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Bahá'í Chronology: years 193-

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193-

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1930 In the early 1930's In Iran " [i]n the early years of the 1930s Bahá'í women joined the movement of discarding the veil and gradually abandoned the traditional veiling practice. This development opened new fields of service for women and made possible their fuller participation in the social and administrative activities of the communities." [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Women's rights; Z****
1930 (In the year) Leonora Holsapple Armstrong visits Gibraltar, the first Bahá’í to do so. Gibraltar Leonora Holsapple Armstrong first Bahá’í to visit Gibraltar
1930 2 Jan Martha Roots met with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad to discuss the issue of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. The King said that a committee had been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Martha Root; King Faisal
1930 Mar The intended pilgrimage of Queen Marie of Romania to the Bahá’í Shrines was thwarted. [GBF49; GPBXVIII; PP114]
  • For details of this episode see GBF49–50 and PP113–16.
  • In addition to visiting the Shrines Queen Marie had anticipated visiting her childhood friend, Lillian McNeill. She and her husband were resident in Mazra'ih at this time. [BW19p779-782]
  • BWC; Mazraih Queen Marie of Romania; Pilgrimage; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Lilian Barron McNeill
    1930 Apr A ceremony was held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
  • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple was ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
      The carpet, one of the most exquisite pieces ever woven in Persia, was made in Khurásán in about 1900-1905. It had been donated to by Díyá'ulláh Asgharzádih as a gift to Àbdu'l-Bahá Who immediately placed it in the Shrine of Bahjí. [BW4p208-210]
  • Wilmette; United States Conventions, National; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Gifts; Carpets
    1930 30 May The New History Society came into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly. Sohrab refused to allow the New York Spiritual Assembly, to have oversight of the affairs of the New History Society. The Assembly saw the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
  • BWC; New York; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker; Z****
    1930 Jul Shoghi Effendi completed his translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), the first of his major translations of the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [BBRSM63–4; GT60; PP214] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

    "Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

    "Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

    This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

    New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1930 20 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, (19 March, 1856, Saint-Célestin, Quebec, Canada) designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passed away in that city. He was buried in East Lawn Memorial Park Sacramento, Sacramento County, California, USA [DP145; Find a grave]
  • He had learned of the Faith in Boston through the efforts of Mary Hanford Ford. [Wikipedia]
  • For details of his life see DP76–86.
  • Saint-Celestin-de-Nicolet; Quebec; Wilmette; Boston; United States Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mary Hanford Ford first Bahá'í community in Boston.
    1930 7 Oct Ruth White wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she had sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requested she send that same evidence to him and he forwarded it to the Governor of Haifa who requested to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declared the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
    1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1930 17 Nov Ethel Rosenberg, (b.6 August, 1858, Bath) Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘England’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’, passed away in London. She was buried in Gap Road Cemetery, Wimbledon, England. [BW4:118–119, 262-263; ER274–5; Find a grave]
  • She became a Bahá’í around 1899 and went on her first pilgrimage in 1901.
  • While ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was in London, Ethel Rosenberg was His social secretary, arranging appointments for the Master.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá asked Ethel Rosenberg and a number of other people to form a committee to decide what to do about collecting funds and publishing Bahá’í books. Their first published book was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in London.
  • She made her third pilgrimage in November 1921, but arrived just after ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing. Shoghi Effendi sent her home with instructions to call for the election the first National Spiritual Assembly of England. She served on this body for a number of years. Shoghi Effendi named her an ‘Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’. [In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
  • For her obituary see BW4:262–3.
  • For her biography see Weinberg, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg and SEBW55–64.
  • London; United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1930 Dec The first Asian Women’s Conference was held in India. [BW17:180] India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences; Asia first Asian Women’s Conference
    1931 (In the year) The first Chinese translation of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era was published. [PH36]
  • The translation was made by Dr Tsao Yun-siang, President of the Xinhua University in Beijing. [PH36]
  • Beijing; China Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Esslemont; First translations; Translation; Publications first Chinese translation of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era
    1931 (In the year) The publication of the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude) as translated into English by Shoghi Effendi. [BEL1.77] Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Publications; Translation; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1931 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'ism: Its Origins, History and Teachings by Reverend William McElwee Miller, a Presbyterian missionary working in Mashhad, Iran. He wrote the "All impartial observers of Bahá'ism in Persia are agreed that here in the land of its birth this religion...is now steadily losing ground...It is only a matter of time until this strange movement...shall be known only to students of history." [MCSp766]
  • In 1923 he visited Shoghi Effendi in Haifa. [SETPE1p62]
  • See 1974 when he published the updated version of his polemic entitledThe Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings.
  • Mashhad; Iran Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller
    1931 13 Jan Consul Albert Schwarz, (b. December 14, 1871, Stuttgart, Germany), Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘Germany’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’ passed away. He was buried in Pragfriedhof – Stuttgart. [BW4:118–19, 264; Find a grave]
  • For his obituary see BW4:264–6.
  • See as well Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Consuls; Albert Schwarz; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1931 Mar Marion Jack painted a view from the Mansion at Bahjí. The painting was eventually hung in the Mansion. [CT174] Bahji Marion Jack; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
    1931 There were still only 30 Bahá’ís in Canada by this date. [BBRSM186] Canada Statistics
    1931 Apr Marion Jack arrived in Sofia, Bulgaria, to begin her pioneering service. Sofia; Bulgaria Marion Jack
    1931 28 Apr Mr Refo Capari (Chapary), the first Albanian Bahá’í, arrived in Tirana, Albania.
  • He became a Bahá’í in America some time before 1931.
  • Tirana; Albania First Bahais by country or area first Albanian Bahá’í
    1931 May A permanent summer school is established at Louhelen Ranch near Davison, Michigan. [BW10:181; GPB340] Davison; Michigan; United States Summer schools
    1931 May Lilian Barron McNeill, an English Bahá’í, and her husband, a retired British army officer, rented the house at Mazra‘ih. [DH92]
  • They restored the house, which had deteriorated, preserving those parts unchanged from the time of Bahá’u’lláh. [DH92–3, BW19P779-782]
  • Mazraih; Akka Lilian Barron McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1931 1 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq was elected for the first time. [BBRSM:121] Iraq NSA first NSA Iraq
    1931 1 May The superstructure of the Wilmette House of Worship was completed and dedicated. [BW10:180; DP:156–7; SBBH1:145] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1931 May The passing of Mrs Claudia Coles in London. (b. 1863 or 1866 in Charleston, South Carolina). She accepted the Faith in Washington DC and moved to London in 1920. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles many times and often served as secretary. [BW4264-265]
  • See tribute from Shoghi Effendi.
  • See Portraits of Some Bahá’í Women by O.Z. Whitehead, GR, Oxford, 1996 pages 29-48.
  • Washington,DC; London; United Kingdom Claudia Coles; In Memoriam
    1931 (Summer) The first German Bahá’í summer school was held, at Esslingen. [BBRSM182; BW5:44]<
  • UD98 and BW5p30 put this date as 1932.
  • Esslingen; Germany Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first German Bahá’í summer school
    1931 10 Jul The administration in Palestine wrote to Ruth White advising her that they would take no further action with respect to her claim that the will of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was a forgery.
  • "All Mrs White ever achieved was to stir up a temporary and insignificant cloud of dust". [PP119]
  • Mrs White wrote letters to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada as well as to some believers objecting to the directives of Shoghi Effendi and to the administration of the Cause through local and national assemblies. One of her converts was Dr Wilhelm Herrigel, one of the founding members of the German community. Later, Dr Herrigel became conscious of the mistake he had made. [SETPE1p158]
  • Likewise, Ruth White's husband was repentant, was offered a path back into the Faith but failed to take it. [SETPE1p158] iiiii
  • Ruth White; Covenant-breakers
    1931 27 Jul Swiss Bahá’í Auguste Forel, world-renowned psychiatrist, entomologist, anatomist, social reformer and peace worker, passed away. [FGM2]
  • "The famous scientist and entomologist, Dr. Auguste Forel, was converted to the Faith through the influence of a Tablet sent him by 'Abdu'l-Bahá-one of the mostweighty the Master ever wrote." [GPB307-308, 375]
  • See AB448-449.
  • For the The Bahá’í World, Vol. XV, pp. 37–43.
  • See The Life and Times of August Forel by Sheila Banani published in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6, pages 1-20 Wilmette, IL: Irfan Colloquia, 2005
  • See as well Auguste Forel; His Life and Enlightenment by A. M. Ghadirian, M.D.
  • Switzerland Auguste Forel; In Memoriam
    1931 Nov The New York Bahá’í community drafted the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
  • These by-laws became the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
  • New York; United States By-laws
    1932 (In the year) The Iranian government introduced measures against the Bahá’ís throughout Iran. Restrictions were placed on the import of Bahá’í books and periodicals by post and on the publication of Bahá’í literature. Bahá’í marriages were not recognized. [BW18:388] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi’s translation of Nabíl’s Narrative entitled The Dawn-Breakers was published. Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, as Nabíl's word was entitled, was the most authentic and the main primary source on the early history of the Bábí movement in Iran, was regarded by the Bahá'ís as the definitive account of the Bāb’s dispensation. The work has been translated into many languages, and it has played a major role in familiarizing the Bahá'ís around the world with the historical background of their faith and helping them understand its link to the socio-religious climate of the Persian society in the early days of its development. The original Persian manuscript of Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, has been preserved at the International Bahá'í Archives in Haifa. It is comprised 1,014 pages of 22-24 lines.[“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, GBF91; PP215]
  • Shoghi Effendi's translation covered only the first part of Nabil's manuscript, up to 1852, and it may have been an abridgement. The original covered up until the time of the book's completion in 1890. [RR425]
  • The work took him two years of research. [PP217]
  • He sent Effie Baker to Iran to take photographs for the book. [PP217]
  • For George Townshend’s assistance to the project see GT59, 60, 64–9.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s purpose in translating and editing the book see WOB123.
  • See also BBD64; GBF913 PP215–18.
  • In the "Acknowledgement" Shoghi Effendi credited Lady Blomfield for her suggestions, "an English correspondent for his help in the preparation of the Introduction, Mrs E Hoagg for typing the manuscript and Effie Baker for the photographs. [DB page lxi]
  • See RR422-440 for other historical accounts that might be used as source documents for the Bábí-Bahá'í history.
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book); Effie Baker; George Townshend; Publications; Translation; Lady Blomfield
    1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporated, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago; United States LSA; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other First LSA in the world to incorporate.
    1932 27 Feb Race Amity gatherings became an effective way promote the principle of racial equality. At one such gathering held in Los Angeles, the circle of racial amity activities was widened to include not only white and coloured but also Native Americans, as well as Chinese and Japanese. At the banquet dinner, Chief Standing Bear, who attended in full regalia with a number of his tribesmen, offered a prayer and spoke of peace as a covenant among all races. A Native American tribal dance followed as part of the programme. [Louis Gregory, ‘Racial Amity in America: An Historical Review’, in BW7p652-666.] Los Angeles; California; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Native Americans; Chinese diaspora; Japanese diaspora
    1932 21 Mar The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo, consisting of journalists and other professional people, was formed.
  • Owing to the situation in Japan, it was disbanded two years later. [In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
  • Tokyo LSA; Z**** first LSA Tokyo find reference
    1932 Apr Pilgrims were able to stay overnight at Bahjí for the first time. [GBF101; PP232] Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Pilgrims first time pilgrims stay overnight at Bahjí
    1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresseed a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passed away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marked the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She was comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347]
  • Shoghi Effendi was in Switzerland and immediately went to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3; by Bahá’u’lláh; by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá; and for tributes by Shoghi Effendi as well as by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum.
  • See BW19 pg39-74 The Greatest Holy Leaf, The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Passing of Bahiyyih Khanum.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum and Gail, Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler met the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presented the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and received assurances from him that this would be affected. [BW5:392]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
  • Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 3 Oct The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or "Mandatory Iraq" came to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Muslims and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland while there for a medical examination at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances. [Wikipedia]
  • Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
  • Baghdad; Iraq King Faisal; History (General); Mandatory Iraq; British Mandate
    1932 Nov A number of Bahá’ís were arrested in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1932 3 Nov-6 Dec Meeting of the 22nd Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva at which the Bahá’ís pleaded their case for the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW5:351–4] Geneva; Baghdad; Iraq League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1932 23 Nov George Adam Benke passed away in Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • Shoghi Effendi called him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
  • For his obituary see BW5:416–418.
  • Photo 1 of his gravesite in Sofia.
  • Photo 2 of his headstone.
  • Sofia; Bulgaria George Adam Benke; Names and titles; Martyrs; Firsts, Other first European martyr
    1932 2 Dec By this time there were 15 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1933 (In the year) Bahá’ís in Gulpáygán, Iran, were refused admission to the public baths. Shaykh Ja‘far Hidáyat was beaten and expelled from the town. [BW18:388] Gulpaygan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1933 (In the year) The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, was closed. [BW18:388] Qazvin; Iran Bahai schools; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1933 (In the year) On the initiative of Martha Root, Mr. György Steiner, an Esperantist in the city of Győr translated J.E. Esslemont’s Bahá’u’lláh and The New Era into Hungarian between 1931-33. This was the first major work published in Hungarian about the Bahá’í Faith. The Preface of the book was written by Mr. Rusztem Vámbéry, son of Arminius Vámbéry. [www.bahai.hu] [BW5p377, 609] Hungary Gyorgy Steiner; Esperanto; Rusztem Vambery; Arminius Vambery; Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Esslemont; First translations; Translation; Publications First Bahá'í publication in Hungarian
    1933 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma incorporated in Lahore, in the state of Punjab under the provisions of the Societies Registration Act of 1960. [GPB336] India; Lahore; Punjab; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Recognition
    1933 6 Feb By this date there were about 50 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR475; PP317] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1933 End Mar The 50 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Adana were released. [BBR475] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler died of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
  • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
  • She was buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
  • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
  • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
  • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
  • See also PP306–7.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
  • Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other first American martyr
    1933 23 Oct-4 Nov The 24th session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations was held in Geneva at which the case of the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was again raised. [BW5:354–5] Geneva; Baghdad; Iraq League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1933 25 Nov The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa was formed. [BW6:70]
  • The community was established by Sabri Elias, a pioneer from Egypt who thus earned the title Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW6:70]
  • Ethiopia was the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
  • Wikipedia says that the Assembly was formed in "late 1934".
  • Addis Ababa; Ethiopia First Local Spiritual Assemblies; Sabri Elias; Knights of Bahaullah' LSA first LSA Addis Ababa
    1934 (In the year) The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Sofia, Bulgaria, was elected. Sofia; Bulgaria LSA; Bulgaria first LSA Sofia, Bulgaria
    1934 (In the year) The first National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan was elected. Sudan NSA find reference
    1934 (In the year) The first National Spiritual Assembly of Iran was elected. [BBRSM:121; BW6:268]
  • For a picture see BW6:268.
  • Iran NSA first NSA Iran
    1934 (In the year) The government of Iran took several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
  • Bahá’í meetings were forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
  • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán were closed by the authorities.
  • Some Bahá’í government employees were dismissed.
  • Some Bahá’í military personnel were stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
  • Bahá’ís in many places were harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
  • Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Abadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1934 (In the year) The Declaration of Trust was legalized in Egypt as a result of the work of Montfort Mills and 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad. This greatly facilitated future transactions with the Government. [BW9p598] Egypt Montfort Mills; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws
    1934 (In the year) In Egypt, a certain learned Shaykh el Kharashi attacked the Faith in a series of articles under the heading, "The Bahá'í Faith Is a Pleasing Illusion". 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad refuted his arguments with a series of fourteen articles under the heading "The Bahá'í Faith Is an Everlasting Truth". Having failed to counter 'Abdu'l-Jalíl's arguments the Shaykh and his associates appealed to the authorities to stop his articles on the grounds that they were anti-Muhammadan. The matter was raised to the Minister and then to Parliament where both parties were asked to stop publication. 'Abdu'l-Jalíl was transferred to a remote part of the country where, it was hoped that he would not be able to resume his activities. [BW9p598] Egypt Criticism and apologetics; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad
    1934 23 Jan Shoghi Effendi gave Queen Marie of Romania the gift of a Tablet in the handwriting of Bahá’u’lláh. [GBF50; PP116] Romania Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Queen Marie of Romania; Gifts; Manuscripts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons died after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96]
  • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
  • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
  • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
  • Washington DC; United States Agnes Parsons; Race (general); Unity; In Memoriam
    1934 26 Apr The first national convention of the Bahá'ís of Iran was held in Tehran over a period of eight days. The social and religious affairs of the national community prior to this time had been directed by the former Central Assembly of Tehran. Following the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly, the by-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States were translated into Persian and adopted with modifications. Also national committees were appointed to help the National Spiritual Assembly with specific tasks. [BW6p22-23, 94; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Tehran; Iran bylaws; National Convention; Central Assembly of Tehran; Z**** first National Convention in Iran
    1934 10 May Bahá’í properties on Mount Carmel were granted tax exemption. [GBF122; PP269]
  • Shoghi Effendi stated that this was tantamount to securing indirect recognition of the Faith. [GBF122; PP269]
  • BWC Tax exempt
    1934 15–18 May The first National Convention of the Bahá’ís of Australia and New Zealand was held in Sydney, with nine delegates in attendance. [SBR165]
  • The first National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand was elected with its seat in Sydney. [SBR165]
  • Sydney; Australia; New Zealand Conventions, National; NSA; First conventions first National Convention Australia and New Zealand; first NSA Australia and New Zealand
    1934 28 Aug Mishkín-Qalam’s calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name was registered as a trademark with the United States patent office. [BW6:350] United States Mishkin-Qalam; Greatest Name; United States patent office; Copyright and trademarks
    1934 23 Oct Dr Susan Moody passed away in Iran. [BFA2:361]
  • For her services in Iran and an obituary see BW6:483–6.
  • She was buried near the graves of Lillian Kappes and Sarah Clock in the Tihrán Bahá’í cemetery. [BW6:486]
  • Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Sarah Clock; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1934 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan incorporated. [GPB336]
  • This is the first national assembly in an Islamic country to secure civil recognition and the status of an independent religion. [BW6:24]
  • Egypt; Sudan NSA first NSA in Islamic country to secure civil recognition and the status of an independent religion
    1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country were closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they failed to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
  • Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat school; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Azali Babis
    1935 (In the year) Husayn Uskuli, a Bahá’í resident in Shanghai, traveled to Taiwan, the first Bahá’í known to visit the island. [PH28; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3] Taiwan Husayn Uskuli; First visitors first Bahá’í known to visit Taiwan
    1935 (In the year) The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continued. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán were banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák was arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín were arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán was arrested.
  • Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA
    1935 (In the year) The passing of Fádil-i-Shírárí (Shaykh Muhammad Ibráhim) (b.1863) in Tehran. [ARG109, M9YA418, 433]
  • A biography of this learned servant of Bahá'u'lláh has been written by his grand-daughter, Houri Faláhi-Skuce entitled A Radiant Gem.
  • Tihran; Iran Fadil-i-Shirazi (Shaykh Muhammad Ibrahim); In Memoriam; Houri Falahi-Skuce
    1935 (In the year) The publication of Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [Gleanings; BEL1.37]
  • Described by Shoghi Effendi as being, "a selection of the most characteristic and hitherto unpublished passages from the outstanding works of the Author of the Bahá'í Revelation," [GBF93]
  • Also see Introduction Bahá'í Books.
  • BWC Gleanings from the Writings of Bahaullah; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1935 Mar World Order magazine was founded. [SBR236; BWNS1289]
  • The publication included essays, poems, personal recollections, and historical pieces. The periodical brought together into one volume works by scholars, poets, artists, and practitioners from various fields of endeavour. The first volume also included excerpts from a letter by Shoghi Effendi titled "The Goal of a New World Order."
  • There was a break in publication from 1949 to 1966. [Bahá'í Works]
  • PDFs of most volumes are available for downloading from the Bahá'í Works website.
  • United States World Order magazine; - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS first publication World Order magazine
    1935 Jul Shoghi Effendi asked the Bahá’ís to withdraw from church membership. [BBRSM146, 221; BW6:198; SBBH1:201] Church membership; Membership; Membership of other organizations
    1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory Prayer
    1936 (In the Year) The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolos. Paris A L M Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Z****
    1936 (In the year) Mr E. R. and Mrs Loulie Mathews arrived in Guatemala, the first Bahá’í teachers to visit the country. Guatemala E. R. Mathews; Loulie Mathews; Travel teaching; First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í teachers to visit Guatemala
    1936 (In the year) The first woman was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Shirin Fozdar. India Shirin Fozdar; Women; NSA; Firsts, Other first woman elected to NSA India
    1936 (In the year) The National Assembly of Australia and New Zealand first issued its news organ, the Bahá’í Quarterly. Australia; New Zealand NSA first publication Bahá’í Quarterly
    1936 (In the year) The Seven Valleys was published in revised translation by Ali Kuli Khan by the US Bahá'í Publishing Committee. A later revision by Khan and Marzieh Gail was published in 1945. [BEL1.113; About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; BEL1.114]
  • In 1968 the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust bundled it with another allegorical treaties that was revealed in the late Baghdad period, under the title The Seven Valleys And the Four Valleys. It had several reprints until 1984. [BEL1.114, 1.115, 1.116, 1.117]
  • These two works were part of the publication Call of the Divine Beloved published in 2019. .
  • United States The Seven Valleys And the Four Valleys; Ali Kuli Khan; Marzieh Gail; Call of the Divine Beloved; Z****
    1936 Feb Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania
    1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued. [BW18:389]
  • All Bahá’í meetings were banned throughout Iran.
  • Several local Bahá’í centres were attacked or closed down.
  • Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
  • Iran; Bandar Shah Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Holy days
    1936 summer Britain held its first Bahá’í summer school. [GT137; UD109] United Kingdom First summer and winter schools; Summer schools first British Bahá’í summer school
    1936 Jul Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Bahá'í Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
  • In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly had not appointed a Race Amity Committee that year. Its view was that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies were requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
  • United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; NSA
    1936 1 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed the first Inter-America Committee, beginning an organized and coordinated effort to establish the Faith in the Republics of Central and South America. [BW10:181] America NSA first Inter-America Committee
    1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths was held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
  • Shoghi Effendi was asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegated to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
  • George Townshend read the paper Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship, which had been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
  • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
  • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
  • London; United Kingdom World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1936 (Latter half of the year) Mrs Randolph Bolles and her daughter Jeanne, two American Bahá'ís, (aunt and cousin of Mary Maxwell respectively), were sent to Budapest by Shoghi Effendi to open Hungary to the Faith. At the time of their departure there were seven Bahá'ís in Budapest, mostly of Jewish background. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p103-5] Budapest; Hungary First travel teachers and pioneers
    1936 Nov Renée Szanto-Felbermann became a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Hungary. She was considered the first person to accept the Faith by some notwithstanding the events of 1913. [BW19:633]
  • See also Renée Szanto-Felbermann, Rebirth: The Memoirs of Szanto-Felbermann p104.
  • This document prepared by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'í Community of Hungary says that Mr. Arminius Vámbéry is the first believer in Hungary. See www.bahai.hu
  • See BW5p329 for the testament written by Professor Vámbéry and published in the Egyptian Gazette September 24th, 1913.
  • Hungary; Budapest First Bahais by country or area; Arminius Vambéry first to accept Bahá'í Faith in Hungary
    1936 31 Dec Khusraw Bimán (Thábit) passed away in Bombay at the age of 103 or 104. [Imm:56]
  • He is the first Zoroastrian to accept the Faith in India. [Imm:44–6]
  • For the story of his life see Imm:39–60.
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Khusraw Biman; In Memoriam; First believers by background; Zoroastrianism; Conversion first Zoroastrian to accept the Faith in India
    1937 (In the year) The British Bahá’í Publishing Trust was founded. [BBRSM184; BW9:32; GT138–42] United Kingdom Publishing Trusts
    1937 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments were dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz were arrested.
  • Bahá’ís who closed their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh were arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns were prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families were attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They were severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
  • Iran; Ahvaz; Bandar Shah; Kirmanshah; Birjand; Arak; Cham-tang Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA; Holy days
    1937 (In the year) Mrs Mabel Ives made an extended trip to Moncton, New Brunswick to teach the Faith. She was assisted by Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert. [TG102, 108] Moncton; New Brunswick; Canada Travel teaching
    1937 25 Mar Shoghi Effendi married Mary Maxwell, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [PP151; UD115]
  • For a description of the simple wedding see GBF68–9 and PP151–2.
  • Shoghi Effendi stressed that the marriage drew the Occident and the Orient closer together. [GBF69–70; PP153]
  • The American Bahá’í community sent $19 from each of its 71 Assemblies as a wedding gift. [GBF70; PP153]
  • An extension was built onto Shoghi Effendi’s apartment on the roof of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s house in Haifa to accommodate the couple. [BBD107; DH152]
  • See also MA89.
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Interracial marriage; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1921 - 1937 In the period from the inception of the Guardianship to 1937 Shoghi Effendi laid the foundation of the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh in conformity with the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some of the major accomplishments were:
  • Continued the translation work that began while he was still an assistant to 'Abdu'l-Bahá and later as a student at Oxford.
  • Explained the principles and structure of the Administrative Order.
  • Developed the constitutional structure of the local and national spiritual assemblies.
  • Clarified the relationships of these assemblies with the community of believers and elucidate the manner of their election and operation.
  • Emphasized that the Administrative Order was the channel through which the spirit of God would flow and instructed that they be ever watchful lest "the means supersede the end". [Pg209]
  • Imparted the vision of the new world order through his letter which have become to be know as "The World Order Letters". [PG209-215]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; World Order of Bahaullah (book); Administrative Order
    1937 Ridván The First Seven Year Plan was launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9]
  • For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
  • The Plan called for:
    • the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
    • the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
    • the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
  • United States; Canada Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1937-1946); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1937 May Fred Schopflocher contributed and additional $100,000 (see 16 March, 1929) to the goal of $350,000 to complete the exterior ornamentation of the House of Worship. For his dedication to the construction the Guardian designated him as "Chief Temple Builder". [LoF 388-390, BW12p664] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher
    1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís were arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
  • They were imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one died in prison. [BW18:389]
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1937 2 May The Yerrinbool Bahá’í School (originally known as ‘Bolton Place’) was officially opened in Australia. Yerrinbool; Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School; Bahai schools
    1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
    1937 Jul Nine Bahá’ís were imprisoned in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. [BW18:389]
  • They were imprisoned for two months. [BW18:389]
  • Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
    1937 Dec The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant] BWC; Iran Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
    1937 20 Dec Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, died. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
          This perfidious man, consumed by a “soul festering jealousy” toward Abdu’l-Baha, behaved in a way that “…agitated the minds and hearts of a vast proportion of the faithful throughout the East, eclipsed, for a time, the Orb of the Covenant, created an irreparable breach within the ranks of Bahá’u’lláh’s own kindred, sealed ultimately the fate of the great majority of the members of His family, and gravely damaged the prestige, though it never succeeded in causing a permanent cleavage in the structure, of the Faith itself.” [GPB246]
          He had changed the text of at least one tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to make it appear that Bahá'u'lláh was condemning the wicked deeds of Abdu’l-Baha. He plotted to murder Abdu’l-Baha. He made repeated false allegations about Abdu’l-Baha to the Ottoman authorities so that the Master came perilously closed to being exiled to a remote part of the Libyan desert. In addition, from 1892 to 1929, Muhammad Ali and his relatives occupied the mansion of Bahji, where Bahá'u'lláh’s tomb was located, and it was not until 1952 that the property surrounding the Shrine was finally owned, without hindrance, by the Bahá'í community. [CoB153; PP231-233]
          He “was stricken with paralysis which crippled half his body; lay bedridden in pain for months before he died; and was buried according to Muslim rites, in the immediate vicinity of a local Muslim shrine, his grave remaining until the present day (1944) devoid of even a tombstone—a pitiful reminder of the hollowness of the claims he had advanced, of the depths of infamy to which he had sunk, and of the severity of the retribution his acts had so richly merited.” [GPB319-320]
  • For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
  • Akka Muhammad-Ali; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
  • Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University at Beirut; Varqa
    1938 (In the year) Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony were investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most were imprisoned pending trial and were imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
  • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns were harassed by the police.
  • Iran; Tihran; Kirmanshah; Zahidan; Mashhad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1938 (In the year) William DeForge became the first Bahá’í to visit the Dominican Republic. He made a one-day trip from Puerto Rico. Dominican Republic; Central America First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í visits the Dominican Republic find reference
    1938 (In the year) The first native person to become a Bahá’í in Canada, Melba Loft (née Whetung), a Chippewa, accepted the Faith. Canada Melba Loft first native to become Bahá’í in Canada find reference
    1938 (In the year) The first Bahá’í to be resident in Finland, Aminda Josephine Kruka, an American nurse, arrived in the country. Finland First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í resident Finland find reference
    1938 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi remained in Europe for the year owing to terrorist activities in Palestine. [PP219] Europe; Palestine Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; History (general)
    1938 (In the year) The publication of Prayers and Meditations of Bahá'u'lláh. [P&M; BEL1.100]
  • It contained 186 pieces.
  • BWC Prayers and Meditations of Bahaullah (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Prayer; Meditation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1938 - 1939 Shoghi Effendi disbanded the Haifa Spiritual Assembly which had been in operation since at least 1922, and sent the local community away. [PP348]
  • The disbanding of the spiritual assembly apparently did not mean the end to the publication of the "Haifa News Letter" in which news from the World Centre had been forwarded to all the Bahá'í centres in the East in Persian with an English translation of the publication distributed in the West. The last known mention of the Haifa News Letter was in Bahá'í News Dec. 1945 p780. [PP50, 282,348]
  • Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Spiritual Assemblies; Haifa News Letter; Newsletters; Haifa Bahai Assembly
    1938 (In the year) The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, a compilation of the communications to the North American Bahá'í community between 1929 and 1936. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv; BEL5.145]
  • It is available online at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • World Order of Bahaullah (book); Dispensation of Bahaullah (letter); World order (general); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general)
    1938 (In the year) Felix Maddela became the first Filipino Bahá’í. His first encounter with the Bahá’í Faith was in 1924 when a purchase he made was wrapped in a piece of old newspaper which contained an article by Martha Root about the religion. As the author’s address did not appear in the article, it was another 14 years before he encountered more about the religion. In the early spring of 1937, Loulie Albee Mathews arrived in Manila on board the “Franconia.” As the boat was to dock for only a few hours, she managed to place a few pamphlets in a college library on the shelf of comparative religions. A few months later, on a visit to Manila from Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, Mr. Maddela came across the literature. This started a series of correspondence with the Bahá’í Publishing Committee of the United States. With Madella so fired up, he immediately taught his family and friends. Shortly before World War II, the Bahá’í’s of Solano numbered around fifty. When war broke out all communications ceased. Immediately after the war, contact was re-established thru Alvin Blum, who was attached to the medical unit of the United States Army. Hitch-hiking to Solano, which was in ruins, he located the Maddelas living in impoverished conditions. Of the fifty enrolled Bahá’í’s, twenty-five had been killed or were missing. The others had survived by hiding in rice fields for three years. [WikipediaThe Bahá’í Faith in the Philippines] Manila; Solano; Philippines Felix Maddela; Loulie Albee Mathews; Alvin Blum; Z**** first Filipino Bahá’í
    1938 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand incorporate. [GPB336] Australia; New Zealand NSA of Australia; NSA of New Zealand; Incorporation; Recognition
    1938 Feb Felix Ricardo Maddela, a school teacher and draftsman from Solano, Philippines, and the first Filipino Bahá’í, accepted the Faith in Manila. Manila Felix Ricardo Maddela first Filipino Bahá’í find reference
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
  • Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
    1938 15 Mar Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper (Maryam Khánum), the first Bahá’í of the British Isles, passed away in Kensington, London.
  • She was known to her friends as Minnie and first heard of the Bahá’í Faith in 1898 when she was 41.
  • She was an American living in London and had been married to an Englishman.
  • Shortly after reading about the Báb in an encyclopedia, by coincidence, she was invited by her friend Phoebe Hearst to be part of the first group of Western Bahá’í pilgrims to visit ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in the Holy Land.
  • She is considered to be the first person to become a Bahá’í in the UK and throughout her life was a very active member of the community.
  • She was a member of the first elected National Spiritual Assembly of England (later Great Britain).
  • She made her motor-car available to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá during His visits. [SBR30, BW4p375, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
  • For details of her life see BSR17–30.
  • For her obituary see BW8:649–51.
  • Notes: It is possibly she, rather than her mother, Mrs Thornburgh, who is referred to as a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in BW3:84–5. The picture is not that of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper.
  • London; United Kingdom Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam first Bahá’í of British Isles
    1938 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in the whole of Latin America was formed in Mexico City. Mexico City LSA first LSA in Latin America find ref
    1938 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of India, (Pakistan) and Burma launched a Six Year Plan (1838-1944). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158]
  • Lack of funds prevent the plan from being implemented until 1940. [SBBH2:160]
  • India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
  • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
  • Shoghi Effendi interred her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erected a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
  • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
  • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Munirih Khanum; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1938 1 May At the National Convention in Chicago, Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville Ky and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapsed into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She was removed from the convention hall and passed away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 and FMH273-274 for the background to this story.
  • Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church her life's work was that of a teacher.
  • During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
  • On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
  • Chicago; United States Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam
    1938 Jul The first Finnish Bahá’í, Pastor Väinö Rissanen, accepted the Faith. [BW8:935; BW17:129]
  • For a letter from him about Finland see BW8:936.
  • Finland First Bahais by country or area first Finnish Bahá’í
    1938 25 Jul The passing of Queen Marie of Romania. [BBD144; GPB395]
  • For her services to the Bahá’í Faith see GPB389–96.
  • For tributes paid by her to the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:269–71.
  • For her relationship with the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:271–6.
  • For tributes to her see BW8276–82.
  • Romania Queen Marie of Romania; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1938 Sep The first Bahá’í summer school to be held in India took place in Simla. [BBRSM194; BW8:199] Shimla; Himachal Pradesh; India Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í summer school held in India
    1938 27 Nov In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles, Shoghi Effendi outlined the attitudes and obligations of Bahá’ís regarding military service. [BW17:384–5; UD122–3, 128–9, 134] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Armed forces; Military; Weapons
    1938 25 Dec Shoghi Effendi addressed The Advent of Divine Justice, a book-length letter, to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. [ADJ; PG215] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Advent of Divine Justice (letter); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1939 (In the year) The first Bahá’í of Paraguay, Maria Casati, of Formosa, Paraguay, became a Bahá’í in Buenos Aires. Argentina Maria Casati first Bahá’í of Paraguay
    1939 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi ordered twin monuments from Italy similar in style to that of the Greatest Holy Leaf and sought permission from the British authorities to reintere the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel near those of Bahíyyih Khánum and the Holy Mother. [DH162; PP259] BWC; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Monument Gardens; World Centre; Marble; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 (In the year) Emeric Sala gave a talk in Regina proclaiming the Faith for the first time in Saskatchewan. Regina is one of five cities he visited on this business trip. [TG104] Regina; Saskatchewan Emeric Sala first public mention of the Faith in Saskatchewan
    1939 7 Feb In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of India the Guardian encouraged the concept of expansion by settlement to which he applied the name "pioneering". [MSEIp179] BWC Pioneering first known use of the term "pioneering" in official correspondence.
    1939 21 Feb Situation in Egypt: Background Information

    "riots which broke out with exceptional fury in Ismá'ílíyyih, when angry crowds surrounded the funeral cortege of Muhammad Sulaymán, a prominent Bahá'í resident of that town, creating such an uproar that the police had to intervene, and having rescued the body and brought it back to the home of the deceased, they were forced to carry it without escort, at night, to the edge of the desert and inter it in the wilderness." [GPB367-368]

  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt had, in respect to the decision of the 10th of May, 1925 declaring the Báhá'í Faith to be non-Muslim, petitioned the government for the right to administer laws of personal status to the Bahá'í community according to its Bahá'í Laws affecting Matters of Personal Status.
  • On the 29th of February, 1939, the Grand Muftí ruled that the Bahá'ís were not to be considered Muslims and had no right to be buried in Muslim cemeteries. Four plots of land were allocated to serve as cemeteries for the Bahá'í community in Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said and in Ismá'ílíyyih.
  • Immediately following this decision the remains of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl were transferred followed by the exhumation from a Christian cemetery in Cairo the remains of Lua Getsinger and subsequent re-interment in an adjacent plot. [GPB368-369]
  • Cairo; Alexandria; Port Said; Isma'iliyyih; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani first Bahá'í cemetery
    1939 28 Feb The passing of Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas, signing A.-L.-M. Nicolas, (b. March 27 , 1864 in Rasht, Iran) in Paris. He was an historian and French orientalist, official interpreter of the Legation French abroad, and France's consul general in Tabriz.
          After reading Gobineau's Trois ans en Asie, 1855-1858 he checked all the information Gobineau had written in his book, corrected some of it, and then began to translate the writings of the Báb. Seduced by this young doctrine, he converted to Bábism and thus became the first Western Bábí. He wrote various works Seyyed Ali Mohamed dit le Báb (1905) and was the first to translate a work of the Báb into French: the Arabic Beyan and the Persian Beyan, an Essai sur le Chéikhisme (1911) and several articles in newspapers such that Review of the Muslim World. Nicolas became knight of the Legion of Honour in 1909.
  • Moojan Momen says of him, "No European scholar has contributed so much to our knowledge of the life and teachings of the Báb as Nicholas. His study of the life of the Báb and his translations of several of the most important books of the Báb remain of unsurpassed value." [BBR36]
  • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
  • Rasht; Iran; Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Translation; First believers the first Western Bábí; the first to translate a work of the Báb into French
    1939 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles incorporated after a long and difficult struggle. [BW8:161–2; UD127] United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest was elected. There were about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This caused difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that followed. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

          According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • See www.bahai.hu for a list of community members.
  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spent a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations took place and the first spiritual assembly was formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visited Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visited Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Budapest; Hungary First Local Spiritual Assemblies; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews First Spiritual Assembly in Budapest
    1939 8 May Philip and Laili June Marangella arrived in Cuba, the first Bahá’í pioneers to the country. Cuba First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneers to Cuba
    1939 18 May Mathew Kaszab arrived in Panama and immediately launched a vigorous proclamation campaign through the press, radio and public talks. By October the first permanent pioneers, Louise Caswell and Cora Oliver, arrived along with John Eichenaur (enroute to El Salvador). [Historical Background of the Panama Temple by Ruth Pringle] Panama Mathew Kaszab; Louise Caswell; Cora Oliver; John Eichenauer first pioneers in Panama
    1939 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles incorporated as an unlimited non-profit company under the Companies Act of 1929. GPB336 United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 27 Aug The first Bahá’í resident in Guatemala, Gerrard Sluter-Schlutius, arrived in the country from Toronto. [OBCC228] Guatemala First Bahais by country or area first resident in Guatemala
    1939 3 Sep World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1939 18 Sep John and Rosa Shaw arrived in Kingston, Jamaica, from San Francisco, the first Bahá’ís to visit the country. Kingston; Jamaica First travel teachers and pioneers first to visit Jamaica
    1939 22 Sep The State of Illinois issued the first Bahá’í marriage licence, authorizing the Spiritual Assembly of Chicago to solemnize Bahá’í marriages and issue Bahá’í marriage certificates. [GPB373] Illinois; United States Marriage; Weddings; Recognition; Firsts, Other first Bahá’í marriage licence
    1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
  • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3.
  • Directions to her gravesite.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9.
  • Shoghi Effendi called her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
  • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
  • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
  • She was buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
  • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
  • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954. [MoCxxii]
  • Honolulu; Hawaii Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1939 Oct Antonio Roca, the first Bahá’í in Honduras, entered the country. Honduras First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Honduras
    1939 1 Oct The national Bahá’í office of the United States was established at 536 Sheridan Road, Wilmette, Illinois. [BW10:181]
  • Horace Holley, the full-time secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, transfered his office from New York to the Hazíratu’l-Quds in Wilmette. [SBR238]
  • Wilmette; United States Horace Holley; Haziratul-Quds
    1939 25 Oct John Eichenauer, the first pioneer to El Salvador, arrived in San Salvador from Phoenix, Arizona.
  • He was just 17 years old, the youngest pioneer sent out in the First Seven Year Plan.
  • San Salvador; El Salvador John Eichenauer first pioneer to El Salvador
    1939 Nov F. Ferrari became a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Honduras. Honduras First Bahais by country or area first to accept Faith in Honduras
    1939 1 Nov Mathew Kaszab, arrived in Nicaragua, the first Bahá’í pioneer to that country.
  • In March 1942 he was arrested and imprisoned for 23 days; he was again arrested in September 1942; he was sent back to the United States very ill, where he died in January 1943 from the effects of his imprisonment. [BW9:614–16]
  • Nicaragua Mathew Kaszab first pioneer to Nicaragua
    1939 2 Nov The first people to become Bahá’ís in El Salvador, Luis O. Pérez, Emilio Bermudez and José Manuel Vela, accepted the Faith in San Salvador. San Salvador; El Salvador First Bahais by country or area first to become Bahá’ís in El Salvador
    1939 4 Nov The first Nineteen Day Feast was held in San Salvador with four Bahá’ís in attendance. San Salvador; El Salvador Nineteen Day Feast first Nineteen Day Feast in San Salvador
    1939 (Late in the year) Sr. Perfecto Perez Toledo, the first Cuban Bahá’í, accepted the Faith. Cuba First Bahais by country or area first Cuban Bahá’í
    1939 3 Dec Shoghi Effendi obtained permission from the British authorities in Palestine to reinter the bodies of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel. [DH162; PP260]
  • For the report of the Haifa District Commissioner see BBR460–1.
  • Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mount Carmel; Monument Gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 5 Dec Shoghi Effendi disintered the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; PP260]
  • He went to the 'Akká cemetery at daybreak to and removed the remains of Navváb to a new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He then went to the Nabí Sálib cemetery and transfered the remains of the Purest Branch to a second new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He transported them both to Mount Carmel, near the grave of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162; PP260]
  • Akka; Mount Carmel Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Cemeteries and graves; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1939 8 Dec Margaret Lentz, a German stenographer, arrived in the Dominican Republic from Geneva, the first Bahá’í to settle in that country. Dominican Republic Margaret Lentz first Bahá’í to settle in Dominican Republic
    1939 12 Dec The Bahá’ís of Caracas, Venezuela, held their first Nineteen Day Feast and afterwards elected a ‘Provisional Assembly’. Caracas; Venezuela Nineteen Day Feast; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Firsts, Other first Nineteen Day Feast in Caracas, Venezuela
    1939 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi reintered the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; GBF116; GPB347–8]
  • Two vaults were cut into the solid rock in the garden area near the monument of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s cable announcing this see DH162 and PP262.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s letters and cables concerning this see BW8:245–53, DH162 and PP261.
  • For a description of the reinterment see BW8:253–8.
  • For the prayer of visitation to the resting place of Navváb see BW8:251 and DH166.
  • Mount Carmel; BWC Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Tablets of Visitation; Monument Gardens; World Centre; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1939 31 Dec Lady Sara Louisa Blomfield, entitled Sitárih Khánum, (b. 1859)passed away in London. She was buried in Hampstead Cemetery, Borough of Camden, London. [BW8:651; SEBW109]
  • For details of her life see SEBW101–110, Daily Note from Bahá'í History and Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For her obituary see BW8:651–6.
  • Find a grave.
  • London; United Kingdom Lady Blomfield; In Memoriam
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