In search of a quote

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AdibM
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In search of a quote

Postby AdibM » Fri Dec 26, 2008 12:41 am

Evening friends,

I was curious if anyone knows of the exact quote and source regarding the House of Justice and the International Court of Arbitration's (perhaps referred to as the Supreme Tribunal) eventual consummation into one institution? I hope this isn't a figment of my imagination! :oops:

Adib
"To be a Bahá'í simply means to love all the world; to love humanity and try to serve it; to work for universal peace and universal brotherhood." -- `Abdu'l-Bahá

Sen McGlinn
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Re: In search of a quote

Postby Sen McGlinn » Fri Dec 26, 2008 9:32 am

AdibM wrote: I was curious if anyone knows of the exact quote and source regarding the House of Justice and the International Court of Arbitration's (perhaps referred to as the Supreme Tribunal) eventual consummation into one institution? I hope this isn't a figment of my imagination! :oops: Adib


I think the word ‘consummation’ gives a clue as to what you are remembering.

The House of Justice and the Supreme Tribunal are two different institutions, with different membership and electoral methods, serving different purposes - and since all this is mandated in the Bahai Scriptures, it cannot be changed to make them one institution. I’ve pulled some of these differences together on my blog, under ‘two commonwealths’ http://senmcglinn.wordpress.com/2008/12/10/commonwealths/

What is to merge in one consummation are the two processes at work in the world, one secular and the other spiritual, referred to as the lesser peace and the greater peace: two processes that lead to one "consummation."

Shoghi Effendi writes:
"...if we .... appraise correctly the significances of contemporaneous events that are impelling forward both the American Bahá'í Community and the nation of which it forms a part ... we cannot fail to perceive the workings of two simultaneous processes, .... each clearly defined, each distinctly separate, yet closely related and destined to culminate, in the fullness of time, in a single glorious consummation."

One of these processes is associated with the mission of the American Bahá'í Community, ...
... serves directly the interests of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh,
... dates back to ... 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Divine Plan. ... It must [lead to] the establishment of the structure of the Administrative Order in all the remaining sovereign states and chief dependencies of the globe. It must reach the end of the first epoch in its evolution with ... the year 1335, and associated by 'Abdu'l-Bahá with the world triumph of the Faith of His Father. It will be consummated through the emergence of the Bahá'í World Commonwealth in the Golden Age of the Bahá'í Dispensation.

the other [is associated] with the destiny of the American nation. ... promotes indirectly the institutions that are to be associated with the establishment of His World Order. ... dates back to the outbreak of the first World War ... received its initial impetus through the formulation of President Wilson's Fourteen Points, ... acquired added momentum through the outbreak of the second World War, ... was further reinforced through the declaration embodied in the Atlantic Charter, ... assumed a definite outline through the birth of the United Nations ... It must,... lead, ... to the political unification of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, to the emergence of a world government and the establishment of the Lesser Peace, as foretold by Bahá'u'lláh and foreshadowed by the Prophet Isaiah. It must, in the end, culminate in the unfurling of the banner of the Most Great Peace, in the Golden Age of the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh.

(Shoghi Effendi, Citadel of Faith, p. 31-2: I have rearranged the references so that all the references to the greater peace process (the religious one) are in the first paragraph, and all those to the lesser peace process are in the second paragraph. The text in its original order is here: http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/CF/cf-1.html#pg31).


We can see here that the lesser peace is not a preliminary stage before the greater peace: they are two processes that are "distinctly separate, yet closely related and destined to culminate ... in a single glorious consummation."

These two parallel process, worldly and spiritual, are like the body and soul. The perfection of the human person requires bodily health, and spiritual health and the development of both physical and immaterial potentials. The processes needed to achieve this are distinct, yet related. Ultimately the ideal is a sound mind in a sound body, and ultimately the ideal of the physician or the educator is to treat the person holistically. But the body never becomes the soul, or vice versa. And the House of Justice never becomes the Tribunal, or vice versa.

AdibM
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Re: In search of a quote

Postby AdibM » Fri Dec 26, 2008 10:04 am

Yeah, I'm actually an avid reader of your blog and became skeptical as to whether my imagined quote truly did exist after remembering this particular post of yours.

Thanks for shedding some light on that.

On that note, isn't there a letter from the House stating that there's nothing in the Writings which would preclude a potential merging of the two institutions? Or have I dreamed up this one too? :lol: I understand what you're saying, Sen, just want to know if this quote's lying around anywhere.
"To be a Bahá'í simply means to love all the world; to love humanity and try to serve it; to work for universal peace and universal brotherhood." -- `Abdu'l-Bahá

pilgrimbrent
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Re: In search of a quote

Postby pilgrimbrent » Sat Dec 27, 2008 4:17 pm

AdibM wrote:Evening friends,

I was curious if anyone knows of the exact quote and source regarding the House of Justice and the International Court of Arbitration's (perhaps referred to as the Supreme Tribunal) eventual consummation into one institution? I hope this isn't a figment of my imagination! :oops:

Adib


There is a memorandum on this subject addressed by the Research Department to the Universal House of Justice, which I found on Ocean www.bahai-education.org
Brent

The Universal House of Justice

The Bahá'í World Centre


9 May 1996

Supreme Tribunal/International Tribunal/Universal Court of Arbitration

Extracts from the Writings and Letters of Shoghi Effendi

Touching the point raised in the Secretary's letter regarding the nature and scope of the Universal Court of Arbitration, this and other similar matters will have to be explained and elucidated by the Universal House of Justice, to which, according to the Master's explicit Instructions, all important fundamental questions must be referred. At present the exact implication and full significance of the provisions of the Master's Will are as yet imperfectly understood, and time will serve to reveal the wisdom and the far-reaching effects of His words.[1]

[1] See "Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1971), p. 13, for reference to the Supreme Tribunal.

(9 April 1923, in "Bahá'í Administration: Selected Messages 1922-1932" (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1974), p. 47)


2. Shoghi Effendi's answer was given in response to the following question:

Is the universal Tribunal, sometimes called by the Master the International Court of Arbitration, identical with the Universal House of Justice? Or is it to be a separate judicial body, with jurisdiction to pass upon all disputes between nations and outside the control of the Universal House?


Some form of a world superstate must needs be evolved, in whose favour all the nations of the world will have willingly ceded every claim to make war, certain rights to impose taxation and all rights to maintain armaments, except for purposes of maintaining internal order within their respective dominions. Such a state will have to include within its orbit an international executive adequate to enforce supreme and unchallengeable authority on every recalcitrant member of the commonwealth; a world parliament whose members shall be elected by the people in their respective countries and whose election shall be confirmed by their respective governments; and a supreme tribunal whose judgement will have a binding effect even in such cases where the parties concerned did not voluntarily agree to submit their case to its consideration. A world community in which all economic barriers will have been permanently demolished and the interdependence of Capital and Labour definitely recognized; in which the clamour of religious fanaticism and strife will have been forever stilled; in which the flame of racial animosity will have been finally extinguished; in which a single code of international law -- the product of the considered judgement of the world's federated representatives -- shall have as its sanction the instant and coercive intervention of the combined forces of the federated units; and finally a world community in which the fury of a capricious and militant nationalism will have been transmuted into an abiding consciousness of world citizenship -- such indeed, appears, in its broadest outline, the Order anticipated by Bahá'u'lláh, an Order that shall come to be regarded as the fairest fruit of a slowly maturing age.

(28 November 1931, cf. "The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh: Selected Letters" (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991), pp. 40-41)


The Universal Court of Arbitration and the International Tribunal are the same. When the Bahá'í State will be established they will be merged in the Universal House of Justice.

(17 June 1933, written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer)


3. This reply was given to the following questions:

Are the Universal Court of Arbitration and the International Tribunal one and the same? If so what is the relationship to the House of Justice?


The unity of the human race, as envisaged by Bahá'u'lláh, implies the establishment of a world commonwealth in which all nations, races, creeds and classes are closely and permanently united, and in which the autonomy of its state members and the personal freedom and initiative of the individuals that compose them are definitely and completely safeguarded. This commonwealth must, as far as we can visualize it, consist of a world legislature, whose members will, as the trustees of the whole of mankind, ultimately control the entire resources of all the component nations, and will enact such laws as shall be required to regulate the life, satisfy the needs and adjust the relationships of all races and peoples. A world executive, backed by an international Force, will carry out the decisions arrived at, and apply the laws enacted by, this world legislature, and will safeguard the organic unity of the whole commonwealth. A world tribunal will adjudicate and deliver its compulsory and final verdict in all and any disputes that may arise between the various elements constituting this universal system. A mechanism of world intercommunication will be devised, embracing the whole planet, freed from national hindrances and restrictions, and functioning with marvellous swiftness and perfect regularity. A world metropolis will act as the nerve centre of a world civilization, the focus towards which the unifying forces of life will converge and from which its energizing influences will radiate. A world language will either be invented or chosen from among the existing languages and will be taught in the schools of all the federated nations as an auxiliary to their mother tongues. A world script, a world literature, a uniform and universal system of currency, of weights and measures, will simplify and facilitate intercourse and understanding among the nations and races of mankind. In such a world society science and religion, the two most potent forces in human life, will be reconciled, will co-operate, and will harmoniously develop. The press will, under such a system, while giving full scope to the expression of the diversified views and convictions of mankind, cease to be mischievously manipulated by vested interests, whether private or public, and will be liberated from the influence of contending governments and peoples. The economic resources of the world will be organized, its sources of raw materials will be tapped and fully utilized, its markets will be coordinated and developed, and the distribution of its products will be equitably regulated.

(11 March 1936, cf. "The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh", pp. 203-204)


...the institution of the League of Nations, the precursor of that World Tribunal which, as prophesied by that same "Incomparable Branch," the peoples and nations of the earth must needs unitedly establish.

("God Passes By" (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1987), p. 305)


1. and 2. The Supreme Tribunal is an aspect of a World Super-state; the exact nature of its relationship to that state we cannot at present foresee.

3. Supreme Tribunal is the correct translation; it will be a contributing factor in establishing the Lesser Peace.

(19 November 1945, on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, cf. "Bahá'í News", no. 210, August 1948, p. 3)



4. The above statements were given in response to the following questions:


1. Is the Supreme Tribunal the world court or world tribunal referred to in "The Unfoldment of World Civilization", p. 41 and "Goal of a New World Order", p. 203? Is it a part of the world Super-State just as our Supreme Court is part of the federal government at Washington?

2. Will the Supreme Tribunal (a world court) exist apart from the world government?

3. From the Master's letter to The Hague it looks like the Supreme Tribunal might of itself establish the Lesser Peace. Some have suggested that possibly the term "Supreme Tribunal" is not the best translation.

Sen McGlinn
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Re: In search of a quote

Postby Sen McGlinn » Sat Dec 27, 2008 8:58 pm

AdibM wrote:On that note, isn't there a letter from the House stating that there's nothing in the Writings which would preclude a potential merging of the two institutions?


I think you are mixing two quotes. One is from the Guardian's secretary, 17 June 1933:

The Universal Court of Arbitration and the International Tribunal are the same. When the Bahá'í State will be established they will be merged in the Universal House of Justice.
(The Universal House of Justice, 1996 May 09, Extracts on International Tribunal)


This looks like a confusion on the secretary's part: the Bahai State is to function at the national level, the Tribunal and the House of Justice at the international level, and the electorate and voting procedures for both the Tribunal and the UHJ are specified by Abdu'l-Baha, and are different, so the institutions cannot merge. They can however work together.

The second quote is this one:

While the Research Department has not been able to find any statements in the Bahá'í Writings which explicate how the Supreme Tribunal will "merge" with the Universal House of Justice or which specify how these institutions will relate to each other,
(1996 Jun 27, Monogamy, Equality of Sexes)


Not surprising they couldn't find anything in the writings about this 'merger' ... it's not there.

The idea that the Tribunal and the House of Justice were basically the same thing had developed through the first translation of Some Answered Questions, which stated this in two footnotes (since removed). In the 1930's it was still the general idea among Bahais.
Doris McKay, in 'Baha'u'llah the Lawgiver' in Star of the West vol 25 (Feb 1935) writes:

"THE LAW and authority of Baha'u'llah were in a measure extended to the Baha'i Institution. The legislative function was decreed to the House of Justice. In definition of this International Tribunal, 'Abdu'l Baha said: the civic affairs and the legislation of the material laws for the increasing needs of the enlightened community belong to the House of Justice. This will be not only a body for legislation according to the spirit and requirement of the time, but a board of arbitration for the settlement of all disputes arising between peoples." (p. 328)

Keith Ransom Kehler and Hussein Rabbani were also publishing their theocratic ideas around that time. It was in the air. Hussein Rabbani served as Shoghi Effendi's secretary.

Sen

AdibM
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Re: In search of a quote

Postby AdibM » Sun Dec 28, 2008 12:46 am

Ah I see, thank you again for the clarification Sen.
"To be a Bahá'í simply means to love all the world; to love humanity and try to serve it; to work for universal peace and universal brotherhood." -- `Abdu'l-Bahá

brettz9
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Re: In search of a quote

Postby brettz9 » Sun Dec 28, 2008 2:55 am

Hello all,

(Note I've added emphasis to various quotations below)

First let's be clear to whom, according to our Writings such questions about what constitutes the international tribunal, etc. are to be addressed:

... regarding the nature and scope of the Universal Court of Arbitration, this and other similar matters will have to be explained and elucidated by the Universal House of Justice, to which, according to the Master's explicit Instructions, all important fundamental questions must be referred....

(Shoghi Effendi, Bahá'í Administration, p. 47)


'Abdu'l-Baha Himself stated, leaving no doubt about to whom we should turn:

The sacred and youthful branch, the Guardian of the Cause of God, as well as the Universal House of Justice to be universally elected and established, are both under the care and protection of the Abhá Beauty, under the shelter and unerring guidance of the Exalted One (may my life be offered up for them both). Whatsoever they decide is of God. Whoso obeyeth him not, neither obeyeth them, hath not obeyed God....


For those interested in this topic, the House of Justice has quite adequately addressed the issues: http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html . We have no need to refer to any individuals claiming to know what the real meaning of these passages are.

Although the spirit-body analogy is a useful one, coming as it does from our Writings, it is not applicable for this situation (though it might be applied to the distinction between the executive ('body') which will apply the laws of the House of Justice ('the spirit')--see below, and indeed relative to spiritual matters, which is what we dedicate ourselves primarily to now, material affairs are indeed like the 'body').

We have already stated several quotes referring to a "Baha'i State" distinct from a period preceding it in which it is merely the "State Religion".

And there is such as this clear quotation:

"All matters of State should be referred to the House of Justice, but acts of worship must be observed according to that which God hath revealed in His Book."

(Baha'u'llah, Tablet of Ishraqat, p. 91)


As far as the idea about the Lesser Peace and Most Great Peace being eternally disparate processes, note that the following quotations do not state that the Lesser Peace will continue along with the Most Great Peace (as should be evident from the names themselves); it refers to a sequence:

"We know, however, that peace will come in stages. First, there will come the Lesser Peace, when the unity of nations will be achieved, then gradually the Most Great Peace—the spiritual as well as social and political unity of mankind, when the Bahá'í World Commonwealth, operating in strict accordance with the laws and ordinances of the Most Holy Book of the Bahá'í Revelation, will have been established through the efforts of the Bahá'ís."

(31 January 1985 to an individual believer)


"As regards the International Executive referred to by the Guardian in his 'Goal of a New World Order' it should be noted that this statement refers by no means to the Bahá'í Commonwealth of the future, but simply to that world government which will herald the advent and lead to the final establishment of the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. The formation of this International Executive, which corresponds to the executive head or board in present-day national governments, is but a step leading to the Bahá'í world government of the future, and hence should not be identified with either the institution of the Guardianship or that of the International House of Justice."

(From a letter written on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer, March 17, 1934 Helen Hornby, compiler, Lights of Guidance, p. 320)



The Universal Court of Arbitration and the International Tribunal are the same. When the Bahá'í State will be established they will be merged in the Universal House of Justice.
(The Universal House of Justice, 1996 May 09, Extracts on International Tribunal)


This looks like a confusion on the secretary's part: the Bahai State is to function at the national level, the Tribunal and the House of Justice at the international level,


Firstly, I think we should take a look at the authority our Writings ascribe to letters on behalf of the Guardian:

Mr. __ also enquires about the relative degree of authority associated with letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi. He indicates that he is puzzled by a statement in a letter written on the Guardian's behalf, which indicates that such letters are "less authoritative", especially since he presumes that Shoghi Effendi would have reviewed these letters prior to their being sent out. It seems likely that the statement referred to by Mr. __ is contained in the following extract from a letter dated 25 February 1951 written on behalf of the Guardian to a National Spiritual Assembly. It is suggested that a careful reading of this statement, which is cited below, will resolve the concern raised by Mr. __. The extract states,
Although the secretaries of the Guardian convey his thoughts and instructions and these messages are authoritative, their words are in no sense the same as his, their style certainly not the same, and their authority less, for they use their own terms and not his exact words in conveying his messages.
(25 February 1951 to the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles)

Note that the letters written on behalf of the Guardian are also described as being "authoritative".

(On behalf of the Universal House of Justice, at http://bahai-library.com/file.php?file= ... f_guardian )


Secondly, since other Writings indicate such as the following:

The Baha'is will be called upon to assume the reins of government when they will come to constitute the majority of the population in a given country, and even then their participation in political affairs is bound to be limited in scope unless they obtain a similar majority in some other countries as well. (19 November 1939 at http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html )

... The idea that when a Baha'i State is established, they will be merged might be understood as referring to the general concept of the interconnected system of governments functioning as a single unified state.

and the electorate and voting procedures for both the Tribunal and the UHJ are specified by Abdu'l-Baha, and are different, so the institutions cannot merge.


The above quotations establish that this statement that they cannot merge is patently false: "The Baha'is will be called upon to assume the reins of government"... (even while it is true, that the Tribunal 'Abdu'l-Baha envisaged will indeed first operate under different procedures, etc.)

But that's not all:

Regarding the question raised in your letter, Shoghi Effendi believes that for the present the Movement, whether in the East or the West, should be dissociated entirely from politics. This was the explicit injunction of `Abdu'l-Baha... Eventually, however, as you have rightly conceived it, the Movement will, as soon as it is fully developed and recognized, embrace both religious and political issues. In fact Bahá'u'lláh clearly states that affairs of state as well as religious questions are to be referred to the House of Justice into which the Assemblies of the Bahá'ís will eventually evolve.

(30 November 1930, at http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html )


The Baha'is must remain non-partisan in all political affairs. In the distant future, however, when the majority of a country have become Baha'is then it will lead to the establishment of a Baha'i State. (19 April 1941)


"a stage which must later be followed by the emergence of the Baha'i state itself, functioning, in all religious and civil matters, in strict accordance with the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, the Most Holy, the Mother Book of the Baha'i Revelation, a stage which, in the fullness of time, will culminate in the establishment of the World Baha'i Commonwealth"

(Shoghi Effendi, 30 April 1953 to the All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference cited at http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html )


"it is evident that the growth of the Baha'i communities to the size where a non-Baha'i state would adopt the Faith as the State Religion, let alone to the point at which the State would accept the Law of God as its own law and the National House of Justice as its legislature, must be a supremely voluntary and democratic process."

(at http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html )


Obviously, by "merging" does not mean that they will continue to follow all procedures they had formerly been following. Any institutions that merge (such as corporations) will have different procedures, and merging does not mean they will function identically as before. (And "merge into" implies that the institution into which the other is merged, will maintain its primacy, as perhaps we might compare to a company being merged into another.)

So, sometimes, one imperfect yet praiseworthy immediate solution (which was not designed by God to be a perfect system, though He has impelled humanity toward choosing it and has encouraged Baha'is to support it), gives way to a more perfect one. The opposite case happened in earlier Biblical times when the people, who had been given some form of divine government, demanded that they be given a king, and God reluctantly granted the wish. Now, as humanity will reach the "maturity of the world" when "no one will accept to bear the weight of kingship" (nor presumably will anyone be demanding it), we see the tide turn back.

There are, however, indications about the House of Justice not possessing executive power, at least in the sense of a secular government:

The Laws of Bahá'u'lláh are the unchangeable, organic laws of the Universal House of Justice. They are the very foundation upon which the structure of additional legislation is built... Again, I repeat, the House of Justice, whether National or Universal, has only legislative power and not executive power...

(From words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in: Star of the West, Vol. VII, No. 15, pp. 138-139)


This House of Justice enacteth the laws and the government enforceth them. The legislative body must reinforce the executive, the executive must aid and assist the legislative body so that through the close union and harmony of these two forces, the foundation of fairness and justice may become firm and strong, that all the regions of the world may become even as Paradise itself.

In response to a question about the "government" in the above passage, Shoghi Effendi's secretary wrote on his behalf, on 18 April 1941, the following clarification:

By "Government" ... is meant the executive body which will enforce the laws when the Baha'i Faith has reached the point when it is recognized and accepted entirely by any particular nation.

(at http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html )


Not surprising they couldn't find anything in the writings about this 'merger' ... it's not there.


An assertion which is contradicted outright by the above. What they said they couldn't find was "statements...which explicate how the Supreme Tribunal will "merge"".

The quotations in our Writings regarding separation of Church and State cannot be isolated from the other Writings which clearly establish this only relates to the current state of humanity's development. Any criticism of clergy interference in politics is just that--criticism of clergy interfering; the House of Justice is an elected body and a fully divinely ordained one, so this is why our Writings are non-committal on exactly whether we can call it a "theocracy" (but note that the passages below still do):

He thinks your question is well put: what the Guardian was referring to was the theocratic systems, such as the Catholic Church and the Caliphate, which are not divinely given as systems, but man-made, and yet, being partly derived from the teachings of Christ and Muhammad are in a sense theocracies. The Baha'i theocracy, on the contrary, is both divinely ordained as a system and, of course, based on the teachings of the Prophet Himself.

(at http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html )


"In the second paragraph of your letter you say that you understand that the Baha'i World Order is "at least 80%, a theocratic-aristocratic order". Inasmuch as the Order of Baha'u'llah is an integral part of the divine Revelation that He, as a Manifestation of God, has given us, one could say that this Order is essentially theocratic, but inasmuch as it is entirely devoid of any kind of clergy or priesthood, it is not at all a "theocracy" in the sense in which the term is generally used and understood."

(at http://bahai-library.com/uhj/administrative.order.html )


I think we've exhausted this discussion pretty well, and the topic has been fully addressed in authoritative letters above-referenced, so I'm locking this topic now. I expect our guests will respect the rules of the forum.

Brett

Susan
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Re: In search of a quote

Postby Susan » Mon Dec 29, 2008 11:08 pm

AdibM wrote:Evening friends,

I was curious if anyone knows of the exact quote and source regarding the House of Justice and the International Court of Arbitration's (perhaps referred to as the Supreme Tribunal) eventual consummation into one institution? I hope this isn't a figment of my imagination! :oops:

Adib


Dear Adib,

You are not imagining things. Here is the qoute in question:

"The Universal Court of Arbitration and the International Tribunal are the same. When the Bahá'í State will be established they will be merged in the Universal House of Justice."
Letter written on behalf of the Guardian in June 17 1933.

warmest, Susan

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Re: In search of a quote

Postby Susan » Mon Dec 29, 2008 11:13 pm

I think the word ‘consummation’ gives a clue as to what you are remembering.


Except that word 'cosummation' isn't in the letter written on behalf of the Guardian. The letter itself says the institutions will be *merged.*

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Re: In search of a quote

Postby Susan » Mon Dec 29, 2008 11:19 pm

AdibM wrote:On that note, isn't there a letter from the House stating that there's nothing in the Writings which would preclude a potential merging of the two institutions? Or have I dreamed up this one too? :lol: I understand what you're saying, Sen, just want to know if this quote's lying around anywhere.


Dear Adib,

I think what you have in mind is a letter from the Universal House of Justice dated April 27, 1995 which basically refutes Sen's theories. You can find that letter here:
http://bahai-library.com/uhj/theocracy.html

warmest, Susan

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Re: In search of a quote

Postby Susan » Mon Dec 29, 2008 11:26 pm

Sen McGlinn wrote:
AdibM wrote:This looks like a confusion on the secretary's part: [


Sorry Sen, but letter's written on behalf of the Guardian are authoritative and they don't go out without his reviewing them.

Keith Ransom Kehler and Hussein Rabbani were also publishing their theocratic ideas around that time. It was in the air. Hussein Rabbani served as Shoghi Effendi's secretary.


And it was precisely for that reason that Shoghi Effendi wrote the following:

"I wish to add and say that whatever letters are sent in my behalf from Haifa are all read and approved by me before mailing. There is no exception whatever to this rule."


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