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Bahá'í Chronology: years 198-

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198-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1980 (In the year) The first local spiritual assemblies in Guinea were formed. Guinea LSA first LSA in Guinea
1980 (In the year) Yee Wah Sing, the first Fiji-born person to become a Bahá’í in Fiji, enrolled. [BN596:14] Fiji First Bahais by country or area first indigenous Bahá’í in Fiji
1980 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Twenty–four Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
  • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
  • Twelve Bahá’ís disappeared and were presumed dead. [BW19:235]
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1980 (In the year) The publication of Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí as translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980. Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abul-Qasim Faizi; Publications; Translation
    1980 (In the year) The film Jubilee, commissioned by the Universal House of Justice and made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the cornerstone for the House of Worship in Samoa.
  • She also made a second version was made of this film entitled Blessed Is the Spot which focused more directly on the dedication ceremonies.
  • The film The Bahá'ís was an introductory film on the development activities of the Bahá'í communities around the world was edited by Elizabeth Martin. [HNWE45]
  • Toronto; Canada film; Jubilee; Elizabeth Martin; Blessed Is the Spot; The Baha'is
    1980 18 Jan The publication of the compilation on Divorce by the Universal House of Justice. [MUHJ63-86p404] BWC Divorce; Marriage; Family (general); Compilations; Publications
    1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran entered a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís were abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly were raided. [BW18:256]
  • Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1980-10 Feb Message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to the Bahá'ís of Iran and Iranian believers resident in other countries. [Mess63-68p433-441]
  • Note: The message was written in Farsi and the English translation was prepared by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom. In a letter dated 29 July 1980 in which it forwarded the English translation to all National Spiritual Assemblies, the Universal House of Justice wrote: "The message includes several quotations from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi hitherto untranslated into English. The English texts of these passages, as they appear in the attached translated message, have been checked and approved at the World Center, and may be regarded by the friends as authorized texts."
  • The message dealt with such issues as: reasons for the current turmoil, the calamities ahead, the vision of the future, the responsibility to provide an example, the responsibility to serve God, the responsibility of moderation, the responsibility of resettling such that the Iranian population of any community does not exceed 50%, the responsibility of avoiding political involvement, and the strengths of the Iranian believers.
  • BWC; Iran Persecutions, Iran; calamity
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908, Shiraz, Iran). He was buried at the New Southgate Cemetery London. [BW18:635; VV52, Mess63-86p442]
  • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
  • For a brief biography see Balyuzi, Hasan M. by Richard Francis.
  • For some essays and excerpts from Hasan Balyuzi's work see Bahá'í Library.
  • Find a grave.
  • London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Bahai studies
    1980 25 Feb Robert Hayden, much-honoured American poet, passed away in Ann Arbor, Michigan. [BW18:717]
  • For his obituary see BW18:715–17.
  • See also Hatcher, From The Auroral Darkness: The Life and Poetry of Robert Hayden
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Robert Hayden.
  • See The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature entry about Robert Hayden .
  • Ann Arbor; Michigan Robert Hayden; Poetry; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1980 Mar The first Bahá’í Summer School of the Cameroon Republic was held in Victoria. [BW18:166] Victoria; Cameroon Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í Summer School of the Cameroon Republic
    1980 3 Mar Publication by the Universal House of Justice of the compilation on The Importance of Prayer, Meditation and the Devotional Attitude. [MUHJ63-86p404] BWC Prayer; Meditation; Compilations; Publications
    1980 Apr Eight Bahá’ís were arrested in Tabríz; five were released after signing an agreement not to take part in Bahá’í administrative activities. [BW18:256]
  • Two of the others, members of the local assembly, were put on trial and executed on 14 July 1982. [BW18:256]
  • Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Transkei was formed with its seat in Umtata. [BW18:107, 163] Umtata NSA first NSA Transkei
    1980 2 May The Bahá’ís of India commemorated the centenary of the founding of the Bahá’í Faith in their country with a reception attended by about 400 guests, including the Minister of Foreign Affairs. [BW18:246–7]
  • See here for the story of Jamal Effendi.
  • India Centenaries; Prominent visitors
    1980 2 May The first Bahá’í International Conference on Health and Healing was held in Ottawa, Canada, under the sponsorship of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW 18:201] Ottawa; Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences first Bahá’í International Conference on Health and Healing
    1980 14 Jul Two of the Bahá’ís arrested in Tabríz in April were executed. [BW18:256] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980 27 Jul The death of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in Cairo. (b.26 October, 1919 in Tehran).
  • Shah of Iran from 16 September, 1941 to 11 February. He came to power after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, Reza Shah.
  • He had been diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in April 1974 by the French haematologist Professor Jean Bernard, [David Owen]
  • He fled Iran on 17 January and flew to Aswan, Egypt where he was welcomed by President Anwar El-Sadat.
  • Later he lived in Marrakech, Morocco as a guest of King Hassan II.
  • And then Paradise Island in the Bahamas,
  • then Cuernavaca, Mexico, near Mexico City where his medical condition deteriorated.
  • On the 22nd of October he flew New York for treatment in the Cornell Medical Center after President Carter relented. He was later taken to the Kelly Air Force Base in Texas and from there to the Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland Air Force Base.
  • He left the US on the 15th of December, 1979 and lived for a short time in Isla Contadora in Panama where he was taken in under American pressure. The new Iranian government made an attempt to extradite him.
  • In March, 1980 he returned to Egypt having been offered permanent asylum by President Anwar El-Sadat
  • The official cause of death was complications of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma)
  • He was buried in the Al Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo, [Wiki]
  • Cairo; Egypt Reza Shah Pahlavi
    1980 29 Jul Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away at his pioneer post in Athens, Greece. (b.16 June 1897) [BW18:613; VV52]
  • For his obituary see BW18:611–13.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • Athens; Greece Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1980 13 Aug In a message the Universal House of Justice announced the publication of translations into English of "The Long Healing Prayer" and "Qad-Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhisún", the prayer commonly known as the "Fire Tablet". These tablets have subsequently been published in prayer books. [Messages63-86p455] BWC Healing prayer, Long; Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqal-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet); Prayer; Translation; Publications
    1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were arrested along with two colleagues. They disappeared without trace and were presumed dead. [BW19:43, 235]
  • Those that went missing were: Abdolhossein Taslimi, Houshang Mohammadi, Ebrahim Rahmani, Hassan Naji, Manouher Ghaemmaghami, Ataollah Mogharabi, Yousef Ghadimi, Behieh Naderi, Dr. Kambiz Sadeghzadeh Milani, Yousef Abbasian and Heshmatollah Rouhani.
  • See photo.
  • See Iran Press Watch # 20394.
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Abdolhossein Taslimi; Houshang Mohammadi; Ebrahim Rahman; Hassan Naji; Manouher Ghaemmaghami; Ataollah Mogharabi; Yousef Ghadimi; Behieh Nader; Dr. Kambiz Sadeghzadeh Milani; Yousef Abbasian; Heshmatollah Rouhani
    1980 Sep The European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities adopted resolutions on the plight of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW19:38] Iran European Union; United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1980 Sep Building work began on the Samoan House of Worship. [BW18:104] Apia; Samoa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia
    1980 24 Sep Universal House of Justice announced that additional land had been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permitted the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it was announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazra'ih property had been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area was being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980] BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa Haram-i-Aqdas; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1980 Oct A completely new electrical system was installed in the Shrine of the Bab. [Bahái Chronicles] BWC Shrine of the Bab; Z****
    1980 17 Oct Leonora Stirling Holsapple Armstrong, (b.June 23, 1895, Hudson, New York), the ‘spiritual mother of South America’ and the first Latin American pioneer, passed away in Bahia, Brazil. She had served on the Continental Board of Counsellors from her appointment in 1973. [Mess63-86p248; BW18:738; VV32]
  • For her obituary see BW18:733–738.
  • See Armstrong, Counsellor Leonora: A Loving Portrait by Kristine Leonard Asuncion. Brief biographical sketch of Counsellor Armstrong, the "Spiritual Mother of South America" .
  • Bahá'í Blog.
  • Wikipedia.
  • See FMH40-41 for the story of how she was inspired to go pioneering as told to Doris and Willard McKay. (She had been a classmate of Willard's sister Marguerite at Cornell University.)
  • Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; In Memoriam first pioneer Latin American
    1980 26 Oct Publication by the Universal House of Justice of the compilation on Attendance at National Spiritual Assembly Meetings. [MUHJ63-86p404] BWC National Spiritual Assemblies; Compilations; Publications; Administration
    1980 3 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that the zones of the Continental Boards of Counsellors will, from the Day of the Covenant of the year 137 (26 November 1980), be as follows:
    1. Africa, comprising the areas of the four present zones of that continent.
    2. The Americas, comprising the present zones of North, Central and South America.
    3. Asia, comprising the present zones of Western, South Central and Southeastern Asia, together with the present zone of Northeastern Asia without the Hawaiian Islands and Micronesia.
    4. Australasia, comprising the present zone of Australasia plus the Hawaiian Islands and Micronesia.
    5. Europe. [Universal House of Justice Message 3 November, 1980]
    BWC Counsellors; Appointed arm
    1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:659–65.
  • See Conqueror of Hearts: Excerpts from Letters, Talks, and Writings of Hand of the Cause of God Abu'l-Qásim Faizí by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi edited by Shirley Macias.
  • Haifa Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1980 26 Nov The date, coincident with the Day of the Covenant, determined by the Universal House of Justice to be when the members of the Continental Board of Counsellors will start their five years term of service. [Message from the Universal House of Justice 29 June, 1979, BW19:27] BWC Counsellors
    1981 (In the year) The site of the House of the Báb, destroyed by a mob in 1979, was made into a road and public square. [BBD108] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1981 (In the year) The National Assembly of Zaire was dissolved temporarily and three administrative committees were appointed in its place. [BW19:62, 147] Zaire NSA Zaire
    1981 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís were executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
  • See Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran for an edited video recording of the secret trial of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran at Evin Prison in Tehran. (In Farsi)
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; NSA; Z****
    1981 1 Jan The publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ism-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany. This book was distributed by the Protestant Church and became the most widespread book on the Bahá'í Faith in German, and as such was widely accepted as a critical academic publication. At the time of its distribution a decision was taken to not dignify the publication with a rebuttal. This proved to be an error. Making the Crooked Straight was published in 1995 in German and translated/published by George Ronald Publishers in 2000. The purpose of the book, as the name suggests, was to address the distorted views presented in Ficicchia's publication. [MCSintroduction] Germany Opposition; Criticism and apologetics; Making the Crooked Straight (book); Bahai Scholarship; A.L.M. Nicolas; E. G. Browne; Baron Viktor Rosen; Aleksandr Tumanski; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani; Alfred von Kremer
    1981 1 Jan The European branch office of the Bahá’í International Community was established in Geneva. [BW19:33, VV54, BIC-History] Geneva BIC
    1981 - 2002 A Persian-language Bahá’í quarterly journal entitled `Andalíb was published from 1981 to 2012 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada. From issue no. 69, responsibility for the publication was moved to the Association of Bahá’í Studies in Persian (an agency of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada).
  • Journals from Year 1 (138-9 BE, 1981-2), Issue 1: Winter to Year 23 (162 BE, 2005-6), Issue 90: Spring are available on-line.
  • Thornhill; Ottawa; Canada Publications; Andalib; Association of Baha'i Studies in Persian; Z****
    1981 Apr In Pakistan a constitutional amendment named the Bahá’í Faith among the non-Muslim faiths of the country, thus according it legal recognition. [BW18:107; VV67] Pakistan Constitutions; Recognition
    1981 Apr The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith was renamed the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BBD202; VV24–5] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bophuthatswana was formed with its seat in Mmabatho. [BW18:107, 163] Mmbatho NSA first NSA Bophuthatswana
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South West Africa/Namibia was formed with its seat in Windhoek. [BW18:107, 163] Windhoek NSA first NSA South West Africa/Namibia
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward Islands was formed with its seat in St John’s, Antigua. [BW18:107, 171] St John’s; Antigua NSA first NSA Leeward Islands
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in Kingstown, St Vincent. [BW18:171] Kingstown; St Vincent NSA first NSA Windward Islands
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tuvalu was formed with its seat in Funafuti. [BW18:107; BW19:62] Funafuti NSA first NSA Tuvalu
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda was re-formed after a period of 19 months during which the Faith was banned. [BW18:107, 163] Uganda NSA Uganda
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bermuda was formed with its seat in Hamilton. [BW18:107, 171] Hamilton NSA first NSA Bermuda
    1981 23 May Helmut Winkelbach, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Belarus, married Olga Grigorevna Dolganova, a Russian, their wedding ceremony was the first Bahá’í wedding in the Soviet Union. Soviet Union; Russia Helmut Winkelbach; Olga Grigorevna Dolganova; Knights of Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Weddings first Bahá’í wedding in Soviet Union
    1981 14 Jun Seven members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Hamadan were executed by firing squad. These members were: Mr. Muhammad (Suhrab) Habibi, Mr. Muhammad-Baqir (Suhayl) Habibi, Mr. Husayn Khandil, Mr. Tarazu’llah Khuzayn, Mr. Husayn Mutlaq, Dr. Firuz Na‘imi, and Dr. Nasir Vafa’i. The ribs of Tarazu’llah Khuzayn were crushed, and his hands were slashed. His legs and thighs had been pierced with a bayonet, and the injuries had turned his skin black and the tissues were swollen. [He was sixty-four when he died.] Suhrab Habibi’s back had been branded with a hot ring – his own – and he had severe burns. The fingers of Husayn Khandil were slashed and his abdomen had been cut open. Dr. Na‘imi’s back had been broken and Dr. Vafa’i’s thighs had been cut open; Suhayl Habibi’s shoulders had been broken and smashed. Hossein Mutlaq had not been tortured but his body showed the greatest number of bullet wounds. [Iran Press Watch] Hamadan; Iran Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths
    1981 Jul An International Chinese Teaching Committee was appointed by the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:76] UHJ
    1981 Jul The reconstituted Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Uganda met for the first time. [BW18:112] Uganda Publishing Trusts
    1981 24 Aug The publication of the compilation entitled "The Assistance of God" by the Universal House of Justice. It was renamed "The Power of Divine Assistance" when published in the Vol 2 p201. [Messages63-86p504] BWC Power of Divine Assistance (compilation); Compilations; Publications
    1981 16 Sep The Universal House of Justice addressed a message to all National Assemblies with the compilation of prayers and passages from the Bahá'í Writings with a view to have it translated and distributed where there was a dearth of Bahá'í literature. This was published by the Bahá'í World Centre under the title of "Words of God". [Messages63-86p486, 504-505] BWC Compilations; Teaching; Words of God (compilation); Publications; Translation; Prayer
    1981 23 Nov The publication of the compilation entitled "Excellence in All Things" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p509-510, Compilation of CompilationsVol 1 p367] BWC Excellence; Compilations; Publications
    1981 26 Nov The Comunicación Intercambio y Radiodifusión Bahá’í para America Latina y el Caribe (CIRBAL) was established by the Universal House of Justice to promote the development of Bahá’í radio and mass media activities in Latin America. [BW19:59]
  • The special Committee for Service to the Blind, located in the United Kingdom, was a clearing house and production and distribution centre for materials both on tape and in Braille; and CIRBAL (Centro para Intercambio Radiofonico Baha'i de America Latins), among its other functions, serves as a clearing house for tapes, videotapes, script and other materials suitable for use via radio and television. Its mandated area is South and Central America and the Caribbean. [BW18p115, 117]
  • Peru; Latin America Bahai radio; Social and economic development; Universal House of Justice; Committee for Service to the Blind
    1981 26 Nov The inauguration of Radio Bahá'í Peru at Chucuito near Puno on the shore of Del Lago Titicaca (Lake Titicaca). [Mess63-86p510]
  • Its associated teaching institute was completed for use soon thereafter, going immediately into intensive service.
  • At one point in the 80's they were broadcasting at 1 kw on the medium-wave for ten hours per day in.the Spanish, Quechua and Aymara languages. [BW18p111]
  • See also Bahá'í News May, 1987.
  • Puno; Peru Bahai radio; Teaching Institute; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court". Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510]

    The Baha’i cemetery, known as “Golestan-i-Javid” – the Eternal Garden – was confiscated. Ten years later, the City of Tehran demolished the cemetery in order to build the Khavaran Cultural Complex. In accordance with Shi’a jurisprudence, the conversion for the purpose of so-called “improvement” of a cemetery is only permissible after 30 years, but in this case only ten years had passed. The construction of the Khavaran Cultural Centre required deep excavation and the disinterment of more than 1,000 bodies. The design for the sunken yard and the vast basement of this complex was in reality a modern solution to the doctrinal problem of cleansing the soil of the “contamination” of the “unclean” remains of Bahá'ís. During the excavation and recycling of the soil, the remains of the “non-believer” Bahá'ís were apparently used in the foundation for the road and a new overpass. [Iran Press Watch 11 June 2018]

  • For the historical background of the mistreatment of the dead in Iran see Iran Press Watch 19288.iiiii
  • Since the Bahá'ís have always been prohibited from burying their dead in Muslim cemeteries, the acquisition of burial grounds has been a major goal of the Bahá'í communities. From the earliest days, Bahá'í dead have been buried in their own private properties, in plots of land donated by individual Bahá'ís to the community as local endowments, or, where possible, in the community-owned cemeteries obtained by collective financial contributions of individual Bahais. A systematic process of acquiring separate Bahá'í cemeteries, however, was inaugurated in most Bahá'í communities in the 1920s and continued in later decades. Prior to the 1979 revolution, most of the principal Bahá'í centers had their own cemeteries run under the supervision of the local Spiritual Assembly. After the revolution most of them have been destroyed and desecrated. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Golestan-i-Javid; Eternal Garden; Khavaran Cultural Complex; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    1981 10 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced that the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Núr, Iran, had been confiscated by the Revolutionary Government in the spring of 1979, had been totally demolished and the site offered for sale by auction. [BW18:289; BW19:42] Takur; Nur; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the replacement National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were executed. They replaced the members who and been arrested and who "disappeared" the previous August. i[BI13; BW19:43]
  • See Iran Press Watch # 20394.
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1982 (In the year) The first publication of Arohanui: Letters from Shoghi Effendi to New Zealand by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Suva, Fiji Islands. [BW18p878] New Zealand; Suva; Fiji Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Publications
    1982 (In the year) One of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam sent to a ‘re-education’ camp was released owing to ill health; the other remained in detention. [BW18:96] Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1982 (In the year) The Canadian Bahá’í International Development Service was established. [BBRSM154] Canada Development
    1982 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Thirty–two Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
  • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
  • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1982 Jan After a lapse of six years, the first formal meeting of the National Spiritual Assembly of Laos was held at the Bahá’í Centre. [BW18:96; BW19:49] Laos NSA Laos
    1982 18 Feb The publication of the compilation entitled "Family Life" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p533, Compilation of CompilationsVol 1 p385] BWC Marriage; Family (general); Compilations; Publications
    1982 9 – 12 Apr The first Conference on Bahá’í Scholarship to be held in Australia took place at Yerrinbool Bahá’í School in New South Wales. [BW18:202-203] New South Wales; Australia Conferences, Other; Conferences; Bahai studies; First conferences first conference on Bahá’í scholarship
    1982 10 – 11 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama petitioned its government to issue a stamp in commemoration of the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America. [BW18:172–3] Panama NSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Stamps
    1982 10 – 11 Apr The Bahá’í International Health Agency was established as an affiliate of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW18:201; VV25] Canada Bahai Studies, Associations for; Health
    1982 12 Apr The Universal House of Justice announced the successful achievement of the objective to issue “a compilation of letters to” the Greatest Holy Leaf “and statements about her by Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and the beloved Guardian, and her own letters” to mark the 50th anniversary of her passing. [BW18p41]
  • Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf: A Compilation from Bahá’í Sacred Texts and Writings of the Guardian of the Faith and Bahíyyih Khánum’s Own Letters
  • BWC Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was re-formed. [BW18:107, 181, 553(photo)]
  • Due to the conditions in Nepal during the reign of King Birendra and at the suggestion of the Universal House of Justice, the National Assembly and the 40 other Local Assemblies were dissolved in 1975. For a few years, until 1982, there was an Administrative Committee which looked after the affairs of the Cause in Nepal.

    "In the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal, the believers have, through the integrity of their character and the excellence of their conduct, overcome in recent years restrictions on the expansion of the Cause. They are now held in high regard and are successfully engaged in presenting the Faith to the people as a unifying force which can contribute to the progress of the nation. As they grow in strength, they can begin to look beyond their own borders and assist in the propagation of the Faith in those areas to which they have such easy access." [Ridván 153]

  • Nepal NSA dissolved; NSA re-formed; LSA dissolved; LSA re-formed
    1982 14 May Amoz Gibson, (b. 3 Aug 1918 Washington), a member of the Universal House of Justice from 1963 until 1982, passed away in Haifa. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa. [BW18:669; VV52]
  • His diagnose was acute lymphoblastic leukemia. See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography.
  • For his obituary see BW18:665–9.
  • Find a grave.
  • Elected to the Universal House of Justice to replace him was Mr. Glenford Mitchell. He was born in Jamaica and held a Masters degree in journalism from Columbia University. An author, he had worked as a magazine editor and managing editor and taught English and journalism at Howard University. He served as chief executive officer of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States from 1968 until his election to the Universal House of Justice. [BWNS208]
  • BWC Amoz Gibson; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Glenford Mitchell; BWNS
    1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives heard the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; United States; Iran Human Rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United States government
    1982 9 Jun The passing of Richard Edward St. Barbe Baker (b. 9 October, 1889 West End, Hampshire, England d. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan)
  • He was one of the foremost world famous environmentalists of the twentieth century, an ecologist, conservationist, forester, vegetarian, horseman, apiarist, author of some thirty books and numerous articles and a committed Bahá’í who rendered service to the Bahá’í Faith for more than fifty years.
  • He formally founded the Men of the Trees organization in England in 1924 and it soon spread to many other countries. (Shoghi Effendi enrolled as the first life member of the Men of the Trees.) Now known in many countries as the International Tree Foundation, it has a large membership of women and men from all walks of life. In 1978 Charles, Prince of Wales, became the society’s patron. [Bahá'í Chronicles, BW18p802-805]
  • See BWNS1292.
  • He was buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
  • See photo.
  • Hampshire; United Kingdom; Saskatoon; Saskatchewan; Canada Richard St Barbe Baker; Men of the Trees; International Tree Foundation; Environment; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves the first member of the English gentry to join the Bahá’í Faith.
    1982 19 – 20 Jun The teaching project Camino Del Sol (Trail of Light), comprising indigenous believers from North America, was formed on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona, United States. [BW18:239]
  • The team traveled through Central and South America in a programme of cultural exchange. [BW18:172]
  • For a report of the project and pictures see BW18:239–45 and BW19:74–6.
  • Arizona; United States Indigenous people; Native Americans; Navajo (Dine)
    1982 25 – 27 Jun A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf was held in Dublin, Ireland, attended by some 1,900 Bahá’ís from 60 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:156–7.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:138–40.
  • Dublin; Ireland Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 27 Jun The Bahá’í Youth Academy was established in Panchgani, India. [BW18:230–2] Panchgani; Maharashtra; India Bahai Youth Academy; Bahai Academy; Youth
    1982 15 Jul In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahá’ís at the World Centre prayed at midnight at the Shrine of the Báb and at the tomb of the Greatest Holy Leaf, commemoration services were held in many parts of the world. [BW18:53, 102]
  • For a list of references to the Greatest Holy Leaf found in English-language works see BW18:55–6.
  • For a list of works published to commemorate this anniversary see BW18:57–8.
  • For an article about her life and service see BW18:68–73.
  • Five international conferences and their satellites, held in June, August and September, are dedicated to her memory. [BW18:102]

    "The five international conferences of the Seven Year Plan were called to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf, to discuss anew the present condition of the Faith in a turbulent world society, to examine the great opportunities for its future growth and development, and to focus attention on the unfulfilled goals of the Plan. We are certain that the contemplation of the gathered friends on the sterling qualities which distinguished the heroic life of the Greatest Holy Leaf will help them to persevere in their noble endeavours." [The Universal House of Justice, from a message to the International Conference in Canberra, Australia, 2, September 1982 para 3]

  • Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of
    1982 17 Jul A seminar on the life of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, was conducted at the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the first gathering held in the building. [BW18:53–4; VV62]
  • For excerpts from the talk by ‘Alí Nakhjavání on this occasion see BW18:59–66.
  • BWC Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Universal House of Justice, Seat of first gathering held in Seat of the Universal House of Justice
    1982 Aug Shakontala (‘Shaku’) Aswani, the first Gibraltarian to become a Bahá’í, enrolled in Northern Ireland, shortly afterwards returning to Gibraltar. Northern Ireland; Gibraltar First Bahais by country or area first Gibraltarian Bahá’í
    1982 6 – 8 Aug A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf was held in Quito, Ecuador, attended by some 1,450 Bahá’ís from 43 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:157–8.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:141–3.
  • Quito; Ecuador Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 19 – 22 Aug A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf was held in Lagos, Nigeria, attended by some 1,110 Bahá’ís from 46 countries representing some 90 ethnic groups. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:158–9 In the message the Universal House of Justice reported that in a little more than three decades there were 37 National Spiritual Assemblies, 4,490 Local Assemblies, 29,000 localities with believers drawn from 1,152 tribes.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:144–6.
  • Lagos; Nigeria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); statistics
    1982 2 – 5 Sep A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf was held in Montreal, Canada, attended by 9,400 Bahá’ís from 101 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:161–2.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:151–4.
  • Montreal; Canada Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 2 – 5 Sep A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf was held in Canberra, Australia, attended by some 2,400 Bahá’ís, twice as many as were expected, from 45 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:159–60.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:147–50.
  • Canberra; Australia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1982 22 or 23 Oct The murder of Daniel Jordon in New York. The crime was unsolved. Mr. Jordon was on the National Spiritual Assembly and was a co-founder of The Anisa Model. [New York Times Archives] Stamford; Conneticut Daniel Jordon; In Memoriam; Z****
    1982 23 Oct Authorities arrested 45 Bahá'ís in Shiraz on the order of the prosecutor. On October 30th another 40 Baha’is were arrested. In all cases, they were arrested simply because of their religious beliefs. Some were later released but many of those arrested were subjected to interrogation and excruciating torture. The interrogations and torture were carried out to extract information about Bahá'í organizations and to force prisoners to renounce their faith and convert to Islam.
  • The Revolutionary Court of Shiraz sent 22 of those arrested to the gallows. The executions began on January 1, 1983, with the killing of Hedayatollah Siavoshi.
  • The last of the group to die was Soheil Houshmand on June 28, 1983.
  • The oldest among the executed Bahá'ís was Abdolhossein Azadi, 66, and the youngest was Mona Mahmoudinejad, a high school student of 17.
  • The entire Eshraghi family — father, mother and daughter — were executed. Also executed were a mother and son, Nosrat and Bahram Yaldaie, and a young couple, Jamshid and Tahereh Siavoshi. Yadollah, the father of 17-year-old Mona Mahmoudinejad, was also killed.
  • Ahmad Sabet Sarvestani was the only one among them who died in prison as a result of torture before he could be hanged. [Iran Press Watch 19466]
  • Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Deaths; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Youth
    1982 Nov The West African Centre for Bahá’í Studies was established in Nigeria. [BW18:167; BW19:366]
  • For a report of its activities see BW19:366–7.
  • Nigeria; Africa Bahai studies
    1982 18 Nov Publication by the Universal House of Justice of the compilation on “Family Life”. [BW18p41; CoC1p385] BWC Marriage; Family (general); Compilations; Publications
    1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, died in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
  • Paul Haney was born to Mary (Merriam) Ida Parkhurst and Charles Freeborn Haney on August 20, 1909. His parents were active Bahá’is since 1900 and had been married for seventeen years at the time of Paul’s birth. His mother accredited a portion of his spiritual development to being in the presence of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá while a fetus....In letters between his mother, Merriam, and Rúhíyyih Khánum it was indicated that the Master gave him his own name; it was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. He was also given the name Paul by the Master to be used in the outside world. In 1919, Corinne True was able to also confirm that the master gave Paul his name. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • He had been appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
  • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
  • Haifa Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1982 29 Dec The passing of Stanwood Cobb,(b. November 6 Newton, Massachusetts , 1881 – d. December 29, 1982) noted Bahá'í lecturer, educator and author at his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland at the age of 101 after 75 years of service to the Cause.
  • He was the author of some 30 books, numerous articles and was an editor of Star of the West until 1939 and co-editor of World Order. He founded Avalon Press in 1935 through which he published his works.
  • One of his essays entitled The Continuity of Religion was first published in The Bahá’í World Volume VI, 1934-1936.
  • His first exposure to the Faith was at Green Acre. While serving as an college instructor in Constantinople he made a visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka disguised as a Turk while He was still a prisoner. He met Him again in 1910 and while He was in Paris and the United States during His Western travels.
  • Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Chevy Chase; United States Stanwood Cobb; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1983 (In the year) The Diary of Juliet Thompson with a forward by Marzieh Gail was published by Kalimat Press. The diary was of one of the earliest Bahá'ís of New York, covering her many hours with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1909, 1911, and 1912. It was a vivid personal account of spiritual love and the tests of her faith. [BEL7.2553] Los Angeles; United States The Diary of Juliet Thompson, Juliet Thompson; Marzieh Gail
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, German-Speaking Europe, was established in Austria. [BW19:357–8] Austria Bahai Studies, Associations for; German language
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, India, was established. [BW19:360] India Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, English-Speaking Europe, was established in the Republic of Ireland.
  • Responsibility for the Association was transferred to the United Kingdom in 1989.
  • Ireland; United Kingdom; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Francophone Europe was established in Switzerland. Switzerland Bahai Studies, Associations for; French language
    1983 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • All Bahá'í elected and appointed institutions were banned by the government in this year; most of the members of the previous three national governing councils having successively been executed. In the absence of a national governing council (known as a “National Spiritual Assembly”), the ad hoc leadership group, called the “Friends in Iran,” (Yaran) was formed with the full knowledge of the government. The various governments in power in Iran since 1983 had always been aware of this group. In fact, over the years government officials have routinely had dealings with the members of the Yaran, albeit often informally. [BWNS694]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; Yaran; BWNS
    1983 (In the decade) During its first decade in power, the Islamic regime openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís. These persecutions, however, caused reaction in the international community. In response to the international calls for the persecutions to be stopped, Siyyid Husayn Musawi, then the attorney general of Iran, declared that the Bahá'ís were not being harassed for their religious beliefs but because they were Israel spies. This was despite the fact that by that time it had become plainly obvious that the attorney general’s so-called “spies” could avoid maltreatment and persecution by openly denouncing their faith. The Bahá'í community forcefully denied the charges and challenged the attorney general to produce evidence to back his allegations. [Iran Press Watch 1407] Iran Conspiracy Theories; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1983 (In the year) The film Heritage of the Martyrs, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the fate of the Bahá'ís in Iran. [HNWE45] Toronto; Canada Film; Elizabeth Martin; Heritage of the Martyrs; Elizabeth Martin
    1983 Jan - Feb c. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice was completed; the Universal House of Justice officially occupied the building. [BBD204; BW19:23; VV62]
  • For a description and history of the building see BW19:24–6.
  • Marble for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was quarried from Mount Pentelikon, just north of Athens and was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • For pictures see BW18:466–72 and Construction.
  • See video called Ark of Destiny.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Marble; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1983 13 Jan The publication of the compilation entitled "The Importance of Deepening Our Knowledge and Understanding of the Faith" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p571, Compilation of CompilationsVol 1 p187] BWC Deepening; Compilations; Publications
    1983 24 Feb The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offered rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 [The Baha'is magazine]. Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; Bahai schools; Earth Summit
    1983 Mar The first International Youth Camp of Surinam was held in NW. Nickerie, attended by 130 Bahá’ís. [BW18:176] Nw. Nickerie; Suriname International Youth Camps first International Youth Camp of Surinam
    1983 Mar Five local and two pioneer Bahá’ís were arrested, interrogated and held briefly in prison in Mauritania. [BW19:49]
  • The National Assembly was dissolved. [BW19:49]
  • Mauritania NSA; Persecution, Mauritania; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1983 Apr The Government of Morocco prohibited all Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominica was formed with its seat in Roseau. [BW18:107, 171] Dominica NSA first NSA Dominica
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Lucia was formed with its seat in Castries. [BW18:107, 171] Castries NSA first NSA St Lucia
    1983 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of St Vincent and Grenada was formed. [BW18:107] NSA first NSA St Vincent and Grenada
    1983 Ridván The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá in ‘Akká was completed. [BW18:77]
  • Delegates attending the fifth International Convention were the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
  • For pictures see BW18:78–80.
  • Akka; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens first pilgrims to House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá
    1983 29 Apr - 2 May The Universal House of Justice was elected for the fifth time at the International Convention held in Haifa.
  • Those elected were: 'Al´Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, David Ruhe, Glenford Mitchell, David Hofman, Borrah Kavelin, Charles Wolcott, and Hugh Chance. [Mess63-86p359]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran was unable to attend but sent 133 red roses as its gift to its sister Assemblies. [BW18:461]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW18:461–4.
  • See BW18:462, 464 for pictures.
  • BWC; Iran Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Gifts; Roses; NSA
    1983 May The number of members of the International Teaching Centre was raised to nine. [BW19:27; Mess63-86p361] Haifa International Teaching Centre
    1983 23 May A five year term for the Counsellor members of the International Teaching Centre was established by thehttps://www.bahai.org/library/authoritative-texts/search?q=1983#s=messages-universal-house-justiceUniversal House of Justice. [ Message 19 May, 1983, BW19:27]

    "... a five-year term for the Counsellor members of the International Teaching Centre. Each term will start on 23 May immediately following the International Bahá’í Convention, and the current term will end on 23 May 1988. Should circumstances prevent the Universal House of Justice from making new appointments at the end of any five-year term, the Counsellors will remain in office until such time as new appointments can be made."

    BWC Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice
    1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
  • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
  • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
  • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
  • Shiraz; Iran Mona Mahmudnizhad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Youth; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1983 24 Jun In response to the hanging of 10 Bahá’í women in Shíráz, the Universal House of Justice addressed a cable to the Bahá’í youth throughout the world, urging them to re-dedicate themselves to the Cause. [BW19:187–8, 297] BWC Youth
    1983 25 Jun The passing of Reginald "Rex" Collison (b. 3 May 1884 in Ohio). He was buried in Oak Mound Cemetery, Healdsburg, Sonoma County, California, USA. [BW19p595-596]
  • Rex accepted a position in plant research on the staff of Cornell University and held this post for thirty-three years, retiring in 1945 as Chief of Research and Professor Emeritus.
  • Rex and Mary were married in 1920 and in 1924 learned of the Faith from Howard and Mabel Ives.
  • In 1952 he and Mary pioneered to Uganda. When the Ten Year Crusade was launched in 1953, the Collisons were the first American believers to arise. Accompanied by Mr. Dunduzu Chisiza, a young Nyasaland African who served as their interpreter and shared their home for over a year, they settled in Ruanda-Urundi. (Today,known as Rwanda and Burundi.) For their service in opening Ruanda-Urundi to the Faith the trio were named by Shoghi Effendi Knights of Baha'u'llah. Returning to Kampala in 1955, the Collisons were later appointed custodians of the Mother Temple of Africa and they served the Faith in this capacity with great devotion until 1966 when they found it necessary to return home to Geyserville.
  • See CG66-67 for their services while in Uganda.
  • Find a grave.
  • On August 11, 1970, Rex lost his wife Mary (b. 13 Nov 1892 in Adelaide, Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada). [BW15p486]
  • Find a grave.
  • Healdsburg; California Rex Collision; In Memoriam; Mary Collison; Dunduzu Chisiza; Knights of Bahaullah
    1983 Jul The Office of Social and Economic Development was opened at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH8; BBD70; BBRSM154; BW19:58; VV78]
  • See BW19:351–5 for a survey of Bahá’í social and economic projects.
  • BWC Office of Social and Economic Development; Social and economic development; Social action
    1983 17 Jul The passing of Counsellor William Mmutle Masetlha (b.February 21, 1921 in Sophiatown, a township of Johannesburg) in Dube (Soweto), South Africa. [BW19p607-608]
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1954 and served on local assemblies, the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa, on the Auxiliary Board and in 1976 was appointed as a Counsellor. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Founded in 1995, the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation (WMMF) is a Bahá'í organization that supports education and vocational training initiatives in Zambia. Its parent organization, the Masetlha Institute, was founded in 1983 and offers community-based education in areas including literacy and health, as well as spirituality. One of the WMMF’s initiatives, the Banani International Secondary School, is a residential girls’ school specializing in science and agriculture; in 2003, the Banani School was ranked among the top 100 African secondary schools. WMMF is also partnering with FUNDAEC (Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) to develop a secondary education/vocational training preparation program for rural youth.
  • Sophiatown; Johannesburg; Dube; Soweto; South Africa In Memoriam; Mmutle Masetlha; Z****
    1983 5 – 7 Aug The first Los Angeles Bahá’í History Conference was held at the University of California at Los Angeles. [BW19:369–70] Los Angeles; United States Bahai history; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Conferences; First conferences first Los Angeles Bahá’í History Conference
    1983 23 Aug Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi, the Attorney General of Iran, declared all Bahá'í administrative activities illegal, thus requiring the dissolution of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, along with some 400 Local Assemblies which operated under its jurisdiction. [Iran Press Watch] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 29 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was dissolved as well all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA
    1983 3 Sep In response to the Iranian authorities banning all Bahá'í administrative and community activities and the making of membership in a Bahá'í assembly a criminal offence, as their last act the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sent an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government and disband the Bahá'í administration. [BW19:43]
  • In a gesture of good will and in accordance with their law of obedience to the government the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran and all local assemblies were dissolved. In its place, they formed groups of three persons in cities and villages called Khadimeen (“Servants”), and on the national level named the Yaran-e Iran to address the immediate needs of the community such as births, marriages, divorces, burial ceremonies and other services. [BW19:62]

    Since the 1920s when the Bahá'í administration was introduced in Iran they had made considerable progress.

    1950     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 280        Localities: 712
    1968     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 560        Localities: 1,541
    1979     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 679        Localities: 1,699 
    [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Yaran; Khadimeen; Statistics
    1983 Sep All property and endowments owed by the Bahá'í administration in Iran was seized.

    The acquisition, preservation, and maintenance of the places directly associated with the history of the Bahá'í faith had been among the goals of the community since its early years. These places consisted of houses and sites associated with the principal figures of the Faith, burial places of Bahá'í saints, places where the martyrdoms of believers took place, prisons, fortresses, and defense centres of heroes and renowned Bahá'ís. The fact that these places were located throughout the country made their care a major undertaking for various committees at local and national levels. The work included the registration, description, and photographing of the sites in addition to their regular maintenance and restoration. In the late 1960s more than 124 holy places belonged to the faith in various localities throughout the country. There were more than 200 national and 452 local endowments consisting of Bahá'í centres, cemeteries, hostels, and public baths. [Department of Statistics, Baháʾí World Centre, Haifa, “Persia - Nine Year Plan File,” 14 January 1969]

    In addition the Bahá'is had acquired 3.58 square kilometers of land on the slopes of Mount Alborz, named Ḥadīqa, in northeast Tehran, for the eventual construction of a National Mašreq al-Aḏkār. Although the temple had not yet been built a complex of buildings had been erected on the site to serve as the seat of Bahá'í summer schools and other social and administrative activities. [BW10p48; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]

    Iran Iran, persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar; statistics; Z****
    1983 Sep Persian Baháʾís have made great contributions in international Bahá'í fields. The Persian Bahá'í community, as the oldest and wealthiest Bahá'í community in the world has played a vital role in almost every major accomplishment of the Bahá'í world community. The earliest Bahá'í communities in the Middle East, and southern Russia were without exception formed through the pioneering activities of the Persian Bahá'ís. In later periods they traveled and settled in different parts of the world to propagate the Faith. During the Ten Year World Crusade (1953-63) and subsequent global activities, the Persian community contributed substantial manpower and financial support. During 1968-73 alone, as a partial goal of the international Nine Year Plan (1964-1973), 3,500 Persian Bahá'ís were relocated to goal areas, both domestic and international, and some five thousand individuals, often using their own resources, served as missionaries abroad. [BW13p291-292; BW15p247; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Statistics; Z****
    1983 20 Oct In a message to the Bahá'í world the Universal House of Justice called on individuals and Bahá'í communities to apply the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh systematically to the problems of their societies. This seminal statement pointed to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh as a source of order in the world, asserted the coherence of the spiritual and the material dimensions of human life, praised the social and economic progress achieved by the Bahá'í community of Iran, announced the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development at the World Centre and defined the role of various Bahá'í agencies in fostering development. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October, 1983, Mess63-86p602-603,AWH6–10; BW19:153, BW92-93pg229-245]
  • For the response of the Bahá’í world to the letter see BW19:112–13.
  • See also Social and Economic Development: The Baha’i Contribution, a paper prepared for the United Nations Department of Public Information Annual Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations (“New Approaches to Development: Building a Just World”) held in New York 5 September, 1984.
  • The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre was approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice on the 16th of September 1993, for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012]
  • See also The Evolution of Institutional Capacity for Social and Economic Development by Office of Social and Economic Development dated 28 August, 1994. It described two types of organizational arrangements that emerged in the Bahá'í world capable of undertaking increasingly complex development efforts - training institutes and Bahá'í-inspired agencies.
  • A related document, The Prosperity of Humankind, was issued by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information and disseminated at the United Nations' 1995 World Summit for Social Development held in Copenhagen, Denmark. It offered a vision of social and economic development based on Bahá'í concepts. The document was first release 23 January, 1995.
  • A Clarification of Some Issues Concerning Social and Economic Development in Local and National Communities was prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development in November of 1999 to respond to a number of questions that had arisen over the previous few years. It touched on such issues as degrees of complexity in development activity, the relationship between teaching and development, and participation in development projects.
  • See also Social Action by Office of Social and Economic Development dated 26 November, 2012.
  • See also For the Betterment of the World:The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development by Office of Social and Economic Development released on the 27th of April, 2018, updating publications of 2003 and 2008.
  • See also Vick, Social and Economic Development: A Bahá’í Approach.
  • The Office of Social and Economic Development was suceeded by the Bahá’í International Development Organization on 9 November, 2018.
  • BWC Social and economic development; Social action; Office of Social and Economic Development; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Bahai International Development Organization; Z****
    1983 21 Oct The Republic of Panama issued a postage stamp bearing the picture of the House of Worship in Panama. [BW19:157] Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Stamps
    1983 21 - 23 Nov A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective was presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá’í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective] Saskatoon; Canada Social and economic development; Ethics; Economics; Consultation; Agriculture; Women; Native Americans; Elderly; Education
    1983 Dec Bahá’ís were arrested in Mohammadieh and Casablanca, Morocco. [BW19:49]
  • The Bahá’ís in Mohammadieh were convicted of violating the ban on Bahá’í meetings, were sentenced to two years’ imprisonment but were released. [BW19:49]
  • Mohammadieh; Casablanca; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1984 (In the year) Four Bahá’ís, one of whom had already spent five years in prison, were imprisoned in Indonesia, convicted of membership in a banned religious organization, with teaching the Bahá’í Faith and with insulting Islám. [BW19:42]
  • The prison terms ranged from one to five years. [BW19:42]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution
    1984 (In the year) The first Bahá’í university, Universidad Núr, opened in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [VV82–3]
  • Website.
  • Santa Cruz; Bolivia Bahai schools first Bahá’í university, Universidad Núr
    1984 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Thirty Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights
    1984 3 Jan The Universal House of Justice addressed a letter to the Bahá’í youth of the world encouraging them to volunteer a period of service to the Bahá’í Faith. [AWH14–17; BW19:297–8, 299, 311–13; VV116] Haifa Universal House of Justice; Youth, Year of service; Youth
    1984 28 Feb The passing of Renée Szanto-Felbermann (b 21 June, 1900, d. 28 February, 1984) in Freiburg, Germany. She is considered the first to declare her faith in Hungary. [BW19p633]
  • She is the author of The Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann, published in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust. It is the autobiography of a woman of Jewish heritage who was the first Hungarian Bahá'í. Particularly interesting is the period as Jewish-Bahá'í in Hungary during the Nazi era. [BEL7.2521]
  • Freiburg; Germany; Hungary First Bahais by country or area; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1984 21 Mar The inaugural broadcast for Radio Baha'i WLGI, located at the Louis Gregory Bahá'í Institute in Hemingway, South Carolina, was Naw Ruz, 141 B.E. (March 21, 1984). [from an email from Greg Kintz, General Manager, Radio Baha'i, dated 19 March, 2019]
  • WLGI Website
  • To listen to WLGI on-line.
  • Hemingway, South Carolina Bahai radio; Bahai-owned radio; Z**** first Baha'i radio station in North America
    1984 Naw-Rúz The inauguration of Radio Bahá'í of Bolivia on the medium-wave band at Caracollo, Bolivia. [Mess63-86p619]
  • A country-wide radio production and broadcasting programme began in 1983 as prelude to opening of the station. [BW18p111]
  • Caracollo; Bolivia Bahai radio; Teaching Institute; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1984 Ridván The emergence from obscurity, which has been so marked a feature of the Cause of God during the first five years of the Seven Year Plan [1979-1986], has been attended by changes, both external and internal, affecting the Bahá'í world community. Externally, there are signs of a crystallization of a public image of the Cause -- largely uninformed, however friendly -- while internally growing maturity and confidence are indicated by increased administrative ability, a desire for Bahá'í communities to render service to the larger body of mankind and a deepening understanding of the relevance of the divine Message to modern problems. Both these aspects of change must be taken into consideration as we enter the third and final phase of the Seven Year Plan. [The Universal House of Justice Ridvan 1984] BWC emergence from obscurity; Z****
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was formed with its seat in Port Blair. [BW19:62, 162]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Port Blair NSA first NSA Andaman and Nicobar Islands
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Canary Islands was formed with its seat in Santa Cruz. [BW19:62, 169]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Santa Cruz NSA first NSA Canary Islands
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cape Verde was formed with its seat in Praia. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
  • Praia NSA first NSA Cape Verde
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of French Guiana was formed with its seat in Cayenne. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.
  • Cayenne NSA first NSA French Guiana
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon was formed with its seat in Libreville. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:522 for picture.
  • Libreville NSA first NSA Gabon
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Grenada was formed with its seat in St George’s. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • St Georges; Grenada NSA first NSA Grenada
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique was formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • Fort-de-France NSA first NSA Martinique
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Yemen (North) was formed. [BW19:524] Yemen NSA first NSA Yemen (North)
    1984 Ridván Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
  • The Universal House of Justice replied that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
  • United States Conventions national; UHJ; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was re-formed with its seat in Malaho. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:521 for picture.
  • Malaho NSA Equatorial Guinea
    1984 Jun A Bahá’í in Tetuan, Morocco, was arrested and sentenced to three years imprisonment for violating the 1983 ban on Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49]
  • An appeal to the Supreme Court was unsuccessful. [BW19:49]
  • Tetuan; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1984 Jun The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Australia, was established in Perth. [BW19:356] Perth; Australia Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1984 4 Jun Vladimir Malai, the first Moldovan to become a Bahá’í in Moldova, enrolled. [Candle 9] Moldova First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Moldova
    1984 30 Aug - 2 Sep An International Teaching Conference was held to coincide with the dedication of the House of Worship at Apia, Western Samoa. [BW19:548–54; VV64]
  • For a report of the conference see BW19:548–54.
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW19:555–6.
  • For pictures see BW19:475, 547–57 and VV64.
  • Apia; Samoa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1984 1 Sep The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
  • For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
  • For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
  • For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]

    Specifics

      Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
      Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
      Period: 1980-1984
      Site Dedication:1 September 1984
      Architect:Husayn Amanat
      Seating: 500 - 700
      Dimensions:Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft)
      Cost: $6.5m
      Dependencies:
      References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
  • Apia; Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1984 Oct In Tunisia, the activities of the Faith were curtailed and Bahá’ís were interrogated. [BW19:50] Tunisia Persecution, Tunisia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1984 21 Oct His Excellency Chaim Herzog, President of the State of Israel, pays an official visit to the Bahá’í World Centre at the invitation of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:377; VV88]
  • This is the first visit by a head of state to the Seat of the House of Justice. [VV88]
  • Haifa; BWC; Israel Chaim Herzog; Presidents; Prominent visitors first visit by head of state to Seat of the House of Justice
    1984 Nov The International Bahá’í Refugee Office, responsible for coordinating efforts to resettle Iranian Bahá’í refugees, was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:50]
  • For a report of the work of the Office see BW19:50–3.
  • Canada International Bahai Refugee Office; Refugees
    1984 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice met with representatives of the Bahá’í International Community and various national spiritual assemblies at the World Centre. Haifa UHJ; BIC; NSA
    1984 16 Nov Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Scottsdale, Arizona. (b. 16 November 1889) [BW19:594; VV123]
  • BW19: 159 says this was 17 November.
  • For his obituary see BW19:593–5.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a short biography "General" 'Alí see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See LoF335-338.
  • Scottsdale; Arizona; United States Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1984 28 – 30 Dec The first National Bahá’í Youth Conference to be held in Greece took place in Athens. [BW19:319] Athens; Greece Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first National Bahá’í Youth Conference Greece
    1985 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Seven Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1985 (In the year) A regional office of the Bahá’í International Community affiliated with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) was established in Bangkok. [BW19:161–2] Bangkok; Thailand Bahai International Community; Social and economic development
    1985 (In the year) To support the United Nations International Youth Year Bahá’í communities undertook a variety of activities. [BW19:301–10] Worldwide United Nations; International Youth Year
    1985 (In the year) Annemarie Krüger, who began travelling to Moldavia to teach the Bahá’í Faith in 1974, was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. Moldavia Knights of Bahaullah; Travel teaching
    1985 23 Jan The plans of the Universal House of Justice for the International Year of Peace were outlined to national spiritual assemblies. [AHW31–4; VV86; Messs63-86p420] Worldwide International Year of Peace; Universal House of Justice; Peace
    1985 6 Feb The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904, Gladbeck, Ruhrgebeit, Germany, d. Kampala, Uganda). She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda. [BW19p653-657]
  • She had worked as a children's nurse or housekeeper in Germany, switzerland, Austria, the Italian tyrol, Belgium, Holland and finally settled in England in 1930. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and after a time in Eastleigh, Dovon, later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to the Manchester area and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff then to Brighton and to Belfast. In 1947 she became a naturalized British subject. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer to actually move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 (or 25) January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam. [CG158-159]
  • She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, and Kenneth and Roberta Christian. All six received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
  • Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire".
  • After being in the country since 1957 Auntie Claire was granted he certificate of residence for life from the Republic of Uganda date the 11th of May, 1978. [CG118] [BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
  • Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
  • Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania In Memoriam; Knights of Baha'u'llah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Ala'i; Tahirih Ala'i; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian Z****
    1985 23 Feb Forty–one Bahá’ís from various parts of Egypt were arrested, charged with offences against laws introduced in 1960 banning activities of Bahá’í institutions. [BW19:41, 283]
  • For an account of the event, its aftermath and the press campaign surrounding it see BW19:283–7.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 7 March The passing of Continental Board of Counsellor Lloyd Gardner. [Mess63-68p660]
  • See BW19p663-665
  • In Memoriam
    1985 5 – 8 Apr An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Bophuthatswana, attended by 198 people. [BW19:300] Bophuthatswana; South Africa; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ciskei was formed with its seat in Mdantsane. [BW19:62]
  • BW19:147 says the seat is in Bisho. However, it was not possible to obtain a site in Bisho, the capital, and so the offices of the National Spiritual Assembly were built in Mdantsane in 1990.
  • See BW19:524 for picture.
  • Mdantsane NSA first NSA Ciskei
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Rarotonga. [BW19:62, 68] Rarotonga; Cook Islands NSA first NSA Cook Islands
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mali was formed with its seat in Bamako. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:525 for picture.
  • Bamako NSA first NSA Mali
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mozambique was formed with its seat in Maputo. [BW19:62, 147]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
  • Maputo NSA first NSA Mozambique
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Western Caroline Islands was formed with its seat in Colonia, Yap. [BW19:62, 168]
  • See BW19:526 for picture.
  • Colonia NSA first NSA Western Caroline Islands
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Caroline Islands was formed with its seat in Pohnpei. [BW19:168] Pohnpei NSA first NSA Eastern Caroline Islands
    1985 30 Apr - 1 May The first annual conference of the Association for Bahá’í Studies, Brazil, took place in Saõ Paulo. [BW19:358] Sao Paulo; Brazil; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Bahai studies; First conferences first annual conference of the Association for Bahá’í Studies, Brazil
    1985 May The Office of Public Information was established at the Bahá’í World Centre. [BBD38; BW19:58–9; VV54] Haifa; BWC Office of Public Information
    1985 7 May The court hearings open on the cases of the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt in February on charges of disregarding the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activity. [BW,9:285]
  • The cases were adjourned until 7 October to allow time for the defence lawyer to study the files numbering about a thousand pages. [BW19:285]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1985 Jul Three Bahá’í youths in Mentawai were imprisoned for having married according to Bahá’í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1985 3 – 7 Jul An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Columbus, Ohio, United States attended by more than 3,200 youth from 42 nations. [BW19:300] Columbus; Ohio; United States; North America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 4 Jul The publication of the compilation entitled "The Law of Huququ'lláh". [Messages63-86p670, Compilation of CompilationsVol 1 p489] BWC Huququllah; Compilations; Publications
    1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attended the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
  • For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
  • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
  • Nairobi; Kenya Bahai International Community; United Nations; Women
    1985 6 – 9 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Antwerp, Belgium, in July 1985, and was attended by some 1,450 youth from 45 nations. The youth addressed the European Parliament and the Council of Europe in letters which told of their resolve to put into action the International Youth Year themes of ‘Participation, Development and Peace’. The youth spoke of programs in which Bahá’ís were supporting the themes, including human rights education and social and economic development projects. [BW19:301]
  • For picture see BW19:315.
  • Antwerp; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year; European Union
    1985 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Molepolole, Botswana, attended by 119 youth from six countries. [BW19:300]
  • For picture see BW19:320.
  • Molepolole; Botswana; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in New Delhi, India, attended by more than 550 youth from 24 countries. [BW19:300] New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 1 – 4 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Port Dickson, Malaysia, attended by 1,300 youth from 15 countries, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís ever held in Malaysia. [BW19:301] Port Dickson; Malaysia; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 2 – 5 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Lima, Peru, attended by 500 youth from 18 countries and representing four native tribes. [BW19:300]<
  • For picture see BW19:322.
  • Lima; Peru; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 8 – 11 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year was held in Kauai, Hawaii, attended by 300 youth from nine Pacific countries. [BW19:301]
  • For picture see BW19:321.
  • Kauai; Hawaii; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 9 Aug The publication of the compilation entitled "Peace" prepared from the Bahá'í writings and the letters of the House of Justice by the Research Department. [Messages63-86p679-680, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p151]
  • Available online from the Bahá'í Library.
  • BWC Peace; World peace (general); Compilations; Publications
    1985 28 or 31 Aug Mr Rahmatu'lláh Vujdani, a 57 year old teacher, was executed by firing squad in Bandar 'Abbas. He was an elected member of the Local Spiritual Assembly. [Iranian.com] Bandar Abbas; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1985 Sep The first Bahá’í Studies conference in Hawaii took place at the national Bahá’í centre. [BW19:360] Hawaii Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences first Bahá’í Studies conference in Hawaii
    1985 Oct The first National Bahá’í Youth Conference in Nepal took place, attended by 120 Bahá’ís, the largest Bahá’í gathering ever held in the country. [VV74] Nepal Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first National Bahá’í Youth Conference in Nepal
    1985 7 Oct The court cases against the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt for contravening the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activities, due to be heard this, were adjourned until 3 February 1986 owing to adverse and unfair reports appearing in the newspapers. [BW19:286] Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1985 18 Oct The remains of Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and 11 members of his family were re-interred in a new Bahá’í cemetery near the original grave site. The cemetery was located on a hillside looking across Lake Kinneret and the hills of Galilee towards the Qiblih of the Faith. [BW19:56]
  • He was Bahá'u'lláh's youngest half-brother and was raised by Him because their father, Mírzá Buzurg died two years after his birth. He was greatly devoted to Bahá'u'lláh. He and his family settled on lands in the Jordan valley on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee. These lands were later exchanged for land that now comprises a part part of the site at Bahji. He had died in 1887. [SoG112; SE124; MGW45; RoB1p16; DoH31, 207, 228]
  • Israel Mirza Muhammad-Quli
    1985 19 Oct The Association for Bahá’í Studies, Chile, was established in Santiago. [BW19:358–9] Santiago; Chile; Latin America Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1985 22 - 23 Oct The 14th Muzakarah (Conference) of the Fatwa Committee of the National Council for Islamic Religious Affairs Malaysia discussed the Bahá'í doctrine and decided that the Bahá'í doctrine was not part of Islam. Muslims involved in this teaching were deemed as apostates. Therefore, Muslims are prohibited from following this teaching and anyone involved in it must denounce it at once and repent. [Fatwa] Malaysia Fatwa; Persecution, Malaysia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1985 24 Oct On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addressed a message to the peoples of the world inviting them to consider that a new social order can be fostered by all peoples’ seeing themselves as members of one universal family. This message was presented to world leaders and countless others during the United Nations International Year of Peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8, The Promise of World Peace]
  • Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
  • For pictures see BW19:337–44.
  • For text see BW19:324–33.
  • BWC; Worldwide United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; Publications; Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
    1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace was presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Bahai International Community
    1985 13 Dec For the first time, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran which contained specific references to the Bahá’ís. [BW19:38; VV55] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights first resolution on human rights that specifically mentions the situation of the Bahá'ís in Iran.
    1985 27 Dec - 1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice convened a Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH39; BW19:29; VV122]
  • The gathering, held in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, consulted on the opportunities and challenges facing the Bahá’í world community. [BW19:29]
  • See BW19:494, 504 for pictures.
  • Haifa; BWC Counsellors; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors conferences
    1986 (In the year) The Bayán Association started in Honduras in the mid-1980s by two Bahá’í families - the Smiths and the Sabripours. [Website]
  • History.
  • They offer services in the areas of:
  • La Ceiba; Honduras Social and Economic Development Organizations; Bayan Association; Z****
    1986 (In the year) Hundreds of members of the Aeta tribe in Tarlac and Pampanga, Philippines, became Bahá’ís. [BINS158:13] Philippines First believers by background
    1986 (In the year) Community-based Bahá’í health care programmes were launched in Kenya, Uganda and Swaziland, spearheaded by Dr Ethel Martens of Canada. Kenya; Uganda; Swaziland Ethel Martens
    1986 (In the year) The Sri Lanka post office issued a commemorative postage stamp featuring the Bahá’í-sponsored World Religion Day. [BINS176:4] Sri Lanka World Religion Day; Stamps
    1986 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly of San Salvador Island, mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan as Watling Island, was formed. San Salvador Island LSA first LSA San Salvador Island
    1986 (In the year) The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) was formed with its base in the Netherlands. Netherlands Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Bahai associations; Arts
    1986 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, was killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
  • For his picture see BW19:246.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1986 (In the year) The founding of the Ruaha Secondary School in southwestern rural Tanzania near Iringa, about 500 km from Dar-es-salaam. [The Mona Project (information on the Iringa School no longer available on this web site), One Country]
  • In 2001 the school received a grant to build a girls dormitory. [BWNS145]
  • Tanzania; Iringa; Dar-es-salaam Bahai schools; BWNS
    1986 (In the year) Iran’s hugely unsuccessful attempt to convince the international community that Bahá'ís were indeed spies was probably one of the reasons that convinced Iranian officials to review Iran’s contemporary history. The aim of this review was in no way to reconsider age-old beliefs and assumptions, but to generate so-called “objective” facts and data which would ultimately serve to justify those assumptions. It was in light of this conviction that, the Institute for Cultural Research and Studies was founded "with a mandate to maintain, organize and catalogue valuable historical documents acquired during and after the Islamic Revolution in Iran. In 1996, it was replaced by the Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies (IICHS), a professional research centre devoted to the study of contemporary Iranian history. Its objective is to undertake various research projects regarding social, political, economic and cultural aspects of post-eighteenth-century Iran, using its collection of primary sources."
    Another such organization, the Political Studies and Research Institute, was founded in 1988. [Iran Press Watch 1407; the institute's website]
    Iran Conspiracy Theories; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1986 1 Jan The publication of the compilation entitled "Women" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p704, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p355]
  • Also see a message to an individual from the Universal House of Justice entitled "Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice". [Messages63-86p707-709]
  • BWC Women; Peace; Compilations; Publications; Universal House of Justice, Membership on
    1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice ended the Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre by announcing in a letter that the Bahá’í world has entered the fourth epoch in the Formative Age of the Cause. [AWH39–42; BBD79, 85; BW19:29; VV91]
  • The seven major objectives of the Six Year Plan, to begin at Ridván 1986, were outlined. [AWH40]
  • On the closing day of the Counsellors' Conference, the Universal House of Justice announced certain features of the Six Year Plan and the methods by which the national goals were to be worked out in consultation between the Counsellors and National Spiritual Assemblies. [Mess63-86p717]
  • The year from Ridván 1992 was designated a Holy Year. [AWH40–1]
  • Haifa; BWC Formative Age; Ages and Epochs; Holy Years; Six Year Plan (1986-1992); Counsellors conferences
    1986 21 Jan The Islamic Research Academy at the Azhar University in Cairo published in a number of newspapers a lengthy opinion about the Bahá’í Faith in advance of the court cases of Bahá’ís due to be heard in February. [BW19:286]
  • For a refutation of this statement by the Bahá’í International Community, see BW19:288–96 and "Far Stretching River".
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Bahai International Community; Criticism and apologetics
    1986 28 Jan The death of NASA Astronaut Ronald Erwin McNair (b. 21 October, 1951 in Lake City, SC) when Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated nine miles above the Atlantic Ocean just 73 seconds after liftoff. Prior to this launch he had served 7 days, 23 minutes in space. He was buried in Rest Lawn Memorial Park in Lake City, South Carolina. [BlackPast.org] Cape Canaveral; Florida; Park in Lake City; South Carolina Ronald McNair; Z****
    1986 31 Jan The announcement of the inaugural broadcast of Radio Bahá'´Panama. [Mess63-86p710]
  • It was situated in the Chiriqui area of western Panama as part of the Guaymi Educational Centre complex at Soloy.
  • Also see One Country.
  • Boca del Monte; Panama Bahai radio; Teaching Institute; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1986 5 Feb The message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to all National Assemblies with the compilation entitled The Epochs of the Formative Age prepared by the Research Department. [Messages63-86p710-716] BWC Ages and Epochs; Formative Age; Compilations
    1986 9 Mar The passing of Continental Board of Counsellor member Angus Welldon Cowan (b.12 September 1914 in Bishopton, Quebec) at his home in Invermere, BC. [BW19p703–70; BCNS]
  • The message from the Universal House of Justice Mess63-86p723.
  • See his biography Angus: From the Heart: The Life of Counsellor Angus Cowan by Patricia Verge, Springtide Publishing, Cochrane AB, 1999.
  • Bishopton; Quebec; Invermere; British Columbia Angus Cowan; In Memoriam; Z****
    1986 13 Mar The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopts a resolution asking its chairman to appoint a new special representative to report to the General Assembly in November 1986 on the human rights situation in Iran, including the situation of the Bahá’ís. [BINS153:12] Iran United Nations Commission on Human Rights
    1986 Apr The first province-wide gathering of Bahá’í youth in Northern Ireland convenes. [BINS154:15] Northern Ireland Youth first province-wide gathering Bahá’í youth in Northern Ireland
    1986 Ridván The Seven Year Plan is successfully completed. (1979-1986) [BW19:23]
    • For a graph showing the growth of the Bahá’í Faith in this period see BW19:23.
    • For statistics on the Bahá’í Faith at this date see BINS155:13 and BW19:61–98, 112–46.
    BWC Seven Year Plan (1979-1986); Teaching Plans
    1986 Ridván The Six Year Plan (1986-1992) is launched. [AWH40, 42–4; BBRSM159; VV91] BWC Six Year Plan (1986-1992); Teaching Plans
    1986 23 May Fourteen State Bahá’í Councils were elected in India by members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW19:162; VV99–100]
    • For a description of the Councils and their responsibilities see BW19:162–4.
    • The State Bahá'í Council was the forerunner for the Regional Bahá'í Council which was announced on the 30th of May, 1997.
    India State Bahai Councils; Regional Bahai Councils
    1986 Jul Jack Malardy, 88-year-old tribal leader of the Karradjarrie people of Australia, and his wife Lilly become Bahá’ís in Lagrange, Australia. [BINS156:3; BINS179:1] Australia Jack Malardy; Lilly Malardy
    1986 18 – 24 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Movement is launched at the Bahá’í Youth School, Landegg Conference Centre, Switzerland. [BINS157:9–10; BINS158:10] Landegg; Switzerland; Europe Youth; Landegg Academy
    1986 3 – 4 Aug The Honourable Sir Thomas David, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands, at his request, consults with the Universal House of Justice at the Bahá’í World Centre about world peace, ‘the most concrete response to date by a political leader to the Peace Statement’. BINS157:1; VV88]
    • For picture see VV86.
    Haifa; BWC; Cook Islands Prominent visitors; Universal House of Justice
    1986 6 Aug The Brazilian Society of Physicians for Peace is formed by Bahá’í physicians in Pôrto Alegre at a ceremony attended by 120 medical professionals. [BINS159:2–3] Porto Alegre; Brazil Bahai associations; Health; Peace
    1986 6 Aug The Indo-Chinese Refugee Committee of Thailand estimates that five to six thousand people are Bahá’ís in the refugee camps on the Thai border. [BINS158:17] Thailand Indo-Chinese Refugee Committee
    1986 19 Oct Lorraine Kahn of Pine Springs, Arizona, is elected a delegate to the United States National Convention, the first Navajo woman to serve in this capacity. [BINS161:19] United States Lorraine Kahn; Native Americans; Conventions, National; Firsts, Other first Navajo woman delegate national convention
    1986 13 Nov Zikrullah Khadem (Dhikru’lláh Khádem), Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Skokie, Illinois. (b.1904) [VV123; ZK151]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Khadem, Zikrullah Khadem: The Itinerant Hand of the Cause of God.
    Skokie; Illinois; United States Zikrullah Khadem; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1986 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania and all ten local spiritual assemblies in the country were dissolved. Mauritania NSA; LSA
    1986 20 Dec The official opening of Radio Bahá'í Chile in Labranzo, Commune of Temuco.
  • The transmitter operated on 1160 kHz and served principally the indigenous population of Mapuche Indian community. [Bahá'í Historical Facts] iiiii
  • Labranzo; Chile Bahai radio; Bahai-owned radio; Z****
    1986 23 - 27 Dec International Teaching Conference was held in New Delhi in conjunction with the opening of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. It was attended by 8,000 Bahá'ís from 114 countries. [BW20p731-753] New Delhi; India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple
    1986 24 Dec The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
  • See VV93–4 for pictures.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]

    Specifics

      Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
      Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
      Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
      Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
      Architect/Project Manager: Faribouz Sahbá
      Seating: 1200
      Dimensions:Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
      Cost: $10m
      Dependencies:
      References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
  • New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Faribourz Sahba; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1987 (In the year) Faced with unrelenting religious persecution involving a wide range of human rights violations, the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) was founded in response to the Iranian government's continuing campaign to deny Iranian Bahá'ís access to higher education.
  • BIHE developed several unique features which have become its defining strengths. Courses were delivered at the outset by correspondence, soon complemented by in-person classes and tutoring. Later on, leading-edge communication and education technologies were included. In addition, an affiliated global faculty (AGF) was established that comprised of hundreds of accredited professors from universities outside Iran who assisted BIHE as researchers, teachers and consultants.
  • The BIHE was to evolve such that it could offer 38 university-level programs across 5 faculties and continued to develop and deliver academic programs in Sciences, Engineering, Business and Management, Humanities, and Social Sciences. It provided and continues to provide its students with the necessary knowledge and skills to not only persevere and succeed in their academic and professional pursuits, but to be active agents of change for the betterment of the world.
  • The BIHE's commitment to high academic standards, international collaboration and its innovative teaching-learning environment has been increasingly recognized as graduates excelled in post graduate studies internationally. [See list] These unique strengths of BIHE, together with the top-ranking marks of its students, have helped secure its graduates places at over 87 prestigious universities and colleges in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia (India). [Closed Doors, Chapter IV; BIHE]
  • See the statement The Bahá'í Institute Of Higher Education: A Creative And Peaceful Response To Religious Persecution In Iran presented by the Bahá'í International Community to the 55th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights under Agenda item 10 of the provisional agenda: "The Right to Education" in Geneva, 22 March - 30 April 1999.
  • Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; persecution, Persecution, Education; Z****
    1987 (In the year) The Bayan Hospital, the first Bahá’í hospital in Honduras, opened in Palacios. Palacios; Honduras Bahai hospitals first Bahá’í hospital in Honduras
    1987 (In the year) The first conference on Huqúqu’lláh was held at the Bahá’í World Centre. Haifa; BWC Huququllah first conference on Huqúqu’lláh
    1987 (In the year) The first National Children’s Camp in Australia was held in Yerrinbool School with 36 children between 9 and 13 years of age in attendance. [BINS173:10] Yerrinbool; Australia Yerrinbool Bahai School; Bahai schools; Children first National Children’s Camp in Australia
    1987 (In the year) The film, Heart of the Lotus, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi. [HNWE45] Haifa; BWC film; Elizabeth Martin; Heart of the Lotus
    1987 (In the year) The first conference on the production of Bahá’í literature in Spanish was held in Argentina. Argentina Literature; Translation; Firsts, Other; Spanish first conference on the production of Bahá’í literature in Spanish
    1987 (In the year) The first Pygmy local spiritual assembly in the Central African Republic was formed. [BINS173:1] Central African Republic LSA first Pygmy LSA Central African Republic
    1987 Jan The first Huqúqu'lláh Conference was held at the World Centre.
  • Photo.
  • BWV Huququllah; Ali Muhammad Varqa; Z****
    1987 16 – 17 Jan The first Youth Conference of the Bahamas was held with representation from three islands. [BINS173:9] Bahamas Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first Youth Conference of the Bahamas
    1987 26 Jan Charles Wolcott (b. September 29, 1906 in Flint, MI) member of the Universal House of Justice, passed away in Haifa. [BINS162:1; VV97]
  • Mr Wolcott passed away on the day he dictated the essay in the Forward of the book The Creative Circle: Art, Literature, and Music in Bahá'í Perspective edited by Michael Fitzgerald and published by Kalimat Press in 1989. [The Creative Circle pgx-xx]
  • See a video tribute entitled In Memory of Charles Wolcott, 1906-1987.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Elected in his stead was Dr. Peter Khan. He was born in Australia, held professorial posts in electrical engineering at universities in the United States and Australia. He served as an Auxiliary Board member, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Australia, and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre. [BWNS208]
  • BWC Charles Wolcott; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Peter Kahn; Universal House of Justice, Members of; BWNS
    1987 6 – 8 Feb Maori women held the first National Women’s Hui in the tribal area of Ngati Tuwaretoa, New Zealand. [BINS163:8] Ngati Tuwaretoa; New Zealand Maoris; Firsts, Other; Indigenous people first National Women’s Hui in Ngati Tuwaretoa, New Zealand
    1987 24 Feb The Bahá’í Cultural Centre was opened in the Guaymi area of Panama. Panama Bahai Cultural Centres
    1987 Mar The first Bahá’í Winter School held on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, took place. [BINS164:11] San Salvador Island; Bahamas First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í Winter School on San Salvador Island
    1987 20 Mar Dr Peter Khan was elected to the Universal House of Justice. [Mess86-01p18]
  • Dr. Peter Khan, born in Australia, held professorial posts in electrical engineering at universities in the United States and Australia. He served as an Auxiliary Board member, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Australia, and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre.
  • BWC UHJ; Peter Khan; Z****
    1987 24 Mar Radio Bahá’í of Liberia (ELRB), the first Bahá’í-owned radio station in Africa, was inaugurated in Paynesville. [BINS164:6; BW19:121; VV77]
  • The initial broadcast was aired in December reached most of Liberia as well as parts of Guinea, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone with its short wave signal, ELRB soon attracted a diverse and enthusiastic audience with its blend of cultural, service and Bahá’í programming. [BNno685p5]
  • This radio station was destroyed during the civil conflict and has not been re-established.
  • Paynesville; Liberia Bahai radio; Bahai-owned radio; Firsts, Other first Bahá’í radio station in Africa
    1987 Ridván The National Convention of Turkey was held for the first time with the official permission of the Turkish government. Turkey Conventions, National; First conventions; Recognition first National Convention held with official permission of Turkish government
    1987 Ridván A reorganization of the areas of jurisdiction of local spiritual assemblies in India resulted in the loss of 5,000 assemblies, substantially reducing the overall number of local assemblies in the world. India LSA
    1987 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was re-formed. [AWH48] Zaire NSA Zaire
    1987 22 Apr A ceremony was held to sign a ‘status agreement’ between the Bahá’í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá’í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represented the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signed the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá’í International Community. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Israel; Haifa; BWC Status agreement; Bahai International Community; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
    1987 30 Apr The Universal House of Justice indicated that the way was open to erect the remaining buildings on the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH51] Mount Carmel Arc projcets
    1987 28 Jun The Universal House of Justice sent a message regarding the requirements for membership in the Bahá’í Community. [Mess86-01p32] BWC Membership; Z****
    1987 31 Aug The Universal House of Justice called for the erection of the remaining three buildings along the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre—the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the Seat of the International Teaching Centre and the International Bahá’í Library—as well as an expansion of the International Archives building and the creation of 19 monumental terraces from the foot of Mount Carmel to its crest. [AWH50–4, 90; BBD21; VV96] Mount Carmel; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Terraces; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1987 Sep The United Nations Secretary-General designated the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4] New York; United States; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho United Nations; Bahai International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace
    1987 23 Sep Three members of the Yaran-e Iran, Mr. Jamaluddin Khanjani, Mr. Hasan Mahboobi and Mr. Changeez Fanaeyan, along with two other Bahá'í citizens, were arrested. After spending 59 days in jail, they were released on November 11th. One of the two Bahá'ís arrested with the members of the Yaran, Mr. Bahman Samandari, was jailed and later executed in March of 1991. Authorities announced that his incarceration and execution was in connection to the 1987 case. Mr. Hasan Mahboobi was killed in a hit-and-run accident as he was heading to a meeting of the Yaran in August 1992. After the release of the Yaran-e Iran until their next arrest in May 2008, the Iranian government was in close contact with them and had complete and detailed knowledge of all Bahá'í activities. On that basisBahá'ís were able to refute the charges of “illegal activities” or “illegal organization” against the security of the nation. [Iran Press Watch 10561] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1987 (Autumn) The Post Office of the United Kingdom issued a commemorative stamp honouring Bernard Leach, Bahá’í and world-renowned potter. [BINS173:8] United Kingdom Bernard Leach; Stamps; Artists; Arts
    1987 (Autumn) The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil submitted proposals based on Bahá’í principles such as human rights to the National Constitutional Assembly drafting the new constitution. [BINS174:2]
  • Favourable responses were received from 46 Senators and Deputies. [BINS174:2]
  • Brazil NSA; Constitutions
    1987 Oct The first local spiritual assembly on the island of São Tomé was formed at São Tomé. Sao Tome LSA first LSA São Tomé
    1987 3 Oct The Bahá’í International Community joined the Network on Conservation and Religion of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the sixth major religion to do so. [AWH56; BBD38; VV106] Bahai International Community; World Wide Fund for Nature; Nature; Environment
    1987 Nov Representatives of 17 national spiritual assemblies in Europe and North America, together with senior representatives of the Offices of the Bahá’í International Community, met in Germany to discuss their external affairs. [AWH56; VV105] Germany external affairs
    1987 17 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced the retirement of Mr. David Hofman and Mr. Borrah Kavelin. [Mess86-01p43; VV97] BWC Universal House of Justice, Members of; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin
    1987 Dec The first Children’s Conference of Uganda was held in Kikaaya, Kampala. [BINS173:7] Kikaaya; Kampala; Uganda Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; First conferences first Children’s Conference of Uganda
    1988 (In the year) The opening of the School of the Nations in Taipa, Macau with 5 students enrolled in kindergarten and operated out of an apartment. The teachers outnumbered the students.
  • In its second year it had 100 students and nearly 200 in the third year. Eventually, the Macau government donated land where a 7-story facility was opened in 2008. That new building included a library that was also accessible to the public throughout the week. In 2019 School of the Nations had 600 students from kindergarten through high school and 100 teachers.
  • The school became a high performer in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme and was the first in Macau to offer the International General Certificate of Secondary Education, the two most widely recognized international qualifications accepted by the majority of universities in the world. [SoN, BWNS460; BWNS1305]
  • Taipa; Macau School of the Nations; Bahai schools; BWNS; Z****
    1988 (In the year) The government of Niger authorized the resumption of Bahá’í activities and Bahá’í administration under an administrative committee. Niger Recognition
    1988 (In the year) The first Caribbean Bahá’í Women’s conference took place in Antigua. Antigua Caribbean; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences first Caribbean Bahá’í Women’s conference
    1988 (In the year) Branches of the Bahá’í International Community’s Office of Public Information were established in Paris and London. [VV54] Paris; London BIC
    1988 (In the year) ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, was held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1988 (In the year) More than a thousand people became Bahá’ís in Taiwan as a result of the Muhájir Teaching Project. [BINS187:4] Taiwan Muhajir Teaching Project
    1988 (In the year) The Bahá’í International Community became a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women’, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92. Africa Bahai International Community; Rural development; Social and economic development; Women
    1988 Jan A teaching campaign was launched in Chad, resulting in 1,340 new Bahá’ís and 33 new local spiritual assemblies. [BINS187:1] Chad LSA
    1988 17 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Religious Intolerance”, for the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Eliminating Religious Intolerance; United Nations
    1988 19 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Torture”, for the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Eliminating Torture; United Nations; UN
    1988 8 Mar Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, was honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7] Singapore Shirin Fozdar; Women; Awards
    1988 11 Mar The passing of Italian orientalist, scholar and linguist Alessandro Bausani. As an orientalist he made contributions in several fields: Persian Literature, Islam, linguistics, the history of Islamic science, Urdu, Indonesian, and other Islamic literatures. He was a polyglot having studied all the main European languages plus Basque, Arabic, Turkish, Persian as well as Latin and Greek.
  • He accepted the Faith in 1949 and served as a member of the local and national assemblies in Italy. He was a speaker much in demand at all sorts of Bahá'í gatherings in Italy and beyond. A number of his written contributions about the Bahá'í teachings were published posthumously in a volume called, Saggi sulla Fede Bahá'í ("Essays on the Bahá'í Faith", Rome, 1991). [Obituary: Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988) by Heshmat Moayyad; Encyclopædia Iranica: BAUSANI, ALESSANDRO]
  • Alessandro Bausani was a prolific writer. A small sampling of his publications include:
  • Italy Alessandro Bausani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1988 Apr The House of Abdu'lláh Páshá was open for the Bahá'ís to visit for the first time on the occasion of the Sixth International Convention. [ARG61-62] Haifa; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Conventions, International
    1988 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the sixth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. Delegates from 148 National/Regional Assemblies participated. [BINS176; VV97]
  • Those elected were: ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Glenford Mitchell, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Peter Khan, David Ruhe, Hugh Chance, Hooper Dunbar, Adib Taherzadeh. [Mess86-01p49]
  • A gift of a large bowl of 120 roses was received from the Bahá'í of Iran.
  • Mr. Hooper Dunbar, born in the United States, was a film actor in Hollywood before moving to Central and South America where he taught arts and English. He is an accomplished painter. He was first elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Nicaragua in 1961. He later served as a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre in 1973. [BWNS208]
  • BWC; Iran Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Retirements; Hooper Dunbar; Gifts; Roses; BWNS
    1988 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea was formed with its seat in Conakry. [BINS178:8] Conakry NSA firs NSA Guinea
    1988 8 May The passing of Beatrice Owen Ashton (b. 17 May, 1890, Cleveland). She was buried in the Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland. [BW20p896-899]
  • She graduated from Vassar College in 1911 and in 1918 she learned of the Faith in Urbana, IL from Dr Jacob and Anna Kunz after meeting some Bahá'ís who had been picnicking. (See BW16p520 for In Memoriam for Anna Kunz)
  • In August of 1918 she married Frank Ashton at Green Acre. In post-war 1945, the National Spiritual Assembly appointed her as the international relief representative for Germany and the Philippines. During the summers from 1947 to 1953 she undertook teaching trips to Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. In April of 1952 she went on pilgrimage and met the Guardian for the first time. [BN no262, December, 1952 p5-7]
  • In addition to administrative tasks she worked on the production of Bahá'í World XIII and taught summer school classes at Green Acre, Louhelen and Geyserville as well as Beaulac, Banff and Toronto in Canada.
  • She pioneered to Lethbridge, Alberta from 1958 to 1966 and taught the Faith on the Peigan Reserve (now Piikini First Nation). When the Bahá'ís of Lethbridge elected their first Local Spiritual Assembly she went back to European teaching and made four trips to Norway by 1970.
  • From 1970 she served in Haifa in the Research Department, cataloging and indexing the Guardian's letters and correspondence but in 1972 she had to return to the US due to failing health.
  • In her latter years she made an index for Citadel of Faith as well as for Messages to America and indexed the Writings of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh that Shoghi Effendi had translated.
  • Find a grave.
  • Cleveland; OH; Lethbridge; Canada Beatrice Owen Ashton; Beatrice Ashton; Travel teaching; summer school
    1988 Jun Over 100,000 people, including large numbers of women, youth and families, became Bahá’ís in Uttar Pradesh, India. [BINS179:4] Uttar Pradesh; India Mass conversion
    1988 Jun The founding of the Virtues Project by Dr. Dan Popov, Linda Kavelin-Popov and her brother John Kavelin. The project spawned a number of books by Linda Kavelin-Popov:
  • Sacred moments: Daily meditations on the Virtues (1996), <
  • The Family Virtues Guide: Simple Ways to Bring Out the Best in Our Children and Ourselves (1997),
  • Sacred Moments: Daily Meditations on the Virtues (1997),
  • The virtues guide: A handbook for parents teaching virtues (1991),
  • The Virtues Project: An Educator's Guide (K-12) Simple Ways to Create a Culture of Character (2000),
  • A Pace of Grace: The Virtues of a Sustainable Life (2004),
  • Graceful Endings: Navigating the Journey of Loss and Grief 2012, as well as a Facebook page and a Twitter account. [Cook Island News June 11, 2018]
  • Virtues Project; Virtues; Ethics; Dan Popov; Linda Kavelin-Popov (Linda Popov); John Popov
    1988 30 Jun - 3 Jul The Bahá’í Arts Council, Canada, held the first arts festival, ‘Invitation 88: A Festival of the Human Spirit’ at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. [BINS179:2] London; Ontario; Canada Arts; Firsts, Other first arts festival Canada
    1988 Jul Nearly 50 people became Bahá’ís in Saipan, Mariana Islands. [BINS181:5]
  • Later reports indicated that 91 people have enrolled by October 1988.
  • Saipan; Mariana Islands
    1988 Jul Eighty–nine people became Bahá’ís in Belize. [BINS186:2] Belize
    1988 Jul In 18 days of teaching, 876 adults, youth and children became Bahá’ís in Haiti. [BINS181:7]
  • Reports from the National Spiritual Assembly in September indicated that 2,371 people enrolled in the first phase of the teaching campaign.
  • Haiti tags
    1988 7 – 10 Jul The first Youth Convention of Spain was held in Madrid. [BINS180:5] Madrid first Youth Convention of Spain
    1988 14 – 17 Jul The Bahá’í Association for Arts (BAFA) helds its first arts festival at the Bahá’í conference centre De Poort, Netherlands. [BINS180:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands Bahai Association for Arts (BAFA); Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Arts; First conferences; De Poort first arts festival Netherlands
    1988 15 Jul The first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay opened, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5] Paraguay; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay
    1988 Jul - Aug Over 500 people became Bahá’ís in Liberia. [BINS184:8] Liberia
    1988 Aug A 20-day teaching project in Coro, Falcon State, Venezuela, enrolled 120 people in the first two days. [BINS182:7] Coro; Falcon State; Venezuela
    1988 3 – 7 Aug The first Iberian Youth Conference was held in Lisbon, attended by 120 Bahá’ís from nine European countries. [BINS181:6] Lisbon; Portugal; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth first Iberian Youth Conference
    1988 Sep An intensive teaching campaign in Kenya enrolled 448 new Bahá’ís. [BINS184:8] Kenya
    1988 Sep A teaching project in Maddhya Pradesh, India, enrolled 20,000 new Bahá’ís in Morena District. [BINS185:4] Madhya Pradesh; India Mass teaching; Mass conversion
    1988 Sep A five-day teaching project in the Lake Titicaca region of Peru enrolled 738 youth and 1,026 adults, almost half of whom were women. [BINS184:10]
  • A later report gave the figure as over 2,000. [BINS185:8]
  • Lake Titicaca; Peru
    1988 10 Sep A three-month teaching project was launched in Colombia, resulting in 1,245 people becoming Bahá’ís. [BINS193:1] Colombia
    1988 24 Sep The six-week Manicaland Teaching Campaign was launched in Zimbabwe and reported 166 enrolments in the first three weeks. [BINS188:8] Zimbabwe
    1988 24 – 25 Sep The first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain was held in Barcelona. [BINS192:5] Barcelona; Spain Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain
    1988 Oct In the State of Orissa, India, 2,600 people became Bahá’ís and 16 new local spiritual assemblies were formed in 15 days. Orissa; India LSA; Mass teaching; Mass conversion
    1988 Oct One hundred and twenty people in Hong Kong and 280 in Macau become Bahá’ís as a result of teaching institutes. [BINS189:8]
  • A later report stateed that more than 600 people in Macau had become Bahá’ís. [BINS194:3]
  • Hong Kong; Macau Teaching Institutes; Mass conversion
    1988 Oct Thirteen Romanies became Bahá’ís in northern Spain. [BINS186:7] Spain Romanies; minorities
    1988 Nov - Dec The first members of the Jhana tribe to become Bahá’ís enrolled in India. [BINS189:5] India First believers by background
    1988 Nov c. Pietro Pandolfini, the first from the Albanian minority in Sicily to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. [BINS189:5] Sicily First believers by background first from Albanian minority Sicily
    1988 Nov More than 2,500 people enrolled in Bangladesh. [BINS190:5]
  • A later report indicated that over 5,000 people had become Bahá’ís and 108 new local spiritual assemblies formed. [BINS192:1]
  • Bangladesh LSA; mass conversion
    1988 Nov - Dec One thousand one hundred people became Bahá’ís in the State of Gujarat, India. [BINS190:5] Gujarat; India Mass conversion
    1988 Nov - Dec Six hundred people became Bahá’ís in West Bengal and 5,150 in Orissa, India. [BINS189:4–5] West Bengal; Orissa; India Mass conversion
    1988 26 Nov - 4 Dec Over a thousand people became Bahá’ís in Bolivia during a teaching project. [BINS189:2]
  • A later report indicated that over 2,000 people had become Bahá’ís. [BINS195:1]
  • Bolivia Mass conversion
    1988 30 Nov The Bahá’í International Community was elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations’ (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; Social and economic development
    1988 Nov - 1989 Feb Teaching projects were launched in the Philippines, resulting in 3,847 people becoming Bahá’ís. [BINS195:4] Philippines Mass conversion
    1988 Dec c. The Government of Western Samoa published a Christmas issue of four stamps of religious buildings, among them the Bahá’í House of Worship in Samoa. [BINS196:8] Apia; Samoa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Stamps
    1988 4 Dec A two-week teaching project was launched, resulting in 414 people becoming Bahá’ís, including ten chiefs. [BINS192:4] mass conversion
    1988 8 Dec The plenary session of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution concerning human rights in Iran which specifically mentions the suffering of the Bahá’ís. [BINS189:2] Iran United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1988 9 Dec The passing of Edna M. True, (b. July 29, 1888, in Grand Rapids, Michigan) She was a daughter of the Hand of the Cause of God Corinne Knight True whose valiant work from 1909-25 as financial secretary of Bahá'í Temple Unity was instrumental in building the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • She formally enrolled in the Faith as a 15-year-old in 1903.
  • See PG111-113. Edna and her mother had spent 11 days on pilgrimage in November of 1919. On the point of her departure 'Abdu'l-Bahá called her to His side.
  • Like her mother, Miss True became intimately involved in the completion of that magnificent edifice, serving on its construction committee from 1947-53, lending her expertise to interior design, and helping to plan its formal dedication in 1953.
  • From 1940-46 she was a member of the Bahá'í Inter-America Committee, serving as its chairman in 1941-42 and secretary in 1945-46.
  • In 1946 when she was elected to membership on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. She served as recording secretary for the next 22 years.
  • She served as chairman of the European Teaching Committee for the entire span of its existence (1946-64), her organizational skills to work to help form local Spiritual Assemblies and, later, National Spiritual Assemblies in 11 European countries.
  • In 1968, now 80 years old, Miss True was named by the Universal House of Justice as a member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for the Americas. She served with distinction as a Counsellor and Trustee of the Continental Fund until 1981 when advancing years (she was then 93) forced her to reduce her activities.
  • In 1986, Miss True and and her longtime friend and companion Miss Jackson made a pilgrimage to the World Centre in Haifa, Israel, where they visited the Holy Shrines and were entertained by members of the Universal House of Justice.
  • She was buried in the True family plot at Chicago's Oak-woods Cemetery. [Bahá'í News January, 1989 Issue 694 p.2]
  • Grand Rapids; Wilmette Edna True; Corrine True; Continental Board of Counsellors; National Spiritual Assembly; European Teaching Committee; In Memoriam; Z****
    1988 18 Dec H. Borrah Kavelin, (b. 18 March, 1906, Russia), former member of the first House of Justice, passed away in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He was buried in Fairview Memorial Park in Albuquerque. [VV97]
  • A biography.
  • Find a grave
  • Albuquerque; New Mexico; United States H. Borrah Kavelin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1988 28 Dec Sean Hinton, a British Bahá’í youth of 22 years, arrived in Ulaan Baator, Mongolia, as an official research scholar in ethnomusicology from the University of Cambridge, the first Bahá’í to reside in Mongolia. [VV101]
  • Seven months later he was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice.
  • See VV101 for a picture.
  • Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia Sean Hinton; Knight of Bahaullah first Bahá’í to reside in Mongolia
    1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issued a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. [Mess86-01p60] BWC; United States Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Publications; Administration; Administrative Order; Authority; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Consultation; Criticism and apologetics; Ethics; Freedom; Freedom of expression; Human rights; Individualism; Liberty; Moderation; Review; Unity; Western culture
    1988 30 Dec - 1989 1 Jan Senior officers of the Bahá’í International Community in the Holy Land, Geneva, and New York met with representatives of five national spiritual assemblies to discuss their collaboration with the United Nations, its agencies and their governments. BIC
    1988 24 Dec The first National Youth Conference of Côte d’Ivoire took place. [BINS196:9] Ivory Coast Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first National Youth Conference of Côte d’Ivoire
    1989 (In the year) More than 250 people became Bahá’ís in Zambia in the first three months of the year. [BINS201:6] Zambia mass conversion
    1989 (In the year) During a three-week teaching effort on the island of Tobago, 450 people became Bahá’ís. [BINS201:7] Trinidad and Tobago Teaching; mass conversion
    1989 (In the year) The first travel teachers to visit Albania since World War II arrived from Italy. Albania first travel teachers visit Albania since WW II
    1989 (In the year) Fourteen-year-old Olga Anatolevna Kirushkin became a Bahá’í in Minsk, the first known native person to become a Bahá’í in Belarus. Minsk; Belarus First Bahais by country or area first known native Bahá’í in Belarus
    1989 (In the year) The New Era Foundation was formed by the US National Spiritual Assembly to sponsor a wide range of development projects in several continents. [VV81] United States New Era Foundation
    1989 (In the year) A branch of the Bahá’í International Community’s Office of Public Information was established in Hong Kong in anticipation of the time when the Bahá’í Faith can be proclaimed on the mainland of China. [AWH61; VV54] Hong Kong BIC Office of Public Information
    1989 (In the year) Three International Music Festivals were held in Africa. [BINS215] Africa Festivals, Music; Music; Arts
    1989 (In the year) The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
    1989 Jan Three per cent of the population of North Tarawa, Kiribati, 70 people, became Bahá’ís. [BINS193:3] North Tarawa; Kiribati
    1989 7 Jan A week-long teaching project was launched in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands resulting in 43 enrolments and the re-formation of two local spiritual assemblies. [BINS191:7] Andaman and Nicobar Islands LSA; teaching
    1989 Feb The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It was a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reported mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539] New York; United States One Country (magazine); Newsletters; Bahai International Community; First publications; Publications; - Periodicals Find date
    1989 8 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Racism”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Eliminating Racism; United Nations
    1989 9 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Right to Development”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Human rights; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; United Nations
    1989 15 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Creating a Universal Culture of Human Rights”, to the fourty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Human Rights; United Nations
    1989 9 Mar The Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution expressing grave concern at human rights violations in Iran, mentioning the Bahá’ís three times. [BINS195:1] Iran United Nations; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1989 17 Mar The Bahá’í International Community entered into a ‘working relationship’ with the World Health Organization (WHO) for the period 1989–91. [AWH61; BINS201:1] Bahai International Community; World Health Organization (WHO)
    1989 23 – 26 Mar The First National Women’s Conference of Spain was held in Madrid. [BINS201:6] Madrid; Spain Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; Women; First conferences first National Women’s Conference of Spain
    1989 24 – 27 Mar The first All-Ireland Youth Spring School was held in Closkelt, Northern Ireland. [BINS197:51] Closkelt; Northern Ireland first All-Ireland Youth Spring School
    1989 Apr Nearly one half million new believers were enrolled since last Ridván. [AWH60] Worldwide Statistics; Growth
    1989 Apr The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Malaysia was established. [BINS206:8] Malaysia; Asia Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1989 Apr The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Macau was formed. [PH73; AWH62] Macau NSA first NSA of Macau
    1989 Apr The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guinea-Bissau was formed. [PH73; AWH62] Guinea Bissau NSA first NSA of Guinea-Bissau
    1989 Apr The Universal House of Justice announced a vast majority of prisoners that had been held by authorities in Irán had been released. [AWH62] Iran UHJ; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1989 Apr Some four million persons had visited the House of Worship in New Delhi to this date. [AWH61] New Delhi; India Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple
    1989 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guinea-Bissau was formed. [AWH62; BINS199:1, 4] Guinea Bissau NSA first NSA Guinea-Bissau
    1989 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was re-formed after a lapse of 61 years, the first local assembly to be formed in the Soviet Union. [AWH73; VV111] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia First Local Spiritual Assemblies first LSA to in Soviet Union.
    1989 Ridván The Universal House of Justice reported that nearly half a million people had became Bahá’ís in the past year. [AWH60] Statistics
    1989 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Macau was formed. [AWH62; BINS199:1; VV104] Macau NSA first NSA Macau
    1989 May Nearly 880 people became Bahá’ís in Guyana. [BINS202:8] Guyana mass conversion
    1989 May The Olinga Teaching Project was launched in Fiji, resulting in over a thousand people becoming Bahá’ís. [BINS204:3] Fiji mass conversion
    1989 6 May The Bahá’í World Centre received one of six awards given by the Council for a "Beautiful Israel" in a ceremony in Jerusalem. [BINS199:2] Jerusalem; BWC World Centre; Awards
    1989 25 Jun The Universal House of Justice said in a message it was timely for the knowledge of the Bahá'í Faith to be disseminated on the mainland of China as quickly as possible. [PH80]
  • Also see [SWvol13no7pg185; VV104]
  • China UHJ
    1989 Jul - Aug Five European Regional ‘Peace Moves’ Youth Conferences were held in different parts of the continent. Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Peace
    1989 1 – 2 Jul The first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; De Poort; First conferences first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference
    1989 3 Jul The passing of Bobbie Cowan in Invermere, BC. [AC297] Invermere; British Columbia; Canada Bobbie Cowan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1989 Jul Sean Hinton, the first Bahá’í to reside in Mongolia, was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh by the Universal House of Justice. Mongolia Sean Hinton; Knights of Bahaullah first Bahá’í to reside in Mongolia
    1989 5 Jul Dr Ugo Giachery (b. 13 May, 1896, Palermo, Sicily), Hand of the Cause of God, passed away while on a visit to Western Samoa. [BINS204:1; VV123]
  • He died while visiting Samoa and was interred on the mountainside at Tiapapata, Apia, in view of the Pacific Ocean. His funeral service was attended by by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, the Prime Minister of Samoa, four Ministers of Cabinet, four Counsellors, five Auxiliary Board members, representatives of six national communities of the Pacific, and over two hundred believers from many parts of the country. [LoF241)
  • For the cable of the Universal House of Justice see BINS204:1.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • Wikipedia
  • For a short biography see LoF223-242.
  • Tiapapata; Apia; Samoa Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1989 10 Jul The Universal House of Justice issued statement on literacy. [AWH142-3] UHJ; literacy
    1989 23 Jul The first meeting of Bahá’í women in Mauritius took place at the Bahá’í Institute. [BINS215:6] Mauritius first meeting of Bahá’í women in Mauritius
    1989 Aug Forty Bahá’ís from Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and France joined a teaching campaign in Madagascar during which 724 people become Bahá’ís. [BINS217:4] Madagascar mass conversion
    1989 Aug The first Mongolian to become a Bahá’í, Ms Oyundelger, a 22-year-old English-language pupil of Sean Hinton, enrolled in Ulaan Baator. [VV101] Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia First Bahais by country or area; Sean Hinton first Bahá’í in Mongolia
    1989 3 Aug The first Latvian resident in Latvia to become a Bahá’í, Lilita Postaza, a renowned tapestry artist, enrolled after visiting the Bahá’í temple in India. Latvia Lilita Postaza; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; First Bahais by country or area first Latvian Bahá'í resident in Latvia
    1989 27 Aug The Universal House of Justice sent a message offering clarification on the subject of the Nineteen Day Feast. [Universal House of Justice 27 August, 1989, AWH192-4] BWC Nineteen Day Feast; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
    1989 (Summer) The founding of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. It was a co-ed Bahá'í school located on Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. It offered day students and boarding students from many parts of the world instruction from grades 7-12. Its educational philosophy was based on the principles of the Bahá'í Faith. The school was opened in a ceremony with guest of honour Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (Mary Maxwell, daughter of May and Sutherland) and wife of the Bahá'í Faith's Guardian, Shoghi Effendi). A tree was planted in dedication to the opening of the school. In the early 2006-2007 school year, the school board decided to drop "Bahá'í" from its name, changing it to "Maxwell International School". The school closed on its 20th anniversary in 2008. [Wiki] Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. Maxwell International School; Bahai schools; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Maxwell International School
    1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment was established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
    1989 16 – 17 Sep Bahá’ís in Liechtenstein mounted a display of Bahá’í books and an exhibition at an international festival for peace, justice and the preservation of creation held in Balzers, the first time they have been allowed to have a booth or stand of any kind in public. [BINS209:8] Liechtenstein Exhibitions; Firsts, Other first pubic display booth or stand Liechtenstein
    1989 Oct - Nov In India, 4,300 people became Bahá’ís in the State of Orissa. [BINS213:3] Orissa; India Mass conversion
    1989 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh reported the enrolment of 7,500 people in the year since November 1988. [BINS210:1] Bangladesh mass conversion
    1989 Oct One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community, started publication in five other languages - French, Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and German. The first French language edition of the publication was launched in Paris in October, 1989. Each issue contained two or three in-depth feature stories on the United Nations, noteworthy social and economic development projects, environmental efforts or educational programs, along with an editorial that addresses world problems from a Bahá'í point of view. Bahai International Community; One Country (magazine); First publications; Newsletters; Publications First French language edition of One Country
    1989 10 Oct The Bahá'í World Centre received official approval by the Local Town Planning Committee and City Council of Haifa of the Town Planning Scheme for the initiation of the Projects on Mt Carmel. Haifa Arc Project find reference
    1989 21 – 22 Oct The Southern African Bahá’í Association for the Advancement of Women was formed in Johannesburg. [BINS210:8] Johannesburg; South Africa Women
    1989 26 Oct The Universal House of Justice issued statement on the environment. [AWH144] UHJ; Environment; Statements; Nature
    1989 4 – 6 Nov The European Bahá’í Youth Council, comprised of seven youth and appointed by the Universal House of Justice to coordinate those European youth activities that have a continental impact, met for the first time, in London. [BINS213:4; BW93–4:121] London; United Kingdom; Europe European Bahai Youth Council; Youth first meeting European Bahá’í Youth Council
    1989 (Late in the year) The Local Spiritual Assembly of Budapest was re-elected for the first time since the proscription of 1950. [BINS223:4; Letter of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Austria, 6 December 1989 www.bahai.hu Note 68]
  • The assembly was first elected in 1939 but lapsed during the war. It was re-formed in 1948 only to be dissolved two years later. [BINS223:4]
  • Budapest; Hungary Re-election
    1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York took place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
  • It commemorated the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá’í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
  • London; United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gathered for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2] Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences first gathering soviet-bloc countries since WW II
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan West Berlin Bahá’í communities were joined by 26 Bahá’ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
  • More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá’í materials were distributed at four major border checkpoints in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
  • Berlin; Germany Promise of World Peace (statement); Teaching
    1989 25 – 29 Dec The first International Bahá’í Summer School of Bophuthatswana was held at the Pilanesberg National Game Reserve, attended by 263 people from 12 countries. [BINS215:1–2] Bophuthatswana; South Africa Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first International Bahá’í Summer School of Bophuthatswana
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