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Bahá'í Chronology: years 185-

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185-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1850 (Early weeks) Vahíd clashed with the authorities in Yazd. He escaped and made a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
  • Yazd; Fars; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
    1850 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrived in Mázindarán and carried out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mazandaran; Iran Mulla Adi-Guzal; Bab, Life of
    1850 19 - 20 Feb The Bábi group in Tehran had been infiltrated by an informer who betrayed about fifty of its members to the authorities. Fearing a plot the government had seven of the leading members of the group executed including the Báb's uncle and guardian. These men were of high social status, three merchants, two prominent ulama, a Sufi spiritual guide and a government official. [BBRSM28] Tehran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1850 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís were executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims were so eager to be martyrs that they asked the executioner if they could be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies were left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
  • Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
    1850 (Spring) The house of Vahíd in Yazd was attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd was dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd left Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Yazd; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mulla Muhammad-Rida; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1850 13 May 1850 - 2 Jan 1851 c. The start of the Zanján upheaval. Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town and tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [DB540–1, 527–81; B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; GPB44–5; TN245]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ulama; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
    1850 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other first of the martyrs
    1850 19 May The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
  • Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1850 27 May-
    21 Jun
    First Nayríz upheaval.

    Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The Governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]

  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
  • Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution First Nayríz upheaval
    1850 Jun c. The Amír-Nizám, Mírzá Taqí Khán was determined to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb was taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
  • His guard took Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence was noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals, His agate rings, and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. In the event that something should happen to Himself, the secretary was to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49; B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box was opened they found a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Box with writings; Boxes; Greatest Name; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd received a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leave the fortress and were received into the camp of his enemies where he was entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Truces; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1850 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]
  • Vahíd was forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement had been reached. The Bábís left the fort, were set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
  • Nayriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrived in Shíráz from Nayríz. They were raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shiraz; Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 29 Jun Vahíd was martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]
  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body was dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
  • See PG109-110 for the story of Jenabeh Vahid's show of reverence towards the Báb.
  • Nayriz; Tabriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850 29 Jun The Báb arrived in Tabrí. [BBR76]
  • BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
  • RR397 says He arrived two days after the government troops succeeded in suppressing the first Nayríz uprising.
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
  • That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

    In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants were already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
  • At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
  • When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
  • The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb was untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
  • During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 10 Jul The Russian Consul had an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]
  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
  • Tabriz; Iran Russian officials; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Martyrdom of the Bab; Bab, Life of
    1850 11 Jul The bodies were removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
  • The bodies were wrapped in a cloak and removed to a silk factory owned by one of the believer of Mílan and deposited in a small wooden casket. [B159–60; DB519]
  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
  • The soldiers reported that the bodies had been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
  • Some time later, at Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, the casket was transported to Tehran and concealed in the shrine of Imám-Sádih Hasan.
  • And still later yet the remains were removed to the home of Hájí Sulaymán Khán and subsequently transferred to the shrine of Imám-Zádih Ma'súm.
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Remains of; Z^^^^
    1850 Jul The Faith of the Báb had spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
  • By this time "there was no province in the entire country in which from a few up to ten Bábí communities had not been established. These early Bábí communities of Muslim converts, who were generally from Shaikhi background, had come from various strata of Persian society, although a few Jews and Zoroastrians had also joined the movement (Māzandarānī, 1943, p. 395; Samandar, p. 348)". [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran; Iraq; Middle East Statistics; Babi history Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
    1850 Aug c. Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), Hand of the Cause, became a Bábí. Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1850 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting began in May continues. He took charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]
  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
  • Zanjan; Iran Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ashraf; Mothers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions were executed in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850 Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tried to deceive Hujjat into surrendering by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responded by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who had them thrown into a dungeon. This signalled the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanjan; Nayriz; Iran Muhammad Khan; Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 early Dec Hujjat was wounded in the arm. His companions laid down their arms and rushed to his assistance. The royal forces took advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]
  • About 100 women and children were taken captive. They were left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
  • The remaining Bábís, about 140, sheltered in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]
  • The bombardment of the fortress was stepped-up and Hujjat's house was particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby were killed. [B187; DB572–3]
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 29 Dec Hujjat died of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1851 (In the year) Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin), a prominent mujtahid, became a Bábí, in Najafábád. Najafabad; Iran Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin)
    1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]
  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ended the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1851 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján were executed in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl was executed in Yazd when he refused to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 1 May Áqá Husayn was blown from a canon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán met with Bahá'u'lláh and told Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. A few days later, He lef for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587, 591] Tihran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
    1851 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání was beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spent most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB90, 591] Kirmanshah; Iran Bahaullah, Life of
    1851 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák was blown from a canon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrived in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stayed for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]
  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
  • Karbala; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
  • Karbala; Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; Prophecies
    1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, was put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]
  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
  • Iran Siyyid Basir-Hindi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 13 Nov Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám, was dismissed from his post and told he was only in charge of the army. [BBR163; BKG71]
  • He was succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí. [BBRXXIX, 482; DB598]
  • Mirza Taqi Khan; Mirza Aqa Khan; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
    1851 Dec After learning of the death of the Báb, his mother Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions. Karbala; Iraq Fatimih Bagum; Bab, Family of Bahaikipedia
    1852 Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán was killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]
  • He chose to have his veins opened and he bled to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
  • Shoghi Effendi described him has being "arbitrary, bloodthirsty and reckless". [GPB4]
  • Kashan; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Prime ministers; Assassinations; Public baths; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Mirza Aqa Khan
    1852 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York; United States Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths
    1852 20 Mar The publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool. [Wikipedia]
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe was an ancestor of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who was a grandmother of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker.
  • United States Uncle Tom's Cabin: Life Among the Lowly; English literature; Literature; Race (general); Harriet Beecher Stowe; Ellen Beecher; Hands of the Cause; Dorothy Baker
    1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returned to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]
  • He was the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
  • Karbala; Iraq; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stayed at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavasan; Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Jafar-Quli Khan; Grand Viziers
    1852 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán wrote immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh was denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offered to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
  • Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 -1853 "In the hecatomb of 1852-1853 the ranks of the Bábís were drastically thinned. Most of the leading disciples were killed, only a few surviving in distant exile. The next ten years were hopelessly dark. Within the Bábí community there was much confusion and fear. It seemed at times that all the heroism, all the sacrifices, had been in vain. Enemies gloated over the virtual extermination of what they saw as a pernicious heretical sect. Sympathetic outsiders concluded that the movement that had shown so much promise cracked under persecution and collapsed, leaving behind only a glorious memory." [Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: Deathless in Martyrdom by Kazem Kazemzadeh, World Order, Winter 1974-75 p.29] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Babi history
    1852 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rode out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in ‘The Abode of the Birds’ (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stopped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Zargandih; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 (days following
    16 Aug)
    For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh was interrogated. [TN31]

    He was then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He was cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
  • Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
  • Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís were distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852 26 Aug An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
  • See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
  • Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahaullah, Life of
    1852 Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís were arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

    Many Bábís were tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís were martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes were gouged in his body and nine lighted candles were inserted. He joyfully danced to the place of his execution. His body was hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions were so severe that the community was nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappeared from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
  • Milan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shah; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Sulayman Khan
    1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál
  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink was given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • Another who helped the family was Mírzá Muhammad Tabrizi who rented a house for them in Sangelak. [PG122]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, was attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties were plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72] Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá fled to Tákur and went into hiding. He eventually went to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
  • Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh had a vision of the Maiden, who announced to Him that He was the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
  • Subsequently in His Writings Bahá’u’lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.
  • While Bahá’u’lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá stated that Bahá’u’lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá’ís also believe that Bahá’u’lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá’ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá’u’lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaikipedia]
  • See P&M295-196(1969), 298-299(1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, “These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu’t-Tá’am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-‘Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen.” iiiii
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; Promised One; Prophecies; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Firsts, Other first emanations of the Supreme Pen
    1852 between Aug - Nov The revelation of Rashh-i-Ama (The Clouds of the Realms Above) while in the Síyáh-Chál in Tehran. This tablet is considered to be among the first revealed by Bahá'u'lláh after being apprised that He was to be the Manifestation of God.
  • See P&M295-196(1969), 298-299(1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, “These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu’t-Tá’am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-‘Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen.”
  • See also RoB1p45-52 for information on "The First Emanations of the Supreme Pen". Taherzadeh explains that this tablet has great significance in Islamic prophecy where it is said that when the Promised One appears He will utter one word that will cause the people to flee HIm. Islamic prophecy also holds that the well-known saying, "I am He" will be fulfilled. In this tablet and many that were to follow, Bahá'u'lláh proclaims that "I am God".
    Taherzadeh also states Bahá'u'lláh disclosed for the first time one of the unique features of His Revelation, namely, the advent of the "Day of God".
    "In a language supremely beautiful and soul-stirring, He attributes these energies to Himself. His choice of words, and the beauty, power, depth and mystery of this poem...are such that they may well prove impossible to translate." [RoB1p45]
  • See Tablet of the Mist of the Unknown by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Ramin Neshati, 2000
  • See Sprinkling of the Cloud of Unknowing by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Stephen Lambden published in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:2 1984-09/1995
  • See Clouds and the Hiding God: Observations on some Terms in the Early Writing of Bahá'u'lláh by Moshe Sharon published in Lights of Irfan, Vol 13, 2012,p363-379 for an exploration of the mystical terms found in the Tablet.
  • See Sprinkling from a Cloud (Rashh-i-Amá): Wilmette Institute faculty notes by Ismael Velasco and Julio Savi, 1999 where each author provides a synopsis of the Tablet.
  • See Sprinkling from a Cloud (Rashh-i-Amá): Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters, 1999
  • See List of Baha'i Studies and Translations by Stephen Lambden for a chronological list of the known Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh (and the Báb).
  • Tihran; Iran Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Poetry of; Poetry; Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Siyah Chal (Black Pit)
    1852 27 Oct The Bábí Faith was first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez” ("To the History of Education in Persia”) where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reported on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá’ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Newspaper articles; Mentions; Firsts, Other First mention of the Faith in Hungary
    1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
  • Iran; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Aqa Khan; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family departed for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh was accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They were escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
  • Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Mihdi; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rested in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
  • Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
    1853 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murdered the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Governors; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Assassinations
    1853 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád

    Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrived in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shoghi Effendi describes this as being the lowest period of the faith of the Báb. [DB651, GPB113-114]
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gave birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 or 1854 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]
  • The revelation of this Tablet pointed out Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
  • This Tablet also describes five Worlds of God.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Worlds of God
    1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]
  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Firsts, Other First son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá; first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival Baghdád
    1853 (Summer) Bahá'u'lláh revealed His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. He was the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest." [BKG109–11; GPB115–16; CoB181]
  • Bried story about Mírzá Áqá Ján and his first inclination that Bahá'u'lláh was indeed the One promised by the Báb.
  • Karbala; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Aqa Jan the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest." a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
    1853 Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]
  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
  • Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Mirza Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1853 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies
    1853 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shiraz; Nayriz; Tihran; Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh in Sulaymaniyyih
    Bahá'u'lláh suddenly left Baghdád and went to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]
  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
  • Bahá'u'lláh lived for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He took the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]
  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. By this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Non other than the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih (Ode of the Dove). It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
  • Kurdistan; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dervishes; Sulaymaniyyih; Sar-Galu; Aqa Abul-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sufism; Daoud Toeg; Caves; Interfaith dialogue; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point prior to Bahá'u'lláh's retirement to the mountains of Kurdistán, had joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home.
  • See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Life of
    1855 During Bahá'u'lláh's absence At some point during the retirement of Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá 'Aqá Ján was engaged in the service of Mírzá Yahyá who wanted him to go on a secret mission to Tehran to assassinate Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He accepted the assignment and soon after his arrival managed to obtain access to the court in the guise of a labourer. He realized the extent of his folly and returned to Baghdád and when Bahá'u'lláh returned from exile he confessed his part in the scheme and begged Bahá'u'lláh's forgiveness and he was permitted to resume service for Bahá'u'lláh. [CoB181-182] Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nasirid-Din Shah
    1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1855 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. United States Robert Turner; Births and deaths First African-American Baha'i.
    c. 1856 – 1857 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdad; Iraq Samadiyyih Khanum; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths First daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
    1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period were so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He revealed a vast number of works and then commanded that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Iran History (General); Iran, General history
    1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returned from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán two years after His withdrawal at ‘Abdu’l-Baha's request, a moment Shoghi Effendi has described as “a turning point of the utmost significance in the history of the first Bahá’í century.” [GPB127]

    Baha’u’llah’s return revived and animated the Bábí community.

    "He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

    We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rented a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house was large, two or three stories, and was made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house was purchased. He later named it "The Most Great House" and designated it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1856 (after Bahá'u'lláh's return) Siyyid Asadulláh of Khuy was an influential and devoted Bábi whom the Báb had designated "Dayyán" (Judge). During Mírzá Yahyá's leadership in Baghdad he had found him so weak and the community so desparate that he, like some twenty others, declared himself to be to be the Promised One. He soon rescinded his claim after Bahá'u'lláh's return when he, as the Báb had promised, became the third person to believe in Bahá'u'lláh. Mírzá Yahyá saw this man a threat and ordered his servant Mírzá Muhammad-i-Mázindarání to murder him. [MCS562]

    In Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (p174-176) Bahá'u'lláh mentions Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar, a relative of the Báb and Abu'l-Qáaim-i-Káshí and states "several other suffered martyrdom through the decree pronounced by Mírzá Yahyá."

    Baghdad; Iraq Siyyid Asadullah (Dayyan); Mirza Yahya; Mirza Muhammad-i-Mazindarani; Mirza Ali-Akbar; Abul-Qaaim-i-Kashi; He Whom God shall make manifest
    1857 c. The revelation of Sahíiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River or Book of the Tigris) by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See Tablet of the River [Tigris] by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole, 1997 for the background to the Tablet and a translation. Cole contends, by his translation, that at this time Bahá'u'lláh, had no thought of advancing any claim to Revelation.
  • See Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River by Nader Saiedi published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3, 1999 where Saiedi postulates, based on his translation that Bahá'u'lláh was fully aware of His mission from at least the time of his imprisonment in the Siyah-Chal and rejects any suggestion that Bahá'u'lláh's consciousness evolved in this regard.
  • See Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure by Moojan Momen published in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 Association for Bahá'í Studies of New Zealand, 2007, where Momen contends that the controversy is an illusory one caused by the specific nature of the meaning of the word "amr" and that the phrase that is the subject of dispute proves neither side's case, however it is translated. He explains it by say there is a theological schematic of the stages of the evolution of the mission of the Manifestations of God, the phenomenon of a period of messianic concealment followed by a theophanic disclosure. He then imposes this schematic upon the dispensation of the Báb creating a new interpretation of His ministry and further suggests it could be applied to the Revelation of Muhammad and Jesus.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Shahifiy-i-Shattiyyih (Book of the River); Rivers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Tigris river
    c. 1857, 1858 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Four Valleys, (Chahar Vadi) addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání (or Karkútí), a man of erudition and understanding and a leader of the Qádiríyyih Order, someone He had come in contact with in Kurdistán. In it He describes four different paths of approach to the Divine. [SA157–8, BKG163; RoB1p104] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Shaykh Abdur-Rahman-i-Talabani; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1858 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Fatimih; Tigris; Rivers; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
    1858 19 Jul Nabil, who had met Bahá'u'lláh in 1850, was one of the Bábí leaders who claimed to be the promised messianic figure according to the Báb’s prophecies. After his return to Baghdad he withdrew his claim when he recognized Bahá'u'lláh’s status as the fulfillment of the Báb’s predictions and the leader of the Bábís. He became one of Bahá'u'lláh’s earliest followers. [RoB1p202, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] Baghdad; Iraq Nabil-i-Azam
    1858 Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Iran Mirza Aqa Khan; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Shahs
    1858 – 1862 It was in this period that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh described the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150; BKG161-163; RoB1p98-101]
  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA150.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Kurdistan Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Sufism; Shaykh Muhyid-Din; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
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