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Bahá'í Chronology: years 192-

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192-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1920 (in the year) The British Mandate for Palestine begins. [BBR488]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's attitude to the administration see BBR339.
  • For British accounts of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'ís in this period see BBR339-43 and CH225-8.
  • For details see SA140-3.
Palestine British Mandate; `Abdu'l-Baha
1920 The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
1920 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, is martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387] Rasht; Iran; Mirza Ibrahim Khan; Ibtihaju'l-Mulk; martyr
1920 Hyde and Clara Dunn arrive in Samoa enroute to Australia, the first Bahá'ís to visit the islands. Samoa Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Islands; First Bahais by country or area first to visit Samoa
1920 George Townshend becomes a Bahá'í, sending a letter of acceptance of the Faith to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GT49] Dublin George Townshend; Hand of the Cause
1920 Fanny Knobloch arrives in Mozambique, the first Bahá'í to visit this country. She gives some `drawing room talks' at the mansion of the Portuguese Governor-General and speaks at various clubs. [BW2p40] Mozambique Fanny Knobloch first Bahá'í to visit Mozambique
1920 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá writes a Tablet to a group in Chile. [SWAB:246-50] Chile `Abdu'l-Baha
1920 27 Jan The death of Joseph H. Hannen, Apostle of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a car in Washington, DC. It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace are accredited to him. [The Washington Times28 January, 1928] Washington DC; United States Joseph H. Hannen; Apostles of Abdul-Baha
1920 Mar John and Louise Bosch pioneer in Tahiti until September, the first Bahá'ís to travel to the island. See BW3p368 for an account of their stay written by Louise. Tahiti John and Louise Bosch; Louise Bosch; John Bosch the first Bahá'ís to travel to Tahiti
1920 Apr Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání arrives in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the national convention. [AB443; SBR88]
  • His purpose is to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. [AB443]
  • He stays for one year. [AB443]
America Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Manuchihr Khan; national convention crossreference URLs; title; title
1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois is selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
Wilmette Louis Bourgeois; House of Worship; Wilmette Temple; Chicago Temple; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar first House of Worshp
1920 10 Apr Clara and Hyde Dunn arrive in Sydney, Australia. [AB445]

SBR158 says this was 18 Apr 1919.

  • They are thought to be the first Bahá'í pioneers to have arrived at their post after the release of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [G. Hassel]
Sydney; Australia Clara and Hyde Dunn
1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi leaves Haifa to take up his studies at Balliol College in Oxford. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stays in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58} Haifa; Oxford; Neuilly; Shoghi Effendi; Balliol College; Oxford; Neuilly
1920 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá is invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
  • For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
  • The knighthood is in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
  • He accepts the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
  • He does not use the title. [AB443]
  • For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
Haifa; New York Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Lady Blomfield
1920 27 Apr The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December. New York; NY Mashriqu'l-Adhkar find reference
1920 21 May The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387] Sultanabad Haji `Arab; Iranian persecution
1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. [SBR105]
  • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
  • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
Boston; Massachusetts; United States Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam
1920 Jul-Aug Fanny Knobloch, the first Bahá'í teacher in South Africa, arrives in Cape Town. [BW2:40].
  • In her first week she meets Miss Busby who within a very short time is the first person to become a Bahá'í in South Africa.
Cape Town; South Africa Fanny Knobloch first Bahá'í in South Africa
1920 8 Jul August Rudd, a Swede who became a Bahá'í in America, returns to his native country, becoming the first Bahá'í in Sweden. [BWT8:980-2]. Sweden August Rudd The the first Bahá'í in Sweden
1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accept the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
  • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
  • Dr Grossman hears of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
Leipzig Hermann Grossman; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman,
1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
Isfahán King of Martyrs; the Beloved of Martyrs; Iranian persecution
1920 24 Sep Boring begins at the site of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette to determine the depth of the bedrock. [DP104]
  • Soon afterwards construction begins. [DP108]
Wilmette Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1920 Oct Shoghi Effendi enters Balliol College, Oxford University. [CB284; DH149; GBF11-12]
  • For his purpose in going to Oxford see GBF12.
  • For his time in Oxford see PP34-8.
  • A Q Faizi is reported to have said, during a talk to pilgrims in May-June, 1965 that "Shoghi Effendi was sent to Oxford to protect him from potential enemies, not to learn English or be educated." [SDSC273]
Oxford; Farúgh; Shoghi Effendi; Balliol College; Oxford University
1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá is killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís are imprisoned. [BW18:387] Farúgh; Fárs; Iran; Mirza Mustafa
1920 Dec The passing of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni known as 'the Angel of Mount Carmel' in Haifa. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery on Mount Carmel.
  • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
  • His autobiography was published as Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí, was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980.
  • Acting on the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. It covers the events from March to September and was published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917.
Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Births and deaths
1920 1 Dec Lillian Kappes dies of typhus fever in Tihrán. [BFA2:361; SW11, 19:324-5]
  • She had gone to Tihrán nine years previously to help set up the Tarbíyat School for Girls. [SW11, 19:3 24]
Tihrán Lillian Kappes; Tarbiyat School for Girls; In Memoriam
1920 27 Dec Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí, the `Angel of Carmel' passes away in Haifa. [BBD98; EB250]
  • For his biography see EB237-50 and Stories from The Delight of Hearts: The Memoirs of Hájí Mirzá Háydar-'Alí].
Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Birth and deaths
1920 27-29 Dec The first All-India Bahá'í Convention is held in Bombay with 175 in attendance. [AB446; BBRSM194; 115] Bombay; India Conventions; First, Conventions The first All-India Bahá'í Convention
1921 (in the year) The birth of Eduardo Duarte Vieira, the first African Bahá'í martyr, is born in Portuguese Guinea. Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Eduardo Duarte Vieira; martyr; Guinea Bissau
1921 The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq begins. It will last until 1932. [Mandatory Iraq] Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
1921 after Mandate After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorizes repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attract the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sue for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih is assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
  • He is the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
Kirmánsháh Mirza Ya`qub-i-Muttahidih; Iranian persecution; `Abdu'l-Baha
1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád is granted and the Bahá'is are evicted. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 Feb Ahmad Sháh (reigned 1909–25), who succeeded to the throne at age 11, was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41. Iran Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1921 1 Feb Leonora Holsapple Armstrong, the first Bahá'í pioneer in Latin America, arrives in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro. Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Leonora Armstrong
1921 21 Mar Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. DP108]
  • See DP107 for a picture of Bahá'ís inaugurating the construction of Foundation Hall.
Wilmette Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturns an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 spring Dr Genevieve Coy is chosen as the director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán to replace Lillian Kappes. [SBR203] Tihran; Iran Genevieve Coy; Tarbiyat School for Girls
1921 19-21 May The first Race Amity Conference is held in Washington DC. [BW2:281]
  • Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. [SETPE1p141-145
  • For details of the conference see BW2:281-2.
Washington DC Race Amity Conference The first Race Amity Conference
1921 29 May Alessandro Bausani, the Italian Bahá'í who was an Islamic scholar, linguist and historian of comparative religions, is born in Rome. Rome; Italy Alessandro Bausani
1921 summer Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá'í. Siegfried Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God
1921 Jul-Aug Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background are harassed by the Zoroastrian agent in Qum. [BW18:388] Qum Iranian persecution
1921 9 Jul Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání left the United States for the Holy Land. [AB443footnote] Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani
1921 20 Aug-19 Sep Agnes Alexander visits Korea, the first Bahá'í to do so. [BW2:44] Korea Agnes Alexander the first Bahá'í to visit Korea.
1921 Sep - Apr 1922 Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis Kelsey come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922. [BW15p468-473] BWC; Electrification of the Shrines; Roy Wilhelm; Curtis Kelsey first lighting of the Holy Shrines.
1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í is poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevents the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar; Iran; Áqa Siyyid Mustafa Tabataba'i; Iranian persecution
1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad is decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allows them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
  • Before the application goes before the Court the Shi'a group prevail upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and the return the keys to them. All this is against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
  • The case is passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decides in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 28 Nov The Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá: `Abdu'l-Bahá passes away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
  • For details of His passing see AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
  • This marks the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
  • For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
  • See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
  • For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
  • Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
Haifa Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages (time); Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline
1921 29 Nov The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
  • For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
  • For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
  • For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
  • Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
  • For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
  • Bahíyyih Khánum looks for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombs Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lie. [AB464; GBF14]
  • The Faith has spread to 35 countries. [MBW61; PP391]
  • The Bahá'í property at Bahjí does not exceed a thousand square metres; the Bahá'í property on Mount Carmel is about ten thousand square metres. [PP267]
  • Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
Haifa; Bahji; Mount Carmel Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of
1921 29 Nov A cable is sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's death. Shoghi Effendi learns of his grandfather's passing about noon. [GBF13]
  • See GBF13 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
London `Abdu'l-Baha; Shoghi Effendi
1921 Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí publishes far and wide that he is the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
  • The Egyptian Bahá'ís respond to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
Egypt Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Successorship; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
1921 2 Dec Ethel Rosenberg arrives in the Holy Land, having learned on the train from Port Said of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER181-2] Haifa Ethel Rosenberg; Passing of Abdul-Baha
1921 4 Dec On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn is distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
  • Up to this day 50 to 100 poor are fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
1921 5-6 Dec The second Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races is held in Springfield, Massachusetts. [BW2:282; SBR92]
  • Over a thousand people attend. [SW13, 3:51]
  • For a report of the convention see SW13, 3:51-5, 601.
  • For a photograph see SW13, 3:50.
Springfield; Massachusetts Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races
1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi leaves England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
  • Owing to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi cannot leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66]
London Shoghi Effendi; Lady Blomfield; Rouhangeze [Ruhangiz]
1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrives in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
  • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
1921 Late in the year Mírzá Husayn Tútí arrives in the Philippines, the earliest known visit by a Bahá'í to this country. He stays for four months. Philippines Mirza Husayn Tuti
1922 in the year The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
  • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
  • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
  • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those that believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like the Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
  • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
Chicago; New York,NY Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt
1922 (in the year) Oswald Whitaker, a Sydney optometrist, and Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker, a photographer, become Bahá'ís, the first Australians to accept the Faith. [BW14:320; SBR160-1, BW2p129]
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. [BW14:320]
  • See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution while serving in Haifa.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
Australia; Persia Oswald Whitaker; Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker; local assembly the first Australians to accept the Faith
1922 3 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá is read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
  • Shoghi Effendi is not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
  • Shoghi Effendi is appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
  • Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Baha; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi
1922 6 Jan A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area is held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
  • More than a hundred poor are also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
  • For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
Haifa; `Akka `Abdu'l-Baha
1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá is read publicly to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [ER199-200]
  • Shoghi Effendi is again absent. [ER200]
The Greatest Holy Leaf sends two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi has been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi; Guardianship
1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
  • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
Fanwood; New Jersey; United States William Hoar; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1922 16 Jan The Greatest Holy Leaf cables the United States that Shoghi Effendi has been appointed Guardian. [PP48] Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi writes to the two major communities of the Faith, Persia and America, urging the believers to arise in service for the triumph of the Cause. [BA15-17; CB298-300; CT154] Haifa Shoghi Effendi
1922 24 Jan Dr Sarah A. Clock passes away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309] Tihran; Iran Sarah A. Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School for Girls
1922 30 Jan Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Badí`u'lláh seize the keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBR456-7; CB288-9, 333; ER205; GBF18; PP53]
  • The governor of `Akká orders that the keys be handed over to the authorities and posts a guard at the Shrine. [BBR457; PP53-4]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR456-7.
Bahji Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
1922 Feb-Mar Shoghi Effendi calls together a group of well-known Bahá'ís to discuss the future development of the Faith and the possible election of the Universal House of Justice. [BBRSM:120, 126; ER207; PP247-8]
  • See ER207-8 and PP55 for those attending.
  • It seems he decided that a firm base of local and national institutions to support the House of Justice would be required first. [PP248; SBR66]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Universal House of Justice
1922 19 Feb Helen Goodall, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in San Francisco. [SEBW33]
  • See SEBW21-33 for details of her life.
San Francisco; United States Helen Goodall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq takes over the keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1922 22 Feb King Feisal of Iraq orders the Bahá'ís to be turned out of the Most Great House in Baghdád to keep the peace. [BW354; GPB343; PP54] Baghdad King Feisal; Most Great House; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1922 27 Feb Shoghi Effendi writes to Professor Auguste Forel, advising him of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's passing and enclosing an English translation of 'Abdu'lBahá's letter to Dr Forel. [The Life and Times of August Forel by Sheila Banani] Auguste Forel
1922 5 Mar Shoghi Effendi writes to the American Bahá'ís calling for the establishment of local assemblies wherever nine or more believers reside and directing that all activities be placed under the authority of the local and national assemblies. [BA17-25; BBRSM120-1; CB300] Shoghi Effendi; local assembly; national assembly
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the `Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
1922 Apr c. Shoghi Effendi appoints a body of nine people to act tentatively as an assembly in the Holy Land while he is away and entrusts the affairs of the Faith to the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GBF19; PP57, 276] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Spiritual Assemblies
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chicago; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 5 Apr Shoghi Effendi leaves the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departs the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. [PP57]
  • See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
Haifa; Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
1922 7 Apr The Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly is seen to be in operation this date, perhaps earlier. [SETPE1p50,] Haifa; Haifa Spiritual Assembly
1922 9 Apr Work commences on the Western Pilgrim House. [PP69] Haifa Western Pilgrim House
1922 21 Apr The Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb are electrically illuminated for the first time. [PP69]
  • For the story of this see HLS.
Bahji; Mount Carmel Bahallah, Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Light (general)
1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 Late May The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
  • This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
  • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblyies; All-England Bahai Council
1922 6 Jun The All-England Bahá'í Council meets for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
  • ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
  • The meeting is held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
United Kingdom All-England Bahai Council; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
1922 9 Jul Bahá'ís gather in the Foundation Hall of the Chicago House of Worship for the first time, to commemorate the martyrdom of the Báb. [CT158-9; SW13, 6:132]
  • Regular meetings are not held here until 1927. [CT158-9]
Wilmette Foundation Hall; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1922 autumn The Greatest Holy Leaf sends Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63] Switzerland; Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 10 Dec The first local assembly of Montreal is formed. [BW8:639, OBCC157, TG26] Montreal; QC; Canada first Local Spiritual Assembly in Canada, first spiritual assembly in Montreal
1922 15 Dec Shoghi Effendi returns to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
  • He sends cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Guardianship
1923 (in the year) Charles Mason Remey makes preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723]

Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Bab, Shrine of
1923 Amelia Collins contributes the funds necessary to complete the Western Pilgrim House. [DH180; PSBW76] Haifa Amelia Collins; Western Pilgrim House; BWC Pilgrimage
1923 The keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád are delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 Jan The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
  • For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
1923 Feb Shoghi Effendi sends his early translation of The Hidden Words to America. [PP205] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words)
1923 8 Feb The keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh are returned to Shoghi Effendi. [GBF23; PP71] Shoghi Effendi; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
1923 12 Feb Bahai Scriptures, edited by Horace Holley, is published. [SBR231]
  • It is the first comprehensive collection of Bahá'í writings made thus far in English. [SBR231]
Horace Holley; Bahai Scriptures
1923 16 Feb Declaration of the first native Hawaiian Bahá'í, Mae (Mary) Keali'i Kahumoku Tilton Fantom. She was from Maui. [Native Baha'i - Indigenous Baha'i] Maui; Hawaii Mae (Mary) Keali'i Kahumoku Tilton Fantom first native Hawaiian Bahá'í.
1923 Mar An article entitled `Bahai Organization: Its Basis in the Revealed Word' appears in Star of the West. [SW13, 12:323-8]
  • The purpose of the article is to convince those who are opposed to a structured form of Bahá'í administration. [BBRSM123]
Bahai Organization; Star of the West; Baha'i administration; Opposition
1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi writes to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i administration; annual elections; local and national funds
1923 Apr National Spiritual Assemblies are elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
  • The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly is by postal ballot. [ER228]
  • For membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
  • See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
British Isles; India; Germany National Spiritual Assembly
1923 25 Apr Martha Root leaves Osaka for northern China. [PH31]
  • It is her second visit to China and lasts until March 1924. [PH31-2]
China Martha Root
1923 Jun Shoghi Effendi leaves Haifa for Switzerland. [PP72; BBRSM116]
  • He returns to Haifa in November 1923. [BRRSM116]
Switzerland; Haifa; Shoghi Effendi
1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appeal to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 Early Sep J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era is published in Britain by George Allen and Unwin. [DJEE28; RG77]
  • Shoghi Effendi views this as a landmark in British Bahá'í history. [UD97]
  • Over the years he encourages its translation into dozens of languages. [RG77]
  • See DJEE37-8 for the importance of this work.
Britain J. E. Esslemont; Baha'u'llah and the New Era; Shoghi Effendi
1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain meets for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
  • It becomes the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
England National Spiritual Assembly; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assembly of Britain; National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles; National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom
1923 Nov (sometime before 14 Nov) Shoghi Effendi returns from Switzerland. [PP73] Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi
1923 4 Nov The first recorded Bahá'í Feast in China is held in Beijing. [PH33]
  • Martha Root and Agnes Alexander are present. [PH33]
China Feast; Martha Root; Agnes Alexander
1923 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Melbourne. Melbourne; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies; First Local Spiritual Assemblies The first local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Melbourne.
1923 20 Dec The Peace Court rules in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, orders that the property not be returned until ownership can be established. [SETPE1p26]
  • The Guardian sends 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities were the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructs that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sends over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
  • The Iráqí government refuses to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad First time public opinion was rallied to support a miscarriage of justice against the Bahá'is
1924 (in the year) Miss Nora Lee, who became a Bahá'í in New Zealand, is the first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji, working as a nanny in Labasa from 1924 to about 1930.

Gretta Lamprill becomes the first Bahá'í in Tasmania in the latter part of the year. [SBR162]

Amelia Collins visits Iceland for two days, meeting H

Fiji; Tasmania; Iceland Nora Lee; Gretta Lamprill; Amelia Collins first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji; first Bahá'í in Tasmania
1924 Memorials of the Faithful is published under the auspices of the Haifa Bahá'í Assembly. [MFXII] Haifa; Memorials of the Faithful
1924 in the year The passing of Mírzá Muhmúd-i-Zarqání (b. c1875).

He was 'Abdu'll-Bahá's secretary on his western trip and is the author of Mahmud's Diary. In his youth he travelled and taught around Iran and from 1903 He began travelling to and in India, learning Urdu. He also made a pilgrimage to Haifa where he transcribed Tablets and from there accompanied 'Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and to America. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary Edinburgh p.5]

In Memoriam; Mirza Muhmud-i-Zarqani; Mahmud
1924 28 Jan Isabella Brittingham, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the Revell home in Philadelphia. [SEBW138]
  • For her life see SEBW131-8.
Philadelphia; United States Isabella Brittingham; Disciples of Abdul-Baha
1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís are imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stir up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Maraghih; Iran Iranian persecution
1924 21-28 Mar Daily attacks on Bahá'ís and their shops in Mashhad culminate in the expulsion from the town of áqá Gulkání and other Bahá'ís. [BW13:388] Mashhad aqa Gulkani; Iranian persecution
1924 28-30 Mar The third Convention for Race Unity is held in New York City. [BW2:282-3; SBR93; TMW1467] New York City Convention for Race Unity
1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, are attacked; some are arrested and imprisoned and others are forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Iranian persecution
1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd is beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Turshiz; Khurasan; Iran Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majid; Iranian persecution
1924 22 Jun áqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firuzabad; Fars; Iran aqa Husayn-`Ali; Iranian persecution
1924 Jul The second local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Perth. Perth; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies
1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie is murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he is not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. [BBR462-5; BW18:388]
  • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
Tihran Major Robert Imbrie
1924 Sep Shoghi Effendi returns to the Holy Land after an absence of some six months. [BA65-7; BBRSM117; UD279] Haifa Shoghi Effendi
1924 22 Sep-3 Oct The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' is held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
  • For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
  • Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith are read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
  • For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
London Some Living Religions within the British Empire; Shoghi Effendi; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan
1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decides against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8] Iraq Court cases; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
1924 21 Nov Dr John E. Esslemont arrives in Haifa to help Shoghi Effendi with his work. [DJEE31; SBR233] Haifa Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1924 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan is formed, the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333]

Martha Root gives the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town.

Egypt; Cape Town. National Spiritual Assembly; Martha Root
1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, is published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holly as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
  • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
New York Baha'i News Letter; Baha'i News; Horace Holly
1925 Early in the year Johanne Sorensen becomes a Bahá’í in Hawaii, the first Dane to accept the Faith. She returns to Denmark soon afterwards and remains the only Bahá’í there for 21 years. Hawaii; Denmark Johanne Sorensen first Dane to accept the Faith
1925 Louisa Gregory is the first Bahá’í to visit Romania. Romania Louisa Gregory first Bahá’í to visit Romania
1925 The Bahá’í Esperanto magazine La Nova Tago (The New Day) is first published. [BBRSM150]
  • It continues publication until 1937. [BBRSM150]
Esperanto; La Nova Tago (The New Day) first publication La Nova Tago (The New Day)
1925 c. Fanny Knobloch and her sister Pauline Hannen are the first Bahá’ís to visit Southern Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia Fanny Knobloch; Pauline Hannen first Bahá’ís to visit Southern Rhodesia
1925 At the suggestion of Horace Holley a Bahá'í yearbook was published under the name Bahá'í Year Book and subsequent editions were called The Bahá'í World, A Biennial International Record. Although it was published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, Shoghi Effendi was the editor-in-chief. Volume 13 (1954-1963) saw publication shift to the Bahá'í World Centre and in1992 the format changed. The last year of publication was 2006. [PP209-212, SETPE1p107]
1925 Jan The American Bahá’ís publishes Shoghi Effendi’s revised Hidden Words. [ER255]
  • A final translation is made in 1926–7. [ER254; GT55–8]
Shoghi Effendi, Translations; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words)
1925 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Alexandria is established, the second assembly to be formed in Africa. Alexandria; Africa LSA
1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reports in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is now before the court of the First Instance and has been postponed for some time. He states that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents are likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government is likely to delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1925 There are 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America LSA
1925 Of the 38 localities where Bahá'ís reside in Europe, 26 are in Germany. [BBRSM182] Europe; Germany
1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi writes to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word ‘assembly’ is to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. [BA83; SBBH258] America Shoghi Effendi
1925 spring The International Bahá’í Bureau is established in Geneva by Jean Stannard under the direction of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4:257]
  • For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
  • Its function is to act as intermediary between Haifa and other Bahá’í centres. [BBD118; BW4:261]
Geneva; Switzerland; Europe International Bahai Bureau; Jean Stannard first establishment International Bahá’í Bureau
1925 10 May Background Information

    "It was in the village of Kawmu's-Sa`áyidih, in the district of Beba, of the province of Beni Suef in Upper Egypt, that, as a result of the religious fanaticism which the formation of a Bahá'í assembly had kindled in the breast of the headman of that village, and of the grave accusations made by him to both the District Police Officer and the Governor of the province--accusations which aroused the Muhammadans to such a pitch of excitement as to cause them to perpetrate shameful acts against their victims--that action was initiated by the notary of the village, in his capacity as a religious plaintiff authorized by the Ministry of Justice, against three Bahá'í residents of that village, demanding that their Muslim wives be divorced from them on the grounds that their husbands had abandoned Islám after their legal marriage as Muslims." [GPB364-365]

A Muslim Court in Egypt pronounces the Faith to be an independent religion. [BBRSM173; BW2:31;BW3:49]
  • For text of the judgement see BW3:48–50.
  • This was ‘the first charter of liberty emancipating the Bahá’í Faith from the fetters of orthodox Islam’. [BA100-1, 120-123; BW3:110–11; GPBXII, 302, 365; CB306; PP319–20; UD65 WOB99, LoF57, SETPE1p102-104]
    1. "an attack which, viewed in the perspective of history, will be acclaimed by future generations as a landmark not only in the Formative Period of the Faith but in the history of the first Bahá'í century. Indeed, the sequel to this assault may be said to have opened a new chapter in the evolution of the Faith itself, an evolution which, carrying it through the successive stages of repression, of emancipation, of recognition as an independent Revelation, and as a state religion, must lead to the establishment of the Bahá'í state and culminate in the emergence of the Bahá'í World Commonwealth. [GPB364]
  • Subsequent to the court's decision...

      "the presentation of a petition addressed by the national elected representatives of that community to the Egyptian Prime Minister, the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Justice (supported by a similar communication addressed by the American National Spiritual Assembly to the Egyptian Government, see BW4p166), enclosing a copy of the judgment of the Court, and of their national Bahá'í constitution and by-laws, requesting them to recognize their Assembly as a body qualified to exercise the functions of an independent court and empowered to apply, in all matters affecting their personal status, the laws and ordinances revealed by the Author of their Faith--these stand out as the initial consequences of a historic pronouncement that must eventually lead to the establishment of that Faith on a basis of absolute equality with its sister religions in that land." [GPB367]

      " it became a lever which the Egyptian Bahá'í community, followed later by its sister-communities, readily utilized for the purpose of asserting the independence of its Faith and of seeking for it the recognition of its government. Translated into several languages, circulated among Bahá'í communities in East and West, it gradually paved the way for the initiation of negotiations between the elected representatives of these communities and the civil authorities in Egypt, in the Holy Land, in Persia and even in the United States of America, for the purpose of securing the official recognition by these authorities of the Faith as an independent religion. " [GPB366]

  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
Kawmu's-Sa`áyidih; Beba; Beni Suef; Egypt Landmark first charter of liberty emancipating the Bahá’í Faith from the fetters of orthodox Islam’
1925 4–9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Randall; May Maxwell; George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; National Spiritual Assemblies; First NSAs first NSA United States and Canada; first full-time secretary NSA United States and Canada
1925 Sep Bertram Dewing begins publication of the Bahá’í magazine Herald of the South in Auckland. [BEL174; SBR163] Auckland Bertram Dewing; Herald of the South first publication Herald of the South
1925 Oct Faced with the possibility of Jewish developments on land near the Shrine of the Báb, Shoghi Effendi appeals to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada to purchase the land in question. They respond quickly to the request. [BA92-3, SETPE1p108, PP97] Haifa; Mount Carmel Property purchases; Bab, Shrine of
1925 31 Oct Ahmad Sháh is deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69] Iran Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah Pahlavi
1925 21 Nov On his way from Iran to study at the American University of Beirut (then called the Syrian Protestant College) the 17-year-old Husan Balyuzi spent two days in Haifa. Although from a prominent Bahá'í family he was neither knowledgeable nor confirmed in his faith. After having spent more than one hour with Shoghi Effendi his faith was confirmed and the course of his life was set. [SETPE1p110-111, BW18p637-651] Haifa
1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
Haifa; Ishqabad Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
1925 Nov With the passing of Dr Esslemont Shoghi Effendi is left without qualified secretarial help. This situation remained in place until the formation of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. [PP92-95, SETPE1p112]
  • On November 30th Shoghi Effendi appoints him a Hand of the Cause of God.
Haifa
1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]

  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155

  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8] For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293

  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]

National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada Plans
1925 Dec The Guardian express his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Milly Collins
1925 13 Dec Ridá (or Reza) Sháh accedes to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commences. [BBR482] Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá’u’lláh’s house in Baghdád are given to the Shí’ís. [UD45] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Shi’is
1926 Opposition to the Faith begins in Russia. [BW3:35; BBR473]
  • For details see BW3:34–43.
Russia religious persecution
1926 Martha Roots visits Budapest and teaches the Faith to one of the grandsons of Arminius Vámbéry, Mr. György Vámbéry. He was 21 at the time and passed away some two years later. [www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Martha Root; Arminius Vambéry; György Vambéry. first Hungarian Bahá'í György Vámbéry?
1926 Green Acre comes under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] America Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
1926 For most of the year severe restrictions are placed on the Bahá’ís of Marághih in Ádharbáyján, the governor of the district effectively suspending all constitutional and civil rights of the Bahá’í community. [BBR472; BW18:388]
  • For a list of deprivations see BBR473.
Marághih; Ádharbáyján religious persecution
1926 c. Shoghi Effendi visits Finland. Finland Shoghi Effendi
1926 The Bahá’í World is first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232]
  • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, is called The Bahá’í Yearbook.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s impression of it see UD82–4.
America Bahai World volumes first publication The Bahá’í World
1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) come to Haifa on pilgrimage and are technically the first from Alaska to do so. They are in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
  • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford
Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area First person to accept the Faith in Alaska, first Alaskan pilgrims
1926 28 Jan Martha Root sends a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the .New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie; Bahá’u’lláh and the .New Era
1926 30 Jan Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
  • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96 and MR240–6.
  • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie first meeting with Queen Marie
1926 First week in Feb Martha Root arrives in Bulgaria, the earliest documented visit to that country by a Bahá’í. [MR247]
  • She stays 12 days. [MR247]
  • Bahá’ís had passed through Bulgaria on their way to Turkey, but Martha Root’s visit is the first one documented.
Bulgaria Martha Root first documented visit to Bulgaria
1926 14 Feb Dust from the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh brought back by pilgrims (including Margaret Stevenson) from the Holy land, was placed in a ceremony into the soil of New Zealand at the Stevenson's home. [Arohanui pg94] New Zealand; Margaret Stevenson
1926 Apr c. Lidia Zamenhof, a daughter of the founder of Esperanto Ludwik Zamenhof, becomes a Bahá’í, the first Pole to accept the Faith. [L71] Lidia Zamenhof; Ludwik Zamenhof first Pole to accept the Faith
1926 7 Apr Eight or perhaps as many as twelve Bahá’ís are beaten to death in Jahrum, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388, SETPE1p128, GBF36, UD49-53]
  • It is first reported that 12 Bahá’ís are killed. [PP98]
  • For the response of Shoghi Effendi see BA104–6, 106–8; GBF36–7; PP98–9; and UD48–53.
  • For Western accounts and responses see BBR465–72.
  • "The attacks were apparently instigated by a majlis representative who sought to gain favour with anti-Baha’i religious leaders in order to secure reelection. The Baha’is complained to the local and national authorities to obtain redress but were denied. This was the last incident of mass killing of Baha’is during Reza Shah’s reign." [Religious Contentions in Modern Iran,1881-1941 pg 229-230 by Mina Yazdani]
Jahrum; Fárs; Iran religious persecution
1926 4 May Queen Marie of Romania writes three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appears in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
  • For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
America Queen Marie; Queen’s Counsel’
1926 May (near end) Shoghi Effendi departs Palestine for Switzerland. [PP97, SETPE1p131, GBF36] Switzerland
1926 24 Jun Enoch Olinga, future Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Abaango, Uganda. Abaango; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hand of the Cause
1926 29 Jun Three Bahá’ís are martyred in Zavárih, near Isfahán. [BW18:388] Zavárih; Iran religious persecution
1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada makes representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
America; Jahrum; Iran; NSA; Petition to Iranian government
1926 2 and 4 Aug Two Bahá’í Esperanto conventions are held in conjunction with the Eighteenth Universal Esperanto Congress in Scotland. [BW2:266] Scotland Bahá’í Esperanto conventions; Universal Esperanto Congress
1926 15 Oct Shoghi Effendi returns from Switzerland where he had been joined by his mother and sister in August. [SETPE1p133, Ambassador at the Court chapter 8] Switzerland
1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal rules against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sends a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1926 30 Nov Sir Ronald Storrs (b. 1881 - d. 1955) is appointed Governor of Cyprus (30 Nov 1926 - 29 Oct 1932) Cyprus Sir Ronald Storrs
1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking. (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7, 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
  • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
  • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learnt while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
  • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
  • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
  • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42. Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-126
.
Dade City, Pasco County, Florida Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam first Nineteen Day Feast in America
1927 The Baghdád believers take photographs of the cave in the Sargul Mountain near Sulaymáníyyih where Bahá'u'lláh spent two years in solitude. [BW2Surveyp.33, SETPE1p141] Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih Sulaymaniyyih; Photographs
1927 Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but now enrolled at the American University at Beirut visits Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he is immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University at Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
America NSA; National Race Unity Committee
1927 13–16 Jan A World Unity Conference is held in Dayton, Ohio, one of many such conferences to be held in the year in major cities of the United States. [TMW159, 165] Dayton; Ohio; United States Unity Conferences
1927 Mar Shoghi Effendi retranslates the Hidden Words.
  • He is assisted by George Townshend and Ethel Rosenberg, the ‘English friends’ mentioned on the title page. [ER246–7, 253–6; GT109, SETPE1p126]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); George Townshend; Ethel Rosenberg
1927 Mar This was to be the start of an 18 year relationship of collaboration between Shoghi Effendi and George Townshend in the translation of the Writings. As well as Hidden Words, he worked on Kitáb-i-Íqán, The Dawn-Breakers, Prayers and Meditations by Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, God Passes By and by suggesting titles and writing introductions for The Dawn-Breakers and God Passes By. [SETPE1p127] Shoghi Effendi; George Townshend
1927 11 Mar Sadie Oglesby and her daughter Bertha Parvine arrive in Haifa, the first black American women to make the pilgrimage. [TMW173, 206, SETPE1p141-145] Haifa Sadie Oglesby; Bertha Parvine first black American women to make pilgrimage
1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ is martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibil; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1927 Apr The American National convention is held in Montreal, a major subject of which is race relations. [TMw178]
  • Edwina Powell speaks on the subject, as she had been asked by Shoghi Effendi. [TMw178]
  • In her address, Sadie Oglesby recalls her conversations with Shoghi Effendi on the subject of race. [TMw178–80]
Montreal NSA; National convention; Edwina Powell; race relations; Sadie Oglesby
1927 Apr-May Martha Root journeys through the Baltic States, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (2 May). [MR272–4] Baltic States Martha Root first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia
1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elects ten members as there is an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [ER253; UD70–1]
  • One of the members is a Rev. Biggs. [ER253; UD71]
  • Shoghi Effendi writes on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [ER253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
Britain NSA; election; Rev. Biggs
1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
America National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws The first document of this sort to establish a clear legal basis for the National Spiritual Assembly
1927 May The funeral of a believer resident in the Holy Land, Mírá Moshen Afnán, is the first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine showing the strong independence of the Faith. [SETPE1p147] Haifa; Palestine Mira Moshen Afnan; funeral first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine
1927 Jun Shoghi Effendi leave Palestine destined for Switzerland in the company of his sister. [Ambassador at the Court Chapter 8] Switzerland
1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh is martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirman; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1927 1 Aug Geyserville Bahá’í Summer School, the first American Bahá’í summer school, is established on property in California donated by John Bosch. It was to operate until 1973 when a new road project divided the property. The land was sold and the funds used to purchase land in the mountains above the coastal town of Santa Cruz. The new school was named In honour of John and Louise Bosch. [BBD87; BW10:180; GPB340, Bosch]
  • BW5:28–9 says this was the second Bahá’í summer school in America but Shoghi Effendi indicates in GPB340 that Green Acre is formally established as a Bahá’í summer school in 1929.
Geyserville Summer School; John Bosch first American Bahá’í summer school
1927 9 Sep-2 Dec Leonora Holsapple (later Armstrong) makes a teaching trip through Latin America and the Caribbean, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad (2–12 Oct), the Guianas (29 Oct), Barbados (Dec) and several islands in the Antilles group. Latin America; Caribbean Leonora Holsapple; Leonora Armstrong first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad, the Guianas, Barbados and several islands in Antilles group
1927 14 Sep Dr George Augur, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Hawaii. [SBR198]
  • For the story of his life see SBR187–98.
Hawaii George Augur; Disciples of Abdul-Baha
1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusts Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who are visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Chicago; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bab, Shrine of
1927 mid-Oct Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn)
1927 mid-Oct to 1 Nov Shoghi Effendi retires to the mountains of Switzerland to rest and re-gain his strength. (SETPE1p150, DND20] Switzerland
1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihran; ; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause of God; Hands of the Cause of God (appointments); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni
    1928 to 1938 The third Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín) (Trustee of the Trustee). He had been Hájí Amín's assistant for several years and so was chosen to succeed him. He had been born into the wealthy merchant class in Tehran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • During his tenure steps were taken to register Bahá'í properties and endowments in Iran.
    • He died due to an illness. [BW8p659]
    Tihran; Iran Huququ'llah; Huququ'llah, Trustees of; Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin)
    1928 Louisa Mathew Gregory moves to Varna, the first Bahá’í to settle in Bulgaria. Varna; Bulgaria Louisa Mathew Gregory first Bahá’í to settle in Bulgaria
    1928 The first local assembly of Shanghai is formed. [PH28] Shanghai LSA first LSA Shanghai
    1928 The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. [WOBpv]
    1928 The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936,1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv] Baha'i Administration
    1928 Jan A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tries to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152] Iran; Haifa Covenant-breaker; Jamil Irani; Lord Plummer
    1928 In this year there are 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís live, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature is translated. [BBRSM160–1] NSA; LSA; statistics
    1928 Apr The Soviet authorities abrogate the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the assembly is dissolved. [BW3:37, BW8p88, SETPE1p154]
    • Bahá’í schools and libraries are closed. [BBRSM173]
    • Not long after, the government orders that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union are the property of the government and the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár is expropriated and leased back to the Bahá’ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
    • For the history of the persecution of the Bahá’ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
    • PP364–5 says it was 1929.
    ‘Ishqábád religious persecution; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Ishqabad
    1928 Ridván 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khemiri arrives in Haifa from Tunis. He is the first from that country to make a pilgrimage. [SETPE1p153] BWC; Tunis; Tunisia; First pilgrim from Tunisia.
    1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167]
    • See BW2:180 for a picture.
    Wilmette National Convention; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar first time National Convention held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship, Wilmette
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
    • For his biography see EB263.
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
    • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
    Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; In Memoriam
    1928 Jul The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45] Hague, The; Netherlands International Religious Congress for World Peace; Martha Root first International Religious Congress for World Peace
    1928 7 Aug The word ‘Bahá’í’ is registered with the United States Patent Office as a trademark. [BW6:348] United States Patent Office; Copyright and trademarks
    1928 11 Sep The case of Baha'u'llah's House in Baghdad is put before the League of Nations by means of a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations From the Baha'is of ‘Iráq. [Text of the Petition] Geneva; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq submits a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Baghdád; Iraq; Petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
    • The Shí’ís turn the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Shi’is; Husayniyyih
    1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá’ís begins in Turkey. [BBR474]
    • Several Bahá’ís are arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá’í affairs in Turkey is made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
    Turkey religious persecution
    1928 Nov It is recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1928 13 Dec The case arising out of the newspaper persecution of the Bahá’ís of Turkey is brought before a criminal tribunal. [PP316]
    • The Bahá’ís are able to make known the history and tenets of the Faith. [PP316–17; UD78–9]
    Turkey religious persecution
    1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Paris. [UD84–5]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
    Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery. [SETPE1p157] Palestine Covenant-breaker; Ruth White
    1929 11 Feb William ‘Harry’ Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, dies.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s obituary of him see BW3:213.
    William Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1929 14 Feb Work begins on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
    • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work.
    • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
    • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There is a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
    Haifa Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi
    1929 27 Feb The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice is to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Baha'i News p230, 298] Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopts the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá’í community to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:50-55]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
    Baghdád; Iraq; Council of the League of Nations; Mandates Commissions; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 16 Mar In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389]
    • See "1937 May".
    Montreal; Wilmette; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relents under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169] Baghdad House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 Apr The New History Society is founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134]
    • It comes into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly, which sees the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
    New York New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporates as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
    • This enables the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, receive bequests and enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
    United States NSA; Voluntary Trust
    1929 4 May When the British Mandate in Palestine had been set up, an Order-in-Council had been enacted that allowed each of the recognized religious communities to be administered in all affairs of personal status according to their own religious laws and courts. The Bahá'í community had not, however, been accorded this "recognized" status and was thus compelled to submit to the Muslim Courts. In 1929 Shoghi Effendi asked Mountfort Mills to raise the matter with the authorities and the Bahá’í Community of Haifa formally petitions the government that the Bahá’í laws on personal status be recognized in Palestine. [BBR459; PP284]
    • Recognition is granted later in the year. [BBR459; DH116; PP284]
    Haifa laws of personal status
    1929 summer Shoghi Effendi makes plans to hold an international conference to consider, among other things, how to establish national spiritual assemblies as a prelude to the Universal House of Justice. [PP250]
    • He cancels the conference when he perceives that the Bahá’ís will find it a source of confusion and misunderstanding. [BBRSM126; PP250]
    Haifa Universal House of Justice
    1929 12 Aug Green Acre becomes a fully fledged Bahá’í summer school when the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada obtains legal title to the property. [BBD91; GAP118; GPB340; SBBH126, Green Acre] Green Acre summer school
    1929 End of Aug Martha Root arrives in Albania, the first Bahá’í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
    • She obtains an audience with King Zog I and is warmly received by him. [MR319]
    • For Martha Root’s own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
    Albania Martha Root; King Zog I first Bahá’í to visit Albania
    1929 Sep Shoghi Effendi sails from England to Cape Town and proceeds overland to Cairo. [PP180–1, SETPE1p163]
    • He travelled through East Africa passing through Rhodesia where he visited the grave of Cecil Rhodes and further north in Rhodesia to see the Victoria Falls.
    • He rode as a passenger through part of East Africa with an English hunter and travelled on a train for some five hundred miles.
    • He crossed the Nile River through a papyrus swamp on a ferry.
    • He was back in Haifa by October. [SETPE1p163]
    England; Cape Town; Cairo Shoghi Effendi
    1929 9 Sep The British Bahá’ís open their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] London Bahá’í centre
    1929 14 Sep The Green Acre Trustees are appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Green Acre Trustee
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
    • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Montfort Mills
    1929 27 Nov The Mansion at Bahjí is evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
    • During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
    • For details of how the building is left see GBP356.
    • For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
    • Covenant-breakers continue to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
    • See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
    Bahjí; Mansion at Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
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