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Bahá'í Chronology: years 184-

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184-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1840 The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] `Akká, Israel Britain, British take `Akka, Egyptians
1841 Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
  • The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
  • BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykh Ahmad
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran, Persia Haji Ákhund, Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi, Hand of the Cause
1842 Aug The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382, DoH107]
  • See B80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, marriage, Khadijih-Bagum
1843 Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
  • The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
Iran, Persia Ahmad, son of Bab
1843 The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24
  • His wife had an indication of His calling after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. [HotD27]
Bab, dream, blood, Imam Husayn
1843 The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks.Thousands of it's citizens were killed. [BBRSM55, HotD10] Karbalá, Iraq Karbala, Turks
1843 Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6]
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • Bahá'u'lláh condemns him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
Karbalá, Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykhi school, Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani, Shaykh Ahmad, Islam
1844 Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpáygán, Iran Gulpaygani, Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1844 Edict of Toleration The relaxation of the order for the exclusion of the Jews from the Holy Land. GPBiv Luke21:24 Israel, Edict of Toleration
1844 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
  • See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
Karbalá, Isfahán, Mashhad, Najaf, Búshihr, Shíráz, Iraq, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Siyyid Kazim, mourning, fasting
1844 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvín, Iran Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle Bahá'u'lláh
1844 c. Apr Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognizes her husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission'. He bids her to keep this knowledge concealed. [DB191–2; KB10–14] Khadijih Bagum, Bab, Qa'im
1844 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
  • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
  • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
  • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, declaration, Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Surih of Joseph, Tahirih, Bab, Babi Qur'an, Baha'u'llah, Adamic Cycle, Baha'i Cycle, Cycle of Fulfillment, Apostolic, Heroic, Primitive, Age, Shi'i Muslim, Babu'l-Bab, Siyyid-i-dhikr, Fort Tabarsi, Jinab-i Bab, Qa'im, Promised One First, the greatest, and mightiest of all books in the Bábí Dispensation
1844 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran `Abdu'l-Baha, `Abbas Effendi, Baha'i, Baha'u'llah, Ghusn-i-A`zam, Most Great Branch, Sirru'llah, Mystery God, Áqa, Master, Sarkar-i-Áqa
1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
Persia, Iran Declaration, Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Mulla Husayn, Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Promised One, Letters of the Living, Quddus, Tahirih
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
  • The Báb addresses the Letters of the Living, giving each a specific task. [DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19] .
Iran, Persia, Turkey, Káshán, Isfahán, Tihrán, Tehran, Mázindarán, Khurásán, Qum Bab, Letters of the Living, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Tablet Baha'u'llah, Shah, Mulla Ja`far, sifter of wheat, Muhammad Shah, Sultan `Abdu'l-Majid, Tablet Bab First to embrace the Cause of the Báb in the city of Isfahán; first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist aid of Muhammad Sháh
1844 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Constantinople, Istanbul, Iraq, Baghdád, Najaf, Karbalá Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Shaykhi, Mulla `Ali, Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi, Shi`i, Sunni, `ulama, martyr, Babi, Mulla Hasan Gawhar, Babism First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation; first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader
1844 30 Sep The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
  • Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
  • GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
  • See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
Iran, Bab, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, letter, pilgrimage
1844 30 Sep The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
  • DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14October to 11 November, 1844).
  • SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
  • Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
Iran, Persia, Saudi Arabia, Shíráz, Búshihr, Mecca Bab, Quddus, Haji Mulla Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi, Ethiopian, servant, Mubarak
1844 2 or 3 Oct The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
  • He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
  • He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
  • The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
  • He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
Karbalá, Iraq, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia Bab pilgrimage, Mulla Husayn, Futuh-ar-Ras`ul
1844 c. Dec The Báb and His companions arrive in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
  • See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
  • Quddús walks from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Saudi arabia Bab, sea voyage, Mecca, Quddus
1844 12 Dec The Báb arrives in Mecca and performs the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
  • See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
Mecca, Saudi Arabia Báb, pilgrimage, pilgrim
1844 20 - 21 Dec The Báb offers 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133] Mecca, Saudi Arabia Bab, lambs, sacrifice
1844 c. 20 Dec The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
  • He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
Mecca, Saudi Arabia Bab, declaration, Ka`bih, Qa'im, Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani, Muhit, Shaykhi, Sharif
c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Persia, Iran Mirza `Ali-Muhammad-i-Khurasani, Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause of God
1845 c. Jan Crowds gather in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them Táhirih. [BI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Karbalá, Iraq Bab, Tahirih
1845 10 Jan The beginning of the Islamic new year. Messianic fervour grows, particularly among Shaykhís. [BBRSM15]
1845 10 Jan The Báb reached Medina. From there He proceeded to Jiddah where He look a boat bound for Búshihr. [B75] (See 16 January below.) Medina
1845 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád.A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdád, Iraq trial, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami
1945 c. 13 Jan A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. Baghdád, Iraq fatwa, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Bab
1845 16 Jan The Báb arrives in Medina from Mecca. [dhut bíy-i-jiddih]
  • He reveals `The Epistle between Two Shrines' en route. [B73–4]
  • He stays 27 days. [MS2]
  • B75 and DB140 indicate that the Báb arrived 10 January. The Research Department at the Bahá`í World Centre states that the date 16 January accords with the Báb's own writings. [report 20 jan 1994]
Medina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia Bab, Epistle between Two Shrines
1845 12 Feb The Báb leaves Medina for Jiddah. [MS2] Medina, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia Báb
1845 27 Feb The Báb leaves Jiddah. [MS2]
  • He disembarks at Muscat and remains there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
  • He sends a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
  • SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
Jiddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Muscat, Oman Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, trial, letter, Imam of Muscat
1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave is life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Búshihr, Iran, Shíráz Bab, Quddus, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, dhasa'il-i-Sab`ih, Seven Qualifications, martyrdom first to embrace the Cause after the Letters of the Living.
1845 c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí is removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he is sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul, Iraq, Bagdad, Iraq Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, prison
1845 Jun Quddús meets Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz. Mullá Sádiq, following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, sounds the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. [B78; DB144]
  • This provokes a public commotion. [B78; DB145; BBRSM16]
Shíráz, Iran Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas, Tablet Bab
1845 23 Jun The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
  • The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
  • Búshihr,
  • The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
Fárs, Iran, Shíráz, Iran, Búshihr, governor, Husayn Khan, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib, arrest, torure, Husayn Khan
1845 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey, Tehran, Iran Prince Dolgorukov, Russian
1845 30 Jun The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
Dálakí, Fars, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Bab, governor, arrest
1845 c. July In Kirmán, Karím Khán, the leading Shaykhí cleric, has a number of Bábís expelled from the city. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman Karim Khan, Shaykhism
1845 c. July Karím Khán writes a number of refutations of the Báb. The first, Isháqu'l-Bátil (The Crushing of Falsehood) is published in July. This causes some Bábís to dissociate themselves from Shaykhism. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman Karim Khan, Shaykhism
1845 c. 7 Jul The Báb arrives in Shíráz.
  • Note: Other estimates for the time of His arrival in Shíráz are from about the 8th to 16th of August based on the fact that Husayn Khán ordered His arrest after the beating of Mullá Sádiq and Quddús. "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D." [DB146n2]
  • B105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
  • SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
  • He is publicly interrogated, struck in the face and later released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [B85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
  • Note: DB155 states that after He was released and "regained His home" He was able to celebrate Naw-Rúz that fell on 10 Rabí'u'l-Avval, 1261 (19 March, 1945. This is an error. GPB11 says He was able to "celebrate the Naw-Rúz of that and the succeeding year in an atmosphere of relative tranquillity in the company of His mother, His wife and His uncle.'' This too appears to be in error. If He left Shíráz in September of 1846 He would not have been present In March of 1847.
  • Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, and others, with the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
Shíráz Bab, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali
1845 Jul and months following The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
  • He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
  • The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
Shíráz, Isfahán, Khurásán, Yazd, Kirmán, Nayríz, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, Mosque Vakil, Hidden Imam, Mulla Husayn, uncle, Babi, Shah, Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi, Vahid, scholar, Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani, Hujjat, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi, learned, Tahirih, Shaykhi, Shi`ism, Karim Khan, Shaykhi, Ishaqu'l-Batil, Crushing Falsehood, Shaykhism
1845 July and months following In Karbalá Táhirih revives the remnant of the Bábí community there. She is considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believes that the Shaykhí tradition has been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement causes the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18] Karbalá Tahirih
1845 1 Nov The Times of London carries an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This is the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article is reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shíráz, Iran, London, England arrest, torture, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib First known published reference to The Báb. First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
1845 30 Dec The Báb's birthday falls on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who is in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructs her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This causes a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih is arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217]
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Baghdád, Karbalá, Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum, Greatest Holy Leaf, daughter Baha'u'llah, Navvab, sister `Abdu'l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi, Baha'i Dispensation, Babi, Bab, Tahirih, Shaykh Muhammad Shibl, Mufti Baghdad
1846 c. Feb - Mar 1846 The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]

The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]

Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran Shah, Manuchihr Khan, Bab, wife, Fatimih
1846 Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihrán, Tehran, Iran Prince Dolgorukov, Russian, Russia, ambassador
1846 Summer The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13] Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab, mother, wife, prayer, martyrdom, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, Babi
1846 Summer The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, is instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where He had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower are taken away along with His books and Writings. It is widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14] Shíráz The Bab
1846 23 Sep The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
  • See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
  • DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
Shíráz, Iran, Persia Husayn Khan, governor, Bab, `Abdu'l-Hamid Khan, cholera, epidemic, Shah
1846 23 – 24 Sep The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
  • TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
  • B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab
1846 Sep - Oct On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
  • See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
  • It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab, Manuchihr Khan, governor-general, Siyyid Muhammad, Imam-Jum`ih
1846 c. Nov Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9] Iran, Persia Manuchihr Khan, Bab, death-warrant
1846 Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. Constantinople, Istanbul Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, martyr, Babi First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation
1847 Feb - Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran Manuchihr Khan, Bab, Gurgin Khan, Nusayri horsemen
1847 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield, Massachusetts, America, United States Thornton Chase, birth, American, Bahá'í First American Bahá'í
1847 21 Mar En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22] Tihrán, Tehran, Káshán, Iran, Persia Báb, Hájí Mírzá Jání, dream
1847 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihrán, Tehran, Kulayn, Iran Báb, fortress Kinár-Gird, Muhammad Big, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, prime minister
1847 29 Mar The Báb arrives in Kulayn where He stays for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11] Kulayn, Iran Báb
1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kázimayn, Baghdád, Iraq, Persia, Iran, Hamadán, Kirmánsháh Tahirih, Babi, Siyyid `Ali Bishr, Bab, Mah-Ku, Hakim Masih, Jewish, doctor, Baha'i, Najib Pasha First Bahá'í of Jewish background
1847 Apr The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Máh-Kú, Ádharbáyján, Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bab, Shah, prime minister, Haji Mirza Áqasi, fortress Mah-Ku
1847 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Báb, letter, gifts, Bahá'u'lláh
1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bab, disappear
1847 c. 17 Apr The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
Iran, Persia, Tabríz, Zanján, Bab, letter, Shah, prime minister, Bab, Shah, Grand Vizier, Tahirih, Haji Sulayman Khan, Hujjat
1847 c. May Birth of Fátimih (Munírih) Khánum, wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Isfahán.
  • See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
Isfahán, Iran, Persia Fatimih Khanum, Munirih, wife, `Abdu'l-Baha
1847 c. May - Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12] Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bab, Mah-Ku
1847 Jul The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
  • See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia Bab, prison
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia, Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, `Ali Khan, Babi, commentary, commentaries, Qur'an, Persian Bayan, Arabic Bayan, Bayan, Dala'il-i-Sab'ih, Seven Proofs, Christian, Muhammad, Tablet Muhammad Shah
1847 Aug Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten. Hamadán, Iran Persia Tahirih, Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati, Babi
1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

Hamadán, Qazvín, Mashhad, Khurásán, Shíráz, Máh-Kú, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran Persia Tahirih, Arab, Babis, Haji Mulla Taqi, Shaykhis, Mulla Husayn, pilgrimage, Baha'u'llah First meeting of Mullá Husayn and Táhirih
1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
Khurásán, Máh-Kú, Qazvín, Tihrán Mulla Husayn, Tahirih
1847 Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.

  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
Shíráz, Iran, Persia murder, Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi, uncle, Tahirih, Mulla `Abdu'llah
1847 Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Tahirih, assassination, uncle, Babis, arrested, Khusraw Khan
1847 Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán, Tehran, Qazvín, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Mulla `Abdu'llah, murder, Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi, Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi, Babis, execute, execution, martyrdom, shrine, Imam-Zadih Zayd, Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi, death, prison, Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi, Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati First imprisonment of Bahá'u'lláh; first martyr on Persian soil
1848 early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihrán, Tehran, Ámul, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Babis, Shaykh Tabarsi, arrest, bastinado
1848 The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. [BBD155]

Tehran Mirza Mihdi
1848 Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
Tihrán, Tehran, Qazvín, Khurásán, Iran, Persia Tahirih, escape, Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi, Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi, Vahid
1848 20 March Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
  • MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
  • See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
  • The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
Mashhad, Mah-Ku, Iran Mulla Husayn, Bab Mulla Husayn
1848 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
Mázindarán, Khuy, Urumiyyih, Maraghih, Milan, Tabriz, Zanjan, Qazvin, Tehran, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Báb Mulla Husayn
1848 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku, Chihriq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Báb, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, Russian, Russia, Prince Dolgorukov
1848 10 Apr The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
  • He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
  • He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Báb, fortress, Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd', Grievous Mountain, Yahyá Khán, Muhammad Sháh, Máh-Kú
1848 Apr-Jul The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
  • Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
  • Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
  • So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
  • See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
  • A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
  • The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia, India Báb, Yahyá Khán, Máh-Kú, Mírzá Asadu'lláh, Khuy, Dayyán, Bábís, honey, dervish, navváb, Lawh-i-Hurúfát, Tablet Letters
1848 late Spring Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, Mashhad, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Quddus, hidden treasure, Babiyyih, Babi, Centre, Center, Sam Khan
1848 summer Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
Mashhad, Badasht, Iran, Persia Quddus, Mulla Husayn, soldiers, confinement
1848 c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht, Tabríz, Sháhrúd, Chihríq, Iran, Persia Conference Badasht, Baha'u'llah, Quddus, Tahirih, Bab, Bayan
1848 Jul After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
  • En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
  • A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9]
Chihríq, Tabríz, Urúmíyyih, Iran, Persia Bab, trial, horse, sketch, portrait
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí, Tehran, Tihrán, Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Quddus, arrest, Mirza Muhammad-Taqi, Tahirih, Mahmud Khan, Kalantar, Mulla Husayn, Shah, pilgrimage, Tablet, Bab, Black Standard, green turban, new name, Siyyid `Ali
1848 c. 17 Jul The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
Badasht, Mázindarán, Níyálá, Núr, Bandar-Jaz, Iran, Persia Babis, attack, Baha'u'llah, Tahirih, Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
1848 21 Jul Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216] Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia Mullá Husayn
1848 last week
in Jul
The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
  • The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
  • He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
Tabríz, Badasht, Iran, Persia Bab, Crown Prince, Nasiri'd-Din Mirza, Qa'im, declaration, bastinado, punishment, Irish, physician, Dr William Cormick, fatwa, death, heresy First formal punishment of the Báb Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
1848 Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
Mázindarán, Badasht, Khurásán, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Babis, Black Standard, prophecy, death, Muhammad Shah
1848 Aug The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
  • B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
  • On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
  • The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Bab, Haji Mirza Áqasi, Hujjat, Arabic Bayan
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz, Táliqán, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, arrest, Muhammad Shah, Russian agent, Russia, Haji Mirza Hasan, Adib, Hand Cause, Apostle
1848 1 Sep Birth of August Forel, renowned entomologist and Bahá'í, in Switzerland. Switzerland August Forel
1848 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran, Persia Muhammad Sháh, Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, Bahá'u'lláh, arrest
1848 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
Tabríz, Síyáh-Chál', Iran, Persia, Iraq Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Báb, Bahá'u'lláh', martyrs, Bábí, Bahá'í, prime minister, Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání First time the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against the Faith
1848 10 Oct Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
  • MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
  • In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
  • It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Sa`idu'l-`Ulama
1848 12 Oct The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5] Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Bábís, Bábí, shrine, Shaykh Tabarsí
1848 Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
    • The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
Iran, Persia Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, Babis', Babi, Baha'u'llah, fortress, Mulla Husayn, Quddus Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
1848 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1848 19 Dec The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí begins in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
  • DB361 says this was 1 December.
  • There are about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
  • The supply of bread and water to the fort is cut. A rainfall replenishes the water supply and ruins the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampers the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
Persian, Iran Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, `Abdu'llah Khan
1848 21 Dec The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
  • For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
Persia, Iran Bábís, Bábí, Quddús, attack, `Abdu'lláh Khán, Tálár River
1849 Bahá'u'lláh marries his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb.
  • Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
Persia, Iran Baha'u'llah, marriage, wife, Fatimih Khanum Mahd-i-‘Ulya, Malik-Nisa Khanum, Mirza Buzurg, Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
1849 early Jan Arrival of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá and 3,000 royal troops in the vicinity of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí. [B173–4; BW18:381; DB363]

  • He sets up camp and his headquarters in the village of Vás-Kas. [DB363]
Vás-Kas, Persia, Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza, troops, shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi
1849 11 Jan Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]

DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.

  • Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá flees barefoot. [DB366]
  • Mullá Husayn's sword is broken in the attack and he uses Quddús'. His companions bring him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]

    At daybreak the soldiers mount a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]

  • In this encounter Quddús is wounded in the mouth and is rescued by Mullá Husayn who disperses the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
Persia, Iran Quddus, Mulla Husayn, attack, army, Babis
1849 27 Jan The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]

  • This is the third army to be mustered.
  • The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
Persia, Iran ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání, army, Mullá Husayn
1849 1 Feb The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, turban, Bab
1849 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, death, Babis, burial, Mihdi-Quli Mirza, martyred
1849 c. 11 Mar On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
  • DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
  • Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, death, ‘Abbas-Quli Khan, attack
1849 27 Mar Renewed forces under Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá encamp in the neighbourhood of the fort, build fortifications and begin to bombard the shrine. [BW18:381; DB390–3]
  • DB391 says this was the ninth day after Naw-Rúz.
Persia, Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza, fort, shrine
1849 c. end Mar The army continues to fire on the shrine for a few days. Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir and 18 others attack the new fortifications and destroy some of them. [DB393–4] Persia, Iran army, shrine, attack, Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849 early Apr Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar arrives with more troops. [BW18:381] Persian, Iran Sulayman Khan-i-Afshar
1849 26 Apr A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán is repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]

  • A few days later some of the Bábís leave the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they are put to death. [DB396–9]
Iran, Persia Sulaymán Khán, Bábís, Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849 9 May Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá sends an emissary to the fort to invite two representatives to his camp to conduct negotiations. On the strength of assurances written on a Qur'án, Quddús leaves the fort and enters the Prince's camp. [B175; BW18:381; DB399–400] Persia, Iran Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá, Quddús, fort
1849 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.

  • They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
Iran, Persia Shaykh Tabarsi, fort, shrine, Babis
1849 11 May Quddús is taken to Bárfurúsh and handed over to the priests. [DB408] Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddús
1849 16 May Quddús is tortured and, in the public square, he is struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]

  • As he dies he begs God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains are gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddus, torture, death, burial
1849 c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
  • DB430 says he languished in despondency and sorrow for five months.
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Bab, prison, massacre, Shaykh Tabarsi, martyr, Quddus
1849 1 Aug Death of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí at Karbalá. [B147; BBD19; BBR156] Karbalá,
1849 26 Nov The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431] Persia, Iran Báb, Mullá Ádí-Guzal, grave, Quddús, Mullá Husayn, pilgrimage
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