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Bahá'í Chronology: years 193-

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193-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1930 Leonora Holsapple Armstrong visits Gibraltar, the first Bahá’í to do so. Gibraltar Leonora Holsapple; Leonora Armstrong first Bahá’í to visit Gibraltar
1930 2 Jan Martha Roots meets with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad. The King says that a committee has been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Martha Root
1930 Mar The intended pilgrimage of Queen Marie of Romania to the Bahá’í Shrines is thwarted. [GBF49; GPBXVIII; PP114]
  • For details of this episode see GBF49–50 and PP113–16.
BWC Queen Marie; pilgrimage
1930 Apr A ceremony is held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
  • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple is ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
America annual convention; Baha'i Temple; Tomb of Baha’u’llah; gift; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1930 39 May With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
  • "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station ot Baha'u'lkih, To be a Baha'I is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to dcny the authority and sovereignty of Baha'u'lIah, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahi'u'llah. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric t,hat Baha'u'lhih has prescribed, it is to disobey His law."
  • The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
Haifa New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
1930 Jul Shoghi Effendi completes his translation of The Book of Certitude, the first of his major translations of the writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [BBRSM63–4; GT60; PP214] Shoghi Effendi; The Book of Certitude
1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

New York; NY Covenant-Breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; Mrs Chandler; New History Society
1930 19 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passes away in that city. He was born in Saint-Célestin-de-Nicolet, Quebec on March 19, 1856. [DP145]
  • For details of his life see DP76–86.
Wilmette Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; In Memoriam
1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; England; Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Dr Ainsworth Mitchell
1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; NY Covenant-Breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; Mrs Chanler; New History Society
1930 17 Nov Ethel Rosenberg, (b.6 August, 1858, Bath) Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘England’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’, passes away in London. [BW4:118–19; ER274–5]

She became a Bahá’í around 1899 and went on her first pilgrimage in 1901. While ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was in London, Ethel Rosenberg was His social secretary, arranging appointments for the Master. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá asked Ethel Rosenberg and a number of other people to form a committee to decide what to do about collecting funds and publishing Bahá’í books. Their first published book was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in London. She made her third pilgrimage in November 1921, but arrived just after ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing. Shoghi Effendi sent her home with instructions to call for the election the first National Spiritual Assembly of England. She served on this body for a number of years. Shoghi Effendi named her an ‘Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’. [In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]

London Ethel Rosenberg; Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Apostle of Abdu’l-Baha
1930 Dec The first Asian Women’s Conference is held in India. [BW17:180] India Asian Women’s Conference first Asian Women’s Conference
1931 The first Chinese translation of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era is published. [PH36]
  • The translation is made by Dr Tsao Yun-siang, President of the Xinhua University in Beijing. [PH36]
Beijing Dr Tsao Yun-siang; Baha’u’llah and the New Era first Chinese translation of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era
1931 The publication of Bahá'ism: Its Origins, History and Teachings by Reverend William McElwee Miller, a Presbyterian missionary working in Mashhad, Iran. He wrote the "All impartial observers of Bahá'ism in Persia are agreed that here in the land of its birth this religion...is now steadily losing ground...It is only a matter of time until this strange movement...shall be known only to students of history." [MCSp766]
  • In 1923 he visited Shoghi Effendi in Haifa. [SETPE1p62]
  • See entry in "1974"
Opposition from Christians
1931 The publication of The Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude) in English. [The Book of Certitude] The Kitab-i-Íqan; The Book of Certitude
1931 13 Jan Consul Albert Schwarz, Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘Germany’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’ passes away. [BW4:118–19, 264]
  • For his obituary see BW4:264–6.
Consul Albert Schwarz; Disciple of Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam
1931 Mar Marion Jack paints a view from the Mansion at Bahjí. The painting will eventually hang in the Mansion. [CT174] ‘Akká Marion Jack; Mansion at Bahji
1931 There are still only 30 Bahá’ís in Canada by this date. [BBRSM186] Canada statistics
1931 Apr Marion Jack arrives in Sofia, Bulgaria, to begin her pioneering service. Sofia; Bulgaria Marion Jack
1931 28 Apr Mr Refo Capari (Chapary), the first Albanian Bahá’í, arrives in Tirana, Albania.
  • He became a Bahá’í in America some time before 1931.
Tirana; Albania Refo Capari first Albanian Bahá’í
1931 May Lilian Barron McNeill, an English Bahá’í, and her husband, a retired British army officer, rent the house at Mazra‘ih. [DH92]
  • They restore the house, which has deteriorated, preserving those parts unchanged from the time of Bahá’u’lláh. [DH92–3]
Lilian Barron McNeill; Mazra‘ih
1931 May A permanent summer school is established at Louhelen Ranch near Davison, Michigan. [BW10:181; GPB340] Davison; Michigan summer school
1931 1 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq is elected for the first time. [BBRSM:121] Iraq NSA first NSA Iraq
1931 1 May The superstructure of the Wilmette House of Worship is completed and dedicated. [BW10:180; DP:156–7; SBBH1:145] Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1931 The first German Bahá’í summer school is held, at Esslingen. [BBRSM182; BW5:44]
  • UD98 and BW5p30 put this date as 1932.
Esslingen; Germany summer school first German Bahá’í summer school
1931 10 Jul The administration in Palestine writes to Ruth White advising her that they will take no further action with respect to her claim that the will of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery.
  • "All Mrs White ever achieved was to stir up a temporary and insignificant cloud of dust". [PP119]
  • Mrs White wrote letters to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada as well as to some believers objecting to the directives of Shoghi Effendi and to the administration of the Cause through local and national assemblies. One of her converts was Dr Wilhelm Herrigel, one of the founding members of the German community. Later, Dr Herrigel became conscious of the mistake he had made. [SETPE1p158]
  • Likewise, Ruth White's husband was repentant, was offered a path back into the Faith but failed to take it. [SETPE1p158]
Ruth White; Covenant-breaker
1931 27 Jul Swiss Bahá’í Auguste Forel, world-renowned psychiatrist, entomologist, anatomist, social reformer and peace worker, passes away. [FGM2] Switzerland Auguste Forel; In Memoriam
1931 Nov The New York Bahá’í community drafts the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
  • These become the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
New York by-laws of LSA
1932 The Iranian government introduces measures against the Bahá’ís throughout Iran. Restrictions are placed on the import of Bahá’í books and periodicals by post and on the publication of Bahá’í literature. Bahá’í marriages are not recognized. [BW18:388] Iran religious persecution
1932 Shoghi Effendi’s translation of Nabíl’s Narrative entitled The Dawn-Breakers is published. [GBF91; PP215]
  • The work took him two years of research. [PP217]
  • He sent Effie Baker to Iran to take photographs for the book. [PP217]
  • For George Townshend’s assistance to the project see GT59, 60, 64–9.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s purpose in translating and editing the book see WOB123.
  • See also BBD64; GBF913 PP215–18.
Shoghi Effendi; The Dawn-Breakers; Effie Baker; George Townshend
1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporates, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago LSA; incorporation First LSA in the world to incorporate.
1932 21 Mar The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo, consisting of journalists and other professional people, is formed.
  • Owing to the situation in Japan, it is disbanded two years later.
Tokyo LSA first LSA Tokyo find reference
1932 Apr Pilgrims are able to stay overnight at Bahjí for the first time. [GBF101; PP232] ‘Akká Mansion at Bahji first time pilgrims stay overnight at Bahjí
1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresses a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] America NSA; Petition to Sháh of Írán; Keith Ransom-Kehler
1932 15 Jul The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passes away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
  • Her passing marks the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
  • She is comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347]
  • Shoghi Effendi is in Switzerland and immediately goes to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
  • For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
  • For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
  • The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
  • See also Bahíyyih Khánum and Gail, Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
Haifa Greatest Holy Leaf; Bahiyyih Khanum; Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam
1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler meets the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presents the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and receives assurances from him that this will be effected. [BW5:392]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Petition to Shah of Íran
1932 3 Oct The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq comes to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Molsems and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances, while there for a medical examination. [Wikipedia]

  • Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
Baghdad; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi; King Faisal; The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration; Mandatory Iraq
1932 Nov A number of Bahá’ís are arrested in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1932 3 Nov-6 Dec Meeting of the 22nd Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva at which the Bahá’ís plead their case for the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW5:351–4] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1932 23 Nov George Adam Benke passes away in Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • Shoghi Effendi calls him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
  • For his obituary see BW5:416–18.
Sofia; Bulgaria George Adam Benke; martyr first European martyr
1932 2 Dec By now there are 15 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1933 Bahá’ís in Gulpáygán, Iran, are refused admission to the public baths. Shaykh Ja‘far Hidáyat is beaten and expelled from the town. [BW18:388] Gulpáygán; Iran Shaykh Ja‘far Hidayat; religious persecution
1933 The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, is closed. [BW18:388] Qazvín; Iran Tavakkul Baha’i School; religious persecution
1933 On initiative of Martha Root, Mr. György Steiner, an Esperantist in the city of Győr translates J.E. Esslemont’s Bahá’u’lláh and The New Era into Hungarian between 1931-33. This was the first major work published in Hungarian about the Bahá’í Faith. The Preface of the book was written by Mr. Rusztem Vámbéry, son of Arminius Vámbéry. [www.bahai.hu] [BW5p377] Budapest; Györ; Hungary Mr. György Steiner; Mr. Rusztem Vambéry; Arminius Vambéry First Bahá'í publication in Hungarian
1933 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma incorporate in Lahore, in the state of Punjab under the provisions of the Societies Registration Act of 1960. [GPB336] India; Lahore;
1933 6 Feb By this date there are about 50 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR475; PP317] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1933 End Mar The 50 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Adana are released. [BBR475] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
  • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
  • She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
  • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
  • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
  • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
  • See also PP306–7.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
Isfahán; Iran; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hand of the Cause; martyr; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi first American martyr
1933 23 Oct-4 Nov The 24th session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations is held in Geneva at which the case of the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is again raised. [BW5:354–5] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1933 25 Nov The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa is formed. [BW6:70]
  • The community is established by Sabri Elias, a pioneer from Egypt. [BW6:70]
  • Ethiopia is the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
Addis Ababa LSA; Sabri Elias first LSA Addis Ababa
1934 The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Sofia, Bulgaria, is elected. Sofia; Bulgaria LSA; Bulgaria first LSA Sofia, Bulgaria
1934 The first National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan is elected. Sudan; find reference
1934 The first National Spiritual Assembly of Iran is elected. [BBRSM:121; BW6:268]
  • For a picture see BW6:268.
Iran NSA first NSA Iran
1934 The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
  • Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
  • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
  • Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
  • Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
  • Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán religious persecution; Tarbiyat School
1934 The Declaration of Trust was legalized in Egypt as a result of the work of Montfort Mills and 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad. This greatly facilitated future transactions with the Government. [BW9p598] Egypt Montfort Mills; 'Abdu'l-Jalil Bey Sa'ad
1934 In Egypt, a certain learned Shaykh el Kharashi attacked the Faith in a series of articles under the heading, "The Bahá'í Faith Is a Pleasing Illusion". 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad refuted his arguments with a series of fourteen articles under the heading "The Bahá'í Faith Is an Everlasting Truth". Having failed to counter 'Abdu'l-Jalíl's arguments the Shaykh and his associates appealed to the authorities to stop his articles on the grounds that they were anti-Muhammadan. The matter was raised to the Minister and then to Parliament where both parties were asked to stop publication. 'Abdu'l-Jalíl was transferred to a remote part of the country where, it was hoped that he would not be able to resume his activities. [BW9p598] Egypt "The Baha'i Faith Is an Everlasting Truth"; 'Abdu'l-Jalil Bey Sa'ad
1934 23 Jan Shoghi Effendi gives Queen Marie of Romania the gift of a Tablet in the handwriting of Bahá’u’lláh. [GBF50; PP116] Romania; Shoghi Effendi; Queen Marie
1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons dies after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96]
  • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
  • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
  • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
Washington D.C. Agnes S. Parsons; race relations; In Memoriam
1934 10 May Bahá’í properties on Mount Carmel are granted tax exemption. [GBF122; PP269]
  • Shoghi Effendi states that this is tantamount to securing indirect recognition of the Faith. [GBF122; PP269]
BWC Tax exempt
1934 15–18 May The first National Convention of the Bahá’ís of Australia and New Zealand is held in Sydney, with nine delegates in attendance. [SBR165]
  • The first National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand is elected with its seat in Sydney. [SBR165]
Sydney; Australia National Convention; NSA first National Convention Australia and New Zealand; first NSA Australia and New Zealand
1934 28 Aug Mishkín-Qalam’s calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name is registered as a trade-mark with the United States patent office. [BW6:350] America Mishkín-Qalam; Greatest Name; United States patent office
1934 23 Oct Dr Susan Moody passes away in Iran. [BFA2:361]
  • For her services in Iran and an obituary see BW6:483–6.
  • She is buried near the graves of Lillian Kappes and Sarah Clock in the Tihrán Bahá’í cemetery. [BW6:486]
Iran Dr Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Sarah Clock; In Memoriam
1934 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan incorporate. [GPB336]
  • This is the first national assembly in an Islamic country to secure civil recognition and the status of an independent religion. [BW6:24]
Egypt; Sudan; NSA first NSA in Islamic country to secure civil recognition and the status of an independent religion
1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán are closed by the authorities when they fail to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
Tihrán Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools; holy day; religious persecution
1935 Husayn Uskuli, a Bahá’í resident in Shanghai, travels to Taiwan, the first Bahá’í known to visit the island. [PH28] Taiwan Husayn Uskuli first Bahá’í known to visit Taiwan
1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán; religious persecution; LSA
1935 The passing of Fádil-i-Shírárí (Shaykh Muhammad Ibráhim) (b.1863) in Tehran. [ARG109, M9YA418, 433]
  • A biography of this learned servant of Bahá'u'lláh has been written by his grand-daughter, Houri Faláhi-Skuce entitled A Radiant Gem
Tehran Fadil-i-Shirari; Shaykh Muhammad Ibrahim; In Memoriam
1935 The publication of Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [Gleanings]

Described by Shoghi Effendi as being, "a selection of the most characteristic and hitherto unpublished passages from the outstanding works of the Author of the Bahá'í Revelation," [GBF93]

BWC Gleanings from the Writings of Baha'u'llah
1935 Mar World Order magazine is founded. [SBR206, 236]
  • The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv]
  • There was a break in publication from 1949 to 1966. [Bahá'í Works]
America World Order magazine first publication World Order magazine
1935 Jul Shoghi Effendi asks the Bahá’ís to withdraw from church membership. [BBRSM146, 221; BW6:198; SBBH1:201] church membership
1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] America NSA; laws; application of laws
1936 Mr E. R. and Mrs Loulie Mathews arrive in Guatemala, the first Bahá’í teachers to visit the country. Guatemala E. R. Mathews; Loulie Mathews; travel teachers first Bahá’í teachers to visit Guatemala
1936 The first woman is elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Shirin Fozdar. India Shirin Fozdar. first woman elected to NSA India
1936 The National Assembly of Australia and New Zealand first issues its news organ, the Bahá’í Quarterly. Australia; New Zealand; NSA first publication Bahá’í Quarterly
1936 Feb Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie
1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • All Bahá’í meetings are banned throughout Iran.
  • Several local Bahá’í centres are attacked or closed down.
  • Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
Iran; Bandar Sháh religious persecution; holy days
1936 summer Britain holds its first Bahá’í summer school. [GT137; UD109] Britain summer school first British Bahá’í summer school
1936 1 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints the first Inter-America Committee, beginning an organized and coordinated effort to establish the Faith in the Republics of Central and South America. [BW10:181] America NSA first Inter-America Committee
1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths is held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
  • Shoghi Effendi is asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegates to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
  • George Townshend reads the paper ‘Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship’, which has been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
  • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
  • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
London World Congress of Faiths; World Fellowship of Faiths; Sir Francis Younghusband; George Townshend
1936 latter half of the year Mrs Randolph Bolles (Jeanne) and her daughter Jeanne, two American Bahá'ís, (aunt and cousin of Mary Maxwell respectively), are sent to Budapest by Shoghi Effendi to open Hungary to the Faith. At the time of their departure there are seven Bahá'ís in Budapest, mostly of Jewish background. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p103-5] Budapest; Hungary Mrs Randolph Bolles; Jeanne Bolles
1936 Nov Renée Szanto-Felbermann becomes a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Hungary. She is considered the first person to accept the Faith by some notwithstanding the events of 1913. [BW19:633]
  • See also Renée Szanto-Felbermann, Rebirth: The Memoirs of Szanto-Felbermann p104.
  • This document prepared by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'í Community of Hungary says that Mr. Arminius Vámbéry is the first believer in Hungary. See www.bahai.hu
  • See BW5p329 for the testament written by Professor Vámbéry and published in the Egyptian Gazette September 24th, 1913.
Hungary; Budapest Renée Szanto-Felbermann; Arminius Vambéry first to accept Bahá'í Faith in Hungary
1936 31 Dec Khusraw Bimán (Thábit) passes away in Bombay at the age of 103 or 104. [I:56]
  • He is the first Zoroastrian to accept the Faith in India. [I:44–6]
  • For the story of his life see I:39–60.
Bombay Khusraw Biman; In Memoriam first Zoroastrian to accept the Faith in India
1937 The British Bahá’í Publishing Trust is founded. [BBRSM184; BW9:32; GT138–42] Britain Publishing Trust
1937 The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments are dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz are arrested.
  • Bahá’ís closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh are arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns are prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families are attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They are severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
Iran; Ahváz; Bandar Sháh; Kirmánsháh; Bírjand; Arák; Cham-tang religious persecution; LSA; holy days
1937 Mrs Mabel Ives makes an extended trip to Moncton, New Brunswick to teach the Faith. She is assisted by Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert. [TG102, 108] Moncton; New Brunswick Mrs Mabel Ives; Rosemary Sala
1937 25 Mar Shoghi Effendi marries Mary Maxwell, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [PP151; UD115]
  • For a description of the simple wedding see GBF68–9 and PP151–2.
  • Shoghi Effendi stresses that the marriage draws the Occident and the Orient closer together. [GBF69–70; PP153]
  • The American Bahá’í community sends $19 from each of its 71 Assemblies as a wedding gift. [GBF70; PP153]
  • An extension is built onto Shoghi Effendi’s apartment on the roof of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s house in Haifa to accommodate the couple. [BBD107; DH152]
  • See also MA89.
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Mary Maxwell; Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum
1937 Ridván The First Seven Year Plan is launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9]
  • For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
  • The Plan calls for:
  • the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
  • the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
  • the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
America First Seven Year Plan; NSA; LSA; Wilmette Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Teaching Plans
1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
  • They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
Yazd; Tihrán; Iran; religious persecution
1937 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions are banned in Germany by order of the Gestapo owing to the Faith’s ‘international and pacifist teachings’. [BBRSM185]
  • PP305 says this was June.
  • Bahá’í books, archives and records are confiscated and a number of Bahá’ís are later tried and imprisoned. [BBRSM185]
Germany religious persecution
1937 May Fred Schopflocher contributes and additional $100,000 (see 16 March, 1929) to the goal of $350,000 to complete the exterior ornamentation of the House of Worship. For is dedication to the construction the Guardian designated him as "Chief Temple Builder". [LoF 388-390, BW12p664] Wilmette; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Fred Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action; Chief Temple Builder
1937 2 May The Yerrinbool Bahá’í School (originally known as ‘Bolton Place’) is officially opened in Australia. Australia Yerrinbool Bahá’í School
1937 Jul Nine Bahá’ís are imprisoned in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. [BW18:389]
  • They are imprisoned for two months. [BW18:389]
Sangsar; Khurásán; Iran religious persecution; holy days
1937 Dec The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant BWC; Iran; Episodes in the History of the Covenant
1937 20 Dec Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, dies. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
  • For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
‘Akká Muhammad-‘Alí; Covenant -breaker
1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran The fourth Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqa; Hand of the Cause; American University at Beirut; Huququ’llah
1938 Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
  • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
Iran; Tihrán; Kirmánsháh; Záhidán; Mashhad religious persecution
1938 William DeForge becomes the first Bahá’í to visit the Dominican Republic. He has made a one-day trip from Puerto Rico. Dominican Republic William DeForge; travel teaching first Bahá’í visits the Dominican Republic find reference
1938
1938 The first native person to become a Bahá’í in Canada, Melba Loft (née Whetung), a Chippewa, accepts the Faith. Canada Melba Loft first native to become Bahá’í in Canada find reference
1938 The first Bahá’í to be resident in Finland, Aminda Josephine Kruka, an American nurse, arrives in the country. Finland Aminda Josephine Kruka first Bahá’í resident Finland find reference
1938 Shoghi Effendi remains in Europe for the year owing to terrorist activities in Palestine. [PP219] Europe
1938 The publication of Prayers and Meditations of Bahá'u'lláh. [P&M] BWC Prayers and Meditations of Baha'u'llah
1938 - 1939 Shoghi Effendi disbands the Haifa Spiritual Assembly which had been in operation since at least 1922, and sends the local community away. [PP348]
  • The disbanding of the spiritual assembly apparently did not mean the end to the publication of the "Haifa News Letter" in which news from the World Centre had been forwarded to all the Bahá'í centres in the East in Persian with an English translation of the publication distributed in the West. The last known mention of the Haifa News Letter is in Bahá'í News Dec. 1945 p780. [PP50, 282,348]
Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa News Letter
1938 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand incorporate. [GPB336] Australia; New Zealand; incorporation
1938 Feb Felix Ricardo Maddela, a school teacher and draftsman from Solano, Philippines, and the first Filipino Bahá’í, accepts the Faith in Manila. Manila Felix Ricardo Maddela first Filipino Bahá’í find reference
1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union are persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men are imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union are arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, go to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools are ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus are ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
Caucasus; Turkistan Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1938 15 Mar Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper (Maryam Khánum), the first Bahá’í of the British Isles, passes away in Kensington, London. She was known to her friends as Minnie and first heard of the Bahá’í Faith in 1898 when she was 41. She was an American living in London and had been married to an Englishman. Shortly after reading about the Báb in an encyclopedia, by coincidence, she was invited by her friend Phoebe Hearst to be part of the first group of Western Bahá’í pilgrims to visit ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in the Holy Land. She is considered to be the first person to become a Bahá’í in the UK and throughout her life was a very active member of the community. She was a member of the first elected National Spiritual Assembly of England (later Great Britain). She made her motor-car available to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá during His visits. [SBR30, BW4p375, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
  • For details of her life see BSR17–30.
  • For her obituary see BW8:649–51.
  • Notes: It is possibly she, rather than her mother, Mrs Thornburgh, who is referred to as a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in BW3:84–5. The picture is not that of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper.
London Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam first Bahá’í of British Isles
1938 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in the whole of Latin America is formed in Mexico City. Mexico City LSA first LSA in Latin America
1938 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of India, (Pakistan) and Burma launched a Six Year Plan (1838-1944). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158]
  • Lack of funds prevent the plan from being implemented until 1940. [SBBH2:160]
India; Pakistan; Burma Teaching Plans; Six Year Plan
1938 30 Apr Munírih Khánum, the Holy Mother, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away. [BBD166; BW8:260; CB358; DH161]
  • Note: UD119 records this was 28 April.
  • Shoghi Effendi inters her body just west of the Shrine of Bahíyyih Khánum and erects a simple monument over her grave. [DH161]
  • For excerpts from her autobiography see BW8:259–63.
  • For tributes to her see BW8:263–7.
Haifa Munirih Khanum; Holy Mother; In Memoriam; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
1938 1 May At the National Convention in Chicago, Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville Ky and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapses into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She is removed from the convention hall and passes away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 for the background to this story.
  • Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church her life's work was that of a teacher.
  • During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
  • On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
Chicago Grace Roberts Ober; In Memoriam
1938 Jul The first Finnish Bahá’í, Pastor Väinö Rissanen, accepts the Faith. [BW8:935; BW17:129]
  • For a letter from him about Finland see BW8:936.
Finland Pastor Väinö Rissanen first Finnish Bahá’í
1938 25 Jul The passing of Queen Marie of Romania. [BBD144; GPB395]
  • For her services to the Bahá’í Faith see GPB389–96.
  • For tributes paid by her to the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:269–71.
  • For her relationship with the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:271–6.
  • For tributes to her see BW8276–82.
Romania Queen Marie
1938 Sep The first Bahá’í summer school to be held in India takes place in Simla. [BBRSM194; BW8:199] Simla; India summer school first Bahá’í summer school held in India
1938 27 Nov In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles, Shoghi Effendi outlines the attitudes and obligations of Bahá’ís regarding military service. [BW17:384–5; UD122–3, 128–9, 134] Shoghi Effendi; military service
1938 25 Dec Shoghi Effendi addresses The Advent of Divine Justice, a book-length letter, to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. [ADJ] BWC Shoghi Effendi; The Advent of Divine Justice
1939 The first Bahá’í of Paraguay, Maria Casati, of Formosa, Paraguay, becomes a Bahá’í in Buenos Aires. Argentina Maria Casati first Bahá’í of Paraguay
1939 Shoghi Effendi orders from Italy twin monuments similar in style to that of the Greatest Holy Leaf and seeks permission from the British authorities to reinter the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel near those of Bahíyyih Khánum and the Holy Mother. [DH162; PP259] Navvab; Purest Branch; Mount Carmel; Bahiyyih Khanum; Holy Mother
1939 Emeric Sala give a talk in Regina proclaiming the Faith for the first time in Saskatchewan. Regina is one of five cities he will visit on this business trip. [TG104] Regina; Saskatchewan Emeric Sala first public mention of the Faith in Saskatchewan
1939 Feb A.-L.-M. Nicolas, the French consular official and Orientalist who made a study of the Bábí Faith, passes away in Paris.
  • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
Paris A.-L.-M. Nicolas
1939 7 Feb In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of India the Guardian encouraged the concept of expansion by settlement to which he applied the name "pioneering". [MSEIp179] BWC Pioneering first known use of the term "pioneering" in official correspondence.
1939 21 Feb Background Information

    "riots which broke out with exceptional fury in Ismá'ílíyyih, when angry crowds surrounded the funeral cortege of Muhammad Sulaymán, a prominent Bahá'í resident of that town, creating such an uproar that the police had to intervene, and having rescued the body and brought it back to the home of the deceased, they were forced to carry it without escort, at night, to the edge of the desert and inter it in the wilderness." [GPB367-368]

The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt had, in respect of the decision of the 10th of May, 1925 declaring the Báhá'í Faith to be non-Muslim, petitioned the government for the right to administer laws of personal status to the Bahá'í community according to its Bahá'í Laws affecting Matters of Personal Status. On the 29th of February, 1939, the Grand Muftí ruled that the Bahá'ís were not to be considered Muslims and had no right to be buried in Muslim cemeteries. Four plots of land were allocated to serve as cemeteries for the Bahá'í community in Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said and in Ismá'ílíyyih. Immediately following this decision the remains for Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl were transferred followed by the exhumation from a Christian cemetery in Cairo the remains of Lua Getsinger and subsequent re-interment in an adjacent plot. [GPB368-369]

Cairo; Alexandria; Port Said; Ismá'ílíyyih; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl first Bahá'í cemetery
1939 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles incorporates after a long and difficult struggle. [BW8:161–2; UD127] Britain NSA
1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest is elected. There are about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This will cause difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that are to follow. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spends a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations take place and the first spiritual assembly is formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visits Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visits Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
Budapest; Hungary First Spiritual Assembly in Budapest
1939 8 May Philip and Laili June Marangella arrive in Cuba, the first Bahá’í pioneers to the country. Cub Philip Marangella; Laili June Marangella first pioneers to Cuba
1939 18 May Mathew Kaszab arrived in Panama and immediately launched a vigorous proclamation campaign through the press, radio and public talks. By October the first permanent pioneers, Louise Caswell and Cora Oliver, arrived along with John Eichenaur (enroute to El Salvador). [Historical Background of the Panama Temple by Ruth Pringle] Panama Mathew Kaszab; Louise Caswell; Cora Oliver; John Eichenauer first pioneers in Panama
1939 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles incorporate as an unlimied non-profit company under the Companies Act of 1929. GPB336 Britain NSA; incorporation
1939 27 Aug The first Bahá’í resident in Guatemala, Gerrard Sluter-Schlutius, arrives in the country from Toronto. [OBCC228] Guatemala first resident in Guatemala
1939 3 Sep World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland. World War II
1939 18 Sep John and Rosa Shaw arrive in Kingston, Jamaica, from San Francisco, the first Bahá’ís to visit the country. Kingston; Jamaica John Shaw; Rosa Shaw first to visit Jamaica
1939 22 Sep The State of Illinois issues the first Bahá’í marriage licence, authorizing the Spiritual Assembly of Chicago to solemnize Bahá’í marriages and issue Bahá’í marriage certificates. [GPB373] Illinois marriage first Bahá’í marriage licence
1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passes away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
  • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3. Directions to the gravesite.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9.
  • On the 2nd of October Shoghi Effendi announced her appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
  • Shoghi Effendi calls her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
  • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
  • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
  • She is buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
  • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
  • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
  • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954
Honolulu Martha Root; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
1939 Oct Antonio Roca, the first Bahá’í in Honduras, enters the country. Honduras Antonio Roca first Bahá’í in Honduras
1939 1 Oct The national Bahá’í office of the United States is established at 536 Sheridan Road, Wilmette, Illinois. [BW10:181]
  • Horace Holley, the full-time secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, transfers his office from New York to the Hazíratu’l-Quds in Wilmette. [SBR238]
Wilmette Horace Holley; Hazíratu’l-Quds
1939 25 Oct John Eichenauer, the first pioneer to El Salvador, arrives in San Salvador from Phoenix, Arizona.
  • He is 17 years old, the youngest pioneer sent out in the First Seven Year Plan.
San Salvador; El Salvador John Eichenauer first pioneer to El Salvador
1939 1 Nov Mathew Kaszab, arrives in Nicaragua, the first Bahá’í pioneer to that country.
  • In March 1942 he is arrested and imprisoned for 23 days; he is again arrested in September 1942; he is sent back to the United States very ill, where he dies in January 1943 from the effects of his imprisonment. [BW9:614–16]
Nicaragua Mathew Kaszab first pioneer to Nicaragua
1939 2 Nov The first people to become Bahá’ís in El Salvador, Luis O. Pérez, Emilio Bermudez and José Manuel Vela, accept the Faith in San Salvador. San Salvador; El Salvador Luis O. Pérez; Emilio Bermudez; José Manuel Vela first to become Bahá’ís in El Salvador
1939 4 Nov The first Nineteen Day Feast is held in San Salvador with four Bahá’ís. San Salvador; El Salvador Nineteen Day Feast first Nineteen Day Feast in San Salvador
1939 Nov F. Ferrari becomes a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Honduras. Honduras. F. Ferrari first to accept Faith in Honduras
1939 Late in the year Sr. Perfecto Perez Toledo, the first Cuban Bahá’í, accepts the Faith. Cuba Perfecto Perez Toledo first Cuban Bahá’í
1939 3 Dec Shoghi Effendi obtains permission from the British authorities in Palestine to reinter the bodies of Navváb and the Purest Branch on Mount Carmel. [DH162; PP260]
  • For the report of the Haifa District Commissioner see BBR460–1.
Palestine Navváb; Purest Branch; Mount Carmel
1939 5 Dec Shoghi Effendi disinters the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; PP260]
  • He goes at daybreak to ‘Akká cemetery and removes the remains of Navváb to a new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He then goes to the Nabí Sálib cemetery and transfers the remains of the Purest Branch to a second new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He transports them to Mount Carmel, near the grave of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162; PP260]
  • For his cable announcing this to the Bahá’í world see BW8:245 and DH162 and PP261.
‘Akká; Mount Carmel Navváb; Purest Branch
1939 8 Dec Margaret Lentz, a German stenographer, arrives in the Dominican Republic from Geneva, the first Bahá’í to settle in that country. Dominican Republic Margaret Lentz first Bahá’í to settle in Dominican Republic
1939 12 Dec The Bahá’ís of Caracas, Venezuela, hold their first Nineteen Day Feast and afterwards elect a ‘Provisional Assembly’. Caracas; Venezuela Nineteen Day Feast; Provisional Assembly first Nineteen Day Feast in Caracas, Venezuela
1939 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi reinters the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; GBF116; GPB347–8]
  • Two vaults are cut into the solid rock in the garden area near the monument of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s cable announcing this see DH162 and PP262.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s letters and cables concerning this see BW8:245–53.
  • For a description of the reinterment see BW8:253–8.
  • For the prayer of visitation to the resting place of Navváb see BW8:251 and DH166.
Mount Carmel Navváb; Purest Branch; Greatest Holy Leaf; prayer of visitation
1939 31 Dec Lady Blomfield, entitled Sitárih Khánum, passes away in London. [BW8:651; SEBW109]
  • For details of her life see SEBW101–10.
  • For her obituary see BW8:651–6.
London Lady Blomfield
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