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Bahá'í Chronology: years 197-

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197-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1970 The first Gypsy in Spain to become a Bahá’í, Maria Camacho Martinez, enrols in Sabadell. Sabadell; Spain Maria Camacho Martinez first Gypsy Bahá’í in Spain
1970 The first native of Mauritania to become a Bahá’í enrols. Mauritania first native Bahá’í of Mauritania
1970 A Bahá’í International Youth Conference is held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Abidjan; Ivory Coast
1970 Botswana holds its first National Youth School. [BW15:329] Botswana first National Youth School in Botswana
1970 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán undergoes major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah in Tihran
1970 - early 1971 Over 20,000 Afro-Americans from the rural areas of the south-eastern United States become Bahá’ís. [BBRSM187] US
1970 The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher in Montreal (b.1886)
  • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
  • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
  • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
  • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
  • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
  • She is interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal. A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489
  • Find a grave
Montreal; QC; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher; In Memoriam; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1970 25 Jan Valde Nyman, the first full Gypsy in Finland to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Helsinki. Finland Valde Nyman first full Gypsy Bahá’í in Finland
1970 20 Feb The passing of Curtis Demude Kelsey (b. 6 March, 1894 in Salt Lake City, UT) in Bradenton, FL.
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1917 through the influence of his mother, a talented poetess and writer who learned of the Faith in 1909.
  • Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922.
  • On the 6th of August, 1928 he married Harriet Morgan Kelsey (d. 18 March, 1971), a gifted musician and the a teacher. They raised four children.
  • In 1953 while on pilgrimage Shoghi Effendi asked him to extend his stay to install a pump and watering system for the grounds at Bahjí.
  • He served on the Spiritual Assembly of West Englewood (now Teaneck) for some 30 years.
  • Curtis spent some time serving as an Auxiliary Board Member and gave talks at summer schools.
  • He passed away while serving at his place of retirement in Bradenton Florida. [BW15p468-473]
Bradenton; FL Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; In Memoriam
1970 Apr - Aug More than 6,000 people become Bahá’ís in Bolivia. [BW15:232] Bolivia
1970 Ridván In its Ridván Message the Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of three additional Councillors, Iraj Ayman in Western Asia, Anneliese Bopp and Betty Reed in Europe and some 45 additional Auxiliary Board Members, 9 in Africa, 16 in Asia, 2 in Australasia and 18 in the Western Hemisphere. [Ridván 1970] BWC Continental Board of Councillors; Auxiliary Board; Auxiliary Board Member; Iraj Ayman; Anneliese Bopp; Betty Reed
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana is formed with its seat in Gaborone. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Botswana NSA first NSA Botswana
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger is formed with its seat in Cotonou, Dahomey. [BW15:189]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Dahomey NSA first NSA Dahomey, Togo and Niger
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nigeria is formed. [BW15:192] Nigeria NSA first NSA Nigeria
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa is formed with its seat in Banjul, The Gambia. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
The Gambia NSA first NSA Upper West Africa
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Samoa is formed with its seat in Apia. [BW15:274]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
Samoa NSA first NSA Samoa
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Africa is formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:206] Central Africa NSA first NSA Central Africa
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire is formed with its seat in Kinshasa. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
Zaire NSA first NSA Zaire
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rhodesia is formed. [BW15:200] Rhodesia NSA first NSA Rhodesia
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana is formed with its seat in Georgetown, Guyana. [BW15:238]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Guyana NSA first NSA Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malawi is formed with its seat in Limbe. [BW,5:201]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
Malawi NSA first NSA Malawi
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Fiji is formed with its seat in Suva. [BW15:271] Fiji NSA first NSA Fiji
1970 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Nouakchott, Mauritania is formed. Nouakchott; Mauritania LSA first LSA Nouakchott, Mauritania
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands is formed with its seat in Nuku’alofa. [BW15:275]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
NSA first NSA Tonga and the Cook Islands
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ghana is formed with its seat in Accra. [BW15:192]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
Ghana NSA first NSA Ghana
1970 May The Iraqi government issues a decree disbanding all Bahá’í institutions and banning all Bahá’í activities. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq religious persecution
1970 May One thousand Guajiro Indians become Bahá’ís in Venezuela. [BW15:241] Venezuela Guajiro Indians
1970 27 May The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations approves the recommendation by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations of February 12 1970, that the Baha'i International Community be granted consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. New York; NY United Nations Economic and Social Council find reference
1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
  • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community begins to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
  • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
  • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
New York BIC; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Dr Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; 'Aziz Navidi; Dr Amin Banani; Dr Victor de Arujo
1970 15 June Worldwide Bahá'í Statistics [CBN248February1971p11]
     Countries opened to the Faith:
          Independent countries                134
          Significant territories and islands  179
                                  Total        373

     Number of localities where Bahá'ís reside   43,341
     Number of local spiritual assemblies        10,318
Statistics
1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupts her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] US Ruhiyyih Khanum
1970 23 Jun The centenary of the death of Mírzá Mihdí is commemorated with a day of prayer by Bahá’ís around the world and in the Holy Land with a pilgrimage to the barracks in ‘Akká, Bahjí and to his monument. [BW15:162–3] Centenary of death of Mírzá Mihdí
1970 14 Aug - 1971 5 Sep Eight Oceanic and Continental Conferences are held. BW15:296–323]
  • For many pictures see BW15:296–316.
Oceanic Conference; Continental Conference; Conference
1970 14 – 16 Aug The Continental Conference is held in La Paz, Bolivia. [BW15:317; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:301–2.
La Paz; Bolivia Continental Conference; Conference
1970 14–16 Aug The Oceanic Conference of the Indian Ocean is held in Rose Hill, Mauritius. [BW15:317; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:299–301.
Rose Hill; Mauritius Oceanic Conference; Conference
1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic are arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities are banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounces the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic religious persecution
1970 Dec Canadian Bahá’ís hold a Victory Conference in Iceland to prepare the community to achieve assembly status in 1972. [BW15:335] Iceland Victory Conference
1970 8 Dec The government of Taiwan grants Certificate of Registration to register the Bahá'í Faith as a religion. Taiwan find reference
1970 25 Dec - 1971 3 Jan The First International Bahá’í Youth Winter School takes place in Salzburg, Austria, attended by 600 people from 25 countries. [BW15:332]
  • For picture see BW15:332.
Salzburg; Austria First International Bahá’í Youth Winter School
1971 Following the prohibition of Bahá’í activity in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís put forward a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court seeking to overturn the presidential decree as unconstitutional. Egypt
1971 The first summer school in Singapore is held. Singapore first summer school in Singapore
1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Mali is formed in Bamako. LSA first LSA
1971 The first three people to become Bahá’ís in Guinea enrol. [BINS45] Guinea first three Bahá’ís in Guinea
1971 The first Amerindian to become a Bahá’í in French Guiana enrols. French Guiana first Amerindian Bahá’í in French Guiana
1971 The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, to become Bahá’ís in France enrol at a campsite near Le Bourget airport. France first Gypsies Bahá’ís in France
1971 The first Pingelapese to become a Bahá’í enrols in the East Caroline Islands. East Caroline Islands first Pingelapese Bahá’í the East Caroline Islands
1971 Over 500 people become Bahá’ís in Bangladesh. [BINS86] Bangladesh
1971 The ‘Lake Victoria Plan’, a joint venture among the National Spiritual Assemblies of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi designed to carry the Faith to all the peoples and tribes living within Africa’s largest lake basin, is inaugurated at the suggestion of Hand of the Cause Dr Muhájir. [DM96–8] Lake Victoria; Africa Dr Muhajir; Hand of the Cause
c. 1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Ciskei is formed in Mdantsane. Mdantsane; Ciskei LSA first LSA Mdantsane, Ciskei
1971 Jan Thirty people enrol in Iceland as a result of the Victory Conference held in December, doubling the number of Icelandic believers. [BW15:335] Iceland
1971 1 – 3 Jan The Oceanic Conference of the South China Seas is held in the Victoria Memorial Hall in Singapore. [BW15:319; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:302–3 and VV6.
Singapore Oceanic Conference; Conference
1971 1 – 3 Jan The Continental Conference of Africa is held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW15:318; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:304–5.
Monrovia; Liberia Continental Conference; Conference
1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause; “the daughter of the Kingdom”, and “the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection” (‘Abdu’l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Baha’i to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Baha’i to settle in Japan; and the first Baha’i to teach the Faith in Korea passes away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
  • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]
  • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
  • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
Honolulu Agnes Alexander; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment first to set foot on Hawaiian soil, first to settle in Japan, first to teach the Faith in Korea
1971 11 Feb The Montreal Municipality issues a permit recognizing the Maxwell home as a Bahá'í Shrine after nine years of negotiations and delays. With this struggle came a hidden blessing. For years the Shrine had been used as a Bahá'í Centre by the Montreal community, open also to friends of the area as a place to hold public meetings, open Feasts, and certain activities not always suited to it as a Shrine. The realization is made that it is a National Bahá'í Shrine and as such should not be used as a centre. [CBNApril1971p10] Montreal; QC Montreal Shrine
1971 13 Feb Following the ban imposed by the government of the Central African Republic on Bahá’í activities in November 1970 and subsequent representations made by the international Bahá’í lawyer Dr Aziz Navidi, the ban is lifted and the Bahá’í Faith officially recognized.
  • This is broadcast in every news bulletin on government radio for the next 24 hours, the first public proclamation of the Bahá’í Faith in the country.
Central African Republic first public proclamation in Central African Republic
1971 Apr The International Bahá’í Youth Conference takes places at Oteppe-Namur, Belgium, launching a two-year youth campaign for Europe. [BW15:333–4]
  • For picture see BW15:334.
Oteppe-Namur; Belgium International Baha'i Youth Conference; Conference
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Central African Republic is formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Central African Republic NSA first NSA Central African Republic
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chad is formed with its seat in Fort Lamy. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Chad NSA first NSA Chad
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Congo and Gabon is formed with its seat in Brazzaville, the Congo. [BW15:206]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Congo NSA first NSA Congo and Gabon
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Lesotho is formed with its seat in Maseru. [BW15:202]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
Lesotho NSA first NSA Lesotho
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta is formed with its seat in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
Ivory Coast NSA first NSA Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan is formed. [BW15:187]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
Sudan NSA first NSA Sudan
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands is formed with its seat in Honiara. [BW15:269] Solomon Islands NSA first NSA Solomon Islands
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Trinidad and Tobago is formed with its seat in Port-of-Spain. [BW15:219, 242] Trinidad NSA first NSA Trinidad and Tobago
1971 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Guam are formed in Dededo, Inarajan, Mangilao and Tamuning. Guam LSA first LSA in Guam
1971 May The first National Teaching Committee of Sierra Leone is appointed by the Regional Spiritual Assembly of West Africa. Sierra Leone first National Teaching Committee of Sierra Leone
1971 21 – 23 May The Oceanic Conference of the Caribbean is held in Kingston, Jamaica. [BW15:218, 319–20; VV5–6]
  • For pictures see BW15:304–8 and VV6.
Kingston; Jamaica Oceanic Conference; Conference
1971 21 – 23 May The Oceanic Conference of the South Pacific is held in Suva, Fiji, BW15:320–1; VV6.
  • For pictures see BW15:308–9.
Suva; Fiji Oceanic Conference; Conference
1971 31 Jul - 11 Aug The European Youth Conference takes place in Fiesch, Switzerland, attended by 1,200 youth from 50 countries. [BW15:336–8]
  • About 200 people enrol in the Bahá’í Faith during the conference. [BW15:336]
  • For pictures see BW15:337.
Fiesch; Switzerland European Youth Conference
1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erects an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] Mount Carmel UHJ; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; obelisk
1971 4 Aug The first Bahá’í College Club of Latin America is formed at the University of the Americas, Puebla, Mexico. [BW15:215] Puebla; Mexico first Bahá’í College Club of Latin America
1971 27 – 30 Aug The first Bahá’í Youth Conference for Western Asia takes place in New Delhi. [BW15:335]
  • Two thousand people enrol during the conference and the week following. [BW15:335]
New Delhi first Bahá’í Youth Conference for Western Asia
1971 3 – 5 Sep The Oceanic Conference of the North Atlantic is held in Reykjavik, Iceland attended by some 800 people from 36 countries. [BW15:322–3; VV6]
  • For pictures see BW15:309–12.
Reykjavik; Iceland Oceanic Conference; Conference
1971 3 – 5 Sep The Oceanic Conference of the North Pacific is held in Sapporo, Japan. [BW15:321–2; VV6]
  • For pictures see BW15:312–14 and VV5.
Sapporo; Japan Oceanic Conference; Conference
1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
1971 13 Oct Following the banning of Bahá’í activities in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís submit a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court asking for redress and for justice to be upheld. [BW15:173]
  • The opinion of one Mandatory of the government is that the 1960 decree is unconstitutional. [BW15:173]
Egypt religious persecution
1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.

After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.

The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website]

Tehran; Hossein Amanat; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Azadi Tower; Shahyad Tower; Universal House of Justice Building; the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts; the International Teaching Centre; Samoa; Apia
1971 Nov The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Antilles takes place in the Dominican Republic. [BW 15:217] Dominican Republic Baha’i Youth Conference first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Antilles
1971 26 – 28 Nov The fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá is commemorated. [BW15:125–8; VV14]
  • For text of the letters of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:125–6 and MUHJ76–7.
fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Baha
1971 Dec - 1972 Jan The first youth summer school for southern Africa is held at the Leroy Ioas Teacher Training Institute in Mbabane and is attended by 67 people from eight countries. Mbabane; Swaziland first youth summer school for southern Africa
1972 Derek and Sally Dacey, the first resident pioneers on Montserrat in the East Leeward Islands, arrive at their pioneer post. East Leeward Islands Derek Dacey; Sally Dacey first resident pioneers on Montserrat
1972 In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirms the 1962 ban on Bahá’í administrative institutions and adds a further prohibition against organized Bahá’í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Indonesia religious persecution
1972 The first Bahá’í studies seminar is held in London. For an account of the development of these seminars see BW18:204 and BW19:368. London first Bahá’í studies seminar in London
1972 Jan The first Bahá’í Youth Summer School in Southern Africa takes place in Swaziland, attended by 70 youth from eight countries. [BW15:338]
  • For picture see BW15:340.
Swaziland first Bahá’í Youth Summer School in Southern Africa
1972 Mar A thousand children attend a Bahá’í school in Esmeraldas, Ecuador. [BW15:237] Esmeraldas; Ecuador
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan is formed with its seat in Kabul. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
Kabul; Afghanistan NSA first NSA Afghanistan
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula is formed.
  • For picture see BW15:151.
Arabian Peninsula NSA first NSA Arabian Peninsula
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh is formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
Dacca; Bangladesh NSA first NSA Bangladesh
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Iceland is formed with its seat in Reykjavik. [BW15:225, 281]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
Reykjavik; Iceland NSA first NSA Iceland
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of Ireland is formed with its seat in Dublin. [BW15:283]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles is renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
Dublin; Republic of Ireland NSA first NSA Republic of Ireland
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Malagasy Republic formed with its seat in Tananarive. [BW15:199, BWNS288]
  • For pictures see BW15:153, 198.
Tananarive; Malagasy Republic NSA first NSA Malagasy Republic
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico is formed with its seat in San Juan. [BW15:218]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
San Juan; Puerto Rico NSA first NSA Puerto Rico
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi is formed with its seat in Bujumbura. [BW15:205]
  • Because of disturbances in the country; the assembly is dissolved in the same year and the affairs of the Faith placed under an administrative committee. [BW15:205]
Bujumbura; Burundi NSA first NSA Burundi
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal is formed with its seat in Kathmandu. [BW15:249]
  • For pictures see BW15:155, 248.
  • With Hand of the Cause Ali-Akbar Furutan representing the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'ís of Nepal held their first national convention to elect their National Spiritual Assembly in 1972 during the reign of King Mahendra. The convention had forty delegates. The members of the first national assembly were: Amar Pradhan, Shyam Maherjan, Jujubhai Sakya, Aranda Lal Shrestha, Dinesh Verma, Keith de Folo, W. F. Chaittonalla, P. N. Rai, D. K. Malla - from Buddhist, Hindu, Christian backgrounds. [Religion in Nepal website]
Kathmandu; Nepal NSA first NSA Nepal
1972 Ridván The first national spiritual assembly in Micronesia, the National Spiritual Assembly of the North West Pacific Ocean, is formed with its seat in Ponape. [BW15:268]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
NSA first NSA in Micronesia; first NSA North West Pacific Ocean
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion is formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
St Pierre; Réunion NSA first NSA Réunion
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Seychelles is formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW16:156]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
Victoria; Seychelles NSA first NSA Seychelles
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda is formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
Rwanda NSA first NSA Rwanda
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon is formed. [BW15:206] Gabon NSA first NSA Gabon
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore is formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
Singapore NSA first NSA Singapore
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei is formed with its seat in Kuching, Sarawak. [BW15:253]
  • For picture see BW15:254.
Kuching; Sarawak NSA first NSA Eastern Malaysia and Brunei
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands is formed with its seat in St Lawrence, Barbados. [BW15:220]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
St Lawrence; Barbados NSA first NSA Windward Islands
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tunisia is formed. Tunisia NSA first NSA Tunisia
1972 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Republic of San Marino is formed. Republic of San Marino LSA first LSA Republic of San Marino
1972 Ridván The Spiritual Assembly of Phuntsholing town is formed. It is the first assembly of Bhutan. [Bahá'í Collections] Phuntsholing; Bhutan first Spiritual Assembly in Bhutan.
1972 28 Apr - 2 May An international teaching conference is held in conjunction with the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America in Panama. [BW15:633–42]
  • For pictures see BW15:632–49.
  • Some 3,000 Bahá'ís attend. [TG191]
Panama Mother Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1972 29 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; Vv14]
  • For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
  • For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.
Panama House of Worship; Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Dhikru’llah Khadem; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1972 30 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is publicly dedicated by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in two sessions. [BW15:634] Panama House of Worship; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1972 May The northeast and southeast quadrants of the gardens at Bahjí are completed and the southern gardens are extended to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Tea House. ‘Akká Bahji; ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s Tea House
1972 1 May The international teaching conference in Panama held in conjunction with the dedication of the House of Worship opens. [BW15:635]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:635–7.
Panama House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1972 The first Summer School of Jamaica is held. [BW15:218] Jamaica first Summer School of Jamaica
1972 7 Jun The Universal House of Justice announces the decision to construct its Seat. [DH172; MUHJ98–9; VV37] Haifa Seat UHJ
1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirms the ban on the Bahá’í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá’ís lose their jobs.
Indonesia religious persecution
1972 summer Over 150 American youth join European youth in Operation Hand-in-Hand, a joint teaching project. [BW15:338]
  • For picture see BW15:347.
1972 30 Jul Parvíz Sádiqí, Farámarz Vujdání and Parvíz Furúghí, Iranian youth pioneers, are murdered near Mindanao, Philippines, by Muslims. [BW15:257; DM316–17]
  • The three are found in a shallow grave. All had been shot, grievously mutilated and two had been decapitated. The bodies are removed and given a Bahá'í burial in a beautiful plot donated for the purpose. [CBN261September1972p1]
  • For their obituaries see BW15:514–16.
Mindanao; Philippines religious persecution; Parviz Sadiqi; Faramarz Vujdani; Parviz Furughi; pioneer; murder
1972 6 Aug ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Iranian scholar, author, translator and promoter of the Bahá’í Faith, dies. [BW15:520]
  • For his obituary see BW15:518–20.
‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí
1972 Sep The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Taiwan is established and registered. [BW15:262] Taiwan Publishing Trust
1972 7 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Malta is formed. Malta LSA first LSA in Malta
1972 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Falkland Islands is formed. [BW15:650] Falkland Islands LSA first LSA in Falkland Islands
1972 The first Winter School of Luxembourg is held in Pétange. [BW15:284] Pétange; Luxembourg first Winter School of Luxembourg
1972 Nov Thirty–two people enrol in Corsica. Corsica
1972 26 Nov The constitution of the Universal House of Justice is adopted. [BW15:169; BBRSM132, 138; VV14]
  • For full text of the constitution see BW15:555–64.
Haifa UHJ Constitution
1972 Dec The first International Youth Conference of Surinam takes places in Paramaribo. [BW15:341] Paramaribo; Surinam International Youth Conference first International Youth Conference of Surinam
1972 Dec The first winter school in Bangladesh takes place. [BW15:245] Bangladesh first winter school in Bangladesh
1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan.
  • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.
  • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
  • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
  • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
  • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
  • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
  • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
  • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
  • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
  • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
  • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
Dabney; NC; Detroit; MI; In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knight of Baha'u'llah
1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá’í Youth conference is held in The Gambia. The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá’í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigerin, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá’í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended.[Bahá'í Works 504] Bathurst; The Gambia Counsellor Mr. H. R. Ardikani; Counsellor Dr. William Maxwell Jr; Mr. Amos Agwu; Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi; Mrs. H. Vera Edwards; Mr. Friday Ekpe; Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh; Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. first West African Bahá’í Youth conference
1973 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) are completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
1973 The first local spiritual assembly in St Helena is formed. St. Helena LSA first LSA in St Helena
1973 The first local spiritual assembly in the Faroes is formed in Tórshavn. Tórshavn; Faroes LSA first LSA in Faroes
1973 The first International Youth Conference of Mexico takes place in Puebla City, attended by 200 youth from five countries. [BW15:343] Puebla City; Mexico International Youth Conference first International Youth Conference of Mexico
1973 Jan The Bahá’ís of The Gambia are granted freedom of worship by the Secretary-General of the Gambian government. [BW15:193] The Gambia
1973 19 Jan The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas is completed. [BW15:169]
1973 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání complete their tour of Africa. [BW15:605]
  • They have driven some 36,000 miles to visit more than 30 countries. [BW15:596; VV12]
  • For details of the safari see BW15:593–607.
  • See BW15:606–7 for the countries, islands and territories visited and the heads of state and other dignitaries who received them.
Africa Hand of the Cause; Ruhiyyih Khanum; Violette Nakhjavani
1973 15 Mar The mansion at Mazra‘ih is purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; DH94; VV14]

From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

“The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side.” [MUHJ68-73]

‘Akká Mazra‘ih
1973 1 Apr The Bahá’ís of the Central African Republic broadcast the first of their weekly radio programmes on Radio Bangui. [BW16:141] Central African Republic first weekly radio programme Central African Republic
1973 7 Apr Following the return to stability in Burundi, the Bahá’í Faith is granted formal recognition by the government. [BW16:137] Burundi
1973 Ridván The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published. [BBRSM138; MUHJ105; VV14]

In 1955 Shoghi Effendi initiated steps for the preparation of a Synopsis and Codification of the Laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. This was a task on which he made considerable progress and which was completed by the Universal House of Justice in 1973. [Universal House of Justice Message 5 March, 1993]

BWC
1973 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for the third time. The conference was attended by 472 National Spiritual Assembly members of the possible 1,017 from the 113 National and Regional Assemblies. Members of 14 Assemblies were prevented from attending for circumstances beyond their control but at least one person attended from the remaining 99 Assemblies. [VV14, SDSC296] Haifa Election; UHJ
1973 Ridván The Nine Year Plan is successfully completed. [BW16:131]
  • For the growth of the Bahá’í Faith in this period see BW16:130.
  • Also see The Nine Year Plan, 1964-1973: Statistical Report, Ridván 1973 by the Universal House of Justice.
Nine Year Plan; Teaching Plans
1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre is established at the Bahá’í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
  • Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí are appointed. [BW16:413]
  • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
  • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
Haifa; BWC ITC; Hand of the Cause; Counsellor; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abu’l-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi
1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asks the Bahá’ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá’u’lláh’s departure from ‘Akká and move to Mazra‘ih. [VV21]
1973 8 Jun The Universal House of Justice permits the Continental Boards of Counsellors to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants. [BW17:322] Continental Boards of Counsellors; Auxiliary Board
1973 14 Jun The International Teaching Centre meets for the first time. [VV16] Haifa ITC first meeting ITC
1973 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea is formed. [BW16:141]
  • Owing to local circumstances, it is disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
Equatorial Guinea NSA first NSA Equatorial Guinea
1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
Cambridge; England John Ferraby; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1973 18 Sep Husayn Amánat is appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37] Haifa Seat UHJ; Husayn Amánat
1973 Nov The first youth conference of Papua New Guinea takes place in Sogeri with 40 youth and visitors. [BW16:276] Sogeri; Papua New Guinea Youth conference first youth conference of Papua New Guinea
1973 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico holds its first Bahá’í school. [BW16:194] Puerto Rico first Bahá’í school Puerto Rico
1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defends the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís are arrested. [BW16:138]
Baghdád religious persecution
1973 4 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces the completion of the final, south-western quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí. [BW16:135–6; DH122] ‘Akká Bahjí
1974 The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Islands holds its first annual National Teaching Conference. [BW16:187] Leeward and Virgin Islands Teaching Conference first annual National Teaching Conference Leeward and Virgin Islands
1974 The National Television Network of Ghana broadcasts an interview with Dr William Maxwell, the first mention of the Bahá’í Faith on television in the country. [BW16:168] Ghana Dr William Maxwell first mention Faith on television Ghana
1974 As a result of an intervention by the Egyptian chargé d’affaires, Bahá’í activities in Burundi are banned. [BW16:137] Burundi religious persecution
1974 The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference to be held in Botswana takes place in Mahalapye. [BW16:150] Mahalapye; Botswana first International Bahá’í Youth Conference in Botswana
1974 Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá’ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructs that the national convention not be held. Indonesia religious persecution
1974 Owing to difficulties within the Bahá’í community, the National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand is disbanded. Thailand NSA
1974 The first Native Council takes place in Haines, Alaska, attended by 50 native Bahá’ís. Haines; Alaska first Native Council in Haines, Alaska
1974 The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Japan is established. Japan Publishing Trust
1974 The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Malaysia is established. Malaysia Publishing Trust
1974 The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith is created. [BW16:200]
  • For its history; terms of reference and programmes and publications see BW17:197–201.
Canada Canadian Association for Studies on the Baha’i Faith; ABS
1974 1 Feb The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
  • After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
  • He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
  • In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
  • He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
  • Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
  • He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
  • He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
  • He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
  • The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave]
Hull; Quebec; Baghdad; Sulaymáníyyih; Kurdistán Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam First Local Spiritual Assembly of Hull
1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
Florence; Italy. Mason Remey; Appointment Hand - First Contingent; Covenant-Breaker
1974 7 Feb The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73] Haifa Husayn Amánat; Seat UHJ
1974 Mar The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of the Philippines is established in Manila. [DM318] Manila; Philippines Publishing Trust
1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opens and the Bahá’ís are exonerated. [BW16:138]
  • The Revolutionary Council is dissatisfied with this result and the case is ordered to be reopened in a military court, with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
Iraq religious persecution
1974 21 Mar In its Naw-Rúz Message the Universal House of Justice announced that there would be eight International Teaching Conferences will be held during the middle part of the Five Year Plan; two for the Arctic, one in Anchorage and one in Helsinki during July 1976, one in Paris in August 1976, one in Nairobi in October 1976, one in Hong Kong in November 1976, one in Auckland and one in Bahia, Brazil in January 1977 and one in Mérida, Mexico in February 1977. The theme of these conferences was the urgent need for the Bahá'ís to ARISE to teach the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. (Arise-Reach-Individual-Souls-Everywhere). 14,500 Bahá'ís attended. [Naw-Rúz 1974.] BWC International Teaching Conference
1974 Ridván The Universal House of Justice launches the Five Year Plan (1974-1979). [BBD181; BBRSM159; BW16:107; VV17]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice setting out the broad objectives of the Plan see BW16:107–9.
  • For details of the national plans see BW16:111–29.
Five Year Plan; Teaching Plans
1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hong Kong is formed. [BW16:251]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
Hong Kong NSA first NSA Hong Kong
1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Japan is formed with its seat in Tokyo. [BW16:233] Tokyo; Japan NSA first NSA Japan
1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Morocco is formed. Morocco NSA first NSA Morocco
1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, is formed. LSA first LSA Kotzebue
1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentences 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís are fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdád; Iraq religious persecution
1974 May c. The first National Youth Conference of Burma takes place during the visit of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [BW16:251] Burma Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum first National Youth Conference of Burma
1974 20 May The Iraqi military court trying nearly 50 Bahá’ís hands down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá’ís, two of whom are deceased and a number of whom are of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq. [BW16:138]
  • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá’ís have their property confiscated, one Bahá’í is sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
Iraq religious persecution
1974 Jun The first Alacalufe Indians to become Bahá’ís enrol in Puerto Eden, Chile. [BW16:215] Puerto Eden; Chile first Alacalufe Indian Bahá'ís in Chile
1974 13 July The dedication of the Bosch Bahá'í School north of Santa Cruz, California. (Bosch Bahá'í School site, Bahá'´News page 716] Santa Cruz; California Bosch Baha'i School
1974 13 Jul The dedication of the John Bosch Bahá'í Summer School in Santa Cruz, California. [Bosch web site] Santa Cruz; California John Bosch Baha'i Summer School
1974 Aug The first Bahá’í to settle on Christmas Island, Stanley Foo, arrives from Malaysia. Christmas Island Stanley Foo first Bahá’í to settle on Christmas Island
1974 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in Andorra is formed at Andorra la Vella. Andorra LSA first LSA Andorra
1974 4 – 8 Aug The first International Youth Conference, the largest conference ever held in Hawaii to date, takes place in Hilo. [BW16:229]
  • For picture see BW16:232.
Hilo; Hawaii first International Youth Conference in Hawaii
1974 11 – 18 Aug The first Teaching Conference of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe take place in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. [BW16:110] Europe first Teaching Conference of Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe
1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, compiler of Some Answered Questions, passes away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
Paris Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney; In Memoriam
1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracts some 10,000 Bahá’ís, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40] St Louis; Missouri
1974 11 Sep Annemarie Krüger, a German citizen and a granddaughter of Dr Auguste Forel, arrives in Moldavia (then the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, a part of USSR) on the first of her teaching trips to Chisinau as a tourist.
  • In 1985 she is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. [Candle9 28 July, 2008]
Moldavia Annemarie Krüger; Knight of Baha’u’llah first teaching trip to Moldavia
1974 25 Oct FUNDAEC (A Spanish acronym for Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) is founded by a group of scientists and professionals led by Farzam Arbab, a renowned physicist who had arrived as a visiting professor to the University of Valle in 1970. The non-profit, non-governmental organization focuses on training and development in the rural areas of Colombia and other countries in Latin America. [FUNDAEC website]
  • They would go on to establish SAT (Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial) which expanded across Latin America to reach more than 300,000 students, and become accredited and recognized by a number of governments.
  • The Brookings Institution, a major think tank in the United States, described SAT as "catalyzing an education revolution" by "transforming how education is conceptualized, designed, and delivered." It does this by focusing on skills that are beyond the traditional academic skills, such as moral and character development, and it conceives of learning as something much broader. The philosophy is one of nurturing socially minded young people who can support and sustain development in their own communities. It bridges theory with practice by linking classroom work with practical projects, like encouraging students to learn mathematics and science in the context of growing vegetables or using their language abilities to start small study groups to promote literacy. One difference between SAT and other widely accepted classroom models is the concept of "tutors." Teachers working with SAT are referred to as tutors, and their role is defined as guiding and facilitating the learning process, rather than only imparting information. The lack of hierarchy is "an important distinction", wrote Brookings, "as it creates a culture of mutual respect and trust between tutors and students". [BWN1155]

Columbia FUNDAEC; SAT
1975 Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá’í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies are disbanded in Indonesia. Indonesia religious persecution
1975 The ban imposed on the Bahá’í Faith in Burundi in 1974 is lifted. [BW16:137]
  • Bahá’í activities continue to be restricted, particularly in provincial areas. [BW16:137]
Burundi religious persecution
1975 The first international Quechua conference is held in Cusco, Peru, attended by Bahá’ís from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Cusco; Peru International Quechua Conference first international Quechua conference in Cusco, Peru
1975 The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt decides that the 1960 decree of President Nasser banning all Bahá’í activities is constitutional and the application of the Bahá’ís for annulment of the decree is dismissed. [BW16:137] Egypt religious persecution
1975 The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Fiji is established. Fiji Publishing Trust
1975 The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Australia is established. Australia Publishing Trust
1975 Following the creation of the Rastákhíz political party by the Sháh of Iran and the refusal of the Bahá’ís to join it, although membership in it is compulsory, Bahá’ís throughout Iran are put under pressure. [BW18:391]
  • Many Bahá’ís lose their jobs. [BW18:391]
Iran religious persecution
1975 In Indonesia several Bahá’ís are arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá’í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá’ís are sentenced to five years’ imprisonment; they remain in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
Indonesia religious persecution
1975 The first Bahá’í summer school to be held in Antigua takes place. [BW16:187]
  • For picture see BW16:188.
Antigua first Bahá’í summer school in Antigua
1975 Jan A Bahá’í is arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq religious persecution
1975 1 Jan Shidan and Susan Kouchekzadeh, an Iranian-British couple pioneering in Sierra Leone, arrive in Conakry, the first Bahá’ís to settle in Guinea. Guinea Shidan Kouchekzadeh; Susan Kouchekzadeh; pioneer first Bahá’ís to settle in Guinea
1975 2 – 4 Jan The first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies is held at Cedar Glen, Bolton, Ontario. [BW17:198]
  • See also BBD201–2; VV23–5.
Bolton; Ontario; Canada first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies
1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá is purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
  • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
‘Akká; ; BWC house of ‘Abdu’llah Pasha
1975 Feb The first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone takes place in Bo. [BW16:172] Bo; Sierra Leone National Teaching Conference first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone
1975 Feb The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands takes place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands Baha'i Women's Conference first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Solomon Islands
1975 Feb The Arab Boycott Office, at its meeting in Cairo, announces that the Bahá’í Faith has been placed on its blacklist. [BW16:136; BW17:78] Cairo; Egypt religious persecution
1975 Feb - Aug Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum sets out on the Green Light Expedition to visit the indigenous peoples of the Amazon Basin in South America. [VV30–2]
  • For a pictorial description of the expedition see BW16:419–48.
South America Green Light Expedition; Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
1975 5 Feb A strip of land facing the resting place of Shoghi Effendi is bought by the Universal House of Justice to ensure protection of the site. [BW16:134; BW17:82; VV22] London Shoghi Effendi's Resting Place; UHJ
1975 Mar The only Bahá’í to visit the continent in the 1970s, John R. Peiniger, an Australian, is stationed in Antarctica for a brief time. Antarctica John R. Peiniger
1975 29 Mar The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Canary Islands is held in Santa Cruz. [BW16:313] Santa Cruz; Canary Islands Baha'i Youth Conference first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Canary Islands
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sierra Leone is formed with its seat in Freetown. [BW16:141] Freetown; Sierra Leone NSA first NSA Sierra Leone
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Togo is formed with its seat in Lomé. [BW16:141] Lomé; Togo NSA first NSA Togo
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa is formed with its seat in Dakar, Senegal. [BW16:141] Dakar; Senegal NSA first NSA Upper West Africa
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia is formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] Banjul; The Gambia NSA first NSA The Gambia
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ethiopia is formed. [BW16:144] Ethiopia NSA first NSA Ethiopia
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jordan is formed with its seat in Amman. [BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
Amman; Jordan NSA first NSA Jordan
1975 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly to be elected among the Meo tribes, Laotian refugees in northern Thailand, is formed. [BW16:262] Thailand LSA first LSA among Meo tribes, Laotian refugees
1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger is formed with its seat in Niamey. [BW16:141] Niger NSA first NSA Niger
1975 25 Apr A revolution in Portugal removes the ban on Bahá’í meetings and teaching activities. Portugal religious persecution
1975 2 May The first teaching institute of the Bahamas takes place in Nassau. [BW16:207] Nassau; Bahamas first teaching institute of Bahamas
1975 Jun Elti Kunak of Papua New Guinea is awarded the British Empire Medal for her work with women’s clubs in the Bismarck Archipelago. [BW16:278] Papua New Guinea Elti Kunak
1975 5 Jun Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice begins. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
  • See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
  • See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
Haifa; BWC; Husayn Amanat; Seat UHJ
1975 19 Jun - 2 Jul Two Bahá’í women represent the Bahá’í International Community at the first World Conference on Women in Mexico City; nine Bahá’ís represent the Bahá’í International Community at the parallel NGO Tribune. Mexico City; Mexico BIC first World Conference on Women in Mexico City
1975 21 Jun Following the revolution in Portugal in April, the National Spiritual Assembly is officially recognized.
  • The process of incorporation began in 1951.
Portugal NSA
1975 Jul The first Katio Indians to become Bahá’ís enrol in northern Colombia. [BW16:217] Colombia first Katio Indian Bahá’ís in northern Colombia
1975 9 – 12 Jul The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland takes place in Njardvik with youth from nine countries. [BW16:301] Njardvik; Iceland Baha'i Youth Conference first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland
1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá’ís imprisoned by 15 per cent is granted. [BW16:138] Iraq religious persecution
1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í is detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specifies his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
  • When he refuses to recant his faith he is tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
Iraq religious persecution
1975 Oct The New Era Rural Development Project, the first project of its kind in the world, begins in the villages around Panchgani, India. [BW17:227–8] Panchgani; India New Era Rural Development Project first rural development project in world
1975 31 Oct The Secretary of Religious Affairs in the President’s Office of Uganda informs the Bahá’ís that the Bahá’í Faith is not among those religions prohibited to practise in the country. [BW16:147] Uganda
1975 Nov The land for the Samoan House of Worship is purchased on a site overlooking Apia. [BW18:104] Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1975 Nov In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born are destroyed on the pretext that the sites need to be cleared. [BW17:79] Shíráz; Iran religious persecution
1975 Dec The first International Youth School to be held in Rhodesia takes place near Bulawayo. [BW16:155] Bulawayo; Rhodesia first International Youth School in Rhodesia
1975 Dec The first National Teaching Conference to be held in Senegal takes place in Dakar. [BW16:175] Dakar; Senegal National Teaching Conference first National Teaching Conference in Senegal
1975 End of the year The Bahá’ís of the Central African Republic begin to televise regular semi-weekly programmes. [BW16:141] Central African Republic
1976 to 1985 British pioneers Ron, Thelma, Simon and Suzanne Batchelor lived in Kathmandu, Nepal. [Thelma Batchelor on Bahá'í History UK] Kathmandu; Nepal Ron Batchelor; Thema Batchelor; Simon Batchelor; Suzanne Batchelor
1976 Following the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam, an anti-religion policy is implemented and the Bahá’í Faith, along with all other religions, is banned. Vietnam religious persecution
1976 The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Norway is established. Norway Publishing Trust
1976 The government of Equatorial Guinea outlaws all religions and the national spiritual assembly is dissolved.
  • It is re-formed in 1984.
Equatorial Guinea religious persecution; NSA
1976 Jan Bahá’ís in Jamaica initiate a weekly 15-minute radio programme. [BW16:186] Jamaica radio
1976 10 – 15 Jan The first National Bahá’í Children’s School to he held in Rhodesia takes place in Salisbury. [BW16:155] Salisbury; Rhodesia first National Bahá’í Children’s School in Rhodesia
1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world is formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska LSA
1976 Feb The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Korea is established. [BW16:237] Korea Publishing Trust
1976 8 Mar The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). [BW16:337–8; VV54] BIC; United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
1976 24 – 25 Mar The first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia takes place in Karachi, Pakistan. [BW16:265] Karachi; Pakistan Continental Youth Conference; Conference first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia
1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland. His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
Centerville; Wisconsin; Basel; Switzerland; In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Boyles; Anne Gordon Perry; Anne Gould Hauberg; Peggy Guggenheim Collection; Addison Gallery of American Art
1976 May Bahá’í activities in Mali are restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Mali religious persecution
1976 7 May Saichiro Fujita, the second Japanese to become a Bahá’í, passes away in Haifa. [BW17:406]
  • For his obituary see BW17:406–8.
Haifa Saichiro Fujita; In Memoriam
1976 5 – 8 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
Helsinki; Finland International Teaching Conference; Conference
1976 9 – 11 Jul An International Youth Conference is held in Ivory Coast, attended by nearly 200 Bahá’ís. [BW17:150, 153] Ivory Coast International Youth Conference; Conference
1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
Anchorage; Alaska International Teaching Conference; Conference
1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference is held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
Paris; France Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; International Teaching Conference; Conference
1976 12 Sep His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa visits the resting place of Shoghi Effendi. [BW17:69; VV22] Western Samoa; London; Malietoa Tanumafili II; Shoghi Effendi's Resting Place
1976 15 – 17 Oct An International Teaching Conference is held in Nairobi, Kenya, attended by 1,363 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:133–4.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 119–21.
Nairobi; Kenya International Teaching Conference; Conference
1976 6 – 7 Nov The first Canadian Bahá’í Native Council is held in Tyendinaga, Ontario. [BW17:162] Tyendinaga; Ontario; Canada first Canadian Bahá’í Native Council in Tyendinaga, Ontario
1976 27 – 30 Nov An International Teaching Conference is held in Hong Kong, attended by 506 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:135–6.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 111, 121–2.
Hong Kong International Teaching Conference; Conference
1976 Dec The first Bahá’í Winter School in Cyprus is held in Nicosia. Nicosia; Cyprus first Bahá’í Winter School in Cyprus
1976 27 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Dominica is formed in St George. St George; Dominica LSA first LSA in Dominica
1977 The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, are banned in Uganda. [BWNS135] Uganda; Africa Baha'i Faith; ban
1977 The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand is re-formed. Thailand NSA
1977 The first Macuxi people to become Bahá’ís enrol in the northern state of Roraima, Brazil. Roraima; Brazil Macuxi first Macuxi Bahá’ís in Brazil
1977 The Hemispheric Bahá’í Radio and Television Conference is held in Panama, with 125 participants from 24 countries. [BW17:219] Panama Hemispheric Baha’i Radio and Television Conference; Radio; Television
1977 19 – 22 Jan An International Teaching Conference is held in Auckland, New Zealand, attended by 1,195 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:136–7.
  • For pictures see BW17:111, 122–4.
Auckland; New Zealand International Teaching Conference; Conference
1977 27 – 30 Jan An International Teaching Conference is held in Bahia, Brazil, attended by 1,300 Bahá’ís, the largest such gathering of Bahá’ís to date in Brazil. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:137–8.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 124–5.
Bahia; Brazil International Teaching Conference; Conference
1977 4 – 6 Feb An International Teaching Conference is held in Mérida, Mexico, attended by more than 2,000 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:139.
  • Three Hands of the Cause were present – Paul Haney, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, and Enoch Olinga, as well as Counsellor Florence Mayberry who had been on the first national assembly of Mexico.
  • For pictures see BW17:112, 126–7.
  • VV33 says this was 2–6 Feb.
Mérida; Mexico International Teaching Conference; Conference
1977 24 Mar In a cabled message, the Universal House of Justice calls upon Bahá’í women around the world to arise and play an active role in the service of the Faith. [BW17:202]
  • For the report of the response to this call see BW17:202–14.
1977 Apr The first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa takes place. [BW17:211] Samoa Baha'i Children's Conference first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa
1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, takes place. [BW18:204] Lancaster; England ABS first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar England
1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of The New Hebrides is formed. (BW17pxviii, 341] New Hebrides first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles is formed.
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper Volta is formed with its seat in Ouagadougou. [BW17pxviii, 141, 341] Ouagadougou; Upper Volta NSA first NSA Upper Volta
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands is formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174] Majuro; Marshall Islands NSA first NSA Marshall Islands
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the New Hebrides is formed with its seat in Port Vila. [BW 17:186] Port Vila; New Hebrides NSA first NSA New Hebrides
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greece is formed with its seat in Athens. [BW16:287; BW17:190] Athens; Greece NSA first NSA Greece
1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Surinam and French Guiana is formed with its seat in Paramaribo. [BW16:219, 341]. Surinam; French Guiana NSA first NSA Surinam and French Guiana
1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles is formed. ]BW17pxviii, 336] French Antilles first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles is formed.
1977 May The Himalayan Conference is held in Gangtok, Sikkim. [BW17:180–2] Gangtok; Sikkim Himalayan Conference
1977 May Paul and Jane Jensen arrive on Andros Island in the Bahamas, the first Bahá’ís to reside on the island. Andros Island Paul Jensen; Jane Jensen first Bahá’ís to reside on Andros Island
1977 14 May The house of a Bahá’í in Fádilábád, Iran, is attacked; the Bahá’í is killed and his sister severely injured. [BW18:391]
  • BW17:79 says this was June.
Fádilábád; Iran religious persecution
1977 31 May Joe Rabess, the first Carib to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Dominica. Dominica Joe Rabess first Carib Bahá’í, in Dominica
1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences are held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London Conference
1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá’u’lláh’s confinement in ‘Akká is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC;
1977 Jul The first Bahá’í summer school of Ecuador is held in Cuenca. [BW17:170] Cuenca; Ecuador first Bahá’í summer school of Ecuador
1977 19 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador is granted permission to operate a radio station at Otavalo. [BW17:169] Otavalo; Ecuador
1977 12 – 14 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference is held in Enugu, Nigeria, attended by over 250 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Enugu; Nigeria International Baha’i Youth Conference; Conference
1977 14 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in the Galapagos Islands is formed on Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz; Galapagos Islands LSA first LSA in the Galapagos Islands
1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations are banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship is closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies are dissolved. [BW17:141]
Uganda religious persecution; House of Worship; NSA; LSA; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1977 12 Oct The first Bahá’í educational and cultural radio station, HCRN-1 Radio Bahá’í del Ecuador, makes its inaugural broadcast at 1420kHz, 20 watts, in Spanish and Quechua from studios in Otavalo. [BBD193; BW17:169, 215–17; BW19:120; VV77]
  • For pictures see BW17:216, 218 and VV77.
  • Full time programming (six hours a day) as initiated on the 12th of December, 1977. The 1 kiloWatt transmitter is located at Cahas, 20km south of Otavalo. [Radio Bahá'í Ecuador p23, 52]
  • On December 12th, 1979, programming was initiated in the short wave band on 2340 kHz in the 120-metre band. The 1 kilowatt transmitter is located about 30 km north of Otavalo at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In 1982 the transmission frequency was switched to 4990 kHz on the 60-meter band. [Radio Bahá‘Í Ecuador p205 note 23]
Otavalo; Cahas; Ecuador Radio Baha’i del Ecuador first Bahá’í educational and cultural radio station in Ecuador makes inaugural broadcast
1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
  • For picture see BW17:212.
New Delhi Asian Baha’i Women’s Conference; Conference
1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lays the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi Mother Temple; Hand of the Cause; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1977 Dec The restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá begins. [BW17:84] ‘Akká; ; BWC house of ‘Abdu’llah Pasha
1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America is held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
  • For picture see BW17:211.
Lima; Peru International Conference of Baha’i Women; Conference first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America
1977 27 – 30 Dec The first Bahá’í summer school of Sierra Leone is held in Magburaka. [BW17:151] Magburaka; Sierra Leone first Bahá’í summer school of Sierra Leone
1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá’ís are returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith are turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Iraq religious persecution
1978 The first local spiritual assembly in Bonaire is formed.
  • It never functions and is dissolved in 1989.
  • See also West, Letters From Bonaire.
Bonaire LSA first LSA in Bonaire
1978 In Iran, many local Bahá’í centres are seized by armed men of the revolutionary committees, along with files and membership lists. [BW17:79–80] Iran religious persecution
1978 Ten Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, seven by mobs. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337.
Iran religious persecution; murder
1978 The publication of Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [TRAKA]

Sixteen Tablets revealed by Bahá’u’lláh during the later years of His life, including the Tablet of Carmel, the Book of the Covenant, and the Tablet of Wisdom, as well as excerpts from other Writings. Six of the tablets in this volume were translated into English and published in 1917. The translations were improved upon by Shoghi Effendi, and those not translated by him were filled in with the publication in 1978 under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice. [wikipedia]

BWC Tablets of Baha'u'llah Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas
1978 The Bahá’ís of Vietnam are prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country are closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City is seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly are arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One is released in 1982, owing to ill health.
Vietnam religious persecution; NSA; haziratu’l-quds
1978 15 Jan The first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger takes place. Niger National Conference of Baha’i Women; Conference first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger
1978 Feb The government of the Congo bans the majority of smaller religious groups, including the Bahá’í Faith. [BW17:141]
  • The national hazíratu’l-quds is confiscated and the assemblies dissolved.
Congo religious persecution; haziratu’l-quds
1978 Mar The first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan, the New Day Montessori, opens in Karachi. Karachi; Pakistan first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan
1978 4 Mar Christaline Francis, the first woman of the Caribs to become a Bahá’í, enrols in Dominica. Dominica Christaline Francis first woman Carib Bahá’í in Dominica
1978 Apr Dorothy Francis, an Aboriginal person from the Salteaux tribe, is awarded the Order of Canada for her services to Canadian native peoples and her efforts to preserve their culture. [BW17:103; VV29]
  • For a picture see BW17:103.
Canada Dorothy Francis
1978 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for the fourth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. [BW17:293]
  • For details of the International Convention and pictures see BW17:293–300.
Haifa Election; UHJ; International Convention
1978 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania is formed with its seat in Nouakchott. [BW17:141, 348, BW19:491] Nouakchott; Mauritania NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania is formed
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cyprus is formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:190, 348] Nicosia; Cyprus NSA first NSA Cyprus, the first island in the Mediterranean to form an NSA.
1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attend a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building is completed at this stage. Chairing the event is Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines is placed in a niche specially designed for it.
  • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. {BW17p293-300]
BWC; Haifa; Seat of the Universal House of Justice; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
1978 Ridván The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands is formed on Tortola. Tortola; British Virgin Islands LSA first LSA in the British Virgin Islands
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands is formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:176, 348] Mariana Islands; first National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi is re-formed. [BW16:137; BW17:141, 347] Burundi NSA
1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas is formed with its seat in Nassau. [BW17:162, 348] Nassau; Bahamas NSA first The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas is formed
1978 23 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is included in the register of historic places in the United States. [BW17:166, 375]
  • For picture see BW17:165.
Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1978 26 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands is formed with its seat in Guam. [BW17:174–5; DM348, 386]
  • For picture see DM387.
Guam; Mariana Islands NSA firs NSA Mariana Islands
1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement is made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities are stopped and the national spiritual assembly is dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi is called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and is held for three clays; upon his release, unharmed, other Bahá’ís are also called in.
Niger religious persecution; NSA
1978 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference is held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, attended by some 380 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Yaoundé; Cameroon International Baha’i Youth Conference; Conference
1978 Dec Two hundred Bahá’í homes near Shíráz are burned and the Bahá’ís driven from them, property is stolen and many Bahá’ís are beaten. [BW17:79; BW19:42]
  • At one point 700 Bahá’ís are homeless and their means of livelihood destroyed. [BW17:79]
Shíráz; Iran religious persecution
1978 Dec The first Bahá’í Winter School of Malta takes place. [BW17:192] Malta first Bahá’í Winter School of Malta
1978 Dec Bahá’í homes in Andarún, Iran, are besieged; one Bahá’í is badly beaten. [BW18:275–6] Andarún; Iran religious persecution
1978 15 Dec A cabled message is sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá’ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz are in peril. [BW17:79] Iran religious persecution
1978 23 Dec Helmut Winkelbach, a German Bahá’í, arrives in Bobrujsk, Belarus, and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [Ela-D Committee of Germany Records] Bobrujsk; Belarus Helmut Winkelbach; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference is held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW17:154] Monrovia; Liberia West African Baha’i Women’s Conference; Conference
1979 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah; religious persecution
1979 Bahá’í cemeteries across Iran are confiscated, including the cemetery in Tihrán, which contains the graves of several Hands of the Cause and other distinguished Bahá’ís and several thousand other graves of Bahá’ís.
  • Many graves are desecrated and the gravestones smashed.
Iran religious persecution
1979 The Síyáh-Chál in Tihrán and the houses of Quddús and Hujjat are seized and occupied by members of the revolutionary committees. [BW17:79–80] Iran religious persecution
1979 The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan is disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan religious persecution; NSA
1979 Five Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, two by execution. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337–9.
Iran religious persecution
1979 12 Jan Bahá’í members of the Sádát-Mahmúdí clan of the Buyr-Ahmad tribe of central Iran are driven from their homes by other clan members. [BW18:271]
  • For the report of this incident and its aftermath see BW18:271–4.
  • For a picture see BW18:272.
Iran religious persecution
1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Tehran; Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎
1979 27 Jan In Samoa, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lay the cornerstone of the first Bahá’í House of Worship of the Pacific Islands. [BW17:188, 371; VV36]
  • For the text of the address delivered by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW17:372.
  • For excerpts from the address of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW17:373.
  • For pictures see BW17:374.
Samoa House of Worship; Malietoa Tanumafili II; Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hand of the Cause; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1979 Feb In Iran, Bahá’í representatives meet with high-ranking clergy in Shíráz, Qum and Mashhad to combat the widespread accusation that the Bahá’ís of Iran had supported the regime of the Sháh. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
1979 Feb A mob of some 5,000 armed with hatchets, spades and pickaxes converge on Hisár, Iran, intent on harming the Bahá’ís; the mob is prevented from doing so. [BW18:275]
  • Shortly afterwards the home of Mr Ma’naví is looted and he is carried off; it appears he was beaten to death. [BW18:275]
Hisár; Iran religious persecution; Mr Ma’navi
1979 Feb Revolutionary Guards raid the offices of Nawnahálán, a Bahá’í investment company, and the Umaná’ Corporation, a foundation for the purchase and maintenance of Bahá’í properties, and impound the keys. [BW18:252]
  • In the weeks following, the offices are occupied by the Revolutionary Guards and the staff are dismissed. [BW18:252]
Iran religious persecution
1979 1 Feb Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran from exile in France. Tehran Ayatollah Khomeini
1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran is seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, are confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
Iran religious persecution; Hazíratu’l-Quds; NSA
1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, is imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran Yusif Subhani; religious persecution
1979 21 Mar The Universal House of Justice outlines the broad goals of the Seven Year Plan to he launched at Ridván 1979. [BW18:81–5] Haifa Seven Year Plan
1979 spring The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, is confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Tákur; Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh; religious persecution
1979 Apr Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupy the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it is a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79] Shíráz; Iran House of the Bab; religious persecution
1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá’í Faith in Uganda is lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala is re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Uganda House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1979 1 Apr The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote. Iran constitution
1979 17 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Greenland is formed in Nuuk. Nuuk; Greenland LSA first LSA in Greenland
1979 20 Apr The Bahá’í World Centre reports that ten countries or territories have a Bahá’í population that exceeds one percent of the general population. [BW17:99]
1979 Ridván The Seven Year Plan is launched. (1979-1986) [BBD181; BBRSM159; BW17:71] Second Seven Year Plan; Teaching Plans
1979 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Lapland is formed in Kemi, Finland. Kemi; Finland LSA first LSA in Lapland
1979 6 May Bernard Leach CBE, internationally known potter, artist and author, passes away in St Ives, Cornwall. [BW18:669–71] St Ives; Cornwall Bernard Leach; In Memoriam
1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, is kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihrán Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhi; religious persecution
1979 summer In Iran, the offices of Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation are taken over by Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
1979 29 Jun The Universal House of Justice announces that the term of service for the members of the Continental Board of Counsellors will be five years as of the 26th of November, 1980, the Day of the Covenant. [Message from the Universal House of Justice 29 June, 1979] BWC Continental Board of Counsellors; Continental Board of Counselors
1979 25 – 26 Aug An Administrative Committee for Uganda is appointed by the Universal House of Justice to prepare the Bahá’í community for the re-establishment of the national spiritual assembly. Uganda NSA
1979 Sep Bahár Vujdání is executed in Mahábád, Iran. [BW18:255] Mahábád; Iran Bahar Vujdani; religious persecution
1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, order the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested are members of local spiritual assemblies.
  • [BW18:255]
  • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz are raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
Iran religious persecution
1979 8 – 10 Sep The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253] Shíráz; Iran House of the Bab; religious persecution
1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children are murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June, 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hand of the Cause; Knight of Baha’u’llah; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1979 Oct In Iran, Bahá’ís in the ministries of education, health and social administration are dismissed from their jobs. [BW18:255] Iran religious persecution
1979 Oct The first Bahá’í summer school for Quechua-speakers is held in Cachaco, Imbabura, Ecuador. [BW17:170] Cachaco; Imbabura; Ecuador first Bahá’í summer school for Quechua-speakers in Ecuador
1979 24 Oct The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This ]compilation was published as a book by the Baha'i Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430] BWC Inspiring the Heart
1979 Nov Bahá’í meetings are prohibited in Shasavár, Iran. [BW18:255] Shasavár; Iran religious persecution
1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihrán; Iran religious persecution; Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí; NSA
1979 Dec Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz is resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255] Shíráz; Iran religious persecution; House of the Bab
1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh is executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihrán; Iran ‘Azamatu’llah Fahandizh; religious persecution
1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which does not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, is adopted by referendum. [BI11] Iran religious persecution
1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 1923) [BW18:486, 651]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
  • See also Muhájir, Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
Quito; Ecuador Rahmatu’llah Muhajir; Hand of the Cause; Knight of Baha’u’llah; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1979 End of the year In Iran, Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation are stripped of their assets and non-Bahá’í directors, inimical to the aims of the companies, are appointed. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
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