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Bahá'í Chronology: years 190-

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190-

date event locations tags firsts see also
c. 1900 For the state of affairs in Haifa just after the turn of the century see CB231-234. Haifa Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of
c. 1900 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas was translated by Anton Haddad. It was not published but circulated in typescript form. [BFA2:27; SA251] United States Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Anton Haddad
c. 1900 A Bahá'í group was established in Italy. [BBRSM:106] Italy First Bahá'í group in Italy
1900 or 1897 Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, was published in the United States. [BFA2:26]
  • It was the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. [BFA2:26]
  • It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
  • Collins gives the date as 1897. [BEL4.277]
  • Chicago; United States Compilations; Prayer texts; Anton Haddad; Publications; Publishing Trusts; First publications First prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in West
    1900 (Early part) `Abdu'l-Bahá began to build the foundations of the Shrine of the Báb. [CB223]
  • Note that the number 8 is prominent in the design of the Shrine of the Báb and the gardens. Mr. Giachery noted that Shoghi Effendi reported 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have said that it was because He was the eighth Manifestation of those religions whose followers still exist. [SER84]
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Mount Carmel; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Eight (number); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1900 (In the year) Charlotte and Henry Morton moved from Kenosha to Milwaukee, becoming the city’s first Bahá’í residents. By 1906, the Milwaukee community had grown to fourteen members. [Encyclopedia of Milwaukee] Milwaukee Charlotte and Henry Morton; Charlotte and Henry Morton first Bahá'ís in Milwaukee
    1900 (In the year) Sarah Farmer put Green Acre at the disposal of the Bahá'ís after her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1900. [BFA2:144–5; GPB261]
  • After 1900 Green Acre effectively became the site of the first Bahá'í summer school in the world, although it was not officially so until 1929. [BBRSM:104; BW5:29–30; SBBH1:125]
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; First summer and winter schools First Bahá'í summer school site
    1900 Jan The Behais Publishing and Supply Board was created in Chicago. [BFA1:XXIX] Chicago; United States Publishing Trusts
    1900 8 Mar At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announced his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community. He also said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was not the return of Christ has be had been teaching. [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117; SBBH1p96]
  • He he had allied himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
  • The Bahá'ís effectively divided into two camps. There had been two to three thousand believers in North America in 1900, by 1902, 1,700 had left the Faith leaving six or seven hundred of whom three hundred were "Behaists" and the rest "Abbasites" or "Behais" (followers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá). By 1906 the US Census of Religions reported that the number of Bahá'ís had risen to 1,280 and the "Behaists" numbered on forty. The Kenosha Behaists continued to exist until the early 1950s. [SSBH1:96-97; WOB82; SBBH14p7] To counter the effects of this, Abdu'l-Baha, in 1900 and 1901, sent teachers to America who were completely loyal to the Center of the Covenant and well-informed on the teachings of Baha'u'llah. They were Mirza Abu'l-Fad1 and Mirza Asad'u'llah. Mr. Chase wrote, with these teachers came the first opportunity for a correct and intimate knowledge of the true Bahá'í teachings...rather than psychic and occult experiments...Many persons who had conceived views imbued with imaginations and superstitions fell away from the Cause, but those who remained discovered such spiritual light,...and power in the teachings, that they were deeply confirmed in their belief, and clung to it.. ." [from a short paper entitled 'A Brief History of the American Development of the Bahá'í Movement,' printed in Star of the West, Volume V, number 17.]
  • For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this schism see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organized by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters were on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1900 26 Apr On the instructions of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Egyptian businessman Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrived in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America. He had taught the Faith to Kheiralla in Egypt. His purpose was to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He was accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29]
  • Muhammad-'Ali, having obtained Kheiralla's support, sent his son Shu'a'u'lláh to Kenosha to try to spread opposition to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBH1p240]
  • `Abdu'l-Karím and Shu'a'u'lláh apparently met in Kenosha. The point that they disagreed on was Kheiralla's insistence that his teachings be regarded as authoritative. [SBBH!p240]
  • New York; United States Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie; Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah First Persian Bahá'í to visit North America
    1900 Apr Dr Yúnis Khán arrived in `Akká to act as translator for `Abdu'l-Bahá. He remained for nine years. [BW12:679] Akka Youness Afroukhteh (Yunis Afrukhtih); Translators
    1900 5 Aug Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání left the United States, his efforts to win Kheiralla back to the Faith having failed. [BFA176]
  • Reports of his meetings in which he confronted Ibrahim Kheiralla over Kheiralla's renunciation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and defection to Muhammad-Alí were published under the title Reports of Proceedings of Meetings in New York City and Chicago, Illinois. [BEL 7.2278]
  • New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1900 4 Nov The Persian teachers Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, a merchant from Cairo, arrived in America. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2p35–43]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who had learned English in Egypt, and Mírzá Burzurg.
  • They spent three weeks in New York then spent two days in Johnstown, NY then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months.
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119; SoW Vol 5 # 17 19 Jan 1915 pg 263; 265]
  • The four stayed in New York and then left for Chicago arriving on the 29th of November. Asadu'lláh stay in Chicago until 12 May 1902, Khurásání, and Rúhí returned to Egypt in mid-July, 1901. [BFA2p38]
  • Johnstown; NY; New York; Chicago; United States Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
    1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She had heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. She stayed in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travelled to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She left Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she became the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
  • Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles); Charlotte Dixon First Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii
    1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the effect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla first "Spiritual Assembly" meeting in America????
    1901 (In the year) Arthur Pillsbury Dodge published his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93; BEL7.820] United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Introductory; First publications; Publications First introductory book on Bahá'í Faith written by Western believer
    1901 (In the year) The Junayn Gardens northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, was registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD124] Akka Junayn Gardens; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1901 (In the year) William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, was asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51] Washington DC; United States; Iran William Hoar; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Ambassadors; Human rights; Firsts, Other First effort of American Bahá'í community to alleviate persecution of Persian brethren.
    1901 22 Jan The passing of Queen Victoria.
  • Of all the leaders addressed by Bahá'u'lláh only she is reputed to have made a courteous reply. [CBM47; PDC65]
  • See CBM47–8 for Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy concerning the success of her reign.
  • London; United Kingdom Queen Victoria; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1901 Apr The Iranian ambassador to the Ottoman government at Istanbul, `Ala'u'l-Mulk, filed a report with the Office of Foreign Ministry in Tihran which was subsequently presented to the Shah. Istanbul; Turkey Shah, Reports to
    1901 May Ghulám-Ridá was killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1901 (approx 4 yrs after ascension of Bahá'u'lláh) 'Aqá Jamál Burújirdí had been a member of the Islamic clergy in Burujerd and was widely known and revered across Iran as a gifted teacher of the Faith. He was a proud and egotistical man but during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh he received much praise and various honorary titles such as Ismu'lláh'u'l-Jamál (The Name of God Jamál) due to his many services. During his visit to 'Akká following the passing of Bahá'u'lláh he made contact with Mírzá Muhammad-Alí with the goal of securing a prominent place in the administration of the faith under his leadership, all the while feigning loyalty to 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    In God Passes By p247-248 Shoghi Effendi says of Mírzá Muhammad-Alí and those who tried to assist him in his nefarious efforts, "Closely-knit by one common wish and purpose; indefatigable in their efforts; assured of the backing of the powerful and perfidious Jamál-i-Burújirdí and his henchmen, Ḥájí Ḥusayn-i-Káshí, Khalíl-i-Khú’í and Jalíl-i-Tabrízí who had espoused their cause; linked by a vast system of correspondence with every center and individual they could reach; seconded in their labours by emissaries whom they dispatched to Persia, ‘Iráq, India and Egypt; emboldened in their designs by the attitude of officials whom they bribed or seduced, these repudiators of a divinely-established Covenant arose, as one man, to launch a campaign of abuse and vilification which compared in virulence with the infamous accusations which Mírzá Yaḥyá and Siyyid Muḥammad had jointly levelled at Bahá’u’lláh."
    He was publically unmasked after the Covenant-breakers printed letters with falsehoods and misleading statements. believed to be about four years after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. He became known in the Bahá'í community as "Hyena" or "Old Hyena" (pír-i-kaftár). He died in poverty and disgrace in Iran. The date of his death is not known. [M9YA6-7, 432, RoB2p118-9, 264-267, MMoB104-105, CB165-166, 209-15, Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi]
    • He was the recipient of many tablets from both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one of which can be found in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh p5-9 and a more complete provisional translation of the original tablet can be found here.
    Borujerd; Iran Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Covenant-breakers; Haji Husayn-i-Kashi; Khalil-i-Khui; Jalil-i-Tabrizi; Names and titles
    1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elected a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
    1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council was raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
    1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council was changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requested that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
  • Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
    1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elected their own Board and held the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago; United States Women First business meeting of `Women's Auxiliary Board'
    1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learned of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he became a believer and immediately wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
  • Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other First male British Bahá'í; first English believer; first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh
    1901 (In the year) Hippolyte Dreyfus heard of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepted it. [AB81–2]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
  • He was the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
  • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney they adopted the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; May Maxwell (Bolles); Laura Clifford Barney First Frenchman to embrace the Faith; first European Bahá'í to visit Iran
    1901 Mid-Jul Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání and his translator, Husayn Rúhí left the United States to return to Egypt. [BFA2:38] New York Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani
    1901 Aug Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání arrived in North America. [BFA2:XV]
  • Laura Barney financed the visit of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl to the United States in 1901-04 in order to propagate the Faith and to help publish the translation of his Ḥojaj al-bahīya (Cairo, 1342/1925; tr. Ali-Kuli Khan as The Bahá'í Proofs, New York, 1902; 2nd ed., ed. J. R. I. Cole, Wilmette, Ill., 1983) [Wikipedia, Laura Clifford Barney.]
  • See BFA2:80–7 and BW9:855–860 for accounts of his visit.
  • See Wikipedia, Green Acre and Wikipedia, Mary Hanford Ford for accounts of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl at Green Acre.
  • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab was sent to assist him. Sohrab remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Western believers. At the conclusion of the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
  • New York; United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Proofs; Bahai literature; Publications; Laura Clifford Barney; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; Green Acre
    1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It was written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
  • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
  • Akka Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
    1901 20 Aug Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposed the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
  • This was the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
  • See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 18.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
  • For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá suspended the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
  • He directed that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
  • For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
  • Akka; Egypt Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Badiullah
    1901 Sep Thomas Breakwell went on pilgrimage to `Akká, the first Englishman to do so. [BFA2:154; BW7:709]
  • For an account of this pilgrimage see AB77 and BW7:710.
  • Akka Thomas Breakwell; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims First Englishman to go on pilgrimage to `Akká
    1901 2 Nov Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Waterloo; Ontario; Canada John Robarts; Births and deaths
    1901 26 Nov The Day of the Covenant

    The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
    The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day.

  • Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from this date, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant.
  • The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
  • New York; United States Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bab, Declaration of First celebration of Day of the Covenant in North America
    1901 26 Dec Agnes Alexander arrived back in Hawaii, the first Bahá'í to set foot in the islands. [BFA2:159–60] Hawaii Agnes Alexander First Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii
    1902 (In the year) The house in Bandar Anzalí in which Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí was staying was attacked and only the intervention of the governor saved the Bahá'ís. [BW18:385] Bandar Anzali Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali
    1902 (In the year) In Shíráz, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan was beaten so severely on the order of the mujtahid that he died a few months later from the effects. [BW18:385] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1902 (In the year) Pilgrims from the East and the West were once again permitted to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB232] Haifa; Akka Pilgrims; Pilgrimage
    1902 (In the year) Joseph Hannen, future Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and Pauline Hannen became Bahá'ís in Washington DC. Washington DC; United States Joseph Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Pauline Hannen
    1902 (In the year) Bahá'í groups were established in Canada and in the Hawaiian Islands. [BBRSM:106-7; BFA2:160; SBBH1:135] Canada; Hawaii First Bahais by country or area
    1902 (In the year) Shanghai was re-opened to the Bahá'í Faith by the arrival of two Bahá'ís from`Ishqábád, Áqá Mírzá Mihdí Rashtí and Áqá Mírz `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí, who opened a branch of the Ummi'd company, an import-export firm. [PH25] Shanghai; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Aqa Mirza Mihdi Rashti; Aqa Mirza Abdul-Baqi Yazdi
    1902 (In the year) The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39] Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; Seven Proofs; Le Livre des Sept Preuves; A. L. M. Nicolas; Z****
    1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad; Abarqu; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1902 - 1903 `Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned the restoration of the House of the Báb in Shíráz under the supervision of Áqá Mírzá Áqá, an Afnán and nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB108; EB236; GPB300]
  • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 219-222.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Restoration; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan
    1902 8 May May Bolles married Sutherland Maxwell in London and moved to Montreal later in the year. [BW8:635; GPB260, BFA2:156 ] London; United Kingdom; Montreal; Canada May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell
    1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago; United States House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
    1902 12 May Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání left the United States. [BFA2:VI]
  • His contribution was to make the American believers aware of consultative assemblies and their functioning. See BFA2p25-53 for details.
  • United States Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani
    1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell died from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appeared to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him one of three`luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
  • See The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain.
  • Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam; Z****
    1902 Sep c. Kanichi Yamamoto, the first Japanese to accept the Faith, becomes a Bahá'í in Hawaii. [BFA2:160; BW13:932; SBR179]
    • He writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá in Japanese. [SBR179]
    • See also BW13:931–3 and SBR176–86.
    Hawaii Kanichi Yamamoto First Japanese to accept the Faith
    1902 (In the year) Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1986 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19] Paris Iran, persecution; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffar al-Din Shah; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; petition; Z****
    1902 15 Sep Mírzá `Azízu'lláh visited Count Leo Tolstoy, and spoke to him at length about the history and teachings of the Faith and of the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB185; RB3:172-3]
  • For Mírzá `Azízu'lláh's own account of the interview see EB186–9.
  • See BW10:569–70 for Tolstoy's response to the Faith.
  • Russia Mirza Azizullah; Leo Tolstoy
    1902 10 Oct The Behais Supply and Publishing Board incorporates as the `Bahai Publishing Society', a non-profit company. It is the first Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated. [BFA2:XVI, 74] United States Publishing Trusts; Firsts, Other First Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated
    1902 12 Oct Birth of `Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Bahá'í scholar, author and translator, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Bahai scholars; Births and deaths
    1902 28 Nov Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
  • The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
  • Specifics
      Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
      Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
      Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
      Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
      Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Usád ‘Ali]í-Akbar Ranná and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
      Seating:
      Dimensions:
      Cost:
      Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
      Expropriation:1928
      Lease period: – 1938
      Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
      Earthquake:
      Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
      References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1903 (In the year) The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of the Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276]

    Jináb-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín was well versed in Islamic jurisprudence. After the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, he was authorized to submit questions concerning the laws. The treatise, titled Questions and Answers, an appendix to the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, is a compilation he made of Bahá’u’lláh’s answers to questions concerning the laws of the Most Holy Book. It took more than two decades for "Questions and Answers" to be published in Persian and much longer to be published in English and other languages. [KA9]

  • See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. In this paper the author compares the similarities and differences of Questions and Answers and Some Answered Questions.
  • For an image Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín see Picture Gallery (miniature by Ethel Rosenberg).
  • Rajab; Najafabad; Iran; Mosul; Iraq Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Questions and answers (Aqdas); Risalih-i-Sual va Javab (Questions and Answers); Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1903 Feb Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, wrote to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
  • His letter gave details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
  • With him came Covenant-breaker Siyyid 'Alí Afnan.
  • His letter entitled An Epistle to the Bahá'í World was translated by Ameen Fareed and published in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in 1907. [BEL7.106]
  • The document is important because reference was made to it in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament.

    "What deviation can be greater than breaking the Covenant of God! What deviation can be greater than interpolating and falsifying the words and verses of the Sacred Text, even as testified and declared by Badi'u'llah!"

    "...Ye know well what the hands of the Center of Sedition, Mirza Muhammad `Ali, and his associates have wrought. Among his doings, one of them is the corruption of the Sacred Text whereof ye are all aware, the Lord be praised, and know that it is evident, proven and confirmed by the testimony of his brother, Mirza Badi'u'llah, whose confession is written in his own handwriting, beareth his seal, is printed and spread abroad..."

    This reconciliation was short-lived. Badi'u'llah continued to plot unrepentantly against Abdu'l-Bahá and later, against Shoghi Effendi until his death in Israel 1950. [AB102] Again from the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá...

    "Gracious God! After Mirza Badi'u'llah had declared in his own handwriting that this man (Muhammad `Ali) had broken the Covenant and had proclaimed his falsification of the Holy Text, he realized that to return to the True Faith and pay allegiance to the Covenant and Testament would in no wise promote his selfish desires. He thus repented and regretted the thing he had done and attempted privily to gather in his printed confessions, plotted darkly with the Center of Sedition against me and informed him daily of all the happenings within my household. He has even taken a leading part in the mischievous deeds that have of late been committed. Praise be to God affairs recovered their former stability and the loved ones obtained peace. but ever since the day he entered again into our midst, he began afresh to sow the seeds of sore sedition. Some of his machinations and intrigues will be recorded in a separate leaflet."

  • Akka Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asked `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1903 May Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events. Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
  • The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–385]
  • Rasht; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Rasht upheaval; Isfahan upheaval; Upheavals; Russian consulate
    1903 May Russian poet Isabella Grinevskaya wrote the play "Báb" which was performed in St. Petersburg in 1904 and again in 1914 and once again in 1917. It was translated into French and Tatar (and later into German by Friedrich Fiedler) and lauded by Leo Tolstoy and other reviewers at the time. It is reported to have been Tolstoy's first knowledge of the Faith.
  • In 1910-11 she spent two weeks in Ramleh as a guest of `Abdu'l-Bahá and after she returned to Russia she had several letters and Tablets from Him.
  • Immediately upon her return from Egypt in January of 1911 she began work on the book "A Journey in the Countries of the Sun", an account of her visit with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. This work was not completed until 1914 because in the summer of 1912 she made a trip to Paris to work with the French translator of "Báb", Madame Halperin, and when she returned to Leningrad she began work on the drama entitled Bahá'u'lláh. It was published in Leningrad in 1912 but was never performed. "Journey", a book of some 550 pages did not get published because of the disruption cause by the advent of the war. See BW6p707-712 for the article "Russia's Cultural Contribution to the Bahá'i Faith" by Martha Root.
  • For a photo see BW6p709 or here.
  • Also see Notes on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories by Graham Hassall.
  • Isabella Grinevskaya (the pen name of Beyle (Berta) Friedberg), born in Grodno in 1964, died in Istanbul in 1944. [Revolvy] In His message to Isabella Grinevskaya, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá praised her efforts to stage theatrical performances about the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh but cautioned her that people’s attention at that moment was focused on “war and revolution.” However, He added, “the time for staging it will come” and it will “have a considerable impact” in Europe.

    Ms. Grinevskaya’s play about the Báb was first staged in St. Petersburg in January 1904. Mr. Tolstoy read the play and wrote Ms. Grinevskaya to praise her and share his sympathy with the Baha'í teachings, according to an article by Martha Root in the 1934-1936 edition of The Bahá'í World.

  • St Petersburg; Ramleh; Egypt; Istanbul; Turkey; Grodno; Russia Isabella Grinevskaya; Leo Tolstoy; Publications; Plays; Arts
    1903 28 May A large mob gathered outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í died as a result of the injuries. [BW18:385] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Russian consulate; Persecution, Mobs; Russian consulate
    1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá was received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette First Tablet approving building Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America
    1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrived from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
  • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
  • Yazd; Iran Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism
    1903 Sep At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1904 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Publications
    1904 (In the year) The publication of Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude) by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in Chicago. It had been translated by Ali Kuli Khan with animation by Howard McNutt. This was the earliest translation into English of this book. [BEL1.12]
  • A second edition was published in 1907 and a third in 1915. [BEL1.13, 1.14]
  • THE BOOK OF IGHAN.
  • Chicago; United States KitabiIqan; THE BOOK OF IGHAN; Ali Kuli Khan; Howard McNutt; Z****
    1904 c. The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3] Tihran; Iran Zikrullah Khadem; Births and deaths
    1904 (In the year) At this point there were separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
  • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
  • Hamadan; Tihran; iran LSA
    1904 (In the year) Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, died. She and all her four surviving children had been declared Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
    1904 (In the year) A compilation of Bahá'í writings in English was published by the Board of Counsel of New York. [BW10:179]
  • The Book of Assurance (The Book of Ighan) translated by Ali Kuli Khan, assisted by Howard MacNutt was published in New York for the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. [BEL1.10]
  • New York; United States Compilations; Publications
    1904 (In the year) Through the year the Covenant-breakers plotted until the friendly governor of `Akká was replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirred up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria wrote false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí drew up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
  • These actions resulted in the arrival of the first Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summoned `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon receiving His replies, the inquiry collapsed. [AB113–14; CB233]
  • Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1904 (In the year) Laura Clifford Barney made a number of extended visits to `Akká during this period. She brought with her questions to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá and she compiled His responses. These answers were approved by Him and published in the book Some Answered Questions. [AB81–2; BFA2:238]
  • For more complete history of the making of Some Answered Questions see “Some Answered Questions” and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma‘ani published in Lights of Irfán vol. 18 p425-452.
  • See AB81–2 for information about Laura Clifford Barney.
  • The translator during this period was Dr Yúnis Afrukhtih (Yúnis Khán), whose memoirs, translated in English as Memories of Nine Years in Akka, make a valuable contribution to the history of the Faith. [BW12:679–81; M9YA341-345]
  • Akka Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Youness Afroukhteh (Yunis Afrukhtih); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1904 28 Oct Ali Kuli Khan married Florence Breed, the first marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í. [BFA2:147]
  • For details of this marriage see SUR223–20.
  • When 'Abdu'l-Bahá heard the new of the marriage He said, ‘This is the first sign of union between East and West.’ Then He sent for candies to be brought and said, ‘The event is so joyous that it must be celebrated!’ And He distributed the candy to those present, as is the custom for the parents of the bridegroom to do at a Persian wedding banquet. [AY26]
  • See AY51-53 for the history of the Breed name.
  • See AY53-> for the relationship between Khan and the Hearst family.
  • United States Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Firsts, Other; Interracial marriage; Weddings; Hearst family; Phoebe Hearst First marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í
    1904 Dec Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl departed from the United States. [BFA2:XVI] United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
    1904 1 Dec Sidney Sprague arrived in India. [BFA2:XVI]
  • He was the first American Bahá'í travelling teacher in Asia. [BFA2:XVI]
  • India; Asia Sidney Sprague; Travel teaching; Firsts, Other First American travelling teacher in Asia
    1905 (In the year) Agnes Alexander arrived in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory. [BBRSM:107] Alaska; United States Agnes Alexander First Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit Alaska
    1905 (In the year) The first publication of The Seven Valleys in the West. It was translated from Persian into French by Hippolyte Dreyfus and Chirazi and was bound with The HIdden Words (Les Paroles cachées). This French translation was further translated into English by Julie Chanler in 1933 (or 1936), accounts differ. [About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; BEL1.112] France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); ; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z**** first publication of the Seven Valleys in the West.
    1905 (In the year) A second Commission of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of `Árif Bey, arrived in `Akká further to investigate the charges laid against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB117–25; BBR320 3; CB234–7; GPB269–71]
  • See BBR322 for difficulties in dating this event. All Bahá'í sources indicate that this took place in 1907 but documents in the Ottoman State Archives indicate that it took place in 1905.
  • The Commission returned to Turkey amid political upheavals and its report was put to one side. [AB122–3; CB237; GPB271]
  • Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1905 (In the year) The passing of Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) in Tehran at the age of 100. He was born in Yazd in 1805. [A Flame of Fire by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi] Tihran; Iran Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb.
    It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb. The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál." [BBR38-39]
  • The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.

  • William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications; Z**** The first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb
    1905 (In the year) A Bahá'í group was established in Germany soon after the arrival of the first Bahá'í in the country, Dr. Edwin Fischer, in Stuttgart. He was dentist and a returned emigrant to the United States. German-born Alma Knobloch also became a Bahá'í in the United States 1903, before Fischer, but arrived in Germany in 1907. [BBRSM:107, 219; BWNS390] Stuttgart; Germany Edwin Fischer; Alma Knobloch; First Bahais by country or area first German Baha'i
    1905 (In the year) The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of, Arabic Bayan; A L M Nicolas; Le Beyan Arabe; Z****
    1905 (In the year) Muhammad-'Alí sent his eldest son Shu'á'u'lláh to North America as his representative. It would appear that he did not work with Kheiralla but rather aligned himself with the group of Behaists in Kenosha. [BFA1p180]
  • He was the editor of the Behai Quarterly, a periodical published seven times from the Spring of 1934 to 1936 published from 7534 Twenty-sixth Ave in Kenosha. [BFA1p180; AB527n60]
  • When the Master visited Los Angeles in October of 1912 he was living in Pasadena and became a cause of grief for 'Abdu'l-Bahá through his machinations. [MD340-341]
  • It is believed that he stayed in North America until the 1930s or 1940s. [BFA1p180]
  • Kenosha Covenant-breakers; Muhammad-Ali; Shuaullah; Z****
    1905 (In the year) A Bahá'í group was established in Germany. [BBRSM219] Germany statistics first Bahá'í group was established in Germany.
    1905 c. 30 Mar Hájí Kalb-`Alí was shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1905 29 Apr Birth of `Alí-Akbar Furútan, Hand of the Cause of God, in Sabzivár, Khurásán. Sabzivar; Khurasan; Iran Ali Akbar Furutan; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1905 23 May A Nineteen Day Feast was celebrated in New York City, the first known to have been held in North America. [BFA2:XVI, 245]
  • It consisted of a devotional portion and a social part. The administrative aspect of the Feast was developed in the 1930s. [BFA2:245; SA208]
  • Howard and Mary MacNutt, along with Julia Grundy, had been on pilgrimage early in the year and had been encouraged to hold Feasts by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • New York; United States Nineteen Day Feast; Howard MacNutt; Mary MacNutt; Julia Grundy; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrims First Nineteen Day Feast celebrated in West
    1905 - 1911 The `Constitutional Revolution' took place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
  • The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
  • The Constitutional Movement failed to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffered as a result. [BBR366 g]
  • Iran Constitutional Revolution
    1906 c. Birth of `Abu'l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qum. Qum; Iran Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1906 (In the year) The first Bahá'í of Hungarian origin, Countess Aurelia Bethien, declares her faith in the USA. [http://www.bahai.hu] Hungary; United States First Bahais by country or area First Hungarian Bahá'í
    1906 (In the year) The first translation of The Seven Valleys into English was done Ali Kuli Khan and reprinted frequently by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. A revised translation done by him and his daughter, Marzieh Gail, in 1945. An introduction was added in 1952. [BEL1.114; About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; RG48]
  • The original, The Seven Valleys Revealed by Baha'u'llah at Baghdad, in answer to Questions Asked by Sheik Abdur Rahman, a Great Mohammedan, Mystic Sufi Leader.
  • The pdf.
  • United States Bahaullah, Writings of; The Seven Valleys; Ali Kuli Khan; Marzieh Gail; Z****
    1906 Mar Mrs Whyte, the wife of a well-known Scottish clergyman, made a pilgrimage to `Akká with Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper. In answer to a letter that Mrs Whyte left for `Abdu'l-Bahá upon their departure, He revealed the Tablet the `Seven Candles of Unity'. [AB361–2, SCU4554]
  • See AB360–2 and SWAB29–32 for text of the Tablet.
  • See AB355–9, BW4396-399 and SBR20–1 for accounts of Mrs Whyte's pilgrimage.
  • See also Anjam Khursheed's, The Seven Candles of Unity pg45-54.
  • Her account of the meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]
  • Akka Seven Candles of Unity; Unity; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Jane Whyte; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Pilgrims; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1906 summer Bahá'ís in Sangsar, Khurásán, were persecuted such that they took refuge in the hills. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1906 summer/autumn Hippolyte Dreyfus, Marianne Jerard and Laura Barney visited Russian Turkistan and Iran, specifically Tabriz, Máh-Kú ,and Ishqabad. While in Iran, they witnessed the disturbances associated with the constitutional revolution, which had reached its climax that summer. [BFA2:XVI]
  • They were the first Western Bahá'ís to do so. [BFA2:XVI; Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 444; Prezi]
  • Iran Marianne Jerard; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Firsts, Other First Western Bahá'ís to visit Iran
    1906 5 Aug After an almost bloodless revolution Muzaffari'd-Din Sháh was forced to sign a document calling for a National Assembly to be elected from amount the working guilds, landowners merchants and the nobles. The parliament was opened on the 7th of October. [AY24] Iran Iran, General history; History (general); Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs
    1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád were killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís were arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Shahmirzad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1906 10 Nov Hooper Harris and Harlan Ober sailed from Hoboken, New Jersey, for Naples and `Akká en route to India. [BFA2:266]
  • See BFA266–71 for details of the trip.
  • India Hooper Harris; Harlan Ober
    1906 30 Dec The Constitution of Iran was re-established. The Bahá'ís were not included among the recognized religions. [BBR354; B114; CB57; GPB298]
  • For the prophecies of Bahá'u'lláh about the constitution see CBM56–8.
  • Iran Constitutions; Human rights; Prophecies
    1907 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá started to move His family to the house that He hasddesigned and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • Some members of the family occupied the house as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
  • Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Laura Clifford Barney; Purchases and exchanges; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1907 (In the year) Six rooms of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [GBF103]
  • See BBD8 and DH103–4 for information on Mullá Abu-Tálib, the master mason from Bákú, Ádharbáyján, who worked on the Shrine.
  • Haifa; Baku; Adharbayjan Bab, Shrine of; Mulla Abu-Talib
    1907 (In the year) Lady Blomfield and her daughter Mary learned of the Faith at a reception in Paris. [CH1–2; ER95; SBR22; SEBW101, SCU17]
  • For accounts of Lady Blomfield's life see ER88–97 and SEBW101–10.
  • Paris; France Lady Blomfield; Mary Blomfield
    1907 (In the year) It wass estimated that there were from 1,000 to 1,100 believers in North America by this date, with about 12 believers in Montreal and six Bahá'ís in other localities in Canada. [BFA2:230] United States; Montreal; Canada Statistics
    1907 (In the year) Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, was shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386] Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1907 (In the year) Pritam Singh, an Assistant Master of Economics at Chiefs College in Lahore, accepted the Faith, the first Sikh to do so. [BFA2:269] Lahore; Pakistan Pritam Singh; Sikhism; First believers by background First Sikh to accept Faith
    1907 (In the year) The first Bahá'í fund (Šerkat-e ḵayrīya) was established in Tehran to financially support Bahá'í teachers, facilitate the education of Bahá'í children, provide sufficient care of Bahá'í orphans, the aged and handicapped, and be of assistance to students of higher education. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] iran Serkate ḵayriya; Fund; Z**** first Baha'i fund to support education and support of children
    1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions
    1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. He reigned until 1909. He attempted to rescind the constitution and abolish parliamentary government. After several disputes with the members of the Majlis in June, 1908 he bombed the Majlis building, arrested many of the deputies and closed down the assembly. In July 1909 constitutional forces deposed him and he went into exile in Russia from where he attempted to regain his throne. [BBR354, 482, AY218]
  • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
  • Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution
    1907 Feb Corinne True traveled to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
  • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
  • Corrine True would later server as financial secretary of the Executive Board of the Mother Temple of the West.
  • See PG108-109 for the story of the sacrifices on the part of poor villagers in rural Iran so that they could make contributions to the Temple Fund.
  • Akka; United States Corinne True; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1907 spring A census of religions in the United States counted 1280 Bahá'ís. [BFA2:XVI] United States Statistics
    1907 31 Mar The Bahá'í calendar was used in North America for the first time. BFA2:247–8] North America; United States Bahai calendar; Firsts, Other First time Bahá'í calendar used in North America
    1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq was martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1907 summer The first Universal Congress of Esperanto was held in Boulogne. [BW2:270] Boulogne Universal Esperanto Congress First Universal Congress of Esperanto
    1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' filed an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
  • Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other First Bahá'í community to acquire legal status
    1907 31 Aug Anglo-Russian Convention relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet, was signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The convention brought shaky British–Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in the three countries. It delineated spheres of influence in Persia, stipulated that neither country would interfere in Tibet’s internal affairs, and recognized Britain’s influence over Afghanistan. [AY47-48] St Petersburg; Russia; Iran; Afghanistan; Tibet Iran, General history; History (general)
    1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference was held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities joined some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
  • M. Momen posits that this was probably the first Bahá'í convention. [BAHAISM xi. Bahai Conventions]
  • Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences; Z**** First national Bahá'í conference; first Baha'i convention
    1908 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá's house in Haifa was completed. [BBD 107] Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
    1908 (In the year) `Alí Ádharí was martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386] Kirman; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1908 (In the year) The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád was completed and the dome was in place. [AB110, EB267]
  • The outer decoration would not be completed until 1919.
  • For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1908 Mar The book Some Answered Questions was published simultaneously in Great Britain in English (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co in London) and was translated into French by Hippolyte Dreyfus under the title Les Leçons de Saint Jean-d'Acre (Ernest Leroux in Paris) and the Persian edition (Al-Núru’l-Abhá fi Mufavi∂áti-‘Abdu’l-Bahá) ( E.J. Brill in Holland). [AB82; BBD212–13; BFA2:238; ABF8; M9YA 314-219, 340-345]
  • See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. Some details:
    • Laura Barney's first pilgrimage to met 'Abdu'l-Bahá was in 1900. As with other Western pilgrims the practice was to travel to Cairo and from there, after resting from the long travel and permission had been granted, to make the final leg of the journey to the Holy Land. Mírzá Abu’l-Fa∂l help prepare the visitors for the experience. He became her beloved teacher and friend.
    • Initially she made notes herself for her personal study but decided to make His answers available to others. During her third visit in 1904, when Western visitors were limited because 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been re-incarcerated, she asked permission to bring Ethel Rosenberg as stenographer. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s answers were also recorded in Persian. Mírzá Munír, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí, the faithful half-brother of Bahá’u’lláh, was given this task. These Persian transcripts were corrected by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, revised and then verified again by HIm and became the basis for the publications that were to follow. Due to this diligence the book can be considered as Bahá'í scripture. [M9YA 340-345; BFA2p238]
    • During this extended visit (winter 1904-1905) the visitors stayed with the Family in the house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá. Youness Khán Afroukhteh served as interpreter as well as His daughters Rouha Khánum and Munavar Khánum when no men could be present and after Afroukhteh's departure for Europe.
  • United States; United Kingdom Some Answered Questions; Pilgrims notes; Publications; Translation; Authenticity
    1908 9 Apr Two building plots for the future House of Worship were purchased in Wilmette for the sum of $2000. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179, GPB262] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Purchases and exchanges
    1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sailed from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
  • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
  • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosted them at a meeting at which the women removed their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
  • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women began a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
  • New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Tairih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham; Women; Gender; Equality
    1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertook a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolished the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general); Iran, General history
    1908 23 Jul The Young Turks issued a declaration demanding the restoration of the old constitution of Midhat Páshá and threatening the overthrow of the government. [AB123] Istanbul; Turkey Young Turks; Midhat Pasha
    1908 24 Jul In Constantinople, a bomb intended for Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd as he returned from the mosque on Friday, killed and injured a number of people. This event prompted the authorities to recall all the members of the Commission who were gathering evidence against 'Abd'l-Bahá at the time. Some months later the "Young Turk" revolutionaries demanded the release of all political and religious prisoners. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was free by in September. [AB123; BBD4; BBRXXX; CB237; DH71; GPB272]
  • A cable was sent to Constantinople to enquire whether `Abdu'l-Bahá was to be included in the amnesty. `Abdu'l-Bahá was set free. [AB123; GPB272]
  • Istanbul; Turkey Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Young Turks; History (general); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1908 31 Aug BW2:22 says that `Abdu'l-Bahá walked free on 31 Aug. Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1908 Sep
    (New York) Bahá'í Bulletin Published September, 1908 to May 1909 (5 issues)
    Link (Will open in this window)
                  Dates             
                  URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
    Volume 1, Issues 1
    September 1908
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_1
    Volume 1, Issues 2 and 3
    October 1908
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_2-3
    Volume 1, Issue 4
    December 1908
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_4
    Volume 1, Issue 5
    January-February-March 1909
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_5
    Volume 1, Issue 6
    April-May 1909
    https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_6

    The Bahá'í Bulletin was succeeded a year later by the Bahá'í News which subsequently became Star of the West a year after that. [BWNS1289] See 1910 21 March
    New York; United States Bahai Bulletin; Bahai News; - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS Believed to be the first English-language Baha'i news publication. [BWNS1289]
    1908 7 Sep The birth of Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God. [SBBR5:XI] Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society was founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago; United States Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trusts
    1909 (In the year) Karl Kruttner, a professor in Bohemia, became a Bahá'í, the first person to do so in the Austro-Hungarian empire. Bohemia; Germany Karl Kruttner; find reference The first person to become a Bahá'í in the Austro-Hungarian empire.. find reference
    1909 (In the year) Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, became a Bahá'í. [BFA2:156] Montreal; Quebec; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause
    1909 (In the year) The passing of Robert Turner (b. 15 October, 1856, Virginia d. 1909 California)
  • the first African-American Bahá'í and a member of the first Western Pilgrimage to Haifa in 1898, led by his employer Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. He was a butler in her household for more than 35 years. He was taught the Bahá'í Faith by Lua Getsinger in the process of serving tea and remained a devoted believer his entire life. "Such was the tenacity of his faith that even the subsequent estrangement of his beloved mistress from the Cause she had spontaneously embraced failed to becloud its radiance, or to lessen the intensity of the emotions which the loving-kindness showered by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá upon him had excited in his breast." (GPB259) [A Vision of Race Unity, Ving p101, AZBF475, An Early Pilgrimage by May Maxwell]
  • He received a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá while on his deathbed and a tribute after his passing. [AY60, 61, 339, AB72]
  • He was one of the nineteen Western Bahá'ís designated as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • A Tablet to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in SWABpg114 #78 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America (website).
  • See also Bahaikipedia, Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Find a Grave.
  • Virginia; California; United States Robert Turner; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Firsts, Other; Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths the first African-American Baha'i
    1909 (In the year) Juliet Thompson made a pilgrimage to 'Akka and met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá., [ABF19] Akka Juliet Thompson; Pilgrims
    1905 (In the year or later) Following the dispatch of his eldest son Shu'áu'lláh to North America, Muhammad-'Ali sent Mírzá Ghulámu'lláh, son of Áqá Muhammad-Javád-i-Qazvíní, one of the most inveterate adversaries of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Enroute he Ghlámu'lláh visited Professor E G Browne at Cambridge. [AB86] Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah; Muhammad Ali; Ghulamullah; Aqa Muhammad Javiad Qazyini; Z****
    1909 Jan c. Isabella Brittingham organized 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294] New Jersey; United States; Iran Isabella Brittingham; Women; Writing
    1909 Mar Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís were brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists took control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayriz; Iran Constitutionalists; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá laid the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine was a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb was a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1909 21 Mar The first printing of Volume 1 of Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago.
  • Laura Dreyfus-Barney was credited as being one of the translators. [ABF9not53]
  • Chicago; United States Tablets of Abdul-Baha (book); Publications; Laura Clifford Barney
    1909 21 Mar On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
  • Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA First American Bahá'í Convention
    1909 (Months following Mar) Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
  • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, was given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composed an inscription that was placed above the entrance that read, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
  • This was the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
  • Haifa Eastern Pilgrim House; Pilgrim houses; Mirza Jafar Rahmani; Aqa Mirza Jafar Shirazi; Pilgrimage; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre First property granted tax exemption
    1909 Mar–Apr Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, were attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl was killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 22 Apr Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Hamid II was deposed. [BBR486]

    Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had suspended earlier, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.

  • See AY189-191 for a description of his riches and his last years. He died in January of 1918.
  • Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]

    The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk. The seat of the Caliphate had been located in Istanbul since 1517. [ALM3]

  • Istanbul; Turkey Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Armenian genocide; Caliphate; Ottoman Empire; History (general)
    1909 Summer Sir Ronald Storrs, then a student of Arabic of Edward Granville Browne, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka. [BW10p192] Akka Ronald Storrs, Sir; Edward Granville Browne
    1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicated and the Iranian Constitution was resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
  • The country soon deteriorated and anarchy prevailed. It was effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
  • Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution
    1909 18 Jul The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. He was twelve years old and because of his youth a regency was established under Azudu'l-Mulk, the head of the Qájár family. Ahmad's official coronation took place on the 21st of July, 1914. His reign formerly lasted until October 1925 when he was deposed by the Majles while he was absent in Europe. He was the last of the Qajar dynasty. [BBR482; CBM57] Iran Ahmad Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
    1909 July 23 Louis George Gregory joined the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause
    1909 28 Jul Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, were killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
  • His given name was `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
  • Chicago; United States Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1909 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gradually moves His family from `Akká to Haifa. [DH214] Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of
    1909 Nov Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven left the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]<
  • They went to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
  • Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; China; Singapore; Myanmar (Burma); India; Akka Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Travel teaching First teaching trip to circle globe
    1909 8 Nov Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, was shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
  • BRXXX and BW18:387 says this occurred on 5 November.
  • For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
  • Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrived from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
  • Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
    1909 Dec Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven spoke at the first Bahá'í public meeting held in Honolulu. [BFA2:348; SBR189] Honolulu; Hawaii Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Firsts, Other First public meeting in Honolulu
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