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Bahá'í Chronology: years 190-

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190-

date event locations tags firsts see also
c. 1900 For the state of affairs in Haifa just after the turn of the century see CB2234. Haifa
c. 1900 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is translated by Anton Haddad. It is not published but circulates in typescript form. [BFA2:27; SA251] North America Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
c. 1900 A Bahá'í group is established in Italy. [BBRSM:106] Italy First Bahá'í group in Italy
1900 Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, is published in the United States. [BFA2:26]
  • It is the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. [BFA2:26]
  • It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
Chicago Tablets; Communes and Holy Utterances; Anton Haddad; Behais Supply and Publishing Board; Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Baha'i summer school; Publishing Trust First prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in West
1900 Early part `Abdu'l-Bahá begins to build the foundations of the Shrine of the Báb. [CB223] Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of
1900 Sarah Farmer puts Green Acre at the disposal of the Bahá'ís after her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1900. [BFA2:144–5; GPB261]
  • After 1900 Green Acre effectively became the site of the first Bahá'í summer school in the world, although it was not officially so until 1929. [BBRSM:104; BW5:29–30; SBBH1:125]
Eliot; Maine First Bahá'í summer school site
1900 Jan The Behais Publishing and Supply Board is created in Chicago. [BFA1:XXIX] Chicago Behais Publishing and Supply Board; Publishing Trust
1900 8 Mar At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announces his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117]
  • He allies himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
  • The Bahá'ís effectively divide into two camps. [SSBH1:96]
  • For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
Kenosha; Wisconsin Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali
1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organizes by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters are on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900 Apr Dr Yúnis Khán arrives in `Akká to act as translator for `Abdu'l-Bahá. He remains for nine years. [BW12:679] `Akka Yunis Afrukhtih
1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie First Persian Bahá'í to visit North America
1900 5 Aug Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání leaves the United States, his efforts to win Kheiralla back to the Faith having failed. [BFA176] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900 4 Nov The arrival Persian teachers in America. Mírzá Asadu'lláh (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. [BFA2p35-37]
New York; NY Mirza Asadullah ; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg
1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She hears of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she becomes the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
Rome; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Charlotte Dixon First Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii
1900 26 Nov Agnes Alexander accepts the Faith in Rome after hearing the message from Mrs Dixon. She stays in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travels to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. She leaves Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. [BFA1p159] Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Bolles
1900 29 Nov Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání and Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání arrive in the United States to assist the Bahá'ís to deepen their knowledge of their Faith. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání remained in the country for a while then returned to the Holy Land. He did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America however shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143]
New York Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the affect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla first "Spiritual Assembly" meeting in America????
1901 The Junaynih Garden northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, is registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD 124]

William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, is asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51]

Junaynih Garden Junaynih Garden; William Hoar; Iranian persecution First effort of American Bahá'í community to alleviate persecution of Persian brethren
1901 Arthur Pillsbury Dodge publishes his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93] Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; The Truth of It First introductory book on Bahá'í Faith written by Western believer
1901 22 Jan The passing of Queen Victoria.
  • Of all the leaders addressed by Bahá'u'lláh only she is reputed to have made a courteous reply. [CBM47; PDC65]
  • See CBM47–8 for Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy concerning the success of her reign.
London Queen Victoria
1901 Apr The Iranian ambassador to the Ottoman government at Istanbul, `Ala'u'l-Mulk, filed a report with the Office of Foreign Ministry in Tihran which was subsequently presented to the Shah. Constantinople Report to the Shah
1901 May Ghulám-Ridá is killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385] Najafábád Ghulam-Ri?a; Iranian persecution
1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elect a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council is raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elect their own Board and hold the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago; United States Women First business meeting of `Women's Auxiliary Board'
1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learns of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he becomes a believer and immediately writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Bolles; Huququ'llah First male British Bahá'í; first English believer; first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh
1901 Hippolyte Dreyfus hears of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepts it. [AB81–2]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
  • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney he adopts the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
Paris Hippolyte Dreyfus; May Bolles; Laura Clifford Barney First Frenchman to embrace the Faith; first European Bahá'í to visit Iran
1901 Mid-Jul Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání leaves the United States. [BFA2:38] New York Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani
1901 Aug Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl arrives in North America. [BFA2:XV]
  • See BFA2:80–7 and BW9:855–60 for accounts of his visit.
  • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. is sent to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání. He remains and works at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translates much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returns to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejects the authority of Shoghi Effendi and is expelled. [APD155]
New York Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia); Mary Hanford Ford (Wikipedia)
1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá writes His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It is written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
  • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
Akka Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters
1901 20 Aug Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
  • This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
  • For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
  • He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
  • For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
`Akka; Egypt Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1901 Sep Thomas Breakwell goes on pilgrimage to `Akká, the first Englishman to do so. [BFA2:154; BW7:709]
  • For an account of this pilgrimage see AB77 and BW7:710.
`Akká Thomas Breakwell; pilgrimage First Englishman to go on pilgrimage to `Akká
1901 2 Nov Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Waterloo; Ontario; Canada John Robarts; Births and deaths
1901 26 Nov The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant, the `Master's Day', in North America. [BFA2:XV, 56; SA245] New York Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general) First celebration of Day of the Covenant
1901 26 Dec Agnes Alexander arrives back in Hawaii, the first Bahá'í to set foot in the islands. [BFA2:159–60] Hawaii Agnes Alexander First Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii
1902 The house in Bandar Anzalí in which Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí is staying is attacked and only the intervention of the governor saves the Bahá'ís. [BW18:385] Bandar Anzali Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali
1902 In Shíráz, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan is beaten so severely on the order of the mujtahid that he dies a few months later from the effects. [BW18:385] Shiraz; Iran Haji Abu'l-Hasan
1902 Pilgrims from the East and the West are once again permitted to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB232] Haifa; Akka Pilgrims
1902 Joseph Hannen, future Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and Pauline Hannen become Bahá'ís in Washington DC. Washington DC; United States Joseph Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Pauline Hannen
1902 Bahá'í groups are established in Canada and in the Hawaiian Islands. [BBRSM:106-7; BFA2:160; SBBH1:135] Canada; Hawaii
1902 Shanghai is re-opened to the Bahá'í Faith by the arrival of two Bahá'ís from`Ishqábád, Áqá Mírzá Mihdí Rashtí and Áqá Mírz `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí, who open a branch of the Ummi'd company, an import-export firm. [PH25] Shanghai; `Ishqábád Áqa Mirza Mihdi Rashti; Áqa Mirza `Abdu'l-Baqi Yazdi; Ummi'd company
1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad and Abarqu; Fars; Aqa Muhammad-Zama-i-Sabbagh; Siyyid Ja`far; Iranian persecution
1902 - 1903 `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions the restoration of the House of the Báb in Shíráz under the supervision of Áqá Mírzá Áqá, an Afnán and nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB108; EB236; GPB300]
  • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 219-222.
Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Restoration; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan
1902 8 May May Bolles marries Sutherland Maxwell in London and moves to Montreal. [BW8:635; GPB260]
  • BFA2:156 says they married `late' in 1902.
London; Montreal May Bolles; Sutherland Maxwell
1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
1902 12 May Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání leaves the United States. [BFA2:VI] Mirza Asadullah -i-Isfahani
1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell dies from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appears to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designates him one of three `luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam
1902 Sep c. Kanichi Yamamoto, the first Japanese to accept the Faith, becomes a Bahá'í in Hawaii. [BFA2:160; BW13:932; SBR179]
  • He writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá in Japanese. [SBR179]
  • See also BW13:931–3 and SBR176–86.
Hawaii Kanichi Yamamoto First Japanese to accept the Faith
1902 15 Sep Mírzá `Azízu'lláh visits Count Leo Tolstoy, speaking to him at length about the history and teachings of the Faith and of the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB185; RB3:172-3]
  • For Mírzá `Azízu'lláh's own account of the interview see EB186–9.
  • See BW10:569–70 for Tolstoy's response to the Faith.
Russia Mirza `Azizu'llah; Count Leo Tolstoy
1902 10 Oct The Behais Supply and Publishing Board incorporates as the `Bahai Publishing Society', a non-profit company. It is the first Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated. [BFA2:XVI, 74] Behais Supply and Publishing Board; Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trust First Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated
1902 12 Oct Birth of `Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Bahá'í scholar, author and translator, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Bahai scholars
1902 28 Nov Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
  • The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
`Ishqabad Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqi (Vakilud-Dawlih); Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds
1903 The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of The Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276] Mosul; Najafábád; Rajab;
1903 Feb Mírzá Badí`u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, writes to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
  • His letter gives details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
  • This reconciliation is short-lived. [AB102]
`Akka Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] `Ishqabad; Chicago Temple; House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1903 May Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
  • The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–85.
Rasht; Isfahan Iranian persecution
1903 May Russian poet Isabella Grinevskaya wrote the play "Báb" which was performed in St. Petersburg in 1904 and again in 1914 and once again in 1917. It was translated into French and Tatar (and later into German by Friedrich Fiedler) and lauded by Leo Tolstoy and other reviewers at the time. It is reported to have been Tolstoy's first knowledge of the Faith.
  • In 1910-11 she spent two weeks in Ramleh as a guest of `Abdu'l-Bahá and after she returned to Russia she had several letters and Tablets from Him.
  • Immediately upon her return from Egypt in January of 1911 she began work on the book "A Journey in the Countries of the Sun", an account of her visit with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. This work was not completed until 1914 because in the summer of 1912 she made a trip to Paris to work with the French translator of "Báb", Madame Halperin, and when she returned to Leningrad she began work on the drama entitled Bahá'u'lláh. It was published in Leningrad in 1912 but was never performed. "Journey", a book of some 550 pages did not get published because of the disruption cause by the advent of the war. See BW6p707-712 for the article "Russia's Cultural Contribution to the Bahá'i Faith" by Martha Root.
  • For a photo see BW6p709 or here.
  • Also see Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories by Graham Hassall.
  • Isabella Grinevskaya (the pen name of Beyle (Berta) Friedberg), born in Grodno in 1964, died in Istanbul in 1944. [Revolvy]
St Petersburg; Ramleh; Istanbul; Grodno; Russia; Isabella Grinevskaya; Leo Tolstoy
1903 28 May A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385] Isfahan Iranian persecution
1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá is received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár First Tablet approving building Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America
1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrives from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan Iranian persecution
1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
  • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
Yazd Iranian persecution; Haji Mirzay-i-Halabi-Saz
1903 Sep At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí writes Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the year 1903 AD. It can be found in the Bahá'í-Library. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali
1904 The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Iran Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution; Martyrs
1904 c. The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3] Tihran; Iran Zikrullah Khadem; Births and deaths
1904 At this point there are separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
  • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
Hamadán; Tihrán; iran
1904 Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirring up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
These actions result in the arrival of a Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
Haifa; Akka Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid
1904 Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
1904 A compilation of Bahá'í writings in English is published by the Board of Counsel of New York. [BW10:179]
1904 Laura Clifford Barney makes a number of extended visits to `Akká in this period. She brings with her questions to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá, the answers to which she notes down. These questions and answers result in the book Some Answered Questions. [AB81–2; BFA2:238]
  • See AB81–2 for information about Laura Clifford Barney.
  • The translator during this period was Dr Yúnis Afrukhtih (Yúnis Khán), whose memoirs, not yet published in English, make a valuable contribution to the history of the Faith. [BW12:679–81]
  • He arrived in `Akká in 1900 and remained nine years. [BW12:679]
`Akka Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions; Yunis Afrukhtih
1904 28 Oct Ali Kuli Khan marries Florence Breed, the first marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í. [BFA2:147]
  • For details of this marriage see SUR223–20.
Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Firsts, Other; Interracial marriage First marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í
1904 Dec Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl leaves the United States. [BFA2:XVI] United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1904 1 Dec Sidney Sprague arrives in India. [BFA2:XVI]
  • He is the first American Bahá'í travelling teacher in Asia. [BFA2:XVI]
India; Asia Sidney Sprague; Travel teaching; Firsts, Other First American travelling teacher in Asia
1905 Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.

A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]

Alaska; United States; Germany Agnes Alexander First Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit Alaska
1905 -1906 The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]

Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.

“To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]

In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]

The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan
1905 A second Commission of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of `Árif Bey, arrives in `Akká further to investigate the charges laid against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB117–25; BBR320 3; CB234–7; GPB269–71]
  • See BBR322 for difficulties in dating this event. All Bahá'í sources indicate that this took place in 1907 but documents in the Ottoman State Archives indicate that it took place in 1905.
  • The Commission returns to Turkey amid political upheavals and its report is put to one side. [AB122–3 ; CB237; GPB271]
Istanbul; Turkey Commission of Inquiry
1905 The passing of Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) in Tehran at the age of 100. He was born in Yazd in 1805. A Flame of Fire by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi. Tehran Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd
1905 c. 30 Mar Hájí Kalb-`Alí is shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386] Najafabad Haji Kalb-`Ali; Iranian persecution
1905 29 Apr Birth of `Alí-Akbar Furútan, Hand of the Cause of God, in Sabzivár, Khurásán. Sabzivar; Khurasan Ali Akbar Furutan; Hand of the Cause of God
1905 23 May The first Nineteen Day Feast celebrated in the West is held in New York City, the first known to have been held in North America. [BFA2:XVI, 245]
  • It consists of a devotional portion and a social part. The administrative aspect of the Feast is developed in the 1930s. [BFA2:245; SA208]
  • Howard and Mary MacNutt, along with Julia Grundy, had been on pilgrimage early in the year and had been encouraged to hold Feasts by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
New York Nineteen Day Feast First Nineteen Day Feast celebrated in West
1905 - 1911 The `Constitutional Revolution' takes place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
  • The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
  • The Constitutional Movement fails to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffer as a result. [BBR366 g]
Iran Constitutional Revolution
1906 c. Birth of `Abu'l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qum. Qum Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause
1906 The first Bahá'í of Hungarian origin, Countess Aurelia Bethien, declares her faith in the USA. [http://www.bahai.hu] Hungary First Hungarian Bahá'í
1906 Mar Mrs Whyte, the wife of a well-known Scottish clergyman, makes a pilgrimage to `Akká with Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper. In answer to a letter Whyte leaves for `Abdu'l-Bahá upon their departure, He reveals the Tablet the `Seven Candles of Unity'. [AB361–2]
  • See AB360–2 and SWAB29–32 for text of the Tablet.
  • See AB355–9 and SBR20–1 for accounts of Mrs Whyte's pilgrimage.
  • See also Anjam Khursheed's, The Seven Candles of Unity pg45-54.
  • Her account of the meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]
`Akka Seven Candles of Unity; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Whyte, Mrs; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Pilgrimage
1906 summer Bahá'ís in Sangsar, Khurásán, are persecuted such that they take to the hills. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Khurásán Iranian persecution
1906 summer/autumn Hippolyte Dreyfus and Laura Barney visit Iran. [BFA2:XVI]
  • They are the first Western Bahá'ís to do so. [BFA2:XVI]
Iran Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney First Western Bahá'ís to visit Iran
1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar and Shahmírzád Iranian persecution
1906 10 Nov Hooper Harris and Harlan Ober sail from Hoboken, New Jersey, for Naples and `Akká en route to India. [BFA2:266]
  • See BFA266–71 for details of the trip.
India Hooper Harris; Harlan Ober
1906 30 Dec The Constitution of Iran is re-established. The Bahá'ís are not included among the recognized religions. [BBR354; B114; CB57; GPB298]
  • For the prophecies of Bahá'u'lláh about the constitution see CBM56–8.
Iran Constitutions; Human rights; Prophecies
1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá starts to move His family to the house that He has designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • Some members of the family occupy it as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Laura Clifford Barney
1907 Six rooms of the Shrine of the Báb are completed. [GBF103]
  • See BBD8 and DH103–4 for information on Mullá Abu-Tálib, the master mason from Bákú, Ádharbáyján, who worked on the Shrine.
Haifa; Baku; Adharbayjan Bab, Shrine of; Mulla Abu-Talib
1907 Lady Blomfield and her daughter Mary learn of the Faith at a reception in Paris. [CH1–2; ER95; SBR22; SEBW101, SCU17]
  • For accounts of Lady Blomfield's life see ER88–97 and SEBW101–10.
Paris Lady Blomfield; Mary Blomfield
1907 It is estimated that there are from 1000 to 1100 believers in North America by this date, with about 12 believers in Montreal and six Bahá'ís in other localities in Canada. [BFA2:230] North America; Montreal; Canada
1907 Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, is shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386] Nayríz; Iran persecution
1907 Pritam Singh, an Assistant Master of Economics at Chiefs College in Lahore, accepts the Faith, the first Sikh to do so. [BFA2:269] Lahore Pritam Singh First Sikh to accept Faith
1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. [BBR354, 482]
  • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Persecution
1907 Feb Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
  • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
`Akká Corinne True; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1907 spring A census of religions in the United States counts 1280 Bahá'ís. [BFA2:XVI] United States census of religions
1907 31 Mar The Bahá'í calendar is used in North America for the first time. BFA2:247–8] North America Bahá'í calendar First time Bahá'í calendar used in North America
1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz Karbalai Sadiq; Persecution
1907 summer The first Universal Congress of Esperanto is held in Boulogne. [BW2:270] Boulogne Universal Esperanto Congress First Universal Congress of Esperanto
1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' files an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
Chicago Bahai Assembly; incorporation First Bahá'í community to acquire legal status
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago national conference; House of Spirituality; Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar First national Bahá'í conference
1908 `Abdu'l-Bahá's house in Haifa is completed. [BBD 107] Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
1908 `Alí Ádharí is martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386]

Kirman; Iran Persecution; Martyrs
1908 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Bahá'ís are attacked by Qavámu'l-Mulk from the pulpit of the Masjid-i-Naw in Shíráz. [BW18:386] Shiraz; Iran
1908 The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád is completed and the dome is in place. [AB110, EB267]
  • The outer decoration will not be completed until 1919.
  • For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
`Ishqábád House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1908 Mar Some Answered Questions is published in English. [AB82; BBD212–13; BFA2:238]
  • The Persian edition is published the same year. [AB82]
  • It is the only pilgrims' notes to be considered part of Bahá'í sacred literature. [BFA2:238; BW12:98–107]
Some Answered Questions; Pilgrims notes
1908 9 Apr Two building plots for the future House of Worship are purchased in Wilmette for the sum of $2000. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179, GPB262] Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
  • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
  • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
  • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Tairih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham
1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general)
1908 23 Jul The Young Turks issue a declaration demanding the restoration of the old constitution of Midhat Páshá and threatening the overthrow of the government. [AB123] Istanbul; Turkey Young Turks; Midhat Pasha
1908 24 Jul In Constantinople, a bomb intended for Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd as he returned from the mosque on Friday, killed and injured a number of people. This event prompted the authorities to recall all the members of the Commission. Some months later the "Young Turk" revolutionaries demanded the release of all political and religious prisoners. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was free by the summer. [AB123; BBD4; BBRXXX; CB237; DH71; GPB272]
  • A cable is sent to Constantinople to enquire whether `Abdu'l-Bahá is included in the amnesty. `Abdu'l-Bahá is set free. [AB123; GPB272]
Constantinople
1908 31 Aug BW2:22 says that `Abdu'l-Bahá walked free on 31 Aug. Haifa
1908 Sep
Bahá'í Bulletin Published September, 1908 to May 1909
Link (Will open in this window)
              Dates             
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
Volume 1, Issues 1
September 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_1
Volume 1, Issues 2 and 3
October 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_2-3
Volume 1, Issue 4
December 1908
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_4
Volume 1, Issue 5
January-February-March 1909
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_5
Volume 1, Issue 6
April-May 1909
https://bahai.works/Bahai_Bulletin/Issue_6

The Bahá'í Bulletin was succeeded a year later by the Bahá'í News which became Star of the West a year after that. See 1910 21 March
Baha' Bulletin
1908 7 Sep The birth of Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God. [SBBR5:XI] Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi; Hand of the Cause of God
1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society is founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago Baha'i Publishing Society; Publishing Trust
1909 Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá'í. [BFA2:156] Montreal; QC; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Hand of the Cause of God
1909 Karl Kruttner, a professor in Bohemia, becomes a Bahá'í, the first person to do so in the Austro-Hungarian empire. Bohemia; Germany Karl Kruttner; find reference The first person to become a Bahá'í in the Austro-Hungarian empire..
1909 Jan c. Isabella Brittingham organizes 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294] New Jersey; US Isabella Brittingham; Women clubs
1909 Mar Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayriz; Iran Constitutionalists; Persecution; Murders
1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Marble sarcophagus; Marble
1909 21 Mar The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
Chicago; United States Conventions; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chicago First American Bahá'í Convention
1909 21 Mar The first printing of Volume 1 of Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago. Chicago Tablets of Abdul-Baha (book) find reference
1909 months following Mar Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
  • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, is given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composes an inscription that it place above the entrance that reads, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
  • This is the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
Haifa; Eastern Pilgrim House; Mirza Ja`far Rahmani; Áqa Mirza Ja’far Shirazi; BWC Pilgrimage First property granted tax exemption
1909 Mar–Apr Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, are attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl is killed. [BW18:386] Námiq; Khurásán; Kad-khudá Kad-khuda Isma'il; Iranian persecution
1909 22 Apr Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386] Hisar; Khurasan Iranian persecution
1909 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Hamid II is deposed. [BBR486]

Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had earlier suspended, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.

Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]

The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk.

Istanbul; Turkey Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Caliphate
1909 Summer Sir Ronald Storrs, then a student of Arabic of Edward Granville Browne, visits 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka. [BW10p192] Akka
1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicates and the Iranian Constitution is resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
  • The country soon deteriorates and anarchy prevails. It is effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution
1909 18 Jul The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. [BBR482; CBM57] Iran Ahmad Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1909 July 23 Louis George Gregory joins the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause
1909 28 Jul Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, are killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan Iranian persecution
1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
  • His given name is `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
Chicago Paul Haney; Hand of the Cause of God
1909 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gradually moves His family from `Akká to Haifa. [DH214] Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of
1909 Nov Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
  • They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; Singapore; Burma; India; `Akká Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; travel teaching First teaching trip to circle globe
1909 8 Nov Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, is shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
  • BRXXX and BW18:387 say this occurred on 5 November.
  • For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
Isfahan; Iran Persecution
1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development
1909 Dec Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven speak at the first Bahá'í public meeting held in Honolulu. [BFA2:348; SBR189] Honolulu Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; public meeting First public meeting in Honolulu
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