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Bahá'í Chronology: years 189-

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189-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1890 In the year Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

`Akká; Haifa; Tihrán; Qazvín; Kalát-i-Nadírí; Mashhad; Haji Ákhund; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; (Khayru'llah)
1890 In the decade Bahá'í books are published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo. [GPB195; SA250] Bombay; Cairo First time Bahá'í books published in Bombay and Cairo
1890 c. Nabíl presents his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers, to Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá for approval. [DBXXXVII] Nabil; The Dawn-Breakers
1890 Ibrahim George Kheiralla (Khayru'lláh) becomes a Bahá'í in Cairo under the tutelage of `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání. [BFA1:19]
  • It is probable that he is the first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background. [BFA19]
  • See BFA1:175 for pictures.
Cairo; Egypt Ibrahim George Kheiralla; `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani. first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background
1890 E. G. Browne is in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh is staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrives. [BBR253] 'Akká; Haifa; E. G. Browne; Templer colony
1890 By 1890 about a thousand Bahá'ís have settled in `Ishqábád. [BBRSM91, SDOH99] `Ishqábád
1890 A number of people of the Jewish, Zoroastrian and Buddhist Faiths become Bahá'ís. [BBR248–9; GPB195 Jewish; Zoroastrian; Buddhist
1890 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection secure a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they are killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih; Tihran
1890 Apr Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for a third time. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He first stays near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
  • He then moves to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent is pitched on a piece of land opposite. [BKG374; BPP173]
Haifa; Oliphant House; Bayt-i-Zahlán German colony
1890 15–20 Apr E. G. Browne is granted four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí. [BBD43; BBR225; BKG371; GPB193]
  • See BBR225–32 for Browne's own account of the visit.
  • See BBR229–31, BKG371–3 and DH110 for Browne's pen portrait of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives Browne the manuscript of A Traveller's Narrative: the Episode of the Báb in the handwriting of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín for his to translate. [EGB54, BW11p510]
  • BFA1:445; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne And The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
Bahjí E. G. Browne; A Traveller's Narrative; Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin
1890 Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers are arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarcháh; Bírjand Mulla Hasan
1891 On the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published for the first time in Bombay. [SA250]
  • It is published in Arabic. [SA250]
Bombay The Kitab-i-Aqdas; A Traveller's Narrative; Kitab-i-`Ahd; Epistle to the Son of the Wolf; Crimson Book First publication of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in Bombay
1891 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40]
  • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
  • Bahá'u'lláh alludes to it in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appoints `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
Bahjí Kitab-i-`Ahd; Crimson Book; Covenant
1891 A Traveller's Narrative is published in two volumes by the Cambridge University Press. [BBD226; EGB55]

It is an historical account written by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá around 1886 and first published anonymously in Persian in 1890. The English translation was prepared by Professor Edward G. Browne and first published by Cambridge University Press in 1891.

Cambridge; A Traveller's Narrative
1891 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith, given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London.
  • He gave a lecture to Pembroke College Literary Society in England (Martletts), at which the Faith was discussed at length.
Southplace Institute; London E. G. Browne First public lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih, at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5, 357–8.
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
Yazd Jalalu'd-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari
1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounts the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7, Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Bahjí The Times; The Times of London
1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvín; Tíhran; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Hand of the Cause of God
1891 summer Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby. [BKG374; DH186]
  • It is during this visit that Bahá'u'lláh points out to `Abdu'l-Bahá the site for the Shrine of the Báb. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
Haifa; House of Ilyás Abyad Shrine of the Bab; Carmelite monastery; cave of Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar title; title
1891 Jul-Aug Members of the Afnán family meet Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa. [BKG374, 406]
  • For details of this visit see BKG406–13.
Haifa Afnan
1891 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred in Yazd. [BW18:384] Yazd Mulla Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Dihabadi
1891 See also BKG420–5; RB4:419–20.

Bahá'u'lláh reveals Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; GPB219; RB4:368]

  • It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. GPB220]
  • It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
  • For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
  • For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
Bahjí; Yazd Epistle to the Son of the Wolf; Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Tablet to the Times
1892 Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih is poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384] Tihrán Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1892 c. `Abdu'l-Bahá writes Risáliy-i-Siyásiyyih (Treatise on Politics). [ABMM] Risaliy-i-Siyasiyyih; (Treatise on Politics)
1892 8 May Bahá'u'lláh contracts a slight fever. [GPB221]
  • See RB4:414–17 for the progress of this illness.
Bahji
1892 c. 24 May Bahá'u'lláh calls to His bedside all the believers, including many pilgrims, for their last audience with Him. [GPB222] Bahji
1892 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

Bahá'u'lláh passes away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

  • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
  • Bahá'u'lláh has spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
  • He passes away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
  • The news of His passing is immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
  • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh is buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
  • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
  • See AB52–3, CB148–9 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items.
  • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
  • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • At this time the Faith has spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
  • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who met Bahá'u'lláh.
Bahji Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Qiblih
1892 After the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh `Abdu'l-Bahá asks Nabíl to choose a number of passages from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh to be used as a Tablet of Visitation. This Tablet is also used at observances commemorating the Martyrdom of the Báb. [BBD234; BKG427; GPB222; RB4:419]
  • For an analysis of this Tablet, see SA121–2.
`Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house now known as the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226]
Pilgrim House at Bahji Nabil-i-Akbar; Tablets of Visitation; Iskandar Hawwa'; Nabil-i-Akbar
1892 Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, commits suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG427–8; DH81; EB270; GPB222]
  • He leaves a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
  • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
  • He is buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
  • He is one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh.
Akka Nabil-i-Akbar; suicide
1892 7 Jun On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd, is read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20]
  • See CB150, 164 for the effect this has on the believers.
Bahji Kitab-i-`Ahd; Most Holy Tomb
1892 16 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world calling for steadfastness. [AB48–9; DH113]
  • This is `Abdu'l-Bahá's first message. [AB48–9; CH110]
  • For the text of the message see AB48–9, CH110–11, DH113 and SWAB17–18.
First message of `Abdu'l-Bahá
1892 summer `Abdu'l-Bahá goes to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolates Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188]

Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who has been in prison for five years, is executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]

Anton Haddad arrives in the United States. [BFA1:26]

  • He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
Mount Carmel; Shíráz; USA lower cave of Elijah; Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán; Anton Haddad First Bahá'í to reach American soil
1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'Ini. He was born in Naw- Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i- Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • Bukhárá; Uzbekistan; Naw- Firist; Iran; Nabil-i-Akbar Áqa Muhammed-i-Qa'Ini; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
    1892 20 Dec Ibrahim Kheiralla arrives in New York. [BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88]
    • See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
    New York; USA Ibrahim Kheiralla
    1893 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
    • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
    Yazd Áqa Muhammad-Riday-i-Muhammadabadi; martyr; persecution First to suffer martyrdom in ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
    • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
    World Parliament of Religions; Chicago Rev. Henry H. Jessup First public reference in North America to Bahá'í Faith
    1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

    Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

    A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

    Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

    Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; USA; Níshápúr; Hamadán; Dastjirdán; Khurásán; Fárán; Khurásán Sarah J. Farmer; Haji Yari; Áqa `Abdu'l-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1894 FLESH OUT THIS STORY before publication Tolstoy discovered late in his life the then still relatively new Revelation of Baha’u’llah, the Baha’i Faith, with its beginnings in 1844 in the Babi Faith. This was destined to happen as he had committed himself to seek out the wisdom of the world, near and far, new and ancient. In fact it was in 1844 at age 16 that he became a student of oriental languages. His encounter with the Baha’i Writings came much later, being in 1894. His interest in world religions was well known far and wide and a few early Baha’is either sent him Baha’i pamphlets or books or brought these to him in person. In 1902 Abdu’l-Baha, son of Baha’u’llah, Interpretor and Perfect Exemplar of the Faith, sent Mirza Aziz’u’llah Jadhdhab Khurasani to meet Count Leo Tolstoy and to bring him this message: “Act that your name may leave a good memory in the world of religion. Many philosophers have come, each one raising a flag, let us say five meters high. You have raised a flag ten meters high; immerse yourself in the ocean of unity, so that you may remain confirmed eternally.” Leo Tolstoy
    1894 Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settles in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII]
    • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America is soon formed in Chicago. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179]
    Chicago Ibrahim George Kheiralla First Bahá'í community in North America formed in Chicago
    1894 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
    • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
    • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
    • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
    • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
    Chicago Thornton Chase First American Bahá'í Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
    1895 Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts becomes a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] Orleans; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; USA Mrs Kate C. Ives First woman born in United States to become a Bahá'í
    1895 c. summer Miss Marion Brown becomes a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London Miss Marion Brown First European to become a Bahá'í
    1895 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York; USA Leonora Stirling Armstrong; Mother of South America; Leonora Armstrong
    c. 1896 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129] Akka Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-Breaker
    1896 In the year `Abdu'l-Bahá is forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77] Tiberias; Hisár; Khurásán; Tabríz; Khúzistán Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-Breakers
    1896 in the year Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, marries Mírzá Hádí Afnán of Shíráz. [BW4:234 (GENEALOGY); DH59–60]
    • These are the parents of Shoghi Effendi.
    • For a picture of Díyá'íyyih Khánum see MA105.
    'Akká. Diya'iyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Afnan; Shoghi Effendi
    1896 In the year Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán are persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384] Hisár; ; Kh; urásán persecution
    1896 In the year Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabríz Áqa Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Yazdi; persecution
    1896 In the year Mullá Hasan Khazá'í is arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384] Khúzistán persecution; Mulla Hasan Khaza'i
    1896 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. Wilmington; Illinois Leroy C. Ioas; Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh is assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BKG455]
    • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
    • His assassin is a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran. [BBRSM87; GBP296]
    • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
    • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
    • He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
    • See also CBM546.
    Nasiri'd-Din Shah
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
    • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22.
    • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
    • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Baha named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
    • Also see World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
    • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
    • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
    Yazd; Tihrán; Iran; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Varqa
    1896 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo; Sicily Dr Ugo Giachery; Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 Jun - Jul Several Bahá'ís are beaten and four are imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stir up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari persecution
    1896 21 Jul Hájí Muhammad Sádiq is stabbed to death in Turbat-i-Haydarí. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari Haji Muhammad Sadiq
    1896 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís are executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
    • BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
    • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
    • Their martyrdom is the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís are erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
    Turbat-i-Haydarí Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Shuhaday-i-Khamsih; The Five Martyrs
    1896 c. Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
    • He establishes it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
    • See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
    Akka; `Abdu'llah Pasha; House of `Abdu'llah Pasha
    1897 In the year The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Muhammad-Ridá in a Tehran prison.
    • born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He is provided a good education and he becomes a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
    • Becomes a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognizes Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
    • He became well-known for his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse. He was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, while a elderly man, withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. (A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing.) [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
    Muhammad-Ábád; Yazd; Tehran; Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
    1897 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. He was born in Muhammadábád, Yazd in 1814. [LoF21-27]
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badi, no one has surpassed Mulla Rida's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Baha'i Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • Muhammadábád; Yazd; Hand appointed by 'Abdu'l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause; Shaykh Muhammad-riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Rida
    c. 1897 Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for 40 years, throws in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and becomes a Covenant-breaker. [CB181]
    • For the story of his downfall see CB181–92.
    Mirza Áqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breaker
    1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

    The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

    • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
    Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

    Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

    The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

    China; Bombay; Tihrán; Saysán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Nayríz; Hamadán Haji Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Áqa Najafi; Iranian persecution First Bahá'í to have settled in China
    1897 Feb Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three are bastinadoed and three are imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz
    1897 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Jalal Khazeh (Jalal Khadih); Hand of the Cause of God
    1897 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
    • He is descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother is the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father is an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
    • He is the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
    • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá commands everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá gives him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who are all called Afnán. Rabbání is also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1]
    • See GBF6 for the schools he attends.
    • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl;

      Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith;

      Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.

    House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá Shoghi Effendi; Ghusn-i-Mumtaz; Haji Mirza `Abu'l-Qasim
    1897 21 May Lua Getsinger becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII] Chicago Lua Getsinger
    1898 `Abdu'l-Bahá instructs that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]

    Tihrán; Remains of the Bab; Haji Muhammad
    1898 The first anti-Bahá'í polemical tracts are published by Christian missionaries in Iran. [SBB111:69] First anti-Bahá'í polemics by missionaries in Iran
    1898 The Tarbíyat School for boys is established in Tihrán by the Bahá'ís. [BBD221] Tehran Tarbiyat School Founding of the first Tarbíyat School for boys
    1898 Several Bahá'ís are arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Muhammad is set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

    Qazvín; Hisár; Khurasan Persecution in Iran
    1898 1 Jan Eighteen people become Bahá'ís in Kenosha, Wisconsin, following the visit of Kheiralla in the autumn of 1897. [BFA1:XXVIII]
    • This marks the establishment of the third Bahá'í community in North America. [BFA1:110]
    Kenosha; Wisconsin Kheiralla
    1898 Feb Kheiralla arrives in New York and begins classes on the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:XXVIII, 116] New York Kheiralla
    1898 9 Feb Hájí Muhammad-i-Turk is shot, beaten and then burned to death in a main street in Mashhad by four religious students. [BBRXXX, 406; BW18:384]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR406–17.
  • Mashhad Haji Muhammad-i-Turk
    1898 Apr Nine Bahá'ís attending a Ridván meeting are arrested, beaten and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384] Hamadán
    1898 Jun In New York City, 141 people become Bahá'ís in the five months since Kheiralla's arrival. [BFA1:XXVIII, 125] New York City Kheiralla
    1898 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd Aqa Ghulam-Husayn-i-Banadaki
    1898 Jul or Aug Phoebe Hearst becomes a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139]
    • SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
    California Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger
    1898 20 Aug Jamál Effendi passes away in `Akká. [EB128] `Akká Jamal Effendi
    1898 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
    • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140]
    • There are 15 pilgrims in all. [AB68]
    New York Pilgrimage; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; BWC Pilgrimage First Western pilgrims
    1898 11 Nov Kheiralla arrives in `Akká. [BFA1:XXVIII, 141]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá confers titles on him: `Bahá's Peter', the `Second Columbus' and `Conqueror of America'. [BFA1:142; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
    `Akka Kheiralla
    1898 13 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá commemorates Kheiralla's arrival by ending the period of mourning for Bahá'u'lláh and by opening His Tomb to pilgrims for the first time. [BFA1:142–3; SBBH2:112] Bahjí Kheiralla First time Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh opened to pilgrims
    1898 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13]
    • They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
    • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
    • Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
    • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
    • Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
    • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
    • Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
    • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
    `Akka; Cairo; House of `Abdu'llah Pasha Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; The Kitab-i-Aqdas; Anton Haddad; pilgrimage; BWC Pilgrimage First Western pilgrims; first group of first Western pilgrims; first member of black race to become Bahá'í
    1898 c. 20 Dec The second group of Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká, staying three days before returning to Cairo. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those included in this group.
    `Akká
    1898 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Beecher Baker; Hand of the Cause of God
    1899 Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New New York City; Miss Olive Jackson First black American woman Bahá'í
    1899 The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, is published in Chicago. This is probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago First published essay written by American Bahá'í
    1899 The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]
    • Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
    Tehran; first National Assembly of Iran
    1899 Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others carry to the Holy Land the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to hold the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517] Haifa; Mandalay; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Shrine of the Bab; Remains of the Bab
    1899 31 Jan The remains of the Báb arrive in the Holy Land. [BBD209; DH66; GPB274]
    • They are stored in the room of the Greatest Holy Leaf in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá until the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [DH66]
    Holy Land; House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá remains of the Bab; Greatest Holy Leaf; Shrine of the Bab
    1899 Feb The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America. [BFA1:143]
    • See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
    America First Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America
    1899 c. Feb - Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá, accompanied by Kheiralla, lays the foundation stone for the Shrine of the Báb. [BFA1:XXVIII, 142; BBD209; GPB275; SBBH2:112] Mount Carmel Kheiralla; Shrine of the Bab
    1899 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrives in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
    Birth of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God, in Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina, into a family of German background.
    House of `Abdu'llah Pasha; Rosario de Santa Fé; ; Argentina Hermann Grossmann; Hand of the Cause of God
    1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles establishes the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
    • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the `first English believer', and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith', see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259.
    • Lady Sara Bloomfield and her daugher Mary heard about the Faith from the Paris group and made a significant contribution to the Faith in England. [SCU17]
    Paris May Bolles; Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus First Bahá'í group on European continent
    1899 9 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád. [BBRXXX, 426; BW18:384–5]
    • Mírzá Báqir-i-Há'í is arrested, several Bahá'ís are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted in Najafábád. [BBR426; BW18:384–5]
    • Some 300 Bahá'ís occupy the British telegraph office hoping that the Sháh will intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [BBR427–8]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR426–30.
    Najafabad Mirza Baqir-i-Ha'i
    1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin council board; Local Spiritual Assembly
    1899 c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
    • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; SBBH194, 239]
    • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
      • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
      • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
      • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
      • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
    • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
    Kheiralla; Haji `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl
    1899 Summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepts the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW55-64, SCU17]
    • For her biography see Rob Weinberg's, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg.
    • She visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá several times in the first decade of the century. [SCU17]
    Ethel Jenner Rosenberg First English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land
    1899 Oct - Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacks the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111]
    • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha are Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
    Kenosha; Wisconsin Stoyan Vatralsky; Truth-knowers
    1899 19 Nov Birth of Yan Kee Leong, the first believer in Malaya, in Selangor, Malaysia. Selangor; Malaysia Yan Kee Leong First believer in Malaya
    1899 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey becomes a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris Charles Mason Remey; May Bolles
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