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Bahá'í Chronology: years 194-

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194-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1940 (In the decade) By the mid-1940s Corporal Thomas Bereford Macauley became a Bahá’í in Nigeria, the first Bahá’í in the country. Nigeria First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Nigeria
1940 (in the decade) The first Bahá’ís to reside in the Belgian Congo (Zaire) were Mr Rajah Ali Vahdat and Mme Marthe Molitor. Belgian Congo First travel teachers and pioneers first resident Bahá’ís in Belgian Congo
1940 (in the decade) The first Egyptian Bahá’í summer school was held in the mid-1940s. Egypt Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Egyptian Bahá’í summer school
1940 (in the decade) Bahá’ís in Argentina faced opposition throughout the decade with both the police and nationalists intimidating them. Argentina Persecution, Argentina; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1940 (In the year) Eleanor Smith Adler, a new Bahá’í from Los Angeles, settled in La Paz, the first pioneer to Bolivia. La Paz; Bolivia Eleanor Smith Adler first pioneer to Bolivia
1940 (In the year) Marcia Atwater, from the United States, arrived in Santiago, Chile, as the first long-term pioneer. Santiago; Chile Marcia Atwater; First travel teachers and pioneers first long-term pioneer
1940 (In the year) Narayenrao Rangnath Shethji, a Bahá’í from India surnamed Vakíl, visited Nepal, the first Bahá’í to do so. Nepal Narayenrao Rangnath Shethji first Bahá’í to visit Nepal
1940 (In the year) The publication of I, Mary Magdalen by Juliet Thompson. It was a novel with a semi-autobiographical account of her contact with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BEL7.2554] New York; United States Juliet Thompson; I, Mary Magdalen; Z****
1940 (In the year) A Bahá’í centre was opened in Havana, Cuba, and an organized group was formed. Havana; Cuba Bahai centres
1940 (In the year) The Canadian Department of National Defence exempted Bahá’ís from combatant military duty. Canada Exemption; Recognition; Military
1940 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Bahia, with the assistance of Leonora Holsapple Armstrong. Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong first LSA in Brazil
1940 (In the year) ʿAbd-al-Mīṯāq Mīṯāqīya, a well-known Bahá'í of Tehran, built a hospital and donated it to the Bahá'í community. The hospital rapidly developed to employ highly respected physicians, and to obtain advanced equipment. It became known as one of the best medical centres in Tehran.
  • In the early 1970s a nursing school, affiliated with the hospital, was inaugurated and the hospital itself opened medical clinics in Boir Aḥmad { BW16p264; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tehran; Iran Abd-al-Mīṯaq Mitaqiya; Z****
    1940 (In the year) An institution for Baháʾí orphans was founded which served the community for many years. [BW9p251]
  • On a more general level, an achievement of the Baháʾí communities in Iran was the establishment of modern public baths in most of the major populated towns and villages throughout the country to replace the unhygienic traditional baths. Some of the baths were built and donated to the community by individual Baháʾís and some were established through the collective financial participation of the members of the community. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran Z****
    1940 13 Jan María Teressa Martín de López (Irizarry), from Puerto Rico, became a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic while on a visit. She was the first Puerto Rican Bahá’í and the first person to become a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic.
  • For the story of her life see BW8:631–42.
  • Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area first Puerto Rican Bahá’í; first declaration Dominican Republic
    1940 9 Feb The monuments of Navváb and the Purest Branch were dedicated at a ceremony in Haifa. [ZK293]
  • For details of the ceremony, see ZK293–6.
  • Marble for the Monument Gardens came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
  • Mount Carmel; BWC; Chiampo; Italy Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Marble; BWNS; Shoghi Effendi, Life Of
    1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passed away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
  • Shoghi Effendi awarded her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and designated her as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
  • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
  • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
  • Shoghi Effendi asked her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which was to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
  • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
  • Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area First Bahá'í on European soil.
    1940 Mar Emeric and Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert, Quebec arrived in Venezuela, the first pioneers to that country. During their eleven month stay in Caracas they made an eight-day trip by car over the Andes to visit a pioneer in Bogota, Columbia. [TG76-82] Venezuela Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala first pioneers to Venezuela
    1940 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Argentina was established in Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires; Argentina LSA first LSA in Argentina
    1940 15 May Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
  • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
  • A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum traveled to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
  • Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left St Malo, France, for England one day before the city was occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seemed acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80] St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 30 Jun George Townshend preached a sermon in St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, proclaiming the Bahá’í Faith to the congregation. [GT171] Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
    1940 Jul Gerrard Sluter, a German with Canadian citizenship and previously a pioneer in Guatemala, arrived in Colombia, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country.
  • He later became a Covenant-breaker and caused much difficulty to the Bahá’ís in many South American countries.
  • Colombia Gerrard Sluter; Covenant-breakers first Bahá’í to settle in Colombia
    1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left England for South Africa. [PP180]
  • This was the only route open back to Palestine, as Italy’s entrance into the war had closed the Mediterranean to Allied ships. [PP180]
  • The trip across Africa took them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
  • United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 1 Aug The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Costa Rica accepted the Faith after Gayle Woolson and Amelia Ford from the United States arrived in Puerto Limón on 29 March 1940.
  • The first to enrol was Raul Contreras, followed by his cousin Guido Contreras, and by José Joaquin Ulloa and then Felipe Madrigal.
  • Costa Rica; Central America First Bahais by country or area first four Bahá’ís in Costa Rica
    1940 Sep William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, becamesa Bahá’í in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City; Utah; United States William Sears; Hands of the Cause
    1940 20 Oct Ralph Laltoo, the first Trinidadian to become a Bahá’í, accepted the Faith in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Halifax; Nova Scotia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í from Trinidad
    1940 Dec Luis Carlo Nieto became the first Bahá’í in Colombia.
  • He soon left the Faith and Aura Sanchez, who became a Bahá’í in 1941, is considered the first Colombian believer.
  • Colombia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Colombia
    1940 Dec Eduardo Gonzales, a university student, accepted the Faith and became the first native Bahá’í of Ecuador.
  • He was not formally registered until his twenty–first birthday on 15 October 1941.
  • Ecuador Eduardo Gonzales; First believers by background; Indigenous people first native Bahá’í of Ecuador
    1940 Dec Gerald and Vivian MacBeans, a Jamaican couple, and their niece, Miss May Johnson, became the first people to accept the Faith in Haiti. Haiti First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'ís in Haiti
    1940 27 Dec Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum returned Haifa. [PP181] Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 27 Dec Elizabeth Cheney, the ‘spiritual mother of Paraguay’, arrived in Paraguay, the first pioneer to the country. Paraguay Elizabeth Cheney; Names and titles; First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneer to Paraguay
    1941 (In the year) The publication of The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [ESW; BEL1.25]
  • It was a Tablet addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi, a prominent Muslim cleric who had persecuted the Bahá’ís. It was revealed around 1891 at the Mansion of Bahjí and translated by Shoghi Effendi.
  • BWC Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1941 (In the year) Shaykh Kázim was martyred in Bunáb, Ádharbáyján. [BW18:389] Bunab; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1941 (In the year) Aura Sanchez became a Bahá’í in Colombia, considered the first Bahá’í of the country. Colombia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Colombia
    1941 (In the year) John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, heard about the Bahá’í Faith from Victor Cofman, a non-Bahá’í. John Ferraby
    1941 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad translated The Dawn-Breakers into Arabic. His translation was published but because of the war it had to be referred to the Publicity Section of the Egyptian government for approval. From that department it was passed to the high Muslim authorities who determined that it was against the Muslim faith and so should be condemned. The entire publication run was gathered for destruction and upon hearing this 'Abdu'l-Jalíl interviewed all the officers concerned and not only secured the release of the books but obtained official permissions to distribute them in Egypt and abroad. [BW-598-599] Egypt Dawn-Breakers (book); Nabil-i-Azam; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Translation; Publications; Arabic language; Opposition
    1941 Jan Nine Bahá’ís were arrested in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, and banished to other towns for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. BW18:389] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
    1941 11 Feb The passing of Margaret Stevenson, the first New Zealand Bahá’í (b. 30 November 1865, in Onehunga) in Auckland. She was buried in Hillsborough Cemetery.
          She initially heard of the Bahá’í Faith through reading an article in "The Christian Commonwealth" sent to her by her sister, Amy, who was studying music in London. Margaret, though, later admitted that she “did not think any more about it”. However, in 1913 Miss Dorothea Spinney, a professional actress who performed in many parts of the world, arrived in Auckland from California and stayed at the Stevenson home in Devonport. During that visit there were many opportunities for Miss Spinney to tell the Stevenson family about the Bahá’í Cause.
          After embracing the new Faith, Margaret began to speak to others of her new found beliefs – a courageous act for a middle-class woman in the then conservative society where following a new religion was considered odd. As New Zealand’s only Bahá’í, she held on steadfastly to her faith for many years. Finally, after the visit of the first Bahá’í travelling teachers to New Zealand in December 1922, a handful of individuals from Margaret’s social circle also became Bahá’ís. A class was established at her home in Parnell to study the Teachings in more depth and was held there regularly for 10 years. In January 1923 the first Bahá’í Nineteen Day Feast was held at her home. Margaret held various administrative roles within the Bahá’í community and remained an active and dedicated Bahá’í until her passing. [from a post by Tricia Hague-Barrett in Facebook page "Women of Bahá"]
    Margaret Stevenson; Dorothea Spinney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1941 17 Feb John Henry Hyde Dunn, passed away in Sydney. [BW9:595; SBR166]
  • Shortly after his passing Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. (26 April, 1952) [MoCxxii]
  • For the story of his life see SBR153–68.
  • For his obituary see BW9:593–7.
  • For a biography see The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project
  • Sydney; Australia John Henry Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1941 28 Mar The publication of The Promised Day is Come. It was, in effect, a survey of the world in relation to the Bahá’í Faith during its first century. [AY305; PG215-217]
  • Available at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • America Promised Day is Come (letter); Bahai history; History (general); Peace; World peace (general); Tablets to kings and rulers
    1941 18 May Yvonne Cuellar, a French woman, became a Bahá’í in Bolivia.
  • Although Marina del Prado was the first to become a Bahá’í, on 2 February 1941, she did not remain active, so Yvonne Cuellar is recognized as the first Bahá’í in Bolivia. She was called by Shoghi Effendi ‘Mother of Bolivia’.
  • For the story of her life see BW19:619–22.
  • Bolivia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Bolivia
    1941 Jun Eve Nicklin arrived in Peru from the United States and became the first resident pioneer to settle in Lima. Peru Eve Nicklin first resident pioneer in Lima
    1941 20 Jun The passing of Howard Colby Ives (b. 11 Oct 1867, Brooklyn, New York, d. Pulaski County, Arkansas, USA). He was buried in Pinecrest Memorial Park and Garden Mausoleum, Alexander, Saline County, Arkansas. [BW9p608-613; Find a grave]
  • He and his wife Mabel spent nearly the last twenty years of his life as itinerant teachers. (Often teamed up with the Obers and the McKays) For example they came to Toronto in November of 1938 and stayed for about 10 months. During that time Mabel gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and about 70 in Hamilton, Toronto's expansion goal. Howard, who was had had heart problems and who was rapidly losing for sight and hearing at the time, complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls. [TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]

    Some of his works were:

    • The Ocean of His Utterances Unpublished study course in the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh using the books of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l‑Baha, and Shoghi Effendi, compiled and with commentary by Ives. Not yet formatted.
    • Portals to Freedom (1937) A collection of anecdotes and history of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to the United States, as told by one observer. [BEL7.1313 to 7.1320]
    • The Song Celestial (1938) A mystical book about Mr. Ives' search for God, in which a seeker asks God various questions, and God responds. [BEL7.1321-1322]
  • Also see Mother's Stories: Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall (Daughter of Howard and Mabel Ives)
  • Little Rock; AR; Brooklyn; NY; Toronto Howard Colby Ives; In Memoriam
    1941 (Summer) The first Canadian Bahá’í summer school was held, in Montreal. [BW9:28, TG84] Montreal; Canada Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Canadian Bahá’í summer school
    1941 16 Sep In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicated and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascended to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
  • Ridá Sháh was overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
  • His reign can be described in three phases:
            The first phase, from 1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Bahá'ís were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign and its aftermaths.

            The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Bahá'ís enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Bahá'ís was essentially ignored or denied.

            The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani]

  • Iran Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1941 18 Oct Four members of a Bahá’í family were killed and several other family members were severely beaten in an attack on their home by an armed mob in Panbih-Chúlih, near Sárí, Iran. [BW18:389] Panbih-Chulih; Sari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1941 2 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent two cables the the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. The first was to announce that Thrayyá Afnán, the daughter of 'Abdul-Bahá's fifth daughter, Tubá Khnum, had married Faydí Afnan, a known Covenant-breaker and son of Siyyid 'Alí who had supported Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí.

            The second concerned the family of Ruhi Afnán, Shoghi Effendi's younger cousin. He had also married into a family of Covenant-breakers and had failed to get the Guardian's approval for his second trip to North America and for a trip to England. Shoghi Effendi had concealed Ruhi's activities for some time prior. [BN no 149]

    BWC Covenant-breakers; Thrayya Afnan; Ruhi Afnan; Z****
    1941 31 Nov Some members of the National Spiritual Assembly filed suit against Sohrab to try to stop him from using the name Bahá'í. He had opened a Bahá'í bookshop in New York in 1939. This suit was filed in the Supreme Court of New York County. The judge granted a motion to dismiss, stating that "the plaintiffs have no right to a monopoly of the name of a religion. The defendants, who purport to be members of the same religion, have an equal right to use the name of the religion..." The judge mentioned that the complaint could be further amended and the NSA appealed but the Appellate Court affirmed the decision of the lower court.
          The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
  • Also see United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab.
  • During the second World War the New History Society put forth an alleged passage from 'Abdu'1-Bahá which would justify citizens in refusing to obey their governments when drafted into the military forces. The National Spiritual Assembly was obliged to explain the true Bahá'í position to the federal authorities as set forth by the Guardian.
  • New York; United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; The Basis of the Baha'i Community; Z****
    1941 Dec The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.

    "Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)

  • The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar.
  • Covenant-breakers; Mehrangiz Rabbani
    1942 (In the year) Lidia Zamenhof was killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka.
  • For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
  • See also Lidia by Wendy Heller, GR, Oxford, 1985.
  • Treblinka; Poland Lidia Zamenhof; World War II
    1942 (In the year) The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18:389] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1942 – early The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply an element in a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [22 February, 2009 Iran Press Watch]
  • See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahá'ís had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahá'ís and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahá'í discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahá'ís as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahá'í polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
  • In its preface, Dolgorukov's Memoirs purported to be a translation of the memoirs of Prince Dimitri Ivanovich Dolgorukov (Russian Minister in Iran from 1845-54), first published in the official organ of the Soviet Communist Party. According to the book, whose Russian “original” has never been found, Prince Dolgorukov had travelled to Iran during the 1830s, entered the ranks of the ‘ulama, and instigated the Bábí-Bahá’í uprising. The book totally contradicted the well-documented life of Prince Dolgorukov, and made obvious chronological and historical mistakes in its allegations about the lives of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh. Nevertheless, it was reprinted many times, and created a master narrative that others subsequently deployed. With its political tone, the book, on the one hand, heralded the ascendancy of politics over religion in the mindset of Iran’s Shi’a clergy, and on the other, demonstrated the vast popularity that conspiracy theories enjoyed in Iran. [Iran Press Watch 1407] iiiii
  • Iran Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Memoirs; Prince Dolgorukov; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1942 (The early 20th Century) Bahá'í Scholarship

    The publication in 1865 of the Comte de Gobineau’s (1816-1882),Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale created an interest in Europe. A scholar that was inspired by Gobineau was E.G.Browne. He travelled to Iran and also visited Bahá’u’lláh in Akka in the latter days of His life. He translated two histories of the new religion and published two other books as well as a number of articles. He also made an important collection of manuscripts that he gave to Cambridge University Library. Bahá'ís have criticized Browne's work for being too sympathetic to Azal, Baha'u'llah's half-brother and implacable enemy. A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1939) was a French consular official in Iran who researched and wrote a biography of the Báb as well as translating three of the Báb's major works into French.

         Just as the Báb was the centre of the scholarly interests of Gobineau, Browne and Nicolas, some Russian scholars who were more interested in Bahá'u'lláh. Baron Viktor Rosen (1849-1908), the director of the Oriental Department of the University of St. Petersburg was assisted by Aleksandr Tumanski (1861-1920). He spent a great deal of time with the Bahá'í community of Ashkhabad and with Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani. Although he did not write as much as Browne or Nicolas, what he did write was derived from a very deep and thorough investigation.

         There was much interest in scholarship in the early days of the Faith because almost all of the most important disciples of the Báb were Islamic religious scholars, as were many of the leading converts to the Bahá'í Faith in later years. The most important of these was the above mentioned Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1844-1914). He was learned in the Zoroastrian and Jewish scriptures and spent some time in the Christian West at the request of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá prior to His visit.

         During the 1930s to 1960s, a second generation of Iranian Bahá'í scholars, such as Fadil Mazandarani (1881-1957), 'Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari (1902-1972), and 'Azizu'llah Sulaymani (1901-1985) systematized Bahá'í theology and law, developed aids for scholars such as dictionaries of Bahá'í terminology, and wrote histories and biographies. This was of course a more traditional style of scholarship than is current in the West, but it continues to be useful to all present scholars.

         The above-described initial flurry of interest in the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in the West was not sustained and from the 1920s to the 1970s, there were no Western scholars who were as deeply engaged as the above-named ones and only a handful of studies that can be said to have done much to advance knowledge. From the 1970s onward, there gradually emerged a new stream of scholars who can be said to be a fusion of the above two groups, the Western and the Bahá'í scholars. This new generation of scholars mostly began as Bahá'ís, although some have subsequently left the religion. They use Western academic methodology and most operate from within Western universities but they have access to insider information and resources. Apart from these individuals, the Bahá'í Faith has been very little studied by Western scholars of religion.

         A word must also be said about what passes for scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith in Iran and to a lesser extent in the rest of the Middle East. Bahá'ís have been persecuted in many Middle Eastern countries and rejected by Islamic leaders, and one form of this discrimination has involved the manipulation of information. For most of the last 100 years, deliberately distorted or falsified information and documents have been created mostly by some within the Islamic religious establishment and then distributed as though these were facts about the Bahá'í Faith. Since the Bahá'ís have had no ability to respond to this material in the Middle East, these distortions have gradually become accepted in the Middle East as the truth. One example is the forged memoirs of Count Dolgorukov, the Russian ambassador to Iran in the 1840s to 1850s. This and other contradictions were so clearly spurious that even some Iranian scholars debunked them when they were first published in the 1940s. But despite this, they are often regularly cited by Middle Eastern writers up to the present day as though they are a reliable source for the history of the religion.

         Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, this manufacturing of disinformation and forged material has increased greatly with programs in the media, articles, and books appearing on a frequent basis, especially in the government-run media. The result is that there is almost nothing published in the Middle East that has reliable information about the Bahá'í Faith in it. A little of this sort of scholarship has also appeared in the West; some Christian missionaries, notably Reverend William McElwee Miller(1892-1993)(Also see WOB83) have written anti-Bahá'í material and ex-Bahá'ís have published academic work that is calculated to make the Bahá'í community resemble a cult as portrayed in the anti-cult campaigns that were carried out in the Western media in the 1980s. [The above was copied from the website Patheos and has been edited for brevity. It was contributed by Dr. Natalie Mobini]

  • See as well the publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ísm-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany.
  • Bahai Scholarship; Comte de Gobineau; E.G.Browne; A L M Nicolas; Baron Viktor Rosen; Aleksandr Tumanski; Mirza Abul Fadl Gulpaygani; Fadil Mazandarani; Abdul Hamid Ishraq Khavari; Azizullah Sulaymani; Reverend William McElwee Miller; Francesco Ficicchia; Rosen; Tumanski; Z****
    1942 (In the year) Dr Malcolm King, a Jamaican who had become a Bahá'í in the United States, introduced the Faith to his homeland. [SDSCp425 note 2]
  • He held meetings at 190 Orange Street in Kingston. By 1943, the people he had taught founded a spiritual assembly in Kingston. [The Gleaner]
  • Jamaica First Bahais by country or area first Jamaican Baha'i
    1942 (In the year) In the village of Daidanaw eleven Bahá'ís were slain. Records, books and documents that had been transferred to Daidanaw from the headquarters in Mandalay and Rangoon were lost when the headquarters building was destroyed by fire. [BW11]p33] Daidanaw; Mandalay; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma) Persecution, Myanmar (Burma); Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1942 1 Jan Shoghi Effendi announced the expulsion of his sister Mehrangiz. [Baha'i News #150 January 1942 p1] BWC Covenant-breakers
    1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí was martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1942 13 Mar The passing of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí. who became a Baha'i in 1875 through the teaching of Jamal Effendi. He was nearly 99 years old at the time of his death.
  • He was born of a noble family from Iraq who had settled in Madras, India where he encounter Jamal Effendi. Together they journeyed to Burma in 1878 and he married and settle in Rangoon. In 1899 he and some others carried the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to the Holy Land for the Holy Remains of the Báb. After the loss of his wife and his business interests in 1910 he was free to devote his full time to the Faith. He was instrumental in establishing a new centre in Daidanaw in the township of Kungyangoon.
  • Among his many services for the Faith he translated the Writing to Urdu and to Burmese.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the 14th of July, 1945 and made a donation for the construction of his tomb. [MoCxxi, BW10p517-520i]
  • Myanmar (Burma); Daidanaw; Thingagyun In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
    1942 Ridván The first local assembly in El Salvador was established in San Salvador. San Salvador LSA first LSA in El Salvador
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cuba was established in Havana.
  • A loose organization had been formed in 1940.
  • Havana LSA first LSA in Cuba
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Haiti was established in Port-au-Prince. Port-au-Prince LSA first LSA in Haiti
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passed away and was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
  • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
  • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
  • Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1942 Jun The Spiritual Assembly of San José, Costa Rica, was legally registered with the government, the first local assembly to be incorporated in Latin America. [BW11:46] San Jose; Costa Rica LSA first LSA incorporated in Latin America
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
  • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
  • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1942 26 Oct Marion Lord Maxwell (‘Miss Mac’) became a Bahá’í, the first Jamaican to accept the Faith. [BW17:429]
  • For the story of her life see BW17:429–30.
  • Jamaica Marion Lord Maxwell first Bahá'í in Jamaica
    1942 16 Nov Manuel Bergés Chupani, of Sánchez, Dominican Republic, became a Bahá’í, perhaps the first native Dominican person to accept the Faith. Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area first native Bahá'í in Dominican Republic
    1942 Late in the year Shoghi Effendi asked Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5] Haifa; Mount Carmel Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Architecture; Architects; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1943 (In the year) Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy (Galler) became a Bahá’í in Chicago, the first native Luxembourger to accept the Faith.
  • She returned to Luxembourg in 1948.
  • Chicago Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy First Bahá'í of Luxembourg
    1943 (In the year) The first Bahá’í group was formed in Bogotá, Colombia, with the celebration of a Unity Feast. Bogota; Colombia Unity Feast first Bahá’í group in Bogotá, Colombia
    1943 (In the year) The first Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Jamaica. [BWNS233] Jamaica First Local Spiritual Assemblies; BWNS first Local Spiritual Assembly in Jamaica
    1943 (In the year) The publication of A Commentary on the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá written by David Hofman by a new publisher, George Ronald. They went on to publish books on business ethics, comparative religion, studies of sacred texts, Islam, poetry, music, novels, biography and philosophy as well as a number of other subjects. George Ronald is primarily a publisher of books related to the history, teachings, doctrines and personalities of the Bahá’í Faith. See the reference for a list of Bahá'í books published up to 2013. [George Ronald A Bibliographic History by Jan Jasion]
  • A current catalogue can be found at their website.
  • United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; George Ronald; Firsts, Other; Publishing; Publishing Trusts; Publications; David Hofman first book published by George Ronald.
    1943 - 1944 Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century, argued in his Book, Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bábí Faith. He falsely claimed that Arthur Conolly, a British intelligence officer who was executed in Bukhara in 1842, had in his Journey to the North of India through Russia, Persia and Afghanistan admitted that Mulla Husayn Bushrui, the first follower of the Báb, was an agent working for him. Adamiyyat further concluded that without the aid of foreign powers such a religious sect could not have survived for so long, thus giving further credence to the conspiracy theories of his time and culture. Although He subsequently came to accept that Conolley had never made such a claim and removed the allegations in later editions of his book, the influence of his initial claim proved to be lasting among Iranians. [Iran Press Watch 1407] Iran; United Kingdom Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Arthur Conolly; Fereidoon Adamiyyat
    1943 8 Jan The exterior ornamentation of the Wilmette Temple was completed. [BW10:181; UD155–6]
  • The cost of the building was $1.3 million. [UD165]
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1943 5 Apr Sir Ronald Storrs visited the House of the Báb in Shiraz. [BW 11:461] Shiraz; Iran Ronald Storrs, Sir; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
    1943 2 May Narayenrao Sethji, Vakíl, the first Hindu believer, passed away in Poona. [BW9:638]
  • For the story of his life see PH17–25.
  • Pune; India Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil first Hindu believer
    1943 23 May Melba M. King (née Call) became a Bahá’í in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the first full-blooded Eskimo, a Yup’ik, to accept the Faith. [BW18:687–8] Albuquerque; New Mexico Melba M. King first full-blooded Eskimo Bahá'í
    1943 30 May The dedication of the Memorial to May Ellis Maxwell, Quilmes Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina. [Bahá'í News July 1943 No 169 page 3, 564/1186] Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Cemeteries and graves
    1943 18 Jun The passing of Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Riswanea) (b. in St. Louis, MO in 1878, d. in Oklahoma City, OK). She was buried in Memorial Park Cemetery, Oklahoma City. [BW9p616-623; Find a grave]
  • "Mable Ives, after she married Howard Colby Ives, became known to many who loved her as Rizwanea. For very many years they traveled and taught the Faith. It was their entire life. They traveled through the New England states, through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, New York and many many more (including Toronto and Hamilton in Canada)- always teaching, always leaving an established Assembly behind them." [Find a grave; TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]
  • They spent nearly the last twenty years of his life as itinerant teachers. (Often teamed up with the Obers and the McKays) For example they came to Toronto in November of 1938 and stayed for about 10 months. During that time Mabel gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and about 70 in Hamilton, Toronto's expansion goal. Howard, who was had had heart problems and who was rapidly losing for sight and hearing at the time, complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls. [TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]
  • St Louis; Oklahoma City; United States Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Riswanea); In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska was established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States First Local Spiritual Assemblies first LSA in Alaska
    1944 (In the year) In Iran a Central Women’s Progress Committee was formed to organize women’s activities throughout the country. Some of the fundamental tasks accomplished by this committee and its supportive bodies in various localities included holding the first convention of Anjoman-e Tarraqī-e Neswān (Society for the Advancement of Women) in 1947 in Tehran following which local and regional conferences, educational gatherings, and regular classes for illiterate women were conducted. As a result of continued effort and educational training, particularly during the Four Year Plan (1946-1950) the Bahá'í Persian women were enabled to acquire sufficient self-confidence and social recognition to fill elective and appointive offices in the community. [BW11p563; BW12p65; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Central Women’s Progress Committee; Society for the Advancement of Women; Womens Rights; Z****
    1944 (In the year) Hand of the Cause Collis Featherstone and his wife, Madge, were introduced to the Bahá’í Faith by Bertha and Joe Dobbins in Adelaide, Australia. They became Bahá’ís later in the year. Adelaide; Australia Collis Featherstone; Madge Featherstone; Bertha Dobbins; Joe Dobbins
    1944 (In the year) A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identified the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchased it. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Purchases and exchanges
    1944 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia incorporated. Australia NSA; Incorporation
    1944 (In the year) The first Bahá’ís arrived in the Mariana Islands.
  • Joseph F. Peter and Joseph Tierno, United States servicemen, were based on Saipan, 1944–5.
  • Saipan Joseph F. Peter; Joseph Tierno first Bahá’ís in Mariana Islands
    1944 22 Jan Prior to mailing the manuscript to Horace Holley, Shoghi Effendi made the last corrections of the last installment of God Passes By. At that time the book had the working title of "Prospect and Retrospect". This marked the culmination of approximately two years of almost continuous work. [PP222] BWC God Passes By (book)
    1944 Apr The first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast was beamed from New York towards South America. [BW9:44–5]
  • VV76 says this was 1943.
  • New York; United States Bahai radio; Firsts, Other first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast
    1944 Ridván The Bahá'ís of the British Isles launched a Six Year Plan (1944-1950). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] United Kingdom Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Jamaica was established in Kingston. Kingston LSA first LSA in Jamaica
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Puerto Rico was established in San Juan. San Juan LSA first LSA in Puerto Rico
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Colombia was established in Bogotá. Bogota LSA first LSA in Colombia
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Honduras was established in Tegucigalpa. Tegucigalpa LSA first LSA in Honduras
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Peru was established in Lima. Lima LSA first LSA in Peru
    1944 May The British at their national convention, decided to ask the Guardian for their own Six Year Plan. [UDXVI]
  • He responded immediately by setting them the task of forming 19 assemblies spread over England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire. [UD173]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this as ‘their first collective enterprise’. [UDXVI, 173–4]
  • See also BBRSM158, 185.
  • United Kingdom; Ireland Conventions, National; Teaching Plans, National; Firsts, Other; LSA first British collective enterprise
    1944 May The first All-American Bahá’í Convention was held.
  • For the first time the delegates had been selected at state and provincial conventions by votes from all believers rather than by communities with local assemblies. [BW9:44; PP390]
  • North America; United States Conventions, National; Conventions, District; First conventions first All-American Bahá’í Convention Hilda Yen joins Bahá'í Faith (Wikipedia)
    1944 2 May The German government held a public trial of some of the jailed Bahá'í leaders in Darmstadt. Dr. Hermann Grossmann was allowed to testify as a witness for the defense about the non-political nature of the Bahá'í Faith and the attitude of the trial had been pre-ordained. The government found the Bahá'ís guilty, levied large fines and banned all Bahá'í institutions ordering that they be immediately disbanded. [Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Darmstadt; Germany Persecution, Germany; Hermann Grossmann; Z****
    1944 12 May Bahá’ís were persecuted at Ábádih, Iran. The Bahá’í centre was attacked by a mob of four thousand, the building was looted and destroyed and several Bahá’ís badly beaten. [BW18:389]
  • For Western accounts see BBR479.
  • Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs; Haziratul-Quds
    1944 19–25 May An international celebration of the Centenary of the founding of the Faith was held at the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • For a description of this event see BW10:158–61.
  • For the programme see BW10:162–70.
  • For a list of the countries participating in the conference see BW10:168.
  • Wilmette; United States Centenaries; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1944 22 May Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb.

  • For a survey of the growth and development of the Bahá’í Faith in the hundred years since its inception see BW10:142–9.
  • Celebrations were held in many parts of the world:
  • Britain [BW10:188–201]
      Sir Ronald Storrs delivered an address at the opening of the Bahá'í Centenary Exhibition in London. These are extracts from that speech: “My first glimpse of ‘Abbás Effendi was in the summer of 1909, when I drove round the Bay of Acre in an Arab cab, visited him in the barracks and marveled at his serenity and cheerfulness after 42 years of exile and imprisonment. I kept touch with him through my confidential agent, Husayn Bey Ruhi, son of a Tabriz martyr. [BW10p189-195]
  • India [BW10:202–8]
  • Egypt [BW10:208–17]
  • Iraq [BW10:217–22]
  • Australia [BW 10:222–8]
  • Latin America [BW10:228–33]
  • The end of the celebrations marking this occasion signal the end of the First Epoch of the Formative Age. [BBD79; CF5; PP390]
  • Worldwide Centenaries; Bab, Declaration of; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
    1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
  • Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assembled discreetly for the occasion.
  • For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it were made see BW10:181–3.
  • The Guardian sent the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
  • For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Declaration of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Conventions, National; NSA; Centenaries
    1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was commemorated in the Holy Land. [BW10:150]
  • For a description of this event by Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW10:150–7.
  • For press accounts see BW10:156–7.
  • Haifa Centenaries; Bab, Declaration of
    1944 23 May Shoghi Effendi unveiled the model of the Shrine of the Báb at the centenary celebration of the Declaration of the Báb in Haifa. [BBD210; BW10:154, 157; DH140; GBF104; PP239–40; UD166]
  • BW10:157 suggests this was 24 May.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Declaration of; Centenaries; Models; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1944 8 Aug Three Bahá’ís were murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted. [BW18:389]
  • The murderers confessed, were put on trial and were acquitted. [BW18:389, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • Shahrud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases
    1944 after Aug Following the murder of Bahá’ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there was an upsurge in persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:389]
  • At Ábádih Bahá’ís were beaten and their houses were sacked. [BW18:389]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Bandar Jaz was attacked. [BW18:389]
  • Two Bahá’ís were knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers were set free and attacked a further three Bahá’ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís, including women and children, were attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá’í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná’in. [BW13:390]
  • Bahá’í houses were set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery at Mahmúdábád was desecrated.
  • Bahá’ís were beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390]
  • Iran; Abadih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Shah; Bushruyih; Faran; Kashan; Nain; Gulpaygan; Zabul; Bujnurd; Gunabad; Tabas; Mahmudabad; Miyan-du-ab; Rafsanjan; Sangsar; Sirjan; Qasr-i-Shirin Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1944 Nov The Local Spiritual Assembly of Bogotá, Colombia, was disbanded.
  • It was not reformed until April 1946.
  • Bogota; Colombia LSA
    1944 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
    1944 Nov (mid) The publication of God Passes By, a history of the first century of the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths by Shoghi Effendi. [BBRSM137; CB308; PG217-218; GPBXI; BEL5.62]
  • Shoghi Effendi intended the book to be a gift to the Bahá’ís of the West on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of the Báb but conditions in the United States delayed its publication. [GT79–80; PP224]
  • For information on how Shoghi Effendi wrote the book, "the only true book we have from his pen", see GBF95–6 and PP222–4.
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; God Passes By (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Gifts; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1945 (In the year) The Persian Bahá'í community published several periodicals. One of the most popular, aiming at the educational and intellectual training of Bahai youth, was named Āhang-e badīʿ. It was established in Iran in 1945 as a publication of the Tehran Bahá'í Youth Committee and then became a national magazine which gained the support of 1,200 subscribers in the early 1950s. Suspended for five years (1955-60) due to intensified restrictions by the government, Āhang-e badīʿ was published for more than three decades until it was stopped by the onset of the Islamic régime. [BW12p292; BW16p263; BW12p570; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Ahang-e badi; Z****
    1945 (In the year) Bahá’ís throughout Iran were dismissed from National Teacher Training Colleges by the National Board of Education. [BW18:390] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    1945 (In the year) The World Forestry Charter Gathering was founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1945 (In the year) See BBRSM166–7 for a chart showing the distribution of the Bahá’í Assemblies and localities in this year. Worldwide Statistics
    1945 13 Mar Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí passed away at the age of 99, in Burma. [BW10:519; PH23]
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW10:519]
  • For his obituary see BW10:517–20.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute see BW10:519–20 and DND215.
  • Myanmar (Burma) Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1945 Ridván Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in Ecuador was established in Guayaquil. Guayaquil; Ecuador LSA first LSA in Ecuador
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in the Dominican Republic was established in Santo Domingo.
  • There were nine indigenous believers in the city.
  • Santo Domingo LSA first LSA in Dominican Republic
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Bolivia was established in La Paz. La Paz LSA first LSA in Bolivia
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Venezuela was established in Caracas. Caracas LSA first LSA in Venezuela
    1945 25 Apr The United Nations convened in San Francisco.
  • For the Bahá’í response see BW17:81.
  • San Francisco United Nations
    1945 8 May The war in Europe ended.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
  • For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
  • Europe World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 Jun The 20 Bahá’ís in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, were a sufficient number for the local spiritual assembly to gain legal recognition for the Bahá’í Faith as a religion.
  • It was registered as a cultural, religious and social organization on 5 August 1946.
  • Port-au-Prince; Haiti LSA
    1945 Aug Marguerite Wellby Preston, an English Bahá’í married to a Kenyan tea grower, settled in Sotik, Kenya, becoming the first Bahá’í in the country. [UD484]
  • Until the 1950s she was the only Bahá’í in East Africa. [UD484]
  • Sotik; Kenya Marguerite Preston first Bahá’í in Kenya
    1945 1 Aug Initially founded as a hostel for Bahá'í children with sixteen children, what was the New Era High School and Senior Secondary had grown to become a leading international co-educational institution with many hundreds of students.
  • Founded as a separate institution in 1987, the New Era Development Institute had its beginnings as a service project for students in the 1970s and 1980s when the school set up programmes to assist the poor and underdeveloped villages in the region. [New Era High School and Senior Secondary website, Wikipedia, BBD171; BBRSM153]
  • For the history of the school see BW16:320–6.
  • Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era High School; Bahai schools; New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development
    1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtained permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
  • A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Bahá'ís sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
  • Brief mention of this event is made in this film on Vimeo.
  • Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer; Z****
    1945 2 Sep The war in Japan ended. Japan World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 20 Oct Emeric and Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert, Quebec departed on a four month tour of Central and South America. They visited 19 republics and Mr Sala gave seventy-nine talks. They visited many pioneers and paid homage at the grave of May Maxwell at Quilmes, about one hour from Buenos Aires. [TG93-101] Central America; South America; St Lambert; Quebec; Canada Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala
    1945 24 Oct The United Nations was formally established.
  • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
  • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
  • San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
    1946 (In the year) Between 1946 and 1951, Johanne Sorensen (later Hoeg), the first Danish Bahá’í, sent letters and Bahá’í literature to 93 towns, villages, settlements, and radio stations throughout Greenland.
  • Hendrik Olsen, the first Bahá’í indigenous to Greenland, enrolled in 1965 after receiving a Bahá’í book from Miss Sorensen in 1946 and maintaining a 17-year correspondence with her.
  • Greenland Johanne Sorensen; Hendrik Olsen first Danish Bahá’í; first indigenous Bahá’í in Greenland
    1946 (In the year) The first Bahá’í summer school in Argentina was held in Ezeiza. [BW11:45] Ezeiza; Argentina Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í summer school in Argentina
    1946 (In the year) The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán was completed. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1946 Jan-Feb Canadian Elizabeth Greenleaf went on pilgrimage in Haifa. [SETPE1p114] Haifa Elizabeth Greenleaf; Pilgrims
    1946 20 - 25 Jan The first teaching conference in Latin America was held in Panama City on the instructions of Shoghi Effendi.
  • Twenty–five delegates from ten South American countries attended. [BW10p707, Historical Background of the Panama Temple by Ruth Pringle]
  • Panama; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching first teaching conference in Latin America
    1946 11 Apr Shoghi Effendi instructed Sutherland Maxwell to set plans in motion for the first stages of the building of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [GBF104–5] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1946 Ridván India and Burma launched a Four and One-Half Year Plan. (1946-1951) [Ruhi 8.2 p46] India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1946 Ridván The Second Seven Year Plan of the United States and Canada (1946-1953) was launched. [BBR180; BBRSM158, 185; MA87-89, MA89]
  • This marked the beginning of the second epoch of the Formative Age. [CB316; CF5–6]
  • For details of the plan see BW16:81–2.
  • United States; Canada Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1946-1953); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Panama was established Panama City. Panama LSA first LSA in Panama
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro LSA first LSA in Brazil
    1946 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was re-established. [BBRSM185]
  • It was elected for the first time since 1937.
  • Three American soldiers are members. [BBRSM185]
  • Germany; Austria NSA Germany and Austria
    1946 Jun Rita Marshall, the first person native to St Vincent in the Caribbean to become a Bahá’í, accepted the Faith while in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Her husband, Ernest Marshall, became a Bahá’í in November 1946.
  • St Vincent; Halifax; Nova Scotia; Canada First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í of St Vincent
    1946 22 Jul The passing of John David Bosch (named "Núraní by 'Abdu'l-Bahá) at his home near Geyserville, California (b. August 1, 1855 at Neu-St Johann, Canton Gall, Switzerland) He had become a Bahá'í in 1905. His teachers being Mrs Beckwith, Mrs Goodall, Mrs Cooper and Thornton Chase. He was buried in the Olive Hill Cemetery, Geyserville.
  • He, along with George Latimer and Leroy Ioas, were appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly to find a location to establish a "Western Green Acre". John donated his 35 acre estate.
  • For a pen portrait and biography of John and Louise Bosch see Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail pages 182-194 or Bahá'í News page 705.
  • For pictures of John and Louise Bosch see the Bosch Bahá'í School site.
  • Geyserville; California; United States In Memoriam; John Bosch; Louise Bosch
    1946 5 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was registered as a cultural, religious and social organization in Haiti. Haiti Recognition
    1946 11 Aug The passing of Orcella Rexford (Louise Cutts-Powell) (b.12 Jun 1887 in Tracey, Minnesota) in Los Angeles. She was buried near the grave of Thornton Chase in the Inglewood Park Cemetery. [BW11p495-498; Find a grave] Los Angeles; United States Orcella Rexford; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Thornton Chase
    1946 Oct A four-and-a-half year teaching plan for India, Pakistan and Burma (1946–50) was launched. [BBRSM158; CB316] India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1946 Oct 11 The Bahá'ís of Iran launched a Forty-five Month Plan ( 11 October, 1946 to 9 July, 1950, The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb). Every province had specific assignments. [BBRSM158; CB316] The objectives of the plan included;

    1. Consolidation of all local Bahá'í communities.

    2. Reestablishment of 62 dissolved Assemblies. (93 LSAs formed)

    3. Formation of 22 groups.(37 established)

    4. Creation of 13 new centres. (24 localities established)

    5. Development of Assemblies from groups in three adjoining countries, namely in Kabul, Afghanistan, Mecca, Arabia and Bahrein Island, Persian Gulf.

    6. The formation of groups in four localities on the Arabian Peniinsula.

    7. The sending pioneers to India and 'Iráq to assist in the formation of new groups.

    The Bahá'ís of Tehran were called upon to send out 50 families into the pioneer field. (160 arose) Every individual Bahá'í was included in the operation of the Plan-as a volunteer, by deputizing a pioneer, by contributing funds, by circuit teaching or by providing hospitality to students whose parents had become pioneers. [BW4p34-35; BW11p34-36]

  • Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan the Bahá'ís of Iran made a concerted effort to remove Bahá'í women from the traditional shackles of a lack of education an an inability to participate in public affairs. Women's conferences were held, educational opportunities were created, equality of opportunity , right and privilege was declared to be a an essential. [BW11p36].
  • Iran Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Social and economic development; Women
    1946 22 Nov Amelia Collins WAs appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [PP258; PSBW878]
  • He dId not make this appointment public until 24 December, 1951 when he announced the first contingent of the Hands. [MoCxxiii]
  • Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhammad Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Muhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who had killed the two brothers Muhammad Husayn and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encountered many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
  • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1946 23 Dec Virginia Orbison, from the United States, left Brazil for a pioneer post in Madrid.
  • The airplane she traveled in was named ‘O bandeirante’ (‘The Pioneer’).
  • Madrid Virginia Orbison
    1947 (In the year) The first Chilean Teaching Conference was held in Santiago. Santiago; Chile Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences first Teaching Conference in Chile
    1947 (In the year) Gladys Anderson Weeden arrived at the World Centre to assist Shoghi Effendi, and took responsibility for liaising with government and other officials. [BW18:694]
  • She married Ben Weeden on 20 March 1948 in Jerusalem; he assisted with building projects at the World Centre. [BW15:478; BW18:694]
  • BWC Gladys Anderson Weeden; Ben Weeden
    1947 (In the year) The Hazíratu’l-Quds of Tihrán was completed. [BW11:588] Tihran; Iran Haziratul-Quds
    1947 (In the year) The Iraqi teaching plan (1947–50), comprising internal goals only, was launched. [BBRSM158] Iraq Teaching plans
    1947 (In the year) The Australian-New Zealand teaching plan (1947–53), comprising internal goals only, was launched. [BBRSM158] Australia; New Zealand Teaching plans
    1947 (In the year) The first summer school in Chile took place in Loncoche on property donated by Mrs Fabienne Guillon. Loncoche; Chile Fabienne Guillon first summer school in Chile
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Bahá'í community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Bahá'í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."
  • Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Bahá'í Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]
  • New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS the first delegation of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations
    1947 7 Feb Honor Kempton arrived in Luxembourg, the first pioneer to the country. Luxembourg Honor Kempton first pioneer to Luxembourg
    1947 Apr The Tokyo Spiritual Assembly, suspended during the war, was re-established. Tokyo LSA
    1947 (Spring) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization. [BW12:597; PP303] America NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO
    1947 Ridván The Bahá'ís of Iraq launched a Three Year Plan (1947-1950). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] Iraq Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1947 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand launched a Six Year Plan (1947-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] Australia; New Zealand Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1947 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma was established. India; Myanmar (Burma) NSA India and Burma
    1947 Ridván The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Amsterdam, the first in the Netherlands. Amsterdam; Netherlands LSA first local spiritual assembly in the Netherlands find ref
    1947 May Clarence Iverson visited the Bahamas, the first recorded visit to the islands by a Bahá’í. Bahamas First Bahais by country or area; Islands first recorded visit to Bahamas
    1947 20 Jun George Townshend sent a letter of resignation from the Church of Ireland to the Bishop of Killaloe, naming 30 September for the effective date. [GT195] Ireland George Townshend
    1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih was martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Bahá'í, Habib Allah Hushmand, was murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Shahi; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1947 5 Jul Manuel Garcia Vasquez became a Bahá’í in Spain, the first believer in the country. Spain First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Spain
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi received a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith had to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
  • Shoghi Effendi replied on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. [BW11:43–4]
  • He also included a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
  • For the text of this latter statement see GTT1–10.
  • Haifa; Palestine United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications
    1947 Sep Léa Nys became a Bahá’í in Belgium, the first Belgian to accept the Faith after World War Two.
  • She is considered the first Belgian Bahá’í.
  • Belgium First Bahais by country or area first Belgian Bahá'í
    1947 13 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. In 1933 Qassabchí had suffered a severe attack of paralysis which he narrowly survived and as a result of which he could hardly move or speak for the rest of his life. He was buried at Salman Pak, about thirty miles southeast of Baghdad. [BW11p502-503]
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. Prior to that he had made the acquaintance of Músá Banání and had been impressed with the young man's honesty. With regard to his service to the Faith, after WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and he participated in no small measure to the erection of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in the village of Avasiq, the first built in Iraq.
  • His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503]
  • Baghdad; Avashiq; Iraq Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bab, Shrine of; Musa Banani first Hazíratu'l-Quds in Iraq in the village of Avashiq
    1947 30 Sep George Townshend, at the age of 71 years, resigned his position with the Church of Ireland. [GT195]
  • He was the first ordained priest of a Christian Protestant church to renounce his Orders and to become a fully accredited member of the Bahá’í community. [GT183]
  • For the story of his resignation and transition to a lay life see GT199–200, 202.
  • Ireland George Townshend first ordained priest of a Protestant church to renounce his Orders and become Bahá'í
    1947 17 Nov The first two Danes to accept the Faith, May Marit Vestby and Palle Benemann Bischoff became Bahá’ís. Denmark May Marit Vestby; Palle Benemann Bischoff first two Danish Bahá’ís
    1947 12 Dec The first pioneer to Portugal, Valeria Lamb Nicols, arrived from a pioneer post in Denmark. Portugal First Bahais by country or area first pioneer to Portugal
    1947 31 Dec Suzette Hipp became a Bahá’í in Luxembourg, the second Luxembourger to accept the Faith and the first to do so in Luxembourg. Luxembourg First Bahais by country or area first to become Bahá'í in Luxembourg
    1948 (In the year) Starting in 1948 the Bahá'í women of Iran published a monthly magazine called Tarāna-ye omīd. Its purpose was to educate and entertain Bahá'í families with special attention to women’s affairs. After some years of suspension it reappeared in 1973 and continued to publish until 1979. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Taranaye omid; publications; Z****
    1948 (In the year) The first Bahá’í school in Haiti was inaugurated in Carrefour, a suburb of Port-au-Prince. Haiti Bahai schools; Firsts, Other first Bahá’í school in Haiti
    1948 (In the year) In the German Democratic Republic all Bahá'í activities were banned. In 1991, for the first time in 53 years, the Bahá'ís in eastern Germany elected delegates to the National Assembly. After 55 years, the Spiritual Assembly was re-formed in Leipzig. [German Bahá'í website] German Democratic Republic Persecution, Germany; Z****
    1948 (In the year) Douglas P. Hillhouse, a Captain in the United States military, was stationed on St Thomas until 1951, the first Bahá’í to reside on the island. St Thomas Douglas P. Hillhouse first Bahá’í to reside on St Thomas
    1948 - 1951 The Bahá’í centre in Yazd, Iran, was attacked by a mob incited by Shaykh Khalisízádih. He was a man consumed with hatred toward religious minorities, most ferociously against the Bahá'ís in and around Yazd. He had some twenty hooligans on salary to harass, intimate and assault the local Bahá'ís. He had the tacit support of some local government officials who had been ordered by Prime Minister Haj 'Alí Razmara to ignore any complaints from Bahá'ís. [BW18:390; SCF105] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs; Haziratul-Quds
    1948 (In the year) The first publication of The Pattern of Bahá'í Life in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Reprints were subsequently done in 1953, 1963 and 1983. [BEL4.189-4.190]
  • It was a selection of passages dealing with Bahá'í moral teaching and personal qualities, arranged under categories of purity, kindliness and radiance.
  • It was fully revised in 1990 on behalf of the Universal House of Justice by the National Spiritual Assembly of India. [Details]
  • London; United Kingdom Pattern of Bahai Life (compilation); Compilations
    1948 (In the year) The Bahá’í centre in Tihrán was attacked by a mob incited by Áyatu’lláh Káshání. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Ayatullah Kashani; Ayatollahs; Haziratul-Quds; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1948 (In the year) A Bahá’í was killed after an attack on his home at Chálih-Zamín, Iran. [BW18:390] Chalih-Zamin; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 (In the year) Pauline Campbell arrived in Bermuda, where her husband was stationed at the United States Air Force Base. She was the only Bahá’í in Bermuda until 1951. Bermuda First travel teachers and pioneers first Bahá’í resident in Bermuda
    1948 (In the year) The owners of a house near the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh fled and the house became government property. [DH226]
  • Shoghi Effendi restored the house and made it a pilgrim house. [DH226]
  • He acquired the title in about 1956 as part of the exchange of the Ein Gev properties. [DH226]
  • Bahji Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Pilgrim Houses; Purchases and exchanges; Restoration
    1948 (In the year) The Germano-Austrian teaching plan (1948–53), comprising internal goals only, was launched. [BBRSM158] Germany; Austria Teaching Plans
    1948 (In the year) The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was damaged by an earthquake. [BBD 122; BW14:480] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1948 (In the year) War broke out in Palestine.
  • See DH118 for the effect on the Bahá’ís.
  • Palestine War (general); History (general)
    1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand was martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] Sarvistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 Mar The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ was first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597]
  • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
  • Mildred Mottahedeh was appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she held as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
  • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
  • New York; United States BIC; NGO; Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; UNEP; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used
    1948 20 Mar The marriage of Gladys Andersen to Ben Weeden took place in Jerusalem under the auspices of the Spiritual Assembly of Amman. They made efforts to have their marriage recognized at the American Consulate and at the offices of the British Mandate but were unable to do so considering the shifting situation. After the end of the British Mandate they took the matter up with the new state of Israel and it was handled expeditiously thus obtaining full recognition of the Faith and its right to perform marriages. [SETPE1p341] Israel; Amman; Jordan Weddings; Recognition First Bahá'í marriage to be registered in the new state of Israel. First wedding of Western Bahá'ís by Eastern Bahá'ís.
    1948 Apr Contracts were placed in Italy for the rose Baveno granite columns for the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140]
  • The first shipment of stone reaches Haifa on 23 November 1948.
  • For details of securing the contract and cutting the stone see SE68–83.
  • Italy Bab, Shrine of; Granite
    1948 19 Apr The Havana Bahá’ís incorporated as an ‘assembly’, meaning ‘group’.
  • It was incorporated as a local spiritual assembly in 1949.
  • Havana LSA
    1948 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Egypt and Sudan launched a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158] Egypt; Sudan Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1948 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Germany and Austria launched a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] Germany; Austria Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1948 Ridván The newly formed National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada launched a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46]
  • The objective was to expand the Faith into Newfoundland and Greenland. [BBRSM158]
  • Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Netherlands was established in Amsterdam. [BW11p654] Amsterdam; Netherlands LSA first LSA in the Netherlands
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Belgium was established in Brussels. [BW11p727] Brussels; Belgium LSA first LSA in Belgium
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Afghanistan was established in Kabul. Kabul LSA first LSA in Afghanistan
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Ireland was established in Dublin. Dublin LSA first LSA in Ireland
    1948 Ridván The first All-Native Bahá’í Assembly was established in Macy, Nebraska. [BW13:837; CF72]
  • See BW11:536 for a picture.
  • For the role of Amelia Collins in establishing this Assembly see PSBW88.
  • Macy; Nebraska Amelia Collins; LSA first All-Native LSA Macy, Nebraska
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Sweden was established in Stockholm. [BW11:689]
  • For picture see BW11:689.
  • Stockholm LSA first LSA in Sweden
    1948 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Budapest reformed. The Assembly was forced to dissolve again near the end of 1950 under the new regime. Most Bahá'ís fled the country during or after the Revolution in 1956. [www.bahai.hu]. Budapest; Hungary LSA; Re-form
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Spain was established in Madrid. Madrid LSA first LSA in Spain
    1948 Ridván The first Bahá'í institution in Italy, the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'iís of Rome was elected.
  • See picture.
  • Rome; Italy LSA first Spiritual Assembly in Italy
    1948 Ridvan The formation of the first Spiritual Assembly in Cardiff. See CG9 for a picture. Cardiff,Wales LSA
    1948 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United State. Those elected were: Corinne True, William H Randall, Ella G Cooper, Charles Mason Remey, Zia Bagdadi, Montfort Mills, Roy C Wilhelm, Alfred E Lunt, and Louis G Gregory. [from chart of National Assembly members United States Corinne True; William H Randall; Ella G Cooper; Charles Mason Remey; Zia Bagdadi; Montfort Mills; Roy C Wilhelm; Alfred E Lunt; Louis G Gregory first National Spiritual Assembly of the United States
    1948 21 - 22 Apr The 2nd Battle of Haifa: A Jewish offensive to gain control of the strategic port of Haifa. Prior to the 30-hour battle the Arab population of Haifa was estimated to be 65,000 compared to 70,000 Palestinian Jews. At the end of the operation the Arab population was reduced to about 4,000 people. [Battle of Haifa] Haifa War (general); History (general)
    1948 24 - 25 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada was established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397]
  • See BW11:160, 184 for pictures.
  • The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell's home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269]
  • For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
  • Canada NSA; National Convention; Laura Davis; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner; Doris Richardson; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ross Woodman first NSA Canada
    1948 May The Bahá’í International Community took part in its first United Nations conference, on human rights. [BW11:43] Bahai International Community; BIC; United Nations; Human rights first United Nations conference, on human rights
    1948 14 May The British Mandate in Palestine ended and the state of Israel was proclaimed. Palestine; Israel; Haifa Britain; History (general) Creation of the state of Israel declared
    1948 22 – 26 May The first Bahá’í European Conference was held in Geneva. [BW11:51]
  • For details of the conference see BW11:51–2.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International first Bahá’í European Conference
    1948 Dec Amjad Ali arriveed in East Pakistan, from Chapra in Bihar, northern India, the first pioneer in the country. Bangladesh; Asia First Bahais by country or area first pioneer to East Pakistan
    1949 (In the year) The pamphlet written by by George Townshend to all Christians under the title The Old Churches and the New World Faith was sent out to 10,000 “responsible people” in the British Isles on the occasion of his resignation from the church. [UD470] Ireland; United Kingdom George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
    1949 (In the year) Construction began on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210] BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1949 (In the year) A Bahá’í in Kamshatti, near Calcutta, was martyred by a religious fanatic. [BW11:34] Kolkata (Calcutta); India Persecution, India; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 (In the year) Agnes Harrison (née Parent), an Athabascan, became a Bahá’í in Alaska, the first Native Alaskan to accept the Faith in the country. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area first Native Alaskan
    1949 (In the year) Dr. Sulayman Birjis was brutally murdered in Kashan, Iran. His killers, who had collectively confessed to his murder, were all exonerated due to "the lack of evidence." [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi had a private interview with Prime Minister Ben Gurion of Israel. [GBF136; PP174–5, 289] Israel Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Ben Gurion; Prime Ministers; Prominent visitors
    1949 4 Feb There was an attempt on the life of the Shah during a ceremony commemorating the founding of Tehran University. The enemies of the Faith took advantage of the instability to launch attacks against the Bahá'ís throughout Iran. [SCF107] Tihran; Iran Shah of Iran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    1949 15 Apr Dr M. E. Lukmani, a homeopathic physician from India, arrived in Colombo, the first Bahá’í to settle in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Colombo M. E. Lukmani first Bahá’í to settle in Ceylon
    1949 20 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Portugal was established in Lisbon. Lisbon LSA first LSA in Portugal
    1949 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Denmark was established in Copenhagen. Copenhagen LSA first LSA in Denmark
    1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
  • He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
  • In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm were invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
  • He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
  • One of his most outstanding achievements was his role in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
  • He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of the Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
  • United States; Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); In Memoriam; Edward Granville Browne; Births and deaths; Covenant-breakers
    1949 30 Apr An Act to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada was passed. The act established the name, named the officers as directors, stated the location of the headquarters, defined the objectives, gave it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states.

  • The pdf for the Act can be found here.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly members at that time were John Aldham Robarts, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, manager; Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Dame Laura Romney Davis, wife of Victor Davis of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; Siegfried Schopflocher, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Rowland Ardouin Estall, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, insurance broker; Ross Greig Woodman, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, lecturer; Lloyd George Gardner, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, wholesaler; and Dame Doris Cecilia Richardson, wife of J. P. Richardson, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; and Dame Rosemarv Scott Sala, wife of the said Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province Corporate of Quebec.
  • See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 19 June, 1949 for his comments.
  • Canada NSA; Incorporation; Firsts, Other; Recognition first national assembly to be formally incorporated.
    1949 5 – 7 Aug The second European Teaching Conference was held in Brussels. [BW11:52] Brussels; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences
    1949 16 Aug The passing of Lilian Vaughan McNeill (b.1 December, 1879). In May, 1931 she and her husband, Brigadier General Angus McNeill had taken a lease on the abandoned property at Mazra'ih where they lived until her passing. They had restored the house and property respecting the fact that Bahá'u'lláh and His family had lived there from June 1877 until September, 1879. In 1981 the staff at the Bahá'í World Centre discovered her simple grave in the Commonwealth Cemetery in Haifa and, with the permission of her family, erected a befitting and dignified memorial. She had been a childhood friend of Marie Alexandra Victoria (Queen Marie of Romania). During her latter years at Maza'ih she wrote a series of short stories, some of which were published in the local English-language newspaper. [BW19p779-782] Mazraih; Akka In Memoriam; Lilian Barron McNeill; Angus McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Cemeteries and graves; Queen Marie of Romania
    1949 9 Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  • It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
  • The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
  • Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
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