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Bahá'í Chronology: years 185-

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185-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1850 early weeks Vahíd clashes with the authorities in Yazd. He escapes and makes a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B178 says this took place in the early weeks of 1850; B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
Yazd; Fárs; Iran; Persia Vahid
1850 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mázindarán; Iran; Persia Mullá Ádí-Guzal; Báb
1850 14 Feb Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381] Iran; Persia Bábí; informer; arrest
1850 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850 spring The house of Vahíd in Yazd is attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd is dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd leaves Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Yazd; Iran; Persia Vahid; house; attack; Mulla Muhammad-Rida
1850 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]

  • Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
Zanján; Iran; Persia Hujjat; Babi; ‘ulama Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
1850 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanján; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Shaykh Muhammad-i-Tub-Chi
1850 19 May The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Governor; Hujjat; Mír Saláh; Zaynab; Bábí
1850 27 May-
21 Jun
First Nayríz upheaval.

Vahíd travels from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He goes to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascends the pulpit and proclaims the Cause of God. The Governor makes moves against him and Vahíd orders his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that follows lasts a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]

  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
Nayríz; Yazd; Shíráz; Vahid; Mosque; Jum‘ih; Governor; fort Khajih; siege First Nayríz upheaval
1850 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]

  • His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
Chihríq; Tabríz; Urúmíyyih; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab; American; missionaries; Mulla Baqir; Letters Living; ‘Jinab-i-Baha'; Baha'u'llah; Tablet; ‘Baha'
1850 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd receives a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leaves the fortress and is received into the camp of his enemies where he is entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayríz; Iran; Persia Vahíd; truce
1850 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]

  • Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
Nayríz; Iran; Persia Vahíd; Bábí
1850 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shíráz; Nayríz; Iran; Persia severed head; Bábí
1850 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayríz; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Vahid; martyrdom; Bab
1850 29 Jun At some point near the end of His life The Báb consigns His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and HIs last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In HIs last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Aií Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49) Tabríz The Bab; Mirza 'Abdu'l-Karim Qazvini
1850 29 Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz. [BBR76]
  • BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
Tabríz The Bab
1850 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; turban; sash; barracks; Mirza Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Zunuzi; Anis; martyr
1850 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]

At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]

  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.

The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]

  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.

    At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]

Tabríz; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Bab; Anis; Sam Khan; Christian; colonel; Armenian
1850 10 Jul The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]

  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
Iran; Persia Russian; Consul; Bakulin; sketch; Báb
1850 11 Jul The bodies are removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]

  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8 for the story of the recovery of the bodies.
  • The soldiers report that the bodies have been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
Iran; Persia silk; factory; bodies
1850 Jul The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
Iran; Persia; Iraq Bab; Faith Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
1850 Aug c. Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí. Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Haji Amin; Hand Cause; Babi
1850 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting begun in May continues. He takes charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]

  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
Zanján; Iran; Persia ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí; commander-in-chief; army; Ashraf; mother
1850 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions are executed in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran; Persia Vahid
1850 Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tries to deceive Hujjat into surrender by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responds by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who has them thrown into a dungeon. This signals the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanján; Tabarsí; Nayríz; Iran; Persia Muhammad Khan; Hujjat
1850 early Dec Hujjat is wounded in the arm. His companions lay down their arms and rush to his assistance. The royal forces take advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]

  • About 100 women and children are taken captive. They are left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
  • The remaining Bábís, about 140, shelter in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]

The bombardment of the fortress is stepped-up and Hujjat's house particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby are killed. [B187; DB572–3]

Hujjat; wounded; killed; Babis
1850 29 Dec Hujjat dies of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
Zanján; Iran; Persia Hujjat; death
1851 Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), a prominent mujtahid, becomes a Bábí, in Najafábád. Najafábád; Iran Mulla Zaynu'l-'Abidin; Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin; mujtahid; Babi
1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]

  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
Zanján; Iran; Persia death; Hujjat; Babi
1851 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Bábís; executed
1851 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl; executed
1851 1 May Áqá Husayn is blown from a cannon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Husayn; cannon
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihrán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Baha'u'llah
1851 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání; death
1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591] Kirmánsháh; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah
1851 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák is blown from a cannon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák; canon; death
1851 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stays here for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]

  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
Karbalá; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; pilgrimage; Babis
1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
Karbalá; Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab; amanuensis; Baha'u'llah; Imam Husayn; shrine
1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, is put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]

  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
Siyyid Basir-Hindi; Indian; death; Ildirim Mirza
1851 13 Nov Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám, is dismissed from his post and told he is only in charge of the army. [BBR163; BKG71]

  • He is succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí. [BBRXXIX, 482; DB598]
Mírzá Taqí Khán; Amír-Nizám; dismissed; Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí
1851 Dec After learning of the death of the Bab, his mother Fáṭimih Bagum moves to Karbilá with her closest companions. Karbila Faṭimih Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida Bahaikipedia
1852 Birth of Mírzá Buzurg-i-Khurásání (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran; Persia Mirza Buzurg-i-Khurasani; Badi‘; birth; Apostle; Baha'u'llah
1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán is killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]

  • He chooses to have his veins opened and he bleeds to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Káshán; Iran; Persia Mirza Taqi Khan; death; Shah; mother; Mirza Áqa Khan
1852 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York City; United States Isabella Brittingham; American; Bahá'í
1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]

  • He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
Karbalá; Iraq; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Grand Vizier
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavásán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Ja‘far-Quli Khan; Grand Vizier
1852 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran; Persia Sháh; Ja‘far-Qulí Khán; Bahá'u'lláh
1852 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]

  • Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
Zargandih; Iran; Persia Bahá'u'lláh; Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí; Russian; Sháh; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Vizier; arrest
1852 days following
16 Aug
For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]

He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Siyah-Chal
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Babis; arrest; execute; execution; Siyah-Chal; martyrdom
1852 16 – 27Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tehran Tahirih
1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís are distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] execution; Babis
1852 Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Tehran; Takur; Iran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Siyah-Chal; prison; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; martyr; poison; chain; Mirza Yahya
1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; vision; maid; angels; Manifestation; Moses; Burning Bush; Zoroaster; Seven Visions; Buddha; Bodhi tree; Dove; Jesus; Gabriel; Muhammad; Bab; Declaration
1852 27 Oct The Bábí Faith is first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez” („To the History of Education in Persia”) where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reports on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá’ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary First mention of the Faith in Hungary
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran; Persia; Iraq Baha'u'llah; release; Siyah-Chal; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Áqa Khan
1853 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Írán; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; brother; wife; son; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Bahiyyih Khanum; Mirza Musa and Mirza Muhammad-Qul; Russia
1853 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
Khániqayn; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Naw-Ruz
1853 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayríz; Iran; Persia Bábís; upheaval; murder; governor
1853 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrive in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gives birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
Baghdád; Iraq Bahá'u'lláh; Navváb; son
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]

  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]

  • The revelation of this Tablet points up Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
Baghdád; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; birth; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘am; Tablet All Food; Mirza Yahya' First son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá; first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival Baghdád
1853 summer Bahá'u'lláh reveals His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. [BKG109–11; GPB115–16] Karbalá; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Mirza Áqa Jan a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
1853 Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]

  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
Nayríz; Iran; Persia upheaval; Mirza Na‘im-i-Nuri; Babi
1853 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayríz; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bábí; prisoner; martyr; Islam; prophecy; Qá'im
1853 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia Bábí; executed
1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]

  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]

  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
Kurdistán; Baghdád Baha'u'llah; dervish; cave; Sar-Galu; Darvish; Muhammad-i-Írani; Moses; Sinai; Buddha; Christ; Muhammad; Áqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani; poem; Qasidiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqa'iyyih; Bab; Babi; son; Navvab Mirza Yahya; Sufi; Daoud Toeg; cave; Sar-Galu
1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point, joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home. See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals. Baghdád; Iraq;
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; England John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hand of the Cause of God
1855 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. USA; America; United States Robert Turner; Bahá'í First black American Bahá'í
1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Írán Anglo-Persian War
c. 1856 – 1857 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Samadiyyih Khanum; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya First daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period are so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He reveals a vast number of works and then commands that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; writing
1856 – 1863 It is in this period that Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh describes the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150]

  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA1507.
Baghdád; Iraq; Kurdistán Baha'u'llah; Seven Valleys; Sufi; Shaykh Muhyi'd-Din; Qadi Khaniqayn
1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returns from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán.

"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
Baghdád; Iraq; Sulaymáníyyih; Kurdistán Baha'u'llah; Sulaymaniyyih
1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
c. 1857 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Four Valleys, addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání and describing four stages of the spiritual life. [SA157–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Four Valleys; Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahman-i-Talabani
1858 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Hidden Words; Kalimat-i-Maknunih; Fatimih; Tigris
1858 Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Írán; Persia Mirza Áqa Khan; prime minister; Babi; Shah
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