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Bahá'í Chronology: years 199-

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199-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1990 The Council of Agriculture of the Executive Yuan (Senate) of Taiwan co-sponsors with the National Spiritual Assembly a Bahá'í educational programme on environmental protection. [BINS218:5]
  • This is the first formal joint effort between the Bahá'ís of Taiwan and the government authorities.
Taiwan Agriculture; Environment First formal joint effort between Bahá'ís and Taiwan government
1990 The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan opens a permanent Bahá'í Office of the Environment for Taiwan in Taipei. [BINS221:5] Taipei; Taiwan Environment
1990 An Association for Bahá'í Studies is established in Kenya. Kenya ABS
1990 The Italian Association for Bahá'í Studies is established in Rome. [BINS232:5]
  • It lapses in 1991 but is re-established in 1992.
Italy; Rome ABS
1990 The first Adam Benke Project is organized by the Bahá'í European Youth Council in Bulgaria.
  • The first semi-public talks and lectures in Bulgaria are given in restaurants, where people are invited to private meetings.
  • Eleven people become Bahá'ís.
Bulgaria European Youth Council First Adam Benke Project; first semi-public talks and lectures in Bulgaria find ref
1990 The Purest Branch Project in Belize results in over a thousand people becoming Bahá'ís from the Garifuna population around Dangriga. Belize; Dangriga Purest Branch Project; Garifuna find ref
1990 The United Nations International Literacy Year. [VV108] UN
1990 The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws
1990 Amata Kabua, President of the Marshall Islands, visits the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:83] Marshall Islands; BWC; Amata Kabua; President
1990 The founding of the European Bahá'í Business Forum as an informal network. Their goal is exploring how to contribute to a more prosperous, just and sustainable civilization, through their daily work and discourse. [EBBF] Europe Baha'i Business Forum
1990 The University of Maryland announced its decision to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108] University of Maryland; Baha'i Chair for World Peace; Centre for International Development and Conflict Management; Suheil Bushru’i first scholar named to Bahá'í Chair for World Peace
1990 In the two years previous almost two million people enrolled in the Cause. [AWH79]
1990 The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
South Africa NSA; Constitution
1990 The Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace was held in Mongolia.
  • A representative of the International Bahá'í Community was the only non-Buddhist speaker invited to address a public meeting held in conjunction with the conference. [AWH88] [VV101]
Mongolia Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace; International Baha'i Community
1990 Pope John Paul II made mention of the Bahá'ís at a reception held in his honour in Burundi. [AWH88] Burundi Pope John Paul II
1990 With the approval of the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'í administrative institutions of the eastern and western parts of Germany are re-united. [BINS230:2] Germany East; West; united
1990 The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106] Baha'i International Community; World Forestry Charter Gathering; Richard St. Barbe Baker
1990 For the first time a representative of the United Nations officially meets with a representative of the Bahá'í community in Iran. [AWH76] Iran United Nations First time United Nations representative officially meets with representative of Bahá'í community in Iran.
1990 The International Exposition on Education for Peace sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly was held in Brazil. Twenty-three embassies and educational institutes participated. [AWH88] Brazil International Exposition on Education for Peace; NSA
1990 The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the World Conference on Education for All in Thailand because of its involvement in the work of the Task Force for Literacy under the aegis of UNESCO. [AWH75] Thailand Baha'i International Community; World Conference on Education for All; Task Force for Literacy; UNESCO
1990 A branch of the Bahá'í International Community's United Nations Office for the Pacific region was opened in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; VV54] Suva; Fiji Baha'i International Community
1990 For the first time a representative of the United Nations was able to officially meet with a representative of the proscribed Bahá'í community in Irán. The report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resulted in a resolution being adapted on Irán in a session held in Geneva. [AWH76] Irán; Geneva United Nations Commission on Human Rights first time a representative of United Nations able to officially meet with a representative of proscribed Bahá'í community in Irán
1990 The election of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Cluj in Romania, the first new Assembly in the "East Bloc". [AWH73] Cluj; Romania LSA first new Assembly in the "East Bloc"
1990 The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
Chamonix; France European Baha'i Business Forum
1990 The US House of Representatives unanimously adopted a resolution calling for the emancipation of the Iránian Bahá'í community and outlined the steps to be taken by the US government towards this end. [AWH76; VV60] US House of Representatives
1990 Jan – Feb The Brazilian Society of Educators for Peace, conceived and initiated by Bahá'ís, is officially recognized by the Amazonas State Government. [BINS219:3] Brazil; South America Society Educators
1990 Jan The first local spiritual assembly comprised entirely of newly enrolled Bahá'ís of Ahmadiyyah background is formed in Chak No. 8P Katta, Pakistan. [BINS219:5] Chak No. 8P Katta; Pakistan Baha'i spiritual assembly; Ahmadiyyah; Muslim
1990 24 Jan – 5 Feb The first All-Union Bahá'í Conference was held in Moscow with 250 people gathered from all over the Soviet Union and from 17 other countries. This was the first national Bahá'í conference held in the USSR in about 60 years. [BINS224:8; VV112] Moscow; Russia All-Union Baha'i Conference first national Bahá'í conference in the Soviet Union in six decades
1990 26 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
  • Professor Suheil Bushrui is appointed to the Chair in 1992.
  • For picture see VV108.
Maryland; United States Baha'i Chair World Peace; Suheil Bushrui
1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Toronto. (b.1897) [BINS219:90]

Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hand Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
1990 Mar The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approves the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76] Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel. BWC; World Centre
1990 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War is elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4] Cluj; Romania first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War
1990 24 Mar Mr. and Mrs. Abbas Katirai opened the Sakhalin Islands and became Knights of Bahá'u'lláh after 35 years of pioneering in Japan. This last goal was achieved 37 years after the Guardian had designated it as a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DM345] [AWH73] [VV112] Sakhalin Island; Russia Knight; ‘Abbas Katirai; Rezvanieh Katirai
1990 31 Mar 31 – 1 Apr The first Bahá'í International Chinese Symposium is held in San Francisco, California; it is attended by 362 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS222:6] San Francisco; California; United States International; Chinese Symposium
1990 9 Apr The first professorial Chair in Bahá'í Studies is established at Indore University, India. [BINS222:8; VV108] Indore; India Chair Baha'i Studies; Devi Ahilya University
1990 9 Apr The establishment of the Chair for Bahá'í Studies at the University of Indore (later renamed Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya). Dr. Vishnudatta Nagar was appointed to the position. [BW'86-‘92pg454] Indore; India Chair Baha'i Studies; University Indore; Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya; Vishnudatta Nagar
1990 Ridván In its Ridván message the Universal House of Justice announces that in the previous two years almost two million people have become Bahá'ís. [AWH79]
1990 1990 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Estonia is formed at Tallinn. [BINS223:3] Tallinn; Estonia Local Assembly First local spiritual assembly in Estonia
1990 Ridván The first local assembly to be formed in Hungary since before the Second World War is elected in Budapest. [BINS223:4]
  • The assembly was first elected in 1939 but lapsed during the war. [BINS223:4]
Budapest; Hungary Local Assembly, Hungary first local spiritual assembly in Hungary
1990 Ridván The first indigenous local spiritual assembly of Amazonas State, Brazil, is formed among the Mura tribe in Beruri. [BINS223:71] Beruri; Amazonas State; Brazil Indigenous; Assembly; Mura tribe First indigenous local spiritual assembly of Brazil
1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem are elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania Maureen Nakekea; Marao Teem; National Spiritual Assembly; Indigenous first indigenous women elected to National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati
1990 Ridván For the first time, two Bush Negro women delegates attend the national convention of Surinam. [BINS226:6] Surinam; South America Bush Negro; Maroon; delegates; national convention
1990 Ridván The re-formation of the Spiritual Assembly of Moscow with Hand of the Cause 'Alí-Akbar Furútan in attendance. [VV111-2] Moscow; Russia Assembly
1990 Ridván The launching of a subsidiary Two Year Plan for the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. [Ridván Message 1992]. Goals were:
  1. attraction of numerous supporters
  2. great increase in the translation, publication and dissemination of Bahá'í literature
  3. the extension of the administrative order in the region by the erection of local and national spiritual assemblies [AWH71]
Eastern Bloc Universal House of Justice
1990 Ridván Abbas and Rezvanieh Katirai became the last Knights of Bahá'u'lláh to be named when they pioneered to Sakhalin Island, the last remaining territory named by Shoghi Effendi in his Ten Year Crusade. [Russia by Moojan Momen] Sakhalin Knight of Baha'u'llah; Abbas Katirai; Rezvanieh Katirai
1990 May The US Senate unanimously adopted a concurrent resolution condemning Irán's continued repression of the Bahá'ís calling for their complete emancipation. This was the fourth congressional appeal. [VV60] US Senate
1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors is held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey European women conference; Continental Board; Counsellors
1990 22 May The nations of Northern Yemen and Marxist Southern Yemen unite to become the Republic of Yemen with Ali Abdullah Saleh, a former a conservative military leader, as President. Saleh had served as President of North Yemen for 12 years until then.

Ali Salim al-Beidh, a Soviet-trained southern army commander, was chosen as Vice President. Mr. Bidh, had. ruled Southern Yemen when it was a Marxist state. A unification of the two countries' political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. Tensions between North and South continued with sporadic fighting.

Yemen; Recent history Yemen
1990 23 May The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102] World Centre; Akká; Haifa; Israel; BWC; terraces; Shrine of the Bab
1990 Jun Nicolai Gejnze, from Bishkek and a crew member in one of three boats in which Bahá'ís made a trip down the Volga River in June and July 1990, enrols, the first person from Kirgizia known to have become a Bahá'í. Bishkek; Kirgizia; Kyrgyz; Central Asia; Volga River; Russia Nicolai Gejnze find ref
1990 4 Jun The first International Exposition on Education for Peace, inaugurated by the National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil, takes place in Brasilia. [BINS226:1] Brasilia; Brazil International Exposition Education Peace; National Assembly
1990 9 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Czechoslovakia is formed at Prague. [BINS226:1] Prague; Czechoslavakia Spiritual assembly
1990 10 Jun The Paraguay International Chinese Teaching Symposium, the first of its kind in South America, is held in Asuncion, attended by 80 people from 10 countries. [BINS226:4] Asuncion; Paraguay; South America International Chinese Teaching Symposium
1990 Jul The first youth conference of Estonia is held in Kabli, near Parnu, attended by some 113 participants from all parts of Europe Kabli; Estonia Parnu; Estonia Youth conference
1990 3 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana announces that the Bahá'ís constitute about five percent of the total population of the country. [BINS228:1]
  • In some towns over 20 percent of the people are Bahá'ís. [BINS228:1]
Guyana; South America National Assembly
1990 8 – 11 Jul The first summer school of Czechoslovakia is held in Jindrichuv Hradec, attended by 24 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS230:2] Jindrichuv Hradec; Czechoslovakia summer school
1990 6 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in the Ukraine is formed in Kyiv. Kyiv; Ukraine Local Assembly find ref
1990 Sep The first International Dialogue on the Transition to a Global Society, co-sponsored by the University of Maryland, the Vienna Academy for the Study of the Future and Landegg Academy, is held at Landegg Academy, Switzerland, attended by 80 leaders of thought from around the world. [VV109] Landegg; Switzerland University Maryland; Vienna Academy first International Dialogue on Transition to a Global Society
1990 Sep Eighty leaders of thought from around the world gathered at Landegg Academy for the first international dialogue on the transition of the global society. The event was co-sponsored by the University of Maryland, the Vienna Academy for the Study of the Future and the Landegg Academy. [VV109]
  • A second international dialogue took place in 1991 and a third in 1992. [VV109]
Switzerland University of Maryland; Vienna Academy for the Study of the Future; Landegg Academy first international dialogue on the transition of the global society
1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
Chamonix; France European Business Forum
1990 6 Sep The Bahá'í International Community opens a branch of its United Nations Office for the Pacific region in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; BINS233:4–5; VV54] Suva; Fiji International Community; United Nations; Pacific
1990 8 Sep The first local spiritual assembly on Sakhalin Island is formed in Yuzhno. [BINS232:5] Yuzhno; Sakhalin Island Local spiritual assembly first local spiritual assembly
1990 29 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God H. Collis Featherstone in Katmandu, Nepal. He was born at Quorn, South Australia on May 5th, 1913. [BINS232:8, VV12, The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, Find a grave]
  • For his obituary see BW20p809-818.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Recollections for an article complete with pictures by Narenda Pande about Mr. Featherstone last days and funeral.
Kathmandu; Nepal; Quorn; South Australia Hand of the Cause; Collis Featherstone; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1990 Oct The publication of the last issue of the Bahá'í News by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States after nearly 70 years of uninterrupted service. [CBN Feb1991pg15]
  • Issues 1 to 40 were published under the name Bahá'í News Letter. Subsequent issues, from #41 to #714, were entitled simply Bahá'í News.


Bahá'í News Published December 1924 to October 1990
          Link (Will open in this window)            
         Dates        
Pages
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
"Bahá'í News" Issues 001-110
Dec 1924 - Sep 1937
969
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn01.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 111-210
Oct 1937 - Aug 1948
1186
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn02.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 211-280
Sep 1948 - Jun 1954
1072
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn03.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 281-345
Jul 1954 - Nov 1959
1088
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn04.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 346-400
Dec 1959 - Jul 1964
849
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn05.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 401-440
Aug 1964 - Nov 1967
716
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn06.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 441-490
Dec 1967 - Jan 1972
1008
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn07.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 491-525
Feb 1972 - May 1975
958
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn08.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 526-580
Jun 1975 - Jul 1979
1019
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn09.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 581-630
Aug 1979 - Sep 1983
958
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn10.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 631-670
Oct 1983 - Jan 1987
780
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn11.pdf
"Bahá'í News" Issues 671-714
Feb 1987 - Oct 1990
847
bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn12.pdf

Subscribers in the United States received an insert entitled US Supplement from 1958 to 1967 and the name of the insert was changed to National Bahá'í Review from 1968 until the Bahá'í News discontinued publication in 1990.
US Baha'i News; Baha'i News Letter First international periodical publication in the Faith.
1990 19 – 21 Oct The first summer school of Cape Verde is held in Tarrafal, attended by 30 people. [BINS247:8] Tarrafal; Cape Verde summer school first summer school Cape Verde
1990 19 – 21 Oct The first National Children's Conference of Nicaragua is held in Retiro, Aurora, Managua, attended by more than 40 children. [BINS243:8] Retiro; Aurora; Managua; Nicaragua Children; National Children's Conference first National Children's Conference of Nicaragua
1990 11 Nov For the first time in 45 years, a Bahá'í meeting is held in a public building in Bulgaria. [BINS236:2] Bulgaria first time in 45 years, Bahá'í meeting in a public building
1990 22 Nov – 6 Dec The First European Bahá'í Youth Encounter is held in the Canary Islands, attended by over 150 people from eight countries. [BINS239:1] Canary Islands Europe; youth first European Bahá'í Youth Encounter
1990 26 Nov The number of the Auxiliary Board members was increased from 756 to 846. [AWH89] Auxiliary Board
1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14] Poiana Brasov; Romania First National Teaching Conference of the Baha'is of Romania first National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania
1990 Dec The first week-long residential Bahá'í study school of Guinea is held in Guéckédou. Guéckédou; Guinea residential study school first week-long residential Bahá'í study school of Guinea find ref
1990 8 - 9 Dec The first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference was held in Moscow attended by Bahá'ís from every part of the Soviet Union, members of three Continental Boards of Counsellors and representatives of all those National Spiritual Assemblies having responsibility for the work of the Faith in that area. [BINS 238:6] [CBN Mar91Vol3no8] [VV112] Moscow Conference; Continental Board; National Assemblies; Soviet Union; All-Union Baha'i Consultative Conference first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference
1991 Free
1991 The Constitution Court of the Federal Republic of Germany decides "that the nature of the Bahá’í Faith as a religion and the religious nature of the Bahá’í community is unequivocal from the point of view of cultural traditions and general and religious studies interpretation alike”. [[www.bahai.hu]] Germany
1991 The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, is published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States find ref
1991 In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Baha’is’] cultural roots abroad.” [ iranpresswatch.org/post/1407/ ]
1991 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Slovakia is formed in Bratislava. Bratislava; Slovakia Local Assembly first local spiritual assembly in Slovakia find ref
1991 Jan Dr. Victor de Araujo, Bahá'í representative to the United Nations for 23 years and the first full-time representative, retired from his duties. He had represented the BIC at innumerable conferences and seminars throughout the world as well as at the UN headquarters in New York, often serving as chairman on the UN committees. [VV54]
  • Mr. Techeste Ahderom of Eritrea succeeded him. [VV54]
New York Dr. Victor de Araujo; BIC; UN; Techeste Ahderom First full-time Bahá'í representative to UN
1991 2 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Bulgaria is formed in Plovdiv. [BINS239:2] Plovdiv; Bulgaria Local assembly first local spiritual assembly in Bulgaria
1991 20 Jan The first World Religion Day to be held in Bophuthatswana takes place in Mmabatho. [BINS 244:1] Mmabatho; Bophuthatswana World Religion Day first World Religion Day
1991 25 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Latvia is formed in Riga. [BINS241:3] Riga; Latvia local spiritual assembly first local spiritual assembly in Latvia
1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
  • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
US Mottahedeh Development Services; NSA; social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
1991 26 - 27 Jan The first National Teaching Conference of Yugoslavia is held in Belgrade. [BINS243:3] Belgrade; Yugoslavia National Teaching Conference of Yugoslavia
1991 Feb The Faith became officially recognized as a "religious association" in Romania. [CBNJun91pg12] Romania religious association
1991 8 - 14 Feb The first Bahá'í Winter School of Romania is held in Felix, attended by 80 Bahá'ís. [BINS241:3] Felix; Romania
1991 25 Feb In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
[One Country, Iran Press Watch]
Irán Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council; United Nations' Special Representative; human rights; Ali Khamenei; Iranian persecution
1991 The administration of the Bahá'í Faith in Zaire is devolved to a system of subordinate regional councils. Zaire Regional Council find ref
1991 12 Apr The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tashkent, Uzbekistan, is re-formed. Tashkent; Uzbekistan find ref
1991 Number of National Assemblies - 155

Number of Local Assemblies - more than 17,000

Number of nationalities and tribes represented is estimated at 2,112 [B'91pg54 note 2]

Number of localities - over 108,000. [CoB375]

Number of languages - over 800 [B'91pg3]

statistics
1991 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announces that the law of Huqúqu'lláh will become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174] Huququ'llah
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania is formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] Bucharest; Romania National Spiritual Assembly first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Romania
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the West Leeward Islands (Basseterre, St. Kitts). [AWH86] [VV113] West Leeward Islands NSA first NSA of West Leeward Islands
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Czechoslovakia. [AWH86] [VV113] Czechoslovakia NSA first NSA of Czechoslovakia
1991 Ridván Number of National Spiritual Assemblies-155 [CBNJun91 Vol4no2pg5; AWH86] NSA
1991 Ridván 342 Local Spiritual Assemblies in Canada. [CBNJun91p6] Canada LSA
1991 Ridván The Bahá'ís of East and West Germany were united at their 61st convention for the first time after the war. [VV113] Germany National Convention first united convention in Germany after war
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Soviet Union. [AWH86] [VV113] Soviet Union NSA first NSA of the Soviet Union
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Romania. [AWH86] [VV113] Romania NSA first NSA of Romania
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Soviet Union is formed with its seat in Moscow. [AWH86; BINS246:1–3; VV113] Moscow
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Czechoslovakia is formed with its seat in Prague. [AWH86; BINS246:3–4; VV113] Prague; Czechoslovakia
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the West Leeward Islands is formed. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] West Leeward Islands
1991 May The first local spiritual assembly in Moldova is formed in Kishinev. Kishinev; Moldova find ref
1991 14 May The first local spiritual assembly in Armenia is formed at Yerevan. Yerevan; Armenia find ref
1991 16 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Albania is formed at Tirana. Tirana; Albania find ref
1991 17 Jun The contracts were signed for the second phase of construction for the terraces to the Shrine of the Báb. Haifa Shrine of the Bab; terraces
1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
Rawdon; Quebec Hand of the Cause of God; Knight of Baha'u'llah; John Aldham Robarts; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1991 21 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Kirgizia is formed in Bishkek. Bishkek; Kirgizia
1991 15 – 21 Jul The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania is held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
  • For picture see VV74.
Neptune; Romania European Baha'i Youth Conference of Romania
1991 15 – 21 Jul The first summer school of Sikkim is held in Saramsa. [BINS257:6] Saramsa; Sikkim
1991 15 – 22 Aug The first summer school of Tajikistan takes place in Varzoub Gorge. Varzoub Gorge; Tajikistan find ref
1991 Sep The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992] Haifa Centre for the Study of the Texts; Extension to the International Archives Building
1991 2 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in Belarus is formed at Minsk. Minsk; Belarus The first local spiritual assembly in Belarus is formed at Minsk. find ref
1991 25 – 27 Oct The first National Teaching Conference of Bulgaria is held in Plovdiv. [BINS258:2–3] Plovdiv; Bulgaria National Teaching Conference of Bulgaria
1991 12 Nov The first Bahá'í meeting to be held in a public location in Mongolia takes place in the theatre of the former Lenin Museum. Mongolia find ref
1991 14 Nov In a message from Hand of the Cause A.M. Varqá, the Office of the Trustee, the Institution of the Huqúqu'lláh, to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, the formation of the Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was announced. Members were Mr. Husayn Banání, Dr. Mohsen Enayat, Dr. Gerald Hanks, Dr. Bill Hatcher, and Dr. Michael Rochester. [CBNJan92 p2] Canada Hand of the Cause A.M. Varqá; Huqúqu'lláh; NSA first formation of Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh
1991 26 Nov "The Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh has been established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the Hand of the Cause of God ‘Alí-Muḥammad Varqá, in anticipation of the worldwide application of the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh next Riḍván. Concurrent with this development are the steps being taken by Dr. Varqá to organize regional and national Boards of Trustees of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, following the example of the Board already functioning in the United States. " [From the Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991.] BWC Hand of the Cause of God ‘Ali-Muḥammad Varqa; Board of Trustees of Ḥuququ’llah; Huququ’llah Establishment of the Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh.
1991 Dec The first Music Festival for Youth of Zaire is held. [BINS288:8] Zaire
1991 Dec 20 A Bahá'í Monument for Peace is inaugurated in a ceremony held in Florianopolis, Brazil. [BINS266:1] Florianopolis; Brazil
1991 Dec 27 – 31 The first winter school of Hungary is held in Miskolc. [BINS266:2] Miskolc; Hungary
1991 Dec 31 The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger is given permission by the Ministry of the Interior to engage in Bahá'í activities. [BINS261:6] Niger
1992 The Universal House of Justice announces its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [VV29, 54] New York Office for the Advancement of Women find ref
1992 The establishment of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. The mission of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace, in part, is to develop alternatives to the violent resolution of conflict, promote global education and spiritual awareness, and reflect the beliefs of the Bahá'í world community in building a global society. Suheil Bushrui held the chair from 1992 until 2005. [ news.bahai.org/story/282 ]
1992 Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana made a formal state visit to the temple in Wilmette. Bahá'í Newsreel Vol. 3 number 2 [VV133] Wilmette Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1992 A Chair for Bahá'í Studies was established at the University of Indore, India. [VV108] India Chair for Baha'i Studies; University of Indore
1992 The International Bahá'í Community's Office for the Advancement of Women established in New York. [VV54] New York International Baha'i Community; Office for the Advancement of Women
1992 Bahá'í literature was available in over 800 languages. [CoB372]
1992 The publication of the book entitled The Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause was published by the Bahá'í World Centre. [VV122] The Ministry of the Custodians
1992 The publication of the statement entitled "Bahá'u'lláh”, prepared by the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. The statement was formally release at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126] Bombay; India Office of Public; Hassan Sabri
1992 The establishment of the Townshend International School situated in the heart of Europe in Hluboká, South Bohemia, Czech Republic.
  • This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school, accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language, is a non-profit project and sponsors a number of students from its host country. [TIS Web Site]
Hluboká; South Bohemia; Czech Republic Townshend International School
1992 Jan The first teaching conference of Southern Yugoslavia is held, attended by 40 Bahá'ís representing 12 nationalities. [BINS264:8] Yugoslavia teaching conference of Southern Yugoslavia
1992 2 – 5 Jan The first European Conference on Bahá'í Activities in Universities is held in Brno, Czechoslovakia. [BINS263:2]
  • BINS290:2 gives a second report of this event, incorrectly implying it was held in January 1993.
Brno; Czechoslovakia European Conference on Baha'i Activities in Universities find ref
1992 10 – 11 Jan The first teaching conference of Croatia and Slovenia is held in Kranj. [BINS263:1–2] Kranj Croatia Slovenia teaching conference of Croatia and Slovenia
1992 1 Feb The Local Spiritual Assembly of Zanzibar Island is formed. [BINS267:6]
  • This is the first administrative body on the island since the revolution of 12 January 1964. [BINS267:6]
Zanzibar Island
1992 3 – 6 Feb The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors is established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71] Oakham; England Publishing Trust; Baha'i Publishers' Conference
1992 7 Mar The first local spiritual assembly in Eastern Germany is formed in Erfurt. [BINS267:3] Erfurt; Germany
1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Iran martyrdom; Mr. Bahman Samandari
1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
Tucson; Arizona Hand of the Cause of God; Hand of the Cause; William Sears; Bill Sears; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Third Contingent
1992 Apr – May Fifteen people become Bahá'ís in Barentsburg, Spitzhergen. [BINS271:4–5] Barentsburg; Spitzhergen
1992 April The first Bahá'í Youth School of Romania is held in Curtea de Arges, attended by 60 Bahá'ís. [BINS269:5] Curtea de Arges; Romania
1992 April World population 5.48 billion.
  • American Bahá'í population: 110,000 in more than 7000 communities. [From a press release by the American National Office dated the 28th of May, 1993]
1992 4 – 5 Apr The first Children's Festival and Family Conference of Turkey is held in Cankaya, Ankara. [BINS269:5–6] Cankaya; Ankara; Turkey Children's Festival and Family Conference
1992 Apr 20 The Six Year Plan is successfully completed.
  • For the major accomplishments of the Plan see AWH97–102, 187–8 and VV126.
1992 20 Apr By the end of the Six Year Plan:
  • The Faith was represented in every country. 1.5 million enrolled. [Ridván Message 1992]
  • With more that 5 million people enrolled, Bahá'ís lived in 217 independent countries, territories and islands representing 2,112 tribes, minorities and ethnic groups. [Ridván Message 1992] [VV126]
  • Literature was translated into 802 languages and tribal tongues. [Ridván Message 1992] [VV126]
  • The proclamation of the Faith entered a new phase from the proclamation of 1967 in commemoration of Bahá'u'lláh's proclamation to the kings to the opportunities offered by the Iránian revolution in 1979 to the distribution of The Promise of World Peace.
  • The dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi.
  • The emergence of the Faith from obscurity.
  • The increase in the number of projects of social and economic development.
  • The involvement of youth in the service to the Faith. The concept of the "year of service" was initiated.
  • The advances in the consolidation of the Bahá'í administrative system as marked by the improvement in internal development and the collaborative efforts of its two arms.
  • The inauguration of the great building projects on Mount Carmel.
New Delhi; Mount Carmel Six Year Plan; The Promise of World Peace; House of Worship; SED projects; year of service
1992 Ridván Holy Year commences. [AWH40, 90, 95–6; BW92–3:20; VV127, 133]
  • For the purpose of the Holy Year see AWH96–7, 107–9 and BW92–3:20, 29–30.
  • For the significance of Holy Year see BW92–3:95–6, AWH107-109
Holy Year
1992 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh is to be in effect for the members of our entire world community. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2] BWC Ḥuququ’llah
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greenland is formed with is seat in Nuuk. About 35 to 40 people attended the inaugural Convention. [BINS270:3; BW92–3:119; VV121, CBN Jan92 p2] Nuuk; Greenland NSA
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States is formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BINS270:2; BW92–3:119, CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
  • For picture see BINS282:9.
Tallinn NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly rst NSA Baltic States
1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The formation of a Regional Spiritual Assembly for Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova with the seat in Kiev. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Ukraine; Belarus; Moldova; Kiev NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Poland is formed with its seat in Warsaw. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:2; BW92–3:119; VV121] Warsaw; Poland NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bulgaria is formed with its seat in Sofia. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:1; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS279:9.
Sofia; Bulgaria NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Congo Republic is reformed after 14 years suspension of the Bahá'í Faith. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS275:7.
Congo NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger is re-formed after a 14-year interruption. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121] Niger NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hungary is formed with its seat in Budapest. [BINS270:2–1; BW92–3:119; VV121] Budapest; Hungary NSA; Hungary
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania is formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana; Albania NSA
1992 Ridván
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Azerbaijan is re-formed after half a century of prohibition and persecution. The seat is in Baku. [BINS270:4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Baku; Azerbaijan NSA
1992 Ridván The re-formation of the National Assembly of Angola. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:4; BW92–3:119, VV120-1] Angola NSA
1992 Ridván The government of Trinidad and Tobago issues a postage stamp in recognition of the Bahá'í Holy Year. [BW92–3:119; VV133]
  • For picture see BW92–3:121.
Trinidad and Tobago
1992 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Mongolia is formed in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS269:4]
  • The local assembly was understood to have been formed in the spring of 1991 but this was found to have been a mistake.
Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia first local spiritual assembly in Mongolia is formed in Ulaan Baatar
1992 The annotated English translation of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published. [KAIV; VV142]

Note: The date of copyright is 1992 but the book is not available until Ridván 1993.

Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book) find ref
1992 21 Apr After a three year teaching project in Guyana the Bahá'í population reached some 6% of the population. [Ridván Message 1992] Guyana
1992 Apr 27 After a ten-year struggle, the Faith's legal Chinese name in Taiwan is changed from ‘Ta Tong Giao' (Religion of Great Harmony), used for 70 years, to ‘Bahá'í Faith'. [BINS271:6] Taiwan
1992 May The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement on Bahá'u'lláh at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [BW92–3:47]
  • For the text see BW92–3:47–94.
Statement on Bahá'u'lláh
1992 May A series of postage stamps overprinted with ‘Bahá'í Holy Year' is released by the postal service in Guyana. [BW92–3:122] Guyana
1992 27 – 30 May Thirty thousand Bahá'ís representing approximately 200 countries and territories, gather at the Bahá'í World Centre to mark the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–8, 121]
  • For pictures see BINS271:10 and BW92–3:97.
On the 27th of May...the gathering of one hundred thirteen Knights of Bahá'u'lláh along with 19 representatives of every National Spiritual Assembly (165) and 9 representatives of every territory without a National Spiritual Assembly (40-50) at Bahjí in commemoration of the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh (some 3,000 persons). A scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90 105] [VV128] [BW92-3p98] [BINS271:1]

BWC; Haifa Ascension of Bahaullah; Shrine of Bahaullah; Holy days
1992 28 May The original scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh is placed by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in a chamber at the entrance door of the inner sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90, 105; BINS271:1; BW92–3, 98; VV128]
  • For pictures see BINS271:9 and VV127, 128.
Bahji Knights of Baha'u'llah; Shrine of Baha'u'llah; Roll of Honour
1992 28 May Ibsen Valls Pinheiro, President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies, opens a special session of the Chamber called to observe the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh, attended by 45 federal deputies. [BINS271:2; BW92–3:121]
  • For picture see BW92–3:122.
Note: VV133 says this was 29 May.
Israel Ibsen Valls Pinheiro; President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies
1992 May 29 The Commemoration of the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí and the walk from the German Settlement to the Shrine of the Báb, the circumambulation of the Shrine and the walk to the Seat of the Universal House of Justice for the viewing of a projected portrait of Bahá'u'lláh, and a candle-lit programme of prayers and readings. The 3 a.m. observances circled the globe in some 71,000 localities with prayers and readings beginning in the Eastern Pacific Ocean time zone and going west. At 1PM in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, there was a viewing of the passport photo of Bahá'u'lláh taken in 1868. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–7; VV129–30, SDSC367-368]
  • For the tribute to Bahá'u'lláh by the Universal House of Justice see BW92–3:31–6.
  • For pictures see BINS271:10 and VV129, 130.
World Centre; BWC; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
1992 May 29 The Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh is commemorated at the Guardian's Resting Place in London. London Guardian's Resting Place find ref
1992 May 29 The Chamber of Deputies of the government of Brazil paid homage to Bahá’u’lláh. [Bahá'í Newsreel Volume 3 Number 2] [UHJMessage 30Mar92]
  • The tribute to Bahá'u'lláh was paid at a plenary session of that body and following that session members joined Post Office officials in the formal launching of a commemorative postage stamp. [VV133]
Brazil Baha’u’llah
1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
  • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
  • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil United Nations Conference on the Environment; Earth Summit; Global Forum
1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
  • For picture see BW92–3:183.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Baha'i Vocational Institute for Rural Women; United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award
1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies date the 16th of October 1992. [VV124] England Counsellor; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre; In Memoriam
1992 19 - 22 Jun Graduation ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1] B.C.; Canada Maxwell International Baha'i School
1992 9 Jul The National Post Office of Panama issues a commemorative envelope to mark the centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW92–3:127]
  • For picture see BW92–3:127.
Panama
1992 27 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga broadcasts the first of its weekly 30-minute television programmes. [BINS281:5] Tonga
1992 21 – 23 Aug The first National Summer School of Bulgaria is held in Stara Zagora, attended by 75 people. [BINS278:1–2] Stara Zagora; Bulgaria Summer school
1992 23 – 29 Aug The first Bahá'í summer school to be held in Croatia takes place in Pula, Istria, attended by a hundred Bahá'ís from nine countries. [BINS278:2; BINS287:10] Pula; Istria; Croatia
1992 15 Sep Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134] London Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts; British Museum
1992 17 Sep The Bahá'í Professional Society of Hong Kong is inaugurated. [BINS292:8; BW92–3:129] Hong Kong The Baha'i Professional Society of Hong Kong
1992 25 - 27 Sep The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of Lithuania takes places in Kaunas, attended by 32 Bahá'ís. [BINS281:1] Kaunas; Lithuania Baha'i Youth Conference of Lithuania
1992 17 Oct The passing of Helen Hornby, author of “Lights of Guidance”. Helen Hornby; In Memoriam find reference
1992 24 – 28 Oct The first Bahá'í Autumn School of Central Asia is held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, attended by more than 200 Bahá'ís and many others. [BINS284:2] Bishkek; Kyrgyzstan Baha'i Autumn School of Central Asia
1992 25 Oct – 11 Nov Prince Alfred von Lichtenstein tours ten cities in Japan delivering memorial lectures celebrating the centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW92–3:132] Japan Prince Alfred von Lichtenstein
1992 22 – 23 Nov The Bahá'í Faith is mentioned in the media of Mozambique for the first time with three write-ups in Notices, the only newspaper in Maputo, and announcements on Radio Maputo and Radio Mozambique. [BINS292:7] Maputo; Mozambique
1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
  • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
  • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
  • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
  • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
  • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
  • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
New York; Buenos Aires; Sydney; New Delhi; Nairobi; Panama City; Bucharest; Moscow; Apia; Singapore. Dizzy Gillespie; The Second World Congress; Carnegie Hall
1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces the establishment of the Office for the Advancement of Women in New York. [BW92–3:136; VV29] New York Office for the Advancement of Women
1992 26 – 30 Dec The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Bulgaria is held in Lovech, attended by 130 Bahá'ís. [BINS286:1–2] Lovech; Bulgaria Baha'i Winter School
1993 Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh quits Saleh’s government and returns to Aden in southern Yemen and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting. yemen Recent History Yemen
1993 In the year More than 10,000 people become Bahá'ís in Bangladesh. [BINS318:8; BINS319:1] Bangladesh
1993 In the year The opening of the Bádi School with an enrollment of 12 students by the Torrez family members in Las Cumbres Villa Zaita, Panamá City, Republic of Panama. They rented a small, dismantled house from the Panama Social Security Agency, remodeled it and closed the garage in order to use it as a classroom.
  • Over the years, two more buildings were added to expand the facility and enrollment capacity to its present 3200 square meters and 156 students. Badi's first high school graduation was scheduled for 2004, when Badi Tutorial University was scheduled to open its door. [Bádi School , Wiki Bahá'í Faith in Panama]
Las Cumbres Villa Zaita; Panamá City; Republic of Panama Badi School
1993 In the year The establishment of the Labranza Training Institute to complement the work of all the socio-economic development projects owned and operated by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Chile.
  • Located about 680 kms. south of Santiago, in the heart of the agricultural belt of the country, its main purpose is to serve the needs of the rural Mapuche population.
  • The operational costs are covered by a mix of contributions from individual Bahá'ís and Bahá'í institutions as well as the rental of its facilities for academic and vocational training to government agencies and Non Government Organizations (NGOs). Its staff are Bahá'í volunteers offering their services for determined periods of time.
  • The Bahá'í programs are focused on capacity building of the Mapuche population in order to allow for self-administration at the grass roots level, which includes practical as well as spiritual content. It has often been used for government training programs in the areas of health, drug prevention, agriculture and rural education.
Chile Labranza Training Institute; SED projects; NSA
1993 In the year EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Baha'i Business Forum
1993 Jan Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the United Nations' special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, reveals a secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council providing evidence that the Iranian Government has formulated a plan to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Iran and abroad. [BW92–3:139; BW93–4:154] Iran Reynaldo Galindo Pohl
1993 6 Jan The Universal House of Justice announces the appointment of the International Panel of Spanish Translations of Bahá'í Literature. The panel initially consisted of three competent and experienced believers: Mr. Nabil Perdu of Spain, Mr. Conrad Popp of Chile, and Mrs. Migdalia Diez of Puerto Rico. This group was made responsible for producing authorized Spanish versions of the Bahá’í Writings suitable for all the Spanish-speaking Bahá’ís of the world. [Message from the Universal House of Justice] BWC Spanish translation; Nabil Perdu; Conrad Popp; Migdalia Diez
1993 6 Jan The passing of John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie. His autobiography was entitled “To Be, or Not...to Bop". [VV141
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg251 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Dizzy Gillespie.
John Birks "; Dizzy"; Gillespie; In Memoriam
1993 17 Jan The first World Religion Day commemoration to be held in Mozambique takes place in Maputo. [BINS290:5; BW92–3:140] Maputo; Mozambique World Religion Day first...The first World Religion Day commemoration to be held in Mozambique
1993 19 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland is inaugurated. [BW92–3:140–1] Maryland Baha'i Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland; Baha'i Chair for World Peace
1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar takes place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia Latin American Baha'i Social and Economic Development Seminar
1993 16 Feb A stamp featuring the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is issued by the Philatelic Service of the Israel Postal Authority. [BW92–3:142]
  • For picture see BW92–3:143.
Israel; commemorative stamp; Philatelic Service of the Israel Postal Authority
1993 19 – 21 Feb The first Bahá'í Winter School of Slovenia and Croatia, the first Bahá'í school to be held in Slovenia, takes place in Mozirje, Slovenia, attended by 20 adults and seven children. [BINS289:5–6] Mozirje; Slovenia Croatia Baha'i Winter School of Slovenia and Croatia
1993 20 Feb The first National Youth Conference of Hungary is held in Debrecen, attended by 60 youth. [BINS289:3] Debrecen; Hungary National Youth Conference of Hungary The first National Youth Conference of Hungary
1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government has established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; President Hashemi Rafsanjani; Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; human rights in Iran
1993 Mar The English translation of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is published. [BW92–3:44] [CBN vol5 no 10 Mar93 pg1] [CoB310-13 UHJ Message 5Mar93] [VV142]
  • For the significance of its publication see BW92–3:45–6.
  • For its place in Bahá'í literature see BW92-3p45-6, p105-118.
BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
1993 13 Mar Three Bahá'ís are assassinated at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskei, in a racially-motivated attack. [BW93–4:147–50] Mdantsane; Ciskei assassination of Baha'is
1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada NSA; Race Unity Award first Race Unity Award
1993 Apr The Bahá'í community of Hungary celebrates the 80th anniversary of the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a conference. In a park near the National Museum in Budapest a plaque is erected to commemorate the talk that 'Abdu'l-Baha gave at that site on the 14th of April, 1913. Some 350 Bahá'ís from 30 countries attended. A tree was planted by Rúhíyyih Kh´num. [www.bahai.hu, SCSC369, 372]
  • At this time there are more than 200 believers in Hungary.
Budapest; Hungary plaque
1993 10 – 12 Apr The first Bahá'í Congress of Catalunya takes place in Barcelona. [BW92–3:146] Barcelona; Catalunya; Spain The first Bahá'í Congress of Catalunya
1993 10 Apr The passing of Roger White, writer, editor and "poet laureate" of the Bahá'í community, in Richmond, British Columbia (b. in Toronto on 2 June 1929).
  • Served at the World Centre for some twenty years as a secretary and as manager of the publishing department when many important new volumes were published. Under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, he was responsible for compiling and publishing volumes XIV to XIX of The Bahá'í World, as well as editing the invaluable compendium of volumes I to XII, published in 1981.
  • Published, at his own expense, a book of poetry called Summer Window for which he did the drawing on the front cover.
  • Another Song, Another Season (1979), The Witness of Pebbles (1981) and a tender and eloquent novel which presented a semi-fictionalized account of the early days of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris, A Sudden Music, was also published by George Ronald in 1983.
  • This was followed by a biographical tribute to the poet Emily Dickinson in the form of more than 100 poems: One Bird, One Cage, One Flight (Naturegraph, 1983).
  • A short, historical account of the martyrdom of 'Alí-Asghár of Yazd entitled The Shell and the Pearl was published by George Ronald in 1984.
  • “Occasions of Grace” (George Ronald, 1992) was published after he retired from service in Haifa in 1991 following a major heart surgery.
  • returned to Canada and was diagnosed with terminal cancer shortly after.
  • His last two collected works of poetry were “Notes Postmarked the Mountain of God” (New Leaf, 1992) and “The Language of There” (New Leaf, 1992).
  • He also completed the text for Raghu Rai's photographic celebration of the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, Forever in Bloom. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol7, 1997]
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Roger White.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol. 26 no 1-2, 2016 p91 "Reflections on the Art of My Poetry" by John Hatcher. It is based on a telephone interview with him shortly before his passing.
  • For obituary see BW92-93p276
Richmond; British Columbia; Canada Roger White; In Memoriam; John Hatcher; Raghu Rai'; Anne Boyes
1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912). He had been a pioneer Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319] USA In Memoriam; Stanley Bagley; Knight of Baha'u'llah
1993 Ridván The Three Year Plan (1993-1996) is launched. [VV142]
  • For statistics about the Bahá'í Faith at the beginning of the Plan see BW92–3:311–14 and BW93–4:323–6.
Three Year Plan; statistics; Teaching Plans
1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tbilisi (Tiflis), Georgian Republic, is re-formed. [BINS298:8; BW93–4:82]
  • An assembly existed in the city in the 1930s. [BW93–4:82]
Tbilisi; Georgia The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tbilisi (Tiflis), Georgian Republic
1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Leipzig, Germany, is re-formed 56 years after its dissolution during the time the Faith was banned. [BW93–4:82] Leipzig; Germany
1993 Ridván The first person resident on Norfolk Island to become a Bahá'í enrols. [BINS293:8] Norfolk Island The first person resident on Norfolk Island to become a Bahá'í
1993 29 Apr - 2 May The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Houshman Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295] [BW93-4p51-58]
  • Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announce their retirement. Mr. Chance served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295] [BS93-4p57]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
  • For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
BWC; Election of the Universal House of Justice; Mr. Ali Nakhjavani; Mr. Glenford Mitchell; Mr. Adib Taherzadeh; Mr. Ian Semple; Mr. Peter Khan; Mr. Houshman Fatheazam; Mr. Hooper Dunbar; Mr. Farzam Arbab; Mr. Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
1993 23 May The first general conference of Health for Humanitarian association of health professionals sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, is held in Evanston, Illinois. [BINS298:7; BW93–4:104] Evanston; Illinois
1993 23 May The following is a list of Counsellors appointed to the International Teaching Centre for a five-year term: Mr. Kiser Barnes, Mr. Hartmut Grossmann, Mrs. Lauretta King, Mrs. Joan Lincoln, Mr. Shapoor Monadjem, Mr. Donald Rogers, Mr. Fred Schechter, Mrs. Kimiko Schwerin, Mrs. Joy Stevenson. Retiring members were: Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí and Mr. Peter Vuyiya. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 13th of May, 1993] UHJ; Counsellor; International Teaching Centre; Kiser Barnes; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Joan Lincoln; Shapoor Monadjem; Donald Rogers; Fred Schechter; Kimiko Schwerin; Joy Stevenson; Mas'úd Khamsí; Peter Vuyiya
1993 26 May The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opens at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29]
  • For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
New York Office for the Advancement of Women
1993 Jun The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery are exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153] Tihran cemetery
1993 10 – 25 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from 11 countries participate in the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the parallel meeting for non-governmental organizations. [BINS298:1–2] Vienna United Nations World Conference on Human Rights
1993 12 Jun The Honourable Sir Julius Chan, KBE, Deputy Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea consults with the Universal House of Justice on the future role of his country as an emerging nation and on the destiny of the Pacific region. [BINS297:9; BW93–4:78]
  • For pictures see BINS297:9 and BW93–4:78
Papua New Guinea The Honourable Sir Julius Chan; consults with the Universal House of Justice
1993 Jul A section of the Bahá'í cemetery in Tihrán is bulldozed to make way for the construction of an Islamic cultural centre. [BW93–4:140]
  • It is first thought that about two thousand Bahá'í graves are desecrated but later revealed that 15,000 graves are destroyed. [BW93–4:140; BW94–5:133]
Tihrán
1993 Jul The first Bahá'í Youth Symposium of the Marshall Islands is held in Majuro, attended by youth from six island groups. [BW93–4:124] Majuro; Marshall Islands
1993 Jul 25 – 30 The first summer school of Albania is held in Gdem, attended by about 400 Bahá'ís. [BINS299:3] Gdem; Albania
1993 Aug The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Belarus is held, attended by 164 people from 16 countries. [BINS299:8; BINS306:7; BW93–4:123] Belarus International Baha'i Youth Conference of Belarus
1993 26 Aug The Hungarian Bahá’í Community was registered by the Budapest Court. [www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary
1993 16 Sep The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, is approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa; Prospects for the Future; capacity building
1993 Oct The Australian Bahá'í community and the Arrente Aboriginal tribe co-sponsor an intercultural celebration of indigenous peoples, ‘Heart of Australia Calling' in Alice Springs to mark UN International Year for the World's Indigenous Peoples. [BW93–4:90] Alice Springs; Australia Heart of Australia Calling'; UN International Year for the World's Indigenous Peoples
1993 Oct The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference is held in De Poort, Netherlands, attended by people from 26 countries. [BW93–4:104–5] De Poort; Netherlands European Baha'i Medical Conference The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference
1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
  • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
  • translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
  • author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
  • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
San Francisco Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Marzieh Gail first Persian-American marriage
1993 24 Oct The establishment of the India Hindi Bahá'í Academy (The Rashtriya Bahá'í Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan) in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
  • It is a national institute for higher learning of the Bahá'í Faith.
  • There are three courses of study, a three year Advanced Bahá'í Studies course, a two year, post-graduate, Specialised Course and short courses for 3-5 days. The study scheme employs correspondence courses and campus contact, a programme for personal clarifications for the learners’ difficulties. Two question papers are also sent to them in each semester.
  • The evaluation employs a two fold method: Viva voce examination based on the study materials and practical input in the field of service. Paper presentations, self reflection in the form of stories, songs, pictures, etc., and assignments in the active service of the Faith as well as making formal speeches all form a part of the final evaluation. [Bahá'í India website]
Lucknow; India India Hindi Baha'i Academy (The Rashtriya Baha'i Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan)
1993 29 - 31 Oct The founding conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in Russia is held in St Petersburg. [BINS305:5] St. Petersburg; Russia Association for Baha'i Studies in Russia; conference
1993 26 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands signs a Memorandum of Understanding with the Majuro local government in which the operation of administration of five elementary schools is legally handed over to the National Spiritual Assembly. President Amata Kabua was the first head of state to respond to the Peace Statement of the Universal House of Justice. [BINS307:4–5; BW93–4:101, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994 p29] Marshall Islands Education
1993 8 Dec In Iran, death sentences are pronounced against two Bahá'ís on the grounds of their membership in the Bahá'í community. [BW93–4:141–2] Iran capital punishment
1993 24 – 26 Dec The first summer school of Angola is held in Luanda, attended by more than 20 Bahá'ís. [BINS309:1] Luanda; Angola Summer School in Angola The first summer school of Angola
1994 His Highness King Malietoa Tanumafili II of Samoa receives The Kitáb-i-Aqdas from Tongan Bahá'ís Sohrab and Soheyla Bolouri. [BINS314:9] Samoa Find date
1994 Jan The first winter school of Mongolia is held in Songino, near Ulaan Baatar. [BINS310:6] Songino; Mongolia
1994 Jan 30 The first worldwide fireside on the Internet, ‘Pioneering in Cyberspace the Bahá'í Faith and the Internet', is held, with a live audience in the Bahá'í Centre in New York City communicating electronically with people all over the United States and in two other countries. New York find ref
1994 Feb 17 – 20 The first Bahá'í ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Forum is held in Bangkok. [BINS312:6] Bangkok; Thailand
1994 May An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers Yemen Recent History Yemen
1994 Mar 13 The murder of four Bahá'is, three adults and one youth, at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskel. Killed were Dr. Shamam Bakhshandegi, Houshmand Anvari and Vincent and Rias Razavi. The perpetrators were granted amnesty for the killings in May 2002. [BW93-4p147-150, 16 May 2000, SCBC, press release] Mdantsane; Ciskel; Shamam Bakhshandegi; Houshmand Anvari; Vincent Razavi; Rias Razavi
1994 Mar 24 The Dalai Lama visits the Bahá'í World Centre, the first time a head of a religion has visited the Shrine of the Báb. [BW93–4:78, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994] World Centre; BWC; Dalai Lama; Shrine of the Bab first time a head of a religion has visited the Shrine of the Báb
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cambodia is formed with its seat in Phnom Penh. [BINS317:1; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 30–1] Phnom Penh; Cambodia NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Cambodia
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mongolia is formed with its seat in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS317:1–2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 31–2] Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Mongolia
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia and Croatia is formed with its seat in Ljubljana, Slovenia. [BINS317:2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 3–6]
  • For picture see BINS320:9 and BW94–5:35.
Ljubljana; Slovenia Croatia NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia and Croatia
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kazakhstan is formed with its seat in Astana. The 120 Baha'is gathered at the Convention were joined by Lauretta King, Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, who represented the Universal House of Justice for the occasion. [BINS317:2–3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 29–30]
  • For picture see BW94–5:28.
Astana, Kazakhstan Lauretta King; NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Kazakhstan
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tajikistan is formed with its seat in Dushanbe. Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, Shapoor Monadjem, represented the House of Justice at their Convention. [BINS317:3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30] Dushanbe, Tajikistan NSA; Shapoor Monadjem first National Spiritual Assembly of Tajikistan
1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uzbekistan is formed with its seat in Tashkent. [BINS317:3–4; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30]
  • For picture see BINS328:9 and BW94–5:30.
Tashkent, Uzbekistan NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Uzbekistan
1994 Ridván Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre Lauretta King represented the House of Justice at the first National Convention of the Baha'is of Kyrgyzstan, held 23-24 April in Bishkek. The 150 adults, youth, and children gathered for the historic event expressed their "deepest gratitude and devotion to the Blessed Beauty, Bahá'u'lláh." [BW94-95p29] Bishkek,Kyrgyzstan NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Kyrgyzstan.
1994 27 Apr Civil war (The War of Secession of 1994, May to early July) erupts in Yemen and ends in a victory for Saleh within three months. A major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of starting it.

On 4 May, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden.

President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country.

Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed.

South Yemen fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians.

Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.

Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994. No international government recognized the DRY.

In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields, was seized on May 24.

The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on 6 June, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well.

The north entered Aden on 4 July. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.

Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighbouring states and may have received military assistance from Saudi Arabia and Oman, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.

President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures accused of misappropriation of official funds.

YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war.

Yemen Recent History Yemen
1995 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy] Canada; Foreign Policy
1994 May 19 The first National Bahá'í Conference of Armenia is held in Yerevan. [BINS318:5–6] Yerevan; Armenia National Baha'i Conference of Armenia
1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Baha'i Children and Youth Conference of Martinique
1994 Jun The first National Youth School of Mongolia is held in Darkhan, attended by 34 youth. [BINS321:4] Darkhan; Mongolia
1994 Jun 11 – 12 The first Bahá'í conference to be held in the Republic of Georgia takes place in Tbilisi, attended by over a hundred people from countries. [BINS319:5] Tbilisi; Georgia
1994 Jun 13 The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, visits the Bahá'í World Centre to view the Terraces Project. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC; Yitzzhak Rabin
1994 Jul 6 – 10 The first Children's Bahá'í Summer School of Pakistan is held in Abbottabad, attended by 13 children. [BINS324:5] Abbottabad; Pakistan
1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Bucharest; St Petersburg; Barcelona and Wolverhampton; United Kingdom. Youth Conference
1994 Jul 22 – 23 His Excellency France Albert René, President of the Republic of Seychelles, consults with the Universal House of Justice. [BINS322:9; BW94–5:76–7] Seychelles
1994 Jul 28 The World Forestry Charter Gatherings, established by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1945, are re-instituted by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment at a luncheon at St James's Palace, London. [AWH75; BW94–5:112–13, 142–3; OC6,2:1; VV106]
  • For pictures see BW94–5:143 and OC6,2:1, 12.
    London
    1994 Summer A Maoris teaching team visited British Columbia. The visit was reciprocated by The Journey of Teech-ma, the First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific. See entry for 24 March, 1997. [SDSC370] British Columbia First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific; Maoris Teaching Team
    1994 Aug 4 Shimon Peres, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs, makes an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC; Shimon Peres
    1994 Sep 5 – 13 The Bahá'í International Community attends the United Nations International Conference on Population of Development and the parallel Non-Governmental Organizations' Forum in Cairo. [BINS328:1] Cairo
    1994 Sep 9 – 11 The first National Youth Conference of Liberia is held, attended by 75 youth. [BW94–5:188–9]
    • For picture see BW94–5:189.
    Liberia National Youth Conference of Liberia
    1994 25 Sep The murder of Mr Esfandiar Bassari in Umtata, Transkei. He and his wife, Forough Bassari, were shot in an attack by gunmen. They had moved from Canada. Mr. Bassari was a hydro-geologist working with the Department of Agriculture and Forestry. [From a press release from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South Africa dated 26 September, 1994] Umtata; Transkei; Esfandiar Bassari; Forough Bassari
    1994 Oct The Bahá'í Health Association for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bahá'í Dental Association are formed at the second Bahá'í Health Conference held at De Poort, Netherlands. [BW94–5:116] De Poort; Netherlands Baha'i Health Conference
    1994 1 Oct President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament on 1 October 1994 to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012. Yemen Recent History Yemen
    1994 19 Oct The publication of In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes. This book captures the firsthand experiences of Baha'is from all around the world, who participated in the Baha'i World Congress at Jacob Javits Convention Center in November 1992, as well as experiences Baha'is had during the Baha'i Holy Year. [from the book] New York; NY In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants
    1994 Dec 7 – 9 The first World Press Exhibition is held by the Information and Public Relations Committees of the National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador to mark the International Day of Peace. [BINS335:2] El Salvador
    1995 The Association for Latin American Bahá'í Writers and Authors is formed at the fifth Latin American Seminar for External Affairs in Cali, Colombia. [BINS336:2] Cali; Colombia Find date
    1995 Jan The first National Teaching Conference of Cambodia is held in Phnom Penh, attended by more than 50 Bahá'ís. [BINS334:2] Phnom Penh; Cambodia National Teaching Conference of Cambodia
    1995 Jan The first meeting of the Association of Bahá'í Doctors and Health Professionals in India takes place. [BW94–5:116] India
    1995 Jan By decision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United State the Wilmette Institute is established as an agency of the National Assembly. "The Wilmette Institute is a center of Bahá’í learning. Its programs aim to facilitate study and dialogue on the teachings and principles of the Faith to help individuals and communities apply learning and advance human civilization." In 1998, the Wilmette Institute moved to a largely online study approach in order to provide educational classes to a broader student body. [Wilmette Institute] Wilmette; IL Wilmette Institute
    1995 23 Jan To response to the increased attention given to the issues of social and economic development following the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, the Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information to prepare a statement on the concept of global prosperity in the context of the Bahá'í teachings. The statement is entitled The Prosperity of Humankind. [Mess86-01p417-8, The Prosperity of Humankind] BWC The Prosperity of Humankind; social action
    1995 Feb Jacinto Peynado, Vice President of the Dominican Republic, visits the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77] Dominican Republic; BWC; Jacinto Peynado
    1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. [BINS337:1–2]
    • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
    • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind, the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
    • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
    Copenhagen
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Georgia is formed with its seat in Tbilisi. [BINS341:1] Tbilisi; Georgia
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia is formed [BINS343:3] Armenia
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belarus is formed. [BINS341:2] Belarus
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eritrea is formed. [BINS341:2] Eritrea
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sicily is formed. [BINS341:1–2] Sicily
    1995 May 14 The Universal House of justice representative Mr ‘Alí Nakhjavání begins his tour of major Bahá'í communities to discuss the significance of the Arc projects on Mount Carmel. BWC; Ali Nakhjavani find ref
    1995 May 30 – Jun 1 The first International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana is held under the auspices of Health for Humanity and the University of Tirana, attended by more than 400 Albanian physicians. [BINS343:2–3] Tirana; Albania International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana
    1995 Jun 8 – 11 The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order is held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4] De Poort; Netherlands European Baha'i Conference on Law and International Order
    1995 Jul The first Bahá'í summer school of Lithuania is held in Ukmerge, attended by 20 people. [BINS346:1] Ukmerge; Lithuania
    1995 Jul 26 The inaugural meeting of the Association for Bahá'í Studies of Ghana is held in Accra. [BINS348:3] Accra; Ghana
    1995 Aug More than 7,000 people become Bahá'ís in Haiti in two weeks. [BINS348:3] Haiti
    1995 Aug 30 – Sep 8 The Bahá'í International Community and some 400 Bahá'í women and men from more than 50 countries around the world participate in the Fourth United Nations International Conference on Women and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum, held in the resort city of Huairou some 50 kilometers north of Beijing, from 30 August to 8 September. [One Country Vol 7 Issue 2] Beijing; China find ref
    1995 Sep The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Baha'i. He was given a life sentence. [http://planetbahai.org/resources/news/news0304/renews031604z.html] Yazd Zabihullah Mahrami; Iranian persecution
    1995 Oct – Dec More than a million people visit the Bahá'í House of Worship in India in this period. [BINS357:5] India Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; statistic
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; United Nations
    1995 20 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Komi Republic is formed at Syktyvkar. [BINS357:8] Syktyvkar; Komi First local assembly formed in the Komi Republic.
    1995 26 Dec In its message of 26 December 1995 – To the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors the Universal House of Justice announces that it will send separate messages concerning the upcoming the Four Year Plan to different parts of the world and calls for the establishment of Training Institutes as an agency of the National Spiritual Assemblies. The Training Institutes will be charged with developing human resources. BWC Training Institutes; Teaching Plans
    1995 Dec 28 – 30 The first teaching conference of Lithuania is held in Vilnius, attended by Bahá'ís from five countries. [BINS355:1] Vilnius; Lithuania teaching conference of Lithuania first teaching conference of Lithuania
    1995 31 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice addressed – To the Bahá’ís of the World dated 31 December, 1995 the Four Year Plan is announced. BWC Teaching Plans; Four Year Plan
    1996 15 Jan A Chair for Bahá'í Studies is inaugurated at the University of Lucknow. [BINS354:3] Lucknow; India Chair for Baha'i Studies First Chair for Bahá'í Studies in Lucknow.
    1996 Feb By this date, approximately 1,250 people have enrolled in the Bahá'í Faith in Guinea-Bissau as a result of the Luz Local Teaching Project and the William Sears project. [BINS356:8] Guinea-Bissau Luz Local Teaching Project; William Sears project
    1996 9 - 11 Feb The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Belarus is held near Minsk. [BINS358:3] Minsk; Belarus National Baha'i Winter School of Belarus first National Bahá'í Winter School of Belarus
    1996 3 Mar The establishment of the Ocean of Light School in Tonga. [OoL Website, BWNS195] Tonga Ocean of Light School
    1996 23 – 24 Mar The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria is held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8] Sofia; Bulgaria National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria
    1996 Ridván The terraces below the Shrine of the Báb are completed and open to pilgrims. World Centre; BWC; Shrine of the Bab find ref
    1996 20 Apr The Three Year Plan is successfully completed.
    1996 Ridván The Four Year Plan (1996-2000) is launched.

    See message addressed To the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors dated 26 December 1995 concerning the Four Year Plan.

    See message to the Bahá'ís of the World dated 31 December 1995 announcing the new Plan.

    The Universal House of Justice sent a Ridván message and Four Year Plan instructions to the Bahá'ís of the World and separate messages to eight regions.

    Riḍván 153 – To the Bahá’ís of the World

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in North America: Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the United States

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Australia, the Cook Islands, the Eastern Caroline Islands, the Fiji Islands, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, Korea, the Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and the Western Caroline Islands

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Africa

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Cambodia, Hong Kong, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Western and Central Asia

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Europe

    Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Latin America and the Caribbean

    See The Significance of the Four Year Plan by Andrew Alexander.

    BWC Four Year Plan; Teaching Plans
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe formed. [BINS363:1]
    • For picture see BINS366:9.
    São Tomé; Principe
    1996 Ridván National Spiritual Assemblies of Burundi and Rwanda were not able to re-elected this year due to political instability in the region. The number of National Spiritual Assemblies remained at 174. [Riḍván 153 – To the Bahá’ís of the World] Burundi; Rwanda
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Moldova is formed. [BINS363:1–2]
    • The National Convention was attended by Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Annemarie Kruger. At that time she was a pioneer in Bulgaria and was in a very advanced age. [Candle 9]
    • See Candle9 28 July, 2008 for a history of the Faith.
    Moldova
    1996 Ridván and after The International Financial Collaboration programme was established by the Universal House of Justice to allow those national communities which are materially well endowed to assist other communities. Around 40 National Assemblies will be donors.
    • The programme is "... used to meet a variety of needs: the acquisition of land and buildings for national and local Baha'i Centres and for future Temple sites; the construction and renovation of Baha'i properties, including the repair of buildings that suffered storm or earthquake damage; and the purchase of such items as an electricity generator, an office computer, and a motorcycle." They add further: "[b]eyond that, the bonds of unity between geographically distant national communities have been strengthened and the worldwide solidarity of the believers enhanced." [Letter from the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom dated 17 July 2011 quoted in the UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE dated 11 August 2011]
    BWC International Financial Collaboration Programme Find reference and more information
    1996 30 May - 14 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and 150 Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum in Istanbul. [BINS365:5] Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey BIC; UN; NGO
    1997 In the year In 1997 One Country launched its Web site that contains all the English issues of the newsletter published over the past three years. [One Country Vol 23 Issue3, BW’86-92p539] One Country
    1997 In the year The Tahirih Justice Center was founded to address the acute need for legal services of immigrant and refugee women who have fled to the U.S. to seek protection from human rights abuses.
    • The Center's founder, Ms. Layli Miller, created the Center after she was besieged by requests for legal assistance following her involvement in a high-profile case that set national precedent and revolutionized asylum law in the United States. The case was that of Fauziya Kassindja, a 17 year-old woman who fled Togo in fear of a forced polygamous marriage and a tribal practice known as female genital mutilation. After arriving in the U.S. and spending more than seventeen months in detention, Ms. Kassindja was granted asylum on June 13th, 1996 by the United States Board of Immigration Appeals in a decision that opened the door to gender-based persecution as a grounds for asylum. [Tahirih Justice Center]
    US Tahirih Justice Center; human rights; Layli Miller
    1997 24 Mar - 16 May The nine member First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific, called "The Journey of Teech-ma" consisted of Canadian Bahá'ís from Kwakiutl, Nuu-Cha-Nuth, the Ojibway First Nations, a Yupik Bahá'í from Alaska and three non-Native Canadian friends. They shared their culture and their Faith with the Maori, other New Zealanders, the Aborigines and other Australians as well as the ne-Vanuatu peoples. See entry for 1994 Summer. [SDSC370] New Zealand; Australia; Vanuatu; First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific; The Journey of Teech-ma; Kwakiutl; Nuu-Cha-Nuth; Ojibway First Nations; Yupik
    1997 Ridván The re-formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rwanda bringing the total number of national spiritual assemblies to 175. [BW97-98p32] Kigali,Rwanda
    1997 27 Aor In the second parliamentary election in Yemen the GPC won a majority of the seats, Iṣlāḥ finished second, and the YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) virtually committed political suicide by boycotting the elections. Given its sizable majority, the GPC chose to rule alone, thereby making Iṣlāḥ the major opposition party in parliament. In late 1994 the plural executive had been abolished and President Ṣāliḥ reelected to a five-year term by parliament. Yemen Recent History Yemen
    1997 30 May The Universal House of Justice, in a message to all National Spiritual Assemblies, announces the formation of a new administrative body, the Regional Bahá'í Council, something that is already in practice in a few areas. [See 23 May, 1986 for example.]
    • Attached to the message is the document outlining the policies governing the formation and functioning of the Regional Bahá’í Councils entitled THE ESTABLISHMENT OF REGIONAL BAHÁ’Í COUNCILS IN CERTAIN COUNTRIES, THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 30 May, 1997]
    BWC Regional Councils
    1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan Masha'llah Enayati; Iranian persecution
    1997 6 Jul Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Rasht Shahram Reza'I; Iranian persecution
    1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
    • A BAHÁ'Í PERSPECTIVE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
    • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
    • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that links together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum has been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it has no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
    de Poort; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Baha'i International Community; International Baha'i Environment Conference first International Bahá'í Environment Conference iefworld.org/conf1.htm
    1998 31 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Budapest set up a marble plaque in the garden of the National Museum at the site where Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum planted a tree during her visit in 1993 to commemorate 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1913. The ceremony opened the National Spritual Assembly's campaign marking the eighty-fifth anniversary of the Bahá'í Faith in Hungary. [BW1997-98 p 103-104] Budpest; Hungary Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Irán Baha’i Open University; Iranian persecution
    1998 25 March The passing of former Universal House of Justice member (1963-1993) Mr. Hugh E Chance (b. 28 December, 1911 in Winfield, Kansas d. 25 March,1998 in Tisdale KS.). [BW97-98p271-272]
    • Mr Chance had been a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
    • He was the co-author of "A Crown of Beauty" with Eunice Braun which was published by George Ronald in 1982.
    Tisdale,Kansas Hugh Chance; In Memoriam; Crown of Beauty, A (book)
    1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
    • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
    • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
    • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
    Mashhad Ruhu'llah Rawhani; Iranian persecution
    1998 29 Jul The passing of actor and writer O. Z. Whitehead at the age of 87 in Dublin. (b. in New York City on 18 March 1911).
    • His most acclaimed performance and best remembered role remained that of Al in John Ford's classic 1940 film version of John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath.
    • After the World Congress in 1963 he pioneered to the Irish Republic where, among other services to the Faith, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly.
    • He published three volumes of pen portraits, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West (1976), Some Bahá'ís to Remember (1983), and Portraits of Some Bahá'í Women (1996).
    • Remembered as a champion of the Arts. [Bahá'í Studies Review Vol8, 1998]
    Dublin O. Z. Whitehead; World Congress; pioneer; NSA
    1998 Sep 29 In an orchestrated and synchronized plan the authorities ransacked the homes of many Bahá'ís across Iran. All religious and nonreligious books were confiscated. Many other household items such as recording devices, videos and personal effects such as family pictures were seized. [Iran Press Watch 2008/10/19/ (website no longer available]
    1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
    • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
    • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
    • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
    • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
    Iran Baha’i Institute for Higher Education; Iranian persecution; International Covenant on Economic; Social and Cultural Rights; UN General Assembly
    1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [ iefworld.org/conf2.htm ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; International Conference of the Environment Forum; Environment
    1998 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States announced the results of the elections for their first Regional Councils. Four were elected in the regions corresponding to those mentioned in The Tablets of the Divine Plan. [Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election] USA Regional Councils
    1999 The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity was established as a non-profit organization in association with the Bahá'í International Community. One of the purposes of the Institute was to explore, with others, the complementary roles that science and religion – as co-evolving systems of knowledge and practice – must play in the advancement of civilization. [ISPG Web site] The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity; BIC
    1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
    • Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
    Russia NSA; Russian Parliament
    1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
    • It is reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
    Isfahan Islamic Revolutionary Court; Iranian persecution; Sina Hakiman; Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi; Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi; Ziaullah Mirzapanah find ref
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Latvia was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Riga, Latvia NSA
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Lithuania was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Lithuania, NSA
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Macedonia was formed. [Ridván Message 156] Macedonia NSA; Macedonia
    1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, is appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release US Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States Commission on International Religious Freedom find ref
    1999 June The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84] Jerusalem Academic chair in Baha'i Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Prof. Moshe Sharon First academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    1999 21 Jun The passing of Meherangiz Munsiff in London (b.23 November, 1923 Bombay, India) Born into a Bahá'í family she travelled in India with Martha Root at the age of 14 years. She was appointed Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the French Cameroons. In addition she visited more than 150 countries to teach and assist in the development of Bahá'í communities and was know as a lecturer and an activist among the international humanitarian community. [The Bahá'í World99-00p308-309] London Meherangiz Munsiff first to pioneer to the French Cameroons
    1999 15 - 18 Aug The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site) United Kingdom Baha'i Agency for Social and Economic Development; Baha'i Agency for Social and Economic Development Conference find ref
    1999 Sep September 1999 President Ṣāliḥ was again returned to office, this time in the country’s first direct presidential elections and for a term lengthened to seven years. He had run virtually unopposed, as the YSP candidate was unable to secure the minimum number of votes necessary in the GPC-dominated parliament to stand in the election. Yemen Recent History Yemen
    1999 Sep The murder of Abdullah Mogharrabi in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Jan-Mar 2002 Vol13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Abdullah Mogharrabi; religious persecution
    1999 9 Nov The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the creation of the Office of Correspondence at the World Centre to improve communication between the World Centre and the Bahá'í World by assisting the Secretariat of the House of Justice in responding to routine requests and inquiries made to the World Center and also to handle a broader range of such correspondence, over its own signature, following policies laid down for this purpose. [Universal House of Justice 9 November, 1999] BWC Office of Correspondence
    1999 28 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 28 December, 1999 some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied are put into effect. Those are the laws which directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertain to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
    • Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which are not yet universally accliable are deliniated in the message dated 8 February, 1999.
    Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws
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