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Bahá'í Chronology: years 188-

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188-

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1880 Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67]
  • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93.
Persia Zoroastrians First Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís
1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
Sultánábád; Tihrán Siyyid Muhammad-Baqir-i-Mujtahid; Sayyidih Khanum Bibi; Tuba Khanum
1880 18 or 19 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits the Druze village of Yirkih (Yerka). `Abdu'l-Bahá joins Him for the last four nights. [DH123]
  • See DH123 for other Druze villages visited by Bahá'u'lláh.
Yirkih Druze
1880 15 Aug Mishkín-Qalam addresses a petition to the High Commissioner of Cyprus begging to be released from his confinement. [BBR307]
  • See BBR307–11 for consequences of this.
Cyprus Mishkín-Qalam; High Commissioner of Cyprus
1881 The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden are purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
  • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden are brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
Akka; Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden
1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
Akka; BWC Trustee of the Huququ'llah; The second Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Haji Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Amin-i-Ilahi; Jinab-i-Shah; Hand of the Cause; Apostles of Baha'u'llah; Haji Ghulam-Rida; Amin-i-Amin; Huququ’llah
1881 24 Mar Mírzá Yahyá is granted freedom by the British administration of Cyprus. [BBR311]
  • He asks for British citizenship or protection so that he may return to Iran or Turkey in safety but is denied so stays on in Cyprus for the rest of his life. [BBR311]
Cyprus
1882 Ibn-i-Asdaq is given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq; Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid (Martyr; son of the martyr)
1882 In the year Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá is arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he is imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383] Yazd; Isfahan Mirza `Ali-Muhammad Varqa
1882 11 Jul The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested 'Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes] Alexandria; Egypt
1882 15 Sep The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. [BBD127; EB235; KB35] Shiraz Khadijih-Bagum; In Memoriam
1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community are arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some are confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences are not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This is occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
Tihrán The Tihran Upheaval
1883 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

Four Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz persecution
1883 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar are arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht; Lahijan
1883 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha
1883 June 21 Thornton Chase appears in Newspaper coverage of poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thorton Chase; newspapers Thornton Chase in the newspapers
1883 Aug Bahá'u'lláh travels to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted about three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
  • He stays in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house. The building is located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH109]
Haifa; Bayt-i-Fanduq Templar colony First visit to Haifa by Bahá'u'lláh
1884 Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabríz; Valiyu'llah Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God
1885 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurasan Mulla `Aliy-i-Namiqi
1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdád Musa Banani; Hand of the Cause of God
1886 In the year Birth of Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil, the first Hindu to become a Bahá'í in Surat Gajarat, India. Surat; Gujarat; India Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil first Hindu to become a Bahá'í.
1886 In the year `Abdu'l-Bahá writes A Traveller's Narrative. [TN40] A Traveller's Narrative.
1886 In the year The death of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
  • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
  • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet for her in which He calls her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
  • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
  • She is interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
  • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demands that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
House of `Abbúd; Ásiyih Khanum; Navvab; Muhammad-Yusuf Pasha; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi)
1886 14 Sep Mishkín-Qalam, who had been living in Larnica, leaves Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311, Four on an Island pg 24] Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam
1887 Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
`Akká; Mirza Musa; Áqay-i-Kalim; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Karbala'i Hasan Khan; Karbala'i Sadiq
1887 Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistán; Fárs Karbala'i Hasan Khan and Karbala'i Sadiq
1887 test 3 published from new event directly test test
1887 7 Apr Birth of Horace Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, in Torrington, Connecticut. Torrington; Connecticut Horace Holley; Hand of the Cause of God chrono-edit/971
1887 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq; Hand of the Cause of God First mention of concept of `Hand of the Cause'
1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spends 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey is to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
  • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
  • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
Persia E. G. Browne
1888 Nabíl begins his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII]

Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarks on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java, Siam, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22]

Burma; Java; Siam; Singapore; Kashmir; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; Afghanistan Nabíl; Jamál Effendi; Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí; Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative
1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') is given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Newcastle; England E. G. Browne First lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
1888 c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and are sent to Shíráz, where one is imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz
1888 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He is hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body is buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Isfahan Mirza Ashraf of Abadih
1889 In the year The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
Hamadán; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ism'llah'l-Asdaq
1889 Jun E. G. Browne gives a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

Royal Asiatic Society; London; E. G. Browne; Áqa Najafi
1889 Jun Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiates a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383] Isfahán; Sidih; Najafábád Son of the Wolf
1889 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drives over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They take sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
  • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan Aqa Najafi
1889 18 Jul The Bahá'ís are persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they will receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383] Isfahán
1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help or protection, go to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihrán; Sidih; Najafábád
1889 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
  • Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
  • Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
`Ishqábád Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání; Czar Alexander III; Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl First time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for attack on Bahá'ís
1889 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Shu`a`u'llah `Ala'i; Hand of the Cause of God
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