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Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Baha'i history, with accents and underlines, and definitions.
The HTML version below is from August 2018. For the newest version, download this Word document from December 2018.

See also a Guide to Transliteration and Pronunciation, a list of Oriental Words in Bahá'í Literature, and an audio Bahá'í Pronunciation Guide.

Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transcription

compiled by Mike Thomas.
Arabic & Farsi transcription
list and glossary for Baha'is
Download MS Word copy   (December 2018)
Feedback and suggestions   are welcomed and encouraged.
This document lists the Roman script transcription forms of many of the Arabic and Farsi (some are of Turkish origin) names and words used in the Baha'i Writings as a guide to their transcription. Hence, there is no need to include all possible combinations of those words used in the names of people and places. However, additional root words have been added as a guide to an understanding of the meaning of the words.*
* *Persian: "-yi-" ("of" in English), Agha "of" Karand, after a vowel instead of "-i-" as in Kaim-i-Zanjani. Agha-yi-Karand (formal) and Agha Karand (informal).
Why use transcription?
Transliteration and transcription are two distinct processes by which text is converted from one script to another. Technically, transliteration is concerned primarily with accurately representing the graphemes1 of another script, whilst transcription is concerned primarily with representing its phonemes.2
In addition, transliteration is concerned with scripts, whilst transcription is concerned with writing systems (the way a script is applied to a particular language).
Regarding the transliteration [sic] of Persian and Arabic words the House of Justice requests that the method adopted by the beloved Guardian, and which is described in the various volumes of The Baha'i World, be followed, as it permits all languages which use the Roman alphabet to transliterate [sic] such terms in the same way throughout the Baha'i world.3
Whatever "house styles" Publishing Trusts and other Baha'i publishers may adopt, transliteration [sic] of oriental terms into languages using the Roman alphabet must at present be according to the system chosen by the Guardian and described in volumes of The Baha'i World.4
The terms "Guardian" and "Universal House of Justice" are explained in the alphabetical list below.
1 The smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
2 Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another.
3 From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, 16 July 1979.
4 The Universal House of Justice, 21 July 1998, Current Guidance on Baha'i Publishing
Any variations in transcription by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Baha'i authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transcription rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transcripted forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transcripted.
d)A search for the words in Arabic dictionaries (e.g. The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written Arabic).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Baha'is who are Arabic and/or Farsi speakers. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Entries in this document are amended when new information becomes available, or new names and words are found in relevant publications. Hence, it is recommended that you use the latest available copy from . A relatively recent copy is available from
Arabic and Farsi do not have capital letters. When transcripted, capital letters should only be used for proper names and attributes of God, otherwise, lower case letters should be used. This document uses capital letters for all words/names as if they were proper names--these should be converted to lower case for other uses.
Information sources
Some sources of information are given in brackets. Authors of books, tablets, etc., "(by _____)". The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice (caution: these contain errors); and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh. New entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian dictionaries--older entries will gradually be updated using these dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from a few knowledgeable individuals.
Hybrid word/names
Most words (there are some commonly accepted exceptions, e.g. Baha'is) that have an English suffix should not be transcripted (e.g. Islamic, Qur'anic, Shi'ite, Shi'ism). Adding an 's' to many words to represent the plural form is more recognizable to the English reader (babs) than the often very different transcripted Arabic plural word (abvab). These and some other words are often better replaced by an English equivalent, e.g. Gate-hood for Babiyyat instead of the incorrect hybrid forms: "Babhood" or "Babhood", etc.
List arrangement
The first column of the following list contains a form of the words/names without acute accents, initial 'Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transcription, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort (the sorting used by Word is not the desired order) of the list itself.
Searching the list
It is easier to search for words if you:
a)remove all accents and underdots.
b)Remove the definite article ("al-", "ul-", etc.; refer to the entry for "al-" and the description of the sun letters in the Arabic letters and abjad values section at the end of this list.)
c)Remove final letters such as "ah", "ih", "yah" and "yih" (usually Persian forms), and "h" and "t" that often represent a ta' marbua (refer to the ta' marbua entry).
d)Replace "o" and "e" by "u" and "i". Then replace double vowels (representing a, i, u) with a, i and u respectively. Also try replacing "v" (Persian) with "w". In some cases "u" following a vowel should also be replaced by "w".
e)Replace some transcripted Persian letters where single and double (diaeresis below) underdots are used with the letters in the "Plain text" column of the following table. Often the underdots are not given, then you do not know if a "z" represents a "z", "d" or "dh".
Transliteration Transcription Plain text Transliteration Transcription Plain text
s th th d
t t z z z
z z z dh dh
Phonetic or common spelling
Some words in brackets in the third column indicate an old-style phonetical spelling that can be found in some older Baha'i publications.

Roman script transcripted forms of Arabic/Farsi words/names
Unaccented forms
Transcripted forms
Explanations and comments
Pers.   (suffix and prefix) denoting what holds or contains anything (i.e container/box);   know thou;   (in compound) knowing, intelligent.
1. A condition or state of being the thing or being in the role denoted by the word it is suffixed to, usually a noun, e.g. childhood.
2. A group sharing a specified condition or state, e.g. brotherhood
home or place
-parast, -parastan
-parast, pl. parastan
Pers.   a non-joining suffix roughly equivalent to -ist, frequently denoting a worshiper or follower of, but often with unpredictable meanings. Example: atish-parast, a fire-worshipper;   a physician.
English suffix of nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc.
Pers. "place of" or "country"
-un, -an, -in
-un, -an, -in
subjective/nominative, objective/accusative and possessive/genetive singular noun case endings (respectively) where they exist.
-yya (-iya), -yyih
-yya, Pers. -yyih
nisba, a suffix used to form adjectives in Arabic grammar. Sometimes -iya is used.   Often denotes either a group of people who follow a certain person, or a group with a certain ideological system.
Unaccented forms
Trascripted forms
Explanations and comments
A'isha, 'A'ishih
'A'isha(h or t), Pers. also 'A'ishih
wife of Muammad and daughter of Abu-Bakr.   Also written as Aisyah, Ayesha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha.
A'la, Ulya, Ulan, A'alin, A'lahu
A'la, f. 'Ulya, pl. 'Ulan, A'alin
higher, highest;   upper, uppermost;   'Alin the highest portion of something;   heights, peaks (fig.).   A'lahu further up, above.   "The Most Exalted One" is a title of the Bab.
A'raj, 'Arja, 'Urj, 'Urjan
A'raj, fem. 'Arja, pl. 'Urj, 'Urjan
lame, limping;--jack (in a deck of cards)
A'zam,   (see Azim)
A'am, f. 'Uma, pl. A'aim
greater, bigger;   more significant, more important;   greatest, major, supreme;   most significant, paramount.   Comparative form of 'auma' (to make great)
Ghulam usayn A'ami
August (month;   Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran).   Father (in parts of Iran).
Ab-Gusht, Abi-Gusht, Abi-Gosht
Pers. gravy, broth
Ab, Aba', Abu, Abi
Ab, Abi, Abu, pl. Aba'
father (also ecclesiastical): ancestor, forefather.   Abu (father of), Abu'l (the father of) and Abi (partial names) must be followed by another name.
Ab, Aban
Ab, pl. Aban
Pers.   water;   river;   largesse, gift, price.   Name of eighth month of Persian solar year
Aba, A'bi'a
'Aba', pl. A'bi'a
loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   In Writings translated from Persian, 'Aba is used.   English aba or abba
Aba'a, 'Aba'at
fem.   'Aba'a(h), pl. 'Aba'at
loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   English aba or abba
Abad, pl. Abad
Ar.   endless, eternal, eternity.   Pers.   populous, thriving, prosperous, developed, inhabited.   abad suffix used in compound Persian names of towns and populated or inhabited areas
Abada, 'Ibada, 'Ubuda, 'Ubadiya
'Abada ('Ibada, 'Ubuda, 'Ubadiya)
to serve, worship (a god), adore, venerate (someone, a god or human being), idolize, deify (someone);   form II to enslave, enthral, subjugate, subject (someone);   to improve, develop, make serviceable, make passable for traffic (a road);   form V to devote oneself to the service of God;   form X to enslave, enthral, subjugate (someone)
city in Iran to the north of Kuwait City
"Abadeh" city in Fars Province, Iran.   170 km north of Shiraz, 185 km sw Yazd and 200 km sse Ifahan.
Layla Abadih'i, Mirza usayn Khan Abadih'i
Abahab, 'Adhabat, A'dhiba
'Adhab, pl. 'Adhabat, A'dhiba
pain, torment, suffering, agony, torture;   punishment, chastisement, castigation
Abarkuh (Abarqu, Abargu)
Abarkuh (Abar-Kuh)
village between Yazd and Shiraz
Abasa, 'Abs, 'Ubs
'Abasa ('Abs, 'Ubs)
to frown, knit one's brows;   to glower, lower, scowl, look sternly
The lion, also stern looking, formidable, stentorian.   Derived from 'abasa, originally meaning a furious lion, hence with a lion's characteristics.
Abbas Abad, Abbas-Abad, Abbasabad
'Abbas Abad, 'Abbas-Abad, 'Abbasabad
villages in Iran: Caspian Sea, part of ihran.
Mirza Buzurg-i-Vazir
Abbasi, Abbasyun
'Abbasi, pl. 'Abbasyun
Abbaside, descendant of al-'Abbas, uncle of the Prophet Muammad.   Abbasid (Abbaside) Caliphs (750-861).
Pers.   The princes of the house of 'Abbas, the Abbasides.
'Abbasiyya School
'Abbud, Ilyas
devoted or obedient worshipper of God.   Derived from 'abada.   Ilyas 'Abbud was a christian merchant of 'Akka. His house in 'Akka is joined on the eastern side to the smaller house of 'Udi Khammar. The common wall has been opened. Both are now known as the House of 'Abbud.   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
"Servant in Attendance"
Abd, 'Abid, 'Ubdan, 'Ibad
'Abd, pl. 'Abid, 'Ubdan, 'Ibad
slave, serf;   bondsman, servant, worshipper;--(pl. 'ibad) servant (of God), human being, man.   al-'ibad humanity, mankind
Abda, 'Abdat
'Abda, pl. 'Abdat
woman slave, slave girl, bondwoman
more amazing, more exceptional;   of even greater originality.   See Badi'
Pers.   watery, moist, juicy;   of a good water (as a diamond or a sword);   a keeper of water, a servant whose office is to keep water cool (hence water-carrier or butler);   keen, sharp;   glancing, dazzling, resplendent;   flowing (verse);   a sociable and convivial man;   a man of understanding, reflection or wealth;   a species of plant resembling the fibres of a palm-tree
variation of 'Abdu'llah (servant of God)
Abdu Manaf, Abd-i-Manaf
'Abdu Manaf, Pers. 'Abd-i-Manaf
name of an Arabian tribe
"the Servant of Remembrance"--a designation of the Bab
'Abdu'l Baghi
'Abdu'l Baghi
Mirza 'Abdu'l Baghi, father of Mirza Amad Suhrab (known as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab)
partial name [Abd (slave) + u'l (the) = slave of the ...] followed by one of the names of God.
"The Servant of Glory" (of Baha).   'Abbas Afandi (Effendi).   4 daughters: iya'iyyih (mother of Shoghi Effendi), uba, Rua and Munavvar.   Wife Munirih Khanum
"servant of the everlasting"
Abdu'l-Ghani Baydun
'Abdu'l-Ghani Bayun
Sulan 'Abdu'l-amid Khan
"Servant of the Creator"
Fifth Umayyad Caliph
BKG 124
Pers.   'Abdu'l Wahab
servant of God
Abdu'llah Pasha
'Abdu'llah Pasha
his house in 'Akka is now a Baha'i centre.   Grid co-ordinates 32.923799, 35.068098
Error The Dawn-Breakers 182, BKG 132
Abdu'r-Rahman Afandi Alusi
'Abdu'r-Raman Afandi Alusi
Abdu'r-Razzaq (" 'Abdu'l-Razzak ")
The "l" of "al" is not pronounced when it comes in front of letters called "solar letters" such as letters r, t, d, z, etc.
the Gardener of the Rivan Garden, 'Akka
(from ana abdu-hu) (I am) his servant or slave.   Muammad 'Abduh (1849-11 July 1905) an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, a key founding figure of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu'tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Mu'tazila. He broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma and family ties. He was a Freemason and had a close relationship with 'Abdu'l-Baha and the Baha'i Faith.   See Salafiya
Abdus, 'Ubdus
'Abdus, 'Ubdus
'abdus = 'abd aws (gift) allah (u from w). This is a theophoric name (from Greek: "bearing or carrying a god") where the final sound(s) (the apocopate) are omitted. 'Abdus ibn Abi 'Uthman
more splendid, more brilliant.   "Most Glorious"
  . al-Abha (El-Abha)   "The Most Glorious"
  . Abha Beauty--Jamal-i-Abha--a title of Baha'u'llah
  . Abha Kingdom--The Most Glorious Kingdom (also Abha Paradise)
See Allah-u-Abha and Ya Baha'u'l-Abha
(Ar.)   more brilliant, more magnificent.   aji Mirza Muammad-Taqi-i-Abhari is known as Ibn-i-Abhar.
Pers.   a water-mill;   a vein in the back, the jugular vein;   the back of a bow
Abu'l-Hikam Abu'l-ikam "the Father of Wisdoms".   See ikma
Arabic term used in reference to Imam Ja'far adiq
(SDC p. 48)
The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abid, Abidin
'Abid, 'Abidin
an adorer, or servant of God;   worshipper--see as used in conjunction with Zayn.
Abid, Abidun, 'Ubbad, 'Abada
'Abid, pl. 'Abidun, 'Ubbad, 'Abada
worshipper, adorer
'Abir, pl. 'Abirun
passing;   crossing, traversing, etc.;   fleeting (smile);   transient, transitory, ephemeral;   bygone, past, elapsed (time);--pl. passerby.   'abir ariq wanderer, wayfarer.   See Awarih
Now Dargaz, Khurasan, Iran
Derives from the Arabic word for "Alphabet": A (Alif), B (Ba'), J (Jim), D (Dal)--first four consonant letters of the alphabet (ignoring those with the same base)
Abraha al-Ashram
'Abraha(h) al-'Ashram
("Abraha al-Ashram") an Abyssinian prince, who built a Christian church in ana to rival the Ka'ba at Mecca. According to traditional Arab belief, he made an unsuccessful attack with his forces of elephants to destroy the Ka'ba ad 570 (known as the year of the elephant and date of the birth of Muammad).
curtailed, docked, clipped, trimmed;   imperfect, defective, incomplete;   without offspring.   See root batara.
Abu 'Abdu'llah ash-Shi'i
Abu 'Abdu'llah ash-Shi'i
Abu 'Ali
Abu 'Ali
Abu 'Amir
Abu 'Amir
Abu 'Imran Musa ibn Maymun
Abu 'Imran Musa ibn Maymun
Maimonides (orig. Moshe ben Maimon)
Abu al-Dawahi
Abu al-Dawahi
"Father of Iniquities", Abu Bakr.   See Dahiya
Abu al-Fida', Abu'l-Fida'
Abu al-Fida', Pers. Abu'l-Fida'
Abu al-Fida' Isma'il ibn 'Ali ibn Mamud al-Malik al-Mu'ayyad 'Imad ad-Din (1273-1331), better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama. He was a prince of the Ayyubid dynasty and the author of The memoirs of a Syrian prince: Abu'l-Fida, Sulan of amah. The moon crater, Abulfeda, is named after him.
Abu Dhar
Abu Dhar
Abu Dhar al-Ghifari al-Kinani
Abu Dhar al-Ghifari al-Kinani
(Dhar' or Dharr?)   illiterate shepherd (of the Banu Ghifar,a Jewish tribe) who became a disciple of Muammad (ESW p. 183)   (Abu-Dhar Ghefan)
Abu Sinan (Abu-Sinan)
Abu Sinan (Abu-Sinan)
a Druze village (Hebrew Abu Snan) about 7.5 km east of Bahji and 4 km west the Druze village of Yarka (Yirka)
The Dawn-Breakers liv
follower of Imam adiq who handed down his traditions
(Abudjahl) ("father of ignorance")   Abu'l-akam 'Amr Ibn Hisham
Abu-Nasr Farabi
Abu-Nar Farabi
4th century ah Persian philosopher and writer
Abu-alib, Mulla   sons 'Ali-Ashraf and Aqa Bala
Siyyid Abu-alib-i-Sang-Sari (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 426)
Father of Misfortunes
"the father of man"--one of the titles given by Muslims to Adam
Abu'l-Fal-i-Gulpaygani, Mirza
(Mirza Abu'l Fatoo)
("the Father of Victories") name given to Enoch Olinga by Shoghi Effendi
Abu'l-asan-i-Ardikani, Mulla
Haji Amin, Amin-i-Ilahi (Trustee [Amin] of uququ'llah)
Abu'l-Huda, Shaykh
a learned Babi from Kashan (Abu'l Kaim)
"the father of iniquities or wickedness"   (EGB, Balyuzi)
Abu Qir is a village NE of Alexandria, Egypt
Abwab al-Arba'ah, Abwab-i-Arba'ih
al-Abwab al-Arba'a(h)
Pers, Abwab-i-Arba'ih.   "the Four Gates" DB 178.   Persian sometimes written Abvab-i-Arba'ih.   See Arba'
Abyad ("Abiyad"), Baida, Bid
Abya, fem. Baia', pl. Bi
white;   bright;   clean, shiny, polished;   blameless, noble, sincere (character);   empty, blank (sheet of paper);--pl. al-bian the white race.   al-abya egg white
clearer, more distinct, more obvious.   Root bana, bayan
Traditionally, a fourth generation descendent of Noah;   an ancient Arabian tribe
Ad'iyyih va Munajat
Ad'iyyih (or Ad'iyih) va Munajat
"Prayers and Supplications" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Ada, 'Adat, 'Awa'id, 'Adatan
'Ada(t), pl. 'Adat, 'Awa'id
habit, wont, custom, usage, practice;   'Adatan usually, customarily, ordinarily, habitually;--pl. 'Awa'id taxes, duties;   charges, fees, rates
enmity, hostility, antagonism, animosity;   aggression
good manners, as in etiquette
"to lead or guide"
"to leave in error or lead astray"
Adasiyah, Adasiyyih
'Adasiya(h), Pers. 'Adasiyyih
(Adassiya)--a town in Jordan 17 km se of Tiberias. This is the resting place of a half brother of Baha'u'llah, and one of three villages where 'Abdu'l-Baha grew corn and wheat during the First World War.
'Id al-Aa   Festival of Sacrifice
chastisement in the grave
Muslim announcement or call to prayer
Adhan, Adhah
Aan (collective; nomen unitatis Aah)
slaughter animal, blood sacrifice, immolation
Adhar (Azar), Adhur (Azur)
Adhar, Adhur
Pers.   fire;   name of the angel presiding over fire, and the day adhar;   affairs of the month and day adhar, the former being the ninth solar month, the latter being the ninth day of any month, but particularly of the fourth month
Adharbayjan, Adhirbayjan
Adharbayjan, (Azarbayjan)
Pers.   Azerbaijan or Azerbayjan, country, and a province in nw Iran.   Also Adhirbayjan, Azarbayjan Azarbaygn
customary, usual, common, ordinary, normal, regular;   undistinguished, run-of-the-mill;   ordinary, regular (e.g., meeting, as opposed to extraordinary, special, emergency);   simple, plain, ordinary (man);   old, ancient, antique
Adi-Ghazal (Adi-Guzal)
Mirza 'Aliy-i-Sayya-i-Maraghih'i
Adib, Udaba'
Adib, pl. Udaba'
cultured, refined, educated;   well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane;   a man of culture and refined tastes;   man of letters, writer, author (superlative form of 'Aduba' [to learn])
litterateur or literary man of the 'Ulama
Adil ('Adilih)
'Adil, fem. 'Adila
just, fair, equitable;   upright, honest, straightforward, righteous.   Persian also 'Adilih
Adirna, Adirnih
Adirna, Pers. Adirnih
Hadrianopolis (Adrianople in English), now known as Edirne.   Same numerical value, 260, as Sirr (Mystery)
Adiya, 'Adiyat, 'Awadin
'Adiya, pl. 'Adiyat, 'Awadin
wrong, offense, misdeed, outrage;   adversity, misfortune, reverse;   obstacle, impediment, obstruction;--pl. vicissitudes.   Root 'ada'
father of Qarad
Adl, 'Udul
'Adl, pl. 'Udul
straightness, straightforwardness;   justice, impartiality;   fairness, equitableness, probity, honesty, uprightness;   equitable composition, just compromise;--(pl.) just, equitable, fair, upright, honest;   person of good reputation, person with an honourable record (Islamic Law);   juristic adjunct assigned to a cadi (Maghrib)
justice, administration of justice, jurisprudence
Adna, Dunya, Adanin, Adnun, Dunan
Adna, f. Dunya
(pl. m. Adanin, Adnun pl. f. Dunan) nearer, closer;   situated lower down, nether;   lower, inferior;   lowlier;   smaller, of less significance;   more appropriate, better suited, more suitable
(now Edirne)
Ar.   Servant of the Remembrance. A designation of the Bab.
Adud, A'dad
'Aud, pl. A'ad
help, aid, assistance, support, backing;   helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer.   (pl.) upper arm;   strength, power, vigour, force
(ad 978-983)
Afandi, Effendi
Afandi, pl. Afandiya
gentleman (when referring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh);   (after the name) a title of respect.   Turkish title of nobility meaning a lord or master (Effendi--Pers. pronunciation, and spelling in English)   ("Sir")   It designates a higher rank than Big.
coming from a distant country or region.   See ufq
Afchih or Afjih
A village northeast of ihran in Lavasan District, TN p. 31
Pers.   name of the father of the caliph 'Usman (Othman or 'Uthman)
Afghan, Afghani
adjective and noun.   al-afghan (the Afghans; Afghanistan)
Muammad al-'Afifi, Persian Consul in 'Akka
Pers. Plato
Pers.   Elegance, dignity, grace;   magnificence, grandeur, power;   maguitude;   a throne;   a crown;   provisions, necessaries.   The Franks, French;   the crusaders;   all Europeans.   Khan-i-Afranj in 'Akka.
Afrasiyab ("Afrasyab")
Pers.   name of an ancient king celebrated in Persian poetry, sovereign of Turan, and a Scythian or Turk by birth;   one who moves leisurely on the road;   a travelling companion
Pers.   inflamed, lighted;   shining, radiant;   polished, furbished
Afrukhtih Yunis
Afrukhtih Yunis
Afsah, Fusha
Afa, fem. Fua
of purer language;   more eloquent
a branch of the Turkic Oghuz people
Pers.   name of a person known for his liberality
Pers.   sunlight or sunshine;   the sun;   a day;   wine;   the soul
Pers.   a worshipper of the sun;   sun-flower;   a chameleon (or iguana);   a water-lily;   in India, any blue flower
Aftabah (Aftabih)
Pers.   a ewer, water-pot, or kettle
Aftah, Mufattah
Afa and Mufaa
broad-headed, broad-nosed
village near Ifahan
Afw, 'Afuw
effacement, obliteration, elimination;   pardon, forgiveness;   waiver of punishment (Islamic Law);   amnesty (for);   boon, kindness, favour;   surplus.   al-'Afuw, name of God, The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver
Pers.   aware, wary;   intelligent, knowing, acquainted with;   prudent;   vigilant, attentive;   notice, news, indication, information
Agahu'llah Tizfahm, executed May 1982
Agar, Ar
Agar, Ar
Pers.   if;   although
Agha, Aghawat
Agha, pl. Aghawat
(Ar.)   lord, master, sir;   eunuch, harem chamberlain
ah--Anno Hejirae
(in the year of the Hijira--small caps and precedes the date)
fem.   one: somebody, someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in negative sentences and questions)
Ahadiya, Ahadiyat (Ahadiyyat)
Aadiya, Pers. Aadiyat
unity, oneness (also absolute unity)
Pers.   concord, symphony, harmony, modulation, melody, pitch, tune;   design, institution, purpose, intention;   canon, regulation;   rule, custom, manner of proceeding;   a row, a series;   the side (of a cistern);   the curve or arch of a cupola or dome;   a tether, stable, stall;   haste, expedition;   behold!
Pers,   blacksmith, a dealer in iron
Ahd, 'Uhud
'Ahd, pl. 'Uhud
translated as Covenant in Baha'i Writings.   Knowledge;   acquaintance, contact (with);   the well-known, familiar nature (of something);   close observance, strict adherence (to), keeping, fulfilment (of a promise);   delegation, assignment, committing (of something to someone), vesting (in someone of something), commissioning, charging, entrusting (of someone with something);   commission;   (pl.) commitment, obligation, liability;   responsibility;   pledge, vow;   promise; oath;   contract, compact, covenant, pact, treaty, agreement;   time, epoch, era.
better guided;   more correct, more proper, better.   Qur'an 28:49: Qur'an gives ahda, "clearer" guidance; not afa, "eloquent" language--this is the criterion for judging the inimitability (i'jaz) of the Qur'an: "its ability to guide humanity to the truth, to Allah and to salvation, its ability to inspire people with devotion and to constrain people to act in ways that are moral and righteous." Islam and the Baha'i Faith, p. 230.
Pers.   a fawn
wiser, stronger, strongest;   very firm;   more, most, or very stable;   most able to decide
Ahl al-Kisa'
Ahl al-Kisa'
people of the cloak: Muammad;   his daughter, Faima;   his cousin and son-in-law 'Ali;   and his two grandsons assan and usayn.
"people of Baha"
"people of the Bayan"
lit. people of the truth
Ahl, Ahlun, Ahalin
Ahl, pl. Ahlun, Ahalin
relatives, folks, family;   kin, kinfolk;   wife;   (with following genitive) people, members, followers, adherents, possessors, etc.;   inhabitants;   deserving, worthy (of something);   fit, suited, qualified (for);--pl. the natives, the native population
"people of the Book"
more laudable, more commendable, more praised   [Comparative form of 'hamida' (to praise)]--one of five names of Muammad
Ahmad Big Tawfiq
Amad Big Tawfiq
Ahmad Sohrab
Ahmad Sohrab
Mirza Amad-i-Ifahani (1893-1958). Later adopted the name Ahmad Sohrab. Was declared a Covenant-breaker by Shoghi Effendi in 1939.
Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i, Shaykh
Amad-i-Asa'i, Shaykh
Shaykh Amad al-Asa'i
Ahmadiya, Ahmadi, Ahmadiy, Ahmadiyya
belonging to Amad (Muammad);   a Muslim.   Pers.   Amadi, Amadiy;   Amadiyyih (Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, India)
Ahmar, Hamra, Humr
Amar, f. amra, pl. umr
red, red-coloured, ruddy;   rosy, pink.   Alhambra (Spanish), the Citadel of Granada, ("the Red Palace";   al-amra, lit. "the red one")
iya'u'llah Arari executed 1982.   Arar is pl. of urr
al-Asa, al-asa, or adjar (locally al-Aasa) is a traditional oasis region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Asa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province. The al-asa or al-Asa Oasis is located about 60 km inland from the coast of the Persian Gulf. al-Hufuf is the major urban center in the oasis.   Birthplace of Shaykh Amad al-Asa'i.
of or from al-Asa
The Best of Stories [Ar.]: a name for the Surih of Joseph.--Tafsir-i-Asanu'l-Qia: the Bab's commentary on the Surih of Joseph, the Qayyumu'l-Asma', called the Qur'an of the Babis.   Translated into Persian by ahirih.
Pers.   a vice, fault, defect, stain, spot, villainy;   flight, escape;   an exclamation, cry for help;   an asthma ;   a deer, roe, gazelle ;   any object of pursuit or chase;   a beautiful eye;   a mistress
a city in south-west Iran
Ain, Uyun, A'yun
'Ain f., pl. Uyun, A'yun
eye;   evil eye;   spring, source, fountain-head (of water);   scout, reconnoiterer;   hole;   mesh;   flower, choice, prime (of something);   (pl. a'yan) an eminent, important man, used esp. in pl.: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons;   substance, essence;   self, individuality;   chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic law)
"The marvels of creation" by Qazwini
Ajab, A'jab
'Ajab, pl. A'jab
astonishment, amazement;--(pl.) wonder, marvel
Ajal, pl. Ajal
appointed time, date, deadline;   instant of death;   respite, delay
(collective) barbarians, non-Arabs, Persians.   (collective;   noun denoting an individual) stone kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)
Ajami, A'jam
'Ajami, pl. A'jam
barbarian, non-Arab;   Persian (adj. and n.)
Ajiba, 'Aja'ib
'Ajiba, pl. 'Aja'ib
wondrous thing, unheard of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder;--pl. remarkable things, curiosities, oddities
Ajja, Ajij
Ajja, Ajij
to burn, blaze, flame (fire).   e.g. Ma' ujaj bitter, salty water.
Pers.   aide-de-camp, adjutant
Pers.   chief adjutant
Ajuz, 'Ajz, A'jaz
'Ajuz, 'Ajz, pl. A'jaz
backside, rump, posteriors.   Also stem, stump, trunk (of palm tree)   Qur'an 54:20 & 69:7
Ajwibatu'l-Masa'il, Ajwibatu'l-Masa'il
Ajwibat al-Masa'il
"Answers to some questions", book by Shaykh Amad.   Pers. Ajwibatu'l-Masa'il (Ajvibatu'l-Masa'il)
weakness, incapacity, disability, failure, impotence (for, to do something);   deficit
Akbar, Akbarun, Akabir
Akbar, pl. Akbarun, Akabir
greater, bigger, larger;   older;   senior-ranking [comparative form of 'kabura' (to elevate)].   Note: akbar, , consists of four consonants: (right to left in Arabic, or Alif, Kaf, Ba' and Ra' in English)--the first a is an Alif.
Akh, Ikhwa, Ikhwan
Akh, pl. Ikhwa, Ikhwan
brother;   fellow man, neighbour;   friend;--pl. ikhwan specifically, brethren or members of an order;   al-ikhwan religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa'ud in 1910
another, different, second
school, founded by Mulla Muammad-Amir of Astarabad, in opposition to the mujtahids or the Uulis.   Akhbar (pl. of Khabar) means 'news' or 'traditions', and uul means 'principles'.   The Akhbari followers only accept the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and the Imams;   whereas the Uulis (they constitute the vast majority of the Twelvers), maintain that the mujtahid has the right, as the deputy of the Hidden Imam, to deduce principles from the Qur'an as well as the traditions, and to use qiyas or 'analogy' to make an authoritative statement.
Akhdar (Akhzar), Khadra', Khudr
Akhar (f.), Khara', pl. Khur
green.   al-Khara' "the Verdant" (epithet of Tunis);   the sky.   Persian forms are similar and the is replaced by a .   Khara'--final Hamza is left out in some books.
Akhir, Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir
Akhir, pl. Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir
last, ultimate, utmost, extreme;   end, close, conclusion;   foot, bottom (of a paper).   'Abdu'l-Baha substituted akhur on a number of occasions when referring to the 'ulama--see akhur. "They have held to this stable (stability?) but they have not seen the ultimate of things." Diary of Juliet Thompson, p. 102.
afterlife.   See dunya and awwal
Akhtar, Akhtaran
Akhtar, pl. Akhtaran
Pers.   a star;   horoscope, predominant star at anyone's nativity;   an omen, augury;   an ensign, standard;   name of an angel.   Name of a newspaper
Akhtaran Taban
Pers.   brilliant stars
"the Brother of the Fruit".   Bab: "Akhu'th-Thamarah, 238"--The fruit is Mirza Yaya and 238 equals usayn-'Ali (Baha'u'llah)
Muslim priest [akhond]   See 'Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi
Ar. Akhur, Pers. Akhur
a stall, stable or barn for horses;   the collar-bone.   See Akhir
Akif, Akifan
'Akif, pl. 'Akifan
Pers.   assiduous, diligent;   constantly staying in the mosque and employed in devotion
to be sultry, muggy (day).   'Akka(h), 'Akka' and 'Akka (Arabic);   Akko (Hebrew) or Acre (seaport in Israel).   Houses used by the Baha'is: Malik, Khavvam and Rabi'ih, 'Udi Khammar and 'Abbud.   Family left 1877 for Mazra'ih
more;   oftener, more frequently;   more numerous;   longer;   most;   major portion, greater part, majority
family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan;   companions, partisans, people;   mirage, fatamorgana.   Not the Arabic definite article al-
the definite article in Arabic, often translated as "the" in English.   The letter "l" is replaced by a sun letter if the following word starts with one of the 14 sun letters--refer to the Arabic letters and abjad values section at the end of this list.
children (or family) of Muammad
high rank, high standing, nobility;   loftiness
Ala, Uluw
'Ala, 'Uluw
to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up;   to rise, ascend;   to ring out (voice);   etc.
Ala' ala
Pers.   benefits, favours, kindnesses
'Ala'u'd-Dawlih, Yusuf
Alam, pl. Alam
pain, ache, suffering, agony
Alam al-Hayawan
'Alam al-ayawan
the animal kingdom
Alam al-Ma'adin
'Alam al-Ma'adin
the mineral kingdom
Alam an-Nabat
'Alam an-Nabat
the vegetable kingdom
Alam, A'lam
'Alam, pl. A'lam
sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic;   harelip;   road sign, signpost, guidepost;   flag, banner;   a distinguished, outstanding man;   an eminent personality, an authority, a star, a luminary
Alam, Alamun, Awalim
'Alam, pl. 'Alamun, 'Awalim
world;   universe, cosmos.   Pl. 'Alamun--inhabitants of the world, specifically human beings.   al-'alaman the two worlds = Europe and America.
Alama, Alamat, Ala'im
'Alama, pl. 'Alamat, 'Ala'im
mark, sign, token;   badge, emblem;   distinguishing mark, characteristic
worldly, secular, world (adj.);   international;   world-wide, world-famous, enjoying world-wide renown
(lower) world of creation
(upper) eternally inaccessible world of God that is exalted beyond the grasp of the minds of men
"distinguished guide"
(intermediate) world of the revelation of the divine command
eagle-nest.   Name of a region in Iran on the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range and a ruined fortress (55 km NE of Qazvin and 110 km NW of ihran.
openness, overtness, publicness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy)
Alaq, 'Alaqat
'Alaq(at), 'Alaqun, pl. 'Alaqat
medicinal leech;   leech;   (coagulated) blood, blood clot.   Note: the ta' marbua here is represented by 'at'.
Alast, 'A last
'A last
"Am I not?"   Cycle of 'A last is a reference to a pre historic Covenant between God and man. According to Qur'an 7:172, God called all the men in his presence before their creation and asked them "'A lastu bi Rabbikum?" "Am I not your Lord?" and all the men confirmed that by saying "yes, yes, thou art our Lord". This demonstrates the total and inherent essential dependence of man to the continuous grace of God.   So 'A last and Cycle of 'A last is a reference to this Covenant.
Alawi (Pers. Alavi)
upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi (adj. and n.);--pl. the Alawis (official name of the Nusairis inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria)
Alawiyan (Alaviyan)
princes, lords (descendants of 'Ali)
Alburz, Alborz
the principal mountain range in northern Iran
Alf, Uluf
Alf, pl. Uluf, Alaf
thousand;   millennium
Alfi, 'Id
Alfi, 'Id
millennial celebration, millenary
Alfiya, Pers. Alfiyyih
al-Khulasa al-Alfiyya by Ibn-i-Malik
High, eminent.   'Ali was the first Imam, the fourth Caliph and the son-in-law of Muammad.   al-'Ali, the divine name for the All-Knowing.
high, sublime, eminent, excellent, grand;   the upper part;   above
Ali Big Yuz-Bashi
'Ali Big Yuz-Bashi
Ali ibn Abi Talib
'Ali ibn Abi alib
Cousin and son-in-law of Muammad
Ali Pasha
'Ali Pasha
'Ali Pasha, Muammad Amin
Merchant from Tabriz
Ali-Abad (Aliabad)
a village 35 km sw of ihran
Haji Akhund, a Hand of the Cause
Ali-Murad ('Alimurad)
(Sometimes shortened to 'Alimurad)
Ali-Quli Khan (Ali-Kuli Khan)
'Ali-Quli Khan
Better known as Ali-Kuli Khan, married Florence Breed (parents of Marzieh Gail)
(GPB 241)
Alil, A'illa'
'Alil, pl. A'illa'
sick, ill, ailing;   sick person, patient;   soft, gentle, mild, pleasant.   With place names--"lower"
Alim, 'Ulama'
'Alim, pl. 'Ulama' (Pers. 'Ulama)
knowing;   cognizant, informed;   learned, erudite;   al-'Alim the omniscient (one of the attributes of God)
Alim, Ulama
'Alim, pl. 'Ulama' (Pers. 'Ulama)
(adj. or noun)   knowing;   familiar, acquainted (with), cognizant (of);   expert, connoisseur, professional.--pl. learned, erudite;   scholar, savant, scientist.   The 'Ulama' is a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology. The 'ulama are collectively known in Persian society as the Jami'a-i Ruaniyat (the spiritual concourse).
'Alima fem.
woman of learning, woman scholar, e.g. singer, chanteuse
Alima ('Ilm)
'Alima ('Ilm)
to know;   teach;   tell, notify;   to learn, study;   to inquire, ask
high, tall, elevated;   loud, strong (voice);   higher (as opposed to elementary);   lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing;   excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity)
village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran
entitled Quddus
'Aliy-i-Basami, Mulla   A Letter of the Living
Aliy, 'Aliya, 'Ilya
'Aliy, fem. 'Aliya(h), pl. 'Ilya
high, tall, elevated: exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent.   (pl.) upper class, people of distinction, prominent people.   Pers. fem. also 'Aliyyih.
'Ali is chosen by, or from God
Sect of Islam
Maqud 'Alizadih
Alladhi, Allati, Alladhina
Alladhi, fem. Allati
(relative pronoun) he who, that which;   who, which, that.   Plurals: m. alladhina, fem. allati, allawati ("allawati"), alla'i ("alla'i")
seller of provender (dry food such as hay and oats for livestock)
Allah-Vardi, Allah-Virdi
Allah-Vardi, Allah-Virdi
ajj Allah-Yar.   A village in Kermanshah
Allahu-'Azam, Allah-u-'Azam
Allahu-'Aam, Pers. Allah-u-'Aam
God is great
Allahu-A'zam, Allah-u-A'zam
Allahu-A'am, Pers. Allah-u-A'am
(greeting response to Allah-u-Akbar--men)   God is the Most Mighty
Allahu-Abha, Allah-u-Abha
Allahu-Abha, Pers. Allah-u-Abha
(greeting response to Allah-u-Ajmal--women)   God is Most Glorious, God is All-Glorious.   A form of the Greatest Name.   Baha, or any of its derivatives such as Abha, Ya Baha'u'llah, or Ya Baha'u'l-Abha, are all referred to as the Greatest name.Ya Baha'u'l-Abha (O Glory of Glories or O Glory of the All-Glorious) is an invocation used in the calligraphy designed by Mishkin-Qalam.
Allahu-Ajmal, Allah-u-Ajmal
Allahu-Ajmal, Pers. Allah-u-Ajmal
(greeting response to Allah-u-Abha--women)   God is the Most Beautiful.
Allahu-Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar
Allahu-Akbar, Pers. Allah-u-Akbar
greeting by a man to a man.   God is the Most Great or God is the Greatest.   See Allah-u-A'am above
Allahu-Aqdam, Allah-u-Aqdam
Allahu-Aqdam, Pers. Allah-u-Aqdam
God is the Most Ancient
Allahu-Athar, Allah-u-Athar
Allahu-Ahar, Pers. Allah-u-Ahar
God the Most Pure
Allahu-Azhar, Allah-u-Azhar
Allahu-Ahar, Pers. Allah-u-Ahar
God is Most Manifest
"O Thou My God".   Permitted by the Bab to be tattooed on chest of men, in the most beautiful calligraphy.
knowing thoroughly
most erudite, very learned (of the ulama);   learned in every branch of the Islamic sciences
"the very erudite Doctor", a title of the famed Shi'ih theologian, Jamalu'd-Din asan ibn-i-Yusuf ibn-i-'Ali of Hilla (ad 1250-1325) (MF p. 169)
a sect
Pers.   amorous or angry side-glance
(Alossy) Ibn-i-Alusi, Mufti of Baghdad
Tablets of the Holy Night (by Baha'u'llah)
Tablets of the Sultans
Pers.   collection of Tablets by 'Abdu'l-Baha to America, translated as Tablets of the Divine Plan.   Amrika also given as Imrika
Tablets of Commandments by 'Abdu'l-Baha
Alwai, Alawiyyah
'Alwai, pl. 'Alawiyyah
upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi or Alawite (Eng.);--pl. Alawis (Eng., official name of the Nusayris (Nuayriyyah), Islamic sect in Syria founded by Ibn Nuayr)
Ar.   heavy clouds.   [Pers.   deviation, aberration, loss of the way;   contention, litigation;   a cloud, high, dense, rainy, thin;   a black or white cloud;   a cloud which has shed rain;   blindness.]   See root word 'amiya.   Hence, 'Ama' can be translated as blindness, secrecy, obscurity, etc.;   though it also has the sense of "cloud", possibly "heavy and thick clouds (which hide and obscure) or (the opposite!) light diaphanous clouds.   See
Ama, Ima, Amawat
Ama, pl. Ima', Amawat
Ar.   bondmaid, slave girl
Pers.   he came;   arrival
to baptize, christen
Pers.   to come, to arrive;   to exist, to be found;   to become
Amadan az fawq
Amadan az fawq
Pers.   "come from on high" or "come down from on high"
Amal, A'mal
'Amal, pl. 'A'mal
doing, acting, action, activity;   work, labour;   course of action, way of acting, practice;   achievement, accomplishment;   activity (for), work (in the service of something);   making, production, manufacture, fabrication;   performance, execution;   make, workmanship;   practical work, practice;--(pl.) act, action;   operation (military);   work, job, chore, labour;   deed, feat, achievement, exploit;   occupation, business;   trade, craft, handicraft;   vicegerency, province, district;   administrative district
Ar.   Security, safety;   peace;   shelter, protection;   clemency, quarter (mil.);   safeguarding, assurance of protection;   indemnity, immunity from punishment
the protection of God
Per.   A deposit, charge, anything given in trust;   security, safety, protection;   safe-guard, safe-conduct;   sincerity, faith, religion.
Amara Amr, Awamir, Umur
Amara, Amr, pl. 1 Awamir, 2 Umur
to order, command, bid, instruct (someone to do something), commission, charge, entrust (someone with something or to do something);   (pl. #1) order, command, instruction (to do something);   ordinance, decree;   power, authority;   (gram.) imperative;   (pl. #2) matter, affair, concern, business
(Amasya) city in Turkey, 84 km sw of Samsun
Amat, Amih
Amat, Amih
Pers.   A female servant, a handmaid.   Ar. Ama
("the Handmaid of the Most High")   Title given to Dr Susan Moody by 'Abdu'l-Baha
Hand of the Cause of God, Amatu'l-Baha Ruiyyih Khanum Rabbani (nee Mary Sutherland Maxwell) (08-08-1910-19-01-2000).   ["It was Amatu'l-Baha's preference that Rabbani not be" transcripted. Letter from her Literary Executors, 9 January 2007 to M.W.T.]   "The Handmaiden of the Glory", "Spiritual" and "Lady"
(The Handmaiden of God)
Amid, 'Umada
'Amid, pl. 'Umada'
support;   head, chief;   dean (of a faculty);   principal, headmaster, director (of a secondary school);   doyen, dean (as, of a diplomatic corps;   high commissioner
Amil, Awamil, Ummal
'Amil, pl. 'Awamil, 'Ummal
active;   effective;   (pl. 'Awamil) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power;   word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (gram.);   (pl. 'Ummal) maker, producer, manufacturer;   doer, perpetrator, author;   worker, workman, workingman, labourer;   wage earner, employee;   governor.
Amin-i-alabi, Shaykh
[Amin alabi]
Trusted of God
Amin, Amina
Amin, fem. Amina(h)
peaceful.   Aminah bint Wahb, mother of Muammad; died ad 577
Amin, Umana
Amin, pl. Umana'
reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest;   safe, secure;   authorized representative or agent;   trustee;   guarantor (of);   chief, head;   superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper;   chamberlain;   master of a guild   [Superlative form of amuna or amana (to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy)]
Persian name.   Office of amin;   trust, guardianship, custody;   security;   commission, deputation;   secure, safe.
"Trusted of the Bayan"
"Trust of God"
inhabited;   peopled, populated, populous;   full, filled, filled up;   jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (with);   amply provided, splendidly furnished;   civilized; cultivated (land);   flourishing, thriving, prosperous
commander;   lord, master;   orderer, purchaser, customer, client
Amir al-Mu'minin
Amir al-Mu'minin
Commander of the Faithful, Caliph. Sunnis believe the first to hold the title was 'Umar ibn al-Khaab, and Shi'i believe the title applies exclusively to 'Imam 'Ali.
Great Prince
Grand Vizir or General of the Army
Amir-Zadih or Amirzadih
Pers.   see Mirza
Amir, Umara, Amirat
Amir, pl. Umara', pl. fem. Amirat
commander, governor, lord;   prince, emir;   title of princes of a ruling house;   tribal chief
Commander of the Faithful
Prince of Calligraphers
(The Emir of Poets) (sing. sha'ir)
Amiya, 'Aman
'Amiya ('Aman)
to be or become blind, lose one's eyesight;   to be blind (to something);   to be obscure (to someone);   form II to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to obscure, render cryptic, enigmatic or mysterious, mystify (something);   form IV to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to make (someone) blind (to a fact);   form V to be or become blind, lose one's eyesight;   form VI to shut one's eyes (on something), pretend not to see (something);   to be blind (to). That is, 'to become blind, to be obscure'
Amma, 'Ammatan, 'Awamm
'Amma, pl. 'Awamm
singular: (noun) generality;   commonalty;   the masses, the people;--'ammatan (adverb) in general;   generally;   commonly, altogether, in the aggregate, collectively.   Plural: al-'Awamm the common people, the populace;   the laity (Christian)
Ancient Philadelphia, capital city of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
constantly urging, always demanding (to do something);   inciting, instigating
Amr va Khalq
Amr va Khalq
Revelation and creation, compilation by Fail Mazandarani
(the Most Wondrous New Cause)
(the Wondrous New Cause)
Amr, Awamir, Umar
1. pl. Awamir order, command, instruction (to do something);   ordinance, decree;   power, authority;   (grammar) imperative;--
2. pl. umur matter, affair, concern, business. Hence, can be defined as "divine order" and "acts of obedience and pious deeds that are ordained" by God.
"command of God", "House of God's command" or "cause of God"
Mulla asan 'Amu
Amud, A'mida, Umud
'Amud, pl. A'mida, 'Umud
flagpole, shaft (of a standard);   pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress;   lamppost;   (telephone, telegraph) pole;   column, pillar, pilaster;   stem (of a glass);   (pl.) column (of a newspaper)
Amud, Awamid (Avamid)
'Amud, pl. 'Awamid
column, pillar.   See 'Amud.
companion.   A town in Mazindaran province, on the Haraz River, near the Caspian Sea.
(preposition) off, away from;   from (designating the source);   out of (a feeling);   about, on (a topic);   according to, as attested or declared by, from what ... says, on the authority of;   on the basis of, on the strength of;   for, in defence of;   as a substitute for
Old Pers.   immaculate, undefiled.   Venus, Aphrodite (Greek) and Venus Erucina (Roman).   See modern form Nahid
Anbar, 'Anabir
'Anbar, pl. 'Anabir
ambergris;--pl. sperm whale
Anbar, Nibr, Anabir
Anbar, Nibr, pl. Anabir, Anabir
barn, shed, granary, storeroom, storehouse, warehouse
Andalib, 'Anadil
'Andalib, pl. Anadil
Pers.   a nightingale
Pers.   within;   the inside;   the heart, bowels;   intrinsic, interior, internal.   Village 190 km ESE Ahvaz, Iran
interior;   inner women's apartments.   See biruni
Andirmani (Andarmani)
probably Andarmani.   Andarman is a village on the south side of ihian.
Pers.   village 84 km SW Ardabil, and 95 km east of Tabriz, Iran
Pers.   a grape, a raisin;   granulations in a healing sore [angoor]
Anis, Anisa
Anis, fem. Anisa
close, intimate;   close friend;   friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous.   Close Companion is the title of Muammad-'Ali-i-Zunuzi, the companion of the Bab in martyrdom, and aji Muammad-Isma'il (referred to as Anis in Suriy-i-Ra'is).   'Abdu'l-Baha: By the symbolic Tree of Anisa is meant the divine Lote-Tree, the Tree of Life (Baha'u'llah)--see The Hidden Words, Persian 19 and Qur'an 24:35
Pers.   a company, assembly, society, banquet, congregation, synagogue, congress, any place where people meet and converse;   a multitude
Ankabut, Anakib
'Ankabut, pl. 'Anakib
(modern Ankara)
Ansar, al-Ansar
Anar (plural)
adherents, followers, partisans, sponsors, patrons, friends;   al-Anar the Medinan followers of Muammad who granted him refuge after the Hegira
Ansari, Ansariyyah
Anari, pl. Anariyyah
Related to Anar, the Helpers.   Those who rallied around Muammad after His flight from Mecca to Medina.   Anariyyah is believed to be a mistranscription of Nuayriyyah.   See 'Alwai
Anton Haddad
Anun addad
known in the West as Anton Haddad
("anoud", not anud)   contumacious (stubbornly or wilfully disobedient to authority), refractory, wayward;   a cloud big with rain
Anushirwan (Anushirvan, Nushirvan)
Anushirwan (Nushirvan)
Sasaniyan king of Persia known for his just rule (ad 531-578). The Prophet Muammad was born in Arabia at the time of his reign (about 570-1).--SDC p. 68.   Persians some times use Anushirvan or even Nushirvan. There are instances of Nushiravan and Nushiruvan.
Anwari (Avari)
Anwari (Anvari)
Name of a famous Persian poet, who died ah 586/ad 1190.   See nur
now Inebolu.   A Black Sea port in Turkey, 225 km wnw of Samsun
Bandar-i-Anzali, Port of Enzeli, SW end of Caspian Sea, Iran.
Aqa Fatu'llah
Aqa Fatu'llah
Aqa Ghulamu'llah Ahmaduff
Aqa Ghulamu'llah Ahmaduff
Aqa Jan
Aqa Jan
Mirza Aqa Jan, Baha'u'llah's amanuensis, later known as Khadimu'llah ("Servant of God")
Aqa Mirza 'Abdu'-r-Rahim-i-Burujirdi
Aqa Mirza 'Abdu'-r-Raim-i-Burujirdi
Aqa Najaf-'Aliy-i-Zanjani
Aqa Najaf-'Aliy-i-Zanjani
Aqa Siyyid
Aqa Siyyid
[Asseyid is an abbreviation]
Aqa, Aqayan
Aqa, pl. Aqayan
Pers.   master, sir, gentleman;   when affixed to a name means Mr   (A male honorific title--'the Master' was given to 'Abdu'l-Baha by Baha'u'llah)
Turkish proper name, e.g. aji Mirza Aqasi (Grand Vizier of Persia)
more hallowed, more sacred, holier.   The Most holy.   See Quds
Aqida, Aqa'id
'Aqida, pl. 'Aqa'id
article of faith, tenet, doctrine;   dogma;   creed, faith, belief;   conviction
Aql al-Awwal
al-'Aql al-Awwal
first intellect
Aql, 'Uqul
'Aql, pl. 'Uqul
intellect, intelligence, reason, insight, mind, rationality and wisdom;--(pl.) sense, sentience, reason, understanding, comprehension, discernment, insight, rationality, mind, intellect, intelligence
Aqli, 'Aqliyun
'Aqli, pl. 'Aqliyun
reasonable, rational;   ratiocinative;   mental;   intellectual;--pl. rationalist;   an intellectual
mentality, mental attitude
"The Most Remote"   al-Masjid al-Aqa--Aqa Mosque at southern end of the Temple Mount, Jerusalem.   Name by which the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur'an and in the Writings.   See a-akhrah
Pers.   (in compound, from arastan), embellishing, adorning;   ornament (e.g. majlis-ara, gracing the banquet, etc.)
Arab, Urab, A'rub, Urban
'Arab (coll.), pl. 'Urub, A'rub
Arabs;   true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins.   Other plurals: 'Urban, A'rab.
Arabi, al-'Arabiya
Arab, Arabic, Arabian;   truly Arabic;   an Arab;   al-'Arabiya, the language of the ancient Arabs;   classical, or literary, Arabic.
the land of Arabia
Arad, A'rad
'Ara, pl. A'ra
accident (philosophy);   contingent, non-essential characteristic;   something non-essential, a contingent, something accidental;   symptom, manifestation of disease
Arafa, Ma'rifa, 'Irfan
'Arafa (Ma'rifa, 'irfan)
to know (someone, something);   to recognize, perceive (someone, something);   to be cognizant, be aware (of something), be acquainted (with something), to discover, experience, find out (something)
Jabal 'Arafat (Moun Arafat) is a granite hill east of Makkah
The day before the festival of Immolation of 'Idu'l-Aa (vigil of the Feast of Sacrifice, when Mecca pilgrims proceed to Mount 'Arafat.   The ninth day of the month of Dhi'l-ijjih).
Araja, 'Uruj
'Araja, 'Uruj
to ascend, mount, rise
capital of Markazi Province, Iran (formerly Sulanabad)
now Aran va Bidgol, 9 km NE of Kashan
name of a river near Tiflis, the Araxes of the ancients.   See Ras and Rass
Pers.   to adorn, decorate, embellish;   to set in order
Pers.   a swallow;   swallow-wort.   Dr Arastu Khan akim.
Arba'a, Arba'
Arba'a(h or t) (fem. Arba')
four.   Pers. also Arba'ih
Arba'un, Pers. Arba'una, Arba'ina
forty;   a ceremony held on the 40th day after someones death.   "Arba'in" in The Kitab-i-Iqan p. 242.
(Erbil, Irbil) city 80 km ESE of Mosul, 'Iraq
Ard al-Muqaddasa
al-Ar al-Muqaddasa
the Holy Land, Palestine.   Shoghi Effendi stated it became the Most Holy Land (al-Ar al-Aqdas) after the arrival of Baha'u'llah.
Ard wa Sama'
Ar wa Sama'
earth and heaven.   'Earth' is the earth of knowledge and understanding, the earth of new insight, etc. 'Heaven' is the heaven of new teachings and religion. By the shattering of the heaven (sky) on the day of resurrection, is meant that the heaven of the old religion is removed and a new one is raised through the Advent of a new Manifestation and the earth of recognition of God is decorated with Faith.
the Exalted Spot, the Shrine of the Bab and Zanjan
the Land of Paradise, Milan
the Land of Mystery, Adrianople
Ard, Arz, Aradin, Aradun, Arazi
Ar fem., pl. Arain, Araun
earth;   land, country, region, area;   terrain, ground, soil.   Pers.   ar, pl. arai
Ardabil or Ardibil
city 175 km east of Tabirz,in the province of Adhirbayjan, near the Caspian Sea
Ardakan or Ardikan
city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ardashir, Ardishir
Ardashir, Ardishir
Pers.   name of Persian rulers (Ardshir and Ardashir are derived from Middle Persian Artakhishatr, which was derived from the Greek Artaxerxes) and a village in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
city on west side of Caspian Sea, Iran
Ardikan (Ardakan)
city 55 km NW of Yazd
Province in Iran
Pers.   intrepid, courageous
fragrance, perfume, scent, aroma
Pers.   the inner fortress or citadel of a walled city
Arid, Irad
'Ari, pl. 'Ira
broad, wide;   extensive, vast
Pers.   one who knows;   an acquaintance ;   the next man to a chief or general, a deputy, lieutenant;   an usher at a school.
Arif, 'Urafa'
'Arif, pl. 'Urafa'
knowing (something), cognizant, aware (of something);   expert, authority, specialist;   teaching assistant, monitor (an older pupil assisting the teacher of a Qur'anic school)
Aristu, Arasta, Arastu
Arisu, Pers. Arasa, Arasu
Aristotle.   Dr Arisu Khan, brother of Dr Lufu'llah akim
Arjmand (Arjumand)
Pers.   rare, excellent, worthy of great price, valuable, exquisite, beloved, dear, brave, generous, noble, distinguished;   wise
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzaman
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzaman
Pers.   town, formerly Arzaman, in and the capital of Arjumand District, in Firuzkuh County, ihran Province, Iran.   Also written "Arjomand".
of, from Arjumand
Arsh, Urush, A'rash
'Arsh, pl. 'Urush, A'rash
a throne, chair of state;   the throne of God;   the empyrean (heaven);   a palace, citadel;   roof of a house;   a canopy;   a tent;   a prop, buttress, stay, support;   a leader or chief of the people
Russian cubit ()
followers of Mulla adra, DB, p. 207.   See 'Arsh
Arslan, Arslan
Pers.   from Turkish.   A lion;   surname adopted by several kings of Persia
Arus, 'Urus, 'Ara'is, 'Arusan
'Arus, pl. 'Urus
bridegroom;   f. (pl. 'ara'is) bride;   doll;   al-'arusan bride and groom, the newlyweds
As'ilah wa Ajwiba
As'ilah wa Ajwiba
Questions and Answers
Asad, Usud, Usd
Asad, pl. Usud, Usd, Usud, Asad
lion;   Leo (astron.)
Lion of God.   Compound proper name
(MF, p. 4)
(GPB 297)
Asadu'llah-i-Zadih, usayn
usayn Asadu'llahzadih
Asadyari, 'Abdu'l-'Ali
Asala, Asalatan
firmness, steadfastness, strength of character;   nobility of descent, purity of origin (originality);   aalatan immediately, directly, personally
originality of species
Asara, 'Asr
'Aara ('Ar)
to press (out), squeeze (out) (something, e.g., grapes, olives, etc.);   to wring (something, especially wet clothes);   to compress (something).   See 'Ar listing for other Forms.
Asas, Usus
Asas, pl. Usus
foundation (also, of a building), fundament, groundwork, ground, basis;   keynote, tonic (music)
Asaturiyan Marcard
Asaturiyan Marcard
(Dr Marcard Assadorian)
Asbah, Asbahi
Pers.   Of a handsome face;   a tearing lion;   red-coloured;   name of a king of Yemen.   [Abahi (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 158) Abai (Revelation of Baha'u'llah, 4:438)
earlier, antecedent;   preceding, previous, prior;   former, ex;   foremost, more or most excellent;   surpassing;   previous;   past times
Ibn-i-Adaq   (Mirza 'Ali-Muammad).   Designated by Baha'u'llah as Shahid Ibn-i-Shahih (Martyr, son of the Martyr). Son of Mulla adiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani
Asfal, Sufla, Asafil
Asfal, fem. Sufla, pl. Asafil
lower;   lowest;   lower or lowest part, bottom
Asfiya', 'Asfiyyih
Afiya', Pers. Afiyyih
Druse village of 'Isfiya, east side Mt Carmel.   See afiy
Asghar, Sughra, Asaghir
Aghar, fem. ughra, pl. m. Aaghir
smaller, younger [Comparative form of aghira (to belittle)].   ughra is the name of a half-sister of Baha'u'llah and mother of 'Ali Akbar Furutan.
Pers.   surname, e.g. iya'u'llah Agharzadih
(MF p. 68) barley soup with whey
hairy, hirsute, long-haired, shaggy
Ash'arism--early theological school of Islam. Followers: Ash'arites.   See Sha'r
Pers.   one whose hair is dishevelled and soiled with dust
Ashab al-Kahf
Aab al-Kahf
"Companions of the cave", a Christian and Islamic tradition that tells the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (a group of youths) who hide inside a cave outside the city of Ephesus around ad 250 to escape a religious persecution and emerge 300 years later.
Ashab, Sahba', Suhb
Ahab, f. ahba', pl. uhb
reddish;   wine
Ashiq, Ushshaq, Awashiq (Avashiq)
'Ashiq, pl. 'Ushshaq, 'Awashiq
lover;   fancier, fan;--pl. knucklebone;   (game of) knucklebones.   'Avashiq is a village near Baghdad.
Ashiqa, Ishq
'Ashiqa, 'Ishq
to love passionately (someone, something), be passionately in love (with someone, with something)
'Azizu'llah Ashjari
Ashraf, Sharfa'
Ashraf, fem. Sharfa'
more or most noble;   eminent;   a person of noble birth, nobleman;   gentleman.   City in Iran, see Bihshahr.   'Ali Ashraf Garden--a large garden on the west side of the Rivan Garden (se east of 'Akka), with the Firdaws (Paradise) Garden to its north. Original owner Mulla Abu-alib. 'Ali-Ashraf, his son, later donated it to the Faith.   Aqa Siyyid Ashraf-i-Zanjani (mother: Umm-i-Ashraf).
Ashrafi, Ashrafi
Pers.   a gold coin
Ashu (Asho)
Pers.   heavenly   Ashu Zarathushtra
the tenth day of the Muslim month Muarram--Shi'ih Muslims observe the first 10 days of the month as a period of mourning for the Imams, ending with the Ashura, the commemoration of the martyrdom of the Imam usayn
Ashyab, Shaiba, Shib
Ashyab, fem. Shaiba, pl. Shib
Ar.   white, grey (hair);   white-haired, grey-haired (person);   old, aged;   old man.
Asi, Asiyih
Asi, fem. Asiyih
Pers. Melancholy, solicitous, sorrowful;   a physician, surgeon.   Asiyih is the name of Pharaoh's daughter who rescued Moses.   See Navvab, title given to Baha'u'llah's wife (Asiyih Khanum)
blowing violently
Askar, Asakir
'Askar, pl. 'Asakir
army, host, troops
'Askari, pl. 'Askariyun, 'Asakir
military, army- (in compounds);--(pl. al-'askariyun) the military;--(pl. 'asakir) soldier;   private (military);   policeman;--pl. enlisted men, ranks.   The hidden Imam Mahdi, Muammad ibn al-asan al-'Askari (disappeared AD 874)
"Words of Wisdom" (by Baha'u'llah)
Asl, Usul
Al, pl. Uul
root;   trunk (of a tree);   origin, source;   cause, reason;   descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a noble character);   foundation, fundament, basis;   the origins!;--pl. principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science)
safer;   freer;   sounder;   healthier ("most peaceful")
more tractable, more pliable, more obedient;   more flexible, smoother, more fluent.   See salis
Pers.   original, primary, primal, initial;   genuine, authentic, pure;   basic, fundamental, principal, chief, main
Asliyat (Asliyah)
Pers.   originality;   genuineness;   nobleness.   Variation of aala.
Most Beauteous Names (of God)
Pers.   heaven, the celestial orb;   the ceiling of a house;   name of the angel of death
Asmar, Samra', Sumr, Samrawat
Asmar, f. Samra', pl. Sumr
brown;   tawny;--pl. Samrawat brown-skinned women
Pers.   a cold, a horse nearing two years old
Asqalan, Ashkelon, Ashqelon, Ascalon
'Asqalan, Heb. Ashkelon
city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 km south of Tel Aviv
'Ar, pl. A'ur, 'Uur, A'ar
(act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out);   (act of) wringing (out);--pl. age, era, time;   period;   epoch;   afternoon;   (fem.) afternoon prayer (Islamic Law)
Pers.  is (from budan, to be);   he willeth, he seeketh
Pers.   the place where the shoes or slippers are pulled off;   a threshold;   lying supine;   a king's court, royal palace;   the Ottoman Porte;   the tombs of prophets and other holy men
Astani, Yadu'llah
Pers.   a mule;   a bone;   a seed, a kernel
Astarabad (Gurgan, Gurgin or Gorgan)
"City of Mules", on south eastern Caspian Sea border of Iran.   Since 1937 called Gurgan (Gorgan).
Aswad, Sawda (Sauda), Sud, Sudan
Aswad, fem. Sawda, pl. Sud
black;   dark-coloured;--pl. sudan a black, Negro
Ata, A'tiys, Ata'atat
'Aa', pl. A'tiys
gift, present;   (pl. 'Aa'at) offer, tender.   Pers.   'Ata'iyyih, "Ataieh".   'Ali Akbar Furutan married 'Aa'iyyih 'Aziz-Khurasani in 1931.
Gift of God
Ataba, Atab, A'tab
'Ataba pl. 'Atab, A'tab
Ar.   doorstep, threshold;   (door) lintel
Pers.   (from ata, a father, and bak, a lord), the lord father (a title given to the governors of Shiraz);   a guardian, preceptor, teacher;   the prime minister, or vizir;   honorary title of an amir
Atabak-i-A'zam (Atabik-i-A'zam)
Title of Mirza 'Ali-Asghar Khan
'Atabat, pl. 'Atabat
Pers.   A gate, a port;   the threshold;   the lintel of a door;   the round of a ladder, a step;   a royal court;   anything adverse or disagreeable.   Plural: Steps, thresholds.   The Shi'ite holy shrines in 'Iraq and the cities of their location: Karbala', Najaf, Kaimayn, and Samarra--locations of the tombs of the first six Imams.
(lit. Supreme Shrines) applied by Shi'ih Muslims to cities of Karbala', Najaf, Kaimayn, and Samarra.   Baha'i Shrines of Bab and Baha'u'llah.
Pers.   more or most pure
Athar, pl. Athar
track, trace, vestige;   sign, mark;   touch; impression, effect, action, influence (on);   tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Muammad and his Companions);   work (of art, esp. of literature);   ancient monument
Athari, Athari
archaeologic(al);   archaeologist;   old, ancient, antique
Athim, Athama, Uthama'
Athim, pl. Athama, Athim, Uthama'
sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;   sinner
marking;   marked, chosen, selected;--(from Greek ) sky, ether;   fire as an element.   Pers.   the sphere of fire;   the sun;   tears
sentimental;   emotional;   emotive, feeling;   tender, affectionate, loving
Pers.   fire;   light, splendour;   rage;   levity, fickleness;   valour, value, dignity;   dearness, scarceness;   (metaphorically) the Devil;   a courageous man, bold, brave;   a lover;   fire of Jove;   desire, appetite, greed;   digestive heat;   sulphur.   'Abdu'l-Baha said Marzieh Gale had atish and namak. Arches of the years, p. 87.
Atish-Parast (Atishparast, Atishparastan)
Atish-Parast, pl. Atish-Parastan
Atiya, 'Ataya
'Aiya(h or t), pl. 'Aaya
(Pers. also 'Atiyya(h)) gift, present
more perfect, more thorough
distiller of 'Aar according to Revelation of Baha'u'llah, vol. iv
perfumer, perfume vendor;   druggist;   sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
Pers.   of or relating to a druggist;   the business of a perfumer or druggist
Avih, Aveh, Awah
Avih (Aveh)
villages in the provinces of Fars, Markazi and Qazvin.   The village mentioned in God Passes By, p. 298, is 26 km SSE Savih (Saveh) and 45 km NW of Qum.
Aw (Au)
or (with following subjunctive) unless, except that
Awalim, Avalim
'Awalim, Pers. 'Avalim
"Worlds"   secondary plural of 'alam.   Pers. a compilation of Shi'ite traditions.
Awamid (Avamid)
see 'Amud
Awarih (Awarah), Avarih (Avareh)
Awarih, Avarih
Pers.   straggler, gadabout, immigrant, runabout, wanderer.   After the death of 'Abdu'l-Baha, a prominent Iranian Baha'i, Mirza 'Abdu'l-usayn Ayati (1290/1873-1953), titled Avarih (wanderer) by 'Abdu'l-Baha, pressed for a position of leadership in the Baha'i community. When he failed, he withdrew from the Baha'i Faith and began to publicly denounce it and published Kashfu'l-Hiyal (The Uncovering of Trickery) in three volumes.   See ariq
Awj ("Auj"), Awji
noun.   highest point, acme, pinnacle;   culmination, climax;   apogee (astron.);   peak (fig.;   of power. of fame).   Adj. Awji
Awrang (Aurang)
Pers.   a throne;   wisdom, understanding;   beauty, gracefulness;   life;   a manufacturing village;   fraud, deceit;   mirth;   a worm which eats into wood;   a line whereon things are hung to dry;   glory, honour;   a man's name;   (metaphorically) heaven.   A low mountain near the village of Takur, in the province of Nur, Persia, the summer residence of Baha'u'llah.
Pers.   form "the Infernal Letters"   See waraq (paper) and nari
Awsat ("Ausat"), Awasit, Wusta, Wusat
Awsa, pl. Awsa
middle, central;   the middle finger
pegs or tent stakes.   See Watad/Autad
Awwal, Ula, Awwalun, Awa'il
Awwal, f. Ula, pl. m. Awwalun, Awa'il
first;   foremost, most important, principal, chief, main;   first part, beginning;   (with def. article also) earlier, previous, former.   al-ula "pre-existence"--ad-dunya (earthly life) and al-Akhirah (afterlife)
that is (to say), i.e.;   namely, to wit
Aya, Ay, Ayat
Aya(h or t), collective Ay, pl. Ayat
sign, token, mark;   miracle;   wonder, marvel, prodigy;   model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece.   Commonly used to refer to each of the 6,236 verses in the Qur'an (6,348 ayat if all the Bismi'llah [no plural] verses are included).   Muslims regard each aya of the Qur'an as a sign from Allah. (The Baha'i Proofs).
Pers.   Hands of the Cause of God   (Cause or Command)
verse of the throne Qur'an 2:255
"sign of God"   A Shi'ih religious leader in Iran and a title given to Shoghi Effendi by 'Abdu'l-Baha in His Will and Testament
Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma'
Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma
the greatest sign of God, a Marja' at-taqlid
Awarih, Avarih
Ayaz and Ayaz
Pers.   name of a favourite of Sulan Mamud of Ghaznah;   name of one of the Emirs of Suln Ibrahim bin Mas'ud bin Mamud Ghaznawi.
Ayn ('Ain), 'Uyun, A'yun
'Ayn fem., pl. 'Uyun, A'yun, A'yan
eye;   evil eye;   spring, source, fountainhead (of water);   scout, reconnoiterer;   hole;   mesh;   flower, choice, prime (of something);--(pl. a'yan) an eminent, important man, used especially in plural: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons;   substance, essence;   self, individuality;--chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic Law);--ready money, cash;   name of the letter (18th in Arabic and 21st in Persian alphabets--see hija'i)
= 'Abdu'l-Baha 'Abbas
[ain o'lbagar]--a well outside 'Akka
an ancient spring ("The spring of the cow") between the moat around 'Akka and Tel 'Akka
"Spring of the woman"--about 200 m south of 'Aynu'l-Baqar
"Days of Ha" Intercalary days
"Days of stress"
Ayyub (Aiyub)
Job (the prophet)
the Ayubites
Pers.   desire, love, passion, lust;   avidity, avarice, covetousness;   (at the end of compounds) greedy;   name of a city.
Pers.   from;   of;   for;   by;   out of;   with;   belonging to;   by means of;   in
"From the Garden of Holiness" (by Baha'u'llah)
Pers.   free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted;   fault, less;   solitary, lonely;   a kind of faqir, or devotee;   a lily;   a cypress;   a fresh date;   an evergreen;   a delicious kind of fish
Pers.   liberty;   freedom from worldly cares;   praise, thanksgiving
Pers.   eternity (without beginning)
Azali, pl. Azalal
Pers.   existing from all eternity, eternal;   God.   Also a follower of Mirza Yaya, ub-i-Azal ("Morn of Eternity")
'Azamat, 'Azamut, pl. 'Azamat
Pers.   magnitude, magnificence, pride, pomp, grandeur;   (met.) a grandee.
Magnificence of God
Ar.   greatness, magnitude, grandeur, dominion
Aan or Aan (also Adhan)
Pers.   announcing, giving notice;   the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Mu'ain or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques;   listening to
village (130 km SW Mashhad) and rural district
more distinct, more manifest, clearer
shining, luminous, radiant, brilliant;   bright.   Al-Azhar University, Cairo
Azim, Uzama, Izam, Aza'im
'Aim, pl. 'Uama, 'Iam, 'Aa'im
great, big, large;   strong, powerful, mighty;   significant, important;   grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent;   lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb;   huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous;   hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive (see A'am)   The Great One (Superlative form of 'auma)
Strongest, most powerful (Superlative form of azza).   Also dear, beloved, valuable.
Azizu'llah Khan Bahadur
'Azizu'llah Khan Bahadur
(Unfolding Destiny, p. 44)
Azm, A'zum, 'Izam
'Am, pl. A'um, 'Iam
Azuma, Izam, Azama
'Auma, 'Iam, 'Aama
to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty;   etc.
Azurdigan (Azordegan, Azordigan)
Pers.   name
Azza, Izz, Azaza
'Azza ('Izz, 'Izza 'Azaza)
to be or become strong, powerful, respected;   etc.
Unaccented forms
Transcripted forms
Explanations and comments
Arabic letter
Ba'ata (ba't)
Ba'ata (Ba't)
to send, send out, dispatch;   to forward;   to delegate;   to emit;   to evoke, arouse, call forth, awaken;   to stir up, provoke, bring on;   to revive, resuscitate;   to resurrect (someone from death);   to incite, induce, instigate;   to cause (something; e.g., astonishment)
(preposition) after; in addition to, beside; aside from
Ba'ith, Bawa'ith
Ba'ith, pl. Bawa'ith
incentive, inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause, occasion.   Root is ba'ata, so can also mean to resurrect from death.
Ba'tha, Ba'atat
Ba'tha, pl. ba'athat
delegation, deputation, mission;   expedition;   student exchange;   group of exchange students;   revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise.   The Bab is said to calculate the beginning of the Islamic revelation from the year Ba'tha (the Call in ad 612) instead of the year of the Hijra (ad 622) when Muammad migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Shrine of the Bab door--centre NW side
Shrine of the Bab door--centre NE side (Tomb 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Shrine of the Bab door--centre SE side
Shrine of the Bab door--nthern end NW side
Shrine of the Bab door--sthern end NW side
Shrine of the Bab octagon door--SW side
Shrine of the Bab door--nthern end SE side
Special or specific gate
Shrine of the Bab door--centre SW side
Shrine of the Bab door--southern end, SE side
Bab, Abwab, Abvab
Bab, pl. Abwab, Pers. Abvab
Gate   Title assumed by Mirza 'Ali Muammad (the Bab) after the declaration of his Mission in Shiraz in May 1844   His wife was Khadijih-Bagum.   Qayyumu'l-Asma', the Persian and Arabic Bayan, Dala'il-i-Sab'ih ("Seven Proofs") and the Kitab-i-Asma'.   Second wife Faimih, married 1847, later Mirza Yaya briefly married her.   Some designations of the Bab are: Siyyid-i-Dhikr, al'at-i-A'la, Siyyid-i-Bab, 'Abdu'dh-Dhikr, arat-i-A'la, Babu'llah, Rabb-i-A'la, Nuqiy-i-Ula and Nuqiy-i-Bayan. (DB 72)
Babaeski, 50 km se Adrianople, Turkey
Baba-zadih (Babazadih)
Baba, Babawat
Baba, pl. Babawat
pope;   papa, father, daddy
Pers.   (diminutive of bab), a little father;   one who educates;   faithful, constant, firm, strong;   a turquoise stone;   name of a king.
Site in Shiraz where the Bab's son is buried.
Babi, Babiyun
Babi, pl. Babiyun
A follower of the Bab (Babis is generally used as the plural)
Babism or Babiism
Babi Faith
It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Babiya, Babiyya, Babiyat, Babiyyat
Babiya, Pers. Babiyat
The status of the bab (Gate-hood) [replace "Babhood" by Gate-hood or Door-ship] (-hood or -ship--state of being, quality or condition)
house of Bab in Mashhad
"The Gate of Religion"
Babu'l-Bab, Bab-i-Bab
Babu'l-Bab, Pers. Bab-i-Bab
The "Gate of the Gate"   Mulla Muammad-usayn-i-Bushru'i
("The Gate of God") (a designation of the Bab)
the Most Great Bab
("Babol") an acacia tree (Acacia arabica) and the new name for Barfurush
Babulsar, Babul Sar, Mashhad-i-Sar
Babulsar, Babul Sar
Pers.   also known as Mashhadsar, Mashhad-i-Sar and Meshed-i-Sar; is a city and capital of Babolsar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. It is located alongside the Caspian Sea north of Babul.
Ar.   to appear, show, become evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to light;   to be obvious;   to seem good, acceptable, proper (to someone).   form III to show, display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare openly
Pers.   coming in the mind;   appearing;   beginning.   Two meanings:   1. Appearance after hiding involving alteration of the Divine Will or the non-fulfilment of the Divine Will.   A Shi'a concept where God may alter the course of human history as is seen to be fit.   2. Origination of a new idea.   The Sunni view on Bada' is that it is not applicable to God.
The Bab made significant reinterpretations of the concept of bada'.   1. Change in divine revelation according to the principle of progressive revelation.   2. Acceptance embodies the recognition of God's absolute power and authority and thus is the highest sign of spiritual maturity.   3. The concept of magnification (takbir), as the symbol of the completion of the four layers of the divine covenant.   One's faith is complete and will not be subject to alteration or negation if one believes in all four supports or pillars of the covenant.   See Gate of the heart, pp. 207-11.
Bada', Bada'a
Bada' and Bada'a
Ar.   obscenity, ribaldry, foulness (of language);   disgust, loathing, aversion, contempt
"Badakh Mountains". NE Afghanistan province
A village near Shahrud in Khurasan, venue of the first Babi conference.
Bedouin, nomadic;   rural (as distinguished from urban);   a Bedouin
Badawiya, Badawiyat
Badawiya, pl. Badawiyat
Bedouin woman, Bedouin girl
diary of Mirza Mamud-i-Zarqani
Badhinjan, Baydhinjan (Baidinjan)
Badhinjan and Baydhinjan
Badhinjan and Baydhinjan   (collective; noun -un) pl. -at. eggplant, aubergine
unique, marvellous, wonderful, wondrous.   See abda'.   Title given to Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri and Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' (Pride of Martyrs)
Badi'a, Bada'i
Badi'a, pl. Bada'i'
an astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder;   original creation
"Wondrous Life"   A name give by Baha'u'llah to Mirza Ja'far.
wonder of God
Badr, Budur
Badr, pl. Budur
full moon
of or relating to the full moon;   plenilunar;   one who had been present at the battle of Badr;   a purse full of money
Badshah, Padshah
Badshah, Padshah
Pers.   an emperor, sovereign, monarch, king.   Also Pad-Shah ("Padeshah")
desert;   nomads, Bedouins
Persian.   A ditch;   name of an idol;   a god (enters into composition of names, as bagh-dad--"god-given")
"Garden of Paradise", agricultural land west of the Rivan Garden, and east of old Akko ('Akka)
"Garden of Paradise"
Baghban, Bagh-Pira
Baghban, Bagh-pira
Pers.   a gardener;   a vine-dresser
city originally known as Daru's-Salam (the Abode of Peace) or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God.   Also known as Madina as-Salam (City of Peace).   Name may be derived from ancient Persian Bagh (God) and Dad (gift), i.e. "Gift of God"
Baghdadi, Baghdadyun, Baghdida
Baghdadi, pl. Baghdadyun, Baghadida
native of Baghdad
(also Bigum) (Turk) dame.   Feminine form of 'Big'.   A title placed after the name
Pers.   far be it!
Pers.   price, value
beauty, magnificence, splendour;   brilliancy;   glory or light.   Title of Baha'u'llah.   See Abha.   An Islamic Tradition states the Most great Name (Huwu) consists of four names: 1. "God" (Allah), 2. "the Blessed" (Tabaraka), 3. "the Exalted" (Ta'ala, from the same root as 'Ali), 4. The hidden name of God--identified by the Bab as hidden in Ta'ala, i.e. 'Ali, but the ultimate name is Baha' [the Greatest Name].   See Gate of the heart, pp. 105-7. Abjab: Baha' is eight plus one = 9--hence the significance of the number nine.   ('B' is two, the short vowel is not written in, the 'h' is five, the long vowel is one, and the hamza, represented by the apostrophe, is one.)   'Abdu'l-Baha interpreted Qur'an 69:17 as "... on that day Baha [9] will bear up the throne (the body) of thy Lord. On that day eight will bear up one."
Baha'i Khun
Bahai Khun
Pers.   the price of blood (which is paid to the relations of a person killed, as an atonement)
Baha'i, Baha'iyun
Baha'i, pl. Baha'iyun
precious, valuable.   "Follower of the Glory" (Baha'is is a generally used plural) A follower of Baha'u'llah;   a person of light, of enlightenment
Baha'ism or Baha'iism
Baha'i Faith
It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Baha'iyya or Baha'iyyih
Baha'iyya (Ar) Baha'iyyih (Per)
(Ar. pl. Baha'iyyat) [Baha'i Dispensation] Feminine of Baha'i.   ("Radiant" or "Full of Glory"--derived from Baha)   Baha'iyyih Khanum (also known by Persians as the variant Bahiyyih Khanum), The Greatest Holy Leaf
(previously written as Baha-el-Abha)   "The Glory of the All-Glorious" "The Glory of the Most Glorious"
("The Glory of God")   Title of Mirza usayn-Ali of Nur, founder of the Baha'i Faith.
Bahadur, Bahaduran
Bahadur, pl. Bahaduran
Pers.   brave, bold, valiant, courageous, magnanimous, warlike, strong, athletic;   a soldier, champion, hero, chevalier, knight, horseman;   a title of honour conferred by the Great Mogul and other Eastern potentates, bearing some resemblance to the European title of military knighthood.   Abu Sa'id Baadur--should be Bahadur?
Bahar, Baharat
Bahar, pl. Baharat
Pers.   spring;   vernal blossoms;   title of a celebrated work of ufi, Persian poet, native of Jam, Bushihr Province, Iran
delightful, blissful.   Form of the word bahija
Bahij, Bahij
magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful
to be glad, he happy (about), he delighted (at)
Bahir ("Bahira")
dazzling, brilliant, splendid, sparkling.   Monk Bahir ("Bahira") who met 12-year old Muammad
known as Sergius the Monk to the Latin West, was a Syriac or Arab Arian, Nestorian or possibly Gnostic Nasorean monk who, according to Islamic tradition, foretold to the adolescent Muammad his future as a prophet. His name derives from the Syriac bira, meaning "tested (by God) and approved".
Ar.   beautiful, magnificent, splendid;   brilliant, radiant, shining
Bahiyya or Bahiyyih
Bahiyya, Pers. Bahiyyih
See Baha'iyya (Ar) Baha'iyyih (Per)
Bahja, Bahjat (Bahajah)
splendour, magnificence, beauty, resplendence;   joy, delight
Bahjatu's-Sudur (Bihjatu's-Sudur)
"Delight of hearts". Book by aji Mirza aydar-'Ali
Bahji, Bahij
Bahji, Bahij
magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful.   That part of the plain of 'Akka where the Shrine and the Mansion of Baha'u'llah are located.
Pers.   intelligent, acute, adroit;   the supreme intelligence;   a cloud pouring rain;   (also bahmani barf (snow)) an avalanche of snow.   The second month of the winter in the Persian calendar.
city near southern coast of Caspian Sea
Bahr, Bihar, Buhar, Abhar, Abhur
Bar, pl. Biar, Buur, Abar, Abur
sea;   large river;   a noble, or great, man (whose magnanimity or knowledge is comparable to the vastness of the sea);   meter (poet.).   Biar is a reference to Shi'ih traditions.
Pers.   the planet Mars;   name of several kings of Persia, and of other kingdoms in the East (corrupted by the Greeks into Varanes);   name of several heroes;   the twentieth day of every month;   name of an angel;   the sword
of the Bahrein Islands
Bahrayn (Bahrain)
"the two seas" (two?--unknown--white and black, Mediterranean and Black Sea?), dual form of Bar.   Islands in the southern Persian Gulf.   The term Barayn appears five times in the Qur'an, but it does not refer to the modern island--originally known to the Arabs as "Awwal"--but rather to the oases of al-Qaif and adjar (modern al-asa).
Bahth, Buhuth, Abhath
Bath, pl. Buut, Abath
search (for), quest (of);   examination, study;   research;   investigation, exploration;   discussion;   treatise;   (pl.) study, scientific report (on)
Pers.   sister;   miss, lady (modern colloquialism)
lucky, fortunate
Pers.   fate, destiny, portion, share.   Name used for Persian political districts.
Pers.   fortune, prosperity, felicity, happiness;   luck (good or bad);   a horoscope, nativity, planet, constellation;   the nightmare
Bakhtawar (Bakhtavar)
lucky, fortunate
tribe of western Iran (Bachtiari)
Bakr, Abkhur, Bukran
Bakr, pl. Abkur, Bukran
young camel.   Caliph Abu-Bakr
follower of Abu-Bakr (i.e. a traditionalist)
Per.   See Baqshish
Baku, capital city of Azerbaijan
upper, up, above, better quality or prestigious.   Where there are two nearby villages, it can be used to indicate one is above the other or is of a better quality.   See Pa'in
yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
rural district in Mazandaran
Bala-Sari, Balasari
Bala-Sari, Balasari
"above the head".   A term used by the Shaykhis (Shaykhi followers) to distinguish ordinary Shi'ites (the Bala-Sari) from members of their own sect.   Those who pray standing at the head of the Imam while facing the Qiblih (i.e. with their backs to the Imam)
to test, to afflict
trial, tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress, misfortune;   scourge, plague;   creditable performance, bravery, gallantry, heroic action
Balad, Bilad, Buldan
Balad m. and f., pl. Bilad, Buldan
country;   town, city;   place, community, village; --(pl. bilad) regions, habitations;   provinces, territories;   an inhabited country;--(pl. buldan) cities, countries
"Protected Land"
eloquence;   art, of good style, art of composition;   literature
Pers.   moisture, humidity, freshness (of youth or young plants);   water
Balat, Ablita
Bala, pl. Ablia
pavement, tiled floor;   floor tiles;   palace;--pl. floor tiles
Balih (Baleh)
Pers.   yes
Apollonius was also known as Balinus
city and province in Afghanistan
Ballur, Billaur, Bulur
Ballur, Billaur, Bulur
Pers.   crystal;   beryl
Iranian tribe who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan.
SW province of Pakistan
Bamdad, Bamdadan
Bamdad, Bamdadan
Pers.   early morning
Bana, Bayan
Bana (Bayan)
to be or become plain, evident, come out,come to light;   to be clear (to someone)
Banadak (Banaduk?) Sadat
Banadak Sadat
village 40 km south Yazd
Hand of the Cause Musa Banani, and wife Samiih
Banda, Bandagan
Banda, pl. Bandagan
Pers.   bondsman, servant, slave
Pers.   a port city and capital of Hurmuzgan Province on the southern Persian Gulf coast of Iran
Bandar-i-Jaz (Bandar-Gaz)
city in Iran, on Caspian Sea (SE corner)
Bandar, Banadir
Bandar, pl. Banadir
seaport;   commercial centre;   district capital (Egyptian)
Pers.   bondsman at the door of Baha (Baha'u'llah).   A designation used by Mishkin-Qalam.   See banda
bondsman or slave of God.   See banda
"the children of" or "descendants of"
The sons or children of Hashim, great-grandfather of Muammad. That is, the people deriving from the quasi-mythical Shem (Sam), son of Noah.
was a clan in the Quraysh tribe named after 'Abd Shams ibn 'Abd Manaf's adopted son Umayya ibn 'Abd Shams.
Banna' (Banna)
Pers.   a builder, mason, architect
Tribe of Arabia.   Tamim, the ancestor of the tribe, is a direct descendant of Adnan and is thus considered an Ishmaelite tribe descending from Ishmael, son of Abraham.   Banu used in combination--see Banun
remaining, staying, lingering, abiding;   continuation, continuance, duration;   survival, continuation of existence after life;   immortality, eternal life;   existence;   permanence.   See Fana'
Baqara, Baqarat
Baqara, pl. Baqarat
remaining, left;   alive;   permanent, durable, fixed, firm;   immortal, everlasting, eternal;   one of the names of God;   remainder, rest;   balance, arrears;   (adverb) for the rest;   upon the whole
remaining over;   rest, remainder, remnant;   arrears;   balance;   surplus.   Cemetery in Medina in the vicinity of the Tomb of Muammad.
("One who expands or breaks")   Title of the fifth Shi'a Imam and an Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islam.
Baqir-Abad, Baqirabad (Baghirabad)
now Baqirshahr
descendents of Muammad al-Baqir
Baqiya, Baqaya
Baqiya(t), pl. Baqaya
remainder, rest;   remnant, residue.   Persian plural baqiyat
"Remnant of God"   A title of the Twelfth Imam that is also applied to the Bab and Baha'u'llah.
a sweetmeat
Baqshish, pl. Baqashish
present of money;   tip, gratuity, baksheesh
Pers.   (preposition) on, upon, onto
Bara'a, Bara't
Bara'a, pl. Bara'at
being free;   disavowal, withdrawal, repudiation;   innocence, guiltlessness;   naivete, guilelessness, artlessness;   (pl.) license, diploma, patent
to bless
Baraka, Barakat
Baraka(t), pl. Barakat
blessing, benediction;   abundance, prosperity
Baraka'llahu Fikum
Baraka'llahu Fikum
"May God bless you"
"God bless you"
From Baraqan (Baraghan) village north of Karaj (NW of ihran)
a mosque on a highway between Baghdad and Kaimayn
a town in Mazindaran, now known as Babul (Babol)
skilled, skilful, proficient, capable, efficient;   brilliant, outstanding (work of art)
Barq, Buruq
Barq, pl. Buruq
lightning;   flash of lightning;   telegraph
Barqi (Barki)
Barqi (Barki)
pertaining or relating to lightning;   electric;   telegraphic, telegraph- (in compounds).   Amad bin Muammad bin Khalid bin 'Abd al-Raman al-Barqi (b. ~200/815-816--d. 274/887-888 or 280/893-894) was a renowned Twelver Shi'a muaddith (adith scholar) and historian of 3rd/9th century.
land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, mainland;   open country
Barr, Abrar, Barara
Barr and Barr, pl. Abrar and Barara
reverent, dutiful (+ preposition bi--toward), devoted (+ preposition bi--to);   pious, godly, upright, righteous;   kind
Bartalla (Bartella), Baratallih (?)
("Bartella") town 21 km east of Mosul, 'Iraq (Bar Allah)
Barzakh, Barazikh
Barzakh, pl. Barazikh
interval, gap, break, partition, bar, obstruction;   isthmus
Pers.   a great number, many, more;   very much, greatly;   enough, sufficient;   often;   yes, indeed, certainly, it is so, very true, surely, undoubtedly, unquestionably
Basar ("Bassar"), Absar
Baar, pl. Abar
vision, eye-sight;   glance, look;   insight;   sight, discernment, perception.   Name ("Baar") given by Baha'u'llah to blind poet Mirza Baqir Bihishti
Basha, Badshah, Padshah, Padishah
Pers.   being, existing;   a basha or pasha (corruptions of badshah (a king), padshah, padishah, etc.), governor of a province, counsellor of state, great lord;   also sometimes the grand vazir;   a kind of falcon, a hawk.
Basha, Bashawat, Pasha
Basha, (Pers. also Pasha), pl. Bashawat
Arabic.   English pasha and Turkish paa.   A lord (or boy, prince).   Honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank in Turkey.
Bashir wa Nadhir
Bashir wa Nadhir
Baha'u'llah appeared as the "Announcer and Warner", cf. Qur'an 35:22.
Announcer of God
Bashir, Busara'
Bashir, pl. Bushara'
bringer of glad tidings (announcer), messenger, herald, harbinger, forerunner, precursor;   evangelist (Christian)
Beshneh, village NE of Nayriz
(most insightful, discerning, endowed with insight, seeing)   Adjective, superlative form of Baar (sight).
Siyyid Bair-i-Hindi, the blind Indian Babi
Baira, pl. Baa'ir
(keen) insight, penetration, discernment, understanding, (power of) mental perception, mental vision
Pers.   one who spreads abroad or stretches out;   a name of God, who dispenses riches to whom he will;   distant from water (pasture).   "open"
Basi, pl. Busaa
simple; plain, uncomplicated;   slight, little, modest, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling
the earth
Basmala, pl. Basmalat
"word" meaning to utter the invocation bismi'llah ar-ramani ar-raimi "In the name of God, the Benificent, the Merciful".   The "word" is derived from "in the name of" and is the act of uttering the above invocation.
Basra (Basrih)
Bara(h) (Pers. may use Barih)
a single pimple or pustule.   Barah port in southern 'Iraq (untranscripted variations: Basra, Bosrah)
native of Bara
Pers.   be bound or connected;   a lover, a sweetheart, one in whom the heart is bound up;   a turban, wreath for the head;   a knot;   a hundred;   a sanctuary, asylum;   a bank, a rampart;   a mountain;   distribution of water into canals, ditches, or drains
Pers.   (verbal noun), Stretching out (the hand);   distension;   diffusiveness;   being wide enough for;   preferring, exalting
Bastam, Bistam, Bustam
Basam, Bisam or Busam
place just north of Shahrud, Iran. Home of Mulla 'Ali, the fourth Letter of Living
Pers.   ancient, preceding, old;   the past;   the world, fortune;   solitary
Batara (Batr)
Batara (Batr)
to cut off, sever (something);   to amputate (something);   to mutilate, render fragmentarily (a text)   Form VII to be cut off, be severed, be amputated
Batha, Bitah
Baa, pl. Bia
A neighbourhood of Mecca [al-Makkah or al-Maakka--Bakka (Qur'an 3:96) may be an older name], TN p. 76.   lit. "basin shaped valley;   wide riverbed, wide bed of a stream or torrent;   level land, plain, level, flat(s)"
Batil, Abtil
Bail, pl. Abail
nugatory (of no value or importance), vain, futile;   false, untrue;   absurd, groundless, baseless;   worthless;   invalid, null, void;   deception, lie, falsehood;--pl. abail vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle talk, prattle
falsely;   futilely, in vain
Batin, Bawatin
Bain, pl. Bawain
inner, interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic;   hidden, secret--see ahir.   bain-i-bain--inner inward meaning.   Derived from ban
Batn, Butun, Abutun
Ban, pl. Buun, Abun
belly, stomach, abdomen;   womb;   interior, inside, inner portion;   depth
village on coast of Libya, east of Bengazi, distance of 115 km
Battuta, Batuta
Muammad ibn Baua or Ibn Bauah;   25 February 1304-1368 or 1369), was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
now Batumi, Georgia
county in Fars Province, Iran
Bawil, Bavil
Bawil, Bavil
village 23 km sw of Tabriz. It consists of Bavil 'Ulya or Bavil Bala (Upper Bavil), and Bavil Sufla or Bavil Pa'in (Lower Bavil).   See Milan and Usku
Bay, Baya, Bayat
Bay, f. Baya, pl. Bayat
formerly, in Tunisia, a title after the names of the members of the Bey's family.   See Beg
Bay'a (Bai'a)
agreement, arrangement;   business deal, commercial transaction, bargain;   sale;   purchase;   homage
Bay'at (Bai'at)
inauguration, salutation, or acknowledging the authority of a great man;   swearing allegiance;   homage, fealty.   In Islamic terminology it is an oath of allegiance to a leader.   It is known to have been practiced by Muammad.   Bay'at is sometimes taken under a written pact given on behalf of the subjects by leading members of the tribe with the understanding that as long as the leader abides by certain requirements towards his people, they are to maintain their allegiance to him.
Bayan-i-'Arabi, Arabic Bayan
"Arabic Bayan" (by the Bab) completed after the Bayan-i-Farsi
Bayan-i-Farsi, Persian Bayan
"Persian Bayan" (Mother Book of the Babi Revelation) (by the Bab)
Bayan, Bayanat
Bayan, pl. Bayanat
clearness, plainness, patency, obviousness;   statement, declaration, announcement;   manifestation;   explanation, elucidation, illustration;   information, news;   (official) report, (official) statement;   enumeration, index, list;   eloquence.   Also exposition or utterance.   Title given by the Bab to His Revelation, and, in particular, to His Books.   Muslims are puzzled by the chronology given in Qur'an 55:2-4. "Bayan (exposition) ["speech", 55:4] signifies the Revelation of the Bab, which unveils the hidden truth of the Qur'an. 'Man' [55:3] signifies the 'Perfect Human Being'--the Manifestation of God ...." Gate of the heart, p. 262.   al-Bayan ( or " ") has an abjab value of 94 ("al" (value 31) consists of an unstressed Alif and Lam).   Compare lillah
Bayani (Bayanis)
explanatory, illustrative; rhetorical.   Bayanis--those few who followed the Bab, but not Baha'u'llah or ubi-i-Azal (EGB by Balyuzi)
father of Yazid
Bayda (Baida, Baiza), Baydun, Baydat
Baya (Pers. Baia), Bayun, Bayat
egg;   helmet;   main part, substance, essence.   'Abdu'l-Ghani Baydun owned 14.5 ha of land adjacent to Bahji, but he and his family fled in 1948 and the land reverted to the state. The land was swapped in 1952 for the land purchased by 'Abdu'l-Baha for Dhikru'llah se of the Sea of Galilee, near the Jordan River.
Bayn (Bain)
separation, division;   interval;   difference
Bayram (Bairam)
Turkish festival.   Due to past influence of Ottoman Turkish, many Muslims have adopted the use of the word Bayram, using the term "Lesser Bayram" to refer to their own Eid al-Fitr ('Id al-Fir) celebrations;   "Greater Bayram" refers to Eid al Adha ('Id al-Aa) (see Aan).
Bayt (Bait), Buyut, Buyutat, Abyat
Bayt, pl. Buyut, Buyutat
house, building, temple, edifice;   fabric, tent (of nomads);   room;   apartment, flat;   (garden) bed;   family;   case, box, covering, sheath;   verse, couplet;--pl. large, respectable houses;   respectable families;   (pl. abyat) verses, couplets
Bayt al-Maqdis
Bayt al-Maqdis
the Holy Land
"The Most Great House" (House of Baha'u'llah in the Kakh quarter of Baghdad,occupied by the family shortly before Baha'u'llah returned from Kudistan)   See Madad, house of.
a house in the German Templar colony, Haifa, where Baha'u'llah stayed, 1883
Pers.   House of Justice
Pers.   Universal House of Justice.   See Universal House of Justice listing.
house of sadness
Ar.   Frequented Fane.   In Islam, the Ka'bah or its archetype in heaven.
al-Aqa Mosque, Jerusalem
"The House of Holiness"--name given to Jerusalem
the House of God--the Ka'bah in Mecca
Bayyina (Bayyinah), Bayyinat
Bayyina (Bayyinah), pl. Bayyinat
clear proof, indisputable evidence;   evidence (Islamic Law);   a document serving as evidence
"Return and grant a chalice" (by Baha'u'llah)
Bazar, Bazarat
Bazar, pl. Bazarat
merchant or craftsman of the bazzaar
draper, cloth merchant;   the mercer
Beg, fem. Begum
Pers.   A lord, a prince;   title put after the names of servants and petty officials.   Turkish Bey.   See Bay
Begum, Baygum
Great, a lady of rank, a princess--fem. form of Beg or Big
Turkish.   Dervish order, mainly in Antolia and the Balkans.
Bethulia, Bethulie
Bethulia, Bethulie
Bethulia is a Biblical city (location uncertain), situated on a mountain overlooking the plain of Jezrael, whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith.   Hebrew (a virgin).   Similar to Ar. Batuli (virginal).
(prep.)   in, at, on (place and time);   with (indicating connection, association, attendance);   with, through, by means of (designating instrumentality or agency, also with pass. = by);   for (= at the price of);   by (= to the amount of);   by (introducing an oath)
bi-Farmayid (Bifarmayid)
Pers.   "here you are", please come and eat, please come and sit, ..., etc.
bi-Qamis al-Babiyya
bi-Qami al-Babiyya
garment of Gatehood
bi-Qamis al-Wilaya
bi-Qami al-Wilaya
garment of Sanctity
Pers.   in detail;   expressly, distinctly, explicitly
Biba ("Babba")
city in Biba (Beba) district, Muafat Bani Sawif (Beni Suef Governorate), 130 km SSW of Cairo, Egypt.   See Kawm a-a'aydah
Pers.   a lady, a matron;   wife, mistress of the house
Bid'a, Bida'
Bid'a, pl. Bida'
innovation, novelty;   heretical doctrine, heresy;--pl. creations (of fashion, of art)
Pers.   heartless, dispirited, out of heart;   pusillanimous;   love-sick;   ignorant;   melancholy, dejected, sad, stupid.
Bidil, Abdu'l-Qadir
Bidil, Abdu'l-Qadir
Mawlana Abu'l-Ma'ani Mirza 'Abdu'l-Qadir Bidil (1642-1720), a famous representative of Dari poetry and Sufism in Afghanistan. He is considered the most difficult and challenging poet of Safavid-Mughal poetry. The pairing of Bidil's patronymic, Abu'l-Ma'ani, "The Father of Meanings", with his devastating nom de plume, Bidil, "The Heartless", illustrates perfectly the conceptual coupling of Love and Meaning in the sensibilities of the literary self-expression of his audiences.
(Great, a lord or prince)   Honorary title lower than Khan.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (Ottoman Turkish: "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"). Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces. Equivalents in Arabic were amir al-umara, and in Persian, mir-i miran.
A compilation of Shi'ih traditions   'Seas of Lights'.
"The Delight of Hearts" by aydar-'Ali.   See bahja and adr
Bihshahr (Behshahr)
Pers.   city in Mazindaran, 47 km ne Sari.   Formerly named Ashraf.
Bijan, Bizhan
Bijan or Bizhan
Pers.   "hero".   One of the main Iranian heroes in the Shahnamih
Bika (not Baka)
A composite comprising the prefix "bi" with the suffix "ka", which stands for the 2nd person singular masculine pronoun "Thou" or "Thee". "Bika" can be translated as "upon Thee", "to Thee", "on Thee" or "about Thee", depending on the context.   "Baka" in Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas should be Bika.
"in God, the Exalted, the Mighty" (bi+Allah)
the son of
("daughter of")
Biraw (Birau)
Pers.   ("biro", "buro", "burro")   go!, get away!, get off!
city in eastern Iran
Jupiter (astronomy).   Martyr, Dr Sulayman Birjis, Kashan (1897-1950)
now Lueleburgaz ("Lule Burgas"), Turkey.   23 km ese Babaeski and 75 se Edirne
Capital city of the province of Luristan, Mirza Bururg was governor
Pers.   without, out of doors;   exterior, extrinsic, foreign;   the outside;   from, a great way from
Pers.   outer or men's quarters.   See andaruni
Bishara, Bisharat, Basha'ir
Bishara, pl. Bisharat, Basha'ir
good news, glad tidings;   annunciation, prophecy;   gospel.   Glad-Tidings by Baha'u'llah
Supreme Glad-tidings
"word" derived from the expression "In the name of God". Basmala is the act (verb) of saying the recurring Islamic phrase "Bismi'llahi ar-Ramani ar-Raimi"--"In the name of God, the Most Compassionate (or Gracious), the Most Merciful". Bismi'llah is the first phrase of the first verse of every sura of the Qur'an except the ninth.   The verse is composed of 19 letters;   in honour of each letter six chapters were revealed, totalling 114 chapters (the Bab, The Persian Bayan, 2nd Vaid, 2:2).
("In the Name of God, the Most Unapproachable, the Most Holy"--Bab) (DB 66)
"In the name of God, the Glorious, the Most Glorious" (used in calligraphic bird design by Mishkin-Qalam--described as a "bird of paradise in the form of the Greatest Holy Name sitting on the tree of Touba (tree of paradise)"
"In the Name of God, the Most gracious, the Most Merciful"--first verse of the Qur'an
Bist, Ishrun
Bist (Per), 'Ishrun (Ar)
native of Basam
Bistum, Bistum
Pers.   the twentieth
Bisutun (Bisotun)
Pers.   pillarless.   Bisutun city 36 km NE Kirmashah, at the foot of Mount Bisutun on which there is the huge Bisutun Inscription in 3 cuneiform scripts (crucial to the decipherment of one of the cuneiform scripts)
Pers.   many, much;   numerous;   frequent;   copious;   very;   exceedingly
Bisyar Khub
Bisyar Khub
Pers.   very well, all right, very or most good
Pers.   (imperative of amadan), come, come hither, approach
Biya inja
Biya inja
Pers.   come here
a mountain near Zanjan
Brummana (Broummana)
(Beit Roumana, Aramaic name possibly meaning the "house of Rammana, the God of Air, Storm and Thunder") town 13 km east of Beirut, Lebanon
Budha (Ar.)
Buddha Maitreya-Amitabha, the Buddha of the future, the Lord of the Age.   Maitrya or Maitreya--"Kindness";   Amitabha--"Infinite light".
capital city of North Khurasan Province, Iran
Bukhar, Bukharat, Abkhira
Bukhar, pl. Bukharat, Abkhira
vapour, fume;   steam
city in Uzbekistan
people of Bukhara
steam (adjective), steam-driven.   Abu 'Abd Allah Muammad ibn Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju'fi al-Bukhari, 19 July 810-1 September 870), Persian Islamic scholar, author of the a ai al-Bukhari collection of hadiths (aadith).
Bulbul, Balabil
Bulbul, Balabil
Buli, Bolu
Ar.   for town (Bolu) 260 km east of Istanbul.
Pers.   a tract of country that a subject obtains either by gift, purchase, or succession, holding of the sovereign upon feudal tenure;   a district (modern colloquialism)
Arabic form of Paul
Pers.   the bottom or depth of water
Bunduq, Banadiq
Bunduq, pl. Banadiq
hazelnut(s), filberts;   hazel, hazel tree.   Pers. Funduq, Turk. Findik
'Abdu'llah Buni (SDC 104)
Buq'a, Buqa', Biqa'
Buq'a, pl. Buqa', Biqa'
spot, blot, smudge, stain;   place, site, plot, patch, lot
"Crimson Spot"--a hill called Samariyyih north of Bahji where red flowers grew in abundance in the time of Baha'u'llah
"The Verdant Spot", a former private cemetery near the government "castle", Yazd.   Designated as such by Baha'u'llah.
(Burhane Lame) published as "The Brilliant Proof"
Burhan, Barahin
Burhan, pl. Barahin
Proof of religion
Burj, Buruj, Abraj
Burj, pl. Buruj, Abraj
tower, castle, sign of the zodiac
Burnus, Baranis, Barnus, Burnus
Burnus, pl. Baranis
(also barnus, burnus, pl. baranis) burnoose, hooded cloak;   casula, chasuble (of Coptic priests)
Burqa, Burqu', Baraqi'
Burqu', (Pers. also Burqa'), pl. Baraqi'
veil (worn by women;   long, leaving the eyes exposed)
Capital city of the province of Luristan, place of the governorship of Mirza Buzurg
Busayra, Busayrah, Busaira, Bozrah
Buayra (Ar.), Borah (Heb.)
historical site and former capital of Edom. Adjacent to the town of Basira (Bouseira, Busaira), Jordan--about 30 km se of the "southern end" of the Dead Sea.
Iranian town and province on the Persian Gulf
(of or from Bushruyih)
Bushruyih (Boshrouyeh)
a town in Khurasan, 55 km ne of abas and 70 km wsw of Tun. It is the birthplace of Mulla usayn, first disciple of the Bab.
Busra or Bosra
Syrian town where 12-year old Muammad met the monk Bahir ("Bahira")
Bustan, Basatin
Bustan, pl. Basatin
garden or orchard.   TAB "Boston"
gardener;   garden (adj.);   horticultural
Pers.   odour, fragrance, perfume;   scent, spice;   hope, wish, desire;   search, quest;   love;   nature, disposition;   portion, part, lot
Pers.   "The fragrance of the Muliyan Brook" poem by Rudaki
Turkic (Bueyuek), big
Bueyuekcekmece, a district and municipality in the suburbs of Istanbul (abour 30 km west of the city), Turkey on the Sea of Marmara coast of the European side. It is west of Kuecuekcekmece
Buzurg-i-Vazir, Mirza
Buzurg-i-Vazir, Mirza (Mirza 'Abbas of Nur) father of Baha'u'llah (third child of second wife, Khadijih Khanum).
Buzurj, Buzurg
Buzurj, Pers. Buzurg
great, grand.   The title given by Fath-'Ali Shah to 'Abbas, Baha'u'llah's father.
Unaccented forms
Transcripted forms
Explanations and comments
Caelum, Caelum, Coelo, Coelo
ex coelo
Latin.   caelum is sky, heaven. Coelum is a variation of caelum. Hence, ex coelo is "from the sky" or "from heaven". Compare with ex cathedra "from the chair", with the full authority of office. The Catholic pope is said to occupy the "chair of Peter".   Refer to The heart of the Gospel, p. 66.
(also caravansary)   An inn for caravans
Chadar, Chadur
Chadar, Chadur
Pers.   A tent, pavilion;   a mantle, scarf;   a veil;   a sheet;   a shroud, winding-sheet;   a table-cloth.   Shawl or a long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women
Pers.   a well, pit;   a prison, dungeon;   a snare
locality, possibly near Kirmanshah.   Mentioned in DB p. 13.
Pers.   four, a crab
Chaman, Chamman
Chaman (Chamman)
Pers.   walking, giving oneself haughty, swinging, or graceful airs in walking;   a goblet of wine;   a party of friends
Genghis Khan
Chapan, Chupan (Chuppan)
Chapan, Chupan
Pers.   tattered garments
Pers.   a runner, mounted messenger, courier;   post;   mail
Chapar-chi, Chaparchi
Chapar-ch, Chaparchi
Pers.   courier
Pers.   time;   health;   healthy, well;   stout, obese
private home or four walls
Pers.   the eye;   hope;   an amulet or charm (particularly of holy writ) against fascination or enchantment
Chay (Cha'i)
Chay (Cha'i)
Pers.   tea.   See Shay
Chi or Chih, Chiha
Chi or Chih, pl. Chiha
Pers.   what, which
village near Ifahan
"Four Valleys" (by Baha'u'llah).   See chahar and wadi
Fortress in Kurdish Adhirbayjan, designated by the Bab as Jabal-i-Shadid (the Grievous Mountain), numerical value of Chihriq & Shadid is 318. Near the village of Lower Chihriq ( ), about 70 km NW of Urmia
Chilaw (Chilav), Chulaw
Pers. plain boiled rice
kabab with rice
Pers.   chenar tree
a section of Nayriz
Pers.   A lamp;   light;   the wick of a candle;   a guide, director;   a client, dependant;   a horse's rearing;   a pasture.   See Ar. Siraj.
Chiz, Chi
Chiz, Chi
Pers.   something;   who? what? which? a Turkish affix to form words denoting the agent
Chub (Chob)
Pers.   a log;   wood;   a tree;   a staff, rod, baton, stick;   a drumstick;   a beam;   a plough-tail;   a shoot of a tree, sucker
Pers.   (Chopan, Copan) a shepherd.   Amir Chupan and Dr Chupan
(Gk. Paracletos)   Muammad and Amad ("the Praised One", "a Mercy for all creatures" and "most kind and merciful to the Believers") are almost a translation of the Greek word Periclytos.   The use of "Comforter" in the John 14:16 and 16:7 is based on the Greek word Paracletos ("Advocate", "one called to the help of another, a kind friend").   Muslims argue that Paracletos is a corrupt reading for Periclytos.
1919 model car arrived Port Said early January 1920 (Prelude to the Guardianship, p. 126). Recently restored and stored in an air conditioned building at the front of 7 Har-Parsim St, Haifa.
Name of a Persian king
Unaccented forms
Transcripted forms
Explanations and comments
Da'a, Du'a'
Da'a, Du'a'
Ar.   to call (someone);   to summon, call or send for someone;   to call up;   to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something;   to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da'i or Du'at
Da'i, pl. Du'at
Pers.   who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything;   who prays for, invokes a blessing upon;   the Muezzm who calls to prayers;   Muammad (as caller to the faith).   Also missionary
Da'if, Du'afa
a'if, pl. m. u'afa'
weak, feeble;   frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
lasting, enduring;   endless, eternal, perpetual, everlasting;   perennial;   continued, continuous, continual, incessant, unceasing, constant;   permanent, standing, established;   durable.   As in permanent marriage.   Compare with munqai'.
Da'iya (Da'i), Dawa'in
Da'iya ("Da'i"), pl. Dawa'in
one who calls for something, invites to something;   propagandist, herald;   (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion;   requirements, exigencies.   Hence, ad-da'iya, the caller.
Da'wa, Da'awa, Da'awin
Da'wa, pl. Da'awa, Da'awin
allegation, pretension;   claim;   lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Dabb, Dabab, Adubb, Dubban
abb, pl. abab, Aubb, ubban
Pers.   (Debistan)   (either a contraction of dabiristan or an abbreviation of adabistan), a school
Dabistan al-Madhhahib
Dabistan al-Madhhahib
title of a book ("School of doctrines") containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles.   Persian Dabistanu'l-Madhhahib
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit
controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.);   prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools);   (pl. ubba) officer;   (pl. awabi) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dabita, Dawabit
abia, awabi
police;   (pl.) curbing force, order
Persian.   He gave;   a gift;   justice, equity;   redress of grievances;   complaint, lamentation (under oppression);   measure;   a part, portion;   revenge;   a ringworm;   life;   age;   a year
Dada (Dadih)
Pers.   a grandfather;   a title given to dervishes, especially qalandars;   a nurse who brings up children
governess, dry nurse, nurse
Pers.   a female servant, particularly an old one who has attended upon anyone from her youth;   a handmaid.
Dahaj (Dahij)
town near the centre of a triangle formed by Shiraz, Yazd and Kirman
from Dahaj.   Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji was named Ismu'llahu'l-Jamal by Baha'u'llah. He rebelled against 'Abdu'l-Baha after the death of Baha'u'llah.
Dahiya, Dawahin
Dahiya(t), pl. Dawahin
calamity, disaster, catastrophe;   misfortune
Dahr, Duhur, Adhur
Dahr, pl. , Duhur, Adhur
time;   long time, age, epoch;   lifetime;   eternity;   fate, destiny;   "world of duration"
Dai'a, Diya'
ai'a, pl. iya'
landed estate, country estate, domain;   small village, hamlet
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila
Dajjal, pl. Dajjalun, Dajajila
("Dedjal")   swindler, cheat, imposter;   quack, charlatan;   Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ).   The Antichrist, who it was believed would appear at the advent of the Promised One, to contend with and be ultimately defeated by Him.   See Sufyani
Dakhil, Dukhala'
Dakhil, pl. Dukhala'
inner, inward, internal;   inner self, heart, core;--pl. extraneous;   foreign, alien;   exotic;   foreigner, alien, stranger;   not genuine, false, spurious;   newly added (to);   novice;   (new) convert;   guest;   protege, charge, ward
Masrur Dakhili executed 1981
Letter 'D'
"The Seven Proofs" (by the Bab)
a straying from the right path or from truth;   error
Dalil, Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla'
Dalil, pl. Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla'
(the latter of persons) indication (of);   sign, token;   symptom;   proof, evidence (of);   guide;   tourist guide;   pilot (of a ship, of an airplane);   guidebook, guide manual, handbook;   directory, telephone directory;   railroad guide, timetable;   guide rail (technical);   roller path (in steel construction)
Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Daliyat ar-Rawha'
Daliya(t) ar-Rawa'
(fragrant vine") a Palestinian village 24.5 km se of Haifa. The Jewish colony of Dalia was established on land purchased in the village in 1939. It was depopulated of its Arab inhabitants in late March during the 1948 Palestine War.
Dall, Dawall, Dallin
all, pl. awall, allin
straying, roaming, wandering;   astray, lost;   erroneous, false.   allin (gone astray)
auctioneer;   broker, jobber, middleman, agent, commission merchant;   hawker
city, county and mountain south of the Caspian Sea
city 125 km SE Sari and 60 km SW of Shahrud
Damma, Dammat
amma, pl. ammat
the vowel point for the short vowel u;--pl. embrace, hug.   See kasra and fata
Dani', Adniya', Adna'
Dani',pl. Adniya', Adna'
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible;   inferior, second-rate, of poor quality.   Adna' also "lowest" or "even closer"--being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Bab, that of servitude.   (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Pers.   science, knowledge, learning;   excellence
Hebrew David   See Dawud
Followers of David, a small sect of Islam.
Daqiqa, Daqa'iq
Daqiqa, pl. Daqa'iq
particle;   nicety ("subtlety");   intricacy;   detail, particular;   minute (time unit)
Pers.   (preposition) in, into, within, among;   on, upon, above;   of, concerning, about;   by, for;   because of;   near, hard by, at;   to, as far as, according to;   before, in presence of;   against;   with;   under;   at length;   after;   so much;   out, out of doors
Dar as-Salam, Daru's-Salam
Dar as-Salam, Pers. Daru's-Salam
paradise, heaven;   epithet of Baghdad (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God (Baha'u'llah King of Glory, p. 296));   Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Dar, Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara
Dar f., pl. Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara(h)
house;   building, structure, edifice;   habitation, dwelling, abode;   residence, home;   seat, side, locality;   area, region;   land, country (especially diyar)
A town in Fars, southern Persia, home of Vaid's ancestors.
Daraja, Darajat
Daraja, pl. Darajat
step, stair;   flight of steps, stairs, staircase;   degree, step, tone (of a scale; music);   degree (mathematics, geography;   of temperature);   grade, fate;   degree, order, rank;   club (also, e.g., in trains, of a decoration);   phase state, stage (of a development);   mark, grade (in school)
Darb, Durab, Adrab
arb, pl. urub, Arab
beating, striking, hitting, rapping;   shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment;   multiplication;   coining, formation;   minting (of money);-- (pl. urub) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety;   (pl. arab) similar, like
Pers.   gateway or mountain door.   City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Daghistan (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus).   Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal) that is now part of the north side of Teheran.
Dard, Darad
Dard, Darad
Pers.   a name of God;   darad he holds, has, is possessed of
Darkala or Dar-Kala
Darkala or Dar-Kala
("Kalaa", "Dhakala") a village in Nur County (8 km SW Takur) in Mazindaran, a second ancestral home of Mirza usayn-'Ali.
harmful, injurious, detrimental, noxious, disadvantageous
Dars, Durus
Dars, pl. Durus
effacement, obliteration, extinction;   (pl.) study, studies;   lesson, chapter (of a textbook);   class, class hour, period;   lecture;   lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu'l-Akhlaq, Dars-i-Akhlaq
Darsu'l-Akhlaq, Pers. Dars-i-Akhlaq
"Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building" ("Dars Akhlaq")
Dar al-Athar, Daru'l-Athar
Dar al-Athar, Pers. Daru'l-Athar
museum, archives
Dar al-Funun, Daru'l-funun
Dar al-Funun, Pers. Daru'l-Funun
"building or centre for arts and sciences" The first technical college of Iran in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mirza Taqi Khan.   BKG 72
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij
(Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
(House of Legislation, Universal House of Justice)
(Dar-es-Salaam) or the Abode of Peace [Baghdad] (or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God).   BKG p. 296.
"the happy home"
House of treatment
Darugha (Darughih), Darughachi
Darugha (Pers. Darughih), Darughachi
Derived from Mongol: daru-, 'to press, to seal'.   A territorial subdivision (later a province) in the Mongol Empire.   A darugha was ruled by darughachi, who were in charge of administration and taxes--sometimes referred to as governors.   Darucha corresponds to the Persian daruchih and, in Safavid Persia, it was a title meaning prefect.   In the Mughal Empire of South Asia, darucha was the title of the district police officer or police magistrate.
Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani
Darvish Muammad-i-Irani
Name used by Baha'u'llah while in Sulaymaniyyih
Darvish Sidq-'Ali
Darvish idq-'Ali
Darwaza (Darvarza, Darvazih)
Pers.   a door;   a gate;   a square, market-place, or exchange where merchants meet, and mendicants beg;   (hence) begging;   a pass through mountains;   a boundary;   name of a fortress or castle;   lintel of a door
Darwish (Darvish), Darawish
Darwish, pl. Darawish
poor, indigent;   dervish or monk   A beggar of faqir (poor one)   "... those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship." Attributed to Baha'u'llah in MF 39.   May be written as Darwesh or Darvesh in Persian.
Pers.   a sea, ocean;   a river;   (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Pers.   the Ocean of Light--the Shrine of Baha'u'llah
village near Ifahan
Dast, Dust
Dast, pl. Dusut
place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office;   council;   dast al-ukm (a ruler's) throne
Pers.   history, romance, fable;   song, melody, trill, shake;   the key of a musical instrument;   foolish, idle talk;   fraud, imposture, stratagem
(Dastjerd) city 60 km WSW of Qum, Iran
people of Dastjird
Dastmal, Dast-mal
Dast-mal, Dastmal
Pers.   rubbing the hands;   a towel;   a handkerchief;   a kettle-holder;   dinner-plate;   easy, smooth;   bare;   a prisoner;   wealth
A Parsi priest
Dawla (Daula), Duwal
Dawla(h or t), pl. Duwal
alternation, rotation, change;   change of time, turn of fortune;   dynasty;   state, country;   power, empire.   e.g. Dawlat-Abad and Dawlat-Abadi
Dawli (Dauli), Duwali
state (adjective);   duwali international
Pers.   state or government.   See Dawla
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar
Dawr, pl. Adwar
round (of a patrol;   in sports);   role, part (played by someone or something);   film role, stage role;   periodic change, rotation, alternation;   crop rotation;   period;   (one's) turn;   phase, stage, step, degree, station;   epoch, age, era, cycle;   fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease);   floor, story;   musical composition;   number, single performance (within a program)
Dawr al-Nabawi, Dur-i-Nabuwwat
Dawr al-Nabawi, Dur-i-Nabuwwat
Prophetic Cycle
Dawud (Davud), Da'ud
Dawud, Da'ud, (Pers. Dawud)
Day of Resurrection
The Great Day (al-Yawmu'l-'Aim);
The Day of Resurrection (Yawmu'l-Qiyamah);
The Day of Decision (Yawmu'l-Fal);
The Day when the Hour shall come to pass (Yawmu'l-Sa'ah);
The Day of Judgement (Yawmu'l-Din);
The Day of Disillusion (Yawmu't-Taghabun);
The Day of Reckoning (Yawmu'l-isab)
Old Province SW cnr Caspian Sea (now Gilan)
Dayyan (Daiyan)
Pers.   a requiter (rewarder) of good and evil;   hence an epithet of God;   a conqueror, a subduer;   a judge, umpire, administrator.   Mirza Asadu'llah was given the title Dayyan (Judge) by the Bab and 'the third to believe in Him whom God shall make manifest' (Baha'u'llah)
sacrifice or slaughtered.   Pers.   zabi.   aji Muammad Isma'il was known as Dhabi.   The name Isma'il in Babi-Baha'i history is associated with the soubriquet 'Dhabi'.   Isma'il (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur'an, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice--hence the association of the name Isma'il with Dhabi.   (E. G. Browne, Balyuzi.)
Dhabih Allah, Dhabihu'llah
Dhabi Allah, Dhabiu'llah
"Sacrifice of God"   Abraham's sacrifice of His son
Dhahaba, Dhahab, Madhhab (Mazhab)
Dhahaba (Dhahab, Madhhab)
to go (to);   to betake oneself, travel (to);   to go away, leave, depart;   to disappear, vanish, decline, dwindle;   to perish, die, be destroyed;   with to carry something off, take something away, abduct, steal something, sweep something or someone away, annihilate, destroy something or someone
Dhahab (m. and f.)
gold;   gold piece, gold coin
golden, of gold;   precious, excellent, apposite (e.g., advice, saying, etc.)
Dhakawat (Dhakavat, Zakawat)
Pers.   intelligence, sharp-mindedness
Dhakir, Dhakirin
Dhakir, pl. Dhakirin
Pers.   rememberer;   a praiser of God
Dhaqa, Dhawq (Dhauq), Madhaq
Dhaqa, (Dhawq, Dhawaq, Madhaq)
to taste, sample (food, etc.);   to try, try out, test (something);   to get a taste (of something), experience, undergo, suffer (something), go through something;   form IV to have (someone) taste or sample (something), give (someone something) to taste;   form V to taste (something) slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly;   to get a taste (of something);   to sense, perceive (something);   to enjoy thoroughly, savour, relish (something);   to derive pleasure (from)
(verbal noun of dhara'a)   power, ability, capability (to do something)
(verb) to measure (something);   to take the measure or measurements (of something);   to cover (a distance);   to cross, travel (a country), travel through;   to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dhariyatun, Dhariyat
Dhariyatun, pl. Dhariyat
quick-scattering wind;   that which scatters, that which blows away
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar
to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of);   to keep in mind (something);   to recall, recollect (something)
strewing, scattering, sprinkling;   (collective) tiny particles, atoms, specks, motes.   Root word dharra has another derivative, dhurriya, so dharr can be understood as "seeds", as in progeny.   See dharra and dhurriya.
Dharra, Dharr
Dharra (Dharr)
to strew, scatter, spread (something);   to sprinkle (on something, something)
scattering, dispersing, the act of blowing away
Dhat, Dhawat
Dhat, pl. Dhawat
being, essence, nature;   self;   person, personality;   the same, the self-same;   -self
personality;   subjectivism (philosophy);   identity (of a person)
Dhawq (Dhauq), Adhaq
Dhawq, pl. Adhwaq
gustatory sense;   taste (for;   also, e.g., literary taste);   perceptivity, responsiveness (for);   sensitivity, sensitiveness;   savoir-vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact;   liking, inclination;   taste, flavour (of food, etc.)
Dhawqi (Dhauqi)
of taste, gustative, gustatory.   Form V "of sensing, perceiving"--see Dhaqa
Dhi'b, Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban
Dhi'b, pl. Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban
wolf, jackal.   Baha'u'llah named Shaykh Muammad Baqir (1819-1883) the "Wolf" and his son, Shaykh Muammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (1846-1914), Ibn-i-Dhi'b ("Son of the Wolf").
Pers.   Twelth month in Islamic calendar
Ar.   "clad in armour".   Term applied to Mulla 'Abdu'llah the arch-killer of Imam usayn
Pers.   Eleventh month in Islamic calendar
sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice
Dhikr, Adhkar
Dhikr, pl. Adhkar
recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration;   reputation, repute, renown;   naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation;   report, account, narration, narrative;   invocation of God, mention of the Lord's name;   (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulas in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing.
Dhikra, Dhikayat
Dhikra, pl. Dhikrayat
remembrance, recollection, memory;--pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Pers.(?)   Remembranceship
"Remembrance of God" (Pers. Zikru'llah), early title used by the Bab
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun
Dhimmi, pl. Dhimmiyun
a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur'an, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
is variously rendered by translators of the Qur'an as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc.
"that which possesses a spine".   The name of the well-known sword of Muammad and Imam 'Ali. So named because it had projections and jags, like the spinal cord, on its back.
Twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or "Possessor of the Pilgrimage")
Eleventh month of Islamic calendar (the one of truce/sitting)
Prophet in Qur'an 18:83-101--"the one with two horns" or "He of the Two Ages".   In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great.
Dhurriya, Dhurriyat, Dharariy
Dhurriya, pl. Dhurriyat, Dharariy
progeny, descendants, children, offspring. See root Dharra
Didam Baha'u'llahst
Didam Baha'u'llahst
Pers.   "I saw this was Baha'u'llah"   Summon up remembrance, p. 108.
Didan, Didam
Pers.   to see, look, observe;   to perceive, feel;   to expect, hope for;   to visit (modern colloquialism).   Didam, saw
Dih (Deh), Dihak
Dih, pl. Dihak
village, country
place (GPB p. 298)
Deh Chah, village NNE Nayriz
peasant, villager
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin
Dihqan, pl. Dahaqina, Dahaqin
man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality;   grandee (in ancient Persia)
Pers.   the heart, mind, soul;   marrow;   pith of a tree;   trunk of a tree;   the centre;   the eye;   a dot;   an enigma;   cote (animal shelter)
Pers.   demonstrations of love;   comfort, consolation
Dil-Gusha (Dilgusha)
Pers.   exhilarating;   "expansion" or "delight" of the heart
(Delli Abbas) a small town 12 km nw of al-Miqdadiyah and 90 km ne of Baghdad, in 'Iraq
Dimashq (Damashq), Dimishq
Dimashq, Dimishq
Damascus, capital of Syria
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi
Dimashqi, Dimishqi
of Damascus, e.g. Damashqi Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in 'Akka, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din al-Qayyin
al-Din al-Qayyim
True Religion (Qur'an 30:30)
(The Divine Faith)
Din, Adyan
Din, pl. Adyan
religion, creed, faith, belief.   Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah ad-Din Pers. Salah-ud-Din.
Dinar, Dananir
Dinar, pl. Dananir
(originally dinnar), a coin;   a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar;   a weight of gold (variously stated);   (metaphorically) the sun
religious;   spiritual
Dirbas, Darabis (Pers. Zarrabis)
Dirbas, Darabis
bolt, door bolt
Disatir (Desatir)
Pers.   is a literary forgery with Sufi leanings published in Bombay in 1818 from an Iranian manuscript
Disciples of 'Abdu'l-Baha
Disciples of 'Abdu'l-Baha
Designated by Shoghi Effendi:   Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont,   Thornton Chase,   Howard MacNutt,   Sarah Farmer,   Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney,   Lillian Kappes,   Robert Turner (First Afro-American Baha'i in America),   Dr Arthur Brauns,   W. H. Randall,   Lua Getsinger (nee Louisa A. Moore - Liva (banner), Lua - flag),   Joseph Hannan,   Chester I. Thatcher,   Charles Greenleaf,   Mrs J. D. Brittingham,   Mrs Thornburgh,   Helen S. Goodall,   Arthur P. Dodge,   William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Diwan (Divan), Dawawin
Diwan (Divan), pl.Dawawin
account books of the treasury (in the older Islamic administration);   collection of poems written by one author;   governmental office, administrative office;   chancellery, office, bureau, secretariat;   council or state, cabinet;   council, consultative assembly, board of advisers, executive committee;   government;   court or justice, tribunal;   hall;   davenport, divan;   (railway) compartment.   Used in titles, as in Amir-Diwan, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Diwan-Khanih, Divan-Khanih
Diya (Deya), Dia, Ziya, Zia
iya' (), iya' ()
light, brightness, glow.   Transliterated as iya' (Shoghi Effendi) or iya' (also with instead of ).   The same issue with the "iya" letter combination also occurs with diyar.
Diya Baghdadi
iya Baghdadi
[Dr Zia Baghdadi]
(Ziaiyyih or Zia'iyyih)
light of God (Zia'u'llah or Ziaoullah).   Mirza iya'u'llah--a son of Baha'u'llah
(Zia ed Din)
hospitable reception, entertainment as guest, accommodation;   hospitality;   "feast"
Diyala, Sirwan
Diyala (in 'Iraq), Sirwan (in Iran)
445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern 'Iraq, flowing on east side of Baghdad and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city.   Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Diyar-Bakr (Diar-Bakr)
Diyar-Bakr or Diyar-Bakr
(Diyar Bakr or Diyarbakir, "land of Bakr" tribe) city in SE Turkey, 630 km NW Baghdad.   Transcribed Diyar-Bakr by Shoghi Effendi.   Is also transcribed as Diar Bakr.   Renamed Diyabakir (Turkish, "land of copper") by Atatuerk in 1931.
"domain of writing" or "realm of calligraphy". Verse inscribed by Nabil when asked by Mishkin-Qalam: Dar diyar-i-kha shah-i-aib-'alam Bandiy-i-bab-i-Baha, Mishkin-Qalam." "In the realm of calligraphy, the king who possesses the Banner, is the servant of the gate of Baha [the Bab], Mishkin-Qalam."
Dizij, Dizaj
Dizij Abad, village 11 km ese of the centre of Zanjan
village supposed to be near the Shrine of Shaykh abarsi
Droshky (Doroshky, Durushkih)
Droshky, Pers. Durushkih
a low four-wheeled open carriage once used in Russia
Du, Do
Du, Du, Do
Pers.   two
Du'a', pl. Ad'ya, Pers. Ad'iyat (Ad'iyyih)
call;   invocation of God, supplication, prayer;   request, plea;   good wish;   imprecation, course.   Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Dugh-Abad (Dughabad)
village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. 150 km sw of Mashhad. Named Furugh by Baha'u'llah.
Duhan, Duha, Zuha, Zuhwat
uan, ua, Pers. uwat
Forenoon, luncheon-time
Dukhan (Dukkan), pl. Adkhina
smoke, fume, vapour;   tobacco
'Aziz Sulayman umi--his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Bab.
Ottoman Turkish origin.   Modern metric unit is 1,000 m2 of land or about a quarter of an acre.
Dunya (fem. of Adna)
world;   earth;   this world (as opposed to akhira);   life in this world, worldly existence;   worldly.   temporal things or possessions;   earthly things or concerns.   See awwal and akhirah
Durar al-Baha'iyya, Durar'u'l-Baha'iyya
ad-Durar al-Baha'iyya
Pers.   Duraru'l-Baha'iyyah (or -ih) (Dorar-ul-Bahiyyih)   "The Brilliant Pearls", translated into English and published as "Miracles and Metaphors"
(collective) pearls
Durra(t), Durrun, Durar
Durra(t), Durrun, pl. Durar
pearl, e.g. Durratu'l-Baha'iyya
(Dorud) place 260 km NW of Ifahan
Durzi, Duruz
Durzi, pl. Duruz
Druse.   The name Druze is derived from the name of Muammad bin Isma'il Nashtakin ad-Darazi (from Persian darzi, "tailor") who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name Muwaidun ("Unitarian")
Dust (Dost), Dustan
Dust, pl. Dustan
Pers.   friend;   lover;   mistress, sweetheart.   Dust-Muammad
internationality;   internationalism;   the International ...
Duz (Doz)
Pers.   (in compound word) sewing
A thief, robber, assassin;   theft
Pers.   "water thieves", renamed Zahidan (pl. "pious") late 1920s, capital of Sistan, Iran
Unaccented forms
Transcripted forms
Explanations and comments
Eirene, Eirenion
Eirene (Greek)
one, peace, quietness, rest.   Greek goddess of peace (Roman counterpart is Pax).   The Eirenion Hall was built in 1897 on the Green Acre property and was used as a lecture hall during the summer lecture series at Green Acre. 'Abdu'l-Baha gave a number of talks in the hall in 1912.
city in eastern Turkey ("Erzeroum"). Known as Theodosiopolis in Roman times. Neighbouring city of Artsn (Arzan) was destroyed 1048-49 and citizens moved to Theodosiopolis and called it Artsn Rum (Arzan of the Romans). Muslim citizens changed it to Arzan ar-Rum (or Arz ar-Rum) and then to Erzurum.
Unaccented forms Transcripted forms Explanations and comments
Fa'ida, Fawa'id (Fava'id) Fa'ida, pl. Fawa'id utility, avail, benefit, advantage;   gain, profit;   interest (on money);   useful lesson, moral;   use (e.g., of a medicine).   The Qur'an forbids usury, not reasonable interest.   See riban.
Fa'il, Fa'ilun, Fa'ala Fa'il, pl. Fa'ilun, Fa'ala effective;   efficacious, efficient;   (with pl. fa'ilun) doer, actor, perpetrator;   (with pl. fa'ala) worker, workman, labourer;   active subject of a verbal clause (grammar).   See maf'ul, manub and marfu'
Fa'iq Fa'iq superior;   surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate;   outstanding, remarkable, striking;   pre-eminent;   exceeding, extraordinary;   going far beyond (a restriction, etc.);   awake, waking, wakeful
Fa'iz, Fa'iza Fa'iz, fem. Fa'iza successful, victorious, triumphant;   victor, winner
Fa'izih Fa'izih Pers.   "she who has attained"--name given to Gulsurkh Bagum by 'Abdu'l-Baha
Fad-dan Fad-dan (feddan) about an acre in size
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala Fail, pl. Fawail, Failun, Fuala Ar.   (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess;   (pl. fawail) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;--(pl. failun, fuala) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving;   learned;   man of culture and refinement.   Persian ( may be used instead of ): fail, fem. failat, faila, pl. failat.
Fadil (Fazil), Fudala Fail, pl. Fuala' outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent;   distinguished, deserving;   learned, erudite.   As the day of the Badi' week, Fail: grace, favour.
Pers.   savant of Furugh.   See Furughi
Fadil-i-Qa'ini Fail-i-Qa'ini the Learned One of the Qa'in.   A district in the province of Khurasan
Fadila, Fada'il Faila, pl. Faa'il moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue;   merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness
Fadilabad (Fazelabad) Failabad 28 km ENE of Gurgan (SE corner of the Caspian Sea), Iran
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul Fal, pl. Fuul surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow; & leftover, remainder, remnant, rest; & matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter;--pl. that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity; & waste, refuse; & droppings, excrement. & Persian ( may be used instead of ): falat, fala.
Fadlu'llah Falu'llah Grace of God
Fahandizh Fahandizh Pers.   a family name
Fahd, Fuhud, Afhud Fahd, pl. Fuhud, Afhud lynx (also the term for cheetah and panther)
Fahima, Fahm, Faham Fahima, Fahm, Faham to understand, comprehend, realize (something);   to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something);   to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Fahm, Afham
Fahm, pl. Afham
understanding;   comprehension, grasp;   perceptive faculty, perceptivity;   brains, intellect;   discernment, acumen, penetration, insight, intelligence
Fajr Fajr dawn, daybreak, morning twilight;   dawn (figuratively), beginning, outset, start;   (fem.) morning prayer (Islamic Law)
Fakara, Fakr Fakara (Fakr) to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something);   to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhkhar Fakhkhar (fired) clay;   earthenware, crockery, pottery.   Tell 'Akka (inaccurately also called Tell al-Fakhkhar (Hill of Shards) or Napoleon's Hill.
glory, pride;   honor;   vainglorious poetry (as a literary genre)
Fakhru'd-Dawlih Fakhkhru'd-Dawlih (MF)
Fakhru'd-Din Fakhru'd-Din (Fakr ed Din)
Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' Pride of Martyrs.   Note final Hamza
Fakhura Fakhura pottery, earthenware manufactory
Falah Fala thriving, prosperity;   salvation;   welfare;   success
Falak al-Buruj
Falak al-Buruj
the celestial spheres
Falak, Aflak
Falak, pl. Aflak
celestial sphere;   celestial body, star;   circuit, orbit (of celestial bodies).   Hence, falak al-buruj (the celestial spheres);   falak al-manazil (the celestial stations);   falak az-zual (the sphere of Saturn);   falak al-mushtari (the sphere of Jupiter);   falak al-mirrikh (the sphere of Mars);   falak ash-shams (the sphere of the Sun);   falak az-zuhrah (the sphere of Venus);   falak 'uarid (the sphere of Mercury);   falak al-qamar (the sphere of the moon)
Falaq Falaq daybreak, dawn
Falsafa Falsafa to philosophize;   philosophy
Falsafi Falsafi Pers.   philosophical;   a philosopher
passing away, cessation of being;   perdition, ruin, destruction, annihilation;   evanescence, vanishing, termination, extinction;   exhaustion;   non-being, non-existence, non-entity;   extinction of individual consciousness, recedence of the ego, obliteration of the self (mysticism)
Fana' Fi'llah Fana' Fi'llah the annihilation of self in God (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana' wa Baqa Fana' wa Baqa' annihilation and subsistence (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana'yan (Fana'ian or Fanaian)
Mirza Faraju'llah Fana'yan (Junun) (ad 1871-1945)--a shoemaker, Baha'i and poet
Fanan, Afnan Fanan, pl. Afnan bough or twig.   Baha'is use Afnan to denote the male relatives of the Bab, specifically of His three maternal uncles and His wife's two brother.
Fani Fani Pers.   frail, transitory, perishable, inconstant;   tottering (old man);   (in the parlance of the Sufis) one who has reached the state of fana, or annihilation
evanescent, transitory, transient, ephemeral, vain;   exhausted;   far advanced in years, very old
Faniya, Fana'
Faniya (Fana')
to pass away, perish, cease to exist, come to nought;   to come to an end, cease, wane, dwindle, evanesce, vanish;   to be extinguished, become extinct;   to be exhausted, be consumed, be spent;   to undergo obliteration of the self;   to become totally absorbed (by).   See Baqa'
Fann, Funun, Afnan, Afanin
Fann, pl. Funun, Afnan, Afanin
kind, specimen, variety;--pl. Afanin various sides (of something), diversity;--pl. Funun sciences, arts;   modes, ways, manners;   tricks, artifices;   arts and sciences or technology
Faqa, (Fawq, Fawaq)
Faqa (Fawq, Fawaq)
to surpass, excel, overtop (someone, something), tower (above);   to be superior (to someone);   to outweigh, outbalance;   to transcend, exceed (something)
Faqarat, Faqar
Faqarat, pl. Faqar
back joint or vertebrae
Faqih, Fuqaha
Faqih, pl. Fuqaha'
legist, jurisprudent (and theologian), expert of fiqh
Faqir, Fuqara'
Faqir, pl. Fuqara'
poor, poverty-stricken;   poor man, pauper;   mendicant dervish, Sufi mendicant
poverty;   need, lack, want
Far', Furu', Afru' Far', pl. Furu', Afru' twig, branch, bough, limb, (also colloquial) branches, twigs;   derivative;   section, subdivision;   branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch;   branch line, feeder line;   branch wire (electricity)
Farab Farab village 60 km south of Ardabil, Iran
Farabi Farabi Abu Nar Muammad ibn Muammad Al Farabi (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Born in Farab or Faryab.
Faraburz, Fariburz Faraburz, Fariburz Pers.   glorious and mighty.   Name of a mighty champion and minister of Iran.
Farada, Faruda, Furud Farada and Faruda (Furud) to be single, be alone;   to be singular, be unique;--farada (furud) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Faraghih (Farugh) Faraghih (Faraghe, Faragheh) village 160 km SW Yazd
Farah-Abad Fara-Abad "The Fair Abode of Joy", palace near Tehran that was built by Muaffari'd-Din
Farah, Afrah Fara, pl. Afra joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness;   wedding;--pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity;   wedding (feast)
Farahan Farahan merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy.   County in Markazi Province, Iran.
Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Pers.   intelligent, wise;   near
Faraj Faraj freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering;   joy; relaxation;   relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort;   happy ending
Faraju'llah Faraju'llah God's relief or rescue
Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi see Zakiy
Faraju'llah Tafrishi Faraju'llah Tafrishi (MF) (from Tafrish)
Faramarz Faramarz Pers.   keeper of a citadel or fortress;   name of the son of Rustam
Faramush Faramush Pers.   forgotten, forgetfulness
Faramush-Khanih Faramush-Khanih Pers.   house of oblivion, Freemasonry headquarters, a corruption of franc-maconnerie (Freemasonry)
Faran Faran Pers.   small village in Ardistan.   Ar. for Paran desert, mountain, wilderness, etc.
Farang, Firing Farang (hence Farangi), Firing Pers.   from old French word franc ("Frank"), an Italian, European;   a Christian;   all nations that wear short garments;   ruddy, of pleasing aspect;   a galley. See afranj and ifranji
Faraqa, Farq, Furqan Faraqa (Farq, Furqan) to separate, part, divide, sever, sunder (something);   to make a distinction (between), distinguish, differentiate, discriminate (between).   See Furqan
Faraqlit Faraqli (Fariq+li) defender, deputy, or intercessor;   a distinguisher between truth and error, i.e. Amad, a name of Muammad.   Arabic rendering of the Greek Parakltos (Paraclete)
Farasha, Farashah, Farashun Farasha (n. Farashun), Pers. Farashah moth;   butterfly;   flighty, fickle person.   Farashah (now Islamiyih, Eslamiyeh) is a town SW of Yazd, Iran
Faraz Faraz Pers.   above, up, upon, on, upwards, aloft, on the top;   above and below, up and down;   back, behind;   after, hereafter
Farazistan Farazistan The heavenly world, title of a volume by Muammad Isma'il Khan
Fard, Furud
Far, pl. Furu
notch, incision;   duty, precept, injunction, order, decree, ordinance, command;   religious duty (Islamic Law);   statutory portion, lawful shore (Islamic Law);   assumption, supposition, presupposition, premise, postulate, hypothesis
Farda Farda Pers.   tomorrow.   A reply sometimes given to creditors since it never arrives
Farhad Farhad Pers.   elation, happiness
Farhand Farhand Pers.   an excavation formed by a torrent;   an artificial canal newly dug;   a ditch;   a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another;   a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another;   anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang Farhang Pers.   good-breeding;   greatness;   excellence;   gravity;   wisdom, science;   jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary;   a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk;   a subterraneous canal
Farhangi Farhangi Pers.   A preceptor, tutor, teacher, instructor;   a man learned in the law.
Pers.   name of the son of Kay Kawus
Farid Farid alone, lone, lonely, solitary;   singular, unique, matchless, peerless, unrivaled, incomparable
Farid Fari old, advanced in years
Farida, Fara'd
Faria(h), pl. Fara'
religious duty (Islamic Law);   divine precept, ordinance of God (Islamic Law);   obligatory prayer (Islamic Law);--pl. distributive shares in estate (Islamic Law)
Farida, Fara'id Farida(h), pl. Fara'id precious pearl, precious gem, solitaire;   (e.g.) quire (of paper).   Mirza Fal's Kitabu'l-Fara'id (Book of peerless gems)
Faridu'd-Din 'Attar Faridu'd-Din 'Aar Great Persian mystic poet "the druggist"
Fariq, Fawariq Fariq, pl. Fawariq distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative;--pl. a separating or distinctive factor;   distinctive characteristic, criterion;   difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Arabic for Persia, also Balad Faris (land of Persia)
Faris, Fawaris Faris, pl. Fawaris Pers.   Mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal;   a horseman, a cavalier;   a lion;   the Persians;   Persia.
Arabic for Persian;   a Persian
Farma Farma One who issues orders.   From the infinitive Farmudan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farman-Farma, the one who establishes order;   the Governor.
Farma Farma Pers.   violet
Farmahin, Farahan Farmahin, Farahan Farmahin is in Farahan County and is 40 km north of Arak, Iran
Farman-Farma Farman-Farma the one who establishes or issues the order;   the commander or governor.   Title of Prince usayn 'Ali Mirza, grandson of Fat-'Ali-Shah
Farman, Firman, Faraman Farman, Per. also Firman, pl. Faraman Royal decree, command, order or edict.   Ar.   plural also Faramat or Faramin
Farmaniyyih Farmaniyyih ("Farmanieh") once a garden named after Prince usayn 'Ali Mirza, now a district in NE of Teheran
Farnush Farnush Pers.   fem. name
Farrash-Bashi Farrash-Bashi Head farrash
Farrash, Farrashun Farrash one who spreads the carpets;   servant, attendant;   house servant, valet;   office boy, errand boy
Farrukh Farrukh Pers.   Beautiful-faced;   happy, fortunate
Fars Fars Pers.   Persia, Parthia.   Pars is the the proper and original name of this country, Arabs, who have not the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fars
Fars-Namih Fars-Namih
Farsakh, Farasikh Farsakh, pl. Farasikh Pers.   A parasang, a league, about 18,000 feet in length;   an hour;   a long time;   an interval;   a chink, cleft;   quiet, repose;   perpetual;   much.
Farsang Farsang Pers.   A parsang, league, about 5.5 km--the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour.   Derived from the Persian parsang (stone, sang, placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush Farsh, pl. Furush furnishing;   furniture, household effects;   mat, rug, carpet;   anything spread on the ground as bedding;   foundation (architecture)
Farsi Farsi modern Persian
Faruhar Faruhar Pers.   possibly a form of Furuhar (same consonants)
Faryab, Faryaw, Firyab Faryab, Faryaw Pers.   ground watered by irrigation.   Faryab (also Firyab), name of village 140 km NE of Bandar-'Abbas, Iran;   and another 195 km SW of Balkh, Afghanistan.
Pers.   worthy, suiting, befitting.   Dr Arbab Farzam
Pers.   science, learning;   strength, constancy; wise, learned
Farzanih-Mu'ayyad Farzanih-Mu'ayyad
Fasa Fasa village (43 km SW of Ifahan) and district, Iran
purity of the language;   fluency, eloquence
Fashar, Fishar Fashar, Fishar Pers.   a scattering;   diffusion;   compression, constriction, squeezing;   the piercing of one thing with another
Fasih, Fusaha', Fisah, Fusuh Fai, pl. Fuaa', Fia, Fuu pure, good Arabic (language), literary;   skilful in using the correct literary language;   clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech);   fluent, eloquent
Fasiq, Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa Fasiq, pl. Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa godless, sinful, dissolute, wanton, licentious, profligate, vicious, iniquitous, nefarious;   trespasser, offender, sinner;   fornicator, adulterer;   a person not meeting the legal requirements of righteousness (Islamic Law)
Fasl, Fusul Fal, pl. Fuul parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off;   separation;   division, partition;   discharge, dismissal.--plural: section, part;   chapter;   act (of a play);   movement (of a symphony, etc.);   article (in a newspaper);   class, grade (school);   season.
Fasl al-Khitab, Faslu'l-Khitab Fal al-Khiab, Pers. Falu'l-Khiab "sound or unmistakable judgement" (Fassl-ul-Khitab). The Conclusive Proof or The Decisive Decree by Mirza Fal
Fass, Fusus
Fa, pl. Fuu
stone of a ring;   clove (of garlic);   segment (of an orange);   lobe (anatatomy, botanical);   joint;   essence
Fassala, Fussila Faala, Fuila to detail, to enumerate;   to expound, to elucidate, to explain;   to make understandable, to clarify;   to be made distinct
Fata Fata' youth, adolescence
not to cease, to be (something)
Fata'l-Malih Fata'l-Mali
Fata'l-Qazvini Fata'l-Qazvini
Fataha, Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fataa, Fat, pl. Futu, Futuat to open (something);   to turn on (a faucet);   to switch on, turn on (an apparatus);   to dig (a canal);   to build (a road);   to open, preface, introduce, begin (something);   to conquer, capture (something);   to reveal, disclose (to someone or something);   to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something;   of God).   Plural: conquest; victory, triumph;   alms;   donations, contributions
Fatama, Fatm Faama, Fam to wean (an infant or a young animal
Fath-'Ali Fat-'Ali
Fath-'Ali Shah Fat-'Ali Shah A Qajar king, father of Muammad Shah.
Fath-al-Futuh Fat-al-Futu Victory of Victories
Fath-i-A'zam Fat-i-A'am "Fatheazam"
Fata(h or t)
the vowel point, the short vowel a (grammar).   See amma and kasra
Fathu'llah Fatu'llah "Victory of God"
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak Fatu'llah-i-akkak
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak-i-Qumi Fatu'llah-i-akkak-i-Qumi
Fathu'llah-i-Qumi Fatu'llah-i-Qumi
Fatih Fati opener;   beginner;   conqueror, victor;   light (colour)
Fatiha, Fawatih Fatia, pl. Fawati start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience;   introduction, preface, preamble, proem.   Al-Fatia (or Al-Sab'a Al Matani (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of Al-Fatia must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur'an.   See Qur'an 15:87.
Fatim, Futum Faim, pl. Fuum weaned
Fatima, Fatimih or Fatimah Faima (Faimah), Pers, Faimih ("One who weans")   Fem. of 'Fatim'.   Faima was the daughter of the Prophet Muammad and wife of the Imam 'Ali.   Faimih-Bagum was the mother of the Bab.   Faimih Khanum (referred to as Mahd-i-'Ulya) (second wife of Baha'u'llah--daughter amadiyyih, son Muammad, son iya'u'llah, and son Badi'u'llah)
Fatimi Faimi Fatimid (adj. and n.).   Not Faimid
Fatimiy-i-Ma'sumih Faimiy-i-Ma'umih DB 224 incorrect
Fatiq Fatiq unstitched, ripped, ripped open, slit, rent, torn;   sharp, shining (dawn), eloquent
Fatir Fair originator or creator.   al-Fair, the Creator (God)
Fatra, Fatarat Fatra, Fatarat lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility;   tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling);   (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause;   period, spell, while
Fattah Faa an opener;   a conqueror;   a judge, an arbiter;   one of the names of God (al-Faa);   name of a bird.   Derived from Fataa.
Fatwa, Fatva Pers., Fatawa Fatwa, pl. Fatawa A judgement or sentence made by a Muslim mufti (and court)
Fawa'id al-Hikmiyyah
al-Fawa'id al-ikmiyyah
(written by Shaykh Amad-i-Asa'i) observations in wisdom
Fayadan (Fayazan)
flood, inundation, deluge
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud Fay, Pers. Fay, pl. Fuyu flood, inundation, deluge;   emanation;   superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance;   (pl.) stream
Fayd-i-Aqdas Fay-i-Aqdas ("most holy outpouring")   Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas Fay-i-Muqaddas ("holy outpouring") and "most holy outpouring" (fay-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitab-i-Iqan), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitab-i-Aqdas.   Fay-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation.   See Fai.
Faydi (Faidi, Faizi), Fayzi Fayi, Pers. Fayi e.g. Afnan Fayi
Faydu'llah (Fazu'llah) Fayu'llah Abundance from God
Fayha Faya' now known as Damascus (Summons of the Lord of Hosts para. 252)
Faylasuf (Failasuf), Falasifa
Faylasuf, pl. Falasifa
Faysal (Faizal)
decisive criterion;   arbitrator, arbiter.   Fayal bin 'Abdu'l-Aziz, King of Saudi Arabia (1964 to 1975).
overflowing, effusive, exuberant;   elaborate, exhaustive (speech);   munificent, bountiful, liberal, generous
Fi Fi (prep.) in;   at;   on;   near, by;   within, during;   among, in the company of, with;   about, on;   concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles);   for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for;   according to;   in proportion to.
Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali during;   in the course of, within, in a given period of
Fi'l Fi'l, pl. Af'al, Afa'il activity, doing, work, action, performance;   function;-- (pl. af'al, fi'al) deed, act, action;   effect, impact;-- (pl. af'al) verb (gram.);--pl. afa'il great deeds, exploits, feats;   machinations
Fi's-Suluk Fi's-Suluk I and II "On the Virtuous Journey" (by the Bab)   [elided form of: fi as-Suluk]
Fidal Fial grace, favour.   Name given to Tuesday in Badi' calendar.   See Fail
Fidda, Fiddih (Fizza) Fia(h) (Pers. fem. Fiih) silver.   Name of the maid of the wife of the Bab.   Pers. may be written as Fia.
Fikr Fikr meditation or reflection
Fi+kum, on you
Fil, Fiyala, Fuyul, Afyal Fil, pl. Fiyala, Fuyul, Afyal (ivory) elephant;   bishop (chess)
Fin Fin Fin Garden in Kashan, Iran
Findik Findik Turkish "hazelnut"
Fiqh Fiqh understanding, comprehension;   knowledge.   Islamic jurisprudence
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan) Firaydan (alt. pronunciation Faridan) Pers.   county in Ifahan Province.   The capital of the county is Daran (or Darun).
Firaydani (Faridani, Feredani)
person from Firaydan
Firaydun (Fraydun, Faridun, Afridun) Firaydun (Fraydun, Faridun, Afridun) Pers.   ("Fereydun") an ancient Persian king--sons: Tur (Turaj), Salm and Iraj
Firayjat Firayjat A place where Baha'u'llah stayed.   It is 5 km north of the Rivan Garden, Baghdad.
Firdaws, Faradis al-Firdaws fem., pl. Faradis a garden, vineyard, paradise;   a fertile valley.   ("Firdaus, Ferdows, Ferdos and Ferdous") Firdaws (formerly Tun), capital city of Firdaws County in the southern part of South Khurasan Province, Iran.
Firdaws-i-A'la Firdaws-i-A'la ("Supreme Paradise")
Firdawsi Firdawsi paradisiacal, heavenly
Firishta, Firishtih, Firishtagan Firishta, Fem. Firishtih, pl. Firishtagan Pers.   an angel;   a messenger, apostle.   See Ar. Mal'ak/Malak
Firman Firman Pers.   See Farman
part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   herd, flock
Firqa, Firaq
Firqa, pl. Firaq
part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   class;   grade, class (in school);   pupils or students of a course;   troupe, ensemble;   team, crew;   division (military);   sect
Firuz Firuz victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful;   victory;   prosperity;   the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year;   name of several Persian kings.   See afir
Firuz-Kuh, Firuzkuh Firuz-Kuh or Firuzkuh village 125 km east of Teheran
Firuzabad Firuzabad city 85 km south of Shiraz
Fishar-i-Qabr Fishar-i-Qabr Pers.   constriction in the grave.   Promised after death tortures leading to a fear of being squeezed in the grave.
Fitna, Fitan Fitna, Pers. Fitnah, pl. Fitan temptation, trial;   charm, attractiveness;   enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation;   infatuation;   intrigue;   sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife.   Occurs when a Manifestation appears.   See also Imtian.
Fitr Fir breaking fast, alms giving at 'Id al-Fir (a Muslim festival marking the end of Ramaan)
Fitr, Aftar Fitr, pl. Aftar small span (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended);   corner
Fitra, Fitar
Fira(t), pl. Fiar
creation;   idiosyncrasy;   tendency;   wisdom, sagacity;   deceit, trick;   religion;   the power of the Creator;--(pl.) nature, (natural) disposition, constitution, temperament, innate character, instinct
Fitrat Fitrat Ar.   There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap.   Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Bab and the rise of Baha'u'llah.
Fizan (Fezan), Fizzan (Fezzan) Fizan (Turkish), Fizzan (Ar.) "rough rocks", south-western region of modern Libya. It is largely desert, but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (wadis) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara Desert.
Fu'ad, Af'ida Fu'ad, pl. Af'ida heart (Fuad)
Fu'adiyyih Fu'adiyyih Daughter of Baha'u'llah and Munirih Khanum
Fulad, Fuladi Fulad, adj. Fuladi and Fuladi steel, of steel, made of steel;   steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulan, Fulana Fulan, fem. Fulana (substituting for an unnamed or unspecified person or thing) so and so
Fulk Fulk (m. and f.) ship, (also collective) ships;   Ark (as in Noah's)
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik) Funduq, Funduqa Pers.   hazelnut of filbert-nut;   a nut good against the sting of a scorpion;   a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow.   Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findik
Furat Furat Pers.   very fine, sweet water or waters;   the river Euphrates;   the sea
Furqan Furqan proof, evidence, discriminator.   An important attribute of al-Qur'an (see 2:185) is that of distinction (Furqan), for the word Qur'an describes how al-Qur'an is recited, whereas the word Furqan describes the criterion that distinguishes between truth (aqq) and falsehood (Bail) (see 25:1).   Name of sura 25.
Furugh Furugh Pers.   splendour, light, brightness, flame.   Name given by Baha'u'llah to the remote village of Dughabad.
Furughi Furughi (Forooghy) the erudite Mirza Mamud Furughi came from the village of Dughabad. That is why Mirza Mamud is known as Furughi. Fail-i-Furughi--the Savant of Furugh--is also an appellation by which he is remembered. 'Abdu'l-Baha described him as a leader of the legion of the believers.   Eminent Baha'is in the Time of Baha'u'llah, pp. 157, 164.   See jaysh 'aramram.
Furughiyyih Furughiyyih name of a daughter of Baha'u'llah
Furuhar, Farawahar (Faravahar)
Furuhar, Farawahar
classical Pers.   matter, essence (distinguished from accident).   The new Persian reading of Furuhar (frwhr ) is Farawahar, Faravahar, Forouhar. The Farawahar, also known as Farr-i-Kiyani () or Ashu Faruhar, is one of the best-known symbols of Iran. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism and Iranian nationalism. The Farawahar is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (pindar-i-nik), good words (speech) (guftar-i-nik) and good deeds (kirdar-i-nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism.   The winged-disc symbol ("guardian angel") of Zoroastrianism is traditionally interpreted as a depiction of a frawashi--the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living and yet-unborn.
Furutan Furutan ("The humble")
Fususu'l-Hikam Fuuu'l-ikam The Bezels of Wisdom by Ibnu'l-'Arabi.   See Fa and ikma
Futuhat-i-Makkiyyih Futuat-i-Makkiyyih "Conquests of Mecca" by Shaykh Ibnu'l-'Arabi.   See Fataa and Makki
Unaccented forms Transcripted forms Explanations and comments
Gabr Gabr Pers.   originally an ancient Persian (i.e. a Zoroastrain), one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster (a priest of the worshippers of fire);   by the 13th century the word denoted a pagan, an infidel;   a plant resembling ginger;   a vest;   a stone.   After gabr came to have a pejorative implication, it was superseded in literature by the respectable Zartoshti ("Zoroastrian")
Gach Gach Pers.   a kind of white earth of which lime is made of;   a plaster of lime and gypsum mixed with sand and pounded marble.
Gaf Gaf Persian letter representing g--a form of the Arabic letter kaf
Gelibolu, Turkey
Gand Gand Pers.   anything fetid, bad smell, stink, funk.   Can result from a mispronounciation of qand
Gandum Gandum Pers.   wheat
Gandum-Pak-Kun Gandum-Pak-Kun Mulla Muammad Ja'far--the first person in Ifahan to accept the Faith of the Bab
Ganj Ganj Pers.   a store, hoard, hidden treasure;   a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse;   a mart;   a case
Ganja, Ganjih Ganja, Ganjih (Ganjeh) city of Ganja in Adharbayjan, mentioned in a number of Baha'i books.   There are 6 villages in Iran with Ganjeh in their names.
Gallabiya, Gallabiyat, Galalib
Gallabiya (Eg. Ar.), pl. Gallabiyat, Galalib
galabia or galabieh, a loose, shirt-like garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea.   See jillabiya
Pers.   a suffix that, subjoined to a word, denotes agency or possession
Garb Garb west;   occident;   vehemence, violence, impetuosity, tempestuousness;   al-Garb--the West, the Occident
Garbi Garbi western, westerly;   occidental, Western;   European;   an Occidental, a Westerner;--al-Garbiyun the Western Church (Christian)
Pers.   any standard of measure, whether for land, cloth, grain, liquids, or time;   a measure of time, twenty-two minutes and thirty seconds;   the itch, scab;   practice, trade, office
Garm Rud Garm Rud (or Garmrud) Village northern Iran (south of Sari).   Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rud)
Garm-Siri Garm-Siri "warm place"
Gawhar (Gohar, Gauhar, Guhar) Gawhar Pers.   a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone;   lustre of a gem or sword;   root, origin;   of a noble family;   essence, substance, form;   offspring;   any hidden virtue;   intellect, wisdom;   a substitute.   See jawhar
Gawhar Khanum Gawhar Khanum third wife of Baha'u'llah (broke Covenant after the passing of Baha'u'llah)--her daughter is Furughiyyih
Gawhar-Shad Gawhar-Shad
Ghadir Khumm
Ghadir Khumm
Muammad gave a speech (during which he designated 'Ali as the leader of the Muslim ummah) on 18th of Dhu'l-ijjih ah 10 (ad 632) at Ghadir Khumm, which is near the city of al-Juhfah.
Ghadir, Ghudur, Ghudran Ghadir, pl. Ghudur, Ghudran pond, pool, puddle;   stream, brook, creek, river
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufran to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghaffar ("Gaffar") Ghaffar readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)   'Abdu'l-Ghaffar
Ghafir Ghafir forgiving;   merciful, compassionate
readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)
Ghali Ghali Pers.   dear, highly-priced
Ghali Ghali Pers.   dear, costly, high-priced, precious, valuable;   one who exceeds bounds;   a fanatic, a zealot;   name of a poet
Ghalin, Ghulah Ghalin, pl. Ghulah expensive, high priced;   valuable, costly;   dear, beloved;   (pl.) adherent of an extreme sect;   extremist, radical;   fanatic adherent, fanatic
Ghamam, Ghamamun, Ghama'im
Ghamam, pl. Ghama'im
clouds (collective noun Ghamamun)
Ghani Ghani Self-sufficient (able to do without, detached).   Khajih Ghani or 'Abdu'l-Ghani Baydun
Ghani ad-Dahr
Ghani ad-Dahr
the appreciative
Ghanim Ghanim Ar.   successful
Ghanima, Ghana'im
Ghanima(h), pl. Ghana'im
spoils, booty, loot, prey
Ghannam Ghannam shepherd.   House of Sulayman-i-Ghannam in Baghdad.   See Bayt-i-A'am
Ghar, Aghwar, Ghiran Ghar, pl. Aghwar, Ghiran cave, cavern
Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, Ghiras Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, pl. Ghiras to plant, implant (something in);   to place, put, set, infix, interpose, interpolate, insert (something into).   Ghars and Gharasih (Pers.) have numerical values of 1260 and 1265 respectively.   See DB p. 50.
Gharasi Gharasi (numerical value of 1270)
Ghariq Ghariq Pers.   drowned, immersed.   Numerical value of 1310.   Nabil drowned in AH 1310--the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghashiya, Ghawashin Ghashiya, pl. Ghawashin pericardium;   misfortune, calamity, disaster;   faint, swoon;   insensibility, stupor;   servants, attendants, retinue, suit.   Al Ghashiyah, the overwhelming event, sura 88
Ghawgha' (Ghaugha') Ghawgha' mob, rabble, riffraff, din, noise, clamour
Ghawr Ghawr place near Tiberias, Israel
Ghawth Ghawth call for help;   help, aid, succour
Ghawthiyyih Ghawthiyyih garden of Ghawthiyyih
Ghayb (Ghaib) Ghayb, pl. Ghuyub absence;   hidden, concealed, invisible;   (pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible;   that which is transcendental, the supernatural;   divine secret.   (invisible realm)
Ghayba (Ghaiba) Ghayba absence;   concealment, invisibility;   occultation.   See Tablet of Amad
Ghaybat (Ghaibat) Ghaybat being concealed, absent, invisible;   concealment, absence, invisibility;   ecstacies.   State of being hidden from view.
Ghaybat-i-Kubra Ghaybat-i-Kubra Major Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat-i-Sughra Ghaybat-i-ughra Minor Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaym (Ghaim), Ghuyum, Ghiyam Ghaym, pl. Ghuyum, Ghiyam (collective) clouds;   mist, fog
Ghaym al-Raqiq Ghaym al-Raqiq thin cloud
Ghayn Ghayn Arabic letter transcripted as gh
Ghayr (Ghair)
other than (with dependent genitive), different from, unlike, no, not, non-, un-, in-, dis-;   (preposition) ghayra except, save, but
Ghayr Mutashabih
Ghayr Mutashabih
Ghaz, Ghazat
Ghaz, pl. Ghazat
gas;   petroleum, oil (north African)
Ghazal Ghazal A poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.   gazelle
Ghazi Ghazi gaseous, gas-like.   al-ghazi war lord, warrior champion
Ghazna Ghazna or Ghazni city Afghanistan
Ghazza Ghazza Gaza (seaport in the Gaza strip)
Ghazzi Ghazzi gauze
Ghina' Ghina' singing, song   (term normally used to denote music and the human chanting voice)
Ghirsh, Ghursh, Ghurush Ghirsh, Ghursh, pl. Ghurush silver coin, piaster
Ghiyath Ghiyath help, succour.   Abjab 1,511
Ghulam al-Khuld Ghulam al-Khuld Tablet of the Deathless Youth by Baha'u'llah
Ghulam-Ahmad Ghulam-Amad Mirza Ghulam-Amad of Qadiyan, India,(1839-1908). Followers later split into Amadiyyah and Qadiyaniyyah
Ghulam-Husayn Ghulam-usayn
Ghulam-Rida Ghulam-Ria
Ghulam-Riday-i-Kuchik Ghulam-Riay-i-Kuchik
Ghulam-Riday-i-Yazdi Ghulam-Riay-i-Yazdi
Ghulam, Ghilman, Ghilma Ghulam, pl. Ghilman, Ghilma boy, youth, lad;   slave;   servant, waiter
Ghulamu'llah Ghulamu'llah servant of God.   son of Javav-i-Qazvini
Ghuluw Ghuluw exceeding of proper bounds, excess, extravagance;   exaggeration
Ghuluww, Ghaliyya Ghuluww, Ghaliyya exaggeration, extremism
Ghusl, Aghsal
Ghusl, pl. Aghsal
washing, ablution;   the major ritual ablution, i.e., a washing of the whole body (Islamic Law);   wash water
Ghusn-i-A'zam Ghun-i-A'am Greatest Branch
Ghusn-i-Mumtaz Ghun-i-Mumtaz The Chosen Branch i.e. Shoghi Effendi
Ghusn, Ghusun, Aghsan Ghun, pl. Ghuun, Aghan twig, bough, limb, branch.   Aghan (branches) denotes the sons and male descendants of Baha'u'llah
Pers.   followers of Mirza Muammad 'Ali, the "Ghun-i-Akbar", the half-brother of Baha'u'llah
Ghusnu'llahu'l-A'zam Ghunu'llahu'l-A'am "The Greatest Branch of God"   BKG 250, 311, 420, 485
Ghusnu'llahu'l-Athar Ghunu'llahu'l-Ahar "The Purest Branch of God"
Gilan Gilan A northern province of Iran on the Caspian Sea.
Giltughi Giltughi aji Kaim Giltughi
Gird Gird Pers.   round;   a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit;   environs, parts adjacent;   a collection, assembly;   a host;   a city;   a tent, pavilion;   (adverb) around.   e.g. Kinar-Gird, a village where the Bab paused in His exile journey to Mah-Ku.
Pers.   a knot, a knur (as in a thread or on wood), a knob, a joint;   a button or anything for fastening garments;   a gland;   a kernel;   a purse;   an abscess;   a knuckle;   articulation;   three finger-breadths;   a difficulty;   the seed of a thorny tree used for tanning;   the heart
Giwah (Givah, Giveh, Giwa)
Pers.   a soft, comfortable, durable and hand woven-top shoe common in several parts of Iran especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kermanshah Province.
Title given to Shoghi Effendi by 'Abdu'l-Baha: "After the passing away of this wronged one, it is incumbent upon the Aghsan, the Afnan of the Sacred Lote-Tree, the Hands of the Cause of God and the loved ones of the Abha Beauty to turn unto Shoghi Effendi--the youthful branch branched from the two hallowed and sacred Lote-Trees and the fruit grown from the union of the two offshoots of the Tree of Holiness,--as he is the sign of God, the chosen branch, the Guardian of the Cause of God .... He is the Interpreter of the Word of God ...." (The Will and Testament, p. 11)
Pers.   speech, conversation;   a saying;   a chapter
Gugan (Gavgan (Gav-Gan), Gavkan)
village 50 km SW of Tabriz.   Letters transcribe as "Gawgan"
Gul-i-Gulab Gul-i-Gulab Red Rose, literally, "the flower of the rose-water".   See Jull and Jullab
Gul-Muhammad Gul-Muammad
Gul-Saba Gul-Saba Pers.   Sheba rose (not aba as in Summon up remembrance)
Gul, Gulan Gul, pl. Gulan Pers.   a rose;   a flower;   embers;   a red colour
Guldanih 'Alipur
Pers.   flower garden, rose garden;   place where flowers grow;   a celebrated Persian book in prose and verse, by Abu-Muammad Muli al-Din bin 'Abdu'llah Shirazi (better known by his pen-name Sadi) (1175-1291).
Zabiu'llah (Ar. Dhabiu'llah) Gulmuammadi
Gulpaygan Gulpaygan a city in and the capital of Gulpaygan County, Ifahan Province, Iran (about 160 km NW of Ifahan)
Gulshan (Golshan) Gulshan Pers.   a rose or flower-garden;   a bed of roses or flowers;   a delightful spot;   a place where a person enjoys himself;   a pleasure-palace;   florid, cheerful, agreeable.   Former name of abas--city in South Khorasan Province, Iran.
Gulshani Gulshani
Gumruk, Gamarik Gumruk, pl. Gamarik customs;   customhouse
Gunabad (Gonabad) Gunabad 225 km SW of Mashhad, Khurasan province
Gunjishk Gunjishk Pers.   a sparrow;   a chick;   any small bird
Guran Guran Pers.   the rendezvous of an army;   an assembly-room;   rice browned in the oven.   A village in Lorestan Province, 174 km SW Kashan.   DB 547
Gurgin (Gurgan, Gorgan) Gurgin or Gurgan city near Caspian Sea (formerly Astrabad or Astarabad)
Gurgin Khan Gurgin Khan Nephew and successor of Governor Manuchihr Khan in Ifahan.
Gusha Gusha Pers.   opening, loosening, solving
Gusht, Gosht
Pers.   flesh, meat;   pulp of fruit
Gushtasb, Gushasb Gushtasb, Gushasb Pers.   an ancient king of Persia
Guzal Guzal (The Pass)   As in Adi-Guzal, Sayyah, the messenger.
Gyawur-Kyuy Gyawur-Kyuy probably the Turkish village of Gueneyli Koeyue ("Southern Village"), 11 km north of Gallipoli
Unaccented forms Transcripted forms Explanations and comments
Ha, Ha'at Ha', pl. Ha'at Arabic letter
Ha, Had, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha'ula'i, Hadani Ha look! there!   ha huwa look, there he is!   ha antum you there!   as a prefix (mostly written defectively): hada, f. hadihi, hadi,--pl. ha'ula'i, dual m. hadani, f. hatani this one, this
Habash, Ahbash
al-abash, pl. al-Abash
Abyssinia, Ethiopia;--pl. the Abyssinians, Ethiopians
Habba, Hubb abba, ubb to love, like;   to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone);   to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone);   to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba, abib, pl. Aabba, Aibba beloved, sweetheart, lover;   darling;   dear one, friend;   dear
Habibi abibi, Pers. abibih my love
Habibu'llah abibu'llah beloved of God
Habibu'llah-i-Afnan abibu'llah-i-Afnan, aji Mirza
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar abr, ibr, pl. Abar a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe;   bishop;   rabbi
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi Hada, fem. Hadihi, Hadi, pl. Ha'ula'i this one, this
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont. dual m. Hadani, f. Hatani
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha'ula'i, Hadani Hada (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hadihi, hadi, pl. ha'ula'i, dual masc. hadani, dual fem. hatani this one, this
Hadatha, Huduth
adatha (uduth)
to happen, occur, take place, come to pass.   Root of adith
Hadba, Ahdab adba', fem. Adab, pl. udb hunchbacked, humped.   The historic Great Mosque of al-Nuri in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname "the hunchback" (al-adba').   See root word adiba
Hadd, Hudud add, pl. udud (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   edge, border, brink, brim, verge;   border (of a country), boundary, borderline;   limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus;   a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained);   (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion);   divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God);   legal punishment (Islamic Law)
a director, leader, guide;   one who enjoys rest or peace;   the neck;   head or point of an arrow;   an ox in the centre of a threshing-floor, round which the other oxen move when treading out the grain
Hadiba, Hadab adiba, (verbal noun adab) to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward;   to be hunchbacked;   to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadid, Hada'id adid, pl. ada'id iron;--pl. iron parts (of a structure);   forgings, hardware, ironware
Hadid, Hidad, Ahidda adid, pl. idad, Aidda', Aidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.), keen (mind)
Hadiqat adiqat an inclosed garden;   an orchard, a palm-plantation;   name of a village near Madina
Hadiqatu'r-Rahman adiqatu'r-Raman the Orchard of the Merciful
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara air, pl. uar, uur, aara present;   attending;--(pl. uar, aara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic.   (pl. uur) presence;   visit, participation, attendance.   See air
Hadith, Hawadith
adith, pl. awadith, also awadithat
occurring, happening, taking place;   new, recent;   fresh;--(pl.) occurrence, incident, event, happening;   episode; case (jurisprudence) accident, mishap
Hadith-i-Jabir adith-i-Jabir
Hadith, Ahadith adith, pl. Aadith, adithan speech;   chat, chitchat, small talk;   conversation, talk, discussion;   interview;   prattle, gossip;   report, account, tale, narrative;   Prophetic tradition, hadith, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions.   Root of adith is adatha.   Aadith are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muammad and the Imams. Two distinct types: al-adith an-Nabawi and al-adith al-Qudsi. The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muammad (a adith where one of the Companions reports Muammad's statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration.   Note: --al-'aadith--"the hadiths".
Haditha, Hawadith aditha, pl. awadith occurrence, event, happening;   plot (of a play);   incident, episode;   accident, mishap
Hadiy-i-Dawlat-Abadi Hadiy-i-Dawlat-Abadi
Hadiy-i-Nahri Hadiy-i-Nahri (MF)
Hadiy-i-Qazvini Hadiy-i-Qazvini
Hadiya adiya to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place).   Name given as location where of Shaykh Amad-i-Asa'i, the leader of the Shaykhis, died. It is near the tomb of Muammad in Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqi' in Medina.
Hadiya, Hadaya Hadiya, pl. Hadaya gift, present, donation;   offering, sacrifice
Hadiya, Hadiyat Hadiyat, Hadiya, fem. Hadiyyih Pers.   the leader of a flock;   a stick, staff
Hadra (Hadrat), Hazrat ara(t), Pers. arat presence, threshold;   dignity;   majesty;   dominion, power;   an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity;   also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship.   Used broadly by mystics as a synonym of uur, "being in the presence [of Allah]".   Holiness ('his excellency' or 'his honour').   Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut aramawt, Hadhramaut a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula--part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Hud)
Hadrat-i-A'la or Hadrat-i-'Ala arat-i-A'la "His Holiness the Most Exalted One" (a designation of the Bab)
Hadrat-i-Mubashshir arat-i-Mubashshir "His holiness the Herald"
Hadratu'llah (Hazratu'llah) aratu'llah The Lord God
Hafiz afi a keeper, preserver, guardian;   a commander, governor;   the Preserver of all things (God);   gifted with a good memory;   one who has by heart the whole Quran;   a blind man (because such fall frequently under the preceding category);   pen name of the greatest lyric, mystical poet of Persia, Khwaja Shams al-Din Muammad afi-i-Shirazi (1320-1390), author of odes in the ghazal form. The Tomb of afi and its associated memorial hall, the afiih, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shiraz, in his memory.
Hafizu's-Sihhih afiu'-iih Mirza 'Abdu'l-Rahim Khan afiu'-iih, Baha'i World, vol. ix, pp. 613-4.
Haft-Dast Haft-Dast Pers.   seven hands
Haft-Vadi Haft-Vadi (Seven Valleys) (by Baha'u'llah)
Hahut Hahut (realm of the "Absolute Unknown", where God's essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity).   See Lahut, Jabarut, Malakut, and Nasut.
Haira, Hairat
aira (airat)
confusion, perplexity, bewilderment, embarrassment, helplessness, embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
Hagar, wife of Abraham and the mother of Isma'il
Hajar, Hijarat, Ahjar, Hijar
ajar, pl. ijara(t), Ajar, ijar
stone;   the philosopher's stone;   weight (placed as an equipoise on the scale of a balance)
Hajar al-Aswad
al-ajar al-Aswad
Pers.   al-ajaru'l-Aswad.   the Black Stone of the Ka'ba at Mecca.   Size about 160 (6.3") x 200 (7.9") mm
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran
to emigrate;   to dissociate oneself, separate, part, secede, keep away
Haji Shah-Muhammad
aji Shah-Muammad
Shah-Muammad Manshadi, Amin'l-Bayan (Trustee of uququ'llah)
Hajib, Hujjab ajib, pl. ujjab, ajaba concealing, screening, protecting;   doorman, gatekeeper;   court official, equivalent to a chamberlain
Hajibu'd-Dawlih ajibu'd-Dawlih
elegant, excellent (thing);   delirious, speaking foolishly or deliriously;   emigrating;   name of a tribe
Hajj (Haji), Hajjaj, Hajij ajj (Pers. aji), pl. ujjaj, Hajij pilgrim;   hadji;   Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajj, Hijja, Hijaj ajj, ijja, pl. ijaj pilgrimage (to Mecca)
Hajr Hajr abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation;   avoidance, abstention;   separation from the beloved one;   hottest time of the day.   Variation hijr.
Hakam, Hukkam akam, pl. ukkam arbitrator, arbiter;   umpire, referee
Hakim-Bashi akim-Bashi Chief physician
Hakim-Ilahi akim-Ilahi the Divine Philosopher
Hakim Abu'l-Qasim Firdawsi Tusi
akim Abu'l-Qasim Firdawsi usi
commonly referred to as Ferdowsi, is a revered Persian poet, the author of the epic of Shahnameh (Book of Kings)
Hakim, Hukama' akim, pl. ukama' wise, judicious;   wise man, sage;   philosopher;   physician, doctor.   al-akim, the divine name for the All-Wise.
Hakiman akiman Ramatu'llah akiman
Hakkak akkak a jeweller;   a polisher of precious stones;   a borer of pearls;   a lapidary
Hal, Ahwal
al m. and f., pl. Awal
condition, state;   situation;   position, status;   circumstance;   case;   present, actuality (as opposed to future);   circumstantial expression or phrase (grammar);--pl. conditions, circumstances;   matters, affairs, concerns;   cases;   ala (preposition) during;   immediately upon, right after;   just at;   in case of ..., in the event of ..., alan presently, immediately, at once, right away, without delay;   now, actually, at present.   Pers. al-i-Shuma, (pl.) Awal-i-Shuma (How are you?)
Hala, Halat
ala, pl. alat
condition, state;   situation;   (possible, actual) case;   alata (preposition) during.--pl. states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the ufi spiritual journey
Halab alab milk
Halabi alabi belonging to a milch cow;   native of Aleppo;   white iron, tin-plate
Halal alal that which is allowed, permitted or permissible;   allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate;   lawful possession
Halat alat (states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the ufi spiritual journey)
Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat "Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings" (by Baha'u'llah)
Halim, Hulama alim, pl. ulama mild, mild-tempered, gentle;   patient;   forbearing
Hallaj allaj cotton ginner
Halqa, Halaqa, Halaq, Halaqat
alqa(t), alaqa pl. alaq, alaqat
ring (also earring, etc.);   link (of a chain);   circle (also of people);   group of students studying under a professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., at Al Azhar University);   part of a sequence or series;   ringlet;   disk;   decade;   market
Halqat adh-Dhahabiyya
al-alqat adh-Dhahabiyya
the golden circle
Hama, Hamw Hama, Hamw to flow;   to pour forth
Pers.   a village in Iran
Hamadan Hamadan "quelled or subsided"   A town in Iran, originally Ecbatana of the ancient Medes.
Hamam, Hamamat, Hama'im amam, pl. amamat, ama'im (Ar.)   dove, pigeon
Haman Haman Pers.   only, solely;   self-same, all one, one and the same, even that, that very;   in this manner, exactly so, thus, equally;   always, continually.   Name of Abraham's brother;   name of Pharaoh's vizier;   name of a place in Kirman where Shah Nimatu'llah Wali is buried
Hamaza, Hamz amaza, amz to bite, or burn, the tongue (taste)
Hamaza, Hamz Hamaza, Hamz to prick;   to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something);   to spur (one's horse);   (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hamd amd commendation, praise, laudation
Hamdan amdan praise, one who praises (God)
Hamdu lillah, al- al-amdu Lillah thank God!   praise be to God!   praised be the Lord!   "Alhamdulillah"
Hamdu'llah amdu'llah Praise of God
Hamid amid one who praises, a praiser
Hamid, amida (Hamidih, Hamideh) amid, fem. amida (Pers. amidih) praiseworthy, laudable, commendable;   benign, harmless (disease)
amma(h or t)
hot spring.   al-amma was a Palestinian Arab village 12 km SE of Tiberias, famous for its hot springs (on the south side of the village), which are considered therapeutic due to their high sulphur content. The village was depopulated in July 1949. The springs were visited by 'Abdu'l-Baha in 1914. In 1977 the health resort of Hamat Gader, "hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara", opened on the site of the hot springs.
Hammal ammal Pers.   a porter, carrier of burdens
Hammam Hammam careworn, worried;   anxious, solicitous;   eager, active, energetic
Hammam ammam, pl. ammamat bath;   swimming pool;   spa, watering place (public baths) (error in Baha'i writings--the underdot is omitted)
Hamsaya, Hamsayagan
Hamsaya, pl. Hamsayagan
Pers.   under the same shade, i.e. neighbouring, neighbour
Hamza, Hamazat Hamza, pl. Hamazat Arabic glottal stop consonant that is pronounced as an a.   Since a hamza is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes it is disregarded. Thus, Baha' (the hamza is usually dropped) can be read as either eight or nine.
Hamza, Hamzah (Hamzeh) amza(h) derived from the Arabic word amuza, meaning strong or steadfast.   Muammad's uncle, amzah ibn 'Abdu'l-Mualib.
Hana ana to bend, curve, twist, turn;   to lean, incline (toward someone);   to feel for someone, sympathize (with someone), commiserate, pity (someone), feel compassion, feel pity (for someone)
Hana-Sab ana-Sab Muammad-i-ana-Sab
Hanabali, Hanabilat anabali, pl. anabila(t) Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to the madhab of Amad ibn anbal;   puritanical, strict in religious matters;--(pl.) Hanabalites, followers of Amad ibn ambal.   A system of traditional Sunni jurisprudence--smallest of the four (anabali, anafi, Maliki and Shafi'i)
Hanafi, Hanafyun anafi, pl. Hanafyun, unafa orthodox.   One of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).   It is named after the scholar Abu anifa an-Nu'man ibn Thabit.
Hanafiya, Hanafiyya anafiya(t), anafiyya(t) true religion, orthodoxy
Hanbal anbal Amad ibn anbal
Hani, Hani'a
Hani', fem. Hani'a
happy, delighted, glad;   servant;   fem. servant girl, maid
healthful, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, beneficial;   pleasant, agreeable;   easy, smooth, comfortable
Hanif, Hunafa'
anif, pl. unafa'
true believer, orthodox;   one who scorns the false creeds surrounding him and professes the true religion;   true (religion)
al-anifa as-sama' the true and tolerant (religion. i.e., Islam).   Abu anifah or anifih (Pers. forms)
the true (i.e., Islamic) religion
village in Kirman Province, Iran (also known as Hamza). About 110 km south of Kirman.
anala Ibn Abi Amir, one of the companions of Muammad
probably should be aqqani
Haqiq, Ahiqqa'
aqiq, pl. Aiqqa'
worthy, deserving (of something), fit, competent, qualified;   entitled (to)
Haqiqa, Haqa'iq
aqiqa(h or t), pl. aqa'iq
truth, reality (also philosophy);   fact;   the true state of affairs, the facts;   true nature, essence;   real meaning, true sense.   The object of the mystic searcher (ufi).
real, true;   actual;   proper, intrinsic, essential;   genuine;   authentic;   positive
Haqq (Haq), Huquq
aqq, Pers. also aq, pl. uquq
truth;   correctness, rightness;   rightful possession;   property;   ones due;   duty;   proper manner;   true, authentic, real;   right, fair and reasonable;   correct, sound, valid;   al-aqq an attribute of God;--pl. right, title, claim, legal claim.   Persian: name of a bird said to suspend itself by tbe claws at night and continually to cry aq aq.
Haqqa (Haqqah or Haqqat)
aqqa(h) or aqqa(t)
that which sorts out truth from falsehood;   that which is inevitable (an epithet of the Day of Judgement).   Qur'an 69.   The Sure Reality or the Reality
really, in reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in truth;   justly, rightly, by rights
correct, right, proper, sound, valid, legitimate, legal
Haqqu'llah, Huququ'llah
aqqu'llah, pl. uququ'llah
"Right(s) of God"
Harah, Harat Harah or Harat Herat (city in nw Afghanistan)
Haraka, Harakat
araka(t), pl. Harakat
movement, motion;   commotion;   physical exercise;   stirring, impulse;   proceeding, procedure, policy;   action, undertaking, enterprise;   military operation;   continuation, progress;   traffic (rail, shipping, street);   movement (as a social phenomenon);   vowel (grammar)
Haram ash-Sharif al-aram ash-Sharif "the Noble Sanctuary" or Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Haram-i-Aqdas aram-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts)   Shrine of Baha'u'llah.   nw quadrant of the gardens at Bahji in the immediate area surrounding the Shrine of Baha'u'llah.
Haram-i-Fatima-i-Ma'sumih aram-i-Faima-i-Ma'sumih Pers.   Shrine of Faima al-Ma'sumih, sister of Imam 'Ali ar-Ria (8th Imam), in Qum, Iran.   See Ma'sumih
Haram, Ahram
Haram, pl. Ahram, Ahramat
Haram, Ahram aram, pl. Aram forbidden, prohibited, interdicted;   taboo; holy, sacred, sacrosanct;   something sacred, sacred object;   sacred possession;   wife;   sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct.   [Ar.]   The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar.   Compare with ill
Haram, Hurum aram, pl. urum forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful;   something forbidden, offense, sin;   inviolable, taboo;   sacred, sacrosanct;   cursed, accursed
Mecca and Madina, the two sacred cities
Haramayn (Haramain) al-aramayn (dual pl. form of aram, sanctuary) "The Two Holy Places" or "The Two Sanctuaries", traditional Islamic appellations of the two holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.   The "Twin Sacred Shrines" now refers to the places in Shiraz where the Bab was born and where He made His public declaration.
Harati Harati from Herat, Iran
of Herat
war, warfare, battle, conflict;   an enemy;   a proper name
Harf-i-Baqa arf-i-Baqa ("Letter of Eternity")
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf arf, pl. iraf, uruf, aruf (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   sharp edge;   border, edge, rim, brink, verge;   (pl. uruf, aruf) letter;   consonant;   particle (grammar);   type (typography)
Hargah (Har-gah)
Pers.   whenever, wherever;   constantly
Harith (Haritha(h)), Hurrath
arith, pl. urrath
ploughman, cultivator, farmer.   Banu al-arith Jewish tribe of Arabia.   Nar-ibn-i-arith: religious leader during the time of Muammad.   Zayd ibn aritha(h) (c. ce 581-629) a companion of Muammad and adopted as his son. He is the only Muslim apart from Muammad who is mentioned by name (as Zayd) in the Qur'an (33:37).
excitement, agitation, commotion;   disorder, muddle, confusion.   al-Harj can be interpreted as "killing".
Pers.   Aaron;   chief, leader;   a messenger, courier;   helplessness, indigence;   astonishment;   amazement
Harunu'r-Rashid Harunu'r-Rashid Aaron the Just.   Fifth Abbasid Caliph
Harut Harut name of an angel, who, together with another named Marut (Qur'an 2:102), having severely censured mankind before the throne of God, was sent with him down to earth in human shapes to judge of the temptations to which man is subject. They could not withstand them: they were seduced by women, and committed every kind of iniquity; for which they were suspended by the feet in a well in Babylon, where they are to remain in great torment till the day of judgement. They are said to be teachers of magic to man.   See Marut
Hasan, Hisan asan, pl. isan beautiful, handsome, lovely;   pretty, nice;   good, agreeable;   excellent, superior, exquisite.   asan is the name of the second Imam.
Hasana, Husn
asana (usn)
to be handsome, beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good;   to be expedient, advisable, suitable, proper, fitting;   to be in a proper state, be in a desirable condition
Hasan-'Ali asan-'Ali
Hasan-'Amu Murtada asan-'Amu Murtaa (MF)
Hasan-Abad (Hasanabad) asan Abad an old and historical area to the north side of ihran
Hasan-i-'Ammu asan-i-'Ammu
Hasan-i-Hakim-Bashi asan-i-akim-Bashi
Hasan-i-Khurasani asan-i-Khurasani
Hasan-i-Mazindarani asan-i-Mazindarani
Hasan-i-Niku asan-i-Niku
Hasan-i-Safa asan-i-afa
Hasan-i-Vazir asan-i-Vazir
Hasan-i-Zunuzi asan-i-Zunuzi
Hasani asani
Hasanzadih-Shakiri asanzadih-Shakiri (asan-i-Zadih-Shakiri)
Hashara, Hashr ashara, ashr 1. to gather, assemble, rally (people), raising from the dead;   to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together);   to squeeze, press, force, stuff.
2. migration, evacuation, exile.
Hashim Hashim breaker of bread into a broth; surname of an ancestor (Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf al-Mughirah, great grandfather?) of Muammad, on account of his providing broth to the poor at the time of a great famine.The Bani-Hashim were Muammad's ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia.   From 'hashama', "to destroy or smash to pieces".
Hashimi, Hashimite Hashimi Hashemite, member of the Bani-Hashim
Hashish, Hasha'ish ashish, pl. asha'ish herbs, grasses;   weeds;   hay;   hemp (Cannabis sativa), hashish, cannabis;   stillborn child.   Known by many names in Persia: 'Parrot of all mysteries', or plain 'Mysteries'; or 'Secrets', or 'Master Siyyid'--it being green, and the Siyyids, descendants of the Prophet, wear a turban as green as parrot feathers. (An ode of afi which must have puzzled translators is addressed to hashish and begins, 'O thou parrot, speaker of secrets, may thy beak never lack for sugar!') Summon up remembrance, p. 87.
Hashiya, Hawashin ashiya, pl. awashin border;   seam, hem;   edge;   margin (of a book);   marginal gives;   marginal notes;   commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary;   footnote;   postscript;   retinue, entourage, suite, servants;   dependents;--pl. critical apparatus
Hashshash, Hashshashun (Hashshashin) ashshash, pl. ashshashun smoker or chewer of hashish, hashish addict.   Assassins (ashshashin, from Assassiyun--"those faithful to the foundation") is a name used to refer to medieval Nizari (an-Nizariyyun) Ismailis (Isma'iliyyun).
Hasht Hasht eight
Hasht Bihisht Hasht Bihisht The eight paradises by Shaykh Amad-i-Rui
Hasib, Husaba'
asib, pl. usaba
respected, esteemed;   noble, of noble birth, highborn.   Also a revenger or resenter of an injury;   a reckoner (al-asib a name of God).
Hast Hast Pers.   is, exists, remains;   existence, being.   hastam (I am), hasti (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastim (we are), hastid (you are), hastand (they are)
Hasur aur Pers.   close, avaricious
Hasuri auri
Hatim-i-Ta'i atim-i-a'i Arab poet known for his generosity/liberality.
Hatim, Hatam atim, Pers. atam Who or what renders necessary;   one who decrees, ordains or pronounces judgement;   a judge;   a black crow, "the raven of separation";   name of a man of the Arabian tribe Tayy, celebrated for his liberality
wood gatherer;   wood-cutter, lumberjack;   vendor of firewood
Hauran auran the Hauran, a mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N Jordan.   The Druze of the area.
Hawdaj (Haudaj) Hawdaj, pl. Hawadij camel litter, howdah;   sedan chair, litter.   Carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Hawl (Haul), Ahwal, Hu'ul
Hawl, pl. Ahwal, Hu'ul
terror, fright, alarm, shook, horror, dismay; power
Haww awwa' Eve
Hayat ayat Life, existence
Hayat-Quli Khan ayat-Quli Khan Governor of Karand and a member of the 'Aliyu'llahis, a sect that equates Imam 'Ali with God.
Hayawan, Hayawanat
ayawan, pl. ayawanat
animal, beast;   (collectively) animals, living creatures
Haydar aydar Pers.   a lion;   a proper name
Haydar-'Ali aydar-'Ali, aji Mirza Born into Shaykhi family of Ifahan
Haydari aydari
Hayf (Haif) ayf (pun on the name Haifa)   Pers.   practising injustice;   injustice, violence, oppression;   revenge;   a pity;   alas! what a pity
Hayfa' (Haifa') ayfa' Haifa.   Heb. Hefa or Hepha
Hayiya, Hayya, Yahya, Hayah ayiya, ayya, Yaya (ayah) to live;   ayya to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time);   li-yaya l-malik (lit. to life the king) long live the king!   ayiya, yaya (aya') to be ashamed (of;   because of)   Form II ayya to keep (someone) alive, grant (someone) a long life;   to say to someone: may God preserve your life!;   to greet, salute (someone)   Form IV aya to lend life (to someone, to something), enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with life, call into being (something), give birth (to);   to revive, reanimate, revivify (something), give new life (to);   to put on, produce, stage, arrange (e.g., a theatrical performance, a celebration, and the like);   to celebrate (something, also a festival).
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil Haykal, pl. Hayakil temple;   large building, edifice;   altar;   skeleton;   framework (of a structure), frame;   chassis (of an automobile);   colossal, gigantic, huge.   A broader definition given by Steingass: a figure, image, face, form, stature or shape of the body;   a long or tall horse;   anything large-sized;   a giant;   a tall plant;   a temple of idolaters;   a palace, stately edifice;   a Christian church;   a monastery;   an amulet or talisman inscribed with magic figures, hung round the body, as a defence against fascination or misfortune.
Haykalu't-tawhid Haykalu't-tawid "posture of unity", or freely translated as cross-legged
Haytham (Haitham)
young eagle.   Abu 'Ali al-asan ibn al-asan ibn al-Haytham (c. 965-c. 1040), Muslim Arab scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher.
Hayy ayy, pl. Aya' living, live, alive;   lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed;   living being, organism;   tribe, tribal community;   block of apartment houses;   section, quarter (of a city).   al-ayy, divine name the Ever-Living
Hayyan ayyan lively, energetic.   Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber)
Hazar (Hizar) Hazar Pers.   a thousand;   a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale;   a term employed in the game of nard
Hazir, Haziran air, pl. airan present, at hand, ready, prepared;   at the service of, willing, content;   (in grammar) the present tense;   the second person;   a large tribe.   Pl.   the people present, the audience.   See air
Hazira, Haza'ir aira, pl. aa'ir enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge;   compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, pen, paddock, coop;   hangar, shed;   field, domain, realm (fig.)
Pers.   a city, a fixed residence
Ar.   the Sacred Fold or Paradise.   Title given to Baha'i administrative headquarters
Hiba, Hibat
Hiba(t), pl. Hibat
gift, present, donation, grant
gift from God
guidance, showing the way and guiding in the right path to the goal of perfection
Guidance of God
preservation;   maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding;   protection, defence, guarding;   custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage;   retention;   observance, compliance (with);   memorizing, memorization;   memory;   (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation)
alphabetical;   satiric.   Modern dictionaries and other reference books use the hija'i order wherein the Arabic letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape.
ijab, pl. ujub, Ajiba
cover, wrap, drape;   curtain;   woman's veil;   screen, partition, folding screen;   barrier, bar;   diaphragm.   A veil that covers the head and chest.
"barrier".   al-ijaz (Hejaz) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
forbidden, interdicted, prohibited;   northern wall of the Ka'ba;   lap; mare.   Name of chapter 15 of the Qur'an (from 15:80, which refers to the rocky country of the Thamud tribe to the north of al-Madinah) and translated as "rocky tract".
departure, exit;   emigration, exodus;   immigration to;   al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muammad from Mecca to Medina in ad 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri Hijri of the Hegira pertaining to Muammad's emigration in ad 622.   A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muammad's emigration.   Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya Hijriya Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in ad 873 (ah 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikaya, Hikayat
ikaya, pl. ikayat
story, tale, narrative, account;   (grammar) literal quotation (of the words of others)
Hikma ikma(t), pl. ikam prudence and wisdom, philosophy
Hikmat-i-Ishraqi ikmat-i-Ishraqi (Hekmat-i-Eshrakieh)--a system of old philosophies
Hila, Hiyal, Ahayil
ila, pl. iyal, Aayil
artifice, ruse, stratagem, manoeuver, subterfuge, wile, trick;   device, shift;   a means to accomplish an end;   expedient, makeshift, dodge, way-out;   legal stratagem (for the purpose of in fraudem legis agere (in circumvention of the rules of law)
Hilal, Ahilla, Ahalil
Hilal, pl. Ahilla, Ahalil
new moon;   half-moon, crescent;   parenthesis;   any crescent-shaped object
Hill ill Pers.   being lawful;   a lawful thing;   the dissolution of an oath;   doffing the pilgrim's garb;   a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin ill, illin he was free to ..., he was at liberty to ...;   he had free disposal of ....   The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months.   Compare with aram.
Hillah, Hilla, Hillih illah or illa, Pers. illih A city in central 'Iraq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdad
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam ilm, pl. ulum, Alam gentleness, clemency, mildness;   forbearance, indulgence;   patience;   insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hilmi ilmi
Himar, Hamir, Humur, Ahmira imar, pl. imar, amir, umur, Amira donkey, ass
Himma, Himam Himma, pl. Himam endeavor, ambition
Himmat-Abad Himmat-Abad city in Raawi Khurasan Ustan Province, Iran
Himyari imyari arbi al-imyari was an Arab scholar from Yemen
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin in, pl. Ayan, Aayin time;   propitious time, good time, opportunity.   Abjab value of in is 68. Hence, the "year of in" refers to ah 1268 or ad 1851-52.   Hin is an ancient Hebrew liquid measurement (mentioned in the Bible) of 3.8 to 6 litres.
Hind al-Hind, Pers. Hind India;   the (East) Indians.   Name of a wife of Abu Sufyan
Hindi, Hunud Hindi, pl. Hunud Ar.   Indian
Hindiya (Hindiyyih) al-Hindiya(h) (Pers. Hindiyyih 1. city (on the Euphrates River, 20 km se Karbila) and district in the Karbila Governorate. The city used to be known as uwairij.
2. Saddat al-Hindiya(h) is a city on the Euphrates River in Iraq, 25 km ne of Karbila and 8 km south of Musayyib (). Name derived from the Arabic word for "Indian", in reference to the dozens of Indian manual labourers imported to the area by the British post World War i, to work on the cities vast agricultural lands.
Hindiyan (Hindian, Hinijan) Hindiyan (Hindijan) (Hendijan, Hendian) a city in and the capital of Hendijan County, Khuzestan Province, sw Iran
Hindu, Hinduwan Hindu, pl. Hinduwan (Pers.)   Indian;   black;   servant;   slave;   robber;   infidel;   watch-man
Hindustan Hindustan Pers.   India
Hiqf, Ahqaf iqf, pl. Aqaf wavy heap of sand;--pl. hills of sand extending a great way; name of a large district in Arabia formerly inhabited by the people of Ad. Qur'an 46: al-Aqaf "The Wind-curved Sand Hills" or "The Winding Sand-tracts"
Hira ira' Ghar ira' (the Cave of Hira) is located on the western side of Jabal ira' (Mount Hira), which is on the north side of Mecca. The mountain was renamed Jabal al-Nur (Mountain of Light) after Muammad's revelation in the cave.
Hirat Hirat Herat, Afghanistan
Hirbud Hirbud [Herbod or Herbud]--the mystics and holy people
Hirih irih a city
Hirman irman deprivation, bereavement, dispossession (of someone, of something) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (from);   excommunication (Christian);   privation
Hisab, Hisabat isab, pl. isabat arithmetic, reckoning, calculus;   computation;   calculation, estimation, appraisal;   accounting, settlement;   consideration;   caution;-- (pl.) bill, invoice;   statement of costs (bank) account
Hisami isami See usam
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina ian, pl. uun, Asina horse;   stallion;   ian al-bar: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisar iar block, blockage, barrier;   blockade;   siege.   A town in Khurasan province.
Hisham Hisham Pers.   beneficence, liberality.   Hisham ibn 'Abdu'l-Malik, 10th Umayyad Caliph
Hishmat ishmat decorum, chastity, bashful, modesty (fem.)
Hishmatu'd-Dawlih ishmatu'd-Dawlih
Hishmatu'llah ishmatu'llah "chaste one of God"
Hisn, Husun in, pl. uun fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold;   fortification, entrenchment;   protection
Hitta ia alleviation, relief, mitigation;   abasement, debasement, demotion, degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige);   humiliation, insult, indignity
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum izam, pl. izamat, Azima, uzum belt, girth;   girdle;   cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it);   sword belt
Hizar Hizar Ar.   joking, jesting, fun-making.   Used in Persian with the same meaning as Hazar
Hizar Dastan Hizar Dastan Pers.   "thousand songs"
Hizavih Hizavih village <20 km NW of Arak (Sulan Abad), Iran
Hizb, Ahzab izb, pl. Azab group, troop, band, cohort, gang;   associates, auxiliaries, confederates;   arms, armour;   party (politics);   a 60th part of the Qur'an
Hizbu'llah izbu'llah "Party of God" (Hezbullah)
Hizqil izqil Pers.   Ezekiel
Hubal (Hobal)
a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Ka'bah in Mecca. His idol was a human figure, believed to control acts of divination, which was in the form of tossing arrows before the statue. The direction in which the arrows pointed answered questions asked of the idol.
Hubb ubb love;   affection, attachment
Hubbu'llah ubbu'llah Love of God
Hubur ubur joy.   ubur (Hobour) Khanum
Hud Hud A prophet sent to the tribe of 'Ad.   He is a descendent of Noah.
Hudaybiyyah udaybiyyah Truce of al-udaybiyyah, in ah 6 (ad 628), at udaybiyyah spring about 20 km west of Mecca on the Old Mecca-Jiddah Road.   The ruins of the old mosque marking the site is at 21.441960, 39.625601.
uuri (presence of) akam (judgements)--judgements delivered in the presence of the litigant parties after oral proceedings.   Imam's knowledge is inspired since it is obtained "in the presence of" (uuri) God.
Huduth uduth setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon);   occurrence, incident, happening.   "originated nature"--contrast with Imkan (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujaja'l Bahiayyih ujaja'l-Bahiyyih The Baha'i Proofs by Mirza Abu'l-Fal
Hujja ujja(h or t), pl. ujaj argument;   pretense, pretext, plea;   proof, evidence;   document, writ, deed, record;   authority.   A term used in Shi'i terminology meaning "proof [implied: proof of God]". It is usually used to refer to a single individual in any given human era who represents God's "proof" to humanity.   The ujja is a prophet or an Imam who possess a relationship with God that is greater than anyone else.   "ujahs" in The Promised Day is Come, p. 97 should be ujaj.
Hujja ala al-kull ujja ala al-kull "proof for all".   The Bab's praise for Qurratu'l-'Ayn
Hujjat'u'llah ujjat'u'llah the proof of God.   The last Imam is known as the Proof of God.   Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatiya (Hojjatieh)
Anjuman Khayrya ujjatiyah Mahdiyah ("Charitable Society of Allah's Proof Over Creation").   The Hojjatieh Society was (1953-1983) a traditionalist Iranian Shi'a lay religious organization that promoted orthodoxy through non-violent evangelism. It aimed to counter the proofs offered by the Baha'i Faith.
Hujjatu'l-Islam ujjatu'l-Islam Proof of Islam.   Mulla Muammad-'Ali of Zanjan was called ujjatu'l-Islam. The Bab called him ujjatu'l-Zanjani.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran ujr, ajara to deny access   (ajr, ijr, ujr, ijran, ujran)
Hujra, Hujarat, Hujar ujra, pl. ujarat, ujar Ar.   room;   cell;   (railroad) compartment;   chamber
Hujrat (Hujrih), Hujra, Hujarat ujrat, ujra, pl. ujarat Pers.   a chamber, closet, cell;   a box in a theatre, circus
Hukm, Ahkam
ukm, Akam
judgement, valuation, opinion;   decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence;   condemnation, conviction;   administration of justice;   jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law);   regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree;   judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power;   government, regime;--pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
Hukuma, Hukumat
ukuma(t), pl. ukumat
stopping, putting up, staying;   descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking;   incarnation;   setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn;   substitution (for someone).   In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
phoenix or a type of eagle
Pers.   a queen of Persia, grandmother to Darab II;   name of a sister of Isfandyar;   name of a daughter of Bahman;   name of a daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople married to Bahram Gur;   name of the lover of Humayun;   a standard bearing a figure of the bird huma.
Pers.   blessed, sacred, fortunate, august, royal, imperial;   name of several kings;   name of the mistress of Humay
Humazatun (Humazah)
Humazatun (Humazah)
one given to backbiting, defamer, slander-monger
al-ums is the name traditionally given to the inhabitants of the aram of Mecca at the time of Muammad's appearance, in so far as they were distinguished by special customs during the iram from the other tribes who were together known as al-illa.
Pers.   skill, science, knowledge, ingenuity, art, industry, excellence, virtue;   profession;   a bill of exchange
Hunayn (Hunain)
Battle of unayn (Qur'an 9:25) in a valley between Mecca and the city of a'if to the east of Mecca
aqqu'llah (sing.), uququ'llah
"Right(s) of God"
"The Wondrous Maiden" (by Baha'u'llah)
Hur, Huran
ur (originally pl., also used as sing.)
Pers.   virgins or a virgin of Paradise, houri;--pl. ur and uran
Hurayra (Huraira), Hurayrih
Hurayra(h), Pers. also Hurayrih
a little cat or kitten.   Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of "ah" or "ih".   Surname given to Abu Hurayrih 'Abdu'r-Raman bin Sakhr (a companion of Muammad) because of the favourite kitten he used to carry around with him.   A village about 24 km nw of central Damascus, Syria.
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur uriya, pl. uriyat, ur houri, virgin of paradise;   nymph;   young locust.   uri (adjective) (literally, white one)
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak) Hurmuduk Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvid (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurqalya, Havarqalya Hurqalya, Havarqalya (speculative Pers.) intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Hurqalya. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Hurqalya. The occulted but living twelfth Imam and the cities of Jabulsa and Jabulqa, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Hurqalya.   Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227.   From Hebrew (firmament, sky, ductile, heaven, expanse, canopy).   See 21263244/HURQALYA-HAVARQALYA and The development of Shaykhi thought in Shi'i Islam, pp. 106-7.
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara'ir urr, pl. m. Arar, f. ara'ir noble, free-born;   genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated;   free; living in freedom;   freeman;   independent;   free unrestrained;   liberal
Hurriya al-'Ibada urriya al-'Ibada freedom of worship
Hurriya al-Fikr urriya al-Fikr freedom of thought
Hurriya al-Kalam urriya al-Kalam freedom of speech
Hurriya an-Nar urriya an-Nar liberty of the press
Hurriya, Huriyat urriya, Per. urriyyah, pl. urriyat freedom, liberty;   independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic)
Huruf-i-Hayy uruf-i-ayy Letters of the Living.   See arf and Sabiq
Hurufat-i-'Alin urufat-i-'Alin The Exalted letters (by Baha'u'llah).   See arf
Hurufi urufi "letters"   a relator of traditions, a traditionist (not urufis, MCI, p. 403).   See singular arf,
Hurufism, Sufi doctrine
Husam (Hisam) usam (isam) (sharp) sword, sword edge
Husam-i-Din, Hisam-i-Din usam-i-Din (isam-i-Din) sword of faith
Husamu's-Sultani, Hisamu's-Saltanih usamu's-Sulani (isamu's-Salanih) ("Sword of the sovereign")   Title of Prince Sulan Murad Mirza, son of 'Abbas Mirza and grandson of Fat-'Ali Shah
Husayn usayn (Diminutive form of Haan "Good")   Name of the third Imam, usayn.
Husayn-'Ali usayn-'Ali
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Isfahani usayn-'Aliy-i-Ifahani
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Jahrumi usayn-'Aliy-i-Jahrumi
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nur usayn-'Aliy-i-Nur (GPB p. 338)
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nuri usayn-'Aliy-i-Nuri usayn-'Aliy-i-Nuri, Mirza   Baha'u'llah
Husayn-Abad usayn-Abad
Husayn-Aqa usayn-Aqa (MF)
Husayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi usayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi (MF)
Husayn-i-Ashchi usayn-i-Ashchi
Husayn-i-Bushru'i usayn-i-Bushru'i Muammad-usayn-i-Bushru'i, Mulla   From Bushruyih, Khurasan
Husayn-i-Kashani usayn-i-Kashani
Husayn-i-Kashi usayn-i-Kashi
Husayn-i-Shiraziy-i-Khurtumi usayn-i-Shiraziy-i-Khurumi
Husayn-i-Turshizi usayn-i-Turshizi
Husayn-i-Yazdi usayn-i-Yazdi
Husayn-ibn-Ruh usayn-ibn-Ru (one of "Four Gates")
Husayn-Khan usayn-Khan (the Mushiru'd-Dawlih)
Husayni usayni
Husayniyyih usayniyyih In Shi'ih Islam, a place used to mourn the death of Imam usayn
Husban usban calculation, reckoning, accounting;   computation.   bi-uban "By final calculation"
Hushang (Hoshang) Hushang Pers.   name of the second king of Persia, of the Peshdadian dynasty;   wisdom, prudence, intellect.   "The first emanation, intelligence"
Hushidar, Hoshidar Hushidar One who increases holiness or promotes righeousness;   name of a future saviour.   Zoroastrian origin.
Hushmand Hushmand Pers.   wise
Husn usn beauty, handsomeness, prettiness, loveliness;   excellence, superiority, perfection
Husn al-Madkhal usn al-Madkhal good manners, good conduct
Husni-Farang usni-Farang Pers.   white, as the complexion of Europeans
Husniyya, Husniyyih usniyya(h) fem. , Pers. usniyyih possessing beauty
saffron.   See za'faran
Huwa (Pers. Huva) Huwa he; it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun); God (or "the Most Great Name of God" according to the Bab). Huwa ("he" or "he is") in the context of "'He is' God" is often incorrectly understood (as in the definition) to be the name of God. In the Bible it is represented in Hebrew by the tetragrammaton "yhwh", sometimes pronounced as Yahweh. However, the Jews were forbidden to utter the name of God, and as ancient Hebrew script did not use vowels, it is not known how yhwh would have been pronounced, if it was permitted. If we say "ya huwa" in Arabic in reference to God, it means "O He is ...". Since Hebrew and Arabic are sister languages, it is not surprising that "ya huwa" sounds like Yahweh, which has commonly been represented by Jehovah. (In some European languages the "J" is pronounced as "Y", "V" as "U", and "W" as "UU".) See note under Baha'.
Huwa'llah Huwa'llah He is God (huwa+ Allah). Hence, defining Huwa as "God" gives "God God"???
Huwaydar, Huvaydar Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar village north of the city Ba'quba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdad
Huwiya (Pers. Huwiyyat, Huviyyat) Huwiya(h) or Huwiya(t), Pers. Huwiyyah essence, nature;   coessentiality, consubstantiality;   identity;   identity card.   "Essence of Divinity"
Huzn, Hazan, Ahzan uzn, Pers. azan, pl. Azan grief, sadness, affliction, sorrow
Unaccented forms Transcripted forms Explanations and comments
-i- -i- Pers.   sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it
I'tidal I'tidal moderation
inimitability, wondrous nature (of the Qur'an--I'jaz al-Qur'an).   See ahda
I'qilha wa tawakkal I'qilha wa tawakkal Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God)--in Tirmidhi's collection of traditions
continuing in prayer, remaining constantly in the mosque;   retirement, seclusion (in a place of worship);   restraining one's passions from religious motives;   constant devotions.
I'timad, I'timadat I'timad, pl. I'timadat reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in);   confirmation;   sanction, approbation, authorization;   accreditation (of diplomats);   (pl.) credit, loan
I'timadu'd-Dawlih I'timadu'd-Dawlih
I'timadu't-Tujjar I'timadu't-Tujjar
I'tiraf I'tiraf recognition, acceptance;   acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession;   (Christian) confession
Iahut Iahut Ar.   Divinity;   the inward or eternal aspect of reality.
Ibada, 'Ibadat
'Ibada(t), pl. 'Ibadat
worship, adoration, veneration;   devotional service, divine service (Christian);--pl. acts of devotion, religious observances (Islamic Law)
worshippers of God
Ibaha, Ibahih Ibaa(h), Pers. Ibaih divulgence, disclosure (of a secret);   permission, authorization;   licentiousness.   "Permission" or abrogation of Islamic law on return of the Hidden Imam.
creation, fashioning, shaping;   a marvellous, unique achievement;   uniqueness, singularity, originality;   creative ability
romantic (literally)
romanticism (literally)
exchange, interchange, replacement (by), substitution (of);   change;   phonetic change.
Iblis, Abalisa Iblis, pl. Abalisa devil, Satan
Ibn, Abna, Banun Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abna', Banun Ar.   son;   descendant, scion;   offspring, son (of a nation or people)
Ibna, Bint, Banat Ibna (colloquial bint), pl. Banat daughter;   bint girl;   ibna al-'amm (female)
Ibnu'l-, Ibn-i- Ibnu'l-, Pers. Ibn-i- elided forms of ibn
Ibnu'l-Alusi Ibnu'l-Alusi the chief jurisconsult [mufti] of Baghdad--one of the five sons of the famous Shaykh Mamud al-Alusi. Probably one of the three eldest: 'Abdu'llah, Baha'u'd-Din; 'Abdu'l-Baqi'; and Siyyid Na'man, Khayru'd-Din.
Ibrahim Ibrahim (Abraham)   Patriarch of the people of Israel.
Ibrahim-i-Isfahani Ibrahim-i-Ifahani
Ibrahim-i-Khalil Ibrahim-i-Khalil
Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah Syrian doctor, the first Baha'i teacher in America, and later joined forces with Muammad-'Ali, the half-brother of 'Abdu'l-Baha. His English wife, Miriam, remained loyal to 'Abdu'l-Baha, and later they were divorced.   Refer to Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Baha'i Faith, pp. 114-117.
Ibrani Ibrani Hebrew
Ibtihaj Ibtihaj joy, rejoicing, delight (at)
Ibtihaju'l-Mulk Ibtihaju'l-Mulk Ibtihaju'l-Mulk of Gilan
Id (Eid), 'Ayad
'Id, pl. 'Ayad
feast, feast day, festival, holiday
Id al-Adha
'Id al-Aa
the Feast of Immolation (see Aan), or Greater Bayram, on the 10th of Dhu'l-ijjih
Id al-Fitr
'Id al-Fir
Feast of Breaking the Ramaan Feast, or Lesser Bayram, celebrated on the 1st of Shawwal
Idafiya (Idafiyyah)
relativity or correlational (philosophical)
Idal 'Idal justice.   See 'adl
Idbar Idbar flight, retreat;   "turn around"
Idda ('Iddah, 'Iddat) 'Idda number;   several, numerous, many.   'iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)
Idha Idha 1. (introducing a nominal clause the subject of which may he expressed by ("b") with following genitive) and then, and all of a sudden;   (with noun in nominative case or with ) there was ... and all of a sudden there was ...;
2. (conjunction) when;   if, whenever;   whether, if (introducing indirect questions)
Idhn Idhn permission, authorization
Idris Idris Idris (Enoch)
Ifranj al-Ifranj Ar.   the Franks, the Europeans
Ifranji Ifranji Ar.   European
Ifridaws al-Ifridaws Garden of Innermost Paradise (Gate of the Heart 60)
encirclement, encompassment;   comprehension, grasp, understanding, knowledge, cognizance (of something), acquaintance, familiarity (with);   information, communication
Ihram Iram state of ritual consecration of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the pilgrim, wearing two seamless woollen or linen sheets, usually white, neither combs nor shaves, and observes sexual continence);   garments of the Mecca pilgrim
Ihsan Isan beneficence, charity, almsgiving, performance of good deeds
Ihsanu'llah Isanu'llah beneficence of God
Ihtiraq Itiraq burning, combustion;   fire, conflagration
Ihtisham Itisham being ashamed;   bashfulness, chastity, modesty, decency, decorum;   having many dependants, followers, or domestics;   pomp, retinue, magnificence, grandeur, state.   See Taashshum
Ihtisham al-Dawla, Ihtisham-i-Dawlih Itisham al-Dawla Pers.   Itisham-i-Dawlih.   A title.
Ihtiyaj, Ihtiyajat
Itiyaj, pl. Itiyajat
want, need, requirement, (pre)requisite, necessity;--pl. needs, necessities, necessaries
Ihtiyat, Ihtiyatat
Itiya, pl. Itiyaat
caution, cautiousness, prudence, circumspection, carefulness;   provision, care, attention, precaution, prevention;   (pl.) precautionary measures, precautions
animation, enlivening;   revival, revitalization, revivification;   arranging, staging, conducting, putting on, holding (of a celebration)
creation, procreation, production, origination;   procuring, procurement, furnishing, supply;   calculation, computation, evaluation
Ijadiyah (Ijadiyyah)
an islamic school of mystical philosophy--creationists or transcendentalists, who believe in a God separate from His creation
Ijaza (Ijazih), Ijazat
Ijaza(h), Pers, also Ijazih, pl. Ijazat
licence or diploma bestowed by higher-ranking members of the ulama on those deemed knowledgeable in particular aspects of Islamic sciences
Ijl, 'Ujul, 'Ijala 'Ijl, pl. 'Ujul, 'Ijala calf (e.g. the golden calf, al-dhahabi al-'ijl)
Ijma' Ijma' agreement, unanimity;   unanimous resolution;   (Isl. Law) consensus (of the authorities in a legal question;   one of the four uul of Islamic Law)
Ijtihad Ijtihad effort, exertion, endeavour, pains, trouble;   application, industry, diligence;   (Islamic Law) independent judgement in a legal or theological question, based on the interpretation and application of the four uul, as opposed to taqlid;   individual judgement.   The power of a Shi'ih divine to issue ex cathedra decrees and judgements.
Ijtima', Ijyima'at Ijtima', pl. Ijtima'at meeting;   get-together, gathering, assembly;   reunion;   rally;   convention;   conjunction, constellation (astron.);   confluence (of rivers);   life in a social group, community life, social life
Ijtima'i Ijtima'i community, group (used attributively);   social;   socialist(ic);   sociological
Ikhlas Ikhla sincerity or fidelity
Ikhtiyar, Ikhtiyarat Ikhtiyar, pl. Ikhtiyarat choice;   election (pl. also politics);   selection;   preference (to);   option;   free will (philosophy)
honour, respect, deference, tribute;   hospitable reception, hospitality;   kindness;   honorarium
Iksir Iksir elixir, the philosopher's stone;   alchemy
Il-Khan Il-Khan Pers.   a commander;   a title of the Mogul emperors
Il, Ilat Il, pl. Ilat Pers.   tribe (especially nomadic)
Ilah, Ilaha, Aliha, Ilahat Ilah, fem. Ilaha, pl. Aliha, fem. Ilahat god, deity, godhead
Ilaha, Ilahat
Ilaha(t), pl. Ilahat
Ilahi Ilahi divine, of God;   theological.   Bashir-i-Ilahi
divinity, deity, divine revelation;   theophany (Christian)
Ilahiyat al-Ilahiyat theological, spiritual concerns
Ilan Ilan a village 60 km NE of Qazvin and another 70 km SW Shiraz
Ildirim Ildirim May be from Turkisk Yildirim (lightning)
Ilhad Ilad apostasy;   heterodoxy, heresy
Ilham, Ilhamat Ilham, pl. Ilhamat inspiration;   instinct
Ilkhani Ilkhani Pers.   Belonging or referring to an Ilkhan;   the leader of an army.   Also the name of a garden outside ihran where ahirih was martyred.
Illa, 'Illat, 'Ilal
'Illa(t), pl. 'Illat, 'Ilal
illness, sickness, disease, malady;   deficiency, defect, weakness;   weakness, defectiveness (of a letter or word;   grammar);   a cause, reason;   metrical variation or irregularity (prosody);--(pl. 'Ilal) cause, reason, occasion;   excuse, pretence, pretext, plea.   Aristotle claimed that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world: 'illat al-maddi, material cause, matter of which a thing is made;   'illat a-uri, formal cause, i.e. that form in which the essence of a thing consists;   'illat al-fa'ili, notional or efficient cause (as the maker, if the work of man);   'illat agh gha'i, final cause for which it was made.
Illa'llah Illa'llah but God
Illiyun or 'Illiyyun
'Illiyun or 'Illiyyun
(plural form of 'uluw or 'illiyy) high, sublime;   high places or the persons who sit in high places;   the upper apartments of heaven;   a place in the seventh heaven, where the records of men's actions are laid up;   the books themselves;   a ledger for the righteous deeds.   See Qur'an 83:18-20.   The opposite of sajin.
Ilm adh-Dhawqi al-'Ilm adh-Dhawqi intuitive insight (Remembrance of God, p. 5, Scholl)
Ilm al-Ilahi 'Ilm al-Ilahi theology
Ilm al-wujudi 'ilm al-Wujudi existential knowledge
Ilm Ilahiyat, 'Ilm Ilahiyun
'Ilm Ilahiyat, pl. 'Ilm Ilahiyun
Ilm-al-Yaqin 'Ilm-al-Yaqin "Arc of descent", literally "bringing forth". Ends in material realities ('Abdu'l-Baha)--going away from God. Converse is the Arc of ascent (circle of existence) ends in spiritual realities
Ilm, 'Ulum 'Ilm, pl. 'Ulum Ar.   knowledge, learning, lore;   cognizance, acquaintance;   information;   cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge;   (pl.) science
scientific;   erudite (book);   learned (society)
Ilmiya, 'Ilmiyyyih
'Ilmiya(t), Pers. also 'Ilmiyyih
learning, scholarship
Ilmu't-Tajwid 'Ilmu't-Tajwid al-'Ilmu't-Tajwid or 'Ilmu'l-Qira'ah--the science of reading the Qur'an correctly.
Iltibas Iltibas confusion, tangle, intricacy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, doubt.   Also veiled or disguised.
Ilyas, Alyas Ilyas, Alyas Elijah (alternative spelling: Elyas, Ilias, Eliasor, Elias)
coercion, compulsion
forced, compulsory, obligatory, required.   As a philosophical term, "necessary" may give a clearer meaning of the word.
Imad, Amad 'Imad, pl. 'Amad support, prop, stay (also figuratively);   bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar.   Mir 'Imad famous calligrapher.
Imadi'd-Dawlih 'Imadi'd-Dawlih ("the Mainstay of the State")
Imadu'd-Din Imadu'd-Din pillar of the Faith
Imam-Husayn Imam-usayn the third Imam
Imam-Jum'ih Imam-Jum'ih Pers.   (Imam-Jom'a or Imam Jomai)   The leader of the Shi'ah Friday prayers in the mosque of a city or town.
Imam-Zadih Imam-Zadih descendant of an Imam or his shrine
Imam-Zadih Ma'sum Imam-Zadih Ma'um also known as the Shrine of ibn Babuyyih (Babawayh) in the ibn Babuyyih Cemetery, south of ihran.   Place where the Bab's body was kept at the instruction of Baha'u'llah.   Nabil suggests the Shrine of Imam-Zadih-asan.
Imam, A'imma Imam, pl. A'imma imam, prayer leader;   leader;   master;   plumb line.   The person who leads the congregation in the mosque, in prayer (hence, "prayer leader").   The A'imma are called the "Kindred of God", "Suns of immaculacy and Moons of majesty" by Baha'u'llah (GDM).
Imama Imama(h or t) Imamah.   Function or office of the prayer leader;   imamate;   leading position;   precedence
Iman Iman faith, belief
Imara Imara position or rank of an emir;   princely bearing or manners;   principality, emirate;   authority, power
Imara, Imarat 'Imara, pl. 'Imarat, 'Ama'ir building, edifice, structure;   real estate, tract, lot
Imarat-i-Khurshid 'Imarat-i-Khurshid Structure of the sun or sun room (missing 'Ayn in texts?)
Imatu'l-Kubra 'Imatu'l-Kubra al-'Imatu'l-Kubra ("Most Great Name")
Imda' Ima' realization, execution, accomplishment, completion;   signing, signature
Imkan, Imkanat Imkan, pl. Imkanat power, capacity, capability;   faculty, ability;   possibility.   "inherent contingency"--contrast with uduth (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
possible, potential;   contingent
Imra', Imru' Imra' and Imru' (with definite article al-mar') a man;   person, human being;   frequently for son, human being
Imra'a Imra'a woman, wife.   See plural Nisa' and imra'
Imran 'Imran (Amran in Bible and Joachim is known as 'Imran in the al-Qur'an) name of the father of Moses, Mary and of Abu Talib
Imru' al-Qays (Imru'u'l-Qays) Imru' al-Qays ibn ujr al-Kindi 6th century Arab poet
Imruz Imruz today or this day.   See yum
Imtihan, Imtihanat Imtian, pl. Imtianat test, experiment;   examination.   Tests occur when a Manifestation appears.   See also Fitna.
Imtiyaz, Imtiyazat Imtiyaz, pl. Imtiyazat distinction, (mark of) honour;   advantage, benefit, merit;   difference, distinction, differentiation, discrimination;   special right, privilege;   concession, patent, permit, license, franchise;   (oil) concession;   prerogative, priority right
Inab, Inabun, A'nab 'Inab (coll.; n. 'Inabun), pl. A'nab grape(s).   Not 'Anab as in PUP 248 [aneb].
Inaya 'Inaya(t) "Enayat" concern;   care, solicitude, providence (for);   care(fulness), painstaking, meticulousness (in);   heed, notice, regard, attention (to);   interest (in)
Inayatu'llah 'Inayatu'llah care of God.   'Inayatu'llah Ishraqi
Inayatu'llah Khan 'Inayatu'llah Khan Mirza 'Inayatu'llah Khan (Enayet'o'llah), the son of Mulla Isma'il, the martyr
Infi'al, Infi'alat
Infi'al, pl. Infi'alat
(state of) being affected, acted upon, or influenced, passivity;   stimulation, irritation (biology);--pl. agitation, excitement, excitation, commotion
excitable, irritable, susceptible (biology);   caused by affect, affective (philosophy)
Infitar Infiar being split, cleft, riven
decline, fall, decay, decadence;   inferiority
Inja Inja Pers.   this place;   here
Injil, Anajil Injil, pl. Anajil (Gk. Evangel) gospel.   Injil occurs twelve times in the Qur'an (as Gospel in English) and refers to the book given to Jesus by God. It is believed to be the true lost original Gospel promulgated by Jesus.
Inkar Inkar denial, disavowal, negation, contestation;   refusal, rejection, non-acceptance, e.g. of Imam 'Ali
Ins Ins (colloquial) man, mankind, human race
Insaf Inaf justice, equity
Insan-i-kamil insan-i-kamil perfect human being
Insan, Insana Insan, fem. Insana man, human being.   Insan al-'ain pupil (of the eye)
Insani Insani human;   humane;   humanitarian, philanthropist
creation;   origination;   bringing about;   setting up.   Establishment, organization, institution;   formation;   making, manufacture, production;   erection;   building, construction;   founding, foundation;   installation;   composition, compilation, writing;   letter writing;   style, art of composition;   essay, treatise.
"God willing" or "If God wills it"
(verb, form VII intransitive of Shaqqa) to split up, to crack (Qur'an 54:1)
splitting, cleaving or cracking the moon.   A miracle or "an impossible act".   Refer to Qur'an 54:1.
separation, segregation, dissociation, spilt;   schism (Christian);   dissension, discord, disunion
relaxedness, relaxation, joy, delight, glee, gaiety
Insi Insi human;   human being
(a variation of niam), being arranged, strung in a line;   arrangement, regulation, disposition, order, method, system;   plan, scheme;   administration, government
Iqab 'Iqab infliction of punishment, punishment;   penalty.   Translated by Shoghi Effendi as "retribution" in The Hidden Words #93 (Persian).   Mistaken for "eagle" in an early translation.   See 'uqab
Iqal, 'Uqal
'Iqal, pl. 'Uqul
cord used for hobbling the feet of a camel;   a headband made of camel's hair, holding the kufiya in place
being sure, knowing for certain;   certitude
drawing near, advance, approach;   coming, arrival, advent;   turning, application, attention, response, responsiveness
Iqlim, Aqalim
Iqlim, pl. Aqalim
climate;   area, region;   province, district;   administrative district.
establishing, fixing (in a place);   promise, agreement, assurance, pledge;   consent, acquiescence, acceptance;   confirmation, ratification, affirmation, attestation, declaration;   settlement, compact, bargain;   confession, acknowledgment.
Iqtidar, Iqtidarat
Iqtidar, fem. pl. Iqtidarat
might, power, strength, potency;   ability, capability, faculty, capacity, efficiency, aptitude.   Iqtidarat wa chand law-i-digar arat-i-Baha'u'llah (Magnificences and select other Tablets of His Holiness Baha'u'llah)--a compilation of Tablets by Baha'u'llah.
connection, conjunction, union, association, affiliation;   link, connectedness, simultaneous interaction;   conjunction (astron.);   new moon (as an astronomical aspect);   marriage, wedding
Irada (Iradih), Iradat
Irada(h), (Pers. Iradih), pl. Iradat
will, volition;   wish;   desire;   (pl.) irade (a decree of an Islamic ruler), decree (of a ruler);   will power
Iraj (Iradj)
Pers.   the sun;   name of the youngest son of Faridun;   name of a king of Babylon.   A village near Nayriz.
Iram, Aram
Iram, pl. Aram
stone erected in the desert for the direction of travellers.   Iram of the Pillars (Iram dhat al-imad), also called "Aram", "Irum", "Irem", "Erum", or the "City of the tent poles", is a reference to a lost city, country or area mentioned in Qur'an 89:7, a place in ancient Arabia
Iran, the kingdom of Persia proper, said to be named after Iraj, son of Faridun, to whom this part of his father's dominions was given
Irani, Iranun
Irani, pl. Iranun
Iranian, Persian;   (pl.) a Persian, an Iranian
Iraq al-'Iraq Iraq
Iraq-i-'Ajam 'Iraq-i-'Ajam Persian 'Iraq.   'Iraq between the 11th to 19th centuries consisted of two neighbouring regions: Arabic 'Iraq (Iraq-i 'Arab) and Persian 'Iraq (Iraq-i 'Ajam).   Arabic 'Iraq corresponded with ancient Babylonia (now central-southern 'Iraq), and Persian 'Iraq corresponded with the ancient Media (now central-western Iran). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Iraq-i-'Arab 'Iraq-i-'Arab Arabic 'Iraq.   See note in previous entry.
Iraq-i-A'zam 'Iraq-i-A'am A part of Iran once known as Persian 'Iraq (the country around Media (the triangle between the ancient cities of Ecbatana (believed near Hamadan), Rhagae (southern ihran) and Aspadana (Ifahan)), in today's central Iran.
Iraqan (Iraqain , Iraqayn)
al-'Iraqan, Pers. al-'Iraqayn
cities of Bara and Kufa
Iraqi, Iraqun 'Iraqi, pl. 'Iraqun Iraqi, Iraqian;   (pl.) an Iraqi
Irbil Irbil (")Erbil) capital of 'Iraqi Kurdistan
Irfan 'Irfan gnosis, mystic knowledge, true or spiritual understanding
Iriwan (Irivan) Iriwan Yerevan, capital of Armenia
Irshad, Irshadat Irshad, pl. fem. Irshadat guidance;   a conducting, showing the way (to);   guiding hand;   care;   spiritual guidance;   instruction;   direction;   directive;   information;   advising, advice;--pl. directives, directions, instructions, advice
Irshad al-'Awamm, Irshadu'l-'Avam Irshad al-'Awamm, Pers. Irshadu'l-'Avam "Guidance unto the ignorant" by Haji Muammad-Karim Khan
Irtifa' Irtifa' rise (e.g., of prices);   elevation;   increase;   height, altitude (e.g., of a mountain).   The Bab uses irtifa' to mean abrogation (both removing and elevating) in relation to the abrogation of a former Dispensation and its fulfilment and exaltation by a new Dispensation.   "Each Revelation, in simultaneously abrogating and exalting the previous Dispensation, is the return of the previous Revelation in the station of its perfection." Gate of the heart, p. 277.
climbing, mounting;   ascension;   ascent;   progress, rise, progressive development;   "evolution"
Isa 'Isa Pers.   Jesus.   See Yasu'
Isfahan Ifahan Pers.   city 340 km south of ihiran.   Transcription as per Shoghi Effendi.   Ifahan, Ispahan and ifahan transcriptions are also used outside the Faith as the name of the city, carpets, business names and food.
Isfahan nisf-i-jihan Ifahan nif-i-jihan "Ifahan is half the world"
Isfahani Ifahani aji Mirza aydar 'Ali-i-Ifahani (b. Ifahan, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920). Baha'u'llah gave him the titles "The Angel of Carmel" and "Sulan-i-Mu'allimun" (The king of teachers). Author of Bihjatu'-udur (Delight of Hearts)
Isfand Isfand Pers.   A species of rue;   a province of Nishabur;   twelfth month of Iranian calendar
Isfandabad Isfandabad Esfandabd or Isfand-Abad.   Village between Yazd and Shiraz
Isfandiyar Isfandiyar Pers.   Esfandiyar, Sepandiar, Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar.   Legendary Iranian hero.   ("Created holy and pure")   Name of loyal servant of Baha.
Ishan Ishan "They" a designation by which Baha'u'llah was known.   Also said to be honorific form of Persian pronoun for the third person singular
Ishaq Isaq Isaac;   becoming threadbare;   shrinking after milking (the teats);   drying up
Ishara, Isharat Ishara, pl. Isharat sign, motion, nod, wink, wave;   gesture;   signal;   indication;   allusion, hint, intimation;   symbolic expression;   (silent) reminder;   advice, counsel, suggestion;   instruction, order, command
Ishq 'Ishq love, ardour of love, passion
Ishqabad 'Ishqabad (Ashkabad or Ashgabat, Turmenistan) "City of Love"
Ishqi 'Ishqi belonging to love
Ishqiy-i-Qarn-i-Bistum 'Ishqiy-i-Qarn-i-Bistum "'Ishqi of the twentieth century" (abjab value 1342 (ah 1342 or ad 1923.).   See Arches of the Years, p. 257.
Ishraq Ishraq radiance;   radiation, eradiation, emanation;   illumination.   Ishraq Khavari
Ishraq, Ishraqat Ishraq, pl. Ishraqat Pers.   rising (the sun   sunrise, morning;   splendour, lustre, beauty.   Tablet of Ishraqat (Splendours) (by Baha'u'llah) published in Tablets of Baha'u'llah, pp. 101-134.
Ishraqi Namaz
Ishhraqi Namaz
Pers.   morning prayer
Ishraqi, Ishraqiyan (Ishraqiyun)
Ishraqi, pl. Ishraqiyan
Pers.   of or pertaining to sunrise;   eastern, oriental;   having the splendour of the East.--(pl.) a sect of philosophers, illuminati, the Illuminists, adherents of Illuminism
Ishraqiya, Ishraqiyyih
Ishraqiya, Pers. Ishraqiyyih
a Persian mystical order founded by Shahab ad-Din Yaya ibn abash Suhrawardi (c. 1155-1191), a Persian theologian and philosopher. Ideas arose out of perpatetic philosophy.
Ishti'al Ishti'al ignition, inflammation, combustion, burning.   Name/pen name (aflame or blazing fire) given to Ali-Kuli Khan by 'Abdu'l-Baha
Ishtihard Ishtihard a village between Karaj (west of ihran) and Qazvin
Iskaf, Iskafi Iskaf and Iskafi, pl. Asakifa shoemaker
Iskandar Iskandar Persian for Alexander
Iskandariya al-Iskandariya Alexandria, Egypt
Iskandarun Iskandarun (Turkish skenderun, Arabic Iskandaruna)   Originally Alexandria, later Alexandretta, on Turkish coast north of Syria
Islah, Islahat Ila, pl. Ilaat restoration, restitution, redressing, reparation;   improvement, amelioration, betterment, mending, correction;   reconstruction;   reconditioning, repair;   renovation, refurbishing;   adjustment, settling, remedying, removal, elimination;   restoration of order, establishment of peace, happiness and order;   reformation, reform;   reclamation, cultivation (of land);   (re)conciliation, settlement, compromise, peace making
Islam Islam submission, resignation, reconciliation (to the will of God in every age);   or the total surrender of oneself to God.   Titled "Perspicuous Religion" and "Well-established Path".   Redefined by the Bab as "Verily, the essence of religion is none other than submission unto This Remembrance [the Bab]."   Root is al-Silm rather than al-Salima or al-Salam.
Islami (Islamic) Islami Islamic.   No accents for the English Islamic!   Incorrectly given as Muhammadic or Muhammedic.
Ism al-A'zam, Ism-i-A'zam al-Ism al-A'am, Pers. Ism-i-A'am The Greatest name (of God)
Ism, Asma, Asamin Ism, pl. Asma', Asamin name;   appellation;   reputation, standing, prestige
Isma, 'Isam 'Ima(t), pl. 'Iam hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation;   preservation, guarding, safeguarding;   defence;   protection;   chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness;   impeccant, sinlessness, infallibility.   'immunity from sin and error', (from 'aama, ya'imu = to protect, to save from)
Isma adh-dhatiyya al-'Ima adh-Dhatiyya Essential infallibility
Isma al-sifatiya al-'Ima al-ifatiya Conferred infallibility (bestowed rather than innate).   Immunity from error and infallibility of judgement--not freedom from sin, sinlessness or immaculateness.
Isma'il Isma'il (Ishmael in Hebrew), the son of Abraham and the Egyptian Hagar, who was considered to be the forerunner of the desert Arabs.   "Ismael"
Isma'il-i-Kashani Isma'il-i-Kashani
Isma'il-i-Kashi Isma'il-i-Kashi
Isma'il-i-Zavari'i Isma'il-i-Zavari'i
Isma'ili Isma'ili, pl. Isma'iliyyun disciple, follower
Isma'iliyya, Isma'iliyyih, Isma'iliyyun Isma'iliyya (Ar), Isma'iliyyih (Per) Isma'ilism--branch of Shi'a Islam.   pl. Isma'iliyyun.   Pers. Isma'iliya
Ismat-i-Kubra 'Imat-i-Kubra Great Infallibility
Ismatu'l-Kubra al-'Imatu'l-Kubra Most Great Infallibility
Ismu'l-Azal Ismu'l-Azal Name of Eternity (Mirza Yaya)
Ismu'llah Ismu'llah "Name of God"
Ismu'llahi'l-A'zam Ismu'llahi'l-A'am Name of God, Greatest
Ismu'llahi'l-Akhir Ismu'llahi'l-Akhir Ar. Ar.   The Last name of God. This was the title given by the Bab to Quddus.
Ismu'llahi'l-Jud Ismu'llahi'l-Jud "The Name of God, the Bounteous" (name given to Muammad Javad-i-Qazvini by Baha'u'llah)
Ismu'llahi'l-Mihdi Ismu'llahi'l-Mihdi "The Name of God, Mihdi'"
Ismu'llahu'l-Akhar Ismu'llahu'l-Akhar "The Last Name of God"
Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Ismu'llahu'l-Adaq "The Name of God, the Most Truthful"
"In the Name of God, the Eloquent"
"The Name of God, Jamal".   Name given to Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji by Baha'u'llah.
"The Name of God, the All-Bountiful".   Title given to Muammad Javad-i-Qazvini by Baha'u'llah.
Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi "The Name of God, Mihdi".   Name given to Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Dahaji.
Ismu'llahu'l-Munib Ismu'llahu'l-Munib "The Name of God, the Patron"
Isnad, Asanid Isnad, pl. Asanid ascription (of an Islamic tradition), the (uninterrupted) chain of authorities on which a tradition is based
Ispahan Ispahan Middle Persian.   Arabicized modern form is Ifahan
Isr, Asar Ir, pl. Aar covenant, compact,contract;   load, encumbrance, burden;   sin;--pl. bonds, ties
Isra' Isra' nocturnal journey;   al-Isra' the "night journey" of Muammad "to the seven heavens"
Isra' Isra' acceleration, speed-up; hurry
Isra'il Isra'il Israel.   Banu Isra'il--the Israelites;   Daulat Isra'il the State of Israel.
Israfil Israfil "the burning one" (Israfel) seraph.   The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet (ram's horn) on the Day of Judgement.
Istah-banat Istah-banat Estaban, village west of Nayriz
Istarabad (Astarabad) Istarabad See Astarabad
Istidlal Istidlal reasoning, argumentation, demonstration;   conclusion, inference, deduction;   proof, evidence (of)
Istidlaliyya, Istidlaliyyih
Istidlaliyya, Pers. also Istidlaliyyih
testimony (book) or (book) of apologetics
Istijlal Istijlal Ar.   majesty
Istikhlaf Istikhlaf appoint someone to be successor.   In the Qur'anic context, appointing a trustee or vicegerent, or "Law of Succession of Prophets".
Istiqbal, Istiqbalat Istiqbal, pl. Istiqbalat reception;   opposition (astron.);   full moon (as an astronomical aspect);   the future
Istiqlal Istiqlal Ar.   Independence
Itabaki-A'zam Iabaki-A'am "the greatest tutor".   Probably should be Atabak-i-A'am
Itabaki-Chupan Iabaki-Chupan probably should be Atabak-i-Chupan (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 421)
Ithbat Ithbat establishment;   assertion;   confirmation;   affirmation, attestation;   demonstration;   proof, evidence;   registration, entering, listing, recording;   documentation, authentication, verification
Ithna 'Ashara, Ithnata 'Ashrata
Ithna 'Ashara, fem. Ithnata 'Ashrata
Ithnani, Ithnatani
Ithnani, fem. Ithnatani
Itmam Itmam completion;   perfection;   termination, conclusion;   consummation, execution, fulfilment, realization, effectuation, accomplishment
Itmam-i-Ni'mat Itmam-i-Ni'mat completion of favour
Itmi'nan (Itminan) Imi'nan calm, repose, serenity, peace, peacefulness, tranquillity;   reassurance, peace of mind, composure, calmness, equanimity;   trust, confidence
Itmi'nan-i-Qalb (Itminan-i-Qalb) Imi'nan-i-Qalb heart attaining tranquillity or composure of the heart
Itr, 'Utur, 'Uturat
'Ir, pl. 'Uur, 'Uurat
perfume, scent;   essence
Itra, 'Itrat 'Itra(t) little balls formed of musk or other aromatics, and worn as a necklace;   a progeny, family, near relations;   a bit of pure musk;   sweet marjoram;--'Itrat al-Nabi "Family of the Prophet"
sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
Ittihad Ittiad oneness, singleness, unity;   concord, accord, unison, harmony, unanimity, agreement;   combination;   consolidation, amalgamation, merger, fusion;   alliance, confederacy;   association;   federation;   union.   Symbolically, the identification of man with God
Ittihadi, Ittihadiyyih
Ittiadi, Pers. also Ittiadiyyih
unionist;   unionistic;   federal
Iwil, Ivil
Iwil, Ivil
("Ivel", also known as Idel) is a small village 12 km east of Kiyasar, 90 km se of Sari, 45 km west of Damghan in Sari County, Mazandaran Province
Izadi Izadi Pers.   God;   an angel
Izar, Uzur
Izar m. and f., pl. Uzur
loincloth;   wrap, shawl;   wrapper, covering, cover
Izdiwaj (Izdivaj) Izdiwaj Pers.   marrying;   marriage, wedding
Izhar Ihar presentation, exposition, demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, exposure, revelation, announcement, declaration, manifestation, display;   developing (photography)
Izmir (Smyrna) Izmir City in western extremity of Anatolia, Turkey. Formerly ancient city of Smyrna
Izra'il 'Izra'il (Israfels) angel of death
Izza 'Izza might, power, standing, weight;   strength, force;   honour, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown;   pride
Izzat 'Izzat Pers.   being great, powerful, rare, valuable;   grandeur, glory, power, might;   honour, esteem;   rareness
Izzatu'llah 'Izzatu'llah Might or Power of God
Izzatu'llah Zahra'i 'Izzatu'llah Zahra'i (Ezzat Zahrai)
Unaccented forms Transcripted forms Explanations and comments
Ja'far Ja'far little river, creek (Djaffar)   The name of the sixth Imam
Ja'far as-Sadiq, Ja'far-i-Sadiq Ja'far a-adiq, Pers. Ja'far-i-adiq the Sixth Imam
Ja'far-i-Istarabadi Ja'far-i-Istarabadi
Ja'far-i-Tabrizi Ja'far-i-Tabrizi
Ja'far-i-Yazdi Ja'far-i-Yazdi (MF)
Ja'far-Quli Ja'far-Quli
Ja'fari Ja'fari Pers.   the finest kind of gold (named after a celebrated alchemist);   a kind of cupola;   a sort of screen (the interstices of the frame being lozenged);   lattice-work;   name of a yellow flower;   parsley;   name of a fortress
Ja'fariyya, Ja'fariyyih Ja'fariya, Pers. Ja'fariyyih followers of the Sixth Imam that believed he did not die but is concealed and will return as the Mahdi. Nawus of Bara (hence, Nawusiya, alternative name of followers) was a prominent exponent of this idea.
Jabal al-Basit, Jabal-i-Basit Jabal al-Basi, Pers. Jabal-i-Basi "the Open Mountain"--Mah-Ku (same numerical value as Basi, 72) al-Basi "the one who expands or stretches")
Jabal al-Lawz
Jabal al-Lawz
a mountain located in northwest Saudi Arabia, near the Jordan border, above the Gulf of Aqaba at 2580 metres above sea level.   The name means "mountain of almonds".
Jabal al-Maqla
Jabal al-Maqla
"burnt mountain", about 7 km to the south, and a few hundred meters lower than, Jabal al-Lawz.
Jabal al-Shadid, Jabal-i-Shadid Jabal al-Shadid, Pers. Jabal-i-Shadid "the Grievous Mountain"--fortress of Chihriq
Jabal, Jibal, Ajbal Jabal, pl. Jibal, Ajbal mountain;   mountains, mountain range
Jabri, Jabariyan
Jabri, pl. Jabariyan
one who believes in predestination, a fatalist
Jabarut Jabarut "the All-highest Dominion" or "the Empyrean Heaven"--realm of being.   See Hahut, Lahut and Nasut.
Jabbar, Jabbarun, Jababir, Jababira
Jabbar, pl. Jabbarun, Jababir, Jababira
giant;   colossus;   tyrant, oppressor;   almighty, omnipotent (God);   gigantic, giant, colossal, huge;   Orion (astronomy)
Jabir Jabir bonesetter   Jabir Ibn-i-ayyan was a follower of Imam adiq who handed down his traditions.
Jabr Jabr setting (of broken bones);   force, compulsion;   coercion, duress;   power, might;   (predestined, inescapable) decree of fate.
Jabr wa'l-muqabala Jabr wa'l-muqabala Al-Jabr wa'l-muqabala ("completing" or "restoring", and "simplifying" or "balancing")   Part of a book title from which the word "algebra" is derived.
Jabriyya Jabriyya(h) Muslims who championed determinism
Jabulqa and Jabulsa Jabulqa and Jabulsa (According to Shi'ih traditions, the mythical twin cities of Jabulqa and Jabulsa are the dwelling place of the Hidden Imam (the Promised One), whence He will appear on the Day of Resurrection.)
Jadhb (Jazb)
attraction;   gravitation;   appeal, lure, enticement, captivation
Jadhba (Jazba), Jadhbat (Jazbat)
Jadhba, pl. Jadhbat
Pers.   passion, rage, fury;   strong desire, craving for
Jadhdhab Jadhdhab Attractive;   magnetic;   suction;   winning;   charming
Jadhib Jadhib attractive; magnetic (fig.);   winning, fetching, engaging;   charming, enticing, captivating, gripping
Jadhibiya, Jadhbiyyih Jadhibiya(h), Pers. also Jadhibiyyih gravitation;   attraction;   attractiveness;   charm;   fascination;   magnetism.   Eminent Baha'is in the Time of Baha'u'llah has Jadhbiyyih.
Jadid, Judud, Judad Jadid, pl. Judud, Judad new, recent;   renewed;   modern;   novel, unprecedented
Jadidu'llah Jadidu'llah "New one of God"   Jadidu'llah Ashraf
Jaffa, Jafaf, Jufuf
Jaffa, Jafaf, Jufuf
to dry, become dry;   to dry out
Jafr Jafr Islamic science of the numerical values of letters;   numerology.   'ilm al-jafr: divination, fortune telling.
Jahada, Jahd Jahada (Jahd) to endeavour, strive, labour, take pains, put oneself out;   to over-work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (someone).   Form III to endeavour, strive;   to fight (for something);   to wage holy war against the infidels.   Form IV to strain, exert (something);   to tire, wear out, fatigue (someone), give trouble (to).
Jahan (Jihan) Jahan (Jihan) Pers. world
Jahangir Jahangir Pers.   "conqueror of the world"   Nuri'd-Din Muammad Salim (Mughal Emperor)
Pers.   Jahan+suz "the burning of the world"
Jahil, Jahala, Juhhal, Juhala
Jahil, pl. Jahala, Juhhal, Juhhal, Juhala'
not knowing (something, how to do something);   ignorant, uneducated, illiterate;   foolish;   fool
Jahiliya, Jahiliyyih Jahiliya, Pers. Jahiliyyih state of ignorance;   pre-Islamic paganism.   The dark age of ignorance among the Arabs before the appearance of Muammad.
Jahl, Jahal
Jahl and Jahala
ignorance;   folly, foolishness, stupidity
Jahrum (Jahram, Jahrom)
city and county 155 km se of Shiraz
Jalal Khazih
Jalal Khazih
[not Khazeh]
Jalal Jalal loftiness, sublimity, augustness;   splendor, glory
Jalaliya, Jalaliyyih Jalaliya(t), Pers. Jalaliyyih name of a sect who worships the more terrible attributes of the deity;   the followers of Jalal Bukhari
Jalalu'd-Dawlih Jalalu'd-Dawlih
Jalalu'd-Din Rumi Jalalu'd-Din Rumi [or Jalali'd-Din Rumi or Jalala'd-Din Rumi] (called Mawlana ("our Master"), is the greatest of all Persian Sufi poets, and founder of the Mawlavi "whirling" dervish order.)
Jali, Jaliy Jali, Jali, Jaliy clear, plain, evident, patent, manifest, obvious, conspicuous;   shining, polished.   Loudly and publicly, as in prayers, etc.
Jalil, Ajilla', Ajilla, Jala'il Jalil, Ajilla', Ajilla, Jala'il great, important, significant, weighty, momentous;   lofty, exalted, sublime;   revered, honourable, venerable;   glorious, splendid
Jalil-i-Khu'i Jalil-i-Khu'i
Jalil-i-Tabrizi Jalil-i-Tabrizi
Jam Jam Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia, whom they confound with Solomon and Alexander the Great;   a monarch, a great king;   the pupil of the eye;   pure, free, exempt;   essence, nature, person.   (Zend or Avestan: yima and Sanskrit: yama ["the twins"]. Yama became Jam).   See Jamshid
Jam', Jumu'
Jam', pl. Jumu'
gathering;   collection;   combination;   connection, coupling, joining;   accumulation;   (arithmetic) addition;   union, merger, aggregation, integration (of) holding together (of divergent, separate things);--(pl.) gathering, crowd, throng;   gang, troop
Jam'iya, Jam'iyat Jam'iya(t), pl. Jam'iyat club, association, society;   corporation, organization;   assembly
Jama'a, Jama'at Jama'a(h), pl. Jama'at group (of people);   band, gang, party, troop;   community;   squad (military unit)
Jamad, Jamadat Jamad, pl. Jamadat a solid;   inorganic body; mineral;   inanimate body, inanimate being
Jamadiyu'l-Avval Jamadiyu'l-Avval Fifth month in Islamic calendar
Jamadiyu'th-Thani Jamadiyu'th-Thani Sixth month in Islamic calendar
Jamal Jamal Ar.   Beauty
Jamal Afandi (Jamal Effendi) Jamal Afandi (Effendi) name given to Sulayman Khan-i-Tunukabani
Jamal-i-Burujirdi Jamal-i-Burujirdi
Jamal-i-Mubarak Jamal-i-Mubarak "The Blessed Beauty".   Title used by some Baha'is for Baha'u'llah.
Jamal-i-Qidam Jamal-i-Qidam Ar.   The Ancient Beauty.   A title of Baha'u'llah.
Jamal, Jimal Jamal, pl. Jimal, Ajmal Camel
Jamali'd-Din Jamali'd-Din Beauty of the Faith
Jamalu'd-Din-i-Afghani Jamalu'd-Din-i-Afghani
Jami', Jawami' Jami', pl. Jawami' total;   whole, entire;   all;   entirety;   comprehensive, extensive, broad, general, universal;   collector, gatherer;   compiler (of a book);   compositor, typesetter;--(pl.) mosque
Jamil, Jamilih
Jamil, Pers. Jamilih
beautiful, graceful, lovely, comely, pretty, handsome;   friendly act, favour, service, good turn;   courtesy
Jammal, Jammalun Jammal, pl. Jammalun camel driver.   Gardens of Jammal are at the south entrance of the Mansion of Bahji.
Jamshid Jamshid ("Djemsheed")   mythical King in Iranian traditions and culture.   A compound of Jam and shid formed by changes to the original Avestran names.
Jamshid-i-Gurji Jamshid-i-Gurji (MF)
Jan Jan Pers.   soul, vital spirit, mind;   self;   life;   spirit, courage;   wind;   the mouth;   arms;   the father of demons;   name of a race said to have inhabited the world before Adam;   in modern conversation a word of endearment.   See nafs
Jan Aqa Big Jan Aqa Big known as a Kaj Kulah
Jan-i-Khamsih Jan-i-Khamsih
Janami Janami you are my life and soul;   you are close to me
city 230 km north of Yazd and 178 km NE of Na'in, Iran
Jangal Jangal Pers.   a wood, forest, thicket;   a country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass;   a jungle
Jangali Jangali Pers.   wild, untilled, jungle-like.   Insult referring to uncultured people (raised in jungles)
Jani Jani Pers.   soul;   cordial, heartily loved, devoted.   Title of a merchant of Kashan, aji Mirza Jani, early historian of the Babi Cause and a martyr.
Janib, Jawanib Janib, pl. Jawanib side;   lateral portion;   sidepiece;   flank;   wing;   face (geometry);   part, portion, partial amount;   partial view, section (of a scene, picture or panorama);   quantity, amount;   a certain number (of), a few, some.   "draw back"? Seven Valleys p. 43
Janna, Jannat ("Jinnat"), Jinan Janna(h or t), pl. Janna, Jinan garden;   paradise, heaven
Jarib Jarib 10,000 sq metres
Jarrah, Jarrahun
Jarra, pl. Jarraun
Jasad, Ajsad Jasad, pl. Ajsad body.   Compare Jism
Jasb Jasb rural district, Markazi Province, Iran
Jashn Jashn Pers.   A feast, social entertainment;   convivial meeting;   a solemn feast
Jashn-i-A'zam Jashn-i-A'am (the Greatest Festival because 'Abdu'l-Baha was known as the Ghusn-i-A'am [the Greatest Branch])--Day of the Covenant
Jasim Jasim healthy, strong, powerful, good health
Jasim, Jisam Jasim, pl. Jisam great, big, large;   voluminous, bulky, huge;   vast, immense;   stout, corpulent;   weighty, most significant, momentous, prodigious
Jathiya Jathiya fem., the kneeling or crouching one
Javad-i-Karbila'i Javad-i-Karbila'i
Javad-i-Qazvini Javad-i-Qazvini Muammad Javad-i-Qazvini.   He went to Adrianople in 1867 and worked for many years as one of Baha'u'llah's amanuenses. Baha'u'llah gave him the title Ismu'llahu'l-Javad (The Name of God, the All-Bountiful). He later joined Mirza Muammad 'Ali in opposing 'Abdu'l-Baha.
Javad-i-Tabataba'i Javad-i-abaaba'i
Javahiru'l-Asrar Javahiru'l-Asrar "Gems of Divine Mysteries" or "The Essence of Mysteries" by Baha'u'llah.   See jawhar and sirr
Jaw'an (Jau'an), Jaw'a' (Jau'a), Jiya'
Jaw'an, fem. Jaw'a', pl. Jiya'
hungry, starved, famished
Jawab (Javab), Ajwiba, Jawabat Jawab, pl. Ajwiba, Jawabat answer, reply;   octave (to a given tone; music);   (e.g. pronounced gawab pl. jawabat) letter, message
Jawad, Ajwad, Ajawid, Jud Jawad, pl. Ajwad, Ajawid, Ajawid, Jud openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous;--pl. jiyad, ajyad, ajawid race horse, racer;   charger
Jawan (Javan), Jawanan Jawan, pl. Jawanan Pers.   young;   young man, youth, lad
loosely translated as chivalry.   See luigari.
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir Jawhar, pl. Jawahir intrinsic, essential nature, essence;   content, substance (as opposed to form;   philosophy);   matter, substance;   atom;   jewel, gem, pearl;--pl. jewellry.   From Persian Gawhar
Jawhara (Jauhara), Jawharat Jawhara(t), pl. Jawharat jewel, gem
Pers.   eternal, perpetual
Jawidukht, Javidukht
Javidukht, wife of Dhikru'llah Khadem (sic).   See ukht
Pers.   eternal;   eternity
Jawsh (Jaush) Jawsh Pers.   the breast;   the middle of a man;   midnight;   a large section of the night, or the latter part of it;   a march during the whole of the night. See jayb
Jawshan (Jaushan) Jawshan breast plate, steel plate or chain mail
Jawshan Kabir Jawshan Kabir long ("big") Islamic prayer with 1,000 names and attributes of God that is Muammad's "coat of amour" to protect Him from injuries
Jayb (Jaib), Juyub
Jayb, pl. Juyub
breast, bosom, heart;   sine (mathematics);   hole, hollow, cavity, excavation;   pocket;   purse
Oxus River
Jaysh 'Aramram
Jaysh 'Aramram
a numerous, huge army.   See furughi
Jaysh (Jaish), Juyush
Jaysh, pl. Juyush
army, troops, armed forces
Pers.   An island;   name of a country between Euphrates and Tigris (Mesopotamia, al-Jazirat)
rages of God
Jazira (Jazirih), Jaza'ir, Juzur
Jazira(h or t), pl. Jaza'ir, Juzur
island.   Cizre (Kurdish), Jazirat ibn 'Umar (Ar.), Jazirih (Pers.), town and district in SE Turkey
Jazirat al-Bahr
Jazirat al-Bar
Name given to Bushihr by the Bab
"Verdant Isle"
Jazzar, Jazzarun
Jazzar, pl. Jazzarun
Jabra'il, Jibril
Jabra'il, Jibril
sorcery, divination or any false belief
Jidal, Mujadala, Mujadalat
Jidal (m.), Mujadala (f.), pl. Mujadalat
quarrel, argument;   dispute, discussion, debate
Jiha, Jihat, Juhat
Jiha (Pers. Jihat, Juhat), pl. Jihat
side;   direction;   region, part, section, area;   district, precinct, city quarter;   agency, authority;   administrative agency
Jihad Jihad Commonly understood to be: fight, battle;   jihad, holy war (against the infidels, as a religious duty).   Literally means "striving" (see root jahada)--a witness or martyr.   During and immediately after the time of Muammad, jihad was directed against pagans and idolaters--the polytheists--and was undertaken in defence of the realm of Islam. Meaning was later obscured and lost.   See Qital
Jihan Jihan Pers.   world
Jihat-i-Mahiyyati Jihat-i-Mahiyyati Pers.   essential aspect
Jihat-i-Vujudi Jihat-i-Vujudi Pers.   existential aspect
"he is a light-weight"
Jilf, Ajlaf Jilf, pl. Ajlaf Ar.   boorish, rude, uncivil.
Pers.   i) any empty vessel, pot or pan;   an animal disembowelled, and skinned;   anything empty in the middle;   ii) silly, trifling
Jillabiya (Jilabiya, Jellabiya, Gallabiya) Jillabiya, pl. Jilabi galabia or galabieh, a loose, shirt-like garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea.   Gallabiya, pl. Gallabiyat, Galalib in Egyptian Arabic.
Jim Jim Arabic letter (j)
Jinab Jinab Ar.   Courtesy title sometimes translated as 'His Honour', or 'The Honourable'.
Jinab-i Jinab-i (Janabe)
Jinab-i-'Azim Jinab-i-'Aim
Jinab-i-Amin Jinab-i-Amin
Jinab-i-Avarih Jinab-i-Avarih (Unfolding Destiny, p. 13.)
Jinab-i-Fadil-i-Mazindarani Jinab-i-Fail-i-Mazindarani (Jenabi Fazel)
Jinab-i-Husayn Jinab-i-usayn
Jinab-i-Ibn-'Abhar Jinab-i-Ibn-'Abhar (Jenabe Ayadi, Ibn Abhar)
Jinab-i-Ismu'llah Jinab-i-Ismu'llah
Jinab-i-Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Jinab-i-Ismu'llahu'l-Adaq
Jinab-i-Khan Jinab-i-Khan
Jinab-i-Mirza Jinab-i-Mirza
Jinab-i-Mishkin Jinab-i-Mishkin (MF p. 100)
Jinab-i-Muhammad-Taqi Jinab-i-Muammad-Taqi
Jinab-i-Mulla Jinab-i-Mulla
Jinab-i-Munib Jinab-i-Munib (Memorials of the Faithful, GPB & Child of the Covenant 73)
Jinab-i-Munir Jinab-i-Munir
Jinab-i-Nabil-i-Akbar Jinab-i-Nabil-i-Akbar
Jinab-i-Quddus Jinab-i-Quddus
Jinab-i-Sayyah Jinab-i-Sayya (MF)
Jinab-i-Shaykh Jinab-i-Shaykh
Jinab-i-Tahirih Jinab-i-ahirih
Jinab-i-Varqa Jinab-i-Varqa
Jinab-i-Zayn Jinab-i-Zayn (Jinabi Zain)
Jinaza, Janaza, Jinazat, Janazat, Jana'iz
Jinaza, Janza, pl. -at, Jana'iz
bier;   funeral procession.   Pers. sing. also jinazih.
Jinn Jinn (collective) jinn, demons (invisible beings, either harmful or helpful, that interfere with the lives of mortals)
Jinni, Jinniya Jinni, Jinniya (fem.) jinni, (demonic);   jinni (demon);   Jinniya (female demon)
Jins, Ajnas
Jins, pl. Ajnas
kind, sort, variety, species, class, genus;   category;   sex (male, female);   gender (grammar);   race;   nation
Jirjis Jirjis Pers.   George, particularly St. George of England;   ranked among the prophets by Muslims.
Jism al-Kull
Jism al-Kull
the universal substance
Jism, Ajsam, Jusum Jism, pl. Ajsam, Jusum body (also [new meaning] of an automobile);   substance, matter;   mass;   form, shape.   Compare jasad
Jizya (Pers. Jizyah), Jizan, Jiza' Jizya(h), pl. Jizan, Jiza' tax;   tribute;   head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule
Ju Ju' hunger, starvation
Ju'an Ju'an be hungry
Jubbih Jubbih Pers.   Outer coat, overcoat.
Jubbiy-i-Hizari'i Jubbiy-i-Hizari'i A type of overcoat
Jud Jud open-handedness, liberality, generosity, bounty
al-Juhfah (al-Jihfah)
city 183 km NE of Mecca
Juj (Jujih), Jawj (Jauj) Juj, Jauj Pers.   a cock's comb;   a crest;   a pennant, vane
Jujih Khanum Jujih Khanum The minuscule Leona Barnitz was called Jujih Khanum (Little Chick Lady) by 'Abdu'l-Baha
Juk Juk Jug-Basisht (Book of Juk), the Persian translation of the Yoga Vasistha, a syncretic philosophic text
Julab Julab, Jullab rose water
Julfa (Jolfa) Julfa "new" Julfa (since ad 1606) is an Armenian-populated area (one of the world's largest) of Ifahan, located south of the Zayandi-Rud. The people migrated from the Armenian city of Julfa in Azerbaijan.
Juljul, Jalajil Juljul, pl. Jalajil (little) bell, sleigh bell;   cowbell;   jingle
Jull, Gul Jull, Pers. Gul rose
Jum'a, Jum'ih, Juma', Juma'at Jum'a, Per. Jum'ih, pl. Juma', Juma'at week;   Friday
Jum'ih-Bazar Jum'ih-Bazar Friday Bazaar. Normal market with many temporary traders on Friday
Jumada Jumada dry.   Name of the fifth and sixth months of the Muslim year
Jumada al-Awwal, Jumada al-Ula Jumada al-Awwal Fifth Islamic calendar month (the first of parched land).   Also known as Jumada al-Ula.
Jumada ath-Thani, Jumada al-Akhir Jumada ath-Thani Sixth Islamic calendar month (the second/last of parched land).   Also known as Jumada al-Akhir.
Jumhuriya, Jumhuriyat Jumhuriya, pl. Jumhuriyat republic
Jumu'at al-Jumu'at [a proper name] [the day of gathering, the day of congregating] Friday.   Sura 62 named al-Jumu'ah because verse 9 mentions the call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday".   See jum'a
Junaina, Junaynih Junaina, pl. Junainat, Pers. Junaynih little garden;   garden.   Junaynih Garden--garden NW of Mazra'ih, Israel
possession, obsession;   mania, madness, insanity, dementia;   foolishness, folly;   frenzy, rage, fury;   ecstasy, rapture.   Pen name of Mirza Faraju'llah Fana'yan, see Fana'yan.
Jurj Jurj Pers.   wallets;   saddlebags.   Jurji Zaydan
Pers.   to search, seek, inquire, ask for, examine, investigate;   to heap up, accumulate;   to find, acquire.
Juvayn, Juwayn Juvayn, Ar. Juwayn Joveyn, area about 50 km NNW of Sabzivar, Iran
Pers.   (imperative and participle of justan), seek thou;   seeking, desiring, wishing, asking
Juz', Ajza' Juz', pl. Ajza' part, portion;   constituent, component;   fraction;   division;   section;   the 30th part of the Qur'an (= 2 izb)
Unaccented forms Transcripted forms Explanations and comments
Ka'aba, Ku'ub Ka'aba (Ku'ub) to be full and round, be swelling (breasts)   Form II to make cubic, to cube (something);   to dice (something)
Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf a hermit who denounced Muammad as an imposter
Ka'b, Ka'ba, Ka'aba, Ka'iba Ka'b, Ka'ba, Ka'aba, Ka'iba to be dejected, dispirited, downcast, sad
Ka'b, Ki'ab, Ku'ub Ka'b, pl. Ki'ab, Ku'ub knot, knob, node (of cane);   joint, articulation;   ankle, anklebone
Ka'ba, Ka'abat, Ka'bih Ka'ba (Ar), pl. Ka'abat, Pers. Ka'bih cube, cubic structure;   (figurative) shrine;   object of veneration, focus of interest.   The cubic building (the Kaaba (al-Ka'ba) or the exalted Kaaba (al-Ka'ba al-Musharrafah)) in the centre of the Mosque at Mecca that contains the Black Stone (al-ajar al-Aswad). The sanctuary is believed to have been originally built by Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma'il (Ishmael), and appointed by Muammad as the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration) to which people turn in prayer in Mecca.   The structure is 13.1 (43') x 11.03 (36.2') x 12.86 (42.2') (HxWxD)
Kabara, Kabr, Kabri Kabara, Kabr to exceed in age (someone by), be older (than someone).   Aqueduct from Kabri (NE of Naariya) to 'Akka.
Kabir, Kibar Kabir, pl. Kibar great, big, large, sizable;   bulky, voluminous, spacious;   extensive, comprehensive;   significant, considerable, formidable, huge, vast, enormous;   powerful, influential, distinguished, eminent; important;   old. e.g. Amir Kabir.   Superlative form of 'kabura'.
Kabul Kabul capital of Afghanistan
Kabura Kabura to be or become great, big, large, to grow, increase
Kad-Khuda Kad-Khuda Pers.   chief officer of a district;   a mayor, magistrate, alderman or bailiff.   Head man of a village, town, district or ward.
liar, swindler;   lying, untruthful;   false, deceitful
Kaf Kaf Arabic letter (k)
Kafan, Akfan
Kafan, pl. Akfan
shroud, winding sheet
Kaffara, Kaffarih
Kaffara(h), Pers. also Kaffarih
penance, atonement ('an for a sin), expiation ('an of);   reparation, amends;   expiatory gifts, expiations (distributed to the poor at a funeral)
Kafi Kafi Pers.   sufficient, enough;   efficacious, effective;   entire, perfect
Kafir, Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar Kafir, pl. Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar irreligious, unbelieving;   unbeliever, infidel, atheist;   ungrateful
Kafiya Kafiya by Ibn-i-ajib
Kafshgarkula, Kafshgar Kula
Kafshgarkula, Kafshgar Kula
("Kafshgar Kola", "Khafagarkolah") is a village 12 km south of Babol, in Babol County, Mazandaran Province. It is near and to the west of the Shrine of Shaykh abarsi.
Kafur Kafur (kafur) (a fountain intended to be drunk by the true and firm believers)--literally camphor, a medicine that is given as a soothing tonic in Eastern medicine. It is cool and it may have a good odour. Symbolically it is referred to as a spring in heaven or an added spiritual flavour etc. Used to denote whiteness--a compound of all colours
Kahf, Kuhuf Kahf, pl. Kuhuf cave, cavern;   depression, hollow, cavity
Kahraba Kahraba' and Kahraba amber;   electricity
Kahraba'i, Kahrabi Kahraba'i and Kahrabi electric(al);   electrician
Kahrabiya, Kahrabiya Kahraba'iya and Kahrabiya electricity
Pers.   electricity
Kaj Kulah (Kajkulah) Kaj Kulah (or Kaj-Kulah) Pers.   A beau, lit. "wearing the cap awry";   a beloved object
Kajawa (Kajawih, Kajavih, Kijawih) Kajawa, Kajawa, Kazawa Pers.   a type of pannier, howdah or litter for women, placed on camels (sometimes mules).   See Hawdaj
Kalam Kalam talking, speaking;   speech;   language, mode of expression, style;  talk, conversation, discussion;   debate, dispute, controversy;   words, word, saying, utterance, statement, remark;   aphorism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of speech;   (grammar) sentence, clause.   Described as "speculative theology" by Momen.   In Islam "the term 'theology' has never been used. Instead, the term kalam (discourse on the divine) was coined because the term 'theology' was identified with the doctrine of the holy trinity." Making the crooked straight, p. 786.
Kalantar Kalantar A mayor or prefecture of police?
Kalat-i-Nadiri Kalat-i-Nadiri Kalat Nader, city 80 km north of Mashhad
Kalb, Kilab Kalb, pl. Kilab dog
Kalbasi Kalbasi aji Muammad-Ibrahim-i-Kalbasi
Kalim, Kalma, Kulama Kalim two meanings: 1. wounded, injured;   sore;   (pl. kalma).   2. person addressed;   speaker, spokesman, mouthpiece (pl. kulama'). Hence, "The Interlocutor"--title of Mirza Musa, Baha'u'llah's faithful brother;   also Aqay-i Kalim, Master of Discourse, his usual full title.
Kalima (Kalimah, Kalimat), Kalim Kalima fem., pl. Kalimat, Kalim (Kalim is the collective masc. pl.)   word;   speech, address;   utterance, remark, saying;   aphorism, maxim;   brief announcement, a few (introductory) words;   short treatise;   importance, weight, influence, authority, ascendancy, powerful position.   Final Arabic letter is a ta mabuta, hence singular forms Kalimah and Kalimat.
Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih ("The Words of Paradise") (by Baha'u'llah)
Kalimat-i-Maknunih Kalimat-i-Maknunih "The Hidden Words" by Baha'u'llah.   Also known as aifiy-i-Faimiyyih (Book of Faimih)
Kalimu'llah Kalimu'llah "One who converses with God".   Title given to Moses in the Islamic Dispensation.
Pers.   few, little;   deficient, defective, mutilated, wanting, diminished, scarce, less (hence frequently imparting a negative sense);   worse;   poor, wretched;   base;   abandonment;   deficiency, destitution;   excellent, precious, glorious, honoured;   the waist, side.   Kam-kam, little by little
Kam, Chand Kam, Pers. Chand (interrogative and exclamatory particle with following noun in accusative) how much? how many! how much!
Kamal, Kamalat Kamal, pl. Kamalat perfection;   completeness;   completion, consummation, conclusion, termination, windup;   maturity, ripeness
Kamalu'd-Din-i-Naraqi Kamalu'd-Din-i-Naraqi
Kamil-Muqaddam Kamil-Muqaddam
Kamil, Kamala Kamil, Kamala perfect, consummate;   genuine, sterling;   complete, full, plenary, full-strength;   completed, concluded;   whole, entire, total, integral
Kamran Kamran Pers.   Name.   successful, blessed, fortunate
Kana, Kawn (Kaun), Kiyan, Kainina Kana (Kawn, Kiyan, Kainina) to be (past tense);   to exist;   to happen, occur, take place.   Kuntu (I was)
Pers.   a turtle-dove
Kand Kand Pers.   cutting.   Village in the province of ihran.
Kangavar Kangavar Persian town west of Mt. Alvand and Hamadan.
Kanz, Kunuz Kanz, pl. Kunuz treasure
Kaqan, Khawaqin
Khaqan, pl. Khawaqin
overlord, ruler, sovereign, monarch, emperor
Kar, Karat Kar, pl. Karat Ar.   work, job, occupation, business;   calling, vocation, profession, trade.   e.g. Ustadhkar
Karama (Kirama, Kiramat), Karamat Karama(t), Karamat nobility;   high-mindedness, noble-heartedness;   generosity, magnanimity;   liberality, munificence;   honour, dignity;   respect, esteem, standing, prestige;   mark of honour, token of esteem, favour;--pl. miracle (worked by a saint)
Karand, Kirand (Kerand) Karand, Kirand a village about 100 km SE of ihran, home of the 'Aliyu'llahis (an Islamic sect, followers of the Imam 'Ali).
Karb Karb pressing heavily, weighing down the spirits (grief);   drawing tight (a fetter);   ploughing;   twisting a rope;   being near setting (the sun), almost extinguished (fire);   affliction, anguish, vexation, distress
Karbala, Karbila Karbala, Karbila a Shi'ite holy city in 'Iraq where the Imam usayn was murdered and is buried.   Imam usayn said of the name: "Anguish and distress" (a combination of karb (the land that will cause many agonies) and bala' (afflictions)).   There are two villages of the same name in Fars and Zanjan Provinces.   See Karb and Bala'
Karbala'i Karbala'i prefixed title given to those performing the pilgrimage to Karbala
Karbala'i (Karbila'i) Mihdi Milani Karbala'i Mihdi Milani (Kerbelaiy Mehdi Milani) (Karbila'i)
Karim, Kurama', Kiram Karim, pl. Kurama', Kiram noble;   distinguished, high-ranking, eminent;   high-minded, noble-minded, noble-hearted;   generous, liberal, munificent, hospitable, beneficent;   benefactor;   kind, kindly, friendly, amicable, obliging, gracious;   respectable, honourable, decent;   precious, valuable, costly;   thoroughbred.   Also "All-Bountiful"
a quarter in Baghdad bounded by the west bank of the Tigris River. Baha'u'llah's family moved to al-Karkh prior to His return from Kurdistan.
Karkuk (Kirkuk) Karkuk city in northern 'Iraq
Karwan-saray (Karvan-saray) Karwan-saray Pers.   caravanserai (roadside inn for travellers)
Kashan Kashan One of the oldest cities of Iran, located in north central Persia.
Kashanih Kashanih town (Kean, Turkey) that Baha'u'llah passed through on His way to Gallipoli (100 km south of Edirne)
Kashf, Kushuf, Kushufat Kashf, pl. Kushuf, Kushufat uncovering, disclosure;   baring, exposure, unveiling;   revelation, illumination (mysticism);   investigation, inquiry, search, quest, study;   examination, scrutiny;   inspection;   boy scout movement;--(pl.) report, account;   statement, specification, enumeration;   table, schedule, chart;   list, roster, index, register, inventory;--(pl. kushufat) discoveries
Kashfi Kashfi of or pertaining to boy scouts.   "the Discloser" or "one who discovers and explains the divine secrets"
alternative name for the Shaykhis because God lifted (kashf) from their intellect and from their vision the veil of ignorance and lack of insight into the Religion, and removed the darkness of doubt and uncertainty from their minds and their hearts. They are the ones whose hearts God illumined with the light of guidance. The development of Shaykhi thought in Shi'i Islam, p. 48.
Kashghar Kashghar (Kashgar) part of Sinkiang, China
Kashi Kashi Pers.   short form of Kashani
Kashif Kashif Pers.   a discoverer, revealer, detector
Kashifu'l-Ghita Kashifu'l-Ghia' DB 71, 79, 431
Kashkul Kashkul beggar's bag;   scrapbook;   album.   Described as a globe-shaped alms-basket (originally made from a sea-coconut) carried by dervishes.
Kasr-i-Hudud Kasr-i-udud lift or break bounds imposed by God
Kasr, Kusur Kasr, pl. Kusur breaking, fracturing;   shattering, fragmentation;   (pl.) break, breach, fracture;   crack, rupture; fracture of a bone
defeat, breakdown, collapse;   the vowel point for the short vowel i (grammar);   nook of the house.   See amma and fata
Katama, Katm, Kitman Katama (Katm, Kitman) to hide (something, from someone);   to conceal, secrete, keep secret (something, from someone);   to suppress, repress, restrain, check, curb, subdue (anger, passion);   to hold (one's breath);   to lower, muffle (the voice);   to stifle, smother, quench (fire)
Kathir, Kithar Kathir, pl. Kithar much, many, numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious;   frequent;   a large portion, a great deal, a great many, a lot
Kathiran Kathiran very, much, to a large extent;   often, frequently
Kathiri Kathiri
Katib-i-Sirr Katibu's-Sirr, Pers. Katib-i-Sirr private secretary
Katib, Katibun, Kuttab Katib, pl. Katibun, Kuttab, Kataba writer;   scribe, scrivener;   secretary;   clerk typist;   office worker, clerical employee;   clerk, registrar, actuary, court clerk;   notary; writer, author
Katiba, Katibat Katiba, pl. Katibat woman secretary;   authoress, writer
Katibpur-Shahidi Katibpur-ahidi
Katurah Katurah Abraham's third wife
Kawih (Kavih) Kawih Pers.   "Kaveh" in Iranian mythology is a blacksmith (Ahangar) from Isfahan.   Pers./Kurdish Kawa.   May mean strength, vigour. May have derived from the Ar. Qahwa.
Kawkab (Kaukab, Kokab), Kawakib
Kawkab pl. Kawakib
star (also, fig., of screen, stage, etc.);   white opacity in the cornea of the eye
Kawm (Kaum), Akwam, Kiman
Kawm, pl. Akwam, Kiman
heap, pile;   hill;--pl. kiman especially garbage piles, refuse dump
Kawm as-Sa'aydah, Kawmu's-Sa'ayidih
Kawm a-a'aydah
Per.   Kawmu'-a'ayidih. A village about 8 km SW of Biba, Egypt. A fierce attack on a small band of Baha'is in this village ended in being the "initial step", Shoghi Effendi said, in "the eventual universal acceptance of the Baha'i Faith, as one of the independent recognized religious systems of the world" (Baha'i Administration, p. 101) by the Appellate religious court of Biba, which delivered its judgement on 10 May 1925. (Priceless Pearl, p. 318).   See entry for Biba and The Baha'i World, III:48-50.
gathering, assembly, group of people
Kawn, Akwan
Kawn, pl. Akwan
being;   existence;   event, occurrence, incident.   al-kawn the existent, the existing, reality;   the world;   the cosmos, the universe   al-Kawn al-A'la, the Supreme Being, God.
Kawthar, Kawsar
Kawthar, Pers. Kawsar
much, ample, abundant, plentiful, large quantity;   al-Kawthar--name of a lake or river in Paradise (that Muammad saw on his mystic night journey, Qur'an 108:1) whence all the other rivers derive their source.
Kawus (Kavus)
Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia;   pure;   elegant, graceful;   radical;   firm, constant;   generous, noble;   strengthened by divine aid;   a subduer, conqueror;   a spark;   light, splendour, coruscation;   swiftness, impetuosity.
Kay (Kai), Kayan Kay, pl. Kayan Pers.   a star;   the point made by the compasses at the centre of a circle;   (pl.) great kings;   the surname of the second dynasty of the Persian kings
Kayani, Kayaniyan Kayani, pl. Kayaniyan Pers.   of the Kayanian race;   imperial, royal.   Dynasty [time of Alexander the Great] of the Kayaniyan (Keyanian) kings of Persia.
Kaykhusraw (Kaikhusraw) Kaykhusraw Pers.   Also Kay Khusraw, Kay-Khusraw.   Legendary Persian warrior
Kaysanite, see Mukhtariyya. Name may have been based on the kunya (surname) Kaysan, allegedly given to Al-Mukhtar (see Mukhtar) by 'Ali, or the name of a freed Mawla of 'Ali who was killed at the Battle of iffin called Kaysan. More likely named after Abu 'Amra Kaysan, a prominent Mawla and chief of Al-Mukhtar's personal bodyguard. The Kaysanites were also known as anafiyya (after Muammad ibn al-anafiyyah)
Kaywan (Kaiwan, Kayvan)
the planet Saturn;   like-wise his orbit;   a bow;   the seventh heaven
Kazim Kaim "One who suppresses his passion or anger"   The title of the seventh Imam of the Shi'ih.
Kazim Kaim filled with anger
Kazim-i-Rashti Kaim-i-Rashti, Siyyid
Kazim-i-Zanjani Kaim-i-Zanjani
Kazimayn Kaimayn Kaimayn ("Kazmin" or "Kazemain")   "the two Ka'ims" (Imam Musa al-Kaim and Muammad al-Taqi, the seventh and ninth A'imma).   Kaimayn was a city built around the shrines of these A'imma--Al-Kaimiya Mosque--now a suburb of Baghdad (about 7 km north of the city centre)
Kazimi-Manshadi Kaimi-Manshadi
Kaziran Kaziran (Kazerun)   90 km west of Shiraz
Kha Kha Name of Arabic letter
Khabar-Dar Khabar-Dar Pers.   informed, appraised, certified;   aware;   careful, cautious;   an informer, scout, spy;   take care! beware! look out!
Khabar, Akhbar Khabar, pl. Akhbar news;   information, intelligence: report, communication, message;   notification;   rumor;   story;   matter, affair.   Traditions, sayings attributed to Muammad and to the Imams.
green, greenness, green colour;   greens, herbs, pot-herbs
Khadhala, Khadhl, Khidhlan Khadhala (Khadhl, Khidhlan) to leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the lurch (or someone);   to stay behind;   to disappoint;   pass
Khadi', Khuda', Khud'an, Khid'an Khai', pl. Khua', Khu'an, Khi'an submissive, humble;   obedient, pliant, tractable;   subject, liable, prone (to something).   Pers.   may use Khazih (Khazih)
Khadi'i Khai'i [Doubtful Khai'i in MUHJ 1963-86, p. 502.]
Khadij Khadij Pers.   an abortion (of an animal)
Khadija (Khadijah or Khadijat), Khadijih Khadija(h or t), Khadijih Muammad's first wife.
Khadijih Khanum Khadijih Khanum Mother of Baha'u'llah.   Children of second marriage--Daughters Sarih Khanum and Nisa Khanum.   Sons Baha'u'llah, Mirza Musa and Mirza Mihdi
Khadijih-Bagum Khadijih-Bagum Wife of the Bab.
Khadijih-Sultan Khadijih-Sulan
Khadim, Khuddam, Khudama Khadim, pl. Khuddam, Khudama ("Khadem") domestic servant, help;   manservant;   woman servant;   employee;   attendant;   waiter;   deacon (Christian)   (Dhikru'llah Khadem (sic), appointed Hand of the Cause of God, 1957)
Khadimu'llah Khadimu'llah ("Servant of God")   Title given to Mirza Aqa Jan, he was the personal attendant of Baha'u'llah and later His amanuensis as well.   (EGB, p. 65 by Balyuzi refers to the Tablet where the concept of Hand of the Cause of God is first mentioned in the Writings of Baha'u'llah)
Khadir, Khidir, Khidr al-Khair, al-Khiir (al-Khir) a well-known legendary figure ("The Green One") or immortal saint. Identified as "One of our servants" Qur'an 18:65. His name is not mentioned in the Qur'an, but tradition gives it as Khir. His knowledge is fresh and green, and drawn out of the living sources of life (Allah). Equivalent in the Bible is considered to be Melchizedek.   Bahiyya Khanum, p. 99 states the Cave of Khir is the Cave of Elijah.
Khafiya, Khafiyyih, Khafaya
Khafiya(h), (Pers. Khafiyyih), pl. Khafaya
a secret, a secret affair
Khajih Khajih ("Title of honour") Name of a fortress near the town of Nayriz.
Khal-i-A'zam Khal-i-A'am "the Greatest Uncle"   'Ali, aji Mirza Siyyid, maternal uncle of the Bab
Khal-i-Asghar Khal-i-Aghar "Younger or Junior Uncle"
Khal, Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'la Khal, pl. Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'ula (maternal) uncle;-- (pl. khilan) mole, birthmark (on the face);   patch, beauty spot
Khalal, Khilal Khalal, pl. Khilal gap, interval, interstice;   cleft, crack, rupture, fissure;   a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance;   defectiveness, imperfection;   fault, flaw, defeat, shortcoming;   disturbance, upset, disorder;   damage, injury, harm (that something suffers or suffered);   khilala during;   between;   through
Khalaqa, (Khalq) Khalaqa (Khalq) to create, make, originate (something);   to shape, form, mould (something)
Khaldun Khaldun Ibn-i-Khaldun ("Ibn-Kaldoon") (a famous Oriental historian)
Khalid, Khwalid Khalid, pl. Khwalid everlasting, perpetual, eternal;   immortal, deathless, undying;   unforgettable, glorious;--pl. mountains
Khalidiya, Khalidiyyih Khalidiya(h), Pers. Khalidiyyih al-Khalidiya "belonging to Khalid". Naqshbandiya Khalidiya, Khalidiya or Khalidi is the title of a branch of the Naqshbandiya ufi lineage, from the time of Khalid al-Baghdadi
Khalifa, Khulafa Khalifa, pl. Khulafa', Khala'if Caliph, literally, successor.   The vicar, deputy, successor or representative of the Messenger of God (see Khilafa);--pl. the institution, the Caliphate
Khalifatu Khalifatu successor of Muammad
Khalij, Khulj, Khuljan Khalij pl. Khulj, Khuljan bay, gulf;   canal;   al-Khalij--name of Cairo's ancient city canal that was abandoned and leveled at the end of the 19th century.   al-Khalij Farsi--the Persian Gulf
Khalil Khalil, pl. Akhilla, Khullan friend, bosom friend;   lovers.   The Friend, Abraham.
Khalil-i-Khu'i Khalil-i-Khu'i
Khalilu'llah Khalilu'llah the Friend of God (Abraham is known as)
Khaliq Khaliq creative;   Creator, Maker (God).   Used as a name, preceded by 'Abd (servant)--'Abdu'l-Khaliq "Servant of the Creator".
Khalis, Khullas Khali, pl. Khulla Ar.   clear;   pure, unmixed, unadulterated;   sincere, frank, candid, true;   free, exempt (from);   name of a stream in the east of Baghdad on the banks of which a castle of the same name is situated.
Khalisa (Khalisih)
Khalia(h) (fem. of Khali)
meaning as for Khali.   Persian also an office of government in which the business of the revenue department is transacted;   lands under government management.
Khalisizadih Khaliizadih itinerant traveller, Akhund Turabi, Shaykh Muammad Khaliizadih
Khalkhal, Khalakhil Khalkhal, Khalakhil anklet
Khalkhal, Khalakhil
Khalkhal, Khalakhil
anklet.   Khalkhal (Azerbaijani: Khalkhal) (formerly and local, Azerbaijani: Hiruw, Persian: Hiruwabad (Hirabad)) is a city and capital of Khalkhal County, in Ardabil Province, Iran.
Khall Khall Ar.   vinegar.   See Pers. Sirka
Khalq Khalq creation;   making;   origination;   something which is created, a creation;   creatures;   people, man, mankind;   physical constitution.   Khalqan a creation
Khalq-i-Jadid Khalq-i-Jadid Pers. (spiritual) rebirth
Khalwa, Khalawat Khalwa(t), pl. Khalawat privacy, solitude;   seclusion, isolation, retirement;   place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, recess;   secluded room;   hermitage;   religious assembly hall of the Druses;   booth, cabin
Khammar Khammar vintner, wine merchant, keeper of a wineshop
Khammar, 'Udi Khammar, 'Udi He placed the inscription "Greetings and salutations rest upon this mansion which increaseth in splendour through the passage of time. Manifold wonders and marvels are found therein, and pens are baffled in attempting to describe them" over his mansion's door in 'Akka   (David Ruhe, Door of Hope).   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Khamsa, Khams Khamsa, fem. Khams Ar. five
Khamsih Khamsih Persian province
Khan-i-'Arab Khan-i-'Arab
Khan-i-'Avamid Khan-i-'Avamid Inn of Pillars, 'Akka.   Also known as Khan-i-Jurayni, or Khan al-'Umdan.   See 'Awamid.
Khan-i-Ahi Khan-i-Ahi Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi, a secretary of Russian Legation
Khan-i-Kalantar Khan-i-Kalantar
Khan-i-Kashi Khan-i-Kashi
Khan-i-Kirmani Khan-i-Kirmani
Khan-i-Larijani Khan-i-Larijani
Khan-i-Nuri Khan-i-Nuri
Khan-i-Qazvini Khan-i-Qazvini
Khan-i-Sardar Khan-i-Sardar
Khan-i-Shavirdi Khan-i-Shavirdi (A caravanserai in 'Akka)
Khan-i-Tanakabuni Khan-i-Tanakabuni (GPB) Khan-i-Tunukabuni, Sulayman (MF)
Khan, Khanat Khan, pl. Khanat hostel, caravansary;   inn, pub, tavern.   Originally from the Mongolian term for a ruler;   a title meaning prince, chieftain or man of rank.
Khandil Khandil pronunciation of Turkish Kandil (candle or oil lamp).   Arabic qindil
Khani Khani
Khanidan Khanidan Pers.   to echo;   to obtain celebrity
Khanih Khanih Pers.   house
Khaniq, Khawaniq Khaniq, Khawaniq choking, strangling;   suffocating, asphyxiating, stifling, smothering;   throttling, throttle (in compounds;   tech.);   (pl.) choke coil, reactor (radio);   gorge, ravine, canyon
Khaniqayn Khaniqayn A town in 'Iraq on the border of Iran near Baghdad.
Khaniqin Khaniqin city near eastern border of 'Iraq, 145 km NE of Baghdad
Pers.   homemade
Khanjar, Khanajir
Khanjar, pl.Khanajir
dagger.   Shaykh Khanjar was given the name Salman by Baha'u'llah--thereafter known as Shaykh Salman
Khanum Khanum (Lady, wife) The feminine form of khan.
Khar Khar Pers.   an ass;   a stupid fool;   black viscous clay;   sediment;   the bridge of a violin;   the commonest, ugliest, largest, or coarsest of its kind
Kharaj Kharaj tax;   land tax (Islamic Law)
Kharaja, Khuruj Kharaja, Khuruj to go out, walk out;   to come out.   An act of rebellion against authorities.
autumn, fall
Khariq-i-'Adat Khariq-i-'Adat (Khareki-Adat) Things that are contrary, rend or change the habits of men. Hence, sometimes 'miracles'.
Kharput Kharput Harput/Kharput, ancient fortress about 5 km ne of Elazi, Turkey
Kharras (Kharraz), Kharrasun Kharra, pl. Kharraun liar, slanderer, calumniator
Khartum, Kharatim Kharum, pl. Kharaim proboscis, trunk (of the elephant);   hose.   al-Kharum (Khartoum)--capital of the Sudanese Republic
Khasa'il-i-Sab'ih Khaa'il-i-Sab'ih "The Seven Proofs or Qualifications" (by the Bab)
Khash Khash city in SE of Iran
Khasilat, Khasa'il Khailat, pl. Khaa'il Pers.   manner, custom, usage, moral
Khasm, Khusum, Akhsam
Kham, pl. Khuum, Akham
adversary, antagonist, opponent;   opposing party (in a lawsuit)
Khass Kha special, particular;   specific, peculiar;   relative, relevant
Khassa, Khawass
Khaa, pl. Khawa
exclusive property;   private possession;   specialty, particularity, peculiarity, characteristic, property, attribute;   essence, intrinsic nature;   leading personalities, people of distinction, al-khaa the upper class, the educated
Khassiya, Khassiyat, Khasa'is Khaiya, pl. Khaiyat, Khaa'i Ar.   specialty, particularity, characteristic, peculiarity, property, special attribute, feature, trait, qualification;   prerogative, privilege;   jurisdiction, competence
Pers.   region in Tibet known for musk production
Khataba, Khutba, Khataba
Khaaba, Khuba(h), Khaaba(t)
to deliver a public address, make a speech;   to preach, deliver a sermon
Khatam al-Nabiyin
Khatam an-Nabiyin
the Seal (of approval) of the Prophets (Muammad), or "the best of prophets" (khayr an-nabiyyin).   Muammad was the last of the Manifestations to prophesy the coming of Baha'u'llah, and His Dispensation the last of the prophetic cycle of religion. With the appearance of the Bab, this cycle closed. The Bab's Mission was not to foretell the Day of God but to announce it. Revelation of Baha'u'llah I:66.   Christopher Buck argues, based on The Kitab-i-Iqan, that Muammad was last in terms of authority rather than in the temporal sense.
Khatam al-Wasiyyin
Khatam al-Wasiyyin
Seal of the Successors ('Ali, son-in-law of Muammad)
Khatam an-Nabiyin, Khatamu'n-Nabiyyin
Khatam an-Nabiyin
the Seal (i.e., the best) of the Prophets = Muammad.   Pers. Khatamu'n-Nabiyyin
Khatam, Khatim, Khawatim
Khatam, Khatim, pl. Khawatim
seal or signet ring;   ring, finger ring;   seal, signet;   stamp. Khatam in Qur'an 33:40 can be interpreted as a "seal of approval", "seal of perfection", "beauty of" or the "best of".   al-Tha'labi stated that "al-Khatim is the one who sealed the prophets and al-Khatam is the best of the prophets in character and physical constitution".   Umayyah ibn Abi a-alt, a contemporary of Muammad, speaks of Muammad as being the one through whom 'Allah sealed the prophets before him and after him', thus clearly indicating an expectation of prophets after Muammad.   See "A Baha'i approach to the claim of finality in Islam", Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, Journal of Baha'i Studies, 5:3, pp. 17-40; Islam and the Baha'i Faith, Momen, chapter 3.
Khatama, Khatm, Khitam
Khatama, Khatm, Khitam
to seal, provide with a seal or signet (something);   to stamp, impress with a stamp (something);   to seal off, close, make impervious or inaccessible (something);   to put one's seal (on), conclude, terminate (something);   to wind up, finish, complete (something);   to close, heal, cicatrize (wound).   Five forms in Qur'an 2:7, 6:46, 36.65, 42:24 and 45:23.
Khatib, Khutaba, Khuttab
Khaib, pl. Khuaba, Khuab
suitor;   matchmaker
Khatib, Khutaba'
Khaib, pl. Khuaba'
(public) speaker;   orator;   lecturer;   preacher;   suitor (for the hand of a girl);   fiance
Khatiba, Khuttab Khaiba(h), pl. Khuab woman matchmaker
Khatir, Khatirat Khair, pl. Khairat Pers.   Whatever occurs to or passes in the mind;   cogitation, thought, suggestion;   memory, remembrance;   mind, soul, heart;   inclination, propensity;   affection, favour;   pleasure, will, choice;   sake, account, behalf
Khatirat-i-Malmiri Khairat-i-Malmiri Pers.   Memoirs of Malmiri
Khatirat-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-'Akka Khairat-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-'Akka Pers.   Yunis Khan, Memories of Nine Years in 'Akka
writing or calligraphy in the shape of a bird
Khatt, Khutut Kha, pl. Khuu line;   stroke;   stripe, streak;   (railroad) line, line of communication;   telephone line;   frontline (military);   furrow, ridge;   handwriting;   writing, script;   calligraphy, penmanship
Khatun Khatun Pers.   lady, matron;   proper fem. name
Khatun Jan Khatun Jan wife of Hadiy-i-Qazvini (MF)
Khatun, Khawatin
Khatun, pl. Khawatin
lady, socially prominent woman
Khawaj or Khajih Khawaj Khajih   Pers.   ("eunuch, a master, a man of distinction or a teacher)   See "Arches of the years", p. 205 and listing for Khajih above
Khawar (Khavar) Khawar or Khavar Pers.   the West, but often used by poets for the east;   the sun;   a thorn
Khawari (Khavari) Khawari or Khavari Pers.   Western;   eastern;   the sun;   surname of the poet Anwari.   From Khavar
Khawarij Khawarij the Khawarij, Kharijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam);   dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels, outsiders or seceders
Khawf (Khauf), Khawfan (Khaufan) Khawf, Khawfan fear, dread (of);   khawfan for fear (of), fearing (for).   al-Khawf--mystical station of fear of the wrath and displeasure of God.
Khawwam, Khavvam Khawwam, Pers. Khavvam a surname
Khaybar Khaybar The name of a famous oasis, and of its principle settlement, near Medina.
Khayli (Khaili)
Pers.   many, very much;   very long
Khayli Khub Khayli Khub Pers.   ("Kheili Khoob") very good, very well, all right
Khayli khush (khosh) amidad
Khayli khush amadid
Pers.   a very blessed/welcome arrival that can be translated as "your coming gives me most great pleasure and delight".   See Khwush
Khayma (Khaima), Khaymat
Khayma, pl. Khaymat, Khiyam, Khiyam
tent;   tarpaulin;   arbor, bower;   pavilion
Khayr (Khair), Khiyar, Akhyar, Khuyur
Khayr, pl. Khiyar, Akhyar
good;   excellent, outstanding, superior, admirable;   better;   best;   (pl. Khuyur) good thing, blessing;   wealth, property;   good, benefit, interest, advantage;   welfare;   charity
Khayriya (Khairiya)
charity, charitableness, benevolence, beneficence
Khayrkhah Khayrkhah Ibrahim Khayrkhah from Babulsar
Khayru'l-Qura (Kheirol-Gora)
"best of villages".   Name given by Baha'u'llah to Zirak, a small village 13 sw Bushruyih.
Khayru'n Nisa' (Khairu'n Nisa') Khayru'n Nisa' "The Most Virtuous among Women"--a title that Baha'u'llah gave to Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Bab), and forbade all women, save Faimih Bagum (the Bab's mother) from adopting the title.
Khayru'l-Ummah (Khairu'l-Ummah)
good people/community Qur'an 3:110
Khayru'llah (Khairu'llah) Khayru'llah "God's Blessing" ("Kheiralla").   Dr Ibrahim George Kheiralla (11 November 1849-6 March 1929)
Khayyam Khayyam tentmaker
Khayyat, Khayyatun Khayya, pl. Khayyaun tailor
Khazana, Khazn
Khazana (Khazn)
to store, stock, lay up, hoard, amass, accumulate;   to keep secret, keep (a secret) Form II and VIII to store, stock, lay up, warehouse (something);   to store up, accumulate (something);   to dam (something);   to put in safekeeping, keep (something)
Khazar Khazar a member of a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century ce established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia. Bar al-Khazar (the Caspian Sea)
Khazina (Khazinih), Khaza'in
Khazina, pl. Khaza'in
treasure house;   public treasury, exchequer;   treasury, treasury department (of an official agency), any office for the deposit and disbursement of funds;   cashier's office;   vault, coffer, safe;   cashbox, till (of a merchant).   Persian also khazinih, translated as "pool" (see root khazana and khuzzan).
Khidiw, Khudaiwi, Khidaywi Khidiw, Khudaiwi viceroy.   Eng. khedive.   Pers. Khidiv (a king, great prince, sovereign;   a benevolent, excellent man;   master, possessor, rich man;   a friend), (adjective Khidiwi, Eng. khedivial) and plural Khidaywi ("ay" or "i" may better represent the after the letter d in the singular and plural forms)
Khidma, Khidam, Khidamat
Khidma(t), pl. Khidam, Khidamat
a service (rendered);   attendance, service;   operation;   office, employment, occupation, job;   work
Khilafa Khilafa vicarship, deputyship;   succession;   caliphate, office or rule of a caliph;   (formerly) administrative department of caliphate
Khilafat Khilafat Pers.   vicegerency of the Prophet
Khilt, Akhlat
Khil, pl. Akhla
component of a mixture;   ingredient;--pl. mixture, blend   (Siyyid Muhammad Akhlate)
Khirqat, Khirqa Khirqat, Khirqa Pers.   a patch, rag;   a garment made of shreds and patches;   a religious habit
Khirqiy-i-Sharif Khirqiy-i-Sharif Mosque the Mosque of the Prophets' Cloak, Istanbul.   See Khirqa
Khitab, Khitabat, Akhtiba Khiab, pl. Khiabat, Akhiba public address, speech;   oration;   letter, note, message.   Khiabat (Talks of 'Abdu'l-Baha, corresponds to Paris Talks)
Khitabat dar Urupa va Imrika Khiabat dar Urupa va Imrika Letters to Europe and America (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
sealing wax;   end, close, conclusion, termination.   Qur'an 83:26
Khiyaban (Kheyaban) Khiyaban Pers.   a parterre (formal garden), flower-bed;   an avenue (modern meaning).   Two central intersecting avenues in Mashhad (Bala-Khiyaban (upper) and Pa'in-Khiyaban (lower)--since renamed);   a village in eastern Iran 200 km se of Mashhad.
Pers.   good;   beautiful, elegant, pleasant, graceful, lovely, amiable, charming, excellent, gracious;   beautifully, excellently;   firm, strong
Khuda Khuda Pers.   master, prince, Lord, God
Khuda Bakhsh Khuda Bakhsh Gift of God
Khudarahm Khudaram Pers.   compassion of God
Khujand, Khuqand, Khukand Khujand, Khukand city in Chinese Turestan about 110 km SSE Tashkent
Khul Khul Pers.   bent, curved, crooked;   mad;   ashes;   fundament.   Possible word for 'ashes' in Arches of the years, p. 304.
Khulafa'u'r Rashidun Khulafa'u'r-Rashidun (The) Rightly-Guided Caliphate--consisting of the first four caliphs in Islam's history--was founded after Muammad's death in 632.   (sometimes al-Khulafa'a'r-Rashidin or Khulafa' Rashidun).   See Caliphs section below this list.
Khuld Khuld infinite duration, endless time, perpetuity, eternity
Khulq, Khuluq, Akhlaq Khulq, Khuluq, pl. Akhlaq innate peculiarity;   natural disposition, character, temper, nature;--pl. character (of a person);   morals;   morality
Persian (Khomein, Khowmeyn, and Khumain) a city in and the capital of Khumayn County, Markazi Province, Iran
Khumayni Khumayni Pers.   "Khomeini" of or from Khumayn
Khums, Akhmas Khums, pl. Akhmas one fifth.   An additional religious tax (one-fifth) paid by Shi'i Muslims to the Imam or his deputies
Pers.   blood;   bloody;   killing;   revenge;   a shedder of blood;   life, soul;   selfishness;   pride;   a table;   reading;   singing
Khun-Baha Khun-Baha blood price or value, "blood-money".   See Baha'i Khun
Pers.   the sun
Khurasan Khurasan (Khorasan)   "where the sun arrives from".   Province in the north-eastern part of Iran until 2004--replaced by North Khurasan, South Khurasan and Razavi (Raawi) Khurasan Provinces.
Khurasani Khurasani
Khurma Khurma Pers.   date (fruit)
Khurma'i Khurma'i
Khursand Khursand Town 190 km west of Kirman
Khurshid Khurshid Pers.   khur-shid, the sun;   sunshine
Khuruj Khuruj exit;   egression, emergence;   departure;   exodus;   emigration;   raid, foray, sortie (against), attack, assault (on)
Khushk Khushk Pers.   dry, withered;   useless, barren;   pure, mere, genuine;   avaricious, tenacious
Khushk-i-Nusrat Khushk-i-Nurat a village between ihran and Qum
Khushkhu Khushkhu (Khwush-Khu) Pers.   good-natured, of an excellent disposition
Khusraw (Khusrav, Khusrau) Khusraw Pers.   A celebrated Persian king (Khosrow, Khosroe, Khosru or Cyrus).   Kay Khusraw Khudadad, believed to be the first to embrace the Faith of Baha'u'llah from the Zoroastrian community
Khusraw Parviz Khusraw Parviz (Chosroes II), the Sasanian monarch (Parvez)
Khutan (Khotan, Khoten) Khutan Pers.   Ancient Buddhist city/region west of modern Hotan, Tibet, known for musk production
Khutba, Khutbih, Khutab Khuba(t), Pers. Khubih, pl. Khuab public address;   speech;   lecture, discourse;   oration;   sermon, specif., Muslim Friday midday sermon
Khutbat at-Tutunjiyya
Khubat a-utunjiyya
Ar.   loosely "Sermon of the Gulf" or "Sermon of the Twin Gulfs"--a sermon or discourse attributed to Imam 'Ali who delivered it between Kufah and Medina. Name derived from the occurrence (5x--in singular and dual forms) of the Arabic quadrilateral (-T-N-J= utunj? or = T--N-J = taanj?).   Pers. Khubih-i-utunjiyya or Khubatu'l-utunjiyyah.
Khutbatu'sh-Shiqshiqiyya Khubatu'sh-Shiqshiqiyya A sermon preached by Imam 'Ali (a favourite among Shi'i Muslims because it is a rare statement by 'Ali on the usurpation of the caliphate by Abu Bakr) that was interrupted by a member of the audience asking a question. When begged by Ibn 'Abbas to continue his address, 'Ali answered, "The shiqshiqa has roared and subsided", meaning the inspiration of the moment has gone.
Khutbiy-i-Dhikriyyih Khubiy-i-Dhikriyyih "Sermon of Remembrance" (by the Bab).   Also called Tafsir-i-Ha' (Interpretation of the Letter Ha') and aifiy-i-Ja'fariyyih (Epistle of Ja'far)
Khutbiy-i-Jiddah Khubiy-i-Jiddah "Sermon of Jiddah" (by the Bab)
Khutbiy-i-Qahriyyih Khubiy-i-Qahriyyih "Sermon of Wrath" (by the Bab)
Khutbiy-i-Tutunjiyyih Khubiy-i-utunjiyyih Pers.   Sermon of the Gulf by Imam 'Ali.   See Khubat al-utunjiyya
Khuy Khuy (Khoy) city in and the capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran
Sa'd bin arith al-Khuza'i (martyred 61/680 in Karbala), agent of Imam 'Ali, the companion of Imam al-asan and Imam al-usayn.   Brigadier-General usayn Khuza'i, army commander in Mashhad, 1924.
Khuzistan Khuzistan Iranian Province at the north end of Persian Gulf (Khuzestan)
Khuzzan, Khuzzanat, Khazazin
Khuzzan, pl. Khuzzanat, Khazazin
dam;   reservoir;   basin, sump, pool;   storage tank (also for oil);--(pl. khuzzanun) storehouse man, warehouse man.   See khazinih and root khazana.
Khwaja Khwaja (khajeh) Khwaja Nairu'd-Din usi
Khwush-Amadi (Khush Amadid) Khwush-Amadi ("Khush Amadid") Pers.   ("Khushamadid") flattery;   assenting;   you are welcome.   A blessed arrival?
Khwush-Qadam (Khush Ghadam) Khwush-Qadam ("Khush Ghadam") Pers.   a person who brings good fortune, welcome news, good omen (Mamud's Diary)
Khwush, Khwash
Khwush, Khwash
Pers.   good, sweet, excellent, beautiful, fair, charming, pleasant, delightful, agreeable, cheerful, amiable, lovely, delicate, tender, kind, gentle, humane, mild, meek, elegant;   healthy, wholesome, temperate;   happy, well, pleased;   willingly
part, portion, share.   Kifl occurs in Qur'an 21:85 and 38:48 as Dha'l-Kifl, who is believed to be the name of Elijah, Joshua, Zachariah or Ezekiel.   Kifl can be interpreted as a prophet or Messenger of God.
dual noun of kifl.   Two share, double share or large share.   That is, Qur'an 57:28 can be understood as referring to two Messengers of God.
Kinan, Kinanat
Kinan, pl. Kinanat, Akinna
shed roof, pent roof, awning
Pers,   Kinanih, Bani
Pers.   the lap;   the bosom;   an embrace;   dalliance
Kinar-gird Kinar-gird A small fortress and village near ihran.
Kinari Kinari Pers.   (gold or silver) lace
Kinyat, Kunyat, Kuna, Kaniy, Kani Kinyat, Kunyat, pl. Kuna, Kaniy, Kani Pers.   calling or naming (anyone) by a word that has another meaning, especially by the designation of father (abu) or son (ibn, vulg. bin), a filionymic (a name derived from that of a son), a patronymic (a name derived from the name of a father or ancestor).   (Also (Kunyah, Kunyih)
Pers.   work, business, continued labour;   employment in which a man is constantly engaged;   profession, trade, art, occupation;   effect; manner, conduct;   action (good or bad)
Kirin, Kirind
Kirin, Kirind
(southern Kurdish: Kirin, Persian: Kirind-i-Gharb ("Kerend-e Gharb");   also known as Kerend ("Krend"), Karand, and Karind.   A city 75 km west of Kirmanshah in Kermanshah Province
Kirman Kirman capital city of Kirman province, Iran
Kirmanshah Kirmanshah Province and city in western Iran.
Kisa' Kisa', pl. Aksiya garment;   dress
Pers.   a guards-man, a guard
Pers.   a sentinel, night watchman
Kishon River, Nachal HaKishon
Flows to the north side of Haifa into the Mediterranean Sea.   Arabic Nahr al-Muqua' (the river of slaughter or dismemberment) or al-Kishwan.
Kisra, Akasira, Akasir Kisra, pl. Akasira, Akasir Khosraw (Chosroes);   designation of the Persian kings in general
Kiswa, Kusan, Kisan, Kasawin Kiswa, pl. Kusan, Kisan, Kasawin clothing, clothes, apparel, attire, raiment;   dress, garment;   suit of clothes;   uniform;   draping, lining, casing, facing, panelling, wainscoting (e.g., of walls).   Persian Kiswat (Kisvat), Kuswat, pl. Kusa
Kitab, Kutub Kitab, pl. Kutub piece of writing, record, paper;   letter, note, message;   document, deed;   contract (esp. marriage contract);   book.   Kitabun, a book
Kitab al-Yawaqit Wa al-Jawahir
Kitab al-Yawaqit Wa al-Jawahir
(Pers. Kitabu'l-Yawaqit-i-Wa'l-Javahir, also with v instead of w) by Siyyid 'Abd al-Wahhab ibn Amad ash-Sha'rani (1492/3-1565, ah 898-973) was an Egyptian Shafi'i scholar and mystic, founder of an Egyptian order of Sufism, eponynously known as Sha'rawiyyah.   Full title: Kitab al-Yawaqit wa al-jawahir fi bayan 'aqa'id al-akabir (The book of rubies and jewels: an explanation of the tenets of faith of mystic luminaries).
Kitab-i-'Ahd Kitab-i-'Ahd "Book of the Covenant" or Testament (Baha'u'llah)
Kitab-i-'Ahdi Kitab-i-'Ahdi "Book of My Covenant"
Kitab-i-Badi' Kitab-i-Badi' "The Wondrous Book" (by Baha'u'llah)
Kitab-i-Haykal Kitab-i-Haykal "Book of the Temple" (by the Bab).   Alternative name, Kitab-i-Hayakil (Book of Temples (or Talismans)), or more loosely, as Kitabi dar Hayakil-i-Waid (Book concerning the Temples (Talismans) of Unity).   Information provided by Baha'u'llah "... serve to identify the work referred to by these varying titles as ... the final five sections ... of the" Kitab-i-Panj-Sha'n, pp. 405-47.   The sources for early Babi doctrine and history, Denis MacEoin p. 89.
Kitab-i-Iqan Kitab-i-Iqan "Book of Certitude" (by Baha'u'llah)
Kitab-i-Mubin Kitab-i-Mubin
Kitab-i-Natiq Kitab-i-Naiq "The Speaking Book"
"Book of the Five Modes of Revelation" (by the Bab)1
1  God Passes By uses an 'Ayn: Kitab-i-Panj-Sha'n
Kitab-i-Samit Kitab-i-Samit "The Silent Book"
Kitabu'l-Aqdas, Kitab-i-Aqdas al-Kitabu'l-Aqdas, Pers. Kitab-i-Aqdas "The Most Holy Book" (by Baha'u'llah, written in Arabic). Published in English as The Kitab-i-Aqdas.
Kitabu'l-Asma' Kitabu'l-Asma' "Book of Divine Names"(by the Bab)
Kitabu'l-Fara'id Kitabu'l-Fara'id "Priceless Things" (by Mirza Abu'l-Fal)
Kitabu'l-Fihrist Kitabu'l-Fihrist "Indexical Tablet" (by the Bab)
Kitabu'l-Haramayn Kitabu'l-aramayn "The Book of the Two Holy Places"   DB 62
Kitabu'l-Yavaqit-iva'l-Javahir Kitabu'l-Yavaqit-iva'l-Javahir DB 654
Kitabu'r-Ruh Kitabu'r-Ru "Book of the Spirit" (by the Bab)
Kitman Kitman Persian.   The act of paying lip service to authority while holding personal opposition.   Saying something that is not true.   See Taqiya (Ar)
Kiya Kiya Pers.   a king, protector, defender;   a hero, champion;   a lord, master;   a lord marcher, landgrave, margrave;   a peasant;   powerful;   work, labour;   the four elements;   pure, clear, innocent;   heat, cold, dryness, or moisture;   the mouth;   mastic.   [MUHJ 521 has Kiya]
Kiyan Kiyan (keyan) being, existence;   essence, substance;   nature.
("Kiasar", "Kiasar", "Keyasar" and "Kiya Sar") is a small city 57 km se Sari, in Sari County, Mazandaran Province
Kubra, Kubrayat Kubra, pl. Kubrayat fem. of Akbar
Kuchik Kuchik "Small, young"
Kuchik-Chakmachih Kuchik-Chakmachih Kuecuekcekmece ("little depression"), now an eastern suburb of Istanbul, 23 km west of the city centre, on the European shore of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
Kufa, Kufah, Kufih Kufa(h), Pers. Kufih al-Kufah city on the west bank of the Euphrates River 110 km south Baghdad. The Imam 'Ali made it the centre of his operations, and was murdered in its mosque.   Gave name to Kufic--ancient Arabic letters.
Kufiya, Kufiyat
Kufiya, pl. Kufiyat
English keffiyeh or kaffiyeh, square kerchief diagonally folded and worn under the 'iqal as a headdress
Kufr, Kufran Kufr and Kufran unbelief, infidelity
Kuh (Koh) Kuh Pers.   A mountain, hill
Kuh-i-Nur Kuh-i-Nur Mountain of Light--Shrine of the Bab, and the name of a famous diamond.   Also spelt Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor and Koh-i-nur
a village in Mazindaran Province, Iran
Kulah Kulah Persian lambskin hat (usually black) worn by government employees and civilians.
(European hat--PDC p. 92)
Kulayn Kulayn A village southwest of ihran.
Kull Kull totality, entirety;   everyone, each one, anyone;   (with following definite noun) whole, entire, all;   (with following indefinite noun) every
Kulli Kulli total, entire, all-round, overall, sweeping, comprehensive, complete;   absolute, universal
Kulliya, Kulliyat Kulliya, Pers. Kulliyat, pl. Kulliyat totality, entirety;   integrity, wholeness, entireness, completeness;   (pl.) faculty, school (of a university);   college;   institute of higher learning, academy, secondary school
Kulliyya Kulliyya fem. totality, entirety;   completeness, fullness, wholeness;   universality, generality;   integrity
Kullu-Shay', Kull-i-Shay' Kullu-Shay', Pers. Kull-i-Shay' "all things", numerical value of 361 (1919) and a time period of 361 years).   See Vaid (unity 19)
Kullu't-Ta'am Kullu'-a'am "Tablet of All Food" by Baha'u'llah.   Qur'an 3:93 is known as Kullu'-a'am, begins with "All food ...".
Kulthum Kulthum "Plump-faced, chubby, good looking"
Kumayl Kumayl bin-i-Ziyad an-Nakha'i Companion of Imam 'Ali. Known as Kumayl.   It is also the name of a prayer that he wrote.
Kun Kun (imperative Be!)   The word Kun contains the consonants Kaf and Nun (kaf u nun), which in English, by happy circumstance, can be represented by "B" and "E".
Kunya, Kunan, (Pers. Kunyah, Kunyih) Kunya, pl. Kunan Ar.   surname, agnomen (honourable adult nickname consisting of abu (father) or umm (mother) followed by the name of the eldest child (often a son), e.g. Abu Baha'u'llah). By extension, it may also have hypothetical or metaphorical references, e.g. as a nickname or reference of an attachment (Abu Bakr, "father of the camel foal", given because of this person's love for camels), without literally referring to a son or a daughter.
Kur Kur Pers.   blind;   one-eyed;   blind in a moral sense
Kura, Kurat
Kura, pl. Kurat, Kuran
globe, sphere;   ball.   Hence, kura al-athiriy (the ethereal globe);   kura al-hawa (the atmospheric globe);   kura al-ma' (the water globe);   kura at-turab (the earth globe)
Kurash (Kurush) Kurash (Kurush) Pers.   Cyrus, king of Persia
the Kurds
Kurdi, Akrad
Kurdi, pl. Akrad
Kurdish;--pl. Kurd.   Pers.   kurdi a native of Kurdistan
Pers.   Kurdistan
Kurdistan, Bilad al-Kurd
Kurdistan, Ar. Bilad al-Kurd
country of the Kurds, English Kurdistan
Kurji (Gurji)
Georgian (adj and n).   al-Kurj the Georgians
Kursi, Karasiy
Kursi, pl. Karasiy, Karasin
chair;   throne;   seat;   professorial chair;   base, pedestal, socle (architecture);   bearing (technology)
return, comeback, recurrence;   succession, sequence, order.   Pers.   A crore (500,000 in Persia)
Pers.   A male;   (imp. of kushtan ("kill") in compound words) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses, as in azhdaha-kush, a dragon-killer
Pers.   an upper chamber, gallery, or balcony on the top of a house;   a hall, parlour
Unaccented forms Transcripted forms Explanations and comments
La La (intensifying particle) truly, verily;   certainly, surely
La La (particle) not, no!
La ilaha illa Huwa La ilaha illa Huwa "There is no God but He" [10 letters]
La ilaha illa'llah La ilaha illa'llah (There is no God [Letters of Denial (5)] but God [Letters of Affirmation (5)])   All else besides the Letters of Paradise is in Denial, while whatsoever appertaineth to the Letters of Paradise is Affirmation.   La ilaha illa'llah, Muammadun rasulu'llah (There is no God but God and Muammad is his messenger), the Shi'a call to prayer (adhan) contains the additional statement: 'Aliun valiu'llah ('Ali is God's (friend/helper/defender/vice-gerent)
La'in and Mal'un, Mala'in La'in and Mal'un, pl. Mala'in cursed;   confounded;   damned;   outcast, execrable;   detested, abhorred, abominable
Labad Labad Pers.   any outer wet weather garment
Labada (Labbadih) Labada Pers.   (for Arabic lubbadat) a rain cloak;   a quilted cloak;   a great-coat, pelisse;   a wrapper
Laban, Alban, Liban
Laban, pl. Alban, Liban
milk;   (Syrian) leban, coagulated sour milk;--pl. alban dairy products, milk products
Labbad Labbad felt-maker;   felt
Labib, Alibba' Labib, pl. Alibba' understanding, reasonable, sensible, intelligent
proposing to anyone anything obscure or confused, mystifying;   mixture, confusion, ambiguity
Ladud, Aladd, Ladda', Lidad, Alidda'
Ladud, Aladd, fem. Ladda', pl. Ludd
(other plurals: Lidad, Alidda') fierce, grim, dogged, tough.   City of Lod 15 km se Tel Aviv (formerly Lydda (Latin)), Arabic: al-Ludd.
of or pertaining to words, verbal;   literal;   pronounced;   oral
Lahab, Lahib, Luhab Lahab, Lahib, Luhab flame, blaze, flare.   Abu Lahab (the 'Father of Flame') is known for his hatred of his nephew, Muammad.
Lahay, Lahih Lahay, Pers. Lahih The Hague (city in SW Netherlands)
Lahijan Lahijan Caspian sea resort in and the capital of Lahijan County
Lahut Lahut (world of the Heavenly Court--realm of being, "divinity").   See Hahut, Jabarut, Malakut, and Nasut
Lail, Layali Lail, pl. Laylali (usually masc.)   nighttime, night;--pl. (syr.) a certain vocal style
Laila, Lailat, Layalin, Laya'il Laila, pl. Lailat, Layalin, Laya'il (fem.)   night;   evening;   soiree
Lakin, Lakinna
Lakin, lakinna
however, yet, but
Lam Lam Arabic letter transcripted as L
lam-shaped, resembling the letter .
Lar Lar city in province of Fars
Larijan Larijan district of Mazindaran Province
Las-Furush Las-Furush silk dealer in The Child of the Covenant and BKG 144.   Possible spelling is La-Furush.   See Laat and Farsh
Lashkar-Nivis Lashkar-Nivis Paymaster-General
Latafa, lutf, Altaf Laafa, Luf, pl. Alaf to be kind and friendly;--pl. benefits, favours;   kindnesses
Latafah Laafa(h) thinness fineness, delicateness;   gracefulness, loveliness, charm;   kindness, benevolence;   friendliness;   politeness, esprit, intellectual refinement, sophistication;   suavity, urbaneness
Latif, Litaf, Lutafa'
Laif, pl. Liaf, Luafa'
thin;   fine;   delicate, dainty;   little, small, insignificant;   gentle, soft, light, mild;   pleasant, agreeable;   amiable, friendly, kind, nice;   civil, courteous, polite;   affable, genial;   pretty, charming, lovely, graceful;   intellectually refined, full of esprit, brilliant, witty; elegant;   al-Laif the Kind (one of the attributes of God)
Lavasan Lavasan rural district east of ihran
Law (Lau)
(conjunction) if (as a rule, introducing hypothetical conditional clauses)
Lawh (Lauh), Alwah (Alavah), Alawih Law, pl. Alwa, Alawi (masc.)   board, blackboard;   slate;   tablet, epistle;   slab;   plate, sheet;   pane;   plank, board;   panel;   small board, signboard;   shoulder blade, scapula.   Sometimes singular transcripted as Lau.
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz-Va-Vukala Law-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz-Va-Vukala "Tablet to 'Abdu'l-'Aziz and ministers" by Baha'u'llah
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-Vahhab Law-i-'Abdu'l-Vahhab "Tablet to 'Abdu'l-Vahhab" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-'Abdu'r-Razzaq Law-i-'Abdu'r-Razzaq "Tablet to 'Abdu'r-Razzaq" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-'Ahd va Mithaq Law-i-'Ahd va Mithaq (Imrika) "Will and Testament" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-'Ammih Law-i-'Ammih "Tablet to the Aunt" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq Law-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq "The Tablet of the Lover and the Beloved" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Aflakiyyih Law-i-Aflakiyyih "Tablet of the universe" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Ahbab Law-i-Abab "Tablet for the Friends" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ahmad Law-i-Amad "Tablet of Amad" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Amr Law-i-Amr "Tablet of the Command" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Amvaj Law-i-Amvaj "Tablet of the Waves" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Anta'l-Kafi Law-i-Anta'l-Kafi "Tablet of 'Thou the Sufficing', known as the long healing prayer, Tablet of protection" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Aqdas Law-i-Aqdas "The Most Holy Tablet", sometimes referred to as 'Tablet to the Christians' (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba Law-i-Ar-i-Ba "Tablet of the Land of Ba"--Beirut (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ashraf Law-i-Ashraf "Tablet for Ashraf (the Noble)" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ayat Law-i-Ayat "Tablet of the Verses" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Ayiy-i-Nur Law-i-Ayiy-i-Nur "Tablet of the Verse of Light" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Baha Law-i-Baha "Tablet of Glory" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Baqa Law-i-Baqa "Tablet of Eternity" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Basitatu'l-Haqiqih Law-i-Basiatu'l-aqiqih "Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality, of the Ground of Being" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Bisharat Law-i-Bisharat "Tablet of Glad Tidings" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Bismilih Law-i-Bismilih "Tablet of 'In the Name of God'" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq Law-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq "Tablet of the Nightingale of Bereavement" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Burhan Law-i-Burhan "Tablet of the Proof" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Du-Niday-i-Falah va Najah Law-i-Du-Niday-i-Fala va Naja "Tablet of Supplication" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha). More literally the Tablet of two Calls (the Bab and Baha'u'llah) for salvation and emancipation"
Lawh-i-Dr Forel Law-i-Dr Forel "Tablet to Dr Forel" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Dunya Law-i-Dunya "Tablet of the World" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Fitnih Law-i-Fitnih "Tablet of the Test" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Fu'ad Law-i-Fu'ad "Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld Law-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld "Tablet of the Deathless Youth, Eternal Youth, Youth of Paradise" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Habib Law-i-abib "Tablet of the Beloved" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Haft Sham' Wahdat Law-i-Haft Sham' Wadat "Tablet of the Seven Candles of Unity" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Haft-Pursish Law-i-Haft-Pursish "Tablet of Seven Questions" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Hajj Law-i-ajj Tablet of Visitation to be recited at Baghdad (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Hawdaj Law-i-Hawdaj "Tablet of the Howdah" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Haykal Law-i-Haykal "Tablet of the Temple", i.e. the body
Lawh-i-Hikmat Law-i-ikmat "Tablet of Wisdom" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Hirtik Law-i-Hirtik "Tablet to Georg David Hardegg" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Hizar Bayti Law-i-Hizar Bayti "Tablet of One Thousand Verses" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Huriyyih Law-i-uriyyih "Tablet of the Maiden" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Hurufat Law-i-urufat "Tablet of the Letters" (by the Bab)
Lawh-i-Husayn Law-i-usayn (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhi'b Law-i-Ibn-i-Dhi'b "The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ishraqat Law-i-Ishraqat "Tablet of Splendours" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ittihad Law-i-Ittiad "Tablet of Unity" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Jamal Law-i-Jamal Tablet to Aqa Jamal-i-Burujirdi, "Tablet of Beauty" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Karim Law-i-Karim "Tablet for Karim (the Noble)" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Karmil Law-i-Karmil "Tablet of Carmel" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Khurasan Law-i-Khurasan (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Kullu't-Ta'am Law-i-Kullu'-a'am "Tablet of All Food" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Lahih Law-i-Lahih "Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds Law-i-Laylatu'l-Quds "Tablet of the Holy (Sacred) Night" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Madinatu'r-Rida Law-i-Madinatu'r-Ria "The City of Radiant Acquiescence" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Madinatu't-Tawhid Law-i-Madinatu't-Tawid "Tablet of the City of Unity" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Mahfil-i-Shawr Law-i-Mafil-i-Shawr Tablet (or prayer) for spiritual assemblies, regarding gathering and consulting (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Mahfuz Law-i-Mafu Guarded or Preserved Tablet
Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus Law-i-Malik-i-Rus "Tablet to the Czar Alexander III" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Malikih Law-i-Malikih "Tablet to Queen Victoria" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Mallahu'l-Quds Law-i-Mallau'l-Quds "Tablet of the Holy Mariner" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Manikchi-Sahib Law-i-Manikchi-aib "Tablet to Manikchi-aib" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Maqsud Law-i-Maqud "Tablet of Maqud (the Goal, the Desired One)" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Maryam Law-i-Maryam (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Mawlud Law-i-Mawlud Tablet for the Birth of the Bab (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Mazzah Law-i-Mazza "Tablet of the Humorist" (by Baha'u'llah)   Begins: "Bismillahi'l-Mazza ..."
Lawh-i-Mubahilih Law-i-Mubahilih "Tablet of the Confrontation or Execration" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Muhabbat Law-i-Muabbat "Tablet to Medina" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Napulyun Law-i-Napulyun I and II "Tablets to Napoleon III" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Naqus Law-i-Naqus "Tablet of the Bell" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Nasir Law-i-Nair Tablet to aji Muammad Nair (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Nuqtih Law-i-Nuqih "Tablet of the Point" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Pap Law-i-Pap "Tablet to the Pope" (Pius IX) (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm Law-i-Pisar-'Amm "Tablet to the Cousin" in honour of Mirza asan-i-Mazindarani (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun Law-i-Qad-Itaraqa'l-Mukhliun "The Tablet of The Faithful Ones (Mukhliun) have burned (qad ... itaraq),'" which is translated as "the hearts of the sincere are consumed in the fire ...".   Known in English as "The Fire Tablet" (see first and last lines)   (by Baha'u'llah).   See Itiraq
Lawh-i-Qina' Law-i-Qina' "Tablet of the Veil" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Quds Law-i-Quds "Tablet of Holiness" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ra'is Law-i-Ra'is "Tablet to Ra'is" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Rafi' Law-i-Rafi' "Tablet of Elevation" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Raqsha' Law-i-Raqsha' "Tablet to the She-Serpent" (Imam-Jum'ih of Ifahan) (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Rasul Law-i-Rasul "Tablet of the Prophet" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ru'ya Law-i-Ru'ya "Tablet of the Vision" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ruh Law-i-Ru "Tablet of the Spirit" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Sahab Law-i-Saab "Tablet of the Cloud" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Salman Law-i-Salman "Tablet of Salman" I-III (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Samsun Law-i-Samsun "Tablet of Samsun" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Sayyah Law-i-Sayya "Tablet of Sayya (the Traveller)" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Shaykh-Fani Law-i-Shaykh-Fani Tablet to the Shaykh who has surrendered his will to God (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji Law-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji (by Baha'u'llah).   See Dahaji
Lawh-i-Sultan Law-i-Sulan "Tablet to the King of Persia" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Tajalliyat Law-i-Tajalliyat "Tablet of Effulgences" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Tanzih va Taqdis Law-i-Tanzih va Taqdis "Tablet of Purity" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Tarazat Law-i-arazat "Tablet of Ornaments" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Tarbiyat Law-i-Tarbiyat "Tablet of Education" (by 'Abdu'l-Baha)
Lawh-i-Tawhid Law-i-Tawid "Tablet of Unity" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Tibb Law-i-ibb "Tablet of Medicine1" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Tuqa Law-i-Tuqa "Tablet of Virtue" (by Baha'u'llah)   See Lawu't-Tuqa
Lawh-i-Yaquti Law-i-Yaquti "The Ruby Tablet"
Lawh-i-Yusuf Law-i-Yusuf "Tablet of Joseph" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin Law-i-Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin Tablet to Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawh-i-Ziyarih Law-i-Ziyarih "Tablet of Visitation" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawha (Lauha), Lawhat, Alwah (Alvah) Lawa, pl. Lawat, Alwa (fem.) board;   blackboard;   slate;   tablet;   slab;   plate, sheet;   pane;   panel;   plaque;   plane, surface;   screen; placard, poster;   picture, painting.   Sometimes singular transcripted as Lau.
Lawhu'r-Ridvan Lawu'r-Rivan "Tablet of Rivan" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawhu'r-Ruh Lawu'r-Ru "Tablet of Spirit" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawhu't-Tuqa Lawu't-Tuqa "The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God" (by Baha'u'llah)
Lawlaka Lawlaka Arabic "but for Thee"
Lawz (Lauz)
Lawz, pl. Alwaz
fleeing unto, taking refuge;   escaping, saving oneself;   an almond;   a kind of sweetmeat
Layl (Lail), Layali Layl, pl. Layali (usually m.)   night-time, night (as opposed to nahar daytime);--pl. layali (Syrian) a certain vocal style;   laylan at night
Layla (Laila)
woman's name.   In a Persian folktale, the beloved of Majnun, the classic loved one.
Layla (Laila), Laylat, Layalin, Laya'il Layla(t), pl. Laylat, Layalin, Laya'il night
Laylat al-Qadr, Laylatu'l-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr, Pers. Laylatu'l-Qadr Night of Power.   The night in which, according to sura 97, the Qur'an was revealed, celebrated during the night between the 26th and 27th of Ramaan.
Laylatu'l-Quds Laylatu'l-Quds "Holy Night"
Layli (Laili) Layli nocturnal, nightly;   of night, night- (in compounds);   evening (adjective).
Laysa (Laisa)
there is not;   not;   except
Lazat, Laz Laat, pl. La Pers.   a dress of red Chinese silk, pl. soft, thin silk
Li Li 1. (preposition) for;   on behalf of, in favor of;   to (of the dative);   because of;   for the sake of;   due to, owing to;   for, for the purpose of;   at the time of, when, as;   by (designating the author or originator).
2. (conjunction with the subjunctive) that, so that, in order that, in order to
Libas, Libasal, Albisa
Libas, pl. Libasal, Albisa
clothes, clothing;   costume;   apparel;   garment, robe, dress
a covering, especially that of the ka'bah;   the covering of a camel-litter;   a kind of dress;   the membrane of the brain
Lillah Lillah "for/to/towards Allah".   The li at the beginning is a prepositional prefix. Morphologically, it would normally be li-Allah (numerical value of 95--the a represents a stressed "a", not an Alif). Compare al-Bayan.
Liman Liman, pl. Limanat harbour, port;   penitentiary
Liqa' Rabb, Liqa-i-Rabb Liqa' Rabb, Pers. Liqa-i-Rabb "Visitation of God" on the Day of Qiyamah.   Since God is sanctified from all material existence and He can never be seen by the material eyes, this means seeing and meeting a Manifestation of God.
Liqa', Liqa'a Liqa' encounter;   meeting;   get together;   reunion;   liqa'a (prep.) in exchange for, in return for, for, on
Liqa'i Liqa'i
Liqa'u'llah Liqa'u'llah 'attainment unto the Divine Presence', resurection
Lisan, Alsina, Alsun Lisan, pl. Alsina, Alsun tongue;   language;   mouthpiece (fig.)
Lisanu'l-'Arab Lisanu'l-'Arab The Arab tongue
Lisanu'l-Mulk Lisanu'l-Mulk "Tongue of the Empire"   Lisanu'l-Mulk-i-Sipihr of Kashan, 19th century Persian historian (pen name Sipihr)
Litani River Liani Liani River
Liwa' (Liva), Alwiya, Alwiyat Liwa', pl.Alwiya, Alwiyat banner, flag, standard;   brigade;   major general;   rear admiral (Egypt.);   province, district (Iran)
Lourenco Marques Lourenco Marques Portuguese explorer and pre-1975 name of Maputo, capital of Mozambique
Lu'lu' Lu'lu' (coll.; n. Lu'lu'un), pl. La'ali pearl, gem, jewel   (MCI and Resurrection & renewal)
Lubbada, Lubbadat Lubbada, pl. Lubbadat horse blanket, saddle blanket;--(pl. lababid) felt cap
putting on a garment;   enjoying the company (of a wife, etc.)
Lugh, Lughat
Lugha(h), pl. Lughat
language;   dialect;   idiom;   vernacular;   lingo, jargon;   word;   expression, term;   al-lugha classical Arabic
Lujj, Lujja, Lujaj, Lijaj Lujj and Lujja, pl. Lujaj, Lijaj depth of the sea;   gulf, abyss, chasm, depth
Lujjat, Lujja Lujjat, Lujja Pers.   a large body, multitude;   plenty (of water), the great deep, main, middle of the sea;   an abyss;   silver;   a looking-glass, mirror
Lulin, Aftaba Lulin Pers.   a jug, flagon, or any similar vessel with a spout, and made of clay (those made of metal are called aftaba).
Luqman Luqman a famous legendary figure noted for his wisdom.   Prophet in Qur'an.
Luqmat Luqmat, Laqmat, Luqma, pl. Luqam Pers.   a mouthful, morsel;   a kind of fritter
Luqmatu'l-Qai Luqmatu'l-Qai Pers.   the choice morsel for the judge
Lur Lur Name of a warlike tribe living in Luristan.
Luristan (Lorestan) Luristan a province and an area in western Iran in the Zagros Mountains
Lutf-'Ali Luf-'Ali
Lutfi Lufi Pers.   adopted, brought up in the family;   an adopted child.   'Umar Luetfi Pasha [Luefi Paa (Turk.)] (BKG 482)
Lutfu'llah Lufu'llah Kindness of God (Lotfullah)
The people of Lot or Sodom;   a sodomite;   an impudent, forward fellow;   a bravo, bully, ruffian, villain;   a jester, buffoon, clown
Pers.   often used interchangeably with awbash (see wabash).   The luigari are groups of people organized around zur-khanih (gymnasia) who professed certain ideals of jawanmardi ("chivalry")--truthfulness, honesty, protecting the weak and oppressing the oppression. In practice the difference between "Robin Hood" and robber is not clear-cut.   Luigari can sometimes refer to troupes of musicians and entertainers.
Unaccented forms Translitera1ted forms Explanations and comments
Ma Ma (interrogative pronoun) what
Ma, ila ma, bi'ma, li-ma, hatta ma Ma for what?   after prepositions: ila ma whereto? where? which way? whither?   bi-ma with what? wherewith?   li-ma why? wherefore?   atta ma how far? to which point?
Ma', Miyah, Amwah Ma', pl. Miyah, Amwah water; liquid, fluid1; juice
Ma'ad Ma'ad lit. place or time of return.   Day of Resurrection
"son" of Lot (Lu) and city in southern Jordan, 218 km sw of Amman
Ma'raka, Ma'ruka, 'Arik
Ma'raka(t), Ma'ruka, pl. 'Arik
battlefield, battle
Ma'dan Ma'dan (Syrian ma'din) very good! bravo! well done!
Ma'dan Nuqrih Ma'dan Nuqrih a village and silver mine on Euphrates
Ma'ida, Ma'idat Ma'idat, Ma'ida Pers.   a table, especially one covered with victuals;   a circle, circumference, circuit, orbit
Ma'ida, Mawaid Ma'ida, pl. Ma'idat, Mawa'id Ar.   table
Ma'idiy-i-Asmani Ma'idiy-i-Asmani Pers.   "Heavenly Banquet" or "The Heavenly Bread", compilation of writings by 'Abdu'l-Baha
Ma'juj (Magog), Majuj Ma'juj, Majuj Magog, son of Japhet;   Eastern Tartary.   See note for Ya'juj (Gog)
Ma'mun Ma'mun reliable, trustworthy
Ma'mur Ma'mur inhabited, populated, populous;   frequented
commissioned, charged;   commissioner;   civil officer, official, especially one in executive capacity;   the head of a markaz and qism (Egypt)
Ma'na, Ma'ni, Ma'ani Ma'na (Pers. also Ma'ni), pl. Ma'ani Pers.   sense, meaning, signification, import, drift, reality;   virtue, efficacy;   spirituality;   a thing;   anything;   a subject;   a circumstance, an event.--pl.: significations, senses;   imports;   mental images;   intrinsic qualities;   qualities that are commended or approved, charms, graces;   elegance of language;   mystical meanings;   sublime realities, spiritual matters.   A reference to the Imams as the repositories of the inner Word of God.   See ma'nan
Ma'nan, Ma'anin Ma'nan, pl. Ma'anin Ar.   sense, meaning, signification, import;   concept, notion, idea, thought;   thematic purport (e.g., of a work of art, as distinguished from its form);   a rhetorical, figurative, or allegorical expression.   al-Ma'ani--the meanings.   See ma'na
Ma'nawi (Manavi) Ma'nawi relating to the sense or import (of a word or expression)
Ma'qul Ma'qul reasonable, sensible, intelligible, comprehensible, understandable, plausible, logical;   rational;   apprehensive faculty, comprehension, intellect, discernment, judiciousness, judgment;   common sense (ex-cogitated, MF 156)
Ma'raj, Ma'arij Ma'raj, pl. Ma'arij place of ascent;   (route of) ascent.   See Mi'raj
Ma'rifa (Ma'rifat), Ma'arif Ma'rifa(t), pl. Ma'arif knowledge, learning, lore, information, skill, know-how;   cognition, intellection, perception, experience, realization;   gnosis;   acquaintance, cognizance, conversance;   an acquainted person, an acquaintance, a friend;   (grammar) definite noun;   pl. al-Ma'arif cultural affairs, education.   Pers.   definition: knowing;   knowledge, science, learning;   insight in divine matters or mysteries;   art, skill, craft;   account, reason, means;   by means of, through
Ma'ruf Ma'ruf known, well-known;   universally accepted, generally recognized;   conventional;   that which is good, beneficial, or fitting, good, benefit;   fairness, equity, equitableness;   kindness, friendliness, amicability;   beneficence;   favour rendered, courtesy, mark of friendship;   active voice (grammar)
Ma'sum Ma'um inviolable, sacrosanct, protected by the laws of vendetta (Isl. Law);   infallible, sinless, impeccant, impeccable;   immaculate, morally infallible and rendered immune to error by God, infallible in judgements and decrees
Ma'sum Ma'um Pers.   guilty or suspect (person)
Pers.   Faimah bint Musa al-Khadhim, sister of Imam 'Ali ar-Ria (8th Imam), is commonly known as Faima al-Ma'sumih
Ma'u'l-Furat Ma'u'l-Furat sweet waters ("the fresh and thirst-quenching waters")
Ma'un Ma'un variously interpreted as assistance to neighbours in the form of lending household utensils;   voluntary and obligatory alms;   obedience to prescribed rules
Mabda' Mabda', pl. Mabadi beginning, start, starting point;   basis, foundation;   principle;   invention;--pl. principles, convictions (of a person);   ideology;   rudiments, fundamental concepts, elements
Mabsut Mabsu extended, outstretched;   rim, spread out;   extensive, large, sizeable;   detailed, elaborate (book);   cheerful, happy, gay;   feeling well, in good health.   Nickname "happy": Dr iya Mabsu Baghdadi
Madad, Amdad Madad, pl. Amdad help, aid, assistance, support, backing, reinforcement;--pl. resources; auxiliaries.   House of aji 'Ali Madad, in Baghdad that Baha'u'llah and family first occupied on arrival. This is not the Bayt-i-A'am.
Madaha, Madh, Midha Madaa, Mad, Mida to praise, commend, laud, extol
Madaniya, Madaniyyah
Madaniya(t), Pers. Madaniyyih
Madda al-Kulliya
al-Madda al-Kulliya
the universal matter
Madda, Mawadd
Madda(h), pl. Mawadd
stuff, matter;   material possession;   substance;   material;   component, constituent, ingredient;   fundamental constituent, radical, chemical element, base; subject, theme, topic;   school subject, field of study;   discipline, subject matter, curricular subject;   article, paragraph (e.g., of a law, treaty or contract);   stipulation, contractual term;--pl. material, materials;   agents, elements
Maddi, Maddiyun
Maddi, Maddiyun
material;   corporeal, physical;   materialistic;--pl. materialist;   objective
Madhhab-i-Ithna-'Ashariyyih Madhhab-i-Ithna-'Ashariyyih Shi'ahs or "Church of the Twelve" DB lii
Madhhab, Madhhahib Madhhab, pl. Madhhahib going, leave, departure;   way out, escape (from);   manner followed, adopted procedure or policy, road entered upon;   opinion, view, belief;   ideology;   teaching, doctrine; movement, orientation, trend (also politics);   school;   mazhab, orthodox rite of fiqh (Islamic Law);   religious creed, faith, denomination.   Schools of law--the four Sunni legal schools (sing. madhhab) are: (1) the Hanafite school, founded by Abu Hanifah (d. 767);   (2) the Malakite school, founded by Malik ibn Anas (d. 795);   (3) the Shaf'ite, founded by Shaf'i (d. 820);   and (4) the strictest and most conservative Hanbalite school, founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855).   Actions that might be considered lawful or unlawful are divided into five categories: (i) obligatory, (ii) prohibited, (iii) recommended but not obligatory, (iv) indifferent, and (v) disapproved but not forbidden.