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Bahá'í Chronology: years 197-

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197-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1970 (In the Year) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán underwent major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
1970 (In the Year) The first Gypsy in Spain to become a Bahá’í, Maria Camacho Martinez, enrolled in Sabadell. Sabadell; Spain Maria Camacho Martinez; First believers by background first Gypsy Bahá’í in Spain
1970 (In the Year) The first native of Mauritania to become a Bahá’í enrolled. Mauritania First believers by background first native Bahá’í of Mauritania
1970 (In the Year) A Bahá’í International Youth Conference was held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Abidjan; Ivory Coast Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
1970 (In the Year) Botswana held its first National Youth School. [BW15:329] Botswana Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National; Conferences, First first National Youth School in Botswana
1970 - early 1971 Over 20,000 Afro-Americans from the rural areas of the south-eastern United States became Bahá’ís. [BBRSM187] United States Mass conversion
1970 Jan Claire Gung opened Auntie Claire's Kindergarten in new facilities in Kampala with an enrollment of 146 children. [CG81] Kampala; Uganda School; Auntie Claires Kindergarten
1970 25 Jan Valde Nyman, the first full Gypsy in Finland to become a Bahá’í, enrolled in Helsinki. Finland First Bahais by country or area; Gypsies first full Gypsy Bahá’í in Finland
1970 20 Feb The passing of Curtis Demude Kelsey (b. 6 March, 1894 in Salt Lake City, UT) in Bradenton, FL.
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1917 through the influence of his mother, a talented poetess and writer who learned of the Faith in 1909.
  • Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922.
  • On the 6th of August, 1928 he married Harriet Morgan Kelsey (d. 18 March, 1971), a gifted musician and a teacher. They raised four children.
  • In 1953 while on pilgrimage Shoghi Effendi asked him to extend his stay to install a pump and watering system for the grounds at Bahjí.
  • He served on the Spiritual Assembly of West Englewood (now Teaneck) for some 30 years.
  • Curtis spent some time serving as an Auxiliary Board Member and gave talks at summer schools.
  • He passed away while serving at his place of retirement in Bradenton Florida. [BW15p468-473]
  • Bradenton; FL; United States Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1970 Apr - Aug More than 6,000 people became Bahá’ís in Bolivia. [BW15:232] Bolivia Mass conversion
    1970 Ridván In its Ridván Message the Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of three additional Councillors, Iraj Ayman in Western Asia, Anneliese Bopp and Betty Reed in Europe and some 45 additional Auxiliary Board Members, 9 in Africa, 16 in Asia, 2 in Australasia and 18 in the Western Hemisphere. [Ridván 1970] BWC Counsellors; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana was formed with its seat in Gaborone. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Botswana NSA first NSA Botswana
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malawi was formed with its seat in Limbe. [BW,5:201]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Malawi NSA first NSA Malawi
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Fiji was formed with its seat in Suva. [BW15:271] Fiji NSA first NSA Fiji
    1970 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Nouakchott, Mauritania was formed. Nouakchott; Mauritania LSA first LSA Nouakchott, Mauritania
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Nuku’alofa. [BW15:275]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Nuku’alofa; Cook Islands NSA first NSA Tonga and the Cook Islands
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ghana was formed with its seat in Accra. [BW15:192]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Ghana NSA first NSA Ghana
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger was formed with its seat in Cotonou, Dahomey. [BW15:189]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • Dahomey NSA first NSA Dahomey, Togo and Niger
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nigeria was formed. [BW15:192] Nigeria NSA first NSA Nigeria
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Banjul, The Gambia. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • Gambia, The NSA first NSA Upper West Africa
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Samoa was formed with its seat in Apia. [BW15:274]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Samoa NSA first NSA Samoa
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Africa was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:206] Central Africa NSA first NSA Central Africa
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was formed with its seat in Kinshasa. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • It has been reported that President Mobutu's personal physician was a Baháí, a Dr Jazab, and it was he who had Mobutu sign a document giving the Bahá'ís permission to practice their faith in the country. [Servants of the Glory page 60]
  • Zaire NSA; Z**** first NSA Zaire
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rhodesia was formed. [BW15:200] Rhodesia NSA first NSA Rhodesia
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Georgetown, Guyana. [BW15:238]
    • For picture see BW15:144.
    Guyana NSA first NSA Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East is formed with its seat in Beirut, Lebanon. [BW15:146; BW16:264]
    • For picture see BW15:146.
    Lebanon NSA first NSA Near East
    1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá’í activities and disbanding all Bahá’í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1970 May One thousand Guajiro Indians became Bahá’ís in Venezuela. [BW15:241] Venezuela Native Americans; Mass conversion
    1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community was granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
  • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community began to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
  • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
  • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
  • New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo
    1970 27 May The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations approved the recommendation by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations of February 12 1970, that the Baha'i International Community be granted consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. New York; NY United Nations Economic and Social Council find reference
    1970 15 June Worldwide Bahá'í Statistics [CBN248,February1971p11]
         Countries opened to the Faith:
              Independent countries                134
              Significant territories and islands  179
                                      Total        373
    
         Number of localities where Bahá'ís reside   43,341
    
         Number of local spiritual assemblies        10,318
    Worldwide Statistics; Growth
    1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupted her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] United States; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1970 23 Jun The centenary of the death of Mírzá Mihdí was commemorated with a day of prayer by Bahá’ís around the world and in the Holy Land with a pilgrimage to the barracks in ‘Akká, Bahjí and to his monument. [BW15:162–3] Akka; Bahji Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Centenaries; Monument gardens
    1970 14 Aug - 1971 5 Sep Eight Oceanic and Continental Conferences were held. BW15:296–323]
  • For many pictures see BW15:296–316.
  • Oceanic Conference; Continental Conference; Conference
    1970 14 – 16 Aug The Oceanic Conference of the Indian Ocean was held in Rose Hill, Mauritius. [BW15:317; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:299–301.
  • For an account of the experience of attending from the point of view of Claire Gung, the "Mother of Africa", see CG84-85.
  • Rose Hill; Mauritius Oceanic Conference; Conference
    1970 14 – 16 Aug The Continental Conference was held in La Paz, Bolivia. [BW15:317; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:301–2.
  • La Paz; Bolivia Continental Conference; Conference
    1970 26 Sep The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher (b. Florence Evaline Snyder in Montreal 24 July,1886).
  • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
  • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
  • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
  • She had several audiences with King Faisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
  • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
  • A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489]
  • Find a grave. She was not interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal as stated in this reference. She was buried in the Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Eliot Maine.
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic were arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities were banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounced the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1970 Dec One of the goals of the Canadian Bahá'í Community was to prepare its "daughter" community, Iceland, to achieve National Assembly status by Ridván 1972 with incorporation by 1973. To facilitate these goals the National Spiritual Assembly assigned Douglas and Elizabeth Martin to the project with Elizabeth as the principal executive. The opening phase of proclamation was launched at a Victory Conference which resulted in the enrollment of thirty people in January, 1971 thus doubling the numbers in Iceland.
  • In addition six Icelandic believers, three of them youth, were invited to attend the Canadian National Convention in Halifax at Ridván. They were: Gudmundur Bardarson, Anna Maggy Palsdottir, Baldur B. Bragason, Margret Bardardottir, Svana Einarsdottir, and Janina Njalsdottir. [BN485 6 August, 1971 pg 6]
  • The Icelandic community organized a team to undertake a summer teaching project in the Faroes Islands in cooperation with the UK Bahá'ís. [BW15335-336]
  • Three additional local assemblies were formed in Iceland in August 1971 and they were in Keflavik, Hafnarfjordur and Kopavogur. [HNWE26]
  • Reykjavik, Iceland Conference; Victory Conference; Elizabeth Martin; Douglas Martin; Gudmundur Bardarson; Anna Maggy Palsdottir; Baldur B. Bragason; Margret Bardardottir; Svana Einarsdottir; and Janina Njalsdottir
    1970 8 Dec The government of Taiwan granted Certificate of Registration to register the Bahá'í Faith as a religion. Taiwan Recognition find reference
    1970 25 Dec - 1971 3 Jan The First International Bahá’í Youth Winter School took place in Salzburg, Austria, attended by 600 people from 25 countries. [BW15:332]
  • For picture see BW15:332.
  • Salzburg; Austria; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First First International Bahá’í Youth Winter School
    1971 (In the year) Following the prohibition of Bahá’í activity in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís put forward a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court seeking to overturn the presidential decree as unconstitutional. Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Petitions
    1971 (In the year) The first summer school in Singapore was held. Singapore First summer and winter schools first summer school in Singapore
    1971 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Mali was formed in Bamako. Bamako; Mali LSA first LSA
    1971 (In the year) The first three people to become Bahá’ís in Guinea enrolled. [BINS45] Guinea First Bahais by country or area first three Bahá’ís in Guinea
    1971 (In the year) The first Amerindian to become a Bahá’í in French Guiana enrolled. French Guiana first Amerindian Bahá’í in French Guiana
    1971 (In the year) The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, the first to become Bahá’ís in France, enrolled at a campsite near Le Bourget airport. France First believers by background first Gypsies Bahá’ís in France
    1971 (In the year) The first Pingelapese to become a Bahá’í enrolled in the East Caroline Islands. East Caroline Islands First believers by background first Pingelapese Bahá’í the East Caroline Islands
    1971 (In the year) Over 500 people became Bahá’ís in Bangladesh. [BINS86] Bangladesh Mass conversion
    1971 (In the year) The ‘Lake Victoria Plan’, a joint venture among the National Spiritual Assemblies of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi designed to carry the Faith to all the peoples and tribes living within Africa’s largest lake basin, was inaugurated at the suggestion of Hand of the Cause Dr Muhájir. [DM96–8] Lake Victoria; Africa Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    c. 1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Ciskei was formed in Mdantsane. Mdantsane; Ciskei LSA first LSA Mdantsane, Ciskei
    1971 (In the year) Dan Jordon with Don Streets co-founded the Center for the Study of Human Potential at U. Mass and along with other Bahá'í educators and scholars, he started the Anisa Project, a comprehensive, Bahá'í-inspired educational system organized around a philosophical base. With the creation of the Anisa (Arabic for the Tree of Life) Project—adopted by dozens of school systems during Jordan’s lifetime.
  • The Anisa Educational Model was inspired by the Bahá'í teachings and the philosophical work of Alfred North Whitehead and soon grew into a national movement that trained hundreds of educators.
  • This new educational model was conceptualized as a process rather than a fixed formula. Based on the constantly-evolving empirical framework of the biological and medical sciences the Anisa Model gathered and unified educational practice and theory into a completely new paradigm. [Stanford Libraries]
  • Massachusetts Anisa Project; Dan Jordon; Don Streets; Z****
    1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause; “the daughter of the Kingdom”, and “the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection” (‘Abdu’l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Bahá'í to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Bahá'í to settle in Japan; and the first Bahá'í to teach the Faith in Korea, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
  • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]
  • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
  • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
  • Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, Other first to set foot on Hawaiian soil, first to settle in Japan, first to teach the Faith in Korea
    1971 1 – 3 Jan The Oceanic Conference of the South China Seas was held in the Victoria Memorial Hall in Singapore. [BW15:319; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:302–3 and VV6.
  • Singapore Oceanic Conference; Conference
    1971 1 – 3 Jan The Continental Conference of Africa was held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW15:318; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:304–5.
  • Monrovia; Liberia Continental Conference; Conference
    1971 11 Feb The Montreal Municipality issued a permit recognizing the Maxwell home as a Bahá'í Shrine after nine years of negotiations and delays. With this struggle came a hidden blessing. For years the Shrine had been used as a Bahá'í Centre by the Montreal community, open also to friends of the area as a place to hold public meetings, open Feasts, and certain activities not always suited to it as a Shrine. The realization was made that it was a National Bahá'í Shrine and as such should not be used as a centre. [CBNApril1971p10] Montreal; QC Montreal Shrine; legal recognition
    1971 13 Feb Following the ban imposed by the government of the Central African Republic on Bahá’í activities in November 1970 and subsequent representations made by the international Bahá’í lawyer Dr Aziz Navidi, the ban was lifted and the Bahá’í Faith officially recognized.
  • This was broadcast in every news bulletin on government radio for the next 24 hours, the first public proclamation of the Bahá’í Faith in the country.
  • Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Recognition first public proclamation in Central African Republic
    1971 Apr The International Bahá’í Youth Conference took places at Oteppe-Namur, Belgium, launching a two-year youth campaign for Europe. [BW15:333–4]
  • For picture see BW15:334.
  • Oteppe-Namur; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chad was formed with its seat in Fort Lamy. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 45-46.
  • Chad NSA first NSA Chad
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Central African Republic was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • Central African Republic NSA first NSA Central African Republic
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Congo and Gabon was formed with its seat in Brazzaville, the Congo. [BW15:206]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • Congo NSA first NSA Congo and Gabon
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Lesotho was formed with its seat in Maseru. [BW15:202]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • Lesotho NSA first NSA Lesotho
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta was formed with its seat in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. [BW15:193]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
  • Ivory Coast NSA first NSA Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan was formed. [BW15:187]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
  • Sudan NSA first NSA Sudan
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands was formed with its seat in Honiara. [BW15:269] Solomon Islands; Oceania NSA first NSA Solomon Islands
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Trinidad and Tobago was formed with its seat in Port-of-Spain. [BW15:219, 242] Trinidad and Tobago NSA first NSA Trinidad and Tobago
    1971 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Guam were formed in Dededo, Inarajan, Mangilao and Tamuning. Guam LSA first LSA in Guam
    1971 May The first National Teaching Committee of Sierra Leone was appointed by the Regional Spiritual Assembly of West Africa. Sierra Leone Teaching; Firsts, Other first National Teaching Committee of Sierra Leone
    1971 21 – 23 May The Oceanic Conference of the Caribbean was held in Kingston, Jamaica. [BW15:218, 319–20; VV5–6]
  • For pictures see BW15:304–8 and VV6.
  • Kingston; Jamaica Oceanic Conference; Conference
    1971 21 – 23 May The Oceanic Conference of the South Pacific was held in Suva, Fiji, BW15:320–1; VV6.
  • For pictures see BW15:308–9.
  • Suva; Fiji Oceanic Conference; Conference
    1971 31 Jul - 11 Aug The European Youth Conference took place in Fiesch, Switzerland, attended by 1,200 youth from 50 countries. [BW15:336–8]
  • About 200 people enrolled in the Bahá’í Faith during the conference. [BW15:336]
  • For pictures see BW15:337.
  • Fiesch; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erected an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Milly Collins
    1971 4 Aug The first Bahá’í College Club of Latin America was formed at the University of the Americas, Puebla, Mexico. [BW15:215] Puebla; Mexico Universities first Bahá’í College Club of Latin America
    1971 27 – 30 Aug The first Bahá’í Youth Conference for Western Asia took place in New Delhi. [BW15:335]
  • Two thousand people enrolled during the conference and the week following. [BW15:335]
  • New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences; Mass conversion first Bahá’í Youth Conference for Western Asia
    1971 3 – 5 Sep The Oceanic Conference of the North Atlantic was held in Reykjavik, Iceland attended by some 800 people from 36 countries. [BW15:322–3; VV6]
  • For pictures see BW15:309–12.
  • Reykjavik; Iceland Oceanic Conference; Conference
    1971 3 – 5 Sep The Oceanic Conference of the North Pacific was held in Sapporo, Japan. [BW15:321–2; VV6]
  • For pictures see BW15:312–14 and VV5.
  • Sapporo; Japan Oceanic Conference; Conference
    1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1971 13 Oct Following the banning of Bahá’í activities in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís submitted a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court asking for redress and for justice to be upheld. [BW15:173]
  • The opinion of one Mandatory of the government is that the 1960 decree was unconstitutional. [BW15:173]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Court cases
    1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.
  • After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.
  • The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website]
  • Tihran; Iran Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
    1971 Nov The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Antilles took place in the Dominican Republic. [BW 15:217] Dominican Republic Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Antilles
    1971 26 – 28 Nov The fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was commemorated. [BW15:125–8; VV14]
  • For text of the letters of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:125–6 and MUHJ76–7.
  • BWC; Haifa Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1971 Dec - 1972 Jan The first youth summer school for southern Africa was held at the Leroy Ioas Teacher Training Institute in Mbabane and is attended by 67 people from eight countries. Mbabane; Swaziland First summer and winter schools first youth summer school for southern Africa
    1972 (In the year) Derek and Sally Dacey, the first resident pioneers on Montserrat in the East Leeward Islands, arrived at their pioneer post. East Leeward Islands First travel teachers and pioneers first resident pioneers on Montserrat
    1972 (In the year) In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirmed the 1962 ban on Bahá’í administrative institutions and added a further prohibition against organized Bahá’í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 (In the year) The first Bahá’í studies seminar was held in London. For an account of the development of these seminars see BW18:204 and BW19:368. London; United Kingdom Bahai studies; Firsts, Other; Conferences, Other first Bahá’í studies seminar in London
    1972 Jan The first Bahá’í Youth Summer School in Southern Africa took place in Swaziland, attended by 70 youth from eight countries. [BW15:338]
  • For picture see BW15:340.
  • Swaziland First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í Youth Summer School in Southern Africa
    1972 Mar A thousand children attended a Bahá’í school in Esmeraldas, Ecuador. [BW15:237] Esmeraldas; Ecuador
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was formed with its seat in Kabul. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • Kabul; Afghanistan NSA first NSA Afghanistan
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula was formed.
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • Arabian Peninsula NSA first NSA Arabian Peninsula
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh was formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • Dacca; Bangladesh NSA first NSA Bangladesh
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of Ireland was formed with its seat in Dublin. [BW15:283]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
  • Dublin; Ireland NSA first NSA Republic of Ireland
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Iceland was formed with its seat in Reykjavik. [BW15:225, 281]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • Reykjavik; Iceland NSA first NSA Iceland
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Malagasy Republic was formed with its seat in Tananarive. [BW15:199, BWNS288]
  • For pictures see BW15:153, 198.
  • Tananarive (Antananarivo); Malagasy Republic (Madagascar); Madagascar NSA; BWNS first NSA Malagasy Republic
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico was formed with its seat in San Juan. [BW15:218]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • San Juan; Puerto Rico NSA first NSA Puerto Rico
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi was formed with its seat in Bujumbura. [BW15:205]
  • Because of disturbances in the country; the assembly was dissolved in the same year and the affairs of the Faith placed under an administrative committee. [BW15:205]
  • Bujumbura; Burundi NSA first NSA Burundi
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was formed with its seat in Kathmandu. [BW15:249]
  • For pictures see BW15:155, 248.
  • With Hand of the Cause Ali-Akbar Furutan representing the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'ís of Nepal held their first national convention to elect their National Spiritual Assembly in 1972 during the reign of King Mahendra. The convention had forty delegates. The members of the first national assembly were: Amar Pradhan, Shyam Maherjan, Jujubhai Sakya, Aranda Lal Shrestha, Dinesh Verma, Keith de Folo, W. F. Chaittonalla, P. N. Rai, D. K. Malla - from Buddhist, Hindu, Christian backgrounds. [Religion in Nepal website]
  • Kathmandu; Nepal NSA; Cultural diversity first NSA Nepal
    1972 Ridván The first national spiritual assembly in Micronesia, the National Spiritual Assembly of the North West Pacific Ocean, is formed with its seat in Ponape. [BW15:268]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • Ponape; Micronesia NSA first NSA in Micronesia; first NSA North West Pacific Ocean
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion was formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • St Pierre; Reunion; France NSA first NSA Réunion
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Seychelles was formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW16:156]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Victoria; Seychelles NSA first NSA Seychelles
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda was formed. [BW15:205]< ul>
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Rwanda NSA first NSA Rwanda
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon is formed. [BW15:206] Gabon NSA first NSA Gabon
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei was formed with its seat in Kuching, Sarawak. [BW15:253]
  • For picture see BW15:254.
  • Kuching; Sarawak NSA first NSA Eastern Malaysia and Brunei
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore was formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Singapore NSA first NSA Singapore
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in St Lawrence, Barbados. [BW15:220]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • St Lawrence; Barbados NSA first NSA Windward Islands
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tunisia was formed. Tunisia NSA first NSA Tunisia
    1972 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Republic of San Marino was formed. San Marino LSA first LSA Republic of San Marino
    1972 Ridván The Spiritual Assembly of Phuntsholing town was formed. It was the first assembly of Bhutan. [Bahá'í Collections] Phuntsholing; Bhutan LSA first Spiritual Assembly in Bhutan.
    1972 28 Apr - 2 May An international teaching conference was held in conjunction with the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America in Panama. [BW15:633–42]
  • For pictures see BW15:632–49.
  • Some 3,000 Bahá'ís attend. [TG191]
  • Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Teaching
    1972 29 Apr The House of Worship in Panama was dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; VV14]
  • For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
  • For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.

    Specifics

      Location:Panama City, Panama (On the Cerro Sonsonate (Singing Hill), a few miles north of Panama City)
      Foundation Stone: 8 October 1967 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
      Construction Period: 1969-1972
      Site Dedication: 29 April, 1972 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
      Architect: Peter Tillotson
      Seating: 550
      Dimensions:
      Cost:
      Dependencies:
      References: BW14p493, BW15p632-649
  • Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem; Peter Tillotson; Architects; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1972 30 Apr The House of Worship in Panama was publicly dedicated by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in two sessions. [BW15:634] Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
    1972 1 May The international teaching conference in Panama held in conjunction with the dedication of the House of Worship opened. [BW15:635]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:635–7.
  • Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International
    1972 May The northeast and southeast quadrants of the gardens at Bahjí were completed and the southern gardens were extended to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Tea House. Akka Bahji; Abdul-Baha, Tea House of
    1972 The first Summer School of Jamaica was held. [BW15:218] Jamaica First summer and winter schools first Summer School of Jamaica
    1972 7 Jun The Universal House of Justice announced the decision to construct its Seat. [DH172; MUHJ98–9; VV37] BWC Universal House of Justice, Seat of
    1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirmed the ban on the Bahá’í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá’ís lost their jobs.
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 summer Over 150 American youth join European youth in Operation Hand-in-Hand, a joint teaching project. [BW15:338]
  • For picture see BW15:347.
  • United States Teaching campaigns; Youth
    1972 30 Jul Parvíz Sádiqí, Farámarz Vujdání and Parvíz Furúghí, Iranian youth pioneers, were murdered near Mindanao, Philippines, by Muslims. [BW15:257; DM316–17]
  • The three were found in a shallow grave. All had been shot, grievously mutilated and two had been decapitated. The bodies were removed and given a Bahá'í burial in a beautiful plot donated for the purpose. [CBN261September1972p1]
  • For their obituaries see BW15:514–16.
  • Mindanao; Philippines Persecution, Philippines; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
    1972 6 Aug ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Iranian scholar, author, translator and promoter of the Bahá’í Faith, passed away. [BW15:520]
  • For his obituary see BW15:518–20.
  • Tihran; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai scholars
    1972 Sep The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Taiwan was established and registered. [BW15:262] Taiwan Publishing Trusts
    1972 7 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Malta was formed. Malta LSA first LSA in Malta
    1972 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Falkland Islands was formed. [BW15:650] Falkland Islands LSA first LSA in Falkland Islands
    1972 Nov Thirty–two people enrolled in Corsica. Corsica
    1972 The first Winter School of Luxembourg was held in Pétange. [BW15:284] Petange; Luxembourg First summer and winter schools first Winter School of Luxembourg
    1972 26 Nov The constitution of the Universal House of Justice was adopted. [BW15:169; BBRSM132, 138; VV14]
  • For full text of the constitution see BW15:555–64, The Constitution of the Universal House of Justice.
  • BWC Universal House of Justice, Constitution; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Constitutions; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1972 Dec The first International Youth Conference of Surinam took places in Paramaribo. [BW15:341] Paramaribo; Suriname; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first International Youth Conference of Suriname
    1972 Dec The first winter school in Bangladesh took place. [BW15:245] Bangladesh First summer and winter schools first winter school in Bangladesh
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Washington Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan. His place of burial is unknown.
  • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.
  • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
  • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
  • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
  • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
  • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
  • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
  • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
  • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
  • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
  • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
  • Find a grave
  • Dabney, NC; Detroit; United States In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá’í Youth conference was held in The Gambia.

    The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá’í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigeria, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá’í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended. [Bahá'í News 504]

    Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first West African Bahá’í Youth conference
    1973 (In the year) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) were completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in St Helena was formed. St Helena LSA first LSA in St Helena
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Faroes was formed in Tórshavn. Torshavn; Faroes LSA first LSA in Faroes
    1973 (In the year) The first International Youth Conference of Mexico took place in Puebla City, was attended by 200 youth from five countries. [BW15:343] Puebla; Mexico Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences; North America first International Youth Conference of Mexico
    1973 Jan The Bahá’ís of The Gambia were granted freedom of worship by the Secretary-General of the Gambian government. [BW15:193] Gambia, The Recognition
    1973 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání completed their tour of Africa. [BW15:605]
  • They drove some 36,000 miles to visit more than 30 countries. [BW15:596; VV12]
  • For details of the safari see BW15:593–607.
  • See BW15:606–7 for the countries, islands and territories visited and the heads of state and other dignitaries who received them.
  • Africa; Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great Safari
    1973 13 Mar The mansion at Mazra‘ih was purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; BW19-779-782, DH94; VV14]
  • From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

    “The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side.” [MUHJ68-73p112]

  • Mazraih; Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1973 1 Apr The Bahá’ís of the Central African Republic broadcasted the first of their weekly radio programmes on Radio Bangui. [BW16:141] Central African Republic Radio and television programmes; Media; Firsts, Other first weekly radio programme Central African Republic
    1973 7 Apr Following the return to stability in Burundi, the Bahá’í Faith was granted formal recognition by the government. [BW16:137] Burundi Recognition
    1973 Ridván The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BBRSM138; MUHJ105; VV14; BW15:169]
  • In 1953 Shoghi Effendi had included, as one of the goals of the Ten Year Plan, the preparation of a Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas as an essential prelude to the translation of Kitáb-i-Aqdas itself. In 1955 Shoghi Effendi initiated steps to this end and had made considerable progress when he passed in 1957. The task was continued on the basis of his work and the resulting volume was released. [Universal House of Justice Message 5 March, 1993]
  • The Synopsis and Codification covered the text of both the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Questions and Answers which constitutes an appendix to the Aqdas.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Publications; Questions and Answers; The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Z****
    1973 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the third time. The conference was attended by 472 National Spiritual Assembly members of the possible 1,017 from the 113 National and Regional Assemblies. Members of 14 Assemblies were prevented from attending for circumstances beyond their control but at least one person attended from the remaining 99 Assemblies. [VV14, SDSC296]
  • The newly elected members of the Universal House of Justice were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Hofman, Charles Wolcott, Borrah Kavelin, David Ruhe, Hugh Chance. [Mess63-86]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections
    1973 Ridván The Nine Year Plan was successfully completed. [BW16:131]
  • For the growth of the Bahá’í Faith in this period see BW16:130.
  • Also see The Nine Year Plan, 1964-1973: Statistical Report, Ridván 1973 by the Universal House of Justice.
  • BWC Nine Year Plan (1964-1973); Teaching Plans
    1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre was established at the Bahá’í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16, CEBF200; Wikipedia]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
  • Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí were appointed. [BW16:413]
  • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
  • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
  • BWC; Haifa International Teaching Centre; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Counsellors; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá’ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr, the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá’u’lláh’s departure from ‘Akká and move to Mazra‘ih. [VV21] Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mazraih
    1973 8 Jun The Universal House of Justice permitted the Continental Boards of Counsellors to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants. [BW17:322]
  • Mrs. Zena Sorabjee was appointed Trustee of the new Continental Fund of South Central Asia, while Mr. Hushang Ahdieh and Mr. Mas‘úd Khamsí were appointed the new Trustees of the Continental Funds of Central and East Africa and South America respectively. 8 June, 1973
  • BWC Counsellors; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Funds, Continental; Funds
    1973 14 Jun The International Teaching Centre met for the first time. [VV16] Haifa International Teaching Centre first meeting ITC
    1973 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was formed. [BW16:141]
  • Owing to local circumstances, it was disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
  • Equatorial Guinea NSA first NSA Equatorial Guinea
    1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • He was the author of All Things Made New published in 1960 by Allen & Unwin, London.
  • Cambridge; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1973 18 Sep Husayn Amánat was appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37] BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
    1973 7 Oct The Universal House of Justice announced that the number of Auxiliary Board members throughout the world was to be raised to 270, of whom 81 will serve on the Auxiliary Boards for the Protection of the Faith and 189 will serve on the Auxiliary Boards for the Propagation of the Faith. In all there will be 54 Auxiliary Board members in Africa, 81 in the Western Hemisphere, 81 in Asia, 18 in Australasia and 36 in Europe.
  • Each Continental Board of Counsellors was given the discretion to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants and given broad latitude in this matter. [Message from the Universal House of Justice 7 October, 1973]
  • BWC Counsellors; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1973 Nov The first youth conference of Papua New Guinea took place in Sogeri with 40 youth and visitors. [BW16:276] Sogeri; Papua New Guinea Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first youth conference of Papua New Guinea
    1973 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico held its first Bahá’í school. [BW16:194] Puerto Rico first Bahá’í school Puerto Rico
    1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defended the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís were arrested. [BW16:138]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1973 4 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced the completion of the final, south-western quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí. [BW16:135–6; DH122] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahji
    1974 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Islands held its first annual National Teaching Conference. [BW16:187] Leeward Islands; Virgin Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences first annual National Teaching Conference Leeward and Virgin Islands
    1974 (In the year) The National Television Network of Ghana broadcasted an interview with Dr William Maxwell, the first mention of the Bahá’í Faith on television in the country. [BW16:168] Ghana William Maxwell first mention Faith on television Ghana
    1974 (In the year) As a result of an intervention by the Egyptian chargé d’affaires, Bahá’í activities in Burundi were banned. [BW16:137] Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1974 (In the year) The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference to be held in Botswana took place in Mahalapye. [BW16:150] Mahalapye; Botswana Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First first International Bahá’í Youth Conference in Botswana
    1974 (In the year) Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá’ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructed that the national convention not be held. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conventions, National
    1974 (In the year) Owing to difficulties within the Bahá’í community, the National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was disbanded. Thailand NSA
    1974 (In the year) The first Native Council took place in Haines, Alaska, attended by 50 native Bahá’ís. Haines; Alaska; United States Firsts, Other first Native Council in Haines, Alaska
    1974 (In the year) The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Japan was established. Japan Publishing Trusts
    1974 (In the year) The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Malaysia was established. Malaysia Publishing Trusts
    1974 (In the year) The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith was created. [BW16:200]
  • For its history; terms of reference and programmes and publications see BW17:197–201.
  • Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1974 (In the year) In Cambodia, political upheaval and a ban on the Bahá’í Faith had scattered its communities and caused some believers to be imprisoned briefly. Dempsey and Adrienne Morgan returned in 1971 and discreetly helped facilitate communication among Bahá’ís. Once the ban was lifted in 1974, he assisted in re-formation of several Local Spiritual Assemblies and instituted training classes. The foundation built by the national Bahá’í community helped it endure the devastating upheavals of subsequent years. [The American Bahá'í, Servants of the Glory page 48] Cambodia Dempsey Morgan; Adrienne Morgan; Ban; Z****
    1974 (In the year) The publication of The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings by Reverend William McElwee Miller. This book was an update of his 1931 publication Bahá'ism: Its Origin, History and Teachings. Forty-three years earlier he had predicted that the Bahá'í Faith would soon only be known to students of history. Now he revised his assessment to say, "Whoever peruses the thousands of pages of the thirteen large volumes of The Bahá'í World will be impressed by the fact that the Bahá'í Faith is indeed a world faith." [MCSp766]
  • See "Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith" by Douglas Martin published in Bahá'í Studies, volume 4.
  • Pennsylvania; United States Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller
    1974 (In the year) Oscar DeGruy founded Bahá’í youth workshops to reach disaffected young people battered by racism, gang violence and drug abuse. The groups aided youth to explore the social problems plaguing the world and to identify the spiritual principles that could address them. The groups created dances that creatively addressed different issues, such as ending racial prejudice, substance abuse, and the equality of men and women.
  • A generation of Baha’i youth in the U.S. were raised with the workshop model. Eventually the idea spread worldwide, and youth in other countries used the workshop model to explore the application of Bahá’í principles to the issues in their own countries.
  • The performance troupe “Beyond Words” in 2009 comprised youth from South Africa, Cuba, Taiwan, Ireland, United Kingdom. [One Country Jul-Sep 1997 Vol 9 Issue 2]
  • danse workshop; Oscar DeGruy;
    1974 1 Feb The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
  • After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
  • He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
  • In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
  • He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
  • Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
  • He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
  • He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
  • He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
  • The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave]
  • Hull; Quebec; Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam First Local Spiritual Assembly of Hull
    1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
  • Florence; Italy Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
    1974 7 Feb The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73] BWC Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture
    1974 Mar The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of the Philippines was established in Manila. [DM318] Manila; Philippines Publishing Trusts
    1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opened and the Bahá’ís were exonerated. [BW16:138]
  • The Revolutionary Council was dissatisfied with this result and the case was ordered to be reopened in a military court with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1974 21 Mar In its Naw-Rúz Message the Universal House of Justice announced that there would be eight International Teaching Conferences will be held during the middle part of the Five Year Plan; two for the Arctic, one in Anchorage and one in Helsinki during July 1976, one in Paris in August 1976, one in Nairobi in October 1976, one in Hong Kong in November 1976, one in Auckland and one in Bahia, Brazil in January 1977 and one in Mérida, Mexico in February 1977. The theme of these conferences was the urgent need for the Bahá'ís to ARISE to teach the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. (Arise-Reach-Individual-Souls-Everywhere). 14,500 Bahá'ís attended. [Naw-Rúz 1974.] Worldwide Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Arising; UHJ
    1974 Ridván The Universal House of Justice launched the Five Year Plan (1974-1979). [BBD181; BBRSM159; BW16:107; VV17]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice setting out the broad objectives of the Plan see BW16:107–9.
  • For details of the national plans see BW16:111–29.
  • BWC Five Year Plan (1974-1979); Teaching Plans
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hong Kong was formed. [BW16:251]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • Hong Kong NSA first NSA Hong Kong
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Japan was formed with its seat in Tokyo. [BW16:233] Tokyo; Japan NSA first NSA Japan
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Morocco was formed. Morocco NSA first NSA Morocco
    1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, was formed. Kotzebue; Alaska; United States; Arctic LSA first LSA Kotzebue
    1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentenced 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís were fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1974 May c. The first National Youth Conference of Burma took place during the visit of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [BW16:251] Myanmar (Burma) Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first National Youth Conference of Burma
    1974 20 May The Iraqi military court tried nearly 50 Bahá’ís and handed down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá’ís, two of whom were deceased and a number of whom were of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq. [BW16:138]
  • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá’ís had their property confiscated, one Bahá’í was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1974 Jun The first Alacalufe Indians to become Bahá’ís enrolled in Puerto Eden, Chile. [BW16:215] Puerto Eden; Chile First believers by background first Alacalufe Indian Bahá'ís in Chile
    1974 13 July The dedication of the Bosch Bahá'í School north of Santa Cruz, California. (Bosch Bahá'í School site, Bahá'´News page 716] Santa Cruz; California Bosch Bahai School; Bahai schools
    1974 Aug The first Bahá’í to settle on Christmas Island, Stanley Foo, arrived from Malaysia. Christmas Island First travel teachers and pioneers first Bahá’í to settle on Christmas Island
    1974 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in Andorra was formed at Andorra la Vella. Andorra LSA first LSA Andorra
    1974 4 – 8 Aug The first International Youth Conference, the largest conference ever held in Hawaii to date, took place in Hilo. [BW16:229]<
  • For picture see BW16:232.
  • Hilo; Hawaii Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First first International Youth Conference in Hawaii
    1974 11 – 18 Aug The first Teaching Conference of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe took place in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. [BW16:110] Torshavn; Faroe Islands; Arctic Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; First conferences first Teaching Conference of Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
  • She was buried at Cimetiere de Passy, Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France.
  • She is best known for having compiled the Bahá'í text Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acc between 1904 and 1906. [Wikipedia]
  • See Laura Barney’s Discipleship to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900–1916 by Layli Maria Miron in The Journal of Bahá’í Studies 28.1-2 2018.
  • She was the only Western woman to have been designated as "Amatu'l-Bahá" (Handmaid of Bahá) by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 445]
  • At the end of the war she placed her faith in the League of Nations and represented the International Council of Women in that body, playing an important role in cultural exchange. She was the only woman named by the League Council to sit on the Sub-Committee of experts on Education, a post which she held for many years, beginning in 1926. On 23 July 1925she was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur. In that same year she formed under the aegis of the League of Nations the ‘Liaison Committee of Major International Organizations to promote through Education better Understanding between Peoples and Classes’ and became a permanent member of the committee as well as its liaison officer. In 1934 she became a member of the Advisory Committee of the League of Nations on Teaching; she was also a member of the French Committee on Intellectual Co-operation. [BW15p537]
  • My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Jack McLean (1967)
  • Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; Laura Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Amatul-Baha; Some Answered Questions; Z****
    1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracted some 10,000 Bahá’ís, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40]
  • See "From Badasht to Stain Louis; An Evaluation of the First Bahá'í Conference and the Largest" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK266-278.
  • St Louis; Missouri; United States; Badasht; Iran Conferences, Bahai; Zikrullah Khadem; Z****
    1974 11 Sep Annemarie Krüger, a German citizen and a granddaughter of Dr Auguste Forel, arrived in Moldavia (then the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, a part of USSR) on the first of her teaching trips to Chisinau as a tourist.
  • In 1985 she was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. [Candle9 28 July, 2008]
  • Moldavia Knights of Bahaullah first teaching trip to Moldavia
    1974 25 Oct FUNDAEC (A Spanish acronym for Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) was founded by a group of scientists and professionals led by Farzam Arbab, a renowned physicist who had arrived as a visiting professor to the University of Valle in 1970. The non-profit, non-governmental organization focused on training and development in the rural areas of Colombia and other countries in Latin America. [FUNDAEC website]
  • They would go on to establish SAT (Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial) which expanded across Latin America to reach more than 300,000 students, and become accredited and recognized by a number of governments.
  • The Brookings Institution, a major think tank in the United States, described SAT as "catalyzing an education revolution" by "transforming how education is conceptualized, designed, and delivered." It does this by focusing on skills that are beyond the traditional academic skills, such as moral and character development, and it conceives of learning as something much broader. The philosophy is one of nurturing socially minded young people who can support and sustain development in their own communities. It bridges theory with practice by linking classroom work with practical projects, like encouraging students to learn mathematics and science in the context of growing vegetables or using their language abilities to start small study groups to promote literacy.
  • One difference between SAT and other widely accepted classroom models is the concept of "tutors." Teachers working with SAT are referred to as tutors, and their role is defined as guiding and facilitating the learning process, rather than only imparting information. The lack of hierarchy is "an important distinction", wrote Brookings, "as it creates a culture of mutual respect and trust between tutors and students". [BWN1155]
  • Columbia FUNDAEC; SAT
    1975 (In the year) Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá’í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies were disbanded in Indonesia. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The ban imposed on the Bahá’í Faith in Burundi in 1974 was lifted. [BW16:137]
  • Bahá’í activities continue to be restricted, particularly in provincial areas. [BW16:137]
  • Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The first international Quechua conference was held in Cusco, Peru, attended by Bahá’ís from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Cusco; Peru Quechua; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences first international Quechua conference in Cusco, Peru
    1975 (In the year) The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt decided that the 1960 decree of President Nasser banning all Bahá’í activities was constitutional and the application of the Bahá’ís for annulment of the decree was dismissed. [BW16:137]
  • Though nominally they have been guaranteed equal rights and religious freedoms under the 1971 Constitution, Bahá'ís, in practice, have retained a secondary legal status due to ongoing religious discrimination. Issues pertaining to personal status in Egypt were informed by religious rather than civil law and recognition pertained only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Aspects of religious life such as marriage, divorce and family relationships were not recognized by the state.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Human rights
    1975 (In the year) The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Fiji was established. Fiji Publishing Trusts
    1975 (In the year) The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Australia was established. Australia Publishing Trusts
    1975 (In the year) Following the creation of the Rastákhíz political party by the Sháh of Iran and the refusal of the Bahá’ís to join it, although membership in it is compulsory, Bahá’ís throughout Iran are put under pressure. [BW18:391]
  • Many Bahá’ís lost their jobs. [BW18:391]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) In Indonesia several Bahá’ís were arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá’í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá’ís were sentenced to five years’ imprisonment; they remained in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The first Bahá’í summer school to be held in Antigua took place. [BW16:187]
  • For picture see BW16:188.
  • Antigua First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í summer school in Antigua
    1975 (In the year) Elizabeth Martin, with the help of Chris Lyons produced film entitled Invitation. It was a memoir of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum incorporating footage from Khánum's Andean trip along with memories of her childhood years in Montreal. [HNWE36] Toronto; Canada film; Invitation; Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1975 1 Jan Shidan and Susan Kouchekzadeh, an Iranian-British couple pioneering in Sierra Leone, arrived in Conakry, the first Bahá’ís to settle in Guinea. Conakry; Guinea; Sierra Leone First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’ís to settle in Guinea
    1975 2 – 4 Jan The first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies is held at Cedar Glen, Bolton, Ontario. [BW17:198]
  • See also BBD201–2; VV23–5.
  • Bolton; Ontario; Canada Conferences, Bahai studies; Bahai Studies, Associations for first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies
    1975 Jan A Bahá’í was arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá was purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
  • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abdullah Pasha; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1975 Feb The first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone took place in Bo. [BW16:172] Bo; Sierra Leone Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone
    1975 Feb The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands took place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Solomon Islands
    1975 Feb The Arab Boycott Office, at its meeting in Cairo, announced that the Bahá’í Faith had been placed on its blacklist. [BW16:136; BW17:78] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1975 Feb - Aug Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum set out on the Green Light Expedition to visit the indigenous peoples of the Amazon Basin in South America. [VV30–2]
  • For a pictorial description of the expedition see BW16:419–48.
  • Latin America Green Light Expedition; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of
    1975 5 Feb A strip of land facing the resting place of Shoghi Effendi was purchased by the Universal House of Justice to ensure protection of the site. [BW16:134; BW17:82; VV22] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1975 Mar The only Bahá’í to visit the continent in the 1970s, John R. Peiniger, an Australian, was stationed in Antarctica for a brief time.
  • See Aníbal and Norma Soto, a couple who visited in the previous decade.
  • Antarctica John R. Peiniger
    1975 29 Mar The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Canary Islands was held in Santa Cruz. [BW16:313] Santa Cruz; Canary Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Canary Islands
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sierra Leone was formed with its seat in Freetown. [BW16:141] Freetown; Sierra Leone NSA first NSA Sierra Leone
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Togo was formed with its seat in Lomé. [BW16:141] Lomé; Togo NSA first NSA Togo
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Dakar, Senegal. [BW16:141] Dakar; Senegal NSA first NSA Upper West Africa
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia was formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] Banjul; Gambia, The NSA first NSA The Gambia
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ethiopia was formed. [BW16:144] Ethiopia NSA first NSA Ethiopia
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jordan was formed with its seat in Amman. [BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • Amman; Jordan NSA first NSA Jordan
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was formed with its seat in Niamey. [BW16:141] Niger NSA first NSA Niger
    1975 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly to be elected among the Meo tribes, Laotian refugees in northern Thailand, was formed. [BW16:262] Thailand LSA first LSA among Meo tribes, Laotian refugees
    1975 25 Apr A revolution in Portugal removed the ban on Bahá’í meetings and teaching activities. Portugal Persecution, Portugal; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 2 May The first teaching institute of the Bahamas took place in Nassau. [BW16:207] Nassau; Bahamas Teaching institutes; Firsts, Other; Islands first teaching institute of Bahamas
    1975 Jun Elti Kunak of Papua New Guinea was awarded the British Empire Medal for her work with women’s clubs in the Bismarck Archipelago. [BW16:278] Papua New Guinea Elti Kunak
    1975 5 Jun Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice began. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
  • See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
  • See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
  • Haifa; BWC Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture; Architects
    1975 19 Jun - 2 Jul Two* Bahá’í women represented the Bahá’í International Community at the first World Conference on Women in Mexico City; nine Bahá’ís represented the Bahá’í International Community at the parallel NGO Tribune. Those attending were: Dorothy Nelson*; Jane Faily, Sheil Banání, Edris Rice-Wray, Carmen Burafato, Catherine Mboya, Shirin Fozdar*, Jyoti Munsiff, Elsie Austin and Shomais Afnán.
  • The purpose of the Conference was to give shape to a Ten-Year Plan of Action to promote equality between men and women in member nations by stressing better education and increased participation of women in decision-making in order to bring the neglected resources of women into the struggle for development and peace. [CBN No 297 Aug/Sep 1975 p16]
  • Mexico City; Mexico BIC, Conference; Women's Conference; Dorothy Nelson; Jane Faily; Sheil Banani; Edris Rice-Wray; Carmen Burafato; Catherine Mboya; Shirin Fozdar; Jyoti Munsiff; Elsie Austin; Shomais Afnan. first World Conference on Women in Mexico City
    1975 21 Jun Following the revolution in Portugal in April, the National Spiritual Assembly was officially recognized.
  • The process of incorporation began in 1951.
  • Portugal NSA
    1975 24 Jun Iran became one of the first countries in the world to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). The covenant spelled out clearly the concept of freedom of religion or belief.
    Article 18 states that “[e]veryone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his/her religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.” The ICCPR also spells out specific rights to due process “without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” These include freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, the right to be “promptly informed” of charges, and the right to legal counsel. Article 9 of the ICCPR states that “[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention.” It also states that “[a]nyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.” Article 14 spells out the right to legal counsel, stating everyone has the right “to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing. …”
    The Covenant was opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966 and came into force on 23 March 1976. [International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Fact Sheet]
    New York; United States; Iran International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); United Nations; Human rights
    1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá’ís imprisoned by 15 per cent was granted. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Jul The first Katio Indians to become Bahá’ís enrolled in northern Colombia. [BW16:217] Colombia First believers by background first Katio Indian Bahá’ís in northern Colombia
    1975 4 - 8 Jul The Ridván Message contained the phrase, "EVIDENCES GATHERING CLOUDS WIDESPREAD OPPOSITION" and the Universal House of Justice called together all the 'high ranking officers' and 'senior administrative bodies' of the Faith in North America for special consultation on the future protection of the Cause" to be held in Wilmette. It was attended by the three Hands of the Cause for North America, Mr Sears, Mr Robarts and Mr Zikrullah Khadem; the four members of the Board of Counsellors, Velma Sherrill, Lloyd Gardner, Sarah Periera, and Edna True; all the members of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Alaska, Canada and the United States as well as representative of the National Assembly of Hawaii; all of the Auxiliary Board members in North America and special guest, Counsellor 'Azíz Yazdí of the International Teaching Centre.
  • Although the primary reason for gathering was to discuss the issue of the protection of the Faith there were opportunities for members of the three National Spiritual Assemblies and the Auxiliary Boards to share teaching ideas and to lear of the goals achieved in other areas. [BN Vol 52 No 8 August, 1975 p13-14, CBN Issue 287 Aug/Sept 1975 p1-4]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conference; Continental Conference for Protection first continental conference in North America.
    1975 9 – 12 Jul The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland took place in Njardvik with youth from nine countries. [BW16:301] Njardvik; Iceland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland
    1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í was detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specified his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
  • When he refused to recant his faith he was tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Oct The New Era Rural Development Project, the first project of its kind in the world, began in the villages around Panchgani, India. [BW17:227–8] Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development; Firsts, Other first rural development project in world
    1975 31 Oct The Secretary of Religious Affairs in the President’s Office of Uganda informed the Bahá’ís that the Bahá’í Faith was not among those religions prohibited to practise in the country. [BW16:147] Uganda Recognition
    1975 Nov The land for the Samoan House of Worship was purchased on a site overlooking Apia. [BW18:104] Apia; Samoa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Purchases and exchanges
    1975 Nov In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born were destroyed on the pretext that the sites needed to be cleared. [BW17:79] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Bab, Family of
    1975 Dec The first International Youth School to be held in Rhodesia took place near Bulawayo. [BW16:155] Bulawayo; Rhodesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First first International Youth School in Rhodesia
    1975 Dec The first National Teaching Conference to be held in Senegal took place in Dakar. [BW16:175] Dakar; Senegal Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching first National Teaching Conference in Senegal
    1975 (End of the year) The Bahá’ís of the Central African Republic began to televise regular semi-weekly programmes. [BW16:141] Central African Republic Radio and television programmes; Media
    1976 to 1985 British pioneers Ron, Thelma, Simon and Suzanne Batchelor lived in Kathmandu, Nepal. [Thelma Batchelor on Bahá'í History UK] Kathmandu; Nepal Pioneers
    1976 (In the year) Following the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam, an anti-religion policy was implemented and the Bahá’í Faith, along with all other religions, were banned. Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 (In the year) The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Norway was established. Norway Publishing Trusts
    1976 (In the year) The government of Equatorial Guinea outlawed all religions and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved.
  • It was re-formed in 1984.
  • Equatorial Guinea Persecution, Equatorial Guinea; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 (In the year) The publication of Selections from the Writings of the Báb compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice and translated by Habib Taherzadeh with the assistance of a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre. [SWB] BWC Selections from the Writings of the Bab; Habib Taherzadeh; publications; Bab, Writings of first authorized source of the Bab’s Writings in English.
    1976 (In the year) Elizabeth Martin with Chris Lyons made a film called Retrospective, a memoir of Hand of the Cause John Robarts. It included his reminiscences of the Guardian and of the early days of the Faith in Canada. [HNWE36] Toronto; Canada film; Retrospective; Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; Hand of the Cause John Robarts
    1976 Jan Bahá’ís in Jamaica initiated a weekly 15-minute radio programme. [BW16:186] Jamaica Radio and television programmes; Media
    1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world was formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska; United States LSA; Superlatives
    1976 10 – 15 Jan The first National Bahá’í Children’s School to he held in Rhodesia took place in Salisbury. [BW16:155] Salisbury; Rhodesia Bahai Children's school first National Bahá’í Children’s School in Rhodesia
    1976 Feb The Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Korea was established. [BW16:237] Korea Publishing Trusts
    1976 8 Mar The Bahá’í International Community was granted consultative status with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). [BW16:337–8; VV54] New York BIC; United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
    1976 24 – 25 Mar The first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia took place in Karachi, Pakistan. [BW16:265] Karachi; Pakistan; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia
    1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland.
  • His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Bahá'í Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
  • Centerville; Wisconsin; United States; Basel; Switzerland In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
    1976 May Bahá’í activities in Mali were restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Mali Persecution, Mali; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 7 May Saichiro Fujita, (b. 1886) the second Japanese to become a Bahá’í, passed away in Haifa. [BW17:406]
  • For his obituary see BW17:406–8.
  • 1903 came to California for education.
  • 1905 became a Bahá'í (Mrs. Kathryn Frankland)
  • 1912 joined 'Abdu'l-Bahá's party in Chicago as they were near departure for California.
  • 1919 came to the Holy Land after studying electricity and horticulture.
  • 1928 Shoghi Effendi sent him back to Japan with the war impending.
  • 1955 returned to the Holy Land.
  • Was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa.
  • References: Traces That Remain and Japan Will Turn Ablaze
  • Haifa Saichiro Fujita; In Memoriam; Births and Deaths
    1976 5 – 8 Jul An International Teaching Conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
  • Helsinki; Finland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 9 – 11 Jul An International Youth Conference was held in Ivory Coast, attended by nearly 200 Bahá’ís. [BW17:150, 153] Ivory Coast; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference was held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
  • Anchorage; Alaska; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference was held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
  • Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 12 Sep His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa visited the resting place of Shoghi Effendi. [BW17:69; VV22] Samoa; London; United Kingdom Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1976 5 Oct The passing of Adelaide Sharp (b. Texas, 1896) in Tehran.
  • In 1929 she accompanied Dr Susan Moody (77) to Tehran and and took up the position of principal of the Tarbiyat School for Girls (opened 1910).
  • In 1931 she invited her mother, Clara Sharp, to come and live with her.
  • After the closing of the Tarbiyat Schools on the 6th of December, 1934, the Guardian asked her to remain in Persia. She organized study classes for both boys and girls to study English writings such as Bahá'í Administration, The Promised Day is Come, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh and other works from the Guardian. In 1954 the Guardian ruled that women could serve on Bahá'í administrative bodied in Persia. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and served in this role for the next fourteen years. She attended the First and Second International Conventions in 1963 and in 1968. Her five decade legacy of service in Iran included children's education, translating Writings, consolidating administrative institutions, serving as the"external affairs" representative for the National Assembly. Upon her passing memorial services where held in Tehran as well as other centres throughout the country. [BW17p418-420, Bahá'í Heroes & Heroines]
  • Texas; United States; Tihran; Iran Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other first woman member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran
    1976 15 – 17 Oct An International Teaching Conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya, attended by 1,363 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:133–4.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 119–21.
  • Nairobi; Kenya; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 6 – 7 Nov The first Canadian Bahá’í Native Council was held in Tyendinaga, Ontario. [BW17:162] Tyendinaga; Ontario; Canada first Canadian Bahá’í Native Council in Tyendinaga, Ontario
    1976 27 – 30 Nov An International Teaching Conference was held in Hong Kong, attended by 506 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:135–6.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 111, 121–2.
  • Hong Kong; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 Dec The first Bahá’í Winter School in Cyprus was held in Nicosia. Nicosia; Cyprus First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í Winter School in Cyprus
    1976 27 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Dominica was formed in St George. St George; Dominica LSA first LSA in Dominica
    1977 (In the year) The publication of Call to the Nations, by Shoghi Effendi. It was composed of selections from the writings of the Guardian's "World Order letters" chosen by the Universal House of Justice and offered as a light and a guidance to all humankind in a "dark period of our history".
  • For a download in English see Call to the Nations.
  • For a Spanish translation see Llamado a las Naciones.
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Publications; Call to the Nations (book)
    1977 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand re-formed. Thailand NSA
    1977 (In the year) The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, were banned in Uganda. [BWNS135] Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; BWNS
    1977 (In the year) The first Macuxi people to become Bahá’ís enrolled in the northern state of Roraima, Brazil. Roraima; Brazil Macuxi first Macuxi Bahá’ís in Brazil
    1977 19 – 22 Jan An International Teaching Conference was held in Auckland, New Zealand, attended by 1,195 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:136–7.
  • For pictures see BW17:111, 122–4.
  • Auckland; New Zealand; Asia-Pacific Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 27 – 30 Jan An International Teaching Conference was held in Bahia, Brazil, attended by 1,300 Bahá’ís, the largest such gathering of Bahá’ís to date in Brazil. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:137–8.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 124–5.
  • Bahia; Brazil; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 4 – 6 Feb An International Teaching Conference was held in Mérida, Mexico, attended by more than 2,000 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:139.
  • Three Hands of the Cause were present – Paul Haney, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, and Enoch Olinga, as well as Counsellor Florence Mayberry who had been on the first national assembly of Mexico.
  • For pictures see BW17:112, 126–7.
  • VV33 says this was 2–6 Feb.
  • Merida; Mexico; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 24 Mar In a cabled message, the Universal House of Justice called upon Bahá’í women around the world to arise and play an active role in the service of the Faith. [BW17:202]
  • For the report of the response to this call see BW17:202–14.
  • Women
    1977 Apr The first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa took place. [BW17:211] Samoa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; First conferences first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa
    1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, took place. [BW18:204] Lancaster; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for; Firsts, Other; Bahai studies; Conferences, Other first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar England
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of The New Hebrides was formed. (BW17pxviii, 341] New Hebrides NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles is formed.
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper Volta was formed with its seat in Ouagadougou. [BW17pxviii, 141, 341] Ouagadougou; Upper Volta NSA first NSA Upper Volta
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands was formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174] Majuro; Marshall Islands NSA first NSA Marshall Islands
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the New Hebrides was formed with its seat in Port Vila. [BW 17:186] Port Vila; New Hebrides NSA first NSA New Hebrides
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greece was formed with its seat in Athens. [BW16:287; BW17:190] Athens; Greece NSA first NSA Greece
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Surinam and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Paramaribo. [BW16:219, 341]. Suriname; French Guiana NSA first NSA Surinam and French Guiana
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles was formed. ]BW17pxviii, 336] French Antilles NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles is formed.
    1977 May The Himalayan Conference was held in Gangtok, Sikkim. [BW17:180–2] Gangtok; Sikkim; India Conferences, Bahai
    1977 May Paul and Jane Jensen arrived on Andros Island in the Bahamas, the first Bahá’ís to reside on the island. Andros Island First travel teachers and pioneers first Bahá’ís to reside on Andros Island
    1977 14 May The house of a Bahá’í in Fádilábád, Iran, was attacked; the Bahá’í was killed and his sister severely injured. [BW18:391]
  • BW17:79 says this was June.
  • Fadilabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1977 31 May Joe Rabess, the first Carib to become a Bahá’í, enrolled in Dominica. Dominica Joe Rabess first Carib Bahá’í, in Dominica
    1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences were held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá’u’lláh’s confinement in ‘Akká was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1977 Jul The first Bahá’í summer school of Ecuador was held in Cuenca. [BW17:170] Cuenca; Ecuador first Bahá’í summer school of Ecuador
    1977 12 – 14 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Enugu, Nigeria, attended by over 250 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Enugu; Nigeria; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1977 14 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in the Galapagos Islands was formed on Santa Cruz. Galapagos Islands; Ecuador First Local Spiritual Assemblies first LSA in the Galapagos Islands
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala
    1977 21 Sep The government of Idi Amin in Uganda banned all religion groups but for four. President Amin, who was a Moslem convert, granted the freedom of worship only to Islam and the Anglican, Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian churches. The vast majority of Christians belonged to the Anglican and Catholic churches. Some of those organizations banned had been included in previous bans imposed by President Amin in 1973 and 1975. [CG113]
  • The ban remained in place until the overthrow of the Amin government by the ousted former President Obote on the 11th of April, 1979. The Bahá'ís of Kampala formed an administrative committee until elections could be held. [CG124]
  • Uganda Uganda, persecution
    1977 12 Oct The first Bahá’í educational and cultural radio station, HCRN-1 Radio Bahá’í del Ecuador, made its inaugural broadcast at 1420kHz, 20 watts, in Spanish and Quechua from studios in Otavalo. [BBD193; BW17:169, 215–17; BW19:120; VV77; Mess63-86p373]
  • Radio Bahá'í was first housed in the Amatu'l-Bahá Ruhiyyih Kahnum Institute in Otavalo. [BW18p226]
  • For pictures see BW17:216, 218 and VV77.
  • Full time programming (six hours a day) was initiated on the 12th of December, 1977. The 1 kiloWatt transmitter was located at Cahas, 20km south of Otavalo. [Radio Bahá'í Ecuador p23, 52]
  • On December 12th, 1979, programming was initiated in the short wave band on 2340 kHz in the 120-metre band. The 1 kilowatt transmitter was located about 30 km north of Otavalo at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In 1982 the transmission frequency was switched to 4990 kHz on the 60-meter band. [Radio Bahá‘Í Ecuador p205 note 23]
  • Otavalo; Cahas; Ecuador Bahai radio; Bahai-owned radio; Firsts, Other; Education first Bahá’í educational and cultural radio station in Ecuador makes inaugural broadcast
    1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
  • For picture see BW17:212.
  • New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
    1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi; India; Asia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
    1977 Dec The restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá began. [BW17:84] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration
    1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America was held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
  • For picture see BW17:211.
  • Lima; Peru Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America
    1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá’ís were returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith were turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1977 15 Dec The Hemispheric Bahá’í Radio and Television Conference was held in Panama, with 125 participants from 24 countries. [BW17:219; Mess63-86] Panama Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Bahai radio; Television; Media
    1977 27 – 30 Dec The first Bahá’í summer school of Sierra Leone was held in Magburaka. [BW17:151] Magburaka; Sierra Leone First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í summer school of Sierra Leone
    1978 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Bonaire was formed.
  • It never functioned and was dissolved in 1989.
  • See also West, Letters From Bonaire.
  • Bonaire LSA first LSA in Bonaire
    1978 (In the year) Ten Bahá’ís were killed in Iran, seven by mobs. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Human rights
    1978 (In the year) The publication of Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [TRAKA]

    Sixteen Tablets revealed by Bahá’u’lláh during the later years of His life, including the Tablet of Carmel, the Book of the Covenant, and the Tablet of Wisdom, as well as excerpts from other Writings. Six of the tablets in this volume were translated into English and published in 1917. The translations were improved upon by Shoghi Effendi, and those not translated by him were filled in with the publication in 1978 under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice. [wikipedia]

    Akka; BWC Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications
    1978 (In the year) In Iran, many local Bahá’í centres were seized by armed men of the revolutionary committees, along with files and membership lists. [BW17:79–80] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 (In the year) The Bahá’ís of Vietnam were prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country were closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City was seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly were arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One was released in 1982, owing to ill health.
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 15 Jan The first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger took place. Niger Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; First conferences first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger
    1978 Feb The government of the Congo banned the majority of smaller religious groups, including the Bahá’í Faith. [BW17:141]
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds was confiscated and the assemblies dissolved.
  • Congo Persecution, Congo; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Mar The first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan, the New Day Montessori, opened in Karachi. Karachi; Pakistan Bahai schools first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan
    1978 4 Mar Christaline Francis, the first woman of the Caribs to become a Bahá’í, enrolled in Dominica. Dominica First Bahais by country or area first woman Carib Bahá’í in Dominica
    1978 Apr Dorothy Francis, an Aboriginal person from the Salteaux tribe, was awarded the Order of Canada for her services to Canadian native peoples and her efforts to preserve their culture. [BW17:103; VV29]
  • For a picture see BW17:103.
  • Canada Dorothy Francis
    1978 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the fourth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. [BW17:293]
  • Those elected were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Ruhe, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Borrah Kavelin, . [Mess63-86p381] .
  • For details of the International Convention and pictures see BW17:293–300.
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections
    1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attended a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building was completed at this stage. Chairing the event was Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines was placed in a niche specially designed for it.
  • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. [BW17p293-300]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cyprus was formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:190, 348] Nicosia; Cyprus NSA first NSA Cyprus, the first island in the Mediterranean to form an NSA.
    1978 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania was formed with its seat in Nouakchott. [BW17:141, 348, BW19:491] Nouakchott; Mauritania NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania is formed
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas was formed with its seat in Nassau. [BW17:162, 348] Nassau; Bahamas NSA first The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas is formed
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands was formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:176, 348] Mariana Islands NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi was re-formed. [BW16:137; BW17:141, 347] Burundi NSA
    1978 Ridván The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands was formed on Tortola. Tortola; British Virgin Islands LSA first LSA in the British Virgin Islands
    1978 23 May The House of Worship in Wilmette was included in the register of historic places in the United States. [BW17:166, 375]
  • For picture see BW17:165.
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1978 26 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands was formed with its seat in Guam. [BW17:174–5; DM348, 386]
  • For picture see DM387.
  • Guam; Mariana Islands NSA firs NSA Mariana Islands
    1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement was made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities were suspended and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi was called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and was held for three days; then released unharmed. Other Bahá’ís were also called in.
  • Niger Persecution, Niger; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Mr Djoneidi
    1978 Aug An International Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, attended by some 380 Bahá’ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Yaounde; Cameroon; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1978 Oct Three hundred Bahá’í homes near Shíráz were burned or destroyed and in another 200 homes the Bahá’ís were driven from them, property was stolen and many Bahá’ís were beaten. [BW17:79; BW19:42]
  • At one point 700 Bahá’ís were homeless and their means of livelihood destroyed. [BW17:79; BN136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1978 Oct - Nov Mobs destroyed the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Mihán-du-´Ab followed by the burning or looting of 80 homes and the murder of two believers, a father and son who bodies were dragged through the streets, cut into pieces and consigned to the flames. Throughout the country the hostility towards the Bahá'ís resulted in 4 deaths, the loss of millions in property and the displacement of some 700 people.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran instituted a special fund for relief of the needy and suffering. [BN 136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Mihan-du-Ab; Adhirgayjan; Iran persecution; relief fund; fund; Z****
    1978 7 Nov The murder of Major-General Ali Mohammad Khademi (b. 16 December, 1913 in Jahrom, Fars.) After a brilliant career in the military he became head of Iran's national airline. In 16 years he transformed it into a world-class airline with international connections.
    General Khademi was killed in his home. Despite witness accounts by his wife and the soldiers assigned to his home, the government controlled media called his murder a “suicide”, although several international media outlets, such as the New York Times, reported on his murder. Among Iranian Bahá'ís, General Khademi held the highest ranking leadership post in a public institution. His religious affiliation, which was not a secret, was the cause of fierce opposition by a number of Muslim clergy.
    An investigation into his murder named three members of “the joint anti-terror committee”, one of whom was identified at the Military Command by Bahiyyih Moayyed as the shooter of her husband. Despite these individuals’ identification and arrest by the Military Command, none was tried or punished. Later on, The National Security and Intelligence Agency (SAVAK) detained Bahiyyih Moayyed for about one month to force her to declare that her husband had committed suicide. She refused. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 19724; Iran News]
    Tihran; Iran Ali Mohammad Khademi; Bahiyyih Moayyed; Persecution; In Memoriam; Z****
    1978 Dec The first Bahá’í Winter School of Malta took place. [BW17:192] Malta First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í Winter School of Malta
    1978 Dec Bahá’í homes in Andarún, Iran, were besieged; one Bahá’í was badly beaten. [BW18:275–6] Andarun; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1978 15 Dec A cabled message was sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá’ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz were in peril. [BW17:79] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
    1978 16 - 19 Dec More than 560 Bahá'ís from 14 countries throughout Malaysia gathered for the South East Asia Bahá'í Regional Conference. [BN136 April 1979] Kuching; Sarawak Province; Malaysia Conference; South East Asia Baha'i Regional Conference; Z****
    1978 23 Dec Helmut Winkelbach, a German Bahá’í, arrived in Bobrujsk, Belarus, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [Ela-D Committee of Germany Records] Bobrujsk; Belarus Helmut Winkelbach; Knights of Bahaullah
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held in Monrovia, Liberia with the theme, "Spiritual Education of Women-The Foundation of a New Human Society". [BW17:154]
  • Delegates from sixteen countries attended. It was attended by 150 women and 50 men. Keynote speaker was Dr. Jane Faily, Consultant to the Bahá'í International Community's representative to the United Nations and a clinical psychologist associated with the University of Ottawa. [BN 136 April, 1979 pg10-15]
  • Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; Jane Faily; Z****
    1979 (In the year) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán was confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 (In the year) Bahá’í cemeteries across Iran were confiscated, including the cemetery in Tihrán, which contains the graves of several Hands of the Cause and other distinguished Bahá’ís as well as several thousand other graves of Bahá’ís.
  • Many graves were desecrated and the gravestones smashed.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
    1979 (In the year) The Síyáh-Chál in Tihrán and the houses of Quddús and Hujjat were seized and occupied by members of the revolutionary committees. [BW17:79–80] Iran; Tihran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Quddus; Hujjat
    1979 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan Persecution, Afghanistan; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
    1979 (In the year) Five Bahá’ís were killed in Iran, two by execution. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337–9.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 12 Jan Bahá’í members of the Sádát-Mahmúdí clan of the Buyr-Ahmad tribe of central Iran were driven from their homes by other clan members. [BW18:271]
  • For the report of this incident and its aftermath see BW18:271–4.
  • For a picture see BW18:272.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Tihran; Iran Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
    1979 27 Jan In Samoa, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the cornerstone of the first Bahá’í House of Worship of the Pacific Islands. [BW17:188, 371; VV36]
  • For the text of the address delivered by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW17:372.
  • For excerpts from the address of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW17:373.
  • For pictures see BW17:374.
  • Apia; Samoa; Pacific Islands Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Islands
    1979 Feb In Iran, Bahá’í representatives met with high-ranking clergy in Shíráz, Qum and Mashhad to combat the widespread accusation that the Bahá’ís of Iran had supported the regime of the Sháh. [BW18:252] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 1 Feb Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran from exile in France. Tihran; Iran Ayatollah Khomeini; History (general); Iran, General history; Ayatollahs
    1979 Feb A mob of some 5,000 armed with hatchets, spades and pickaxes converged on Hisár, Iran, intent on harming the Bahá’ís; the mob was prevented from doing so. [BW18:275]
  • Shortly afterwards the home of Mr. Ma’naví was looted and he was carried off; it appeared he was beaten to death. [BW18:275]
  • Hisar; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1979 Feb Revolutionary Guards raided the offices of Nawnahálán, a Bahá’í investment company, and the Umaná’ Corporation, a foundation for the purchase and maintenance of Bahá’í properties, and impoundeded the keys. [BW18:252]
  • In the weeks following, the offices were occupied by the Revolutionary Guards and the staff were dismissed. [BW18:252]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran was seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, were confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; NSA
    1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, was imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran; Tihran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1979 21 Mar The Universal House of Justice outlined the broad goals of the Seven Year Plan to he launched at Ridván 1979. [BW18:81–5] BWC Seven Year Plan (1979-1986); Teaching Plans
    1979 (Spring) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, was confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Takur; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 1 Apr The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote. Iran Constitutions
    1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá’í Faith in Uganda was lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala was re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1979 Apr Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupied the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it was a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 17 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Greenland was formed in Nuuk. Nuuk; Greenland LSA first LSA in Greenland
    1979 20 Apr The Bahá’í World Centre reported that ten countries or territories had a Bahá’í population that exceeded one percent of the general population. [BW17:99] Statistics
    1979 Ridván The Seven Year Plan was launched. (1979-1986) [BBD181; BBRSM159; BW17:71] BWC Seven Year Plan (1979-1986); Teaching Plans
    1979 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Lapland was formed in Kemi, Finland. Kemi; Finland LSA first LSA in Lapland
    1979 6 May Bernard Howell Leach CBE, (b.5 Jan 1887 Hong Kong), internationally known potter, artist and author, passed away in St Ives, Cornwall. He was buried in the Barnoon Cemetery in St Ives. [BW18:669–71]
  • See AY50 for the significance of the name of the village of St. Ives.
  • Find a grave
  • Wikipedia.
  • Leach Pottery.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • He was the author of A Potter's Book, A Potter in Japan as well as Beyond East and West: Memoirs, Portraits and Essays, and Drawings, Verse and Belief. [BEL10.892-10.985]
  • See Bernard Leach, Potter:A Biographical Sketch by Robert Weinberg.
  • See Remembering Bernard Leach by Trudi Scott (Published in BW18 pp929-931).
  • See Traces that Remain p216-218.
  • St Ives; Cornwall; United Kingdom Bernard Leach; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Z****
    1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, was kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1979 (Summer) In Iran, the offices of Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation were taken over by Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:252] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 29 Jun The Universal House of Justice announced that the term of service for the members of the Continental Board of Counsellors will be five years as of the 26th of November, 1980, the Day of the Covenant. [Message from the Universal House of Justice 29 June, 1979, BW19:27] BWC Counsellors; Appointed arm
    1979 25 – 26 Aug An Administrative Committee for Uganda was appointed by the Universal House of Justice to prepare the Bahá’í community for the re-establishment of the national spiritual assembly. Uganda NSA
    1979 Sep Bahár Vujdání was executed in Mahábád, Iran. [BW18:255] Mahabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, ordered the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested were members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW18:255]
  • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz were raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
  • Shahsavar; Abadan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 8 – 10 Sep The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253]
  • See BW18p253p253 for an idea of the size of the house.
  • A photo of the destruction.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children were murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June, 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633]
  • He was buried near the grave of Hand of the Cause Mr Banání with the graves of his wife and children nearby. [CG132]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
  • See Bahá'í Blog for a tribute to his life.
  • Early in May soldiers had invaded his home and thoroughly sacked it. The president of Uganda was a Nilotic and a native of northern Uganda as were a majority of his army. After taking control of the country they began to take reprisals from rival tribes and those who they thought had supported Idi Amin. [CG127]
  • On the morning of the murders Mr. Olinga and his family had participated in a work detail at the Temple grounds. After the evening meal a group of soldiers entered their compound and murdered him as well as his wife Elizabeth the children Táhirih and Lennie. [CG130-132]
  • Claire Gung, the "Mother of Africa", had had an extraordinarily accurate dream and had warned Mr. Olinga of his danger. [CG163]
  • Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; dream
    1979 Oct The first Bahá’í summer school for Quechua-speakers was held in Cachaco, Imbabura, Ecuador. [BW17:170] Cachaco; Imbabura; Ecuador First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í summer school for Quechua-speakers in Ecuador
    1979 Oct In Iran, Bahá’ís in the ministries of education, health and social administration were dismissed from their jobs. [BW18:255] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1979 24 Oct The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This compilation was published as a book by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430] BWC; United Kingdom Inspiring the Heart (book); Publications; Compilations; Universal House of Justice
    1979 Nov Bahá’í meetings were prohibited in Shasavár, Iran. [BW18:255] Shasavar; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, was kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed to be dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; NSA
    1979 Dec Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz was resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh was executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which did not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, was adopted by referendum. [BI11]
  • See Mess63-68p462.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Constitutions; Human rights
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 1923) [BW18:486, 651]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
  • See BWNS353 for news of the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of his passing in Quito.
  • See also Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by Írán Furútan Muhájir.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For stories about Dr Mahájir see Bahá'í Memories.
  • See Academic Wikipedia.
  • See Rahmatu'llah Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God the Treasure of All Humanity by Richard Francis.
  • A photo.
  • See as well LoF455-461.
  • Quito; Ecuador Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; BWNS
    1979 (End of the year) In Iran, Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation were stripped of their assets and non-Bahá’í directors, inimical to the aims of the companies, were appointed. [BW18:252] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
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