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Bahá'í Chronology: years 200-

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200-

date event locations tags firsts see also
2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
Haifa Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, In Memoriam, Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
2000 26 Jan The passing of Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, member of the Universal House of Justice since 1988, in Haifa after some months of illness. He was 78. [One Country] Haifa, Israel Adib Taherzadeh, UHJ, In Memoriam
2000 Jan The establishment of a high school at the Malagwane hill site in Mbabane, the capital of Swaziland, a small cosmopolitan city of about 90,000 inhabitants.
  • The school, located on the outskirts of the city, has been named "The Setsembiso Sebunye High School." In Siswati, the language of Swaziland, it means "the promise of unity."
  • It opened with a double stream (two sections) with 120 students in Forms One and Two (the 8th and 9th year of school). In subsequent years a minimum of 70 new students will be admitted.
  • A two-story, twelve-room building was completed just before the opening of school. This building contains 7 classrooms, a science lab/classroom, and a modern computer room, a library and an administrative/staff room. Each classroom is equipped with computer capabilities to provide both access to a network in support of the curriculum and the internet. This building is the first of a complex of facilities to serve the needs of a modern high school, eventually having about 400 students.
  • The total enrolment for all of the schools (high, primary and pre-primary schools) now exceeds 500. [Home Page]
Mbabane, Swaziland The Setsembiso Sebunye High School
2000 17 Feb Iran’s Supreme Court rejected death sentences imposed upon Sirus Zabihi-Moghadam, Hadayet Kashefi-Majafabadi and Manucher Khulsi.
  • They had been arrested in 1997 in Khorasan province accused of unspecified anti-security acts. (Chapter one, Article 498 of the Islamic Penal Code.)
  • A flood of protest followed from Western leaders. [HRW]
Iran Sirus Zabihi-Moghadam, Hadayet Kashefi-Majafabadi, Manucher Khulsi
2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [http://www.onecountry.org/e114/e11415as_Mottehedeh.htm] New York Mildred Mottahedeh, International Bahá’í Council first representative of Bahá'í International Community to UN
2000 23 Mar The election of Kiser Barnes to the Universal House of Justice to replace Mr Abib Taherzadeh. [BWNS948] BWC Kiser Barnes, Abib Taherzadeh, UHJ
2000 18 Sep The opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre near the Shrine of the Báb to receive Bahá'í pilgrims and visitors to the Bahá'í holy places in Haifa and Acre. The Centre is housed in two historic buildings that formerly served as a clinic. Remodeling these two structures began in 1998. The larger one was built during the time of the British Mandate and the smaller structure has a more Middle Eastern appearance, with patterned ceramic floors and stone arches. The first Bahá'í Pilgrim House in Haifa was built near the Shrine of the Bab by a Persian believer in 1909 and continued to serve as the primary gathering place for pilgrims until the new facility was completed. [BWNS67] BWC Pilgrim Reception Centre First Bahá'í Pilgrim House
2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Rio Summit, Global Forum, Earth summit, Siron Franco, Santos Dumont Airport, 1992 Global Forum, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
2000 29 Oct The commencement of a new five-year term of service for members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith. The number of Counsellors remained at eighty-one. The appointments were:
  • AFRICA (19 Counsellors): Beth Allen, George Allen, Beatrice Asare, Asfaw Tessema, Niaz Bushrui, Mehraz Ehsani (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Clement-Thyrrel Feizoure, Kobina Fynn, Ibrahim Galadima, Kamaye Moussa, Eddy Lutchmaya, Enos Makhele, Maina Mkandawire, Rachel Ndegwa, Muhammad Otmani, Ahmad Parsa, Garth Pollock, Antoinette Ziehi, Tiati a Zock.
  • THE AMERICAS (19 ounsellors): Eugene Andrews, Eloy Anello, Stephen Birkland, Gustavo Correa, Irma Nelly de Dooki, Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, Angelica Huerta, Antonio Gabriel Marques, Herve Masrour, Catherine Monajjem, Rebequa Murphy, Carmen Elisa de Sadeghian, Arturo Serrano, Crystal Shoaie, David Smith, Marilyn Smith, Leticia de Solano, Rodrigo Tomas (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Dorothy Whyte.
  • ASIA (19 Counsellors): Fadel Ardakani, Baatar Uransaikhan, Nidavanur Baskaran, Irene Chung, Jabbar Eidelkhani, Bijan Farid, Elena Grouzkova, David Huang (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Humaida Jumalon, Lee Lee udher, Delafruz Nassimova, Lori Noguchi, Jaya Gopan Ramasamy, Lateef Rashid, Foad Reyhani, Payam Shoghi, Zena Sorabjee, George Soraya, Rosalie Tran.
  • AUSTRALASIA (11 Counsellors): Beatrice Benson, Donald Blanks, David Chittleborough (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Jalal Mills, Sirus Naraqi, Manijeh Reyhani, Heather Simpson, Henry Tamashiro, Erama Ugaia, Robin White, Fereidoun Yazdani.
  • EUROPE (13 Counsellors): Fevziye Baki, Alla Borets, Uta von Both, Firouzeh Moghbel, Paul Ojermark, Patrick O'Mara (Trustee of the Continental Fund), Shahriar Razavi, Ilhan Sezgin, Nosrat Tirandaz, Nicola Towfigh, Larissa Tsutskova, Sohrab Youssefian, Ivo Zerbes.
  • The following believers were relieved of the duties of membership on the Boards of Counsellors: Borhanoddin Afshin, Ben Ayala, Hooshidar Balazadeh, Patricia Coles, Parvine Djoneydi, Wilma Ellis, Tod Ewing, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam, Linda Gershuny, Louis Henuzet, Hizzaya Hissani, Nobuko Iwakura, Abbas Katirai, Zekrullah Kazemi, Kim Myungjung, Jacqueline Left Hand Bull, Betra Majmeto, Peter McLaren, Alejandra Miller, Perin Olyai, Nabil Perdu, Maija Pihlainen, Ruth Pringle, Polin Rafat, Daniel Ramoroesi, Shapour Rassekh, Cyrus Rohani, Vicente Samaniego, Isabel de Sanchez, Bruce Saunders, Errol Sealy, Edith Senoga, Farhad Shayani, Tiberiu Vajda, Lally Warren, Wingi Mabuku. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 29th of October, 2000]
BWC Continental Boards of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith, Trustee of the Continental Fund
2000 Nov Early in 2000 the eagle from the Guardian's Resting Place was stolen and the monument damaged in the process. Its replacement was accompanied by an understandably stricter measure of security.

When Shoghi Effendi was interred in November 1957 London's Great Northern Cemetery (since renamed New Southgate Cemetery) was larger than it is now. Over the years parts were sold off for development, and it was in response to this process that a sizeable portion around the Guardian's Resting Place was subsequently bought for the Faith so that it could be preserved and developed suitably. The cemetery opened a new entrance and the one through which the Guardian's funeral cortege passed fell into disuse. The gates and pillars of this entrance were purchased by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom, acting on behalf of the Universal House of Justice, and a long process to have them reinstalled in a more suitable place came to fruition in 1998. [Reference links no longer in existence.]

London, UK eagle, stolen, Guardian's Resting Place, Great Northern Cemetery, New Southgate Cemetery
2000 12-14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Baha'i Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando, Florida 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum
2000 17-21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem, Israel, International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Babi-Baha’i Faiths first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths
2000 Dec A new eagle was placed atop the column at the Guardian's Resting Place and repair was done to the damage to the site when the previous one was stolen earlier this year.[Reference links no longer in existence.] London Guardian's Resting Place, Southgate Cemetery
2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Baha’i Announce 5Jan2001] London, UK, Brazil, New York, vista, BIC, United Nations, In Memoriam, Dr. Victor de Araujo
2001 8-17 Jan Inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building. BWC, International Teaching Centre Building
2001 9 Jan The Administrative Order is further developed by the Universal House of Justice in its message to the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counselors of 9 January, 2001 in which the concept of the "cluster" is first introduced. The cluster, a subdivision of the region, is to be formed on the basis of cultural, language, pattern of transport, infrastructure or the social life of the inhabitants.
  • In its message of 12 December, 2011 the Universal House of Justice states that the cluster should have three coordinators appointed by the Training Institute, one concerned with study circles, junior youth groups and a third for children's classes.
BWC Development of the Administrative Order
2001 9-13 Jan The Counsellors in all continents met at the World Centre to take part in deliberations on the general features of the Five Year Plan. They were joined by the Auxiliary Board members (849 from 172 countries) who gathered from throughout the world to participate in events marking the occupation by the International Teaching Centre of its permanent seat on Mount Carmel. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 29th of October, 2000 and the16th of January, 2001] Haifa, BWC Counsellor, Five Year Plan, Auxiliary Board, International Teaching Centre
2001 14 – 16 Jan The inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building at the World Centre with the meeting of the Institution of the Counsellors. Board members arriving from 172 countries attended. Construction of the International Teaching Centre Building began in 1987 and was completed in October 2000. [BWNS131] BWC International Teaching Centre
2001 14 Jan Sixteen Baha'is were arrested in the southern Egyptian city of Sohag. The charges brought against them concerned their membership in the Bahá’í Faith. [Message from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada dated the 19th of January, 2001] Sohag, Egypt religious persecution
2001 16 Jan The Faith of Bahá’u’lláh enters the fifth epoch of the Formative Age. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 16 January, 2001] Formative Age, fifth epoch
2001 Mar The publication of Century of Light, a statement by the Universal House of Justice. [from the book] Century of Light, UHJ
2001 Ridván From the Ridván Message: "It is with profound thankfulness and joy that we announce at this auspicious moment the decision to proceed with this last project. During the Five Year Plan, erection of the Mother Temple of South America in Santiago, Chile, will commence and thus fulfill a wish clearly expressed by Shoghi Effendi." [Riḍván 2001 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Santiago, Chile Mother Temple of South America, Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community today issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]

For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.

New York, NY BIC, Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, UN, United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development
2001 22 May At dusk, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain.
  • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
  • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
  • For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
Haifa, BWC, Shrine of the Bab terraces
2001 28-31 May Global Form on Fighting Corruption II was held in The Hague. [IAACA Web Site]
  • The paper entitled Overcoming Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity in Public Institutions: A Baha’i Perspective was prepared by the Bahá’í World Centre at the request of the United States government and for use of the Bahá’í representative to the forum. [Text]
The Hague Global Form on Fighting Corruption II, Overcoming Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity in Public Institutions: A Baha’i Perspective, BWC, corruption
2001 4 Jun The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120,]

Haifa, BWC Terraces, Public opening
2001 25-27 Jun The Baha'i International Community issued this statement for the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in New York entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours". [Text] New York Baha'i International Community, United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours, UN, BIC find ref
2001 Jul The inauguration of the new campus of the Townshend International School in the Czech Republic.
  • Since its opening in 1992 the co-educational high school has gained accreditation from the Ministry of Education and has welcomed students from over thirty countries in addition to sponsoring students from the Czech Republic. This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school is accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language. [TIS Web Site]
Czech Republic Townshend International School
2001 31 Aug – 7 Sep United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity. See BWNS133 for the full text or on the BIC Site. Durban, South Africa, UN, United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity, BIC
2001 23 Oct The murder of Rashid Gulov in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4, BW01-02p304] Dushanbe, Tajikistan Rashid Gulov, religious persecution
2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain. The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site. Madrid, Spain, UN, statement, Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness
2001 3 Dec The murder of Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4] Dushanbe, Tajikistan Mosadegh Afshin, religious persecution
2001 13 Dec The passing of Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio in Geneva at the age of 58 after a battle with cancer. He was 58.
  • He had been a representative of the Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations in Geneva and in New York since 1981. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 3]
Geneva Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio, Baha'i International Community
2001 16 Dec The passing of Philip Hainsworth at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305] Sevenoaks, Kent, England Philip Hainsworth, the spiritual Stanley of Africa
2001 20 - 23 Dec The Fire in the Pacific conference in Honolulu, Hawaii to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Faith in Hawaii. It was attended by over 1,000 Bahá'ís from at least 53 nations. Among the highlights of the conference was a parade , to the resting place of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, who was the first to bring word of the Bahá'í Faith to the Hawaiian Islands — and, indeed, the entire Pacific region — in December 1901. Born in Hawaii, the granddaughter of missionaries, Ms Alexander first heard about the Bahá'í Faith while on a trip to Europe. Returning to her native Hawaii on 26 December 1901, she devoted the rest of her life to spreading the teachings of Baha'u'llah in the Pacific and later in Japan. She passed away on January 1st, 1971. [Life of Agnes Alexander- D.Troxel, BWNS148] Honolulu, Hawaii Fire in the Pacific Conference, Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Agnes Alexander
2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York, NY The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace, New York Times, Statement, NSA of US
2002 5 Mar The announcement by the Bahá'í International Community of the murder of three Bahá'ís in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Rashid Gulov was shot and killed on 23 October 2001 while returning home from work. A second man, Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh, was shot outside his home on 3 December 2001 and died from his wounds on the way to the hospital. These deaths follow the assassination of 88 year old Abdullah Mogharrabi, a leader in the community, in September 1999. [BWNS153] Dushanbe, Tajikistan murder, Rashid Gulov, Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh, Abdullah Mogharrabi
2002 19 Mar The establishment of the seventh Bahá'í radio station in Bulac, Philippines, located in a rural district some 30 kilometers from the city of San José on the main island of Luzon.
  • The station operates at 1584 kHz on the AM band, broadcasting at a power of 1,000 watts. Due to the flat topography of the region, it reaches a wide area encompassing the entire province of Nueva Ecija and a portion of Tarlac and Pangasinan provinces, with a potential listenership of more than 2.3 million people. [BWNS181]
Bulac, Philippines Baha'i radio station find ref
2002 Apr The Universal House of Justice issues a letter addressed to the world’s religious leaders warning of “the danger posed by "the rising fires of religious prejudice" and calls for decisive action against fanaticism and intolerance”. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1] Message to the World's Religious Leaders, To the World's Religious Leaders, Universal House of Justice
2002 1 May The publication of The Summons of the Lord of Hosts, by Bahá'í World Centre Publications. The 272-page book contains authoritative English translations of six major works written by Bahá'u'lláh in the latter half of the 19th century. Collectively, the works clearly enunciate Bahá'u'lláh's claim to prophethood and offers a prescription for peaceful and just leadership in the modern world. [BWNS163] BWC BWC, The Summons of the Lord of Hosts
2002 6 June City Montessori School in Lucknow, India wing the UNESCO Peace Education award in recognition of its efforts to promote the universal values of education for peace and tolerance and to renew the principles of secularism at a time when these values and principles are increasingly being challenged. The school was founded by Mr. Jagdish Gandhi and his wife Bharti in 1959 with only 5 students and has since earned a reputation for a high level of academic excellence — and for a distinctive program of moral and spiritual education. In 1999 the Guinness Book of World Records recognized City Montessori School as the world's largest school by enrollment. The school had some 22,000 students that year. In 2002 it had 26,000 students in grade levels ranging from pre-primary to college and in 2010-11 enrolment was 39,437. In 2014-14 it was over 47,000. Technically speaking, CMS is not so much a school as a school district, with some 20 branches spread throughout Lucknow. [CMS site, BWNS165, BWNS146, One CountryVol.14,Issue 1] Lucknow, India, UNESCO Peace Education award, UNESCO, Jagdish Gandhi, Bharti Gandhi, School, City Montessori School
2002 13 Jun The publication of The Summons of the Lord of Hosts. The 272-page book contains authoritative English translations of six major works written by Bahá'u'lláh in the latter half of the 19th century. Collectively, the works clearly enunciates His claim to prophethood and offers a prescription for peaceful and just leadership in the modern world.
  • Specifically, the book collects the Súriy-i-Haykal [Súrih of the Temple], Súriy-i-Ra’ís [Súrih of the Chief], Lawh-i-Ra'is [Tablet of the Chief], Lawh-i-Fu'ad [Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha], Lawh-i-Sultan [Tablet to the Shah of Iran], and Súriy-i-Mulúk [Súrih of the Kings]. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1]
BWC The Summons of the Lord of Hosts, Baha'u'llah, BWC
2002 26 Jun The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the publication of Gems of Divine Mysteries in English. Some 82-pages in English, the volume was originally titled Javahiru'l-Asrar, and was written in Arabic during Bahá'u'lláh 's banishment to Iraq, where He was exiled from 1853 until 1863. The book is a letter written in reply to a seeker who asked about the relationship of prophecy to the Babi Faith, and Bahá'u'lláh used that question as an opportunity to elaborate a number of related subjects. The book relates closely to two other major works of Bahá'u'lláh: The Seven Valleys (Haft-Vadi), an exposition on the progression of the soul, and The Book of Certitude (Kitab-i-Iqan). [BW'02-‘03pg37, BWNS174]
  • The volume was originally titled Javahiru'l-Asrar, and was written in Arabic during Bahá'u'lláh's residence in Iraq. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 2]
BWC Gems of Divine Mysteries, Universal House of Justice
2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York, NY Second Baha'i World Congress, Festival of the Arts, Global Music, Inc., Carnegie Hall, Tom Price
2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170] Johannesburg, South Africa World Summit on Sustainable Development, UN, Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?, BIC
2002 21 Sep The dedication , at the Green Acre Bahá'í School in Eliot Maine, the oldest permanent Bahá'í school in the world, of a new classroom and lecture hall designated as The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, with an attendant Manny Reimer Hall. [BWNS175] Green Acre, Eliot, Maine Green Acre, Baha'i School, The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, Manny Reimer Hall, oldest permanent Baha'i school in the world first...oldest permanent Baha'i school in the world
2002 26 Nov The inauguration of a new radio station at Bulac, Philippines. The station operates at 1584 kHz on the AM band, broadcasting at a power of 1,000 watts with a potential listenership of more than 2.3 million people. [BWNS181] Bulac, Philippines Radio Station
2002 4 Dec University of Bari in Italy establishes a course on ethics and economics titled Ethics and Economy: Towards a New World Order. The University has appointed Giuseppe Robiati, a member of the Bahá'í community of Italy as the coordinator of the course. [BWNS182] Bari, Italy, University of Bari, Giuseppe Robiati, Ethics and Economy: Towards a New World Order"
2003 7 – 9 Feb The dedication of the Louis G. Gregory Museum in his birthplace, Charleston, South Carolina. [BWNS188, Wilmette Institute, Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
Charleston, South Carolina, Louis G. Gregory Museum, Louis G. Gregory, Louis Gregory, Gayle Morrison
2003 3 Mar The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p169] Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Malta, Ireland, Liverpool, Dublin Una Dean, Una Townshend, Knight of Baha'u'llah First Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Dublin.
2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
  • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
New York, NY Bani Dugal Gujral, Baha'i International Community, Office for the Advancement of Women, Techeste Ahderom, UN
2003 18 Mar The President of India, Abdul Kalam, visited the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, the first official visit there by an Indian Head of State since the Temple was opened in December 1986. [BWNS204] New Delhi, India Abdul Kalam, Baha'i House of Worship in New Delhi, Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, Mashriqu'l-Adhkar First visit to the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi by an Indian head of state.
2003 4 Apr Given current conditions in the world the Ninth International Convention was cancelled. It had been scheduled for 29 April to 2 May. Ballots from the National Spiritual Assembly members were mailed to the World Centre. The 19 delegates that had been chosen as tellers travelled to the World Centre to count the votes. [BW'02-‘03pg37-38, BWNS202] BWC International Baha'i Convention, International Convention First time an International Bahá'í Convention was cancelled.
2003 Ridván "In response to the call issued by the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, 185 design concepts have been received from architects and designers around the world for the Mother Temple of South America to be constructed in Santiago." [Riḍván 2003 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Santiago, Chile Mother Temple of South America, Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2003 27 Apr Bahá'ís from the north and south of Cyprus met when they were permitted to cross the demarcation line that had divided the island for three decades. The event followed the decision by the Turkish Cypriot authorities to lift the ban on travel across the cease-fire line. Some 60 Turkish and Greek Bahá'ís held a devotional meeting together at the Bahá'í center in Nicosia. [BWNS216] Nicosia, Cyprus,
2003 28 Apr The retirement of Mr. Ali Nakhjavani and Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam from the Universal House of Justice. Both had served since the inception of the Universal House of Justice in 1963. They are replaced by Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri. [BWNS208] BWC Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam, retirement
2003 29 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207] BWC UHJ, Hartmut Grossmann, Firaydoun Javaheri, Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell, Ian Semple First postal ballot for an International Bahá'í Convention.
2003 9 May The passing of David Hofman in England.
  • He was one of the nine elected members of the Universal House of Justice when that institution came into being in 1963.
  • He presented the first statement from the supreme Baha'i administrative body in April that year to the World Congress in London. Twenty-nine years later, in 1992, he delivered the opening address to the second Baha'i World Congress in New York, an event attended by some 30,000 people.
  • He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice for 25 years, until he left in 1988 at the age of 80. [BWNS209, BW'03-‘04pg234, UK Bahá'í Journal]
England David Hofman, UHJ, World Congress, In Memoriam, UHJ
2003 May The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the appointment of Siamak Hariri of Toronto, Canada, as architect of the Baha'i Temple to be built near Santiago in Chile. [BWNS223] Santiago, Chile, Toronto, Siamak Hariri, Mother Temple of South America, Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2003 20 Jun The passing of Ursula Samandari at her pioneering post in Buea, Cameroon.
  • Ursula Newman, her maiden name, was born in Mitcham, Surrey, England on December 29, 1909. In 1953 she and Dr. Mihdi Samandari moved to Nairobi, Kenya, and a year later went to live in Mogadishu, Somalia where they stayed until 1971. At the request of the Universal House of Justice, they had pioneered to Cameroon. [BWNS230, BW'03-‘04pg237]
Buea, Cameroon, Nairobi, Kenya, Mogadishu, Somalia Ursula Samandari, pioneer, Dr. Mihdi Samandari, In Memorium,
2003 Jun The publication of Minimalism: A Bridge between Classical Philosophy and the Bahá'í Revelation by Dr. William Hatcher. In it he offers a logical proof for the existence of God. He concludes that the application of the principles of relational logic to this question prove that there is a single, universal, and eternal First Cause — something that is very much like God the Creator as named in all of the world's major religions. [BWNS226] Philosophy, Dr. William Hatcher, Bill Hatcher
2003 25 Jul The passing of Elisabeth Charlotte (Lottie) Tobias while on her way home to Voorburg from a summer school held in De Poort. She was described by the National Spiritual Assembly as being the "mother" of the Netherlands Baha'i community. [BW03-04p238] Netherlands Elisabeth Charlotte (Lottie) Tobias, ", mother", of the Netherlands Baha'i community
2003 Jul His Royal Highness Prince Andrew has become the first member of the Royal Family to visit the National Bahá’í Centre in London. [The referenced web site has since ceased operation.] London HRH Prince Andrew
2003 22 Aug The passing of Ruth Pringle in Ciudad, Costa Rica at the age of 83 after 5 decades of service to the Faith, 2 decades as on the Continental Board of Counsellors. [BWNS250, BW'03-‘04pg236] Ciudad Colon, Costa Rica Ruth Pringle, Continental Board of Counsellors, In Memoriam
2000 29 - 31 Aug The celebration of the Jubilee of the opening of the Faith in the Republic of the Congo was commemorated in Brazzaville by 200 attendees. It was in 1953 that Ali and Violette Nakhjavani dropped off pioneer Max Kanyerezi in Brazzaville in the Middle Congo as it was then called, subsequently the "French Congo" and now "The Republic of...".

All Bahá'í activities were suspended by law from 1978 until 1992 when a democratically elected government replaced the Communist regime. The new government granted legal recognition of the Faith. During the years 1992 to 2003 the country endured two civil wars which further disrupted activity. There are now 20 local spiritual assemblies. [BWNS246]

Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo Max Kanyerezi, Violette Nakhjavani, Ali Nakhjavani
2003 Autumn The publication of History of Bahá'ísm in Iran by Abdullah Shahbazi, the then head of the Political Studies and Research Institute, part of the Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies. In his book he advanced the theory of the alliance between Bahá'ísm and Zionism. [Iran Press Watch1407] Iran History of Baha'ism in Iran, Abdullah Shahbazi
2003 6 - 7 Sep The celebration of the Jubilee of the opening of the Faith in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was commemorated in Kinshasa by some 600 participants. Among those at the celebrations in the capital were three of the first Congolese Baha'is: Louis Selemani, 81, Remy Kalonji, 83, and Valerien Mukendi, 83. One guest who could not make it was Ola Pawlowska, 93, though she participated in the celebrations by sending from her home in Canada a message of congratulations and love to a community to which she devoted three decades of her life. Guests of honour at the jubilee included Mr. Nakhjavani, former member of the Universal House of Justice, and Mrs. Nakhjavani, as well as Joan Lincoln, counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, and Albert Lincoln, secretary-general of the Baha'i International Community. All four had spent many years as pioneers in Africa.

Active teaching in the area began in 1953. Before that time, colonial authorities did not permit the promotion of the Faith and that is when Ali Nakhjavani and his wife, Violette, driving across Africa from Uganda, took Ugandan Baha'i Samson Mungongo to the city of Kamina. The first local assembly was formed in 1957 and the National Assembly was inaugurated in 1970. This event also marked the first time the National Spiritual Assembly had been able to meet in Kinshasa since 1998 because of the war. [BWNS248]

  • For further details on the development of the Faith in the DRC see Legacy of Courage: The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Suzanne Schuurman.
Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC Louis Selemani, Remy Kalonji, Valerien Mukendi, Joan Lincoln, Albert Lincoln, Ola Pawlowska, Suzanne Schuurman
2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
  • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
  • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
  • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
Haifa, Sabzivar, Iran, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, Baku, Moscow, Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furutan, In Memoriam, Appointment Hand - First Contingent
2003 16 Dec Shirin Ebadi, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first Muslim woman to win the coveted distinction.
  • For a long time she has fought for the rights of women and children in Iran and it is most fitting that she, a woman lawyer who dared to speak out against the sexist Iranian regime, be praised and recognised by the world.
  • She is an author and also the founder of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. [Nobel Peace Prize 2003]
Iran Shirin Ebadi, Nobel Peace Prize, Association for Support of Children's Rights first Muslim woman to be awarded Nobel Peace Prize
2004 General Register Office in Northern Ireland has officially recognised the Baha'i Faith as a legitimate religion with authority to marry its members. Dr. Beman Khosravi has been appointed as official Baha'i Marriage Officer. The first marriage took place in Cullybackey between Carmen Zambrana Candel and John Twiname. [The Belfast Telegraph 28 April, 2004] Northern Ireland Dr. Beman Khosravi
2004 7 Feb The release of Mr. Bihnam Mithaqi and Mr. Kayvan Khalajabadi who had been imprisoned on April 29, 1989, for "association with Baha'i institutions."
  • They were both originally sentenced to eight years' imprisonment, but upon appeal, their sentences were commuted to three years' imprisonment plus 50 lashes. Both prisoners appealed this decision, and on April 30, 1991, the Islamic Revolutionary Court sentenced them to death. On February 18, 1996, the Supreme Court of Iran rejected numerous appeals and confirmed the death sentences. In February 2001, after further judicial reviews, the chief of the judicial branch reduced their sentences to 15 years in prison and set February 2004 for their release. [Referenced web site has ceased operation. Human Rights Watch (some dates differ from this source)]
Irán Bihnam Mithaqi, Kayvan Khalajabadi, Iranian persecution
2004 11 Feb A member of the British Baha'i community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
  • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Baha'i Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
Buckingham Palace, England Lois Hainsworth, Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE), Women's National Commission
2004 12 Feb The launch of the Web site for the temple to be constructed in Chile. temple.cl.bahai.org [BWNS279, BWNS223] Santiago, Chile Temple, Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2004 Feb In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
  • This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
Babul, Iran Quddus, Iranian persecution
2004 2 Apr The passing of Ola Pawlowska in Newfoundland, Canada. Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for St. Pierre and Miquelon, translator of the Writings (into Polish, Pioneer to Poland, Luxembourg and Congo (30 years), Auxiliary Board Member. [BW'03-‘04pg236, BWNS248] Newfoundland, Canada, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Poland, Luxembourg, Cong Knight of Baha'u'llah for St. Pierre and Miquelon, Ola Pawlowska
2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver, BC, Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi, Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa, International Teaching Centre
2004 Apr The destruction of the gravesite of Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, known as Quddus (The Most Holy). Quddus was the foremost disciple of the Báb, the Prophet-Herald of the Bahá'í Faith. [BWNS293] Iran, Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, Quddus, gravesite
2004 31 May The launch of the Web site The Bahá'í Reference Library by the Bahá'í International Community. It marks the first time that a voluminous authoritative library of Bahá'í scripture and other Bahá'í publications has been available on the Internet. [reference.bahai.org, BWNS302]
2004 29 Jun The passing of Gloria Faizi in Brisbane, Australia. The Universal House of Justice said they remembered with appreciation "her many contributions to the progress of the Baha'i communities, including her pioneering in Bahrain with her illustrious husband, her work at the Baha'i World Centre, and her devoted travels far and wide as a teacher of the Cause."
  • Gloria Faizi was born into the Ala'i family, distinguished for its service to the Faith. She met the head of the Faith, Shoghi Effendi, when she accompanied her father to the Holy Land as a child. When she was 17, she married Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, and together they assisted Baha'i communities in a remote rural area of Iran before settling in Bahrain in the mid-1940s. Their two children, Naysan and May, were born during their 15 years there. [BWNW318, BW04-05p287]
Brisbane, Australia; Bahrain Gloria Faizi, pioneer, UHJ, Shoghi Effendi
2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] ‘Akká Baha'u'llah
2004 16 Oct The first annual Australian Baha’i Film Festival at the Sydney Baha’i Centre for which more than 30 short films had been submitted. [Australian Bahá'í Film Fest] Sydney Australian Baha’i Film Festival first annual Australian Baha’i Film Festival
2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka, BWC prison citadel
2004 20 Dec United Nations General Assembly has passed a resolution expressing "serious concern" over the human rights situation in Iran, making specific mention of the ongoing persecution of the Baha'i community there.
  • It called on Iran to "eliminate all forms of discrimination based on religious grounds" and took note of the recent upsurge of human rights violations against the Baha'is of Iran.
  • Specifically, the resolution noted the "continuing discrimination against persons belonging to minorities, including Christians, Jews, and Sunnis, and the increased discrimination against the Baha'is, including cases of arbitrary arrest and detention, the denial of free worship or of publicly carrying out communal affairs, the disregard of property rights, the destruction of sites of religious importance, the suspension of social, educational, and community-related activities, and the denial of access to higher education, employment, pensions, and other benefits." [BWNS341]
New York; Irán UN General Assembly, human rights
2005 21 Mar The announcement of the retirement of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin from the Universal House of Justice. Mr. Semple served since 1963 and Mr. Martin was elected in 1993. [BWNS359] BWC Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Douglas Martin
2005 21 Mar The election of Dr. Payman Mohajer and Mr. Paul Lample to the vacancies on the Universal House of Justice. They fill the vacancies created by the departure at Naw-Ruz of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin, owing to age and the related needs of the Faith. [BWNS358] BWC Dr. Payman Mohajer, Mr. Paul Lample, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Douglas Martin
2005 20 Apr The launch of the new official web site, titled The Baha'is to replace the previous site, "The Baha'i World," at the same address. The site is also a portal to the family of official web sites of the Baha'i International Community.
The content of "The Baha'i World" will continue to be available as Baha'i Topics: An Information Resource. [BWNS368]
BWC Official web site, The Bahais, BIC
2005 6 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member David S. Ruhe near Newburg, New York. He served on the Universal House of Justice from 1968 to 1993. [BWNS388] Newburg, NY David Ruhe, David S. Ruhe
2005 29 Oct Letter from the Iranian military headquarters to various Revolutionary Guard and police forces instructing them to identify and monitor Bahá'ís around the country. [BWNS473] Iran Systemic persecution
2005 1 Nov A new Bahá'í Centre is obtained at 44 Albany Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. [BWNS347, BWNS395] Edinburgh, Scotland Baha'i Centre
2005 27 Nov The passing of Dr. William S. Hatcher at Stratford, Ontario, Canada. [BWNS416] Stratford, ON Dr. William S. Hatcher, Bill Hatcher, In memoriam
2005 Nov Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeds Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404] Maryland, Dr. John Grayzei, Suheil Bushrui, Baha'i Chair for Peace, University of Maryland
2005 1 Dec The president of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Kessai Note, paid an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS410] Marshall Islands, BWC Kessal Note, BWC, state visit
2005 15 Dec The death of Mr. Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, 59, who had been held in a government prison in Yazd under harsh physical conditions at the time of his death.

First arrested in 1995, Mr. Mahrami served in the civil service but at the time of his arrest was making a living installing venetian blinds, having been summarily fired from his job like thousands of other Baha'is in the years following the 1979 Iranian revolution. Although Iranian officials have asserted that Mr. Mahrami was guilty of spying for Israel, court records clearly indicate that he was tried and sentenced solely on charge of being an "apostate," a crime which is punishable by death under traditional Islamic law. While Mr. Mahrami had been a lifelong Baha'i, the apostasy charge apparently came about because a civil service colleague, in an effort to prevent Mr. Mahrami from losing his job, submitted to a newspaper an article stating that he had converted to Islam. When it later became clear to Iranian authorities that Mr. Mahrami remained a member of the Baha'i community, they arrested him and charged him with apostasy for allegedly converting from Islam to the Baha'i Faith. On 2 January 1996, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court, a conviction that was later upheld by the Iranian Supreme Court.

The death sentence against Mr. Mahrami stirred an international outcry. The European Parliament, for example, passed a resolution on human rights abuses in Iran, making reference to Mr. Mahrami's case. The governments of Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also registered objections. [BWNS415]

Yazd, Iran Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, persecution
2005 27 – 31 Dec The gathering, at the Bahá'í World Centre, the members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors [BWNS418] BWC Continental Board of Counsellors
2006 A confidential letter sent from Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology instructing Iranian universities to expel any student who is discovered to be a Bahá'í. The letter refutes recent statements by Iranian officials, who said Bahá'í students in Iran face no discrimination - despite the fact that more than half of the Bahá'í university students enrolled last autumn were gradually expelled over the course of the 2006-2007 academic year. [BWNS575] Iran, persecution
2006 4 Apr In late 2004 or early 2005 the government of Egypt introduces a computerized identity card system that locks out all religious classifications except Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Baha'is are unable to get ID cards and other documents essential to day-to-day life. Thus begins an epic struggle for Bahá'í appellants to win the right to have their religious affiliation properly identified on goverment documents.

The issuance of birth certificates is at the heart of the first case, which concerns 14-year-old twins Imad and Nancy Rauf Hindi. Their father, Rauf Hindi, obtained birth certificates that recognized their Baha'i affiliation when they were born but new policies require computer generated certificates and the computer system locks out any religious affiliation but the three officially recognized religions. Without birth certificates, the children are unable to enroll in school in Egypt.

A lower administrative court rules that the couple should be identified as Baha'is on official documents, a decision that, if upheld, will essentially overturn the government's policy of forcing citizen to choose from only the three officially recognized religions -- Islam, Christianity and Judaism -- on state documents. The lower court's ruling provokes an outcry among the fundamentalist elements in Egyptian society, particularly Al Azhar University and the Muslim Brotherhood who object to any kind of recognition of the Baha'i Faith as a religious belief. The case gains international attention in the news media and from human rights groups and sparks a wholesale debate in newspapers and blogs throughout the Arab world over the right to freedom of religion and belief. [BWNS454]

Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 2 May Letter, from the Trades, Production, and Technical Services Society of Kermanshah to the Iranian Union of Battery Manufacturers, asked the Union to provide a list of members of the Bahá'í sect in their membership. [BWNS488] Kermanshah, Iran persecution
2006 15 May The government appeals the lower court's ruling to the Supreme Administrative Court and the hearing focuses on procedural issues concerning the case. The emotions stirred by the case are evident at the initial hearing. Lawyers and other individuals seated in the courthouse interrupt and heckle defense counsel each time they try to address the court. They yell insults at them, calling them 'infidels' and threatening them with physical violence during the hearing. Because the Court is unable to impose order in the courtroom, the Court briefly adjourns the hearing before resuming the proceedings in camera. When the hearing is adjourned courthouse security officers refuse to protect lawyers who are surrounded by members of the crowd, verbally threatening, pushing, shoving and not allowing them to walk away from the area.

After the government's appeal of the lower court's ruling a court hearing is set for 19 June, however, the Court commissioner's advisory report is not submitted in time for the hearing and the hearing is further postponed until the 16th of September. [BWNS454, BWNS456]

Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 19 May Iranian security officials arrested 54 Bahá'ís in the city of Shiraz who were involved in a community service project, many of them in their teens and early 20's. They were not charged and all but three were released within six days. It was the largest mass arrest of Bahá'ís since the 1980's. [New York Times 1 June, 2006] Shiraz, Iran, persecution
2006 15 Jul The Bahá'í Academy has entered into a formal agreement with one of India's top-ranked universities to offer specialized training in education for moral development to its students, faculty, and staff. [BWNS470] Pune, India Baha'i Academy, University of Pune,
2006 31 Jul The announcement of the publication of The Tabernacle of Unity. This publication of the Bahá'í World Centre contains five tablets - letters - written by Bahá'u'lláh to individuals of Zoroastrian background in the 1800s. As such, these tablets provide important insights into the interrelatedness of religion. [BWNS466] BWC The Tabernacle of Unity.
2006 19 Aug Iran's Ministry of Interior orders officials throughout the country to step up the surveillance of Iranian Baha'is focusing in particular on their community activities. In a letter the Ministry requests provincial officials to complete a detailed questionnaire about the circumstances and activities of local Baha'is, including their "financial status," "social interactions," and "association with foreign assemblies," among other things. [BWNS488] Iran Systemic persecution
2006 16 Sep The Supreme Administrative Court again postpones its hearing on the government appeal of a lower court's ruling upholding the right of a Baha'i couple to have their religion properly identified on government documents. In a brief hearing the Court continues the case until 20 November in order to await the completion of an advisory report from the State Commissioner's Authority on the case. [BWNS480] Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 20 Nov Lawyers representing a Baha'i couple seeking to have their religious affiliation properly identified on state documents present arguments at a full hearing before the Supreme Administrative Court. The hearing is short and the court adjourns until 16 December when a judgment in the case is expected. [BWNS492] Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 16 Dec Egypt's Supreme Administrative Court rules against the right of Baha'is to be properly identified on government documents. There are now two cases related to this issue; the first involves a lawsuit by the father of twin children, who is seeking to obtain proper birth certificates for them and the second concerns a college student who needs a national identity card to re-enroll in university.

The decision upholds current government policy, a policy which forces the Baha'is either to lie about their religious beliefs or give up their state identification cards. The policy effectively deprives Egyptian Baha'is and others of access to most rights of citizenship, including education, financial services, and even medical care. [BWNS492]

Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 21 Dec A message is sent from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt regarding the recent Supreme Administrative Court decision with respect to their right to hold identification cards. [BWNS499]
  • For a the full text of the message from the Universal House of Justice 21DEC2006 in English.
Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2006 21 Dec The Education Department Management Security Office in Shiraz circulated a form to be completed for all students who belong to religious minorities and the perverse Bahaist sect. The form requires not only detailed information about the student and his or her parents, but also detailed information on all the student's siblings. [Provisional Translation of the text of the letter] Shiraz, Iran, persecution
2007 7 Apr A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 has been restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Baha'i community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524] Bad Mergentheim, Germany monument to 'Abdu'l-Baha
2007 19 Apr The government of Slovakia officially registered the Bahá'í Faith as a religious community, guaranteeing the group the right to own property, observe holy days, disseminate literature and engage in a host of other activities. [BWNS531] Slovakia
2007 11 May The passing of His Highness Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II, the Samoan head of state. He was one of the longest reigning monarchs in the world and had been head of state since independence from New Zealand in 1962. [BWNS543] Samoa His Highness Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II, In memoriam
2007 24 May The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi in the United Kingdom.
  • pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest
  • served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith
  • served as the executive director of the Nawnahalan Company
  • among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968
  • relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s
  • contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly nsa@bahai.org.uk 24 May 2007]
United Kingdom; Afghanistan Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi, pioneer, Guardian, NSA, Auxiliary Board, Nawnahalan Company, Counsellor, Huququ'llah, UHJ, In Memoriam
2007 9 – 10 Sep A Bahá'í cemetery near Najafabad, Iran was destroyed using heavy equipment. More than 100 graves were desecrated. [BWNS578] Najafabad, Iran Persecution
2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa at his home in Haifa. (b.1911) He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579]
  • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
Haifa, Israel Hand of the Cause Dr Ali-Muhammad Varqa, In Memoriam, Appointment Hand - Individual Appointment
2007 2 Oct An event was organized by the Defenders of Human Rights Centre in Iran to publicize the plight of all those who are deprived of access to education. The Bahá'ís were only one of many groups whose situations the event highlighted. The Bahá'í representative made a 5-10 minute presentation describing the difficult circumstances faced by Bahá'í students, who have persistently been denied access to post-secondary education. Journalists from within the country and abroad covered the proceedings. [The reference website is no longer in existence.] Iran persecution
2007 12 Oct The opening of a new office of the Bahá'í International Community in Brussels. The purpose is to strengthen the BIC's ties with the European Union. [BWNS581] Brussels, Belgium BIC
2007 7 Nov The launch of a new website by the Bahå'í International Community, The Life of Bahá'u'lláh to provide illustration of Baha'u'llah's life through photographs of places and artifacts and relics associated directly with Him. [BWNS586] Web site, BIC
2007 12 Nov Human Rights Watch and the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights release a report that states that Egypt should end discriminatory practices that prevent Baha'is and others from listing their true religion on government documents. The 98-page report, titled Prohibited Identities: State Interference with Religious Freedom, focuses on problems that have emerged from Egypt's practice of requiring citizens to state their religious identity on government documents but then restricting the choice to Islam, Christianity, or Judaism. "These policies and practices violate the right of many Egyptians to religious freedom," states the report. [BWNS587]
  • See HRW.org for the full text of the report.
Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2007 21 Nov The Universal House of Justice responded to a communications from the Bahá'ís attending the event of the 2nd of October advising the Friends in Iran to explore contacts with other Iranian individuals and organizations sympathetic to the plight of the Bahá'ís and to continue the effort to secure legal representation for the Bahá'í students. It also encouraged them to convey the gratitude of the Iranian Bahá'ís to the Defenders of Human Rights Centre. [The referenced website is no longer in existence.] Iran, Universal House of Justice, persecution
2007 25 Dec The two cases, the first by the father of twin children who is seeking to obtain proper birth certificates for them and the second by a college student who needs a national identity card to re-enroll in university, were set for "final judgment" by the Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo but the hearings were unexpectedly postponed until 22 January 2008. The court indicated it is still deliberating on the cases. On 22 January it was announced that the cases had been continued until 29 January. [BWNS597] Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2008 29 Jan In a victory for religious freedom, a lower administrative court ruled in favour of two lawsuits that sought to resolve the government's contradictory policy on religious affiliation and identification papers. The Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo upheld arguments made in two cases concerning Baha'is who have sought to restore their full citizenship rights by asking that they be allowed to leave the religious affiliation field blank on official documents. a lower court again ruled in their favor. Two Muslim lawyers filed an appeal. [BWNS600] Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. In English [Moving Forward as One, In Farsi] Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One
2008 5 Mar Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran – was arrested having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report] Mashhad, Iran, Yaran, Mahvash Sabet
2008 21 Mar The re-election of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam after a lapse of some 33 years A major step was taken a year ago when authorities issued a certificate recognizing Bahá'í activities. The Bahá'í Faith was established in Vietnam in 1954. In 1957 Bahá'ís there joined with a number of other countries in southeast Asia to form a Regional Spiritual Assembly, and in 1964 the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Vietnam was formed. [BWNS617] Vietnam
2008 23 Apr The retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Hartmut Grossman and Mr. Glenford E. Mitchell. Mr Grossmen served from 2003 and Mr. Mitchell was elected in 1982. [BWNS622] BWC Mr. Hartmut Grossman, Mr. Glenford Mitchell
2008 30 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice at the 10th International Bahá'í' Convention. Those elected are Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Peter Khan, Hooper Dunbar, Firaydoun Javaheri, Paul Lample, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, and Gustavo Correa. [BWNS629, BWNS631, BWNS627, BWNS628, BWNS626, BWNS624] BWC Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Peter Khan, Hooper Dunbar, Firaydoun Javaheri, Paul Lample, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, Gustavo Correa
2008 14 May The six men and women, Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm. and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, all members of the national-level group that helped see to the minimum needs of Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested in their homes in Tehran. Mrs. Kamalabadi, Mr. Khanjani, and Mr. Tavakkoli have been previously arrested and then released after periods ranging from five days to four months. [BWNS632, Report] Tehran, Iran Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm, Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, Yaran
2008 14 May Iranian Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri issued a fatwa stating that, since [ Bahá'ís] are the citizens of this country, they have the rights of a citizen and to live in this country. Furthermore, they must benefit from the Islamic compassion which is stressed in Quran and by the religious authorities. [The National (UAE)]

Statement: English Translation

Iran
2008 3 Jun Mrs. Mahvash Sabet and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi are permitted to make short phone calls to their families. Later it was confirmed that Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Mr. Vahid Tizfahm also have made brief phone calls to their families. [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
2008 2 Jun The arrest of four Bahá'ís in Sana'a, Yemen on the suspicion of proselytizing. [BWNS651] Sana'a, Yemen
2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643] Haifa, Israel, Akka UNESCO, World Heritage Site
2008 25 Jul Vietnam recognizes Bahá'ís as religious community. This follows the election of the National Spiritual Assembly some months earlier. The Bahá'í Faith was established in the country in 1954, and the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Vietnam was elected 10 years later. In the mid-1970s, formal activities of the community were suspended. [BWNS64] Vietnam,
2008 27 Jul The results of the nationwide university entrance examination were made available on the National Organization for Educational Assessment in Iran. Most of the Bahá'í applicants found that they were rejected and received an incomplete file message. For the 2007-2008 academic year some 800 of 1000 Bahá'í students were rejected in the same manner. [Iranian, BWNS657] Iran, Persecution
2008 July The publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, the Most Holy Book, in Norwegian for the first time, bringing to about 30 the number of different language editions of the work. [BWNS646]
2008 27 Sep The destruction of some 2,500 trees and an irrigation system in the Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid (Eternal Garden). Damage was also done to a building on the site and traffic and other directional signs were pulled up. [Iran Press Watch] Isfahan, Iran Persecution
2008 1 - 2 Nov The first of 41 Regional Conferences held over a four month period to mark the mid-point of the Five Year Plan held in Lusaka, Zambia. [Lusaka, BWNS642] Lusaka, Zambia Regional Conferences
2008 8 – 9 Nov Regional Conferences held in Nakuru, Kenya and Johannesburg, South Africa. [BWNS668] Nakuru, Kenya, Johannesburg, South Africa Regional Conferences
2008 15 – 16 Nov Regional Conferences held in Bangui, Central African Republic, Bangalore, India and Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo, [BWNS669] Bangui, Central African Republic, Bangalore, India, Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo Regional Conferences
2008 22 – 23 Nov Regional Conferences held in Quito, Ecuador, New Delhi, India, Kolkata, India, and Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. [BWNS673] Quito, Ecuador, New Delhi, India, Kolkata, India, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo Regional Conferences
2008 29 – 30 Nov Regional Conferences held in Antofagasta, Chile, Manila, Philippines and Yaoundé, Cameroon. [BWNS675] Antofagasta, Chile, Manila, Philippines, Yaoundé, Cameroon Regional Confernces
2008 Nov Ameed Saadat sat Iran's 2008 national university entrance examination. He passed was accepted to study hotel management at Goldasht College in Kelardasht, Mazandaran, and began his studies. The college's registration form required students to identify their religion. Ameed, being honest had identified himself as a Bahá'í. The day before his first-term examinations were to begin the college director told Ameed that he was being expelled and would therefore not be allowed to sit the examinations. The following day, 26 students refused to take the end-of-term exam in protest against Ameed's expulsion. [Iran Press Watch] Kelardasht, Mazandaran Ameed Saadat
2008 6 – 7 Dec Regional Conferences held in Portland, United States, Chicago, United States, Atlanta, United States and Almaty, Kazakhstan. [ Portand, Chicago, Atlanta, Almaty] Portland, United States, Chicago, United States, Atlanta, United States, Almaty, Kazakhstan Regional Conferences
2008 13 – 14 Dec Regional Conferences held in Stamford, United States, Dallas, United States and Los Angeles, United States. [BWNS677] Stamford, United States, Dallas, Los Angeles, Regional Conferences
2008 20 – 21 Dec Regional Conferences held in Kuching, Malaysia and São Paulo, Brazil. [BWNS683] Kuching, Malaysia, São Paulo, Brazil Regional Conferences
2008 27 – 28 Dec Regional Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This conference represents the half-way point in the series of 41 conferences between November 1st and March 1st. [BWNS685] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Regional Conference
2009 3 – 4 Jan Regional Conferences held in London, United Kingdom and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. [BWNS686] London, United Kingdom, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire Regional Conferences
2009 10 – 11 Jan Regional Conferences held in Toronto, Canada and Guadalajara, Mexico. [BWNS687] Toronto, Canada, Guadalajara, Mexico Regional Conferences
2009 17 – 18 Jan Regional Conferences held in Lae, Papua New Guinea, Vancouver, Canada and Managua, Nicaragua. [BWNS689] Lae, Papua New Guinea, Vancouver, Canada, Managua, Nicaragua Regional Conferences
2009 24 – 25 Jan Regional Conferences held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, Sydney, Australia and Madrid, Spain. [BWNS690] Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, Sydney, Australia, Madrid, Spain Regional Conferences
2009 31 Jan – 1 Feb Regional Conferences held in Auckland, New Zealand and Battambang, Cambodia. [BWNS692] Auckland, New Zealand, Battambang, Cambodia Regional Conferences
2009 3 Feb The publication of "We are Ashamed," an open letter from a group of academics, writers, artists, journalists and Iranian activists throughout the world to the Bahá'í community. This letter has been signed by a large number of the most prominent Iranian intellectuals. [Iran Press Watch 998, Text of Letter in pdf] Iran We Are Ashamed
2009 7 – 8 Feb Regional Conferences held in Frankfurt, Germany and Padua, Italy. [Padua, Frankfurt] Frankfurt, Germany, Padua, Italy Regional Conferences
2009 14 – 15 Feb Regional Conference held in Istanbul, Turkey. [BWNS698] Istanbul, Turkey Regional Conferences
2009 21 – 22 Feb Regional Conferences held in Baku, Azerbaijan and Accra, Ghana. [BWNS700] Baku, Azerbaijan, Accra, Ghana Regional Conferences
2009 28 Feb – 1 Mar Regional Conference held in Kyiv, Ukraine. [BWNS701] Kyiv, Ukraine Regional Conferences
2009 1 Mar The purpose of the Regional Conferences is to celebrate achievements during the first half of the Five Year Plan and to deliberate on the next phase. Reports from the 41 Regional Conferences can be found at Conference Reports. Regional Conferences
2009 16 Mar The Supreme Administrative Court removes any grounds for preventing Baha'is from receiving proper official identity documents by dismissing an appeal by two Muslim lawyers thus clearing the way for an end to years of deprivation for Egyptian Baha'is and opening the door to a new level of respect for religious privacy in Egypt. The appeal sought to prevent the implementation of a lower court ruling last year that said Baha'is can leave blank the religious classification field on official documents, including all-important identity cards and birth certificates. [BWNS703] Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2009 17 Apr With respect to the Supreme Administrative Court decision of 16 March 2009, the decree, dated 19 March, 2009 is signed by General Habib al-Adly, Egypt’s Interior Minister, and published on 14 April in the official gazette. According to the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR), which represented Baha’is in many of the recent court cases concerning religious affiliation on government documents, the decree amends the Implementing Statutes of Egypt’s Civil Status Law of 1994. It specifically instructs officials to place a dash (--) before the line reserved for religion in the official documents of citizens who can show that they, or their ancestors, were followers of a religious belief other than the three recognized by the state. [BWNS707] Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents
2009 Apr Beth McKenty, longtime pioneer to Iqaluit, Numavut, Canada receives the Caring Canadian Award from the Governor General of Canada for her work in the community. [BWNS711] Iqaluit, Numavut, Iqaluit, NU. Beth McKenty, Caring Canadian Award, Governor-General of Canada
2009 11 May After a year in jail without formal charges the Bahá'í leaders face an additional accusation, 'the spreading of corruption on earth,' which goes by the term 'Mofsede fel-Arz' in Persian and carries the threat of death under the penal code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Prior to this new charge they had been accused of 'espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.' [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
2009 2 – 3 Jul More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722] Geneva, Global Ethics Form, European Baha'i Business Form
2009 10 Jul Iranian officials tell the families of the seven Baha'i leaders currently held in Evin prison in Tehran that their trial has been delayed. No new trial date was given. [BWNS723] Tehran, Iran Yaran
2009 8 Aug Two young Egyptian Bahá'ís, Imad and Nancy Rauf Hindi, received the new identity cards. They had been at the center of a court case over religious identification on government documents. Their new computerized ID cards show a dash instead of their religion. They are the first such cards to be issued following a ruling by the Egyptian Supreme Administrative Court of 16 March, 2009 that cleared the way for the government to issue documents without reference to religious identity. For nearly five years, since the government began introducing a computerized identity card system that locked out all religious classifications except Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, Bahá'ís have been unable to get ID cards and other documents essential to day-to-day life in Egypt. [BWNS707, BWNS726, BWNS499, BWNS495, BWNS492, BWNS480] Cairo, Egypt Egypt-religious affiliation on government documents First government documents issued in Egypt to accommodate religious affiliation other than Muslim, Christian or Jewish religions.
2009 17 Aug The trial of seven Baha'i leaders imprisoned in Iran is further postponed until 18 October. [BWNS727] Tehran, Iran Yaran
2009 18 Oct Attorneys and families of the seven arrive at court in Tehran for the trial to be told that it would not take place. No new date is set. [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
2009 7 – 18 Dec The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference raised climate change policy to the highest political level. Close to 115 world leaders attended the high-level segment, making it one of the largest gatherings of world leaders ever outside UN headquarters in New York. More than 40,000 people, representing governments, nongovernmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations, media and UN agencies applied for accreditation. The delegation of the Bahá'í International Community, registered with the United Nations as an international nongovernmental organization, comprises some 20 people. [BWNS742] Copenhagen Copenhagen Climate Change Conference
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