Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Bahá'í Chronology: years 196-

 Enter the first part of a date or an entire date, with or without hyphens, in the form Year-Month-Day. Examples:
century:18-- decade:184- year:1848 month:1848-03 day:1848-03-03

or jump to:   1700s . . . 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s . . . 2000s 2010s search, tips, key

196-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1960 (In the decade) A number of Bahá’í primary schools are opened in Bolivia. Bolivia
1960s, early The first woman Somali to become a Bahá’í, Fatumeh Jama, enrols. Somalia Fatumeh Jama first Bahá’í woman Somalia
1960s, early Two Bahá’í primary schools open in Uganda. Uganda
1960 The first Côte d’Ivorian to become a Bahá’í, Mr Un Bodo, a Bété from the region of Gagnoa working as a policeman in Abidjan, enrols. Ivory Coast Un Bodo first Côte d’Ivorian a Bahá’í
1960 The first Maya-Quiche to become a Bahá’í in Guatemala, Filomena Cajas de Velasquez, a tourist guide, enrols.
  • She is later the first Guatemalan woman to serve on the national spiritual assembly.
Guatemala Filomena Cajas de Velasquez first Maya-Quiche Bahá’í; first Guatemalan woman on NSA
1960 Bahá’ís in Angola are detained and questioned by officials.
  • Joaquim Sampaio is carried off in the middle of the night and is never seen again. It is presumed that he was executed or died in a prison camp.
  • One family is forced to leave the country.
Angola religious persecution; Joaquim Sampaio
1960 The first local spiritual assembly in the Cocos Islands is formed on West Island.
  • For picture see BW13:1052.
West Island LSA first LSA Cocos Islands
1960 Ridván c. Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claims he is the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
  • See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
  • See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
Hand of the Cause; Charles Mason Remey
1960 Ridván The Custodians announce that the Bahá’í Faith is represented in over 256 territories and is established in over 5,800 localities; there are 31 national spiritual assemblies and nearly 1,500 local spiritual assemblies; and Bahá’í literature is in 268 languages. [Mc183–96] Haifa Custodian
1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Baha’i Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 28 Apr The Custodians call upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7] Haifa Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
France Hands of the Cause; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breakers
1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-Breaker
1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Baha’i Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-Breaker
1960 17 – 18 May The Bahá’í International Community attends a meeting called by the United Nations Office of Public Information to discuss problems of cooperation ‘with the United Nations family insofar as its programme affects the new nations’. The Bahá’í statement regarding this becomes part of the conference record. [BW13:792]
  • For text of statement see BW13:792–4.
BIC
1960 1 Jul Ben and Louise Whitecow (early Peigan believers) marry in Calgary, Alberta, the first Bahá’ís in Canada to have a legally recognized Bahá’í marriage. [BW13:687] Calgary; Alberta Ben and Louise Whitecow first Bahá’ís in Canada to have legally recognized Bahá’í marriage
1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
  • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
  • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
  • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause of God; In Memoriam; Appointment Hands - First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Read-aloud Plays; Play
1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hand of the Cause of God; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breaker
1960 Aug All Bahá’í activity in Egypt is prohibited by Presidential Decree No 263 issued by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria). Bahá’ís are interrogated, arrested, fined and imprisoned and their property confiscated. [BBRSM174; MC228]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
Egypt religious persecution
1960 3 Aug Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangela, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John Byers and Mary Wilkin. [Ministry of the Custodians p223] BWC Covenant-Breakers; John Carre; Barnard Fillon; Moneer Darakhshan; Joel Marangela; Jaques Soghomonian; Donald Harvey; John Byers; Mary Wilkin
1960 18 – 27 Oct The fourth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC229] ‘Akká Bahji; Hand of the Cause; Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God
1960 2 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fourth Conclave. [MC237–44]
  • All the Hands of the Cause are henceforth to render their services on a global, rather than a regional, scale. [MC239]
Haifa Hand of the Cause
1960 18 Nov Clara Dunn, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Sydney. (b.12 May 1869) [BW13:859; MC245]
  • For her obituary see BW13:859–62.
  • For cable from the Hands see MC245.
  • See also SBR153–75.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
Sydney; Australia Clara Dunn; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1960 20 Nov The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship is laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
  • See also MC14–15, 236.
Langenhain; Germany House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1960 Dec Mr Yan Kee Leong of Malaysia takes the Bahá’í Faith to the remote Iban people of Brunei. Brunei Yan Kee Leong first teacher Iban people
1960 Dec Philip Suning, the first member of the Iban tribe to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Brunei Philip Suning first Bahá’í Iban tribe
1960 Late Eric Moyce and Gay Corker, both youth and the first two local people to become Bahá’ís in St Helena, enrol. St Helena Eric Moyce; Gay Corker first local Bahá’ís in St Helena
1961 Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá’í in the Virgin Islands, enrols. Virgin Islands Knud Jensen first Bahá’í in Virgin Islands
1961 The military government in Indonesia issues instructions to local authorities to ban all Bahá’í activities and to confiscate all Bahá’í property. [MC329] Indonesia religious persecution
1961 Jan - Feb Hand of the Cause of God Dr Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir travels to India and demonstrates the principle of mass teaching. [DM172–84; SBBH2:165–7]
  • Mass teaching begins in the rural area of Madhya Pradesh among the Hindu population. In 1961 there are 850 Bahá’ís; in 1963 87,000; by 1973 nearly 400,000; and by 1987 about two million. In 1983 45 per cent of all local spiritual assemblies are in India. [BBRSM195; BW13:299]
India Hand of the Cause; Rahmatu’llah Muhajir
1961 14 Jan The House of’ Worship in Kampala, the Mother Temple of Africa, is dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:713–14]
  • For details of the service and a picture see BW13:714. [TG159]
  • Enoch Olinga is not present because of the unrest in British Cameroons. [TG160]
Kampala; Uganda Mother Temple; House of’ Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1961 15 Jan The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MC15]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC2503.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC253.
Kampala; Uganda House of’ Worship; Hand of the Cause; Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1961 17 Jan Following the arrest of Bahá’ís in Turkey in March 1959 and the subsequent court case, the Turkish court receives the findings of three outstanding religious scholars that the Bahá’í Faith is an independent religion. [MC308]
  • For details of the history of the case see MC306–8..
Turkey religious persecution
1961 21 – 25 Feb The first Indian congress of Bolivia is held in Oruro, with Indians participating. [BW13:268] Oruro; Bolivia first Indian congress of Bolivia
1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
  • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
  • For cables from the Custodians see MC257.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Rutstein, Corinne True.
Chicago; US Corinne True; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1961 Ridván The International Bahá’í Council is elected for the first time, by postal ballot of the members of the national spiritual assemblies. [BW13:397; MC282]
  • The members are Jessie Revell, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, Ethel Revell, Charles Wolcott, Sylvia Ioas, Mildred Mottahedeh, Ian Semple and Borrah Kavelin. [MC282]
  • See BW13:398 for picture.
  • See also BBD118; BBRSM131; BW16:90; CB324; MC168, 242.
Haifa International Baha’i Council; Jessie Revell; ‘Ali Nakhjavani; Lutfu’llah Hakim; Ethel Revell; Charles Wolcott; Sylvia Ioas; Mildred Mottahedeh; Ian Semple; Borrah Kavelin first election IBC by postal ballot
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Argentina is formed. [BW13:258] Argentina NSA first NSA Argentina
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia is formed. [BW13:258] Bolivia NSA first NSA Bolivia
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chile is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:260.
Chile NSA first NSA Chile
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Colombia is formed. [BW13:258] Colombia NSA first NSA Colombia
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Costa Rica is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:261.
Costa Rica NSA first NSA Costa Rica
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cuba is formed. [BW13:258] Cuba NSA first NSA Cuba
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominican Republic is formed. [BW13:258] Dominican Republic NSA first NSA Dominican Republic
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador is formed. [BW13:258] Ecuador NSA first NSA Ecuador
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:263.
El Salvador NSA first NSA El Salvador
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guatemala is formed. [BW13:258] Guatemala NSA first NSA Guatemala
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Haiti is formed. [BW13:258] Haiti NSA first NSA Haiti
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Honduras is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:265.
Honduras NSA first NSA Honduras
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica is formed. [BW13:258] Jamaica NSA first NSA Jamaica
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mexico is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:266.
Mexico NSA first NSA Mexico
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nicaragua is formed. [BW13:258] Nicaragua NSA first NSA Nicaragua
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama is formed. [BW13:258] Panama NSA first NSA Panama
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Paraguay is formed. [BW13:258] Paraguay NSA first NSA Paraguay
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Peru is formed. [BW13:258] Peru NSA first NSA Peru
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Venezuela is formed. [BW13:258] Venezuela NSA first NSA Venezuela
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uruguay is formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:268.
Uruguay NSA first NSA Uruguay
1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil is formed. [BW13:258] Brazil NSA first NSA Brazil
1961 1 May Kanichi (Moto) Yamamoto, the first Japanese Bahá’í, passes away in Berkeley, California. [SBR185]
  • For the story of his life see SBR176–86.
  • For picture see SBR190.
Berkeley; California Kanichi (Moto) Yamamoto first Japanese Bahá’í
1961 23 Jun Fred Murray, the first full-blooded Aborigine and member of the Minen tribe to become a Bahá’í, enrols. [BW14:369] Australia Fred Murray first full-blooded Bahá'í Aborigine member of Minen tribe
1961 25 – 26 Jun The newly-elected International Bahá’í Council meets for the first time. [BW13:397; MC285–6]
  • For details of the meeting and excerpts from its minutes see MC285–91.
International Baha’i Council
1961 8 Jul The Custodians announce that mass conversion has begun in Ceylon, Central and East Africa, and Bolivia, while in Canada native peoples have begun to enter the Faith. [MC293] Custodians
1961 8 Jul Georges and Emma Wayenece, originally from Mare on the Loyalty Islands and the first Loyalty Islanders to become Bahá’ís, enrol in Nouméa. [BW17:415]
  • Mrs Wayenece is the first Melanesian woman of the New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands area to become a Bahá’í. [BW17:415]
Nouméa; Loyalty Islands Georges Wayenece; Emma Wayenece first Loyalty Islanders Bahá’í; first Melanesian woman Bahá’í of the New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands
1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declares the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.
  • The Bahá’ís are ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decides to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies are asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MC308]
turkey religious persecution; NSA
1961 16 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney, the Mother Temple of the Antipodes, is dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:729; MC15]
  • For details of the service and pictures see BW13:726–32.
Sydney; Australia House of Worship; Mother Temple; Hand of the Cause; Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1961 17 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC309–12.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC313.
Sydney; Australia House of Worship; Hand of the Cause; Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1961 Oct The first summer school to be held on Rarotonga Island takes place. Rarotonga Island summer school first summer school on Rarotonga Island
1961 autumn/winter The International Bahá’í Archives is opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
  • For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
Haifa International Baha’i Archives; pilgrim
1961 15 Oct – 2 Nov The fifth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC297]
  • For the agenda see MC298.
‘Akká Hand of the Cause; Bahji
1961 22 Oct Mr. Sivalingam and Miss Puvaneswary were married in the first Bahá’í wedding in Malaysia. Malaysia Mr. Sivalingam; Miss Puvaneswary First Bahá’í wedding in Malaysia conducted find reference
1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fifth Conclave. [MC313–23]
  • They call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MC321]
  • They ask the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MC321]
  • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, is to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MC322]
‘Akká Hand of the Cause; Bahjí; Most Great Jubilee; UHJ
1961 7 Dec An article appears in the nationally prominent Moroccan newspaper Al Alam lamenting the decline of Islám and attacking the Bahá’í Faith. [MC17]
  • This gives rise to persecution of the Bahá’ís in ensuing months.
Morocco religious persecution
1962 Bahá’í homes in Morocco are searched by the police and Bahá’í literature seized. [MC17] Morocco religious persecution
1962 Thirty thousand new Bahá’ís enrol in India in six months. [VV9] India
1962 The administrative institutions of the Faith are banned in Indonesia by President Sukarno. [BW19:41]
  • BW15:174 says this was in 1964.
Indonesia religious persecution
1962 Emeric Sala, makes a visit to several islands in the Indian Ocean and reports that there are some 400 Bahá'ís in Mauritius of Indian, Moslem, Chinese, Creole and French descent. [TG163] Mauritius Emeric Sala
1962 Jan A Bahá’í Professor of Fine Arts at the University of Tetuan, Morocco, is dismissed from his post and warned to have no association with other Bahá’ís. [MC17] Morocco religious persecution
1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
  • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
  • Shoghi Effendi appoints her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
  • See also Faizí, Milly ,"The Fulfilled hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" by Richard Francis and PSBW73–106.
  • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources
  • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
Haifa Amelia Collins; Hand of the Cause; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; In Memoriam
1962 18 Jan First Bahá'í marriage in Taiwan was between Miss Yeh Chan-ching and Mr Yang Su-thou Taiwan Miss Yeh Chan-ching; Mr Yang Su-thou First Bahá'í marriage in Taiwan find reference
1962 Mar Aboubacar Kâ, a school teacher and the first Senegalese known to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Senegal Aboubacar Kâ the first Senegalese Bahá’í
1962 Apr Virginia Breaks, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Caroline Islands, moves to Saipan, the first pioneer to the area. Saipan Virginia Breaks; Knight of Baha’u’llah; pioneer first pioneer Saipan
1962 12 Apr Four Bahá’ís are arrested in Nador, Morocco. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Eventually 14 Bahá’ís in total are arrested: 7 in Nador, 2 in Fez and 5 in Tetuan. [MC17]
  • For an outline of the situation as it developed over 20 months see MC16–19.
Morocco religious persecution
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Denmark is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:276.
Denmark NSA first NSA Denmark
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Finland is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:277.
Finland NSA first NSA Finland
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:278.
Italy NSA first NSA Italy
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Luxembourg is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
Luxembourg NSA first NSA Luxembourg
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Netherlands is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
Netherlands NSA first NSA Netherlands
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Norway is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
Norway NSA first NSA Norway
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Portugal is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
Portugal NSA first NSA Portugal
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Spain is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
Spain NSA first NSA Spain
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sweden is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
Sweden NSA first NSA Sweden
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Switzerland is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:282.
Switzerland NSA first NSA Switzerland
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ceylon is formed in Colombo. [BW13:301] Colombo; Ceylon NSA first NSA Ceylon
1962 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Loyalty Islands is formed in Nouméa. Nouméa; Loyalty Islands LSA first LSA Loyalty Islands
1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belgium is formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:275.
Belgium NSA first NSA Belgium
1962 22 May The first Athabascan Indian north of the Arctic Circle to become a Bahá’í, Charley Roberts, enrols. [BW15:455] Canada Charley Roberts first Athabascan Indian Bahá’í north of the Arctic Circle
1962 28 Jun President Tubman of Liberia visits the Shrine of the Báb.
  • This is the second official visit of a head of state and is notable in that Liberia is the first black republic on the continent of Africa. [BW13:400]
  • See BW13:400 for picture.
Haifa Shrine of the Báb; President Tubman
1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC368–9] US religious persecution; NSA
1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC373–4] US religious persecution; NSA
1962 autumn A property is acquired outside of Gwalior, India, for a teaching institute. [DM192]
  • The institute is later converted into a boarding hostel solely for Indian children and still later into the ‘Rabbani School’, now an accredited agricultural school. [DM192–3; VV82]
Gwalior; India teaching institute
1962 31 Oct The 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco are arraigned before the Regional Court of Nador. [BW13:289; MC18]
  • They are charged with rebellion and disorder, attacks on public security, constituting an association of criminals and attacks on religious faith. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MC18]
Morocco religious persecution
1962 16 Nov The superstructure of the European House of Worship near Frankfurt is completed and the Temple is turned over to the Bahá’ís by the contractor. [BW13:737; MC15] Germany House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1962 10 Dec The trial of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition opens. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • The prosecution makes no attempt to prove the charges against the accused. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
Morocco religious persecution
1962 14 Dec The Regional Court of Nador gives its verdict in the case of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition: four are acquitted on the grounds that they claim to be Muslims; one is acquitted apparently through family connections; one is released on 15 years’ probation owing to his diabetes; five are committed to life imprisonment; and three are condemned to death. [BBRSM174; MC18–19]
  • The sentences are appealed to the Supreme Court. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MC19]
Morocco religious persecution
1962 17 Dec The Custodians ask the Bahá’í International Community to issue press releases deploring Morocco’s persecution of religious minorities and pointing out its failure to adhere to the UN charter condemning religious intolerance. [MC397] Custodians; BIC; religious persecution
1962 21 Dec Telegrams are sent to 35 United Nations delegations appealing for help under the Genocide Convention for the Bahá’ís sentenced to death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794] religious persecution
1962 23 Dec The Custodians ask national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MC397–8] religious persecution
1962 27 Dec The Custodians ask national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MC398–9] religious persecution
1962 31 Dec The first indigenous local spiritual assembly in Venezuela is formed among the Yaruro Indians of Apure state in the village of Agua Linda. Agua Linda; Venezuela first indigenous LSA in Venezuela
1963 In Angola, Antonio Francesco Ebo and seven other Bahá’ís are arrested and imprisoned in a penal colony off the coast of southern Angola.
  • They remain in confinement for eight years.
Angola Antonio Francesco Ebo; religious persecution
1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MC19] Morocco religious persecution
1963 31 Jan Roger Baldwin, Chairman of the International League for the Rights of Man, appears before the UN sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and states that, as far they know; the Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco are the only example in recent history where members of a religion have been condemned to death solely for holding and expressing religious views regarded as heretical. [MC415–16] Morocco Roger Baldwin; religious persecution
1963 31 Mar King Hassan II of Morocco states in a televised interview in the United States that the Bahá’í Faith is not a religion and is ‘against good order and also morals’. [MC415] Morocco King Hassan II; religious persecution
1963 2 Apr King Hassan II of Morocco makes a public statement promising that if the Supreme Court upholds the decision condemning three Bahá’í prisoners to death, he will grant them a royal pardon. [MC416] Morocco King Hassan II; religious persecution
1963 4 Apr The Custodians issue a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MC414]
  • For text of statement see MC414–20.
Morocco religious persecution
1963 9 Apr The sixth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí.
  • For the agenda see MC404.
  • For cabled message from the Conclave see MC420.
‘Akká Hand of the Cause; Bahjí
1963 20 Apr The Ten Year Crusade is successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
  • For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
  • For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
  • For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
  • For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
  • For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
  • For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
Ten Year Crusade
1963 21 – 23 Apr The First International Convention is convened in Haifa. [MC424]
  • For programme see MC424–5.
  • For details of the Convention and pictures see BW14:425–30.
Haifa first International Convention
1963 21 Apr The Universal House of Justice is elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MC424]
  • The election is held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MC425]
  • Ballots are received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
  • 288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies are present at the election. [BW14:427]
  • For a list of the electors see MC406–13.
  • For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MC20–1.
Haifa Election; UHJ; - Basic timeline first Universal House of Justice elected.
1963 22 Apr The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice are announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
  • For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
Haifa Charles Wolcott; ‘Ali Nakhjavani; H. Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfu’llah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam Mr Amos Gibson was the first black member of the Universal House of Justice
1963 23 Apr Two Hands of the Cause and two members of the Universal House of Justice attend, on behalf of the House of Justice, the State funeral of Izhak Ben Zvi, second President of Israel. [BW14:92–3]
  • This is the first official act of the Universal House of Justice. [BW14:92–3]
Israel Izhak Ben Zvi first official act of UHJ
1963 28 Apr - 2 May The first Bahá’í World Congress, the ‘Most Great Jubilee’, is held in London to celebrate the centenary of the declaration of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:57]
  • For a detailed account and many pictures see BW14:57–80.
  • For the programme of speakers see BW14:60–1.
  • Some 6,000 Bahá’ís attend.
London Most Great Jubilee first Bahá’í World Congress
1963 30 Apr The members of the Universal House of Justice are presented to the World Congress and the first statement of the House of Justice is read by David Hofman. [BW14:68]
  • For the text of the statement see BW14:431–2 and WG1–3.
London David Hofman first statement of UHJ
1963 7 May The Universal House of Justice issues its first message to national conventions. [WG4–8]
  • It pays tribute to the Hands of the Cause. [WG5]
  • It announces that the body has no officers and that its communications will be signed ‘Universal House of Justice’ over an embossed seal. [WG6]
Haifa Hand of the Cause; UHJ first message to national conventions by UHJ
1963 9 May The Hands of the Cause of God pass a resolution regarding the principles that will apply between the body of the Hands and the Hands Residing in the Holy Land and the activities of the Hands in the Holy Land. [MC426]
  • Five Hands of the Cause are assigned to the Holy Land.
Haifa Hand of the Cause
1963 10 May The passing of F. St. George Spendlove (b. 23 April, 1897 in Montreal) in Toronto. He was part of the community of early believers in Montreal where he learned about the Faith after returning from the war in Europe. The Face of Early Canada, published in 1958, is illustrated with pieces from this collection. A second book, Collectors’ Luck, followed in 1960. Bahá’í World, Vol. 13, 1954–1963, “In Memoriam,” pp. 895–9. Toronto; George Spendlove
1963 19 May The Hands of the Cause cable the annual conventions with the names of the five Hands chosen to reside in the Holy Land: Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Leroy Ioas, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [MC427] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi
1963 5 Jun onwards Throughout Iran, advantage is taken of the general anti-government disorder to launch attacks on Bahá’ís in several localities under the cover of these disturbances. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery in Tihrán is attacked, its buildings burnt and graves desecrated. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í houses are attacked and burned at Árán and the local Bahá’í centre attacked. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán is attacked. [BW18:391]
  • Several Bahá’í homes and businesses are attacked in Shíráz. BW18:391]
  • An attack on the House of the Báb in Shíráz is attempted. BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís are dismissed from government employment. [BW18:391]
Iran religious persecution
1963 7 Jun The Custodians publish a Declaration ‘releasing all their functions, rights and powers conferred upon them by the Declaration of the Hands, November 25, 1957, to the Universal House of Justice’. [MC433]
  • This is in accordance with the terms of the original document which provided for the Hands to exercise these functions until the election of the Universal House of Justice. [MC431]
1963 16 Jun The Universal House of Justice announces that it will for the present use the Western Pilgrim House at 10 Haparsim Street, Haifa, as its seat and that both the Eastern and Western Pilgrim will be housed in the Haifa Pilgrim House. [WG9] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; UHJ; BWC Pilgrimage
1963 31 Jul The passing of Dr Genevieve Coy (b.1886) in Harare, Zimbabwe. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Baha’i Heroes & Heroines, grave] Harare Dr Genevieve Coy; In Memoriam
1963 25 Aug The Universal House of Justice announces the demolition by the Soviet authorities of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
  • For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
‘Ishqábád House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1963 Oct After the International Conference in London, those members of the newly elected Universal House of Justice who were not already resident in Haifa returned to their homes to make plans to relocate. This was finally completed by October.
  • The Universal House of Justice announces the launching at Ridván 1964 of the Nine Year Plan. [WG14]
  • As a preliminary step 19 new national spiritual assemblies are to formed at Ridván 1964. [WG15–17]
  • The next election of the Universal House of Justice will be in spring 1968. [WG17]
  • The Faith has now entered the third epoch of the formative age. [WG17]
Haifa Nine Year Plan; formative age
1963 6 Oct The Universal House of Justice cables that it finds that ‘there is no way to appoint or to legislate to make it possible to appoint a second Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi’. [WG11]
  • See an interview with Mr Ian Semple in which he provides background to the decision and the process by which it was made.
Guardianship
1963 1 Nov The first person on Saipan to become a Bahá’í, Patience Robinson, enrols. Saipan Patience Robinson first Bahá’í, on Saipan
1963 23 Nov At the request of the Universal House of Justice, Bahá’ís around the world pray at the Feast of Qawl for favourable action to be taken in the case of the Bahá’ís under threat of death and imprisoned in Morocco. [BW14:98]
  • Shortly after the Feast the Moroccan Supreme Court heard the appeals, reversed the decision of the trial court and ordered the release of the prisoners. [BW14:98]
Morocco religious persecution
1963 13 Dec The Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco are released on order of the Supreme Court. [BW14:98; MC19]
  • For a picture of the release of the Moroccan Bahá’í prisoners see BW14:97.
Morocco religious persecution
1964 Four new believers in Cambodia are arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith is not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís do not have permission to teach it. Cambodia religious persecution
1964 3 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání leave Haifa at the start of their 55,000 mile, 9-month journey through India, Ceylon, Nepal and Sikkim. [AV114; VV11] Haifa Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; Violette Nakhjavání
1964 22 Mar The Faith is brought to St Vincent for the first time by Shirley Jackson, who returns to the island the day after having become a Bahá’í while on a visit to her native home in Grenada.
  • Later in the year she enrols the first Bahá’ís on St Vincent.
St Vincent Shirley Jackson first Bahá’í on St Vincent
1964 Apr The chief of the Arpushana clan of the Guajiros, Francisco Pimienta Arpushana, becomes a Bahá’í in Colombia and teaching work begins among his people. [BW14:319] Colombia Francisco Pimienta Arpushana
1964 Ridván The Nine Year Plan (1964-1974) is launched. [BBRSM159; BW14:101; VV1; WG22–7]
  • This marks the beginning of the second epoch of Abdu’l-Bahá’s Divine Plan. [AWH178]
  • For letter of the Universal House of Justice announcing the Plan see BW14:102–4.
  • For an analysis of the details of the national plans sent to 69 national spiritual assemblies see BW14:104–23.
Nine Year Plan; Teaching Plans
1964 Ridván The Universal House of Justice releases statistics on the growth and spread of the Bahá’í Faith at Ridván. [BW14:124–35]
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Africa is formed with its seat in Monrovia. NSA first NSA West Africa
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kenya is formed with its seat in Nairobi. Nairobi NSA first NSA Kenya
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tanganyika and Zanzibar is formed with its seat in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam. NSA first NSA Tanganyika and Zanzibar
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South Central Africa is formed with its seat in Salisbury. Salisbury NSA first NSA South Central Africa
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa is formed with its seat in Johannesburg. Johannesburg NSA first NSA South and West Africa
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean is formed with its seat in Port Louis. Port Louis NSA first NSA Indian Ocean
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the Hawaiian Islands is formed with its seat in Honolulu. Honolulu NSA first NSA Hawaiian Islands
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean is formed with its seat in Suva. Suva NSA first NSA South Pacific Ocean
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean is formed with its seat in Honiara. Honiara NSA first NSA South West Pacific Ocean
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia is formed with its seat in Tokyo. Tokyo NSA first NSA North East Asia
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Korea is formed with its seat in Seoul. Seoul NSA first NSA Korea
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia is formed with its seat in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur NSA first NSA Malaysia
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia is formed with its seat in Djakarta. Djakarta NSA first NSA Indonesia
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Viet Nam is formed with its seat in Saigon. Saigon NSA first NSA Viet Nam
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand is formed with its seat in Bangkok. Bangkok NSA first NSA Thailand
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Philippines is formed with its seat in Manila. Manila NSA first NSA Philippines
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of is North West Africa formed with its seat in Tunis. Tunis NSA first NSA North West Africa
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa is formed with its seat in Victoria, Cameroon. Victoria; Cameroon NSA first NSA West Central Africa
1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda and Central Africa is formed with its seat in Kampala. Kampala NSA first NSA Uganda and Central Africa
1964 Jun Isaac Eziukwu, a Nigerian who had become a Bahá’í in Bangui, Central African Republic, in 1956, arrives in Libreville, Gabon, the first pioneer to the country. [BW16:522–3] Libreville; Gabon Isaac Eziukwu first pioneer to Gabon
1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, is dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
  • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
  • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
  • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
Langenhain; Germany House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1964 19 Sep Prince Sihanouk Norodom, Head of State, and Prince Kantol Norodom, Prime Minister, sign a decree authorizing the exercise of the Bahá’í Faith in Cambodia and recognizing the Bahá’í World Centre in Haifa. Cambodia Prince Sihanouk Norodom; Prince Kantol Norodom
1964 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that ‘there is no way to appoint, or to legislate to make it possible to appoint, Hands of the Cause of God’. [WG41]
  • For decisions of the Universal House of Justice regarding the development of the institution of the Hands of the Cause of God see WG40–3.
Haifa Hand of the Cause; UHJ
1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breaker; NSA
1965 The first pioneer to the San Andrés and Providencia Islands settles there briefly. pioneer first pioneer to the San Andrés and Providencia Islands
1965 William Carr visits Alert Bay in Canada, only 800 km from the North Pole and the most northerly inhabited location in the world. Canada William Carr
1965 Nils and Sigrid Rutfjäll, the first Samer (Lapps) to become Bahá’ís, enrol in northern Norway. [BW5:483] Norway Nils Rutfjäll; Sigrid Rutfjäll first Samer (Lapps) Bahá’ís
1965 Emma Reinert, the first Faroese to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Emma Reinert first Faroese Bahá’í
1965 Feb Jean and Ivanie Désert and their three children arrive in Guadeloupe from Haiti, the first Bahá’ís to settle on the island. Guadeloupe Jean Désert; Ivanie Désert first Bahá’ís to settle on Guadeloupe
1965 18 Mar The Bahá’í International Community establishes its own offices in the United Nations Plaza Building in New York. [BW14:90, BIC-History] New York BIC; United Nations
1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA
1965 Apr Franklin Bozor, an agricultural labourer, and Pierre Defoe, the first Bahá’í to become Bahá’ís in Guadeloupe, enrol. Guadeloupe Franklin Bozor; Pierre Defoe first Bahá’ís Guadeloupe
1965 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Iceland is formed in Reykjavik. Reykjavik LSA first LSA Iceland
1965 15 Jul Hendrik Olsen, the first indigenous Greenlander to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Greenland Hendrik Olsen first indigenous Bahá’í in Greenland
1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.15 February, 1986) [BW14:291-300, VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
Haifa Leroy Ioas; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1965 Aug Thaddeus Smith, Clara Smith, Nando Valle, Evert Scott, Gloria Scott, Thomas Seymour and Lawrence Jebbers, the first to become Bahá’ís in the Cayman Islands, enrol in George Town owing to the efforts of Ivan A. Graham, a Jamaican Bahá’í. George Town; Cayman Island Ivan A. Graham; Thaddeus Smith; Clara Smith; Nando Valle; Evert Scott; Gloria Scott; Thomas Seymour; Lawrence Jebbers first Bahá’ís in Cayman Islands
1965 1 Aug Mrs Ridván Sadeghzadeh and Mrs Parvine Djoneidi and their children arrive in Niamey, Niger, from Tihrán, the first Bahá’ís to settle in the country. Niamey; Niger Ridvan Sadeghzadeh; Parvine Djoneidi first Bahá’ís to settle in Niger
1965 19 Sep Walter Garland and Miss Annie Lourie Williams, the first to become Bahá’ís on Grand Turk Island, enrol. Grand Turk Island Walter Garland; Annie Lourie Williams first Bahá’ís on Grand Turk Island
1965 Oct Alice Grey, the first person to become a Bahá’í on South Caicos Island, enrols. South Caicos Island Alice Grey first Bahá’í on South Caicos Island
1965 11 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí has been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breaker; Mirza Diya’u’llah; Shrine of Baha’u’llah
1965 12 Nov Mr Jazy Souleymane, a teacher and the first person in Niger to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Niger Jazy Souleymane first Bahá’í in Niger
1966 Florence Parry, the first to become a Bahá’í in the West Leeward Islands, enrols. West Leeward Islands Florence Parry first Bahá’í in West Leeward Islands
1966 Tommy Kabu, a prominent person from the village of Ara’ava in the Gulf Province and the first in the Territory of Papua to become a Bahá’í, enrols. [BW15:459–60] Papua Tommy Kabu first Bahá’í in Territory of Papua
1966 Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Sinajana; Guam Jesus Bias Manibusan first Chamorro Bahá’í
1966 Mm. Marion Magnée arrives in Mali from Belgium, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country. Mali Marion Magnée first Bahá’í to settle in Mali
c. 1966–67 The island of Niue is opened to the Bahá’í Faith for the first time. Niue
1966 Feb The first members of the Yao tribe become Bahá’ís in Laos. [BW14:150] Laos first Bahá’ís of Yao tribe
1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira is arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution
1966 22 Mar Napoleon Bergarnaschi, an Alaskan Eskimo, and his three children open St Lawrence Island to the Bahá’í Faith. [BW14:146] St Lawrence Island Napoleon Bergarnaschi first Bahá'í to settle on St Lawrence Island
1966 31 Mar While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira dies in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He is named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
  • For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
  • For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box see BW14:390–1.
Portuguese Guinea Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution; martyr first African martyr
1966 7 Apr The passing of Ali Kuli Khan in Washington, DC. [BW14p351] Isfahan; Washington; DC In Memoriam; Ali Kuli Khan
1966 14 Apr Jessie Revell, formerly a member of the International Bahá’í Council, passes away in Haifa. [BW14:300]
  • For her obituary see BW14:300–3.
Haifa International Baha’i Council; Jessie Revell
1966 17 April Ivor Ellard, a British resident of the United States, arrives Dominica, the first pioneer to the island.
  • Two days later William Nedden settles on the island.
Dominica Ivor Ellard; pioneer; William Nedden first pioneer to Dominica
1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Senegal is formed in Dakar. Dakar; Senegal LSA first LSA in Senegal
1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Suriname is formed in Paramaribo. Paramaribo; Suriname LSA first LSA in Suriname
1966 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brunei is formed with its seat in Brunei town. [BW14:99] Brunei NSA first NSA Brunei
1966 19 May The first legally recognized Bahá’í wedding in Europe takes place in Finland. [BW14:154] Finland first legally recognized Bahá’í wedding in Europe
1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] US Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA
1966 10 Jun The Universal House of Justice addresses its first letter to ‘Bahá’í Youth in Every Land’. [BW15:324; WG92–7] Haifa UHJ first letter to Bahá’í Youth from UHJ
1966 29 Sep Frances A. Foss, the first pioneer on St Maarten, arrives in Philipsburg. Philipsburg; St Maarten Frances A. Foss; pioneer first pioneer on St Maarten
1966 7 Nov The first local spiritual assembly in Niger is formed in Niamey. Niamey; LSA first LSA in Niger
1966 Dec A campaign is launched against the Bahá’ís of Saysán, Ádharbáyján, by Mullá Mihdí Sultánpúr. [BW18:391] Saysán; Ádharbáyján religious persecution; Mulla Mihdi Sultanpur
1966 12 Dec The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective.LNW158 Cape Town; South Africa Hand of the Cause John Robarts
1966 Late in the year Lorraine Landau arrives on Saba in the West Leeward Islands, the first Bahá’í to settle on the island. Saba Lorraine Landau first Bahá’í to settle on West Leeward Islands
1967 The Universal House of Justice published a compilation of Bahá'u'lláh's messages titled The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh to the Kings and Leaders of the World to mark the 100th anniversary of the inception of that proclamation. Bahá'í institutions worldwide were asked to present the book to the leaders of government in their respective countries. Some 140 Heads of State received a copy. [MUHJ63-86p113] BWC Proclamation of Bahaullah (book); Tablets to kings and rulers; Writings of Bahaullah
1967 – 1968 Cleophas Koko Vava, a Togolese employed at the American Cultural Centre as a librarian to the United States Information Service and the first person to become a Bahá’í in Chad, enrols. Chad Cleophas Koko Vava first Bahá’í in Chad
1967 c. Egbert Barrett arrives on Carriacou from Grenada, the first pioneer to the island. Carriacou Egbert Barrett; pioneer first pioneer to Carriacou
1967 Mr O. T. Shelton arrives on St Eustatius in the West Leeward Islands, the first pioneer to the island. West Leeward Islands O. T. Shelton; pioneer first pioneer to St Eustatius
1967 Victor de Araujo is appointed by the Universal House of Justice as the full-time Accredited Representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations; Mildred Mottahedeh appointed Alternate Representative. [BW14:88–9; BW15:364]
  • For picture see BW15:365.
New York Victor de Araujo; Mildred Mottahedeh; BIC
1967 The first Mataco Indians to become Bahá’ís enrol in Argentina. [BW14:150] Argentina first Mataco Indians Bahá’ís
1967 – 1968 Rhoda Vaughn arrives on Bonaire, remaining for nine months, the first Bahá’í to visit the island. Bonaire Rhoda Vaughn first Bahá’í to visit Bonaire
1967 1 Jan A Bahá’í is beaten to death by a mob in Saysán, Ádharbáyján, and other Bahá’ís are attacked and beaten. [BW18:391] Saysán; Ádharbáyján religious persecution
1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice establishes the International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. [BW14:91–2] Victor; New York International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre
1967 Mar The first Bahá’í summer school in Liberia begins. [BW14:174] Liberia summer school first Bahá’í summer school in Liberia
1967 24 - 26 Mar The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
  • Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife; Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit); Baker Lake; Yellowknife; Baha'i House
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Laos is formed with its seat in Vientiane. [BW14:99] Vientiane; Laos NSA first NSA Laos
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sikkim is formed with its seat in Gangtok. [BW14:99] Gangtok; Sikkim NSA first NSA Sikkim
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan is formed with its seat in Taipeh. [BW14:99] Taipeh; Taiwan NSA first NSA Taiwan
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cameroon Republic is formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW14:96] Victoria; Cameroon Republic NSA first NSA Cameroon Republic
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique is formed with its seat in Mbabane. [BW14:96] Mbabane NSA first NSA Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia is formed with its seat in Lusaka. [BW14:97] Lusaka; Zambia NSA first NSA Zambia
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward, Windward and Virgin Islands is formed with its seat in Charlotte Amalie. [BW14:93] Charlotte Amalie NSA first NSA Windward and Virgin Islands
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern and Central Arabia is formed with its seat in Bahrain. Bahrain NSA first NSA Eastern and Central Arabia
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands is formed with its seat in Tarawa. [BW14:99] Tarawa NSA first NSA Gilbert and Ellice Islands
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Algeria and Tunisia is formed with its seat in Algiers. [BW14:96] Algiers NSA first NSA Algeria and Tunisia
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belize is formed with its seat in the city of Belize. [BW14:93] Belize NSA first NSA Belize
1967 Ridván The Universal House of Justice calls upon the Bahá’ís to launch a global campaign proclaiming the message of Bahá’u’lláh to every stratum of society. A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh is to be presented to Heads of State. [BW14:211, Ridván 1967] BWC; Haifa UHJ; The Proclamation of Baha'u'llah
1967 3 May Patsy Vincent, a youth from Castries and the first St Lucian to become a Bahá’í, enrols. St Lucian Patsy Vincent first St Lucian Bahá’í
1967 Oct A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh is published by the Universal House of Justice for presentation to 140 heads of state. [BW14:204–6; CB406]
  • For a picture of the book see BW14:194.
  • For pictures and descriptions of some of the rulers addressed by Bahá’u’lláh see BW14:196–203.
  • For responses from present-day leaders to the book, and pictures, see BW14:207–10.
Haifa UHJ
1967 5 – 10 Oct Six Intercontinental Conferences are held simultaneously in Panama City, Wilmette, Sydney, Kampala, Frankfurt and New Delhi to celebrate the centenary of the proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh to the kings and rulers of the world in September/October of 1867. [BW 14:221]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice to the conferences see BW14:221–2.
  • For descriptions of each conference see BW14:223–58.
  • The six Hands of the Cause representing the Universal House of Justice at the conferences travelled to Adrianople to visit the House of Bahá’u’lláh before dispersing to the conferences. [BW14:236, 458; VV2]
Panama City; Panama; Wilmette; US; Sydney; Australia; Kampala; Uganda; Frankfurt; Germany; New Delhi; India Intercontinental Conference; Conference
1967 8 Oct The foundation stone of the Mother Temple of Latin America is laid by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in Panama City. [BW14:494] Panama City; Panama Mother Temple; Hand of the Cause; Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1967 25 Oct The passing of Canadian pioneer Catherine Huxtable (b. 6 January, 1932 Carlwood, Surrey, England) at her home in Jamestown, St Helena. Her life had been shortened due to muscular dystrophy. She, husband Cliff and son Gavin had arrived on St. Helena some nineteen months before. [LNW169, BW14p313-315] Jamestown; St Helena Island Catherine Huxtable; Clifford Huxtable; Gavin Huxtable; In memoriam
1967 29 Oct The launch of the Centenary of Bahá'u'lláh's proclamation to the kings and the rulers in Toronto. A 30-minute memorial service for Catherine Huxtable was added to the progrm that included an eulogy by Michael Rochester. [LNW176-179] Toronto Catherine Huxtable
1967 11 Dec The Bahá'í Campus Club was inaugurated at the University of New Brunswick. Moncton; New Brunswick University Campus Club find reference
1967 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308] Cardiff; Wales Knight of Baha'u'llah; Charles Dunning; In Memoriam
1968 – 1969 Throughout Iran, pressure on Bahá’ís intensifies. [BW18:391]
  • Applications for government employment are refused. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís are refused admission to colleges and universities. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í centres are closed. [BW18:391]
  • Individual Bahá’ís are attacked. [BW18:391]
Iran religious persecution
1968 The Bahá’í Publishing Committee based in Karachi develops into a Bahá’í Publishing Trust responsible for translation and publication into Urdu, English, Persian, Arabic, Sindhi, Pushtu, Balochi, Gojri, Balti and other regional languages. Karachi Publishing Trust
1968 Over a thousand new believers enrol in Ethiopia. [BW15:186] Ethiopia
1968 Ernest Ndouba (G Beadoumadji Moadoumgar) of the Sara ethnic group and the first Chadian to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Ndjamena. Ndjamena; Chad Ernest Ndouba first Chadian Bahá’í
1968 1 or 2 Jan The passing of Euphemia (Effie) Eleanor Baker (b.25 March 1880 at Goldsborough, Victoria) in Waverley, New South Wales.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
  • She became a Bahá'í in 1922 after attending a lecture by Clara and Hyde Dunn in Melbourne. She was the first woman to converted to the Faith in Australia.
  • She served in Haifa from 1925 to 1936. See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution during that period.
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. Many of these photographs were included in The Dawnbreakers. [BW14:320]
  • She was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Mona Vale. [Australian Dictionary of Biography]
Waverly; New South Wales Euphemia (Effie) Eleanor Baker. Effie Baker; In Memoriam first woman Baha'i in Australia.
1968 26 Jan A Moroccan Bahá’í is arrested, tried and convicted on the charges of having abused the sacredness of Islám and using deceptive methods to convert people to another religion; he is sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. [BW15:172] Morocco religious persecution
1968 19 Feb His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa, the first reigning monarch to become a Bahá’í, writes to the Universal House of Justice confirming his acceptance of the Faith. [BW15:180–3] Western Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili first reigning monarch Bahá’í
1968 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for a second time by delegates from 81 National Spiritual Assemblies. [BW15:557]
  • Dr David Ruhe is elected to replace Dr Hakím, who resigned for reasons of ill health. The members were: Amoz Gibson, 'Ali Nakhjavani, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, H. Borrah Kavelin, Hugh Chance and David Ruhe. [VV3]
  • For a description of the second international convention and pictures see BW14:564–8.
Haifa International Convention; Election; David Ruhe; UHJ
1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in French Guiana is formed at Cayenne. Cayenne; French Guiana LSA first LSA in French Guiana
1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Cayman Islands is formed in George Town. George Town LSA first LSA in Cayman Islands
1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies of Equatorial Guinea are formed in Bata and Santa Isabel. Bata; Equatorial Guinea; Santa Isabel; Equatorial Guinea LSA first LSA in Equatorial Guinea
1968 21 Jun The Universal House of Justice establishes the Continental Boards of Counsellors to continue into the future the functions of the Hands of the Cause in the protection and propagation of the Faith. [BBD58–9, 97; BW15:611–13; BW17:319; MUHJ4–5; WG141]
  • For details of the eleven Boards and their membership see BW15:612 and WG140–4.
  • For pictures of the Counsellors see BW15:614, 615, 618, 619, 622, 623, 625, 627.
UHJ; CBC; Hands of the Cause
1968 summer The first summer school to be held in Ireland begins. Ireland summer school first summer school in Ireland
1968 22 – 23 Jun The first National Youth Conference of the Bahá’ís of the United States opens in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW15:327 8]
  • For picture see BW15:325.
Wilmette; Illinois first National Youth Conference of US
1968 Jul Christian and Elanzo Callwood, Norris Duport and Ethien Chinnery, the first people to become Bahá’ís on the island of Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin Islands, enrol. Jost Van Dyke; British Virgin Islands Christian Callwood; Elanzo Callwood; Norris Duport; Ethien Chinnery first Bahá’ís in British Virgin Islands
1968 Jul Louis Joseph, the first Bahá’í indigenous to Dominica, enrols in Roseau. Roseau; Dominica Louis Joseph first indigenous Bahá’í to Dominica
1968 7 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
Neckargemünd; Germany In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
1968 7 Jul Hermann Grossman, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Germany. [BW15:416]
  • For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
Germany Hermann Grossman; Hand of the Cause
1968 27 – 28 Jul The first National Youth Conference of Honduras opens in Santa Rosa de Copán. [BW15:328–9] Santa Rosa de Copán; Honduras National Youth Conference of Honduras first National Youth Conference of Honduras
1968 10 Aug Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím, former member of the Universal House of Justice, passes away in Haifa. [BW15:434]
  • For his obituary see BW15:430–4.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:434 and WG158.
Haifa Lutfu’llah Hakim; In Memoriam
1968 23 – 25 Aug The first Oceanic Conference takes place in Palermo, Sicily, to commemorate the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land. [BW15:73, 178; VV3]
  • It is attended by some 2,300 Bahá’ís from 67 countries. [BW15:73]
  • For details of the conference, maps and pictures see BW15:72–80.
Palermo; Italy Oceanic Conference; Conference first Oceanic Conference in Palermo
1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
Haifa; BWC; pilgrimage
1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
  • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Haifa Tarazu’llah Samandari; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - First Contingent
1968 9 Sep Gerald (Jerry) Van Deusen, a 24-year-old American Bahá’í from the Windward, Leeward and Virgin Islands and the first pioneer to Upper Volta, arrives in Ouagadougou. Ouagadougou; Upper Volta Gerald (Jerry) Van Deusen; pioneer first pioneer to Upper Volta
1968 9 Oct The Universal House of Justice addresses its second letter to Bahá’í Youth. [BW15:324; WG152–4] Haifa UHJ
1968 9 Oct The widowed mother of seven children is sentenced to six months’ imprisonment in Morocco for refusing to deny her faith. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for her through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, she is made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
Morocco religious persecution
1968 24 Oct The Moroccan Bahá’í sentenced to three years’ imprisonment in January 1968 appeals and his sentence is extended to four years. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for him through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, he is made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
Morocco religious persecution
1968 Nov Mohammed Brimer (Mohammed Braimah Belem), the first person to become a Bahá’í in Upper Volta, enrols. Upper Volta Mohammed Brimer first Bahá’í in Upper Volta
1968 4 Nov Following the participation of Algerian Bahá’ís in the first Oceanic Conference in Palermo, Sicily, and subsequent international news coverage, foreign Bahá’ís in Algeria are summoned by the police and interrogated. [BW15:172] Algeria religious persecution
1968 7 Nov Sixteen Persian Bahá’ís in Algeria are expelled from the country and their properties confiscated; native Algerian Bahá’ís are put under restrictions and five are exiled to the Sahara and the eastern mountain regions. [BW15:172]
  • Following appeals, the confiscated properties are returned and the order of banishment for the local believers is gradually relaxed. [BW15:172]
Algeria religious persecution
1968 Dec George Howard arrives on Union Island, the first person to take the Bahá’í Faith to the Grenadine Islands. Grenadine Islands George Howard first Bahá’í teacher to Grenadine Islands
1968 Late in the year Two Chilean Bahá’ís, Aníbal Soto, a telegraph operator in the Chilean Navy and his wife, Norma Soto, are posted to a Chilean base in Antarctica. Antarctica Aníbal Soto; Norma Soto
1969 Fifteen youth enrol at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the beginning of a process in which over 300 people become Bahá’ís. [BW15:218] Mayaguez; Puerto Rico
1969 Owing to the increased flow of pilgrims, the pilgrim house in Haifa is converted to a pilgrim centre and the decision taken to accommodate pilgrims in hotels. [DH178] Haifa pilgrimage; BWC Pilgrimage
1969 1 Jan The Fredericton Bahá'í community becomes a registered charitable organization. Fredericton; New Brunswick; Canada Charitable organization find reference
1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith is banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions are disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41] Algeria religious persecution; NSA
1969 3 – 6 Apr The first European Youth Conference opens in Madrid, Spain. [BW15:329] Madrid; Spain first European Youth Conference
1969 4 – 6 Apr The first National Youth Conference of Australia opens at Bolton Place summer School. [BW15:329]
  • For picture see BW15:328.
Bolton Place; Australia first National Youth Conference of Australia
1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Papua New Guinea is formed with its seat in Lae. [BW15:265]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
Lae; Papua New Guinea NSA first NSA Papua New Guinea
1969 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Upper Volta is formed in Ouagadougou. Ouagadougou; Upper Volta LSA first LSA in Upper Volta
1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi and Rwanda is formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
NSA first NSA Burundi and Rwanda
1969 24 – 25 May The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Japan opens on Jogashima Island. [BW15:329] Jogashima Island; Japan first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Japan
1969 10 Jul The Universal House of Justice announce an increase in the total number of members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith to thirty-eight. [MUHJ63-86] BWC Continental Boards of Counsellors; CBC
1969 Aug The first 12 new Bahá’ís enrol on Union Island in the Grenadines during a visit of Patricia Paccassi and her daughter Judith. Union Island; Grenadines Patricia Paccassi; Judith Paccassi; travel teaching first Bahá’ís in the Grenadines
1969 Aug The Bahá’í Faith is legally recognized in Lebanon when the Local Spiritual Assembly of Beirut is incorporated. [BW15:173]
  • This is the first time any Arab government has granted the Faith recognition. [BW15:173]
Beirut; Lebanon LSA first time an Arab government recognizes Bahá'í Faith
1969 5 Aug Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrive in Kampala, Uganda, at the start of the ‘Great Safari’. [BW15:59]
  • For details of the safari and pictures see BW15:588–607.
Kampala; Uganda Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; Violette Nakhjavání
1969 29 Oct A mechanism of world inter-communication will be devised, embracing the whole planet, freed from national hindrances and restrictions, and functioning with marvellous swiftness and perfect regularity. WOB203

1844 May 24 Samuel F.B. Morse sent the first telegraphic message over an experimental line from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, the message said: "What hath God wrought?"

1894 May 10 Marconi sends a radio wave 3/4 mile, the first "wireless" transmission.

1897 Marconi Co sends the first ship-to-shore message 12 miles. 1899 Mar 3 the ship "East Goodwin" is save after sending the distress signal "HELP".

1858 Aug 16 the first transatlantic telegraph cable is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications was laid across the floor of the Atlantic from Telegraph Field, Foilhommerum Bay, Valentia Island in western Ireland to Heart's Content in eastern Newfoundland. The first communications occurred August 16, 1858, reducing the communication time between North America and Europe from ten days.

1969 October 29 The birth of the Internet. First message from computer to computer in different locations. UCLA student Charley Kline attempts to transmit the text “login” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute over the first link on the ARPANET, which was the precursor to the modern Internet. After the letters “l” and “o” are sent the system crashed, making the first message ever sent on the Internet “lo” and the first crash of the system.

first Morse Code message, first radio message, first transatlantic cable message, first Internet message....
1969 29 Dec - 1970 2 Jan The First Pacific Area Bahá’í Youth Conference takes place in Apia, Western Samoa. [BW15:329–30]
  • For picture see BW15:330.
Apia; Western Samoa Pacific Area Baha’i Youth Conference First Pacific Area Bahá’í Youth Conference
Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
.
. .