiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqa'iyyih, Bab, Babi, son, Navvab Mirza Yahya, Sufi, Daoud Toeg, cave, Sar-Galu
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London, England John Henry Hyde Dunn, birth, Hand Cause
1855 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. USA, America, United States Robert Turner, Bahá'í First black American Bahá'í
1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Írán Anglo-Persian War
1956 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returns from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán.

"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
Baghdád, Iraq, Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán Baha'u'llah, Sulaymaniyyih
1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
c. 1856–7 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Samadíyyih Khánum, daughter, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá First daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
1856–8 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period are so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He reveals a vast number of works and then commands that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, writing
1856–63 It is in this period that Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh describes the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150]

  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA1507.
Baghdád, Iraq, Kurdistán Bahá'u'lláh, Seven Valleys, Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, Qádí Khániqayn,
c. 1857 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Four Valleys, addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání and describing four stages of the spiritual life. [SA157–8] Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Four Valleys, Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání
1858 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40] Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Hidden Words, Kalimát-i-Maknúnih, Fátimih, Tigris
1858 Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Írán, Persia Mírzá Áqá Khán, prime minister, Bábí, Sháh
c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Mírzá Mihdí, son, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
1860 Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] Naw Firist, Bírjand, Iran, Persia Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, birth, Apostle, Bahá'u'lláh
c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdád, Iraq, Mashhad, Iran, Persia ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, commentary, Islam, Hidden Treasure, ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá, Hájí Ákhúnd, Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, Hand Cause, Bábí, Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání, Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq, Ibn Asdaq, Bahá'u'lláh
1861 25 Jun Death of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz to the Ottoman throne. [BBR485]
  • Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey death, Sultan ‘Abdu'l-Majid, Sultan ‘Abdu'l-‘Aziz, Ottoman, throne
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.

Some Bábís are imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:382]

‘Abdu'l-‘Alí Khán-i-Marághi'í is killed in Tihrán on the order of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:382]

Baghdád, Iraq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bahá'u'lláh, Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Bábí, prison, death, ‘Abdu'l-‘Alí Khán-i-Marághi'í, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh First (probably) of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print
1862-1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís are arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They are banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí will spend the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, Delight of Hearts 32-66] Egypt
1862 c. Mar-Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdád, Iraq Sádhijíyyih, daughter, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bahá'u'lláh, ring, shawl, Shahr-Bánú, Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Iraq
1862–8 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]

  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
Shanghai, Hong Kong, China Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, cousin, Báb, Bábí, Bahá'í, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn First record of Bábí or Bahá'í living in China
1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offers Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offers Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]

  • Bahá'u'lláh declines the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
Baghdád, Iraq, India, Britain, Colonel, Arnold Burrowes Kemball, British, Consul-General, Bahá'u'lláh, Ottoman
1863 c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdád, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, governor, Námiq Páshá, Grand Vizier, ‘Alí Páshá First of ‘five successive commands' to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople
1863 Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrates the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, Tigris, Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Naw-Rúz
1863 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, Tablet, Holy Mariner, Naw-Rúz, Mírzá Áqá Ján, Námiq Páshá,
1863 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House and is given the letter summoning Him to Constantinople. [BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. [BKG155; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
Baghdád, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, deputy, governor, Námiq Páshá, Ottoman citizenship, removal
1863 See also BBD196; BBIC13, note 68. Baghdád, Iraq
1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]

  • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
  • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
  • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.

On learning that Bahá'u'lláh is to leave Baghdád, large numbers visit Him. The house is too small for the purpose. Najíb Páshá puts his garden-park, Najíbíyyih, at Bahá'u'lláh's disposal. [RB1:259]

Baghdád, Mosul, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey, Iran, Persia Mírzá Yahyá, Báb, Najíb Páshá, garden, Najíbíyyih
1863 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston, Massachusetts, USA William Henry Harry Randall, Disciple, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá
1863 22 Apr-3 May Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki]

Garden of Ridván, Najibiyyih Garden, Iraq Declaration Baha'u'llah
1863 22 Apr Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).

  • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
  • For the first time, He wears a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]

    Bahá'u'lláh enters the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer is being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]

On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]

  • ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
  • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
  • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
  • This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
  • This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]

On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:

  1. He forbids the use of the sword.
  2. He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
  3. He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]

During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

  • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
Najíbíyyih Garden, Iraq Naw-Rúz, Bahá'u'lláh, Garden Ridván, táj, Báb, Bahá'í, Heroic Age, Apostolic Age, Kitáb-i-Badí‘, Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Lawh-i-Ayyúb, Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá First time Bahá'u'lláh wears tall táj as symbol of His station; First Day of Ridván; first epoch of Heroic or Apostolic Age
1863 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joins Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]

  • This initiates the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
Najíbíyyih Garden, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, family, Ridván, ninth day
1863 3 May Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.

  • This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
  • His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
Najíbíyyih Garden, Firayját, Iraq, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Ridvan, Twelfth Day, Tablet, Áqa Mirza Áqa, horse, donkey, taj, Tigris
1863 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul. [GPB156; SA235]

  • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They pass through the following:
    Judaydih
    Dilí-'Abbás
    Qarih-Tapih
    Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    Dúst-Khurmátú
    Táwuq
    Karkúk (stay two days)
    Irbíl
    By the River Záb
    Bartallih
    Mosul (stay three days)
    Zákhú
    Jazírih
    Nisíbín
    Hasan-Áqá
    Márdiín
    Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
    Ma'dan-Mis
    Khárpút (stay two or three days)
    Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    Dilik-Tásh
    Sívás
    Túqát
    Amasia (stay two days)
    Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
Firayját, Sámsún, Istanbul Baha'u'llah, journey, Black Sea, Tablet, Suriy-i-Hawdaj
1863 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
Sámsún
1863 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Constantinople. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1] Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey
1863 16 Aug-1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]

News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]

Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]

Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]

  • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.

    On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]

Constantinople, Istanbul, Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, Mathnaví-i-Mubárak, Shamsí Big, Mírzá Yahyá, Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz, Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, Grand Vizier
1863 c. Aug-Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body is buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Death, Sádhijíyyih, daughter, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá, Ádirnih Gate
1863 19 Oct Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Bell (Subhánika-Yá-Hú). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
  • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Baha'u'llah, Tablet Bell, Subhanika-Ya-Hu
1863 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

  • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • chik-Chakmachih
    Buyúk-Chakmachih
    Salvarí
    Birkás
    Bábás
    Bábá-Iskí
    
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
Constantinople, Istanbul, Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Baha'u'llah, winter, journey
1863 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Adrianople. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • This is the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reaches and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lives in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey, Europe Bahá'u'lláh, Europe First time Manifestation of God had lived on European continent
1863 probably near end Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directs His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dates this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk
     Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
     Virtual Extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
     Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
     Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
     Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
     Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
     Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
     Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
     Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
     Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
     Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
     Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
     Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
     Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
     Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
     Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
     Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
     Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
     Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
     Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
Adrianople, Constantinople
1864 Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran, Persia Mírzá Hádí Shírází, father, Shoghi Effendi
1864 27 Mar Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas, who later becomes an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516] Rasht, Iran, Europe A. L. M. Nicolas, Báb
1864 Apr Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeds Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both are admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBR487; BKG254]

Upheaval at Najafábád.

  • Several hundred Bahá'ís are arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He is dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners are executed, 18 are sent to Tihrán and the remainder are sent back to Najafábád where they are severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán are put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these are beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey, Isfahán, Najafábád, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Sulaymán Páshá, Súfí, Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí, Governor, Bahá'u'lláh, upheaval, Bahá'í, arrest, Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, Wolf, Sháh
1864 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, son, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahdi-‘Ulyá
1864 Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He is succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who is not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Governor Sulaymán Páshá, ‘Árif Páshá, Bahá'u'lláh
1865 French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau publishes Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. [BBR17]

Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]

France, Russia French, Joseph Comte de Gobineau, Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, Bábí, Mírzá Kazem-Beg, Petersburg University, Bab Babidy First Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion
c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]

  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
  • See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that: the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
Adrianople, Edirne, Yazd, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Tablet Ahmad, Lawh-i-Ahmad
1865 About a year after Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Adrianople Mírzá Yahyá poisons Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG225; GPB165]

  • Bahá'u'lláh is ill for a month following this and is left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life. [BKG225; GPB165]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is attended by a foreign doctor named Shíshmán who dies shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimated that the doctor had sacrificed his life for Him. [BKG225; GPB166]
  • This event takes places after the revelation of the Tablet of Ahmad.
Adrianople, Mirza Yahya, poison
1865 Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He is buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] Qum, Iran, Karbalá, Iraq Prime Minister, Mírzá Áqá Khán, death
1865 See also

  • For Yahyá's instigation of the attempt on Bahá'u'lláh's life in the public bath see BKG227–30, CB82–3, GPB166 and RB2:158–61.
  • For Yahyá's poisoning of Bahá'u'lláh's well see GBP166.
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Yahyá, Bahá'u'lláh, public bath, poison
1866 c. Mar 1866 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CB84; GBP166]

  • This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
  • Mírzá Yahyá responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]

Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]

  • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
  • This is the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, Súriy-i-Amr, Súrih Command, Mírzá Yahyá, Báb, Lawh-i-Bahá, Khátún Ján, Táhirih, Ridá Big, Tablet, people Bahá, people Bayán First Tablet Bahá'u'lláh uses term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers
1866 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]

  • He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.

Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]

  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, house, Amru'lláh, Ridá Big, Azal, Most Great Separation
1866 10 Mar- c. Mar 1867 Bahá'u'lláh reveals numerous Tablets in the months that follow.

  • See GBP170–1 for a description of the number of verses revealed every day.
  • See BKG245 and GPB171 for list of Tablets revealed before Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in the house of ‘Izzat Áqá.
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, Tablet, ‘Izzat Áqá
1866 Mar Khurshíd Páshá takes up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233] Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Khurshíd Páshá, governor
1866 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]

  • The falling of stars is predicted in MATT. 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
star-fall, falling stars, symbol, Baha'u'llah, Bible, Matthew
1866 Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís are arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bahá'í, arrest, Bábí
1866 1 Dec Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as ‘General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.

See LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.

Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Marion Jack, Bahá'í, pioneer, General jack,
1867 Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Mirza Badi'u'llah, son, Baha'u'llah, wife, Mahd-i‘Ulya
1867 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61] Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bahá'í, arrest, execution, Azalí
1867 Notes BW18:382 says this was 8 January Tabríz
1867 Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

Zanján; Tihrán Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, Bahá'í, physician, executed, Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat
1867 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moves back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]

  • He stays for about three months. [GPB168]
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, Amru'lláh,
1967 16 March An appeal by 53 Bahá’ís is sent from Shushtar, Iran addressed to the US Congress. Shushtar, Iran Petition, United States Congress 1867 Petition
1867 Notes BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it. Adrianople
1867 Apr An appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrives at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers] Baghdad, Shushtar Petition, US Congress 1867 Petition
1867 c. Jun Bahá'u'lláh rents the house of ‘Izzat Áqá. [BKG239; GPB168]

  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, ‘Izzat Áqá, house
1867 c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]

  • Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, Ottoman government, Mírzá Yahyá,
1867 Sep Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenges Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím, thinking that He will not accept. In the end, it is Mírzá Yahyá who does not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]

  • The incident gains Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
  • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
Adrianople, Edirne, Turkey Mirza Yahya, Mir Muhammad, Baha'u'llah, confrontation, mosque Sultan Salim
1867 Sep-Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]

  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.

Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]

  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.

In this period the extent of the Faith is enlarged, with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]

The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá' supersedes the Islamic salutation and is simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176]

The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, is discarded and is supplanted by the term ‘the people of Bahá. [BKG250; GBP176]

Nabíl-i-A‘zam is despatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]

  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15.

Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tihrán instructing them to transfer secretly the remains of the Báb from the Imám-Zádih Ma‘súm, where they were concealed, to some other place of safety. [GPB177]

The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]

Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178]

Adrianople, Egypt, Syria, Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr, Tehrán, Baghdad, Iraq, Iran, Persia, Turkey Baha'u'llah, Suriy-Muluk, Surih Kings, Shoghi Effendi, Tablet, Kitab-i-Badi‘, Munajathay-i-Siyam, Prayers for Fasting, Napoleon III, Lawh-i-Sultan, Nasiri'd-Din Shah, Suriy-i-Ra'is, Suriy-i-Ghusn, Tablet of the Branch, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, Caucasus, Allah-u-Abha', Bayan, Mirza Yahya, pilgrimage, Baha, Nabil-i-A‘zam, Babi, Nabil, Khadijih Khanum, Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi, Jamal-i-Burujirdi, shrine, Imam-Zadih Ma‘sum First time Bahá'u'lláh directs His words collectively to entire company of monarchs of East and West; first Egyptian centre established; first pilgrimages to residence of Bahá'u'lláh
1868 Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople are arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it is to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
  • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
  • Among those arrested is Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He is particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these are given to him. [BKG252]
Constantinople Mishkín-Qalam
1868 c. May Bahá'u'lláh sends Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He is thrown into prison and befriends a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • Fáris Effendi is probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10]
Cairo Nabíl-i-A`?am, Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí, Fáris Effendi First Christian to become a Bahá'í
1868 c. 7 Jun Nabíl has a dream in which Bahá'u'lláh appears to him in his cell and assures him that he will have reason to rejoice within the next 81 days. [BKG267] Cairo Nabíl
1868 c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
Baghdád, Mosul King of Martyrs, Beloved of Martyrs, charity fund First charity fund
1868 c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází is arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] Egypt Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází
1868 26 Jul Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]
  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's property in Baghdád, valued at
Adrianople, Baghdád Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, Khurshíd Páshá, firmán
1868 Notes BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.

BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.

Gallipoli
1868 Aug Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh, is poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383]

One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house is surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants are rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They are told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]

  • The Consuls of European powers offer assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and are prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refuses these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
Yazd, Adrianople Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh
1868 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
  • En route they pass through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
Adrianople, Gallipoli
1868 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrive in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli
1868 16 Aug They arrive in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
  • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey.
  • They remain there for three nights. [BKG263; GPB181]
  • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
Gallipoli
1868 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
  • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
  • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touches on Madellí and stops for a few hours. It continues on to Smyrna the same night. [BKG264]
Gallipoli, Madellí, Smyrna
1868 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies soon after and is buried in Izmír. [BKG264–5; GPB182]
Smyrna Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání
1868 23 Aug The steamer leaves Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gains on a morning two days later. [BKG265] Smyrna, Alexandria
1868 26-27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docks at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
  • The exiles change ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
  • Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl is detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognizes him. [BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
  • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which are delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returns with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
  • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh leaves Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
Alexandria Nabil and Faris Effendi
1868 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said, Jaffa
1868 30 Aug The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa, Haifa
1868 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, are sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
Haifa, Famagusta, `Akká, citadel Mishkín-Qalam, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, Lawh-i-Ra'ís, First night in citadel in `Akká
1868 Notes Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís are sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
Adrianople
1868 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict.
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19 — 20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
Mosque of Al-Jazzár firmán
1868 5 Sep Mírzá Yahyá and his family arrive in Famagusta along with four Bahá'ís. [BBR306]
  • See BBR36 for the names of the Bahá'ís and their fate.
  • Mírzá Yahyá arrives with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
Famagusta
1868 c. Oct Nabíl is released from prison in Egypt and departs for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
  • He visits Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
Cairo, `Akká, Cyprus Nabíl
1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, land in Haifa. Hardegg remains in Haifa to head the colony, while Hoffman goes to Jaffa to found a colony there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2 15–16; DH133] Haifa, Jaffa Christoph Hoffman, Georg David Hardegg, Templers
1868 Notes DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh several times stayed in the houses of the colony. [BBR234]
  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
Templers
1868 end Oct Nabíl enters `Akká in disguise but is recognized and after three days is thrown out of the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
  • He spends the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
`Akká Nabíl
1868 Notes RB2:333 says this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.

Bahá'ís in Bushrúyih, Khurásán, are attacked and several are injured. [BW18:383]

  • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
Group and individual photographs are taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
Bushrúyih, Khurásán, Khartoum, Tihrán, Adrianople Haji Mirza Haydar-`Ali, Haji Mulla `Ali-i-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi, Mulla `Ali Kani, Hand of the Cause of God
1868–1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh reveals a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
  • President Grant of the United States is in office when Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
`Akká `Ali Pasha, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria, Pope Pius IX, President Grant, Lawh-i-Ra'is, Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'
1869–1872 A great famine occurs in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population dies and a further 10 per cent emigrates. [BBRSM86; GPB233] Iran
1869 Feb Nabíl makes a second attempt to enter `Akká. He is able to remain for 81 days and meets Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but does not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57] `Akká Nabíl
1869 Notes DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870. `Akká, citadel Nabíl
1869 1 May Nabíl meets Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57] `Akká, citadel Nabíl
1869 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause of God
1869 Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
Írán Badí`, Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, Sháh
1869 See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589.
1869 25 Dec A mob attacks the Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, Iran, and two are severely beaten. [BW18:383] Fárán, Khurásán, Iran
1869 Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but fails to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116] Jerusalem Franz Josef
1869 Early in the year Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrives in `Akká from Iran and is the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
  • He is `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This is the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817]
The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrives in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He is able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He is still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–7 and RB3:176–9.
Badí` sees `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and is able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` enters the citadel and goes into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He meets Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–82.
Badí` asks Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestows it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
  • The journey takes four months; he travels alone. [BKG298]
  • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
  • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–6.
`Akká, bath of Al-Jazzár Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí, Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí` First pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká
1870 Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. He goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf is arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He is the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
`Údí Khammár completes the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH1067]
  • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
Iraq, Zanján, Bahjí Napoleon III, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf, Mír Jalíl, Hujjat, `Údí Khammár, `Abdu'lláh Páshá
1870 14 Jan Birth of May (or Mary) Ellis Bolles, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in Englewood, New Jersey. Englewood, New Jersey May Ellis Bolles
1870 22 Jun Mírzá Mihdí, the Purest Branch, falls through the skylight in the roof of the prison in `Akká onto a crate lying on the floor below. [BKG311–12; GBP188; RB3:205]
  • It was a normal practice for prisoners to go onto the roof in the summer evenings for fresh air. [RB3:205]
  • He was chanting the verses of Bahá'u'lláh's Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih. [RB3:206]
  • He is so badly injured that his clothes have to be torn from him. [RB206]
  • Bahá'u'lláh comes to him at His bedside and asks His son whether he wishes to live; the Purest Branch begs Bahá'u'lláh to accept his life as a ransom for the opening of the gates of the prison to pilgrims. Bahá'u'lláh accepts this sacrifice. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
`Akká, citadel Mírzá Mihdí, Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih
1870 23 Jun Mírzá Mihdí dies from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
  • He is interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
  • Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
`Akká Mirza Mihdi, The Purest Branch
1870 Jul The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulates the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attack the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54] Rome Pope Pius IX
1870 29 Sep Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effects his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306] Cyprus, `Akká Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár
1870 Oct Bahá'u'lláh is moved to the house of Malik in the Fákhúrah quarter, in the western part of `Akká. [BBRXXIX, 209; BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • Movements of troops required use of the barracks. [BKG315; RB3:221]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts three months. BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • This is four months after the death of the Purest Branch. [BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
House of Malik
1870–71 Franco-Prussian War.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
Franco-Prussian War, War
1871 Muhammad-Hasan Khán-i-Káshí dies in Burújird, Iran, after being bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

Three Bahá'ís are executed in Shíráz. [BW18:383]

Burújird, Shíráz Muhammad-Hasan Khán-i-Káshí
1871 c. Jan Bahá'u'lláh is moved to the house of Khavvám, across the street from the house of Malik. [BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasts a few months. [BKG319]
House of Khavvám
1871 c. May Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasts four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
House of Rábi`ih
1871 mid-1871 `Údí Khammár, a wealthy Maronite Christian merchant, and his family move into the recently restored mansion at Bahjí, leaving their `Akká house empty. [BKG316–17; DH203] Bahjí `Údí Khammár
1871 4 Aug Shaykh `Alíy-i-Sayyáh, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, dies. [BBR306] Cyprus Shaykh `Alíy-i-Sayyáh
1871 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
  • The house is so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions take up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts two years. [BKG319]
  • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
House of `Údí Khammár, Khán-i-`Avámíd Údí Khammár, Ilyás `Abbúd.
1871 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant, Mother Teacher of the West
1871 End of the year Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet). [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31] Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun
1872 Bahá'u'lláh calls Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She travels to Shíráz where she stays with the wife of the Báb then travels to Mecca for the pilgrimage. From Mecca she travels to `Akká. [MKBM]DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872. BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
  • See CH84–17 for Munírih Khánum's own account of the journey. Birth of Joseph H. Hannen, a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • 1872 22 Jan Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
    • Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
    • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
    • Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
    • See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
    `Akká, House of `Údí Khammár Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, Ilyás `Abbúd, Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation
    1872 31 May Birth of Thomas Breakwell, considered the first English Bahá'í, in Woking, Surrey, England. Woking, Surrey, England Thomas Breakwell First English Bahá'í
    1872 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond, Ohio Martha Root, Hand of the Cause of God
    1872 22 Nov Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, dies. [BBR306]
    • This leaves Mishkín-Qalam as the only Bahá'í in Cyprus. [BBR306]
    Cyprus Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, Mishkín-Qalam
    1872 Last months Munírih Khánum arrives in `Akká. She stays in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
    • Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
    `Akká Munirih Khanum, Mirza Musa
    1872 Restoration of the House of the Báb begins at the request of Khadíjih Bigum. On its completion she takes up residence there. [EB232]

    Bahá'u'lláh calls Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She travels to Shíráz where she stays with the wife of the Báb then travels to Mecca for the pilgrimage. From Mecca she travels to `Akká. [MKBM]DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872. BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.

  • See CH84–17 for Munírih Khánum's own account of the journey. Birth of Joseph H. Hannen, a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • House of the Báb, Shíráz Khadijih Bigum, Munirih Khanum (Fatimih Khanum)
    1873 Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) becomes Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
    • His governorship lasts two years. [BKG337]
    • This `sagacious and humane governor' meets `Abdu'l-Bahá and is greatly impressed by Him. The governor peruses some of the writings, which also impress him. [BKG334; GPB191]
    • In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion is made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
    `Akká Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey), Mutasarrif of `Akká
    1873 c. Mar Ilyás `Abbúd offers to provide a room in his house for `Abdu'l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum after their marriage. He furnishes a room, opens a doorway into it through the dividing wall and presents it to Bahá'u'lláh for `Abdu'l-Bahá's use. [BKG348; DH45] House of `Abbúd Ilyás `Abbúd
    1873 8 Mar Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum. House of `Abbúd Munírih Khánum
    1873 Notes DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
    • See CH87–90, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
    • For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
    • She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
    • See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
    • See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
    • The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
    Munírih Khánum, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí, Díyá'iyyih Khánum, Mírzá Hádí Shírází, Túbá Khánum, Mírzá Muhsin Afnán, Rúhá Khánum, Mírzá Jalál, Mírzá Muhammad-?asan, Munavvar Khánum, Mírzá Ahmad
    1873 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause of God
    1873 Late Bahá'u'lláh acquires the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moves to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
    • He lives here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
    • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
    House of `Abbúd Ilyás `Abbúd
    1873 Latter part The existence of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is made known to the Bahá'ís. [SA248] The Kitáb-i-Aqdas
    1873 See also See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct. See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.

    Ibn-i-Abhar is arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for 14 months and 15 days. [BW18:383]

    Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá.

    Tihrán, Paris Ahmad Big Tawfíq, Ibn-i-Abhar, Hippolyte Dreyfus, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá First French Bahá'í
    1873 Early part Bahá'u'lláh completes the revelation of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
    • This date is confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870. [SA248]
    • There is some evidence to suggest that parts of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17]
    • For the significance of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
    • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
    • The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers. At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
    House of `Údí Khammár The Kitab-i-Aqdas, Napoleon III, Trustee of the Huququ'llah
    1874 Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Montreal William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God
    1874 Apr Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the Wolf, has 20 or more Bahá'ís arrested in Isfahán. [BW18:383] Isfahán Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the Wolf
    1874 8 May The arrival of the eldest son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, Zillu's-Sultán, arrives in Isfahán as governor. [BBR269]

    Within a few days of the arrival of Zillu's-Sultán in Isfahán, a general persecution of Bahá'ís begins. [BBRXXXIX, 269–70]

    • This can be traced to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the `Wolf'. [BBR270]
    • See SDH104 for comment by Bahá'u'lláh on a challenge made by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir.
    • For Western reports of this outburst see BBR270–3.
    Isfahán Sultan-Mas'ud Mirza, Zillu's-Sultan, Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir, the Wolf
    1874 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen, Scotland John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God
    1874 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston, South Carolina Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God
    1875 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Qazvín Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God
    1875 The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís are imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383]

    Bahá'u'lláh sends Sulaymán Khán Ilyás, Jamál Effendi to India. [BW4:285; GPB195; MC155]

    Sidih, Isfahán, India, London Nayyir, Sina, Sulayman Khan Ilyas, Jamal Effendi, The Secret of Divine Civilization, The Mysterious Forces of Civilization
    1875 `Abdu'l-Bahá writes The Secret of Divine Civilization, a treatise on the establishment of a just, progressive and divinely-based government. [SDCV]
    • It was lithographed in Bombay in 1882. It was first published in English under the title The Mysterious Forces of Civilization in London in 1910. [SDCV]
    • Shoghi Effendi calls it `Abdu'l-Bahá's outstanding contribution to the future reorganization of the world'. [WOB37]
    Bombay
    1875 See also EB120–1, 122–8 and MF134–8.

    `Abdu'l-Bahá rents a small garden near `Akká for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BBD196–7; DH95]

    • See DH95 for its situation.
    • This garden on the river Na`mayn is later named Ridván by Bahá'u'lláh. [DH95]
    Birth of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause, in Hawaii.
    • She is a granddaughter of two of Hawaii's most famous missionary families, the Baldwins and the Alexanders.
    Ridván Garden, Hawaii Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause of God
    1875 Notes BBRSM90, 193 say he was sent in 1871 and left in 1878. EB122 says he reached Bombay in 1878 and stayed 11 years on the subcontinent.
    • His work helps establish Bahá'í communities in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras as well as in Burma. [BBRSM91; GPB225]
    • Among those he teaches is Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, who later founds the Bahá'í community of Burma. [BW10:517]
    India, Burma, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras Sulayman Khan Ilyas, Jamal Effendi, Siyyid Mustafa Rumi
    1876 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383]

    The conversion of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání, a leading clerical philosopher. [BBRSM88; EB264]

    • See EB263–5 for details of his life.
    • See BKG262 for details of his conversion.
    Tihrán Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání
    1876 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause of God First American Bahá'í martyr
    1876 30 May Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz is deposed. [BBR485] Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz
    1876 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either commits suicide or is assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
    • Bahá'u'lláh predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. RB3:87]
    • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
    • Bahá'u'lláh addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
    Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
    Constantinople Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Murád V, Lawh-i-Fu'ád, Súriy-i-Mulúk
    1876 14 Jun Birth of George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God, in Dublin. George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God
    1876 31 Aug Deposition of Murád V. Accession of `Abdu'l-Hamíd II. Constantinople Murád V, `Abdu'l-Hamíd II
    c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Mazra`ih
    1877–78 War between Russia and Turkey, freeing some 11 million people from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople is occupied. [BKG262; GPB225]
    • See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
    Adrianople
    1877 spring `Abdu'l-Bahá holds a banquet for the notables of `Akká in a pine grove near Bahjí. [BKG358; DH54, 87]
    • Permission is given him by its Christian owner, Jirjis al-Jamál. [DH54]
    • The acceptance of the invitation by the notables signals the fact that the firmán of `Abdu'l-`Azíz, though still in force, is a dead letter. [DH54; GPB193]
    Pine grove near Bahjí Jirjis al-Jamál, firmán
    1877 Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
    • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
    • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
    Ridván Garden First visit of Bahá'u'lláh to Ridván Garden outside `Akká
    1877 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh takes up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
    • It takes the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
    • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
    • Bahá'u'lláh resides here for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continue to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
    • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
    Mazra`ih Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, Muftí of `Akká, Greatest Holy Leaf, Navváb
    1877 See also DH8994.
    1877 Sep Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí is executed in Mashhad. [BW18:383] Mashhad Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí
    1877 Dec Mullá Kázim-i-Tálkhunchi'í is executed in Isfahán. [BBR273–4; BW18:383] Isfahán Mullá Kázim-i-Tálkhunchi'í
    1877 End Conversion of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí in Calcutta, where he is travelling with Jamál Effendi. [RSLG] Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, Jamál Effendi
    1877 In the year Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Germany Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God
    1878 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí arrives in Burma with Jamál Effendi.
    • He marries into a well-to-do Indo-Burman family of traders and settles in Rangoon, remaining in Burma to build up the Burmese community. [BW10:517; PH23]
    • See BW10:517–18 and MC155 for his conversion of Daidanaw, the first all-Bahá'í village in the world outside Iran.
    • See BW10:517–20 for an account of his life.
    • His is named a Hand of the Cause of God by the Guardian after his passing. In the village of Daidanaw, Burma (Rangoon) there is a building they call "the Shrine of Siyyid Mustafa Rumí" in his honour. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p5]
    Daidanaw, Burma, 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Village, Siyyid Mustafa Rumi, Jamal Effendi, Hand of the Cause of God First all-Bahá'í village outside Iran
    1878 to 1881 The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad.
    • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
    • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
    • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
    • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
    Iran, Yazd, Baghdad, Tehran Trustee of the Huququ'llah, Jinab-i-Shah Muhammad, Aminu'l-Bayan, Trustee of the Bayan, Remains of the Bab, Mosque of Imamzadih Zayd The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah
    1878 19 Feb Birth of George Adam Benke, German-Russian Bahá'í, who after his death was named by Shoghi Effendi as the first European Bahá'í martyr, in the Ukraine. [BW5:416–18] George Adam Benke First European Bahá'í martyr
    1878 12 Jul The British government takes over the administration of Cyprus. BBR306] Cyprus
    1879 12 Mar The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130] Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'
    1879 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
    • Their martyrdom is instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owes the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
    • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
    • The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
    • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
    • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
    Isfahán Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs', Mir Muhammad-?usayn, Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir, the `Wolf', Zillu's-Sultan
    1879 See also BBD129–130, 193
    • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
    Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'
    1879 summer An epidemic of plague breaks out in `Akká and environs. Among others who feel its effects are `Údí Khammár and his family who leave the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194] `Akká, Bahjí `Údí Khammár
    1879 20 Jun Mishkín-Qalam is given permission to move from Famagusta to Nicosia. [BBR307] Famagusta, Nicosia Mishkín-Qalam
    1879 Sep Bahá'u'lláh moves to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]
    • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
    Bahjí
    c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Tihrán. She is buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Tihrán Sarih Khanum
    1879 test `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Beirut at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, the Válí of Syria. [BKG378]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá is still officially a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. BKG379]
    • Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet marking the occasion. [BKG378–9; GPB243; TB227–8]
    • Among the important figures `Abdu'l-Bahá meets in Beirut are Midhat Páshá himself and Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, the future Grand Muftí of Egypt. [BKG379]
    Beirut Midhat Pasha, Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, Grand Mufti of Egypt, Laura Clifford Barney, Some Answered Questions
    1880 Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67]
    • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93.
    Persia First Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís
    1880 18 or 19 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits the Druze village of Yirkih (Yerka). `Abdu'l-Bahá joins Him for the last four nights. [DH123]
    • See DH123 for other Druze villages visited by Bahá'u'lláh.
    Yirkih Druze
    1880 15 Aug Mishkín-Qalam addresses a petition to the High Commissioner of Cyprus begging to be released from his confinement. [BBR307]
    • See BBR307–11 for consequences of this.
    Cyprus Mishkín-Qalam, High Commissioner of Cyprus
    1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
    • Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
    • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
    Birth of Túbá Khánum, second daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ABMM]
    Sultánábád, Tihrán Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid, Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, Túbá Khánum
    1881 The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden are purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
    • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden are brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
    Ridván Garden, Firdaws Garden
    1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison.
    • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
    • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
    • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
    Akka, BWC Trustee of the Huququ'llah, The second Trustee of the Huququ'llah, Haji Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani, Amin-i-Ilahi, Jinab-i-Shah, Hand of the Cause, Apostles of Baha'u'llah, Haji Ghulam-Rida, Amin-i-Amin
    1881 24 Mar Mírzá Yahyá is granted freedom by the British administration of Cyprus. [BBR311]
    • He asks for British citizenship or protection so that he may return to Iran or Turkey in safety but is denied it and so he stays on in Cyprus for the rest of his life. [BBR311]
    Cyprus
    1882 Ibn-i-Asdaq is given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173]

    Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá is arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he is imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383]

    Prompted by the fear that Egypt will default on its enormous debts to European banks, the British invade Egypt and take over its administration. [BFA15]

    Yazd, Isfahán, Egypt Ibn-i-A?daq, Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr), Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá
    1882–83 The Tihrán Upheaval.
    • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community are arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some are confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences are not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
    • This is occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
    Tihrán
    1882 15 Sep The death of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. [BBD127; EB235; KB35] Shíráz Khadíjih-Bagum
    1883 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

    Four Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Yazd, Isfahán, Sarvistán, Fárs, Shíráz
    1883 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar are arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht, Láhíján
    1883 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar, Germany Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1883 June 21 Thornton Chase appears in Newspaper coverage of poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thorton Chase, newspapers Thornton Chase in the newspapers
    1883 Aug Bahá'u'lláh travels to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká). [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
    • He stays in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH109]
    Haifa, Bayt-i-Fanduq Templar colony First visit to Haifa by Bahá'u'lláh
    1884 Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. Two Bahá'ís are imprisoned in Turshíz, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Tabríz, Turshíz, Khurásán Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God
    1885 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí
    c. 1886 `Abdu'l-Bahá writes A Traveller's Narrative. [TN40] A Traveller's Narrative.
    1886 14 Sep Mishkín-Qalam leaves Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311] Cyprus Mishkín-Qalam
    1886 The death of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
    • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
    • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet for her in which He calls her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
    • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
    • She is interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
    • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demands that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
    Ibn-i-Abhar (Mullá Muhammad Taqí) travels to the Holy Land and is appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD114; EB268]

    Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád.

    Birth of Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil, the first Hindu to become a Bahá'í, in Surat, Gujarat, India.

    House of `Abbúd, Baghdád, Surat, Gujarat, India Ásíyih Khánum, Navváb, Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá, Ibn-i-Abhar (Mullá Muhammad Taqí), Hand of the Cause of God, Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil First Hindu to become a Bahá'í
    1887 See also BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne And The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
    1887 Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
    • He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
    • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
    `Akká, Mirza Musa, Áqay-i-Kalim, Apostle of Baha'u'llah, Karbala'i Hasan Khan, Karbala'i Sadiq
    1887 Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistán, Fárs Karbala'i Hasan Khan and Karbala'i Sadiq
    1887 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause of God First mention of concept of `Hand of the Cause'
    1887 7 Apr Birth of Horace Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, in Torrington, Connecticut. Torrington, Connecticut Horace Holley, Hand of the Cause of God
    1887–88 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spends 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey is to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
    • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
    Persia E. G. Browne
    1888 Nabíl begins his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII]

    Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarks on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java, Siam, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22]

    Burma, Java, Siam, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand, Chinese Turkistan, Afghanistan Nabíl, Jamál Effendi, Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative
    1888 c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and are sent to Shíráz, where one is imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistán, Fárs, Shíráz
    1888 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He is hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body is buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Isfahán Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih
    1889 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas, entitled Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq (In the name of God, the most truthful). He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the begining of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’). Accepting the Bab, he moved to Shiraz where he became a leader of the congregational prayers, and in that capacity added the Bab’s name to the call to prayer (June 1845). This occasioned uproar, and Sadiq, together with QUDDUS and another Bábí, were arrested, scourged, mutilated, and expelled from the city. Sadiq subsequently travelled to Yazd and Kirman, where he publicly proclaimed the Bab’s advent. He joined Mulla Husayn Bushru'i, and participated in the struggle at Tabarsi, of which he was one of the few survivors. He met Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad in around 1861, Later becoming one of the foremost promoters of the Faith in Iran, and suffering further persecution and imprisonment. Baha’u’llah gave him the title Ismu’llah’l-Asdaq (‘the name of God, the most truthful’). ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously named him a HAND OF THE CAUSE. His son, Ibn-i-Asdaq, was one of the Hands appointed by Baha’u’llah. EB 7-23; Harper 32-41; MBBR 69-70; MF 5-8. Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas, Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq, Sayyid Qasim Rashti, Hand appointed by 'Abdu'l-Baha
    1889 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') is given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. Essay Society, Newcastle, England E. G. Browne First lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
    1889 Jun E. G. Browne gives a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

    Royal Asiatic Society, London, E. G. Browne, Áqa Najafi
    1889 Jun Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiates a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383] Isfahán, Sidih, Najafábád Son of the Wolf
    1889 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drives over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They take sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
    • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
    Najafábád, Sidih, Isfahán Áqá Najafí
    1889 18 Jul The Bahá'ís are persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they will receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383] Isfahán
    1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help or protection, go to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihrán, Sidih, Najafábád
    1889 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
    • Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
    • Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
    • Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
    • The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
    `Ishqábád Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání, Czar Alexander III, Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl First time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for attack on Bahá'ís
    1889 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihrán Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God
    1890 (in the decade) Bahá'í books are published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo. [GPB195; SA250] Bombay, Cairo First time Bahá'í books published in Bombay and Cairo
    1890 c. Nabíl presents his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers, to Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá for approval. [DBXXXVII] Nabil, The Dawn-Breakers
    1890 In the year By 1890 about a thousand Bahá'ís have settled in `Ishqábád. [BBRSM91, SDOH99]

    E. G. Browne is in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh is staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrives. [BBR253]

    Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

    Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

    In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

    A number of people of the Jewish, Zoroastrian and Buddhist Faiths become Bahá'ís. [BBR248–9; GPB195]

    Ibrahim George Kheiralla (Khayru'lláh) becomes a Bahá'í in Cairo under the tutelage of `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání. [BFA1:19]

    • It is probable that he is the first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background. [BFA19]
    • See BFA1:175 for pictures.
    `Ishqábád, `Akká, Haifa, Tihrán, Qazvín, Kalát-i-Nadírí, Mashhad, Cairo E. G. Browne, Templer colony, Haji Ákhund, Haji Amin, Ibn-i-Abhar, Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi, Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani, Ibrahim George Kheiralla (Khayru'llah), `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani First Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background
    1890 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection secure a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they are killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih, Tihrán
    1890 Apr Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for a third time. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He first stays near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
    • He then moves to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent is pitched on a piece of land opposite. [BKG374; BPP173]
    Haifa, Oliphant House, Bayt-i-Zahlán German colony
    1890 15–20 Apr E. G. Browne is granted four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí. [BBD43; BBR225; BKG371; GPB193]
    • See BBR225–32 for Browne's own account of the visit.
    • See BBR229–31, BKG371–3 and DH110 for Browne's pen portrait of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives Browne the manuscript of A Traveller's Narrative: the Episode of the Báb in the handwriting of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín for his to translate. [EGB54, BW11p510]
    • BFA1:445; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne And The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
    Bahjí E. G. Browne, A Traveller's Narrative, Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin
    1890 Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers are arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarcháh, Bírjand Mulla Hasan
    1891 On the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published for the first time in Bombay. [SA250]
    • It is published in Arabic. [SA250]
    A Traveller's Narrative is published in two volumes by the Cambridge University Press. [BBD226; EGB55]

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40]

    • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
    • Bahá'u'lláh alludes to it in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
    • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
    Bombay The Kitab-i-Aqdas, A Traveller's Narrative, Kitab-i-`Ahd, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, Crimson Book First publication of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in Bombay
    1891 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith, given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London. Southplace Institute, London E. G. Browne First public lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
    1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

    Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih, at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

    • For their names see BW18:384.
    • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
    • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5, 357–8.
    • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
    Yazd Jalalu'd-Din-Dawlih, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari
    1891 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounts the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7, Essay by Mehdi Wolf] The Times, The Times of London
    1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvín, Tíhran, Haji Amin, Ibn-i-Abhar, Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah
    1891 summer Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
    • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby. [BKG374; DH186]
    • It is during this visit that Bahá'u'lláh points out to `Abdu'l-Bahá the site for the Shrine of the Báb. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
    • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
    • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
    • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH174; MBW63; RB4:352]
    • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
    • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
    Haifa, House of Ilyás Abyad Shrine of the Bab, Carmelite monastery, cave of Elijah, Lawh-i-Karmil
    1891 Jul-Aug Members of the Afnán family meet Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa. [BKG374, 406]
    • For details of this visit see BKG406–13.
    Haifa Afnan
    1891 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred in Yazd. [BW18:384] Yazd Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí
    1891 See also BKG420–5; RB4:419–20.

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; GPB219; RB4:368]

    • It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. GPB220]
    • It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
    • For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
    • For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
    Bahjí, Yazd Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi), Tablet to the Times
    1892 Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih is poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384] Tihrán Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih, Nasiri'd-Din Shah
    1892 8 May Bahá'u'lláh contracts a slight fever. [GPB221]
    • See RB4:414–17 for the progress of this illness.
    Bahjí
    1892 c. 24 May Bahá'u'lláh calls to His bedside all the believers, including many pilgrims, for their last audience with Him. [GPB222] Bahjí
    1892 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

    Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

    • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
    • Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
    • He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
    • The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
    • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
    • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
    • See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
    • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
    • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
    • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
    Bahjí Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid, Covenant-breaking, Qiblih
    1892 After the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh `Abdu'l-Bahá asks Nabíl to choose a number of passages from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh to be used as a Tablet of Visitation. This Tablet is also used at observances commemorating the Martyrdom of the Báb. [BBD234; BKG427; GPB222; RB4:419]
    • For an analysis of this Tablet, see SA121–2.
    `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house now known as the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226]
    Pilgrim House at Bahjí Nabil, Tablet of Visitation, Iskandar Hawwa'
    c. 1892–93 Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, commits suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG427–8; DH81; EB270; GPB222]
    • He leaves a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
    • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
    • He is buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
    `Abdu'l-Bahá writes Risáliy-i-Siyásiyyih (Treatise on Politics). [ABMM]
    Nabil, Risaliy-i-Siyasiyyih
    1892 7 Jun On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd, is read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20]
    • See CB150, 164 for the effect this has on the believers.
    Bahjí Kitáb-i-`Ahd, Most Holy Tomb
    1892 16 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world calling for steadfastness. [AB48–9; DH113]
    • This is `Abdu'l-Bahá's first message. [AB48–9; CH110]
    • For the text of the message see AB48–9, CH110–11, DH113 and SWAB17–18.
    First message of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1892 summer `Abdu'l-Bahá goes to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolates Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188]

    Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who has been in prison for five years, is executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]

    Anton Haddad arrives in the United States. [BFA1:26]

    • He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
    Mount Carmel, Shíráz, USA lower cave of Elijah, Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, Anton Haddad First Bahá'í to reach American soil
    1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'Ini. He was born in Naw- Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i- Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour.
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • Bukhárá, Uzbekistan, Naw- Firist, Iran, Nabil-i-Akbar Áqa Muhammed-i-Qa'Ini, Hand appointed by ‘Abdu’l-Baha, In Memoriam, Hand of the Cause
    1892 6 Jul Death of Nabíl-i-Akbar, Hand of the Cause, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Bukhárá. [EB115]
    • The Lawh-i-Hikmat was addressed to him. [EB115]
    • For details of his life see EB112–15.
    • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
    Bukhárá Nabil-i-Akbar, Hand of the Cause, Apostle of Baha'u'llah, Lawh-i-Hikmat, Hand appointed by 'Abdu'l-Baha
    1892 20 Dec Ibrahim Kheiralla arrives in New York. [BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88]
    • See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
    New York, USA Ibrahim Kheiralla
    1893 17 Jun 1893 Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
    • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
    Yazd Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí First to suffer martyrdom in ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
    • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
    World Parliament of Religions, Chicago Rev. Henry H. Jessup First public reference in North America to Bahá'í Faith
    1894 Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

    Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

    A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

    Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

    Green Acre, Eliot, Maine, USA, Níshápúr, Hamadán, Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Fárán, Khurásán Sarah J. Farmer, Haji Yari, Áqa `Abdu'l-Vahhab Mukhtari Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1894 display date1894 FLESH OUT THIS STORY Tolstoy discovered late in his life the then still relatively new Revelation of Baha’u’llah, the Baha’i Faith, with its beginnings in 1844 in the Babi Faith. This was destined to happen as he had committed himself to seek out the wisdom of the world, near and far, new and ancient. In fact it was in 1844 at age 16 that he became a student of oriental languages. His encounter with the Baha’i Writings came much later, being in 1894. His interest in world religions was well known far and wide and a few early Baha’is either sent him Baha’i pamphlets or books or brought these to him in person. In 1902 Abdu’l-Baha, son of Baha’u’llah, Interpretor and Perfect Exemplar of the Faith, sent Mirza Aziz’u’llah Jadhdhab Khurasani to meet Count Leo Tolstoy and to bring him this message: “Act that your name may leave a good memory in the world of religion. Many philosophers have come, each one raising a flag, let us say five meters high. You have raised a flag ten meters high; immerse yourself in the ocean of unity, so that you may remain confirmed eternally.” Leo Tolstoy
    1894 Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settles in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII]
    • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America is soon formed in Chicago. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179]
    Chicago Ibrahim George Kheiralla First Bahá'í community in North America formed in Chicago
    1894 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
    • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
    • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
    • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
    • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
    Chicago Thornton Chase First American Bahá'í Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
    1895 Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts becomes a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA Mrs Kate C. Ives First woman born in United States to become a Bahá'í
    1895 c. summer Miss Marion Brown becomes a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London Miss Marion Brown First European to become a Bahá'í
    1895 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York, USA Leonora Stirling Armstrong, Mother of South America, Leonora Armstrong
    c. 1896 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178] Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí
    1896 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. Wilmington, Illinois Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh is assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BKG455]
    • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
    • His assassin is a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran. [BBRSM87; GBP296]
    • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
    • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
    • He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
    • See also CBM546.
    Nasiri'd-Din Shah
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
    • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22.
    • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
    • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Baha named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
    • Also see World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
    • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
    • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
    Yazd, Tihrán, Iran, Hand appointed by ‘Abdu’l-Baha, In Memoriam, Hand of the Cause, Varqa
    1896 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo, Sicily Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 Jun-Jul Several Bahá'ís are beaten and four are imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stir up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydarí
    1896 21 Jul Hájí Muhammad Sádiq is stabbed to death in Turbat-i-Haydarí. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydarí Hájí Muhammad Sádiq
    1896 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís are executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405] Turbat-i-Haydarí
    1896 Notes BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
    • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
    • Their martyrdom is the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís are erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
    Hájí Muhammad Sádiq, the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs)
    1896 c. Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
    • He establishes it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
    Akka, `Abdu'llah Pasha, House of `Abdu'llah Pasha
    1896 See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
    1896 In the year `Abdu'l-Bahá is forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77]

    Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, marries Mírzá Hádí Afnán of Shíráz. [BW4:234 (GENEALOGY); DH59–60]

    • These are the parents of Shoghi Effendi.
    • For a picture of Díyá'íyyih Khánum see MA105.
    Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán are persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384]

    Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384]

    Mullá Hasan Khazá'í is arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384]

    Tiberias, Hisár, Khurásán, Tabríz, Khúzistán Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, Díyá'íyyih Khánum, Mírzá Hádí Afnán, Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí, Mullá Hasan Khazá'í
    c. 1897 Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181]
    • For the story of his downfall see CB181–92.
    Mírzá Áqá Ján, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, Covenant-breaker
    1897 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. He was born in Muhammadábád, Yazd in 1814. [LoF21-27]
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badi, no one has surpassed Mulla Rida's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Baha'i Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • Muhammadábád, Yazd, Hand appointed by 'Abdu'l-Baha, In Memoriam, Hand of the Cause, Shaykh Muhammad-riday-i-Yazdi, Mulla Rida
    1897 Feb Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three are bastinadoed and three are imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján, Tabríz
    1897 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihrán Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God
    1897 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
    • He is descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother is the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father is an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
    • He is the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
    • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá commands everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá gives him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who are all called Afnán. Rabbání is also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1]
    • See GBF6 for the schools he attends.
    House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá Shoghi Effendi, Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim
    1897 See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl; Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith; Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
    1897 21 May Lua Getsinger becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII] Chicago Lua Getsinger
    1897 6 Jun Birth of Adelbert M Berlin Adelbert M
    1879 Nov 30 Birth of Laura Clifford Barney (Laura Dreyfus-Barney) in Cincinnati, Ohio. She compiled Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acca between 1904 and 1906. (d. Paris 18 August 1974) Cincinnati, Paris Some Answered Questions
    1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

    The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

    • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
    Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

    Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

    The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

    China, Bombay, Tihrán, Saysán, Ádharbáyján, Tabríz, Nayríz, Hamadán Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán, Áqá Najafí, Iranian persecution First Bahá'í to have settled in China
    1898 1 Jan Eighteen people become Bahá'ís in Kenosha, Wisconsin, following the visit of Kheiralla in the autumn of 1897. [BFA1:XXVIII]
    • This marks the establishment of the third Bahá'í community in North America. [BFA1:110]
    Kenosha, Wisconsin Kheiralla
    1898 Feb Kheiralla arrives in New York and begins classes on the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:XXVIII, 116] New York Kheiralla
    1898 9 Feb Hájí Muhammad-i-Turk is shot, beaten and then burned to death in a main street in Mashhad by four religious students. [BBRXXX, 406; BW18:384]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR406–17.
  • Mashhad Hájí Muhammad-i-Turk
    1898 Apr Nine Bahá'ís attending a Ridván meeting are arrested, beaten and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384] Hamadán
    1898 Jun In New York City, 141 people become Bahá'ís in the five months since Kheiralla's arrival. [BFA1:XXVIII, 125] New York City Kheiralla
    1898 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí
    1898 Aug(?) Phoebe Hearst becomes a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139] California Phoebe Hearst, Lua Getsinger, Edward Getsinger
    1898 20 Aug Jamál Effendi passes away in `Akká. [EB128] `Akká Jamal Effendi
    1898 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230] New York Pilgrimage First Western pilgrims
    1898 Notes SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
    • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140]
    • There are 15 pilgrims in all. [AB68]
    Phoebe Hearst
    1898 11 Nov Kheiralla arrives in `Akká. [BFA1:XXVIII, 141]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá confers titles on him: `Bahá's Peter', the `Second Columbus' and `Conqueror of America'. [BFA1:142; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
    `Akká Kheiralla
    1898 13 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá commemorates Kheiralla's arrival by ending the period of mourning for Bahá'u'lláh and by opening His Tomb to pilgrims for the first time. [BFA1:142–3; SBBH2:112] Bahjí Kheiralla First time Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh opened to pilgrims
    1898 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257]
    • They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
    • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
    • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
    • Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
    • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
    • Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
    • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
    `Akká, Cairo, House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá Robert Turner, Edward Getsinger, The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Anton Haddad, pilgrimage First Western pilgrims; first group of first Western pilgrims; first member of black race to become Bahá'í
    1898 c. 20 Dec The second group of Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká, staying three days before returning to Cairo. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those included in this group.
    `Akká
    1898 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God
    1898 `Abdu'l-Bahá instructs that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]

    Tihrán, Remains of the Bab, Haji Muhammad
    1898 The first anti-Bahá'í polemical tracts are published by Christian missionaries in Iran. [SBB111:69] First anti-Bahá'í polemics by missionaries in Iran
    1898 The Tarbíyat School for boys is established in Tihrán by the Bahá'ís. [BBD221] Tehran Tarbiyat School Founding of the first Tarbíyat School for boys
    1898 Several Bahá'ís are arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Muhammad is set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

    Qazvín, Hisár, Khurasan Persecution in Iran
    1899 31 Jan The remains of the Báb arrive in the Holy Land. [BBD209; DH66; GPB274]
    • They are stored in the room of the Greatest Holy Leaf in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá until the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [DH66]
    Holy Land, House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá remains of the Báb, Greatest Holy Leaf, Shrine of the Bá
    1899 Feb The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America. [BFA1:143]
    • See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
    America First Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America
    1899 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrives in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
    Birth of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God, in Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina, into a family of German background.
    House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá, Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God
    1899 c. Feb-Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá, accompanied by Kheiralla, lays the foundation stone for the Shrine of the Báb. [BFA1:XXVIII, 142; BBD209; GPB275; SBBH2:112] Mount Carmel Kheiralla, Shrine of the Báb
    1899 spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles establishes the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
    • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the `first English believer', and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith', see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259.
    Paris May Bolles, Thomas Breakwell, Hippolyte Dreyfus First Bahá'í group on European continent
    1899 9 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád. [BBRXXX, 426; BW18:384–5]
    • Mírzá Báqir-i-Há'í is arrested, several Bahá'ís are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted in Najafábád. [BBR426; BW18:384–5]
    • Some 300 Bahá'ís occupy the British telegraph office hoping that the Sháh will intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [BBR427–8]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR426–30.
    Najafábád Mírzá Báqir-i-Há'í
    1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha, Wisconsin council board, Local Spiritual Assembly
    1899 c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
    • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–67; GPB259–60; SBBH194, 239]
    • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
      • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
      • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
      • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
      • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
    • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
    Kheiralla, Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl
    1899 See also BFA1:158–84; CB247–9.
    1899 summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepts the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW56] Ethel Jenner Rosenberg First English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land
    1899 See also Weinberg, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg; SEBW55–64.
    1899 Oct-Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacks the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111]
    • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha are Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
    Kenosha, Wisconsin Stoyan Vatralsky, Truth-knowers
    1899 19 Nov Birth of Yan Kee Leong, the first believer in Malaya, in Selangor, Malaysia. Selangor, Malaysia Yan Kee Leong First believer in Malaya
    1899 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey becomes a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris Charles Mason Remey, May Bolles
    1899 Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7

    The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]

    • Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
    Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others carry to the Holy Land the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to hold the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517]
    Manhattan, New New York City, Tihrán, Mandalay Miss Olive Jackson, Thornton Chase, The Serpent, Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, National Spiritual Assembly, Hands of the Cause of God, Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, remains of the Báb First black American woman Bahá'í
    1899 The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, is published in Chicago. This is probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago First published essay written by American Bahá'í
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