|1848 (In the year)
||The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. [BBD155]
||Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of
|1848 (In the year)
||Bahá'u'lláh planed Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih was rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
While she was in Bahá'u'lláh's home she was visited by Vahíd and challenged him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sent Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
||Tihran; Qazvin; Khurasan; Iran
||Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadullah-i-Farhadi; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
|1848 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrived at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb met them at the gate and together they celebrated Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stayed the night at the fortress. He remained with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims were allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
The warden requested that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
||Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab, Life of
|1848 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departed for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
The Báb told him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he was to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
In Tihrán he again met Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
||Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848 9 Apr
||The Báb was removed from Máh-Kú. Prior to this He had communicated His higher claims to His followers.
Hájí Mírzá Áqásí was alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and ordered that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, was also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asked that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until this time. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
||Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihran; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848 10 Apr
||The Báb in Chihríq
The Báb was transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
He remained there for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
He was subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden was harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
||Bab, Life of; Chihriq; Yahya Khan; Muhammad Shah; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracted much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softened his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
Excitement among local people eclipsed that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
Many priests and government officials became followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
So many Bábís came to Chihríq that they could not all be housed. [B135]
See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
A dervish, a former navváb, arrived from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
The Báb revealed the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
||Chihriq; Iran; India
||Bab, Life; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Dayyan (Mirza Asadullah); Honey; Dervishes; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Lawh-i-Hurufat (Tablet of the Letters); Huruf (letters)
|1848 late Spring
||Mullá Husayn went to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realized that the `hidden treasure' was his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeded to Mashhad and built a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús took up residence in it and began to teach the Bábí religion.
See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
Among those who come to the Bábíyyih was Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre; Letters of the Living
||Quddús left Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn was prevented from attending. He was invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounted to a confinement but he was able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
||Mashhad; Badasht; Iran
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn
|1848 c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
`The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
It was attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
||After three months in Chihríq, the Báb, on the order of Háji Mírzá Áqási was taken under escort to Tabríz. He was to be tried for apostasy before a gathering of high-ranking religious leaders (Mujtahid) in the presence of the young crown prince Másiri'd-Dín Mírzá . [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
Just prior to His leaving, in June of 1848 He was seen in public discourse with His followers by a Russian student named Mochenin from St. Petersburg University. It is believed that he and Dr William Cormick were the only Westerners to have seen the Báb. [BBR75]
En route He stopped in Urúmíyyih for ten days where the governor, Malik-Qásim Mírzá, tested the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride to the public bath. The horse remained docile under the Bab's control and was the same when He came out and rode him on the return. The local people were certain that they had witnessed a miracle and broke into the bath to procure His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11, EB86-87]
A sketch of the Báb was made by local artist Aqa Bala Bayg from which he made a full-scale black and white portrait. Later Bahá'u'lláh directed that Aqa Bala Bayg make two copies of the portrait in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [EB87; B138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
See "The Bab in the World of Images" by Bijan Masumian and Adib Masumian. [Baha'i Studies Review, Volume 19, Number 1, 1 June 2013, pp. 171-190(20)]
||Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran
||Mochenin; Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Aqa Bala Bayg Naqqash-bashi; Horses; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih was arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
|1848 c. 17 Jul
||The Bábís left Badasht for Mázindarán. They were attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusted her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He was in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
||Badasht; Mazandaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1848 19 - 20 Jul
||The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation"
by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
||Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran
||Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
||the first time ever recorded in American history, a woman (Elizabeth Cady Stanton) publicly demanded the vote
|1848 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions left Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They arrived in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Black Standard
|1848 last week
|Trial of the Báb
The Báb arrived in Tabríz and was brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá was the president. The Báb publicly made His claim that He was the Qá'im. This claim had also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
The purpose of the public forum was to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He took control of the hearing and embarrassed the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decided He was devoid of reason. [GPB22; BBRSM216]
The Báb was bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He received. [BBRSM20]
This constituted the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
The clergy issued a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities were unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
He was first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to have met and conversed with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
|Tabriz; Badasht; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa; Conference of Badasht; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||First formal punishment of the Báb
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
|1848 Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, were joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
Their numbers rose to 300 and possibly beyond. [B172; BKG50]
The Black Standard was raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
The Black Standard flew for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
||Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
||The Báb was taken back to Chihríq, where He remained until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
On His return the Báb wrote a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. The epistle was given the name Khutbiy-i-Qahríyyih (Sermon of Wrath). He sent it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivered it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
The Báb completed the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Bahá'u'lláh was in Bandar-Jaz. An edict came from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian officials
|1848 1 Sep
||Birth of Auguste Forel, renowned entomologist and Bahá'í, in Switzerland.
||Auguste Forel; Births and deaths
|1848 4 Sep
||The death of the chronically Muhammad Sháh whom Shoghi Effendi described as bigoted, sickly and vacillating. [BBR153–4; GPB4]
This precipitated the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí because many of Tehran's elite arose against him. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
For details of his life, fall and death in Karbila on the 1st of August, 1849, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest was rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
||Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1848 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
He was 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that the prime minister wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the Shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdered on the Shah's orders.
||Tabriz; Iran; Iraq
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
||First time the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against the Faith
|1848 10 Oct
||Mullá Husayn and his company from Mashhad arrived near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, stirred up the townspeople, who went out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clashed and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions were killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
In the ensuing battle, the townspeople were worsted. They begged for peace and a truce was agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
It was during this skirmish that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
Mullá Husayn and his companions took shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men in succession mounted the roof to raise the call to prayer were each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gaves the command to attack the townspeople, who were again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
Mullá Husayn and his companions were offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they would leave Bárfurúsh. They agreed but were attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
|1848 12 Oct
||The band of 72 Bábís took refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which was located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepared it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5]
|1848 Oct - May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí
See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
The episode lasted seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
Bahá'u'lláh visited the fortress and approved the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
He advised Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn set out immediately and secured the release of Quddús, who had been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
Quddús arrived towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brought the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
The siege began with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
See PG116-117 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá recounts the story of the heroism of the defenders of Shaykh Tabarsí.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1848 19 Oct
||Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.
Hájí Mírzá Áaqsí Khán-i-Faráhání took up post as his prime minister. [BBR482]
By the end of 1848 the governmental opposition to the Báb continued and intensified. Encouraged by the ulama (religious leaders), the public increasingly turned against the B´b and His followers and the Bábis "were held responsible for the country's general state of turmoil." [RR395]
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
|1848 early Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh set out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they were arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they were held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This was Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervened to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone received it.
When the governor returned to his home he ordered that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranged a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
||Tihran; Amul; Iran
||Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Tabarsi; Arrests; Bastinado
|1848 19 Dec
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí began in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
DB361 says this was 1 December.
There were about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
The supply of bread and water to the fort was cut. A rainfall replenished the water supply and ruined the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampered the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Abdullah Khan; Armies; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
|1848 21 Dec
||The Bábís, led by Quddús, made a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers were killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers were drowned as they retreated into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers were killed but no Bábís; one Bábí was wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
For the next 19 days the defenders dug a moat. [DB363]
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Quddus; Abdullah Khan; Armies