Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
>>   Introductory Research notes
TAGS: Arabic language; Glossary; Persian language; Transcription; Transliteration
> add tags
Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Baha'i history, with accents and underlines, and definitions.

Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transcription

compiled by Mike Thomas.
Arabic & Fársí transcription
list and glossary for Bahá’ís
Download MS Word copy   (781.5Kb - 7 January 2018)
Feedback and suggestions   are welcomed and encouraged.
This document lists the Roman script transcription forms of many of the Arabic and Fársí (some are of Turkish origin) names and words used in the Bahá’í Writings as a guide to their transcription. Hence, there is no need to include all possible combinations of those words used in the names of people and places. However, additional root words have been added as a guide to an understanding of the meaning of the words.*
* *Persian: “-yi-” (“of” in English), Ághá “of” Karand, after a vowel instead of “-i-” as in Káẓim-i-Zanjání. Ághá-yi-Karand (formal) and Ághá Karand (informal).
Why use transcription?
“Regarding the transliteration of Persian and Arabic words the House of Justice requests that the method adopted by the beloved Guardian, and which is described in the various volumes of ‘The Bahá’í World’, be followed, as it permits all languages which use the Roman alphabet to transliterate such terms in the same way throughout the Bahá’í world.”1
Whatever “house styles” Publishing Trusts and other Bahá’í publishers may adopt, transliteration of oriental terms into languages using the Roman alphabet must at present be according to the system chosen by the Guardian and described in volumes of The Bahá’í World.2
1 From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, 16 July 1979
2 The Universal House of Justice, 21 July 1998, Current Guidance on Baha’i Publishing
Any variations in transcription by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Bahá’í authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transcription rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transcripted forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transcripted.
d)A search for the words in Arabic dictionaries (e.g. The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written Arabic).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Bahá’ís who are Arabic and/or Fársí speakers. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Entries in this document are amended as the author acquires a better understanding of Arabic and Fársí, and when names and words not in the list are found in publications. Hence, it is recommended that you use the latest available copy from Any .
Arabic and Fársí do not have capital letters. When transcripted, capital letters should only be used for proper names and attributes of God, otherwise, lower case letters should be used. This document uses capital letters for all words/names as if they were proper names—these should be converted to lower case for other uses.
Information sources
Some sources of information are given in brackets. Authors of books, tablets, etc., “(by _____)”. The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice (caution: these contain errors); and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh. New entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian dictionaries—older entries will gradually be updated using these dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from a few knowledgeable individuals.
Hybrid word/names
Most words (there are some commonly accepted exceptions, e.g. Bahá’ís) that have an English suffix should not be transcripted (e.g. Islamic, Qur’anic, Shi’ite, Shi’ism). Adding an ‘s’ to many words to represent the plural form is more recognizable to the English reader (bábs) than the often very different transcripted Arabic plural word (abváb). These and some other words are often better replaced by an English equivalent, e.g. Gate-hood for Bábíyyat instead of the incorrect hybrid forms: “Bábhood” or “Babhood”, etc.
List arrangement
The first column of the following list contains a form of the words/names without acute accents, initial ‘Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transliteration, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort of the list itself. When searching for words containing a ‘v’ (Persian) or a ‘u’, look also for the word with a ‘w’ replacing the ‘v’ or ‘u’.
Searching the list
Simplify word searches by:
a)Removing the definite (al-, etc., refer to the entry for “al-” and the Arabic letters and abjad values section at the end of this list.)
b)Removing final letters such as “ah”, “ih”, “Yah” and “yih” (usually Fársí forms), and “h” and “t” that often represent a tá’ marbúṭa (refer to the tá’ marbúṭa entry).
Phonetic or common spelling
Some words in brackets in the third column indicate an old-style phonetical spelling that can be found in some older Bahá’í publications.

Roman script transcripted forms of Arabic/Fársí words/names
Unaccented forms
Transcripted forms
Explanations and comments
Pers.   (suffix and prefix) denoting what holds or contains anything (i.e container/box);   know thou;   (in compound) knowing, intelligent.
1. A condition or state of being the thing or being in the role denoted by the word it is suffixed to, usually a noun, e.g. childhood.
2. A group sharing a specified condition or state, e.g. brotherhood
home or place
English suffix of nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc.
Pers. “place of” or “country”
-un, -an, -in
-un, -an, -in
subjective/nominative, objective/accusative and possessive/genetive singular noun case endings (respectively) where they exist.
-yya (-iya), -yyih
-yya, Pers. -yyih
nisba, a suffix used to form adjectives in Arabic grammar. Sometimes –íya is used.   Often denotes either a group of people who follow a certain person, or a group with a certain ideological system.
Unaccented forms
Trascripted forms
Explanations and comments
A'isha, 'A'ishah, 'A'ishat, 'A'ishih
‘Á’isha(h) or Per. also ‘Á’ishih
wife of Muḥammad and daughter of Abú-Bakr.   Also written as Aisyah, Ayesha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha.
A'la, Ulya, Ulan, A'alin, A'lahu
A‘lá, f. ‘Ulyá, pl. ‘Ulan, A‘álin
higher, highest;   upper, uppermost;   ‘Álin the highest portion of something;   heights, peaks (fig.).   A‘láhu further up, above.   “The Most Exalted One” is a title of the Báb.
A'zam,   (see Azim)
A‘ẓam, f. ‘Uẓmá, pl. A‘áẓim
greater, bigger;   more significant, more important;   greatest, major, supreme;   most significant, paramount.   Comparative form of ‘aẓuma’ (to make great)
Ghulám Ḥusayn A‘ẓamí
August (month;   Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Írán).   Father (in parts of Írán).
Ab, Aba', Abu, Abi
Ab, Abí, Abú, pl. Ábá’
father (also ecclesiastical): ancestor, forefather.   Abú (father of), Abu’l (the father of) and Abí (partial names) must be followed by another name.
Ab, Aban
Áb, pl. Ábán
Pers.   water;   river;   largesse, gift, price.   Name of eighth month of Persian solar year
Aba, A'bi'a
‘Abá’, pl. A‘bi’a
loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   English aba or abba
Aba’a, ‘Aba’at
fem.   ‘Abá’a(h), pl. ‘Abá’át
loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   English aba or abba
Abad, pl. Ábád
Ar.   endless, eternal, eternity.   Pers.   populous, thriving, prosperous, developed, inhabited.   ábád suffix used in compound Persian names of towns and populated or inhabited areas
Abada, 'Ibada, 'Ubuda, 'Ubadiya
‘Abada (‘Ibada, ‘Ubúda, ‘Ubádíya)
to serve, worship (a god), adore, venerate (someone, a god or human being), idolize, deify (someone);   form II to enslave, enthral, subjugate, subject (someone);   to improve, develop, make serviceable, make passable for traffic (a road);   form V to devote oneself to the service of God;   form X to enslave, enthral, subjugate (someone)
city in Írán to the north of Kuwait City
city in Fárs province, Írán
Layla Ábádih’í
Abahab, 'Adhabat, A'dhiba
‘Adháb, pl. ‘Adhábát, A‘dhiba
pain, torment, suffering, agony, torture;   punishment, chastisement, castigation
Abarkuh (Abarqu, Abargu)
Abarkúh (Abar-Kúh)
village between Yazd and Shíráz
Abasa, 'Abs, 'Ubs
‘Abasa (‘Abs, ‘Ubs)
to frown, knit one’s brows;   to glower, lower, scowl, look sternly
The lion, also stern looking, formidable, stentorian.   Derived from ‘abasa, originally meaning a furious lion, hence with a lion’s characteristics.
Abbas Abad, Abbas-Abad, Abbasabad
‘Abbás Ábád, ‘Abbás-Ábád, ‘Abbásábád
villages in Írán: Caspian Sea, part of Ṭihrán.
Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír
Abbasi, Abbasiun
‘Abbásí, pl. ‘Abbásíún
descendant of al-‘Abbás, uncle of the Prophet Muḥammad.   Abbasid (Abbaside) Caliphs (750–861).
Pers.   The princes of the house of ‘Abbás, the Abbasides.
‘Abbásiyya School
‘Abbúd, Ilyás
devoted or obedient worshipper of God.   Derived from ‘abada.   Ilyás ‘Abbúd was a christian merchant of ‘Akká. His house in ‘Akká is joined on the eastern side to the smaller house of ‘Údí Khammár. The common wall has been opened. Both are now known as the House of ‘Abbúd.   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
“Servant in Attendance”
Abd, 'Abad, 'Abdu
‘Abd, pl. ‘Abád, ‘Ubdán, ‘Ibdán
slave, serf;   bondsman, servant, worshipper;—(pl. ‘ibad) servant (of God), human being, man
Abda, 'Abdat
‘Abda, pl. ‘Abdát
woman slave, slave girl, bondwoman
more amazing, more exceptional;   of even greater originality.   See Badí‘
variation of ‘Abdu’lláh (servant of God)
Abdu Manaf, Abd-i-Manaf
‘Abdu Manáf, Pers. ‘Abd-i-Manáf
name of an Arabian tribe
“the Servant of Remembrance”—a designation of the Báb
'Abdu’l Baghi
‘Abdu’l Baghí
Mírzá ‘Abdu’l Baghí, father of Mírzá Aḥmad Suhráb (known as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab)
partial name [Abd (slave) + u’l (the) = slave of the …] followed by one of the names of God.
“The Servant of Glory” (of Bahá).   ‘Abbás Afandí (Effendi).   4 daughters: Ḍíyá’íyyih (mother of Shoghi Effendi), Ṭúbá, Rúḥá and Munavvar.   Wife Munírih Khánum
“servant of the everlasting”
Abdu'l-Ghani Baydun
‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Bayḍún
Sulṭán ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd Khán
“Servant of the Creator”
Fifth Umayyad Caliph
BKG 124
Pers.   ‘Abdu’l Wahab
servant of God
Abdu'llah Pasha
‘Abdu’lláh Páshá
his house in ‘Akká is now a Bahá’í centre.   Grid co-ordinates 32.923799, 35.068098
Error The Dawn-Breakers 182, BKG 132
Abdu'r-Rahman Afandi Alusi
‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán Afandí Álúsí
Abdu’r-Razzaq (“‘Abdu’l-Razzak”)
The “l” of “al” is not pronounced when it comes in front of letters called “solar letters” such as letters r, t, d, z, etc.
the Gardener of the Riḍván Garden, ‘Akká
(from aná ʻabdu-hu) (I am) his servant or slave.   Muḥammad ‘Abduh (1849–11 July 1905) an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, a key founding figure of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Mu’tazila. He broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma and family ties. He was a Freemason and had a close relationship with the ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the Bahá'í Faith. See Salafíya
Abdus, 'Ubdus, 'Abduh
‘Abdús, ‘Ubdús
Pers.   name of a man
more splendid, more brilliant.   “Most Glorious”
  · al-Abhá (El-Abha)   “The Most Glorious”
  · Abhá Beauty—Jamál-i-Abhá—a title of Bahá’u’lláh
  · Abhá Kingdom—The Most Glorious Kingdom (also Abhá Paradise)
See Alláh-u-Abhá and Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá
(Ar.)   more brilliant, more magnificent.   Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí-i-Abharí is known as Ibn-i-Abhar.
Pers.   a water-mill;   a vein in the back, the jugular vein;   the back of a bow
Arabic term used in reference to Imám Ja‘far Ṣádiq
(SDC p. 48)
The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abid, Abidin
‘Ábid, ‘Ábidín
An adorer, or servant of God;   worshipper—see as used in conjunction with Zayn.
Abid, Abidun, ‘Ibad, ‘Abada
‘Ábid, pl. ‘Ábidún, ‘Ibád, ‘Abada
worshipper, adorer
Now Dargáz, Khurásán, Írán
Derives from the Arabic word for “Alphabet”: A (Alíf), B (Bá’), J (Jím), D (Dál)—first four consonant letters of the alphabet (ignoring those with the same base)
Abraha al-Ashram
’Abraha(h) al-’Ashram
(“Abraha al-Ashram”) an Abyssinian prince, who built a Christian church in Ṣanáʻ to rival the Ka‘ba at Mecca. According to traditional Arab belief, he made an unsuccessful attack with his forces of elephants to destroy the Ka‘ba ad 570 (known as the year of the elephant and date of the birth of Muḥammad).
Abu 'Abdu'llah ash-Shi'i
Abú ‘Abdu’lláh ash-Shí’í
Abu 'Ali
Abú ‘Alí
Abu 'Amir
Abú ‘Ámir
Abu 'Imran Musa ibn Maymun
Abú ‘Imrán Músá ibn Maymún
Maimonides (orig. Moshe ben Maimon)
Abu al-Dawahi
Abú al-Dawáhí
“Father of Iniquities”, Abú Bakr.   See Dáhiya
Abu al-Fida’, Abu’l-Fida’
Abú al-Fidá’, Pers. Abu’l-Fidá’
Abú al-Fidá’ Ismá‘íl ibn ‘Alí ibn Maḥmud al-Malik al-Mu’ayyad 'Imád ad-Dín (1273–1331), better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama. He was a prince of the Ayyubid dynasty and the author of The memoirs of a Syrian prince: Abu’l-Fidáʼ, Sulṭán of Ḥamáh. The moon crater, Abulfeda, is named after him.
Abu Dhar
Abú Dhar
Abu Dhar al-Ghifari al-Kinani
Abú Dhar al-Ghifárí al-Kinání
(Dhar‘ or Dharr?)   illiterate shepherd (of the Banú Ghifár,a Jewish tribe) who became a disciple of Muḥammad (ESW p. 183)   (Abu-Dhar Ghefan)
The Dawn-Breakers liv
follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions
(Abudjahl) (“father of ignorance”)   Abu’l-Ḥakam ‘Amr Ibn Hishám
Abu-Nasr Farabi
Abú-Naṣr Fárábí
4th century ah Persian philosopher and writer
Druze village of Abu Snan about 7.5 km east of Bahjí and 4 km west the druze village of Yarka
Abú-Ṭálib, Mullá   sons ‘Alí-Ashraf and Áqá Bálá
Siyyid Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sarí (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 426)
Father of Misfortunes
“the father of man”—one of the titles given by Muslims to Adam
Abu’l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání, Mírzá
(Mírzá Abu’l Fatoo)
(“the Father of Victories”) name given to Enoch Olinga by Shoghi Effendi
Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Ardikání, Mullá
Hájí Amín, Amín-i-Iláhí (Trustee [Amín] of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Abu’l-Hudá, Shaykh
a learned Bábí from Káshán (Abu’l Káẓim)
“the father of iniquities or wickedness”   (EGB, Balyuzi)
Abú Qír is a village NE of Alexandria, Egypt
Abwab al-Arba'ah, Abwab-i-Arba'ih
al-Abwáb al-Arba‘a(h)
Pers, Abwáb-i-Arba‘ih.   “the Four Gates” DB 178.   Persian sometimes written Abváb-i-Arba‘ih.   See Arba‘
Abyad (“Abiyad”), Baida, Bid
Abyaḍ, fem. Baiḍá’, pl. Bíḍ
white;   bright;   clean, shiny, polished;   blameless, noble, sincere (character);   empty, blank (sheet of paper);—pl. al-bíḍán the white race.   al-abyaḍ egg white
clearer, more distinct, more obvious.   Root bána, bayán
Traditionally, a fourth generation descendent of Noah;   an ancient Arabian tribe
Ad'iyyih va Munajat
Ad‘iyyih (or Ad‘íyih) va Munáját
“Prayers and Supplications” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Ada, 'Adat, 'Awa'id, 'Adatan
‘Áda(t), pl. ‘Ádát, ‘Awá’id
habit, wont, custom, usage, practice;   ‘Ádatan usually, customarily, ordinarily, habitually;—pl. ‘Awá’id taxes, duties;   charges, fees, rates
enmity, hostility, antagonism, animosity;   aggression
good manners, as in etiquette
“to lead or guide”
“to leave in error or lead astray”
Adasiyah, Adasiyyih
‘Adasíya(h), Pers. ‘Adasíyyih
(Adassiya)—a town in Jordan 17 km se of Tiberias. This is the resting place of a half brother of Bahá’u’lláh, and one of three villages where ‘Abdu’l-Bahá grew corn and wheat during the First World War.
‘Íd al-Aḍḥá   Festival of Sacrifice
chastisement in the grave
Muslim announcement or call to prayer
Adhan, Adhah
Aḍḥan (collective; nomen unitatis Aḍḥáh)
slaughter animal, blood sacrifice, immolation
Adhar (Azar), Adhur (Azur)
Ádhar, Ádhur
Pers.   fire;   name of the angel presiding over fire, and the day ádhar;   affairs of the month and day ádhar, the former being the ninth solar month, the latter being the ninth day of any month, but particularly of the fourth month
Adharbayjan, Adhirbayjan
Ádharbayján, (Ázarbayján)
Pers.   Azerbaijan or Azerbayjan, country, and a province in nw Írán.   Also Ádhirbayján, Ázarbayján Ázarbaygān
customary, usual, common, ordinary, normal, regular;   undistinguished, run-of-the-mill;   ordinary, regular (e.g., meeting, as opposed to extraordinary, special, emergency);   simple, plain, ordinary (man);   old, ancient, antique
Adi-Ghazal (Adi-Guzal)
Mírzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Marághih'í
Adib, Udaba'
Adíb, pl. Udabá’
cultured, refined, educated;   well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane;   a man of culture and refined tastes;   man of letters, writer, author (superlative form of ‘Aduba’ [to learn])
littérateur or literary man of the ‘Ulamá
Adil ('Adilih)
just, fair, equitable;   upright, honest, straightforward, righteous.   Persian also ‘Ádilih
Adirna, Adirnih
Adirna, Pers. Adirnih
Hadrianopolis (Adrianople in English), now known as Edirne.   Same numerical value, 260, as Sirr (Mystery”)
Adiya, ‘Adiyat, ‘Awadin
‘Ádiya, pl. ‘Ádiyát, ‘Awádin
wrong, offense, misdeed, outrage;   adversity, misfortune, reverse;   obstacle, impediment, obstruction;—pl. vicissitudes.   Root ‘adá’
Adl, 'Udul
‘Adl, pl. ‘Udúl
straightness, straightforwardness;   justice, impartiality;   fairness, equitableness, probity, honesty, uprightness;   equitable composition, just compromise;—(pl.) just, equitable, fair, upright, honest;   person of good reputation, person with an honourable record (Islamic Law);   juristic adjunct assigned to a cadi (Maghrib)
justice, administration of justice, jurisprudence
Adna, Dunya, Adanin, Adnun, Dunan
Adná, f. Dunyá
(pl. m. Adánin, Adnún pl. f. Dunan) nearer, closer;   situated lower down, nether;   lower, inferior;   lowlier;   smaller, of less significance;   more appropriate, better suited, more suitable
(now Edirne)
Ar.   Servant of the Remembrance. A designation of the Báb.
Adud, A’dad
‘Aḍud, pl. A’ḍád
help, aid, assistance, support, backing;   helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer.   (pl.) upper arm;   strength, power, vigour, force
(ad 978–983)
Afandi, Effendi
Afandí, pl. Afandíyá
gentleman (when referring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh);   (after the name) a title of respect.   Turkish title of nobility meaning a lord or master (Effendi—Pers. pronunciation, and spelling in English)   (“Sir”)   It designates a higher rank than Big.
coming from a distant country or region.   See ufq
Afchih or Afjih
A village northeast of Ṭihrán in Lavásán District, TN p. 31
Pers.   name of the father of the caliph ‘Usmán (Othmán or ‘Uthmán)
Afghán, Afghání
adjective and noun.   al-afghán (the Afghans; Afghanistan)
Muḥammad al-‘Afífí, Persian Consul in ‘Akká
Pers. Plato
Afnán, fanan (sing.)
boughs or twigs   Denotes the relatives of the Báb
Pers.   Elegance, dignity, grace;   magnificence, grandeur, power;   maguitude;   a throne;   a crown;   provisions, necessaries.   The Franks, French;   the crusaders;   all Europeans.   Khán-i-Afranj in ‘Akká.
Afrasiyab (“Afrasyab”)
Pers.   name of an ancient king celebrated in Persian poetry, sovereign of Túrán, and a Scythian or Turk by birth;   one who moves leisurely on the road;   a travelling companion
Pers.   inflamed, lighted;   shining, radiant;   polished, furbished
Afrukhtih Yunis
Afrúkhtih Yúnis
Afsah, Fusha
Afṣaḥ, fem. Fuṣḥá
of purer language;   more eloquent
a branch of the Turkic Oghuz people
Pers.   name of a person known for his liberality
Pers.   sunlight or sunshine;   the sun;   a day;   wine;   the soul
Pers.   a worshipper of the sun;   sun-flower;   a chameleon (or iguana);   a water-lily;   in India, any blue flower
Aftabah (Aftabih)
Pers.   a ewer, water-pot, or kettle
Aftah, Mufattah
Afṭaḥ and Mufaṭṭaḥ
broad-headed, broad-nosed
village near Iṣfahán
Afw, 'Afuw
effacement, obliteration, elimination;   pardon, forgiveness;   waiver of punishment (Islamic Law);   amnesty (for);   boon, kindness, favour;   surplus.   al-‘Afuw, name of God, The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver
Pers.   aware, wary;   intelligent, knowing, acquainted with;   prudent;   vigilant, attentive;   notice, news, indication, information
Ágáhu’lláh Tízfahm, executed May 1982
Agar, Ar
Agar, Ar
Pers.   if;   although
Agha, Aghawat
Ághá, pl. Aghawát
(Ar.)   lord, master, sir;   eunuch, harem chamberlain
ah—Anno Hejirae
(in the year of the Hijira—small caps and precedes the date)
fem.   one: somebody, someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in negative sentences and questions)
Ahadiya, Ahadiyat  (Ahadiyyat)
Aḥadíya, Pers. Aḥadíyat
unity, oneness (also absolute unity)
Pers.   concord, symphony, harmony, modulation, melody, pitch, tune;   design, institution, purpose, intention;   canon, regulation;   rule, custom, manner of proceeding;   a row, a series;   the side (of a cistern);   the curve or arch of a cupola or dome;   a tether, stable, stall;   haste, expedition;   behold!
Pers,   blacksmith, a dealer in iron
Ahd, ‘Uhud
‘Ahd, pl. ‘Uhúd
translated as Covenant in Bahá’í Writings.   Knowledge;   acquaintance, contact (with);   the well-known, familiar nature (of something);   close observance, strict adherence (to), keeping, fulfilment (of a promise);   delegation, assignment, committing (of something to someone), vesting (in someone of something), commissioning, charging, entrusting (of someone with something);   commission;   (pl.) commitment, obligation, liability;   responsibility;   pledge, vow;   promise; oath;   contract, compact, covenant, pact, treaty, agreement;   time, epoch, era.
better guided;   more correct, more proper, better.   Qur’án 28:49: Qur’án gives ahdá, “clearer” guidance; not afṣáḥ, “eloquent” language—this is the criterion for judging the inimitability (i‘jáz) of the Qur’án: “its ability to guide humanity to the truth, to Allah and to salvation, its ability to inspire people with devotion and to constrain people to act in ways that are moral and righteous.” Islam and the Bahá’í Faith, p. 230.
Pers.   a fawn
Ahl al-Kisa’
Ahl al-Kisa’
people of the cloak: Muḥammad;   his daughter, Fáṭima;   his cousin and son-in-law ‘Alí;   and his two grandsons Ḥassan and Ḥusayn.
“people of Bahá”
“people of the Bayán”
lit. people of the truth
Ahl, Ahlun, Ahalin
Ahl, pl. Ahlún, Ahálin
relatives, folks, family;   kin, kinfolk;   wife;   (with following genitive) people, members, followers, adherents, possessors, etc.;   inhabitants;   deserving, worthy (of something);   fit, suited, qualified (for);—pl. the natives, the native population
“people of the Book”
more laudable, more commendable, more praised   [Comparative form of ‘hamida’ (to praise)]—one of five names of Muḥammad
Ahmad Big Tawfiq
Aḥmad Big Tawfíq
Ahmad Sohrab
Ahmad Sohrab
Mírzá Aḥmad-i-Iṣfahání (1893–1958). Later adopted the name Ahmad Sohrab. Was declared a Covenant-breaker by Shoghi Effendi in 1939.
Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i, Shaykh
Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, Shaykh
Ahmadiya, Ahmadiyyih
Aḥmadíya, Pers. Aḥmadí, Aḥmadíy
Belonging to Aḥmad (Muḥammad).   A Muslim.
Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, India
Ahmar, Hamra, Humr
Aḥmar, f. Ḥamrá, pl. Ḥumr
red, red-coloured, ruddy;   rosy, pink.   Alhambra (Spanish), the Citadel of Granada, (“the Red Palace”;   al-Ḥamrá, lit. “the red one”)
Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aḥrárí executed 1982.   Aḥrár is pl. of Ḥurr
al-Aḥsá, al-Ḥasá, or Ḥadjár (locally al-Aḥasá) is a traditional oasis region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Aḥsá Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province. The al-Ḥasá or al-Aḥsá Oasis is located about 60 km inland from the coast of the Persian Gulf. al-Hufúf is the major urban center in the oasis.   Birthplace of Shaykh Aḥmad.
of or from al-Aḥsá
The Best of Stories [Ar.]: a name for the Surih of Joseph.—Tafsír-i-Aḥsánu’l-Qiṣaṣ: the Báb’s commentary on the Súrih of Joseph, the Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, called the Qur’án of the Bábís.   Translated into Persian by Ṭáhirih.
Pers.   a vice, fault, defect, stain, spot, villainy;   flight, escape;   an exclamation, cry for help;   an asthma ;   a deer, roe, gazelle ;   any object of pursuit or chase;   a beautiful eye;   a mistress
a city in south-west Írán
Ain, Uyun, A'yun
‘Ain f., pl. Úyún, A‘yun
eye;   evil eye;   spring, source, fountain-head (of water);   scout, reconnoiterer;   hole;   mesh;   flower, choice, prime (of something);   (pl. a‘yán) an eminent, important man, used esp. in pl.: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons;   substance, essence;   self, individuality;   chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic law)
“The marvels of creation” by Qazwíní
Ajab, A'jab
‘Ajab, pl. A‘jáb
astonishment, amazement;—(pl.) wonder, marvel
Ajal, pl. Ájál
appointed time, date, deadline;   instant of death;   respite, delay
(collective) barbarians, non-Arabs, Persians.   (collective;   noun denoting an individual) stone kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)
Ajami, A’jam
‘Ajamí, pl. A‘jám
barbarian, non-Arab;   Persian (adj. and n.)
Ajiba, 'Aja’ib
‘Ajíba, pl. ‘Ajá’ib
wondrous thing, unheard of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder;—pl. remarkable things, curiosities, oddities
Ajja, Ajij
Ajja, Ajíj
to burn, blaze, flame (fire).   e.g. Má’ ujáj bitter, salty water.
(Chief Adjutant)
Ajuz, 'Ajz, A'jaz
‘Ajuz, ‘Ajz, pl. A‘jáz
backside, rump, posteriors.   Also stem, stump, trunk (of palm tree)   Qur’án 54:20 & 69:7
Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il, Ajwibatu’l-Masa’il
Ajwibat al-Masá’il
“Answers to some questions”, book by Shaykh Aḥmad.   Pers. Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il (Ajvibatu’l-Masa’il)
weakness, incapacity, disability, failure, impotence (for, to do something);   deficit
Akbar, Akbarun, Akabir
Akbar, pl. Akbarún, Akábir
greater, bigger, larger;   older;   senior-ranking [comparative form of ‘kabura’ (to elevate)].   Note:  akbar, اكبر, consists of four consonants: ب ك ا ر  (right to left in Arabic, or Alif, Káf, Bá’ and Rá’ in English)—the first a is an Alif.
Akh, Ikhwa, Ikhwan
Akh, pl. Ikhwa, Ikhwán
brother;   fellow man, neighbour;   friend;—pl. ikhwán specifically, brethren or members of an order;   al-ikhwán religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa‘úd in 1910
wiser, stronger, strongest;   very firm;   more, most, or very stable;   most able to decide
school, founded by Mullá Muḥammad-Amír of Astarábád, in opposition to the mujtahids or the Uṣúlís.   Akhbár (pl. of Khabar) means ‘news’ or ‘traditions’, and uṣúl means ‘principles’.   The Akhbárí followers only accept the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and the Imáms;   whereas the Uṣúlís (they constitute the vast majority of the Twelvers), maintain that the mujtahid has the right, as the deputy of the Hidden Imám, to deduce principles from the Qur’án as well as the traditions, and to use qiyás or ‘analogy’ to make an authoritative statement.
Akhdar (Akhzar), Khadra', Khudr
Akhḍar (f.), Khaḍrá’, pl. Khuḍr
green.   al-Khaḍrá’ “the Verdant” (epithet of Tunis);   the sky.   Persian forms are similar and the ḍ is replaced by a ẓ.   Khaḍrá’—final Hamza is left out in some books.
Akhir, Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir
Ákhir, pl. Ákhirún, Ákhirát, Awákhir
last, ultimate, utmost, extreme;   end, close, conclusion;   foot, bottom (of a paper).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá substituted ákhur on a number of occasions when referring to the ‘ulamá—see akhúr. “They have held to this stable (stability?) but they have not seen the ultimate of things.” Diary of Juliet Thompson, p. 102.
afterlife.   See dunyá and awwal
Akhtar, Akhtaran
Akhtar, pl. Akhtarán
Pers.   a star;   horoscope, predominant star at anyone’s nativity;   an omen, augury;   an ensign, standard;   name of an angel.   Name of a newspaper
Akhtaran Taban
Pers.   brilliant stars
“the Brother of the Fruit”.   Báb: “Akhu’th-Thamarah, 238”—The fruit is Mírzá Yaḥyá and 238 equals Ḥusayn-‘Alí (Bahá’u’lláh)
Muslim priest [akhond]   See ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí
Ar. Akhúr, Pers. Ákhur
a stall, stable or barn for horses;   the collar-bone.   See Ákhir
Akif, Akifan
‘Ákif, pl. ‘Ákifán
Pers.   assiduous, diligent;   constantly staying in the mosque and employed in devotion
Also Akko or Acre (former name: Antiochia Ptolemais).   Houses used by the Bahá’ís: Malik, Khavvám and Rábi’ih, ‘Údí Khammár and ‘Abbúd.   Family left 1877 for Mazra‘ih
Akka (‘Akk)
to be sultry, muggy (day)
more;   oftener, more frequently;   more numerous;   longer;   most;   major portion, greater part, majority
family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan;   companions, partisans, people;   mirage, fatamorgana.   Not the Arabic definite article al-
the definite article in Arabic, often translated as “the” in English. Refer to the Arabic letters and abjad values section at the end of this list.
children (or family) of Muḥammad
high rank, high standing, nobility;   loftiness
Ala, Uluw
‘Alá, ‘Ulúw
to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up;   to rise, ascend;   to ring out (voice);   etc.
Pers.   benefits, favours, kindnesses
‘Alá’u’d-Dawlih, Yúsúf
Alam, pl. Álám
pain, ache, suffering, agony
Alam al-Hayawan
‘Álam al-Ḥayawán
the animal kingdom
Alam al-Ma’adin
‘Álam al-Ma‘ádin
the mineral kingdom
Alam an-Nabat
‘Álam an-Nabát
the vegetable kingdom
Alam, A'lam
‘Alam, A‘lám (pl)
sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic;   harelip;   road sign, signpost, guidepost;   flag, banner;   a distinguished, outstanding man;   an eminent personality, an authority, a star, a luminary
Alam, Alamun, Awalim
‘Álam, pl. ‘Álamún, ‘Awálim
world;   universe, cosmos.   Pl. ‘Álamún—inhabitants of the world, specifically human beings.   al-‘álamán the two worlds = Europe and America.
Alama, Alamat, Ala'im
‘Aláma, pl. ‘Alámát, ‘Alá’im
mark, sign, token;   badge, emblem;   distinguishing mark, characteristic
worldly, secular, world (adj.);   international;   world-wide, world-famous, enjoying world-wide renown
(lower) world of creation
(upper) eternally inaccessible world of God that is exalted beyond the grasp of the minds of men
“distinguished guide”
(intermediate) world of the revelation of the divine command
eagle-nest.   Name of a region in Írán on the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range and a ruined fortress (55 km NE of Qazvín and 110 km NW of Ṭihrán.
openness, overtness, publicness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy)
Alaq, ‘Alaqat
‘Alaq(at), ‘Alaqun, pl. ‘Alaqát
medicinal leech;   leech;   (coagulated) blood, blood clot.   Note: the tá’ marbúṭa here is represented by ‘at’.
Alast, 'A last
’A last
“Am I not?”   Cycle of ’A last is a reference to a pre historic Covenant between God and man. According to Qur’án 7:172, God called all the men in his presence before their creation and asked them “’A lastu bi Rabbikum?” “Am I not your Lord?” and all the men confirmed that by saying “yes, yes, thou art our Lord”. This demonstrates the total and inherent essential dependence of man to the continuous grace of God.   So ’A last and Cycle of ’A last is a reference to this Covenant.
Alawi (Pers. Alavi)
upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi (adj. and n.);—pl. the Alawis (official name of the Nusairis inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria)
Alawiyan (Alaviyan)
princes, lords (descendants of ‘Alí)
Alburz, Alborz
the principal mountain range in northern Írán
Alf, Uluf
Alf, pl. Ulúf, Áláf
thousand;   millennium
Alfi, 'Id
Alfí, ‘Íd
millennial celebration, millenary
Alfíya, Pers. Alfíyyih
al-Khulása al-Alfíyya by Ibn-i-Malik
High, eminent.   ‘Alí was the first Imám, the fourth Caliph and the son-in-law of Muḥammad.   al-‘Alí, the divine name for the All-Knowing.
high, sublime, eminent, excellent, grand;   the upper part;   above
Ali Big Yuz-Bashi
‘Alí Big Yúz-Báshí
Ali ibn Abi Talib
‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib
Cousin and son-in-law of Muḥammad
Ali Pasha
‘Álí Páshá
‘Álí Páshá, Muḥammad Amín
Merchant from Tabríz
Ali-Abad (Aliabad)
a village 35 km sw of Ṭihrán
Hájí Ákhúnd, a Hand of the Cause
Ali-Murad ('Alimurad)
(Sometimes shortened to ‘Alímurád)
Ali-Quli Khan (Ali-Kuli Khan)
‘Alí-Qulí Khán
Better known as Ali-Kuli Khan, married Florence Breed (parents of Marzieh Gail)
(GPB 241)
Alil, A'illa'
‘Alíl, pl. A‘illa’
sick, ill, ailing;   sick person, patient;   soft, gentle, mild, pleasant.   With place names—“lower”
Alim, ‘Ulama'
‘Alím, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (Pers. ‘Ulamá)
knowing;   cognizant, informed;   learned, erudite;   al-‘Alím the omniscient (one of the attributes of God)
Alim, Ulama
‘Álim, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (Pers. ‘Ulamá)
(adj. or noun)   knowing;   familiar, acquainted (with), cognizant (of);   expert, connoisseur, professional.—pl. learned, erudite;   scholar, savant, scientist.   The ‘Ulamá’ is a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology. The ‘ulamá are collectively known in Persian society as the Jámi‘a-i Rúḥáníyat (the spiritual concourse).
‘Álima fem.
woman of learning, woman scholar, e.g. singer, chanteuse
Alima ('Ilm)
‘Alima (‘Ilm)
to know;   teach;   tell, notify;   to learn, study;   to inquire, ask
high, tall, elevated;   loud, strong (voice);   higher (as opposed to elementary);   lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing;   excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity)
village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán
entitled Quddús
‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí, Mullá   A Letter of the Living
Aliy, 'Aliya, 'Ilya
‘Alíy, fem. ‘Alíya(h), pl. ‘Ilya
high, tall, elevated: exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent.   (pl.) upper class, people of distinction, prominent people.   Pers. fem. also ‘Alíyyih.
‘Alí is chosen by, or from God
Sect of Islám
Maqṣúd ‘Alízádih
Alladhi, Allati, Alladhina
Alladhí, fem. Allatí
(relative pronoun) he who, that which;   who, which, that.   Plurals: m. alladhína, fem. allátí, allawátí (“allawati”), allá’í (“alla’i”)
seller of provender (dry food such as hay and oats for livestock)
Allah-Vardi, Allah-Virdi
Alláh-Vardí, Alláh-Virdí
Ḥájj Alláh-Yár.   A village in Kermanshah
Allahu-‘Azam, Allah-u-‘Azam
Alláhu-‘Aẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-‘Aẓam
God is great
Allahu-A’zam, Allah-u-A’zam
Alláhu-A‘ẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-A‘ẓam
(greeting response to Alláh-u-Akbar—men)   God is the Most Mighty
Allahu-Abha, Allah-u-Abha
Alláhu-Abhá, Pers. Alláh-u-Abhá
(greeting response to Alláh-u-Ajmal—women)   God is Most Glorious, God is All-Glorious.   A form of the Greatest Name.   Bahá, or any of its derivatives such as Abhá, Yá Bahá’u’lláh, or Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá, are all referred to as the Greatest name.Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá (O Glory of Glories or O Glory of the All-Glorious) is an invocation used in the calligraphy designed by Mishkín-Qalam.
Allahu-Ajmal, Allah-u-Ajmal
Alláhu-Ajmal, Pers. Alláh-u-Ajmal
(greeting response to Alláh-u-Abhá—women)   God is the Most Beautiful.
Allahu-Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar
Alláhu-Akbar, Pers. Alláh-u-Akbar
greeting by a man to a man.   God is the Most Great or God is the Greatest.   See Alláh-u-A‘ẓam above
Allahu-Aqdam, Allah-u-Aqdam
Alláhu-Aqdam, Pers. Alláh-u-Aqdam
God is the Most Ancient
Allahu-Athar, Allah-u-Athar
Alláhu-Aṭhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aṭhar
God the Most Pure
Allahu-Azhar, Allah-u-Azhar
Alláhu-Aẓhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aẓhar
God is Most Manifest
“O Thou My God”.   Permitted by the Báb to be tattooed on chest of men, in the most beautiful calligraphy.
knowing thoroughly
most erudite, very learned (of the ulama);   learned in every branch of the Islamic sciences
“the very erudite Doctor”, a title of the famed Shí’ih theologian, Jamálu’d-Dín Ḥasan ibn-i-Yúsuf ibn-i-‘Alí of Hilla (ad 1250–1325) (MF p. 169)
a sect
Pers.   amorous or angry side-glance
(Alossy) Ibn-i-Álúsí, Muftí of Baghdád
Tablets of the Holy Night (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Tablets of the Sultans
Pers.   collection of Tablets by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to America, translated as Tablets of the Divine Plan.   Amríká also given as Imríká
Tablets of Commandments by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Alwai, Alawiyyah
‘Alwaí, pl. ‘Alawíyyah
upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi or Alawite (Eng.);—pl. Alawis (Eng., official name of the Nusayris (Nuṣayríyyah), Islamic sect in Syria founded by Ibn Nuṣayr)
Ar.   heavy clouds.   [Pers.   deviation, aberration, loss of the way;   contention, litigation;   a cloud, high, dense, rainy, thin;   a black or white cloud;   a cloud which has shed rain;   blindness.]   See root word ‘amiya.   Hence, ‘Amá’ can be translated as blindness, secrecy, obscurity, etc.;   though it also has the sense of “cloud”, possibly “heavy and thick clouds (which hide and obscure) or (the opposite!) light diaphanous clouds.   See
Ama, Ima, Amawat
Ama, pl. Imá’, Amawát
Ar.   bondmaid, slave girl
Pers.   he came;   arrival
to baptize, christen
Pers.   to come, to arrive;   to exist, to be found;   to become
Amal, A'mal
‘Amal, pl. ‘A‘mál
doing, acting, action, activity;   work, labour;   course of action, way of acting, practice;   achievement, accomplishment;   activity (for), work (in the service of something);   making, production, manufacture, fabrication;   performance, execution;   make, workmanship;   practical work, practice;—(pl.) act, action;   operation (military);   work, job, chore, labour;   deed, feat, achievement, exploit;   occupation, business;   trade, craft, handicraft;   vicegerency, province, district;   administrative district
Ar.   Security, safety;   peace;   shelter, protection;   clemency, quarter (mil.);   safeguarding, assurance of protection;   indemnity, immunity from punishment
the protection of God
Per.   A deposit, charge, anything given in trust;   security, safety, protection;   safe-guard, safe-conduct;   sincerity, faith, religion.
Amara Amr, Awamir, Umur
Amara, Amr, pl. 1 Awámir, 2 Umúr
to order, command, bid, instruct (someone to do something), commission, charge, entrust (someone with something or to do something);   (pl. #1) order, command, instruction (to do something);   ordinance, decree;   power, authority;   (gram.) imperative;   (pl. #2) matter, affair, concern, business
(Amasya) city in Turkey, 84 km sw of Samsun
Amat, Amih
Amat, Amih
Pers.   A female servant, a handmaid.   Ar. Ama
(“the Handmaid of the Most High”)   Title given to Dr Susan Moody by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Hand of the Cause of God, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum Rabbani (née Mary Sutherland Maxwell) (08-08-1910–19-01-2000).   [“It was Amatu'l-Bahá’s preference that Rabbani not be” transcripted. Letter from her Literary Executors, 9 January 2007 to M.W.T.]   “The Handmaiden of the Glory”, “Spiritual” and “Lady”
(The Handmaiden of God)
Amil, Awamil, Ummal
‘Ámil, pl. ‘Awámil, ‘Ummál
active;   effective;   (pl. ‘Awámil) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power;   word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (gram.);   (pl. ‘Ummál) maker, producer, manufacturer;   doer, perpetrator, author;   worker, workman, workingman, labourer;   wage earner, employee;   governor.
Amin, Amina
Ámin, fem. Ámina(h)
peaceful.   Áminah bint Wahb, mother of Muḥammad; died ad 577
Amín-i-Ḥalabí, Shaykh
[Amín Ḥalabí]
Trusted of God
Amin, Umana
Amín, pl. Umaná’
reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest;   safe, secure;   authorized representative or agent;   trustee;   guarantor (of);   chief, head;   superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper;   chamberlain;   master of a guild   [Superlative form of amuna or amána (to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy)]
Persian name.   Office of amín;   trust, guardianship, custody;   security;   commission, deputation;   secure, safe.
“Trusted of the Bayán”
“Trust of God”
inhabited;   peopled, populated, populous;   full, filled, filled up;   jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (with);   amply provided, splendidly furnished;   civilized; cultivated (land);   flourishing, thriving, prosperous
commander;   lord, master;   orderer, purchaser, customer, client
Great Prince
Grand Vizir or General of the Army
Amír-Zádih or Amírzádih
Pers.   see Mírzá
Amir, Umara, Amirat
Amír, pl. Umará’, pl. fem. Amírát
commander, governor, lord;   prince, emir;   title of princes of a ruling house;   tribal chief
Commander of the Faithful
Prince of Calligraphers
(The Emir of Poets) (sing. shá‘ir)
Amiya, ‘Aman
‘Amiya (‘Aman)
to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight;   to be blind (to something);   to be obscure (to someone);   form II to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to obscure, render cryptic, enigmatic or mysterious, mystify (something);   form IV to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to make (someone) blind (to a fact);   form V to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight;   form VI to shut one’s eyes (on something), pretend not to see (something);   to be blind (to). That is, ‘to become blind, to be obscure’
Amma, 'Ammatan, 'Awamm
‘Ámma, pl. ‘Awámm
singular: (noun) generality;   commonalty;   the masses, the people;—‘ámmatan (adverb) in general;   generally;   commonly, altogether, in the aggregate, collectively.   Plural: al-‘Awámm the common people, the populace;   the laity (Christian)
Ancient Philadelphia, capital city of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
constantly urging, always demanding (to do something);   inciting, instigating
Amr va Khalq
Amr va Khalq
Revelation and creation, compilation by Fáḍil Mázandarání
(the Most Wondrous New Cause)
(the Wondrous New Cause)
Amr, Awamir, Umar
1. pl. Awámir order, command, instruction (to do something);   ordinance, decree;   power, authority;   (grammar) imperative;—
2. pl. umúr matter, affair, concern, business. Hence, can be defined as “divine order” and “acts of obedience and pious deeds that are ordained” by God.
“command of God”, “House of God’s command” or “cause of God”
Mullá Ḥasan ‘Amú
Amud, A'mida, Umud
‘Amúd, pl. A‘mida, ‘Umud
flagpole, shaft (of a standard);   pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress;   lamppost;   (telephone, telegraph) pole;   column, pillar, pilaster;   stem (of a glass);   (pl.) column (of a newspaper)
Amud, Awamid, Avamid
‘Ámúd, pl. ‘Awámíd = ‘Amúd
column, pillar.   See ‘Amúd.
companion.   A town in Mázindarán province, on the Haraz River, near the Caspian Sea.
(preposition) off, away from;   from (designating the source);   out of (a feeling);   about, on (a topic);   according to, as attested or declared by, from what … says, on the authority of;   on the basis of, on the strength of;   for, in defence of;   as a substitute for
Old Pers.   immaculate, undefiled.   Venus, Aphrodite (Greek) and Venus Erucina (Roman).   See modern form Náhíd
Andalib, 'Anadil
‘Andalíb, pl. ʻAnádil
Pers.   a nightingale
Pers.   within;   the inside;   the heart, bowels;   intrinsic, interior, internal.   Village 190 km ESE Ahváz, Írán
interior;   inner women’s apartments.   See bírúní
Andirmani (Andarmani)
probably Andarmání.   Andarmán is a village on the south side of Ṭihiŕan.
Pers.   village 84 km SW Ardabíl, and 95 km east of Tabríz, Írán
Pers.   a grape, a raisin;   granulations in a healing sore [angoor]
Anis, Anisa
Anís, fem. Anísá
close, intimate;   close friend;   friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous.   Close Companion is the title of Muḥammad-‘Alí-i-Zunúzí, the companion of the Báb in martyrdom, and Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ismá‘íl (referred to as Anís in Súriy-i-Ra’ís).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: By the symbolic Tree of Anísá is meant the divine Lote-Tree, the Tree of Life (Bahá’u’lláh)—see The Hidden Words, Persian 19 and Qur’án 24:35
Ankabut, Anakib
‘Ankabút, pl. ‘Anákib
(modern Ankara)
Ansar, al-Ansar
Anṣár (plural)
adherents, followers, partisans, sponsors, patrons, friends;   al-Anṣár the Medinan followers of Muḥammad who granted him refuge after the Hegira
Ansari, Ansariyyah
Anṣárí, pl. Anṣaríyyah
Related to Anṣár, the Helpers.   Those who rallied around Muḥammad after His flight from Mecca to Medina.   Anṣaríyyah is believed to be a mistranscription of Nuṣayríyyah.   See ‘Alwaí
Anton Haddad
Anṭún Ḥaddád
known in the West as Anton Haddad
(“anoud”, not ánúd)   contumacious (stubbornly or wilfully disobedient to authority), refractory, wayward;   a cloud big with rain
Anushirwan (Anushirvan, Nushirvan)
Anúshírwán (Núshírván)
Sásáníyán king of Persia known for his just rule (ad 531–578). The Prophet Muḥammad was born in Arabia at the time of his reign (about 570-1).—SDC p. 68.   Persians some times use Anúshírván or even Núshírván. There are instances of Núshíraván and Núshíruván.
Anwari (Avari)
Anwárí (Anvárí)
Name of a famous Persian poet, who died ah 586/ad 1190.   See núr
now Inebolu.   A Black Sea port in Turkey, 225 km wnw of Sámsún
Bandar-i-Anzali, Port of Enzeli, SW end of Caspian Sea, Írán.
Aqa Fatu'llah
Áqá Fatu’lláh
Aqa Ghulamu'llah Ahmaduff
Áqá Ghulámu’lláh Áhmadúff
Aqa Jan
Áqá Ján
Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuensis, later known as Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”)
Aqa Mirza 'Abdu'-r-Rahim-i-Burujirdi
Áqá Mírzá ‘Abdu’-r-Raḥím-i-Burújirdí
Aqa Najaf-'Aliy-i-Zanjani
Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aqa Siyyid
Áqá Siyyid
[Asseyid is an abbreviation]
Aqa, Aqayan
Áqá, pl. Áqáyán
Pers.   master, sir, gentleman;   when affixed to a name means Mr   (A male honorific title—‘the Master’ was given to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá by Bahá’u’lláh)
Turkish proper name, e.g. Ḥájí Mírzá Áqásí (Grand Vizier of Persia)
more hallowed, more sacred, holier.   The Most holy.   See Quds
Aqida, Aqa'id
‘Aqída, pl. ‘Aqá’id
article of faith, tenet, doctrine;   dogma;   creed, faith, belief;   conviction
Aql, 'Uqul
‘Aql, pl. ‘Uqúl
intellect, intelligence, reason, insight, mind, rationality and wisdom;—(pl.) sense, sentience, reason, understanding, comprehension, discernment, insight, rationality, mind, intellect, intelligence
Aql al-Awwal
al-‘Aql al-Awwal
first intellect
“The Most Remote”   al-Masjid al-Aqṣá—Aqṣá Mosque at southern end of the Temple Mount, Jerusalem.   Name by which the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur’án and in the Writings.   See aṣ-Ṣakhrah
A'raj, 'Arja, 'Urj, 'Urjan
A‘raj, fem. ‘Arjá, pl. ‘Urj, ‘Urján
lame, limping;—jack (in a deck of cards
Arab, Urab, A’rub, Urban
‘Arab (coll.), pl. ‘Urúb, A‘rub
Arabs;   true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins.   Other plurals: ‘Urbán, A‘ráb.
Arabi, al-‘Arabiya
Arab, Arabic, Arabian;   truly Arabic;   an Arab;   al-‘Arabíya, the language of the ancient Arabs;   classical, or literary, Arabic.
the land of Arabia
Arafa, Ma'rifa, 'Irfan
‘Arafa (Ma‘rifa, ‘irfán)
to know (someone, something);   to recognize, perceive (someone, something);   to be cognizant, be aware (of something), be acquainted (with something), to discover, experience, find out (something)
Jabal ‘Arafát (Moun Arafat) is a granite hill east of Makkah
The day before the festival of Immolation of ‘Ídu’l-Aḍḥá (vigil of the Feast of Sacrifice, when Mecca pilgrims proceed to Mount ‘Arafát.   The ninth day of the month of Dhi’l-Ḥijjih).
Araja, 'Uruj
‘Araja, ‘Urúj
to ascend, mount, rise
capital of Markazi Province, Írán (formerly Sulṭánábád)
now Aran va Bidgol, 9 km NE of Káshán
name of a river near Tiflís, the Araxes of the ancients.   See Ras and Rass
Arast, Arasta
Arasṭ, Arasṭá
Pers.   Aristotle
Arastu Hakim
Arasṭú Ḥakím
Arba'a, Arba', Arba'at
Arba‘a (fem. Arba‘), Pers. masc. Arba‘at
four.   Pers. Arba‘ih
Arbá‘ún, Pers. Arbá‘úna, Arbá‘ína
forty;   a ceremony held on the 40th day after someones death.   “Arba‘in” in The Kitáb-i-Íqán p. 242.
(Erbil, Irbil) city 80 km ESE of Mosul, ‘Iráq
Ard al-Muqaddasa
al-Arḍ al-Muqaddasa
the Holy Land, Palestine.   Shoghi Effendi stated it became the Most Holy Land (al-Arḍ al-Aqdas) after the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh.
Ard wa Sama'
Arḍ wa Samá’
earth and heaven.   ‘Earth’ is the earth of knowledge and understanding, the earth of new insight, etc. ‘Heaven’ is the heaven of new teachings and religion. By the shattering of the heaven (sky) on the day of resurrection, is meant that the heaven of the old religion is removed and a new one is raised through the Advent of a new Manifestation and the earth of recognition of God is decorated with Faith.
the Exalted Spot, the Shrine of the Báb and Zanján
the Land of Paradise, Mílán
the Land of Mystery, Adrianople
Ard, Arz, Aradin, Aradun, Arazi
Arḍ fem., pl. Aráḍín, Aráḍún
earth;   land, country, region, area;   terrain, ground, soil.   Pers.   arẓ, pl. aráẓí
Ardabíl or Ardibíl
city 175 km east of Tabirz,in the province of Ádhirbáyján, near the Caspian Sea
Ardakán or Ardikán
city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ardashir, Ardishir
Ardashír, Ardishír
Pers.   name of Persian rulers (Ardshír and Ardashír are derived from Middle Persian Artakhishatr, which was derived from the Greek Artaxerxes) and a village in East Azerbaijan Province, Írán.
city on west side of Caspian Sea, Írán
Ardikan (Ardakan)
city 55 km NW of Yazd
Province in Írán
Pers.   intrepid, courageous
fragrance, perfume, scent, aroma
Pers.   the inner fortress or citadel of a walled city
Arid, Irad
‘Aríḍ, pl. ‘Iráḍ
broad, wide;   extensive, vast
Pers.   one who knows;   an acquaintance ;   the next man to a chief or general, a deputy, lieutenant;   an usher at a school.
Arif, 'Urafa'
‘Aríf, pl. ‘Urafá’
knowing (something), cognizant, aware (of something);   expert, authority, specialist;   teaching assistant, monitor (an older pupil assisting the teacher of a Qur’anic school)
Arjmand (Arjumand)
Pers.   rare, excellent, worthy of great price, valuable, exquisite, beloved, dear, brave, generous, noble, distinguished;   wise
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzaman
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzamán
Pers.   town, formerly Arzamán, in and the capital of Arjumand District, in Fírúzkúh County, Ṭihrán Province, Írán.   Also written “Arjomand”.
of, from Arjumand
Arsh, Urush, A'rash
‘Arsh, pl. ‘Urúsh, A‘rásh
throne;   tribe
Russian cubit (арши́н)
followers of Mullá Ṣadrá, DB, p. 207.   See ‘Arsh
Árslán, Arslán
Pers.   from Turkish.   A lion;   surname adopted by several kings of Persia
Arus, 'Urus, 'Ara'is, 'Arusan
‘Arús, pl. ‘Urus
bridegroom;   f. (pl. ‘ará’is) bride;   doll;   al-‘arúsán bride and groom, the newlyweds
As'ilah wa Ajwiba
As’ilah wa Ajwiba
Questions and Answers
Asad, Usud, Usd
Asad, pl. Usud, Usd, Usúd, Ásád
lion;   Leo (astron.)
Lion of God.   Compound proper name
(MF, p. 4)
(GPB 297)
Asadu’lláh-i-Zádih, Ḥusayn
Ḥusayn Asadu’lláhzádih
Asadyárí, ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Asas, Usus
Asás, pl. Usus
foundation (also, of a building), fundament, groundwork, ground, basis;   keynote, tonic (music)
Asaturiyan Marcard
Ásátúriyán Márcárd
(Dr Marcard Assadorian)
Asbah, Asbahi
Pers.   Of a handsome face;   a tearing lion;   red-coloured;   name of a king of Yemen.   [Aṣbahí (ESW p. 158) Aṣbaḥí (Rev Bahá’u’lláh, 4:438)
Ibn-i-Aṣdaq   (Mírzá ‘Alí-Muḥammad).   Designated by Bahá’u’lláh as Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíh (Martyr, son of the Martyr). Son of Mullá Ṣádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání
Asfiya', 'Asfiyyih
Aṣfiyá’, Pers. Aṣfiyyih
Druse village of ‘Isfiya, east side Mt Carmel.   See Ṣafíy
Asghar, Sughra, Asaghir
Aṣghar, fem. Ṣughra, pl. m. Aṣághir
smaller, younger   [Comparative form of ṣaghíra (to belittle)].   Ṣughra is the name of a half-sister of Bahá’u’lláh.
Pers.   surname, e.g. Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aṣgharzádih
(MF p. 68) barley soup with whey
hairy, hirsute, long-haired, shaggy
Ash’arism—early theological school of Islám. Followers: Ash’arites.   See Sha‘r
Pers.   one whose hair is dishevelled and soiled with dust
Companions of Muḥammad (pl. of ṣáḥib)   Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Bahá’u’lláh)
Ashab al-Kahf
Aṣḥáb al-Kahf
“Companions of the cave”, a Christian and Islamic tradition that tells the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (a group of youths) who hide inside a cave outside the city of Ephesus around ad 250 to escape a religious persecution and emerge 300 years later.
Ashab, Sahba', Suhb
Aṣhab, f. Ṣahbá’, pl. Ṣuhb
reddish;   wine
Ashiq, Ushshaq, Awashiq (Avashiq)
‘Áshiq, pl. ‘Ushsháq, ‘Awáshiq
lover;   fancier, fan;—pl. knucklebone;   (game of) knucklebones.   ‘Aváshiq is a village near Baghdád.
Ashiqa, Ishq
‘Ashiqa, ‘Ishq
to love passionately (someone, something), be passionately in love (with someone, with something)
‘Azízu’lláh Ashjárí
more or most noble.   Ashraf Garden—large garden adjacent to the Riḍván and Firdaws Gardens (Paradise Garden west of Riḍván). Original owner Mullá Abú-Ṭálib. Son, ‘Alí-Ashraf later donated it.   Ashraf, Áqá Siyyid (mother of Ashraf—Umm-i-Ashraf)   Ashraf-i-Zanjání
Pers.   a gold coin
Ashu (Asho)
Pers.   heavenly   Ashu Zarathushtra
the tenth day of the Muslim month Muḥarram—Shí’ih Muslims observe the first 10 days of the month as a period of mourning for the Imáms, ending with the Áshúrá, the commemoration of the martyrdom of the Imám Ḥusayn
Ashyab, Shaiba, Shib
Ashyab, fem. Shaibá, pl. Shíb
Ar.   white, grey (hair);   white-haired, grey-haired (person);   old, aged;   old man.
Asi, Asiyih
Ásí, fem. Ásíyih
Pers. Melancholy, solicitous, sorrowful;   a physician, surgeon.   Ásíyih is the name of Pharaoh’s daughter who rescued Moses.   See Navváb, title given to Bahá’u’lláh’s wife (Ásíyih Khánum)
blowing violently
Askar, Asakir
‘Askar, pl. ‘Asákir
army, host, troops
‘Askarí, pl. ‘Askariyún, ‘Asákir
military, army- (in compounds);—pl. al-‘askariyún, the military;—pl. ‘asákir soldier;   private (military);   policeman;—pl. enlisted men, ranks.   The hidden Imám Mahdí, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-‘Askarí (disappeared ad 874)
“Words of Wisdom” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Asl, Usul
Aṣl, pl. Uṣúl
root;   trunk (of a tree);   origin, source;   cause, reason;   descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a noble character);   foundation, fundament, basis;   the origins!;—pl. principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science)
safer;   freer;   sounder;   healthier (“most peaceful”)
more tractable, more pliable, more obedient;   more flexible, smoother, more fluent.   See salis
Pers.   original, primary, primal, initial;   genuine, authentic, pure;   basic, fundamental, principal, chief, main
Most Beauteous Names (of God)
Pers.   heaven, the celestial orb;   the ceiling of a house;   name of the angel of death
Asmar, Samra', Sumr, Samrawat
Asmar, f. Samrá’, pl. Sumr
brown;   tawny;—pl. Samráwát brown-skinned women
Asqalan, Ashkelon, Ashqelon, Ascalon
‘Asqalán, Heb. Ashkelon
city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 km south of Tel Aviv
Form I of ‘aṣara: (act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out);   (act of) wringing (out)
Asr, A'sir, 'Usur, A'sar
‘Aṣr, pl. A‘ṣur, ‘Uṣúr, A‘ṣár
Form III of ‘aṣara: age, era, time;   period;   epoch;   afternoon;   (fem.) afternoon prayer (Islamic Law)
Pers.  is (from búdan, to be);   he willeth, he seeketh
Pers.   the place where the shoes or slippers are pulled off;   a threshold;   lying supine;   a king’s court, royal palace;   the Ottoman Porte;   the tombs of prophets and other holy men
Ástání, Yadu’lláh
Astarabad (Gurgan, Gurgin or Gorgan)
“City of Mules”, now called Gúrgán (Gorgán) or Ástárá (Astara)—on south eastern Caspian Sea border of Írán.
Aswad, Sawda (Sauda), Sud, Sudan
Aswad, fem. Sawdá, pl. Súd
black;   dark-coloured;—pl. súdán a black, Negro
Ata, A'tiys, Ata'at
‘Aṭá’, pl. A‘tyis
gift, present;   (pl. ‘Aṭá’át) offer, tender
Gift of God
Ataba, Atab, A'tab
‘Ataba pl. ‘Atab, A‘táb
Ar.   doorstep, threshold;   (door) lintel
Pers.   (from atá, a father, and bak, a lord), the lord father (a title given to the governors of Shíráz);   a guardian, preceptor, teacher;   the prime minister, or vizír;   honorary title of an ámir
Atabak-i-A’zam (Atabik-i-A’zam)
Title of Mírzá ‘Alí-Asghar Khán
‘Atabat, pl. ‘Atabát
Pers.   A gate, a port;   the threshold;   the lintel of a door;   the round of a ladder, a step;   a royal court;   anything adverse or disagreeable.   Plural: Steps, thresholds.   The Shi‘ite holy shrines in ‘Iráq and the cities of their location: Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá—locations of the tombs of the first six Imams.
(lit. Supreme Shrines) applied by Shí’ih Muslims to cities of Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá.   Bahá’í Shrines of Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Pers.   more or most pure
Athar, pl. Áthár
track, trace, vestige;   sign, mark;   touch; impression, effect, action, influence (on);   tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Muḥammad and his Companions);   work (of art, esp. of literature);   ancient monument
Atharí, Áthárí
archaeologic(al);   archaeologist;   old, ancient, antique
Athim, Athama, Uthama'
Áthim, pl. Athama, Athím, Uthamá’
sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;   sinner
ether.   Pers.   the sphere of fire;   the sun;   tears
sentimental;   emotional;   emotive, feeling;   tender, affectionate, loving
Pers.   fire;   light, splendour;   rage;   levity, fickleness;   valour, value, dignity;   dearness, scarceness;   (metaphorically) the Devil;   a courageous man, bold, brave;   a lover;   fire of Jove;   desire, appetite, greed;   digestive heat;   sulphur.   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá said Marzieh Gale had átish and namak.  Arches of the years, p. 87.
Atish-Parast (Atishparast, Atishparastan)
Átish-Parast, pl. Átish-Parastán
Atiya, 'Ataya
‘Aṭíya, pl. ‘Aṭáyá
gift, present
more perfect, more thorough
(distiller of ‘Aṭṭár Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh IV)   probably should be ʻAṭṭárí
perfumer, perfume vendor;   druggist;   sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
Pers.   of or relating to a druggist;   the business of a perfumer or druggist
Avih, Aveh, Awah
Ávih (Áveh)
villages in the provinces of Fárs, Markazí and Qazvín.   The village mentioned in God Passes By, p. 298, is 26 km SSE Sávih (Sáveh) and 45 km NW of Qum.
Aw (Au)
Aw (Au)
or (with following subjunctive) unless, except that
Awalim, Avalim
‘Awálim, Pers. ‘Aválim
“Worlds”   secondary plural of ‘álam.   Pers. a compilation of Shi’ite traditions.
Awamid (Avamid)
Awarih, Avarih (Avareh)
Áwárih, Ávárih
Pers.   straggler, gadabout, immigrant, runabout, wanderer.   After the death of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, one of the prominent Iranian Bahá’í, Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Taftí, known as Ávárih (1290/1873–1953), pressed for a position of leadership in the Bahá’í community. When he failed, he withdrew from the Bahá’í Faith and began to publicly denounce it and he published Kashfu'l-Hiyal (The Uncovering of Trickery) in three volumes.
Awj (“Auj”), Awji
noun.   highest point, acme, pinnacle;   culmination, climax;   apogee (astron.);   peak (fig.;   of power. of fame).   Adj. Awjí
Awrang (Aurang)
Pers.   a throne;   wisdom, understanding;   beauty, gracefulness;   life;   a manufacturing village;   fraud, deceit;   mirth;   a worm which eats into wood;   a line whereon things are hung to dry;   glory, honour;   a man's name;   (metaphorically) heaven.   A low mountain near the village of Tákur, in the province of Núr, Persia, the summer residence of Bahá’u’lláh.
Pers.   form “the Infernal Letters”   See waraq (paper) and nárí
Awsat (“Ausat”), Awasit, Wusta, Wusat
Awsaṭ, pl. Awsaṭ
middle, central;   the middle finger
pegs or tent stakes.   See Watad/Autád
Awwal, Ula, Awwalun, Awa'il
Awwal, f. Úlá, pl. m. Awwalún, Awá’il
first;   foremost, most important, principal, chief, main;   first part, beginning;   (with def. article also) earlier, previous, former.   al-úlá “pre-existence”—ad-dunyá (earthly life) and al-Ákhirah (afterlife)
that is (to say), i.e.;   namely, to wit
Aya (Ayat or Ayah), Ay, Ayat
Áya(t) or Áya(h), collective Áy, pl. Áyát
[sing. ends with a tá’ marbúṭa]   sign, token, mark;   miracle;   wonder, marvel, prodigy;   model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece.   Commonly used to refer to each of the 6,236 verses in the Qur’án (6,348 áyát if all the Bismi’lláh [no plural] verses are included). Muslims regard each áya of the Qur’án as a sign from Alláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs).
Pers.   pl. of yad (hands;   favours, benefits)
Pers.   Hands of the Cause of God   (Cause or Command)
verse of the throne Qur’án 2:255
“sign of God”   A Shí’ih religious leader in Írán and a title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in His Will and Testament
Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma'
Áyatu’lláh al-‘Uzmá
the greatest sign of God, a Marja‘ at-taqlíd
Awarih, Avarih
Áyáz and Ayáz
Pers.   name of a favourite of Sulṭán Maḥmúd of Ghaznah;   name of one of the Emirs of Sulṭān Ibrahím bin Mas‘úd bin Maḥmúd Ghaznawí.
Ayn (‘Ain), ‘Uyun, A’yun
‘Ayn fem., pl. ‘Uyún, A‘yun
eye;   evil eye;   spring, source, fountainhead (of water);   scout, reconnoiterer;   hole;   mesh;   flower, choice, prime (of something);—(pl. a‘yán) an eminent, important man, used especially in plural: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons;   substance, essence;   self, individuality;—chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic Law);—ready money, cash;   name of the letter 81)  ع th in Arabic and 21st in Persian alphabets—see hijá’í)
= ‘Abdu’l-Bahá ‘Abbás
[ain o’lbagar]—a well outside ‘Akká
an ancient spring (“The spring of the cow”) between the moat around ‘Akká and Tel ‘Akká
“Spring of the woman”—about 200 m south of ‘Aynu’l-Baqar
“Days of Há” Intercalary days
“Days of stress”
Ayyub (Aiyub)
Job (the prophet)
the Ayubites
Pers.   from;   of;   for;   by;   out of;   with;   belonging to;   by means of;   in
Pers.   desire, love, passion, lust;   avidity, avarice, covetousness;   (at the end of compounds) greedy;   name of a city.
“From the Garden of Holiness” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Pers.   free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted;   fault, less;   solitary, lonely;   a kind of faqír, or devotee;   a lily;   a cypress;   a fresh date;   an evergreen;   a delicious kind of fish
Pers.   liberty;   freedom from worldly cares;   praise, thanksgiving
Pers.   eternity (without beginning)
Azalí, pl. Azálál
Pers.   existing from all eternity, eternal;   God.   Also a follower of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Ṣubḥ-i-Azal (“Morn of Eternity”)
‘Azamat, ‘Azamút, pl. ‘Azamát
Pers.   magnitude, magnificence, pride, pomp, grandeur;   (met.) a grandee.
Magnificence of God
Ar.   greatness, magnitude, grandeur, dominion
Áẓán or Aẓán (also Adhán)
Pers.   announcing, giving notice;   the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Mu’aẓẓin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques;   listening to
village (130 km SW Mashhad) and rural district
shining, luminous, radiant, brilliant;   bright.   Al-Azhar University, Cairo
more distinct, more manifest, clearer
Azim, Uzama, Izam, Aza'im
‘Aẓím, pl. ‘Uẓamá, ‘Iẓám, ‘Aẓá’im
great, big, large;   strong, powerful, mighty;   significant, important;   grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent;   lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb;   huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous;   hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive (see A‘ẓam)   The Great One (Superlative form of ‘aẓuma)
Strongest, most powerful (Superlative form of azza).   Also dear, beloved, valuable.
Azizu'llah Khan Bahadur
‘Azízu’lláh Khán Bahádur
(Unfolding Destiny, p. 44)
Azuma, Izam, Azama
‘Aẓuma, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓáma
to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty;   etc.
Azurdigan (Azordegan, Azordigan)
Pers.   name
Azza, Izz, Azaza
‘Azza (‘Izz, ‘Izza ‘Azáza)
to be or become strong, powerful, respected;   etc.
Unaccented forms
Transliterated forms
Explanations and comments
Arabic letter
Ba’ata (ba’t)
Ba‘ata (Ba‘t)
to send, send out, dispatch;   to forward;   to delegate;   to emit;   to evoke, arouse, call forth, awaken;   to stir up, provoke, bring on;   to revive, resuscitate;   to resurrect (someone from death);   to incite, induce, instigate;   to cause (something; e.g., astonishment)
Ba'ith, Bawa'ith
Bá‘ith, pl. Bawá‘ith
incentive, inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause, occasion.   Root is ba‘ata, so can also mean to resurrect from death.
Ba'tha, Ba'atat
Ba‘tha, pl. ba‘athát
delegation, deputation, mission;   expedition;   student exchange;   group of exchange students;   revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise.   The Báb is said to calculate the beginning of the Islamic revelation from the year Ba‘tha (the Call in ad 612) instead of the year of the Hijra (ad 622) when Muḥammad migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Shrine of the Báb door—centre NW side
Shrine of the Báb door—centre NE side (Tomb ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Shrine of the Báb door—centre SE side
Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end NW side
Shrine of the Báb door—sthern end NW side
Shrine of the Báb octagon door—SW side
Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end SE side
Special or specific gate
Shrine of the Báb door—centre SW side
Shrine of the Báb door—southern end, SE side
Bab, Abwab, Abvab
Báb, pl. Abwáb, Pers. Abváb
Gate   Title assumed by Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad (the Báb) after the declaration of his Mission in Shíráz in May 1844   His wife was Khadíjih-Bagum.   Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, the Persian and Arabic Bayán, Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih (“Seven Proofs”) and the Kitáb-i-Asmá’.   Second wife Fáṭimih, married 1847, later Mírzá Yaḥyá briefly married her.   Some designations of the Báb are: Siyyid-i-Dhikr, Ṭal‘at-i-A‘lá, Siyyid-i-Báb, ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr, Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá, Bábu’lláh, Rabb-i-A‘lá, Nuqṭiy-i-Úlá and Nuqṭiy-i-Bayán. (DB 72)
Babaeski, 50 km se Adrianople, Turkey
Baba-zadih (Babazadih)
Baba, Babawat
Bábá, pl. Bábawát
pope;   papa, father, daddy
Pers.   (diminutive of báb), a little father;   one who educates;   faithful, constant, firm, strong;   a turquoise stone;   name of a king.
Site in Shíráz where the Báb’s son is buried.
Babi, Babiyun
Bábí, pl. Bábíyún
A follower of the Báb (Bábís is generally used as the plural)
Babism or Babiism
Bábí Faith
It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Babiya, Babiyya, Babiyat, Babiyyat
Bábíya, Pers. Bábíyat
The status of the báb (Gate-hood) [replace “Babhood” by Gate-hood or Door-ship] (-hood or -ship—state of being, quality or condition)
house of Báb in Mashhad
“The Gate of Religion”
Babu'l-Bab, Bab-i-Bab
Bábu’l-Báb, Pers. Báb-i-Báb
The “Gate of the Gate”   Mullá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í
(“The Gate of God”) (a designation of the Báb)
the Most Great Báb
an acacia tree (Acacia arabica) and the new name for Bárfurúsh
Ar.   to appear, show, become evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to light;   to be obvious;   to seem good, acceptable, proper (to someone).   form III to show, display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare openly
Pers.   coming in the mind;   appearing;   beginning.   Two meanings:   1.  Appearance after hiding involving alteration of the Divine Will or the non-fulfilment of the Divine Will.   A Shí’a concept where God may alter the course of human history as is seen to be fit.   2.  Origination of a new idea.   The Sunní view on Badá’ is that it is not applicable to God.
The Báb made significant reinterpretations of the concept of badá’.   1.  Change in divine revelation according to the principle of progressive revelation.   2.  Acceptance embodies the recognition of God’s absolute power and authority and thus is the highest sign of spiritual maturity.   3.  The concept of magnification (takbír), as the symbol of the completion of the four layers of the divine covenant.   One’s faith is complete and will not be subject to alteration or negation if one believes in all four supports or pillars of the covenant.   See Gate of the heart, pp. 207–11.
Bada', Bada'a
Badá’ and Badá’a
Ar.   obscenity, ribaldry, foulness (of language);   disgust, loathing, aversion, contempt
“Badakh Mountains”. NE Afghánistán province
A village near Sháhrúd in Khurásán, venue of the first Bábí conference.
Bedouin, nomadic;   rural (as distinguished from urban);   a Bedouin
Badawiya, Badawiyat
Badawíya, pl. Badawíyát
Bedouin woman, Bedouin girl
diary of Mírzá Mamúd-i-Zarqání
Badhinjan, Baydhinjan (Baidinjan)
dhinján and Baydhinján
(collective; noun -un) pl. -át.   eggplant, aubergine
unique, marvellous, wonderful, wondrous.   See abda‘.   Title given to Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí and Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ (Pride of Martyrs)
Badi'a, Bada'i
Badí‘a, pl. Badá’i‘
an astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder;   original creation
“Wondrous Life”   A name give by Bahá’u’lláh to Mírzá Ja‘far.
wonder of God
Badr, Budur
Badr, pl. Budúr
full moon
of or relating to the full moon;   plenilunar;   one who had been present at the battle of Badr;   a purse full of money
Badshah, Padshah
Bádsháh, Pádsháh
Pers.   an emperor, sovereign, monarch, king.   Also Pád-Sháh (“Padeshah”)
desert;   nomads, Bedouins
Persian.   A ditch;   name of an idol;   a god (enters into composition of names, as bagh-dád—“god-given”)
“Garden of Paradise”, agricultural land west of the Riḍván Garden, and east of old Akko (‘Akká)
“Garden of Paradise”
Baghban, Bagh-Pira
ghbán, Bágh-pírá
Pers.   a gardener;   a vine-dresser
city originally known as Dáru’s-Salám (the Abode of Peace) or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God.   Also known as Mádina as-Salám (City of Peace).   Name may be derived from ancient Persian Bagh (God) and Dád (gift), i.e. “Gift of God”
Baghdadi, Baghdadiun, Baghdida
Baghdádí, pl. Baghdádíún, Baghádida
native of Baghdád
(also Bigum) (Turk) dame.   Feminine form of ‘Big’.   A title placed after the name
Pers.   far be it!
Pers.   price, value
beauty, magnificence, splendour;   brilliancy;   glory or light.   Title of Bahá’u’lláh.   See Abhá.   An Islamic Tradition states the Most great Name (Huwu) consists of four names: 1. “God” (Alláh), 2. “the Blessed” (Tabáraka), 3. “the Exalted” (Ta‘álá, from the same root as ‘Alí), 4. The hidden name of God—identified by the Báb as hidden in Ta‘álá, i.e. ‘Ali, but the ultimate name is Bahá’ [the Greatest Name].   See Gate of the heart, pp. 105–7. Abjab: Bahá’ is eight plus one = 9—hence the significance of the number nine.   (‘B’ is two, the short vowel is not written in, the ‘h’ is five, the long vowel is one, and the hamza, represented by the apostrophe, is one.)   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá interpreted Qur’án 69:17 as “… on that day Bahá [9] will bear up the throne (the body) of thy Lord. On that day eight will bear up one.”
Baha’i Khun
Baháʼi Khún
Pers.   the price of blood (which is paid to the relations of a person killed, as an atonement)
Baha’i, Baha’iyun
Bahá’í, pl. Bahá’íyún
precious, valuable.   “Follower of the Glory” (Bahá’ís is a generally used plural) A follower of Bahá’u’lláh;   a person of light, of enlightenment
Baha'ism or Baha'iism
Bahá’í Faith
It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Baha'iyya or Baha'iyyih
Bahá’íyya (Ar) Bahá’íyyih (Per)
(Ar. pl. Bahá’íyyát) [Bahá’í Dispensation] Feminine of Bahá’í.   (“Radiant” or “Full of Glory”—derived from Bahá)   Bahá’íyyih Khánum (also known by Persians as the variant Bahíyyih Khánum), The Greatest Holy Leaf
(previously written as Baha-el-Abha)   “The Glory of the All-Glorious” “The Glory of the Most Glorious”
(“The Glory of God”)   Title of Mírzá Ḥusayn-Alí of Núr, founder of the Bahá’í Faith.
Bahadur, Bahaduran
Bahádur, pl. Bahádurán
Pers.   brave, bold, valiant, courageous, magnanimous, warlike, strong, athletic;   a soldier, champion, hero, chevalier, knight, horseman;   a title of honour conferred by the Great Mogul and other Eastern potentates, bearing some resemblance to the European title of military knighthood.   Abú Sa‘íd Baḥádur—should be Bahádur?
Bahar, Baharat
Bahár, pl. Bahárát
Pers.   spring;   vernal blossoms;   title of a celebrated work of Ṣúfí, Persian poet, native of Jám, Búshihr Province, Írán
delightful, blissful.   Form of the word bahija
Bahij, Bahíj
magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful
to be glad, he happy (about), he delighted (at)
Bahir (“Bahira”)
dazzling, brilliant, splendid, sparkling.   Monk Báhir (“Bahira”) who met 12-year old Muḥammad
Ar.   beautiful, magnificent, splendid;   brilliant, radiant, shining
Bahiyya or Bahiyyih
Bahíyya, Pers. Bahíyyih
Bahja, Bahjat (Bahajah)
splendour, magnificence, beauty, resplendence;   joy, delight
Bahjatu’s-Sudur (Bihjatu’s-Sudur)
“Delight of hearts”. Book by Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar-‘Alí
Bahji, Bahij
Bahjí, Bahíj
magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful.   That part of the plain of ‘Akká where the Shrine and the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh are located.
Pers.   intelligent, acute, adroit;   the supreme intelligence;   a cloud pouring rain;   (also bahmani barf (snow)) an avalanche of snow.   The second month of the winter in the Persian calendar.
city near southern coast of Caspian Sea
Bahr, Bihar, Buhar, Abhar, Abhur
Baḥr, pl. Biḥár, Buḥúr, Abḥár, Abḥur
sea;   large river;   a noble, or great, man (whose magnanimity or knowledge is comparable to the vastness of the sea);   meter (poet.).   Biḥár is a reference to Shí’ih traditions.
Pers.   the planet Mars;   name of several kings of Persia, and of other kingdoms in the East (corrupted by the Greeks into Varanes);   name of several heroes;   the twentieth day of every month;   name of an angel;   the sword
of the Bahrein Islands
Bahrayn (Bahrain)
“the two seas” (two?—unknown—white and black, Mediterranean and Black Sea?), dual form of Baḥr.   Islands in the southern Persian Gulf.   The term Baḥrayn appears five times in the Qur’án, but it does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as “Awwal”—but rather to the oases of al-Qaṭíf and Ḥadjár (modern al-Ḥasá).
Bahth, Buhuth, Abhath
Baḥth, pl. Buḥút, Abḥáth
search (for), quest (of);   examination, study;   research;   investigation, exploration;   discussion;   treatise;   (pl.) study, scientific report (on)
Pers.   sister;   miss, lady (modern colloquialism)
lucky, fortunate
Pers.   fate, destiny, portion, share.   Name used for Persian political districts.
Pers.   fortune, prosperity, felicity, happiness;   luck (good or bad);   a horoscope, nativity, planet, constellation;   the nightmare
Bakhtawar (Bakhtavar)
lucky, fortunate
tribe of western Írán (Bachtiari)
Bakr, Abkhur, Bukran
Bakr, pl. Abkur, Bukrán
young camel.   Caliph Abú-Bakr
follower of Abú-Bakr (i.e. a traditionalist)
Per.   See Baqshísh
Baku, capital city of Azerbaijan
upper, up, above, better quality or prestigious.   Where there are two nearby villages, it can be used to indicate one is above the other or is of a better quality.   See Pá’in
yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
District in Mázandarán
Bala-Sari, Balasari
Bálá-Sarí, Bálásarí
“above the head”.   A term used by the Shaykhis (Shaykhí followers) to distinguish ordinary Shi’ites (the Bálá-Sarí) from members of their own sect.   Those who pray standing at the head of the Imam while facing the Qiblih (i.e. with their backs to the Imam)
to test, to afflict
trial, tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress, misfortune;   scourge, plague;   creditable performance, bravery, gallantry, heroic action
Balad, Bilad, Buldan
Balad m. and f., pl. Bilád, Buldán
country;   town, city;   place, community, village; —(pl. bilád) regions, habitations;   provinces, territories;   an inhabited country;—(pl. buldán) cities, countries
“Protected Land”
eloquence;   art, of good style, art of composition;   literature
Pers.   moisture, humidity, freshness (of youth or young plants);   water
Balat, Ablita
Baláṭ, pl. Abliṭa
pavement, tiled floor;   floor tiles;   palace;—pl. floor tiles
Balih (Baleh)
Pers.   yes
Apollonius was also known as Bálinus
city and province in Afghánistán
Ballur, Billaur, Bulur
Ballúr, Billaur, Bulúr
Pers.   crystal;   beryl
Iranian tribe who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pákistán, Írán, and Afghánistán.
SW province of Pakistan
Bamdad, Bamdadan
Bámdád, Bámdádán
Pers.   early morning
Bana, Bayan
Bána (Bayán)
to be or become plain, evident, come out,come to light;   to be clear (to someone)
Banadak (Banaduk?) Sadat
Banádak Sádát
village 40 km south Yazd
Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, and wife Samíḥih
Banda, Bandagan
Banda, pl. Bandagán
Pers.   bondsman, servant, slave
Pers.   a port city and capital of Hurmúzgán Province on the southern Persian Gulf coast of Írán
Bandar-i-Jaz (Bandar-Gaz)
city in Írán, on Caspian Sea (SE corner)
Bandar, Banadir
Bandar, pl. Banádir
seaport;   commercial centre;   district capital (Egyptian)
Pers.   bondsman at the door of Bahá (Bahá’u’lláh).   A designation used by Mishkín-Qalam.   See banda
bondsman or slave of God.   See banda
"the children of" or "descendants of"
The sons or children of Háshim, great-grandfather of Muḥammad. That is, the people deriving from the quasi-mythical Shem (Sám), son of Noah.
was a clan in the Quraysh tribe named after ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manáf’s adopted son Umayya ibn ‘Abd Shams.
Banná’ (Banná)
Pers.   a builder, mason, architect
Tribe of Arabia.   Tamím, the ancestor of the tribe, is a direct descendant of Adnan and is thus considered an Ishmaelite tribe descending from Ishmael, son of Abraham.   Banú used in combination—see Banún
remaining, staying, lingering, abiding;   continuation, continuance, duration;   survival, continuation of existence after life;   immortality, eternal life;   existence;   permanence.   See Faná’
Baqara, Baqarat
Baqara, pl. Baqarát
remaining, left;   alive;   permanent, durable, fixed, firm;   immortal, everlasting, eternal;   one of the names of God;   remainder, rest;   balance, arrears;   (adverb) for the rest;   upon the whole
remaining over;   rest, remainder, remnant;   arrears;   balance;   surplus.   Cemetery in Medina in the vicinity of the Tomb of Muḥammad.
(“One who expands or breaks”)   Title of the fifth Shí‘a Imám and an Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islám.
descendents of Muḥammad al-Báqir
Baqiya, Baqiyat, Baqaya
Baqíya, Pers. Baqiyat, pl. Baqáyá
remainder, rest;   remnant, residue.   Persian plural baqiyát
“Remnant of God”   A title of the Twelfth Imám that is also applied to the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
a sweetmeat
Baqshísh, pl. Baqáshísh
present of money;   tip, gratuity, baksheesh
Bara'a, Bara't
Bará’a, pl. Bará’át
being free;   disavowal, withdrawal, repudiation;   innocence, guiltlessness;   naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness;   (pl.) license, diploma, patent
to bless
Baraka, Barakat
Baraka(t), pl. Barakát
blessing, benediction;   abundance, prosperity
Baraka'llahu Fikum
Báraka’lláhu Fíkum
“May God bless you”
“God bless you”
From Baraqán (Baraghán) village north of Karaj (NW of Ṭihrán)
a mosque on a highway between Baghdád and Kaẓímayn
a town in Mázindarán, now known as Bábul (Babol)
skilled, skilful, proficient, capable, efficient;   brilliant, outstanding (work of art)
Barq, Buruq
Barq, pl. Burúq
lightning;   flash of lightning;   telegraph
Barqi (Barki)
Barqí (Barkí)
pertaining or relating to lightning;   electric;   telegraphic, telegraph- (in compounds).   Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Khálid bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmán al-Barqí (b. ~200/815-816—d. 274/887–888 or 280/893–894) was a renowned Twelver Shí‘a muḥaddith (ḥadíth scholar) and historian of 3rd/9th century.
land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, mainland;   open country
Bartalla (Bartella), Baratallih (?)
(“Bartella”) town 21 km east of Mosul, ‘Iráq (Barṭ Alláh)
Barr, Abrar, Barara
Barr and Bárr, pl. Abrár and Barara
reverent, dutiful (+ preposition bi—toward), devoted (+ preposition bi—to);   pious, godly, upright, righteous;   kind
Barzakh, Barazikh
Barzakh, pl. Barázikh
interval, gap, break, partition, bar, obstruction;   isthmus
Pers.   a great number, many, more;   very much, greatly;   enough, sufficient;   often;   yes, indeed, certainly, it is so, very true, surely, undoubtedly, unquestionably
Basar, Absar
Baṣar, pl. Abṣár
vision, eye-sight;   glance, look;   insight;   sight, discernment, perception
Basha, Badshah, Padshah, Padishah
Pers.   being, existing;   a basha or pasha (corruptions of bádsháh (a king), pádsháh, pádisháh, etc.), governor of a province, counsellor of state, great lord;   also sometimes the grand vazir;   a kind of falcon, a hawk.
Basha, Bashawat, Pasha
shá, (Pers. also Páshá), pl. Báshawát
Arabic.   English pasha and Turkish paşa.   A lord (or boy, prince).   Honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank in Turkey.
Bashir wa Nadhir
Bashír wa Nadhír
Bahá’u’lláh appeared as the “Announcer and Warner”, cf. Qur’án 35:22.
Announcer of God
Bashir, Busara’
Bashír, pl. Bushará’
bringer of glad tidings (announcer), messenger, herald, harbinger, forerunner, precursor;   evangelist (Christian)
Beshneh, village NE of Nayríz
(most insightful, discerning, endowed with insight, seeing)   Adjective, superlative form of Baṣár (sight).
Siyyid Baṣír-i-Hindí, the blind Indian Bábí
Baṣíra, pl. Baṣá’ir
(keen) insight, penetration, discernment, understanding, (power of) mental perception, mental vision
Pers.   one who spreads abroad or stretches out;   a name of God, who dispenses riches to whom he will;   distant from water (pasture).   “open”
Basíṭ, pl. Busaṭa
simple; plain, uncomplicated;   slight, little, modest, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling
the earth
Basmala, pl. Basmalát
“word” meaning to utter the invocation bismi’lláh ar-raḥmání ar-raḥímí “In the name of God, the Benificent, the Merciful”.   The “word” is derived from “in the name of” and is the act of uttering the above invocation.
Basra (Basrih)
Baṣra(h) (Pers. may use Baṣrih)
a single pimple or pustule.   Baṣrah port in southern ‘Iráq (untranscripted variations: Basra, Bosrah)
native of Baṣra
Pers.   be bound or connected;   a lover, a sweetheart, one in whom the heart is bound up;   a turban, wreath for the head;   a knot;   a hundred;   a sanctuary, asylum;   a bank, a rampart;   a mountain;   distribution of water into canals, ditches, or drains
Pers.   (verbal noun), Stretching out (the hand);   distension;   diffusiveness;   being wide enough for;   preferring, exalting
Bastam, Bistam, Bustam
Basṭám, Bisṭám or Busṭám
place just north of Sháhrúd, Írán. Home of Mullá ‘Alí, the fourth Letter of Living
Batha, Bitah
Baṭḥá, pl. Biṭáḥ
A neighbourhood of Mecca [al-Makkah or al-Maakka—Bakka (Qur’án 3:96) may be an older name], TN p. 76.   lit. “basin shaped valley;   wide riverbed, wide bed of a stream or torrent;   level land, plain, level, flat(s)”
Batil, Abtil
Báṭil, pl. Abáṭíl
nugatory (of no value or importance), vain, futile;   false, untrue;   absurd, groundless, baseless;   worthless;   invalid, null, void;   deception, lie, falsehood;—pl. abáṭíl vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle talk, prattle
falsely;   futilely, in vain
Batin, Bawatin
Báṭin, pl. Bawáṭin
inner, interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic;   hidden, secret—see Ẓáhir.   báṭin-i-báṭin—inner inward meaning.   Derived from baṭn
Batn, Butun, Abutun
Baṭn, pl. Buṭún, Abṭun
belly, stomach, abdomen;   womb;   interior, inside, inner portion;   depth
village on coast of Libya, east of Bengazi, distance of 115 km
now Batumi, Georgia
county in Fárs Province, Írán
Bay, Baya, Bayat
Báy, f. Báya, pl. Báyát
formerly, in Tunisia, a title after the names of the members of the Bey’s family.   See Beg
Bay’a (Bai’a)
agreement, arrangement;   business deal, commercial transaction, bargain;   sale;   purchase;   homage
Bay’at (Bai’at)
inauguration, salutation, or acknowledging the authority of a great man;   swearing allegiance;   homage, fealty.   In Islamic terminology it is an oath of allegiance to a leader.   It is known to have been practiced by Muḥammad.   Bay‘at is sometimes taken under a written pact given on behalf of the subjects by leading members of the tribe with the understanding that as long as the leader abides by certain requirements towards his people, they are to maintain their allegiance to him.
Bayan-i-'Arabi, Arabic Bayan
“Arabic Bayán” (by the Báb) completed after the Bayán-i-Fársí
Bayan-i-Farsi, Persian Bayan
“Persian Bayán” (Mother Book of the Bábí Revelation) (by the Báb)
Bayan, Bayanat
Bayán, pl. Bayánát
clearness, plainness, patency, obviousness;   statement, declaration, announcement;   manifestation;   explanation, elucidation, illustration;   information, news;   (official) report, (official) statement;   enumeration, index, list;   eloquence.   Also exposition or utterance.   Title given by the Báb to His Revelation, and, in particular, to His Books.   Muslims are puzzled by the chronology given in Qur’án 55:2–4. “Bayán (exposition) [“speech”, 55:4] signifies the Revelation of the Báb, which unveils the hidden truth of the Qur’án. ‘Man’ [55:3] signifies the ‘Perfect Human Being’—the Manifestation of God ….” Gate of the heart, p. 262.   al-Bayán (نايبلا or “ن ا ي ب ل ا”) has an abjab value of 94 (“al” (value 31) consists of an unstressed Alif and Lám).   Compare lilláh
Bayani (Bayanis)
explanatory, illustrative; rhetorical.   Bayanis—those few who followed the Báb, but not Bahá’u’lláh or Ṣubḥi-i-Azal (EGB by Balyuzi)
father of Yazíd
Bayda (Baida, Baiza), Baydun, Baydat
Bayḍa (Pers. Baiẓa), Bayḍún, Bayḍát
egg;   helmet;   main part, substance, essence.
Bayn (Bain)
separation, division;   interval;   difference
Bayram (Bairam)
Turkish festival.   Due to past influence of Ottoman Turkish, many Muslims have adopted the use of the word Bayrám, using the term “Lesser Bayrám” to refer to their own Eid al-Fitr (‘Íd al-Fiṭr) celebrations;   “Greater Bayrám” refers to Eid al Adha (‘Íd al-Aḍḥá) (see Aḍḥan).
Bayt (Bait), Buyut, Buyutat, Abyat
Bayt, pl. Buyút, Buyútát
house, building, temple, edifice;   fabric, tent (of nomads);   room;   apartment, flat;   (garden) bed;   family;   case, box, covering, sheath;   verse, couplet;—pl. large, respectable houses;   respectable families;   (pl. abyát) verses, couplets
Bayt al-Maqdis
Bayt al-Maqdis
the Holy Land
“The Most Great House” (House of Bahá’u’lláh in the Kakh quarter of Baghdád,occupied by the family shortly before Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kudistán)   See Madad, house of.
a house in the German Templar colony, Haifa, where Bahá’u’lláh stayed, 1883
The Universal House of Justice. Minimum of nine members (all men), number will be gradually “increased nine by nine” (Summon up remembrance, p. 248)
house of sadness
Ar.   Frequented Fane.   In Islám, the Ka‘bah or its archetype in heaven.
al-Aqṣá Mosque, Jerusalem
“The House of Holiness”—name given to Jerusalem
the House of God—the Ka‘bah in Mecca
Bayyina (Bayyinah), Bayyinat
Bayyina (Bayyinah), pl. Bayyinát
clear proof, indisputable evidence;   evidence (Islamic Law);   a document serving as evidence
“Return and grant a chalice” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Bazar, Bazarat
Bázár, pl. Bázárát
merchant or craftsman of the bazzaar
draper, cloth merchant;   the mercer
Beg, fem. Begum
Pers.   A lord, a prince;   title put after the names of servants and petty officials.   Turkish Bey.   See Báy
Begum, Baygum
Great, a lady of rank, a princess—fem. form of Beg or Big
Turkish.   Dervish order, mainly in Antolia and the Balkans.
Bethulia, Bethulie
Bethulia, Bethulie
Bethulia is a Biblical city (location uncertain), situated on a mountain overlooking the plain of Jezrael, whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith.   Hebrew בתוליה (a virgin).   Similar to Ar. Batúlí (virginal).
(prep.)   in, at, on (place and time);   with (indicating connection, association, attendance);   with, through, by means of (designating instrumentality or agency, also with pass. = by);   for (= at the price of);   by (= to the amount of);   by (introducing an oath)
bi-Farmayid (Bifarmayid)
Pers.   “here you are”, please come and eat, please come and sit, …, etc.
bi-Qamis al-Babiyya
bi-Qamíṣ al-Bábiyya
garment of Gatehood
bi-Qamis al-Wilaya
bi-Qamíṣ al-Wiláya
garment of Sanctity
Pers.   in detail;   expressly, distinctly, explicitly
Bid’a, Bida’
Bid‘a, pl. Bida‘
innovation, novelty;   heretical doctrine, heresy;—pl. creations (of fashion, of art)
Pers.   heartless, dispirited, out of heart;   pusillanimous;   love-sick;   ignorant;   melancholy, dejected, sad, stupid.
Bidil, Abdu’l-Qadir
Bídil, Abdu’l-Qádir
Mawláná Abu’l-Ma‘ání Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Qádir Bídil (1642–1720), a famous representative of Dari poetry and Sufism in Afghanistan. He is considered the most difficult and challenging poet of Safavid-Mughal poetry. The pairing of Bídil’s patronymic, Abu’l-Ma‘ání, “The Father of Meanings”, with his devastating nom de plume, Bídil, “The Heartless”, illustrates perfectly the conceptual coupling of Love and Meaning in the sensibilities of the literary self-expression of his audiences.
(Great, a lord or prince)   Honorary title lower than Khán.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (Ottoman Turkish: “Bey of Beys”, meaning “the Commander of Commanders” or “the Lord of Lords”). Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces. Equivalents in Arabic were ámir al-umará, and in Persian, mír-i mírán.
A compilation of Shí’ih traditions   ‘Seas of Lights’.
“The Delight of Hearts” by Ḥaydar-‘Alí.   See bahja and ṣadr
Bijan, Bizhan
Bíjan or Bízhan
Pers.   “hero”.   One of the main Iranian heroes in the Sháhnámih
Bika (not Baka)
A composite comprising the prefix “bi” with the suffix “ka”, which stands for the 2nd person singular masculine pronoun “Thou” or “Thee”. “Bika” can be translated as “upon Thee”, “to Thee”, “on Thee” or “about Thee”, depending on the context.   “Baka” in Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas should be Bika.
“in God, the Exalted, the Mighty” (bi+Alláh)
the son of
(“daughter of”)
city in eastern Írán
Jupiter (astronomy).   Martyr, Dr Sulaymán Birjís, Káshán (1897–1950)
now Lüleburgaz (“Lule Burgas”), Turkey.   23 km ese Babaeski and 75 se Edirne
Capital city of the province of Luristán, Mírzá Bururg was governor
Pers.   without, out of doors;   exterior, extrinsic, foreign;   the outside;   from, a great way from
Pers.   outer or men’s quarters.   See andarúní
Bishara, Bisharat, Basha'ir
Bishára, pl. Bishárát, Bashá’ir
good news, glad tidings;   annunciation, prophecy;   gospel.   Glad-Tidings by Bahá’u’lláh
“word” derived from the expression “In the name of God”. Basmala is the act (verb) of saying the recurring Islamic phrase “Bismi’lláhi ar-Raḥmáni ar-Raḥími”—”In the name of God, the Most Compassionate (or Gracious), the Most Merciful”. Bismi’lláh is the first phrase of the first verse of every súra of the Qur’án except the ninth.   The verse is composed of 19 letters;   in honour of each letter six chapters were revealed, totalling 114 chapters (the Báb, The Persian Bayán, 2nd Váḥid, 2:2).
(“In the Name of God, the Most Unapproachable, the Most Holy”—Báb) (DB 66)
“In the name of God, the Glorious, the Most Glorious” (used in calligraphic bird design by Mishkín-Qalam—described as a “bird of paradise in the form of the Greatest Holy Name sitting on the tree of Toubá (tree of paradise)”
“In the Name of God, the Most gracious, the Most Merciful”—first verse of the Qur’án
Bist, Ishrun
Bíst (Per), ‘Ishrún (Ar)
native of Basṭám
Bistum, Bístum
Pers.   the twentieth
Bisutun (Bisotun)
Pers.   pillarless.   Bísutún city 36 km NE Kirmásháh, at the foot of Mount Bísutún on which there is the huge Bísutún Inscription in 3 cuneiform scripts (crucial to the decipherment of one of the cuneiform scripts)
Pers.   many, much;   numerous;   frequent;   copious;   very;   exceedingly
Bisyar Khub
Bisyár Khúb
Pers.   very well, all right, very or most good
Pers.   (imperative of ámadan), come, come hither, approach
Biya inja
Biyá ínjá
Pers.   come here
a mountain near Zanján
Brummana (Broummana)
(Beit Roumana, Aramaic name possibly meaning the “house of Rammana, the God of Air, Storm and Thunder") town 13 km east of Beirut, Lebanon
dhá (Ar.)
Buddha Maitreya-Amitábha, the Buddha of the future, the Lord of the Age.   Maitrya or Maitreya—”Kindness”;   Amitábha—“Infinite light”.
capital city of North Khurásán Province, Írán
Bukhar, Bukharat, Abkhira
Bukhár, pl. Bukhárát, Abkhira
vapour, fume;   steam
city in Uzbekistan
people of Bukhárá
steam (adjective), steam-driven.   Abú ‘Abd Alláh Muḥammad ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Ibráhím ibn al-Mughírah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fí al-Bukhárí, 19 July 810–1 September 870), Persian Islamic scholar, author of the aṣ Ṣaḥíḥ al-Bukhárí collection of hadiths (aḥádíth).
Bulbul, Balabil
Bulbul, Balabil
Buli, Bolu
Ar.   for town (Bolu) 260 km east of Istanbul.
Pers.   a tract of country that a subject obtains either by gift, purchase, or succession, holding of the sovereign upon feudal tenure;   a district (modern colloquialism)
Arabic form of Paul
Bunduq, Banadiq
Bunduq, pl. Banádiq
hazelnut(s), filberts;   hazel, hazel tree.   Pers. Funduq, Turk. Findík
‘Abdu’lláh Buní (SDC 104)
Buq'a, Buqa', Biqa'
Buq‘a, pl. Buqa‘, Biqá‘
spot, blot, smudge, stain;   place, site, plot, patch, lot
“Crimson Spot”—a hill called Samaríyyih north of Bahjí where red flowers grew in abundance in the time of Bahá’u’lláh
“The Verdant Spot”, a former private cemetery near the government “castle”, Yazd.   Designated as such by Bahá’u’lláh.
(Burhane Lame) published as “The Brilliant Proof”
Burhan, Barahin
Burhán, pl. Baráhín
Proof of religion
Burj, Buruj, Abraj
Burj, pl. Burúj, Abráj
tower, castle, sign of the zodiac
Burqa, Burqu', Baraqi'
Burqu‘, (Pers. also Burqa‘), pl. Baráqi‘
veil (worn by women;   long, leaving the eyes exposed)
Capital city of the province of Luristán, place of the governorship of Mírzá Buzurg
Busayra, Busayrah, Busaira, Bozrah
Buṣayrá (Ar.), Boṣrah (Heb.)
historical site and former capital of Edom. Adjacent to the town of Basira (Bouseira, Busaira), Jordan—about 30 km se of the “southern end” of the Dead Sea.
Iranian town and province on the Persian Gulf
(of or from Bushrúyih)
A town in Khurásán, birthplace of Mullá Ḥusayn, first disciple of the Báb
Busra or Bosra
Syrian town where 12-year old Muḥammad met the monk Báhir (“Bahira”)
Bustan, Basatin
Bustán, pl. Basátín
garden or orchard.   TAB “Boston”
gardener;   garden (adj.);   horticultural
Pers.   odour, fragrance, perfume;   scent, spice;   hope, wish, desire;   search, quest;   love;   nature, disposition;   portion, part, lot
Pers.   "The fragrance of the Muliyan Brook" poem by Rudaki
Turkic (Büyük), big
Büyükçekmece, a district and municipality in the suburbs of Istanbul (abour 30 km west of the city), Turkey on the Sea of Marmara coast of the European side. It is west of Küçükçekmece
Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá
Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá (Mírzá ‘Abbás of Núr) father of Bahá’u’lláh (third child of second wife, Khadíjih Khánum).
Buzurj, Buzurg
Buzurj, Pers. Buzurg
great, grand.   The title given by Fath-‘Alí Sháh to ‘Abbás, Bahá’u’lláh’s father.
Unaccented forms
Transliterated forms
Explanations and comments
Caelum, Cælum, Coelo, Cœlo
ex cœlo
Latin.   cælum is sky, heaven. Cœlum is a variation of cælum. Hence, ex cœlo is “from the sky” or “from heaven”. Compare with ex cathedra “from the chair”, with the full authority of office. The Catholic pope is said to occupy the “chair of Peter”.   Refer to The heart of the Gospel, p. 66.
(also caravansary)   An inn for caravans
Chadar, Chadur
Chádar, Chádur
Pers.   A tent, pavilion;   a mantle, scarf;   a veil;   a sheet;   a shroud, winding-sheet;   a table-cloth.   Shawl or a long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women
Pers.   a well, pit;   a prison, dungeon;   a snare
locality, possibly near Kirmánsháh.   Mentioned in DB p. 13.
Pers.   four, a crab
Chaman, Chamman
Chamán (Chammán)
Pers.   walking, giving oneself haughty, swinging, or graceful airs in walking;   a goblet of wine;   a party of friends
Genghis Khan
Chapan, Chupan (Chuppan)
Chapán, Chupán
Pers.   tattered garments
Pers.   a runner, mounted messenger, courier;   post;   mail
Chapar-chi, Chaparchi
Chápár-ch, Chápárchí
Pers.   courier
Pers.   time;   health;   healthy, well;   stout, obese
private home or four walls
Pers.   the eye;   hope;   an amulet or charm (particularly of holy writ) against fascination or enchantment
Chay (Cha'i)
Cháy (Chá’í)
Pers.   tea.   See Sháy
Chi or Chih, Chiha
Chi or Chih, pl. Chihá
Pers.   what, which
village near Iṣfahán
“Four Valleys” (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See chahár and wádí
Fortress in Kurdish Ádhirbáyján, designated by the Báb as Jabal-i-Shadíd (the Grievous Mountain), numerical value of Chihríq & Shadíd is 318. Near the village of Lower Chihriq (چهریق علیل), about 70 km NW of Urmia
Chilaw (Chilav), Chulaw
Pers. plain boiled rice
kabáb with rice
Pers.   chenar tree
a section of Nayríz
Pers.   A lamp;   light;   the wick of a candle;   a guide, director;   a client, dependant;   a horse’s rearing;   a pasture.   See Ar. Siráj.
Chiz, Chi
Chíz, Chí
Pers.   something;   who? what? which? a Turkish affix to form words denoting the agent
Chub (Chob)
Pers.   a log;   wood;   a tree;   a staff, rod, baton, stick;   a drumstick;   a beam;   a plough-tail;   a shoot of a tree, sucker
Pers.   (Chopan, Copan) a shepherd.   Amír Chúpán and Dr Chúpán
(Gk. Paracletos)   Muḥammad and Aḥmad (“the Praised One”, “a Mercy for all creatures” and “most kind and merciful to the Believers”) are almost a translation of the Greek word Periclytos.   The use of “Comforter” in the John 14:16 and 16:7 is based on the Greek word Paracletos (“Advocate”, “one called to the help of another, a kind friend”).   Muslims argue that Paracletos is a corrupt reading for Periclytos.
1919 model car arrived Port Said early January 1920 (Prelude to the Guardianship, p. 126). Recently restored and stored in an air conditioned building at the front of 7 Har-Parsim St, Haifa.
Name of a Persian king
Unaccented forms
Transliterated forms
Explanations and comments
Da’a, Du’a’
Da‘á, Du‘á’
Ar.   to call (someone);   to summon, call or send for someone;   to call up;   to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something;   to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da’i or Du’at
Dá‘í, pl. Du‘át
Pers.   who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything;   who prays for, invokes a blessing upon;   the Muezzm who calls to prayers;   Muḥammad (as caller to the faith).   Also missionary
Da'if, Du'afa
Ḍa‘if, pl. m. Ḍu‘afa’
weak, feeble;   frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
lasting, enduring;   endless, eternal, perpetual, everlasting;   perennial;   continued, continuous, continual, incessant, unceasing, constant;   permanent, standing, established;   durable.   As in permanent marriage.   Compare with munqaṭi‘.
Da’iya (Da’i), Dawa’in
Dá‘iya (“Dá‘í”), pl. Dawá‘in
one who calls for something, invites to something;   propagandist, herald;   (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion;   requirements, exigencies.   Hence, ad-dá‘iya, the caller.
Da’wa, Da’awa, Da’awin
Da‘wá, pl. Da‘áwá, Da‘áwin
allegation, pretension;   claim;   lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Dabb, Dabab, Adubb, Dubban
Ḍabb, pl. Ḍabáb, Aḍubb, Ḍubbán
Pers.   (Debistan)   (either a contraction of dabíristán or an abbreviation of adabistán), a school
Dabistan al-Madhhahib
Dabistán al-Madhháhib
title of a book (“School of doctrines”) containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles.   Persian Dabistánu’l-Madhháhib
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit
controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.);   prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools);   (pl. ḍubbáṭ) officer;   (pl. ḍawábiṭ) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dabita, Dawabit
Ḍábiṭa, Ḍawábiṭ
police;   (pl.) curbing force, order
Persian.   He gave;   a gift;   justice, equity;   redress of grievances;   complaint, lamentation (under oppression);   measure;   a part, portion;   revenge;   a ringworm;   life;   age;   a year
Dada (Dadih)
Pers.   a grandfather;   a title given to dervishes, especially qalandars;   a nurse who brings up children
governess, dry nurse, nurse
Pers.   a female servant, particularly an old one who has attended upon anyone from her youth;   a handmaid.
Dahaj (Dahíj)
town near the centre of a triangle formed by Shíráz, Yazd and Kirmán
from Dahaj.   Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají was named Ismu’lláhu’l-Jamál by Bahá’u’lláh. He rebelled against ‘Abdu’l-Bahá after the death of Bahá’u’lláh.
Dahiya, Dawahin
Dáhiya(t), pl. Dawáhin
calamity, disaster, catastrophe;   misfortune
Dahr, Duhur, Adhur
Dahr, pl. , Duhúr, Adhur
time;   long time, age, epoch;   lifetime;   eternity;   fate, destiny;   “world of duration”
Dai’a, Diya’
Ḍai‘a, pl. Ḍiyá‘
landed estate, country estate, domain;   small village, hamlet
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila
Dajjál, pl. Dajjálún, Dajájila
(“Dedjal”)   swindler, cheat, imposter;   quack, charlatan;   Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ).   The Antichrist, who it was believed would appear at the advent of the Promised One, to contend with and be ultimately defeated by Him.   See Sufyání
Pers.   Interior, inner;   intimate, familiar, confident;   an intermeddler;   an intruder;   a proselyte;   a foreign word adopted into Arabic
Letter ‘D’
“The Seven Proofs” (by the Báb)
a straying from the right path or from truth;   error
Dalil, Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla'
Dalíl, pl. Adilla, Dalá’l, Adillá’
(the latter of persons) indication (of);   sign, token;   symptom;   proof, evidence (of);   guide;   tourist guide;   pilot (of a ship, of an airplane);   guidebook, guide manual, handbook;   directory, telephone directory;   railroad guide, timetable;   guide rail (technical);   roller path (in steel construction)
Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Daliyat ar-Rawha'
Dálíyá(t) ar-Rawḥá’
(fragrant vine”) a Palestinian village 24.5 km se of Haifa. The Jewish colony of Dalia was established on land purchased in the village in 1939. It was depopulated of its Arab inhabitants in late March during the 1948 Palestine War.
Dall, Dawall, Dallin
Ḍáll, pl. Ḍawáll, Ḍállín
straying, roaming, wandering;   astray, lost;   erroneous, false.   Ḍállín (gone astray)
auctioneer;   broker, jobber, middleman, agent, commission merchant;   hawker
city, county and mountain south of the Caspian Sea
city 125 km SE Sarí and 60 km SW of Sháhrúd
Damma, Dammat
Ḍamma, pl. Ḍammát
the vowel point for the short vowel u;—pl. embrace, hug.   See kasra and fatḥa
Dani', Adniya', Adna'
Daní’,pl. Adniyá’, Adná’
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible;   inferior, second-rate, of poor quality.   Adná’ also “lowest” or “even closer”—being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Báb, that of servitude.   (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Pers.   science, knowledge, learning;   excellence
Hebrew David   See Dáwúd
Followers of David, a small sect of Islám.
Daqiqa, Daqa'iq
Daqíqa, pl. Daqá’iq
particle;   nicety (“subtlety”);   intricacy;   detail, particular;   minute (time unit)
Pers.   (preposition) in, into, within, among;   on, upon, above;   of, concerning, about;   by, for;   because of;   near, hard by, at;   to, as far as, according to;   before, in presence of;   against;   with;   under;   at length;   after;   so much;   out, out of doors
Dar as-Salam, Daru’s-Salam
Dár as-Salám, Pers. Dáru’s-Salám
paradise, heaven;   epithet of Baghdád (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God (Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory, p. 296));   Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Dar, Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara
Dár f., pl. Dúr, Diyár, Diyárát, Diyara
house;   building, structure, edifice;   habitation, dwelling, abode;   residence, home;   seat, side, locality;   area, region;   land, country;   dár al-baqá’ the eternal abode, the hereafter;   dár as-sa‘áda Constantinople;   dár as-salṭana Constantinople (designation before World War I);   dár as-salám paradise, heaven;   dár al-hijra Medina.   Example Dúru’l-Bahá’íyya
A town in Fárs, southern Persia, home of Vaḥíd’s ancestors.
Daraja, Darajat
Daraja, pl. Daraját
step, stair;   flight of steps, stairs, staircase;   degree, step, tone (of a scale; music);   degree (mathematics, geography;   of temperature);   grade, fate;   degree, order, rank;   club (also, e.g., in trains, of a decoration);   phase state, stage (of a development);   mark, grade (in school)
Darb, Durab, Adrab
Ḍarb, pl. Ḍurúb, Aḍráb
beating, striking, hitting, rapping;   shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment;   multiplication;   coining, formation;   minting (of money);— (pl. ḍurúb) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety;   (pl. aḍráb) similar, like
Pers.   gateway or mountain door.   City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Dághistán (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus).   Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal) that is now part of the north side of Teheran.
Dard, Darad
Dárd, Dárad
Pers.   a name of God;   dárad he holds, has, is possessed of
Darkala or Dar-Kala
Dárkalá or Dár-Kalá
A village in Núr in Mázindarán, a second ancestral home of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí.
harmful, injurious, detrimental, noxious, disadvantageous
Dars, Durus
Dars, pl. Durús
effacement, obliteration, extinction;   (pl.) study, studies;   lesson, chapter (of a textbook);   class, class hour, period;   lecture;   lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Dars-i-Akhlaq
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Pers. Dars-i-Akhláq
“Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building” (“Dars Akhláq”)
Dar al-Athar, Daru'l-Athar
Dár al-Áthár, Pers. Dáru’l-Áthár
museum, archives
Dar al-Funun, Daru'l-funun
Dár al-Funún, Pers. Dáru’l-Funún
“building or centre for arts and sciences” The first technical college of Írán in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mírzá Taqí Khán.   BKG 72
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij
Dáru’l-Tabígh or Dáru’l-Tarwíj
(Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
(House of Legislation, Universal House of Justice)
(Dar-es-Salaam) or the Abode of Peace [Baghdád] (or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God).   BKG p. 296.
“the happy home”
House of treatment
(high constable or police magistrate)
Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani
Darvísh Muḥammad-i-Írání
Name used by Bahá’u’lláh while in Sulaymáníyyih
Darvish Sidq-'Ali
Darvísh Ṣidq-‘Alí
Darwish (Darvish), Darawish
Darwísh, pl. Daráwísh
poor, indigent;   dervish or monk   A beggar of faqír (poor one)   “… those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship.” Attributed to Bahá’u’lláh in MF 39.   May be written as Darwesh or Darvesh in Persian.
Pers.   a sea, ocean;   a river;   (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Pers.   the Ocean of Light—the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh
village near Iṣfahán
Dast, Dust
Dast, pl. Dusút
place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office;   council;   dast al-ḥukm (a ruler’s) throne
Pers.   history, romance, fable;   song, melody, trill, shake;   the key of a musical instrument;   foolish, idle talk;   fraud, imposture, stratagem
(Dastjerd) city 60 km WSW of Qum, Írán
people of Dastjird
Dastmal, Dast-mal
Dast-mál, Dastmál
Pers.   rubbing the hands;   a towel;   a handkerchief;   a kettle-holder;   dinner-plate;   easy, smooth;   bare;   a prisoner;   wealth
A Pársí priest
Dawla (Daula), Duwal
Dawla(h or t), pl. Duwal
alternation, rotation, change;   change of time, turn of fortune;   dynasty;   state, country;   power, empire.   e.g. Dawlat-Ábád and Dawlat-Ábádí
Dawli (Dauli), Duwali
state (adjective);   duwalí international
Pers.   state or government.   See Dawla
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar
Dawr, pl. Adwár
round (of a patrol;   in sports);   role, part (played by someone or something);   film role, stage role;   periodic change, rotation, alternation;   crop rotation;   period;   (one’s) turn;   phase, stage, step, degree, station;   epoch, age, era, cycle;   fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease);   floor, story;   musical composition;   number, single performance (within a program)
Dawr al-Nabawi, Dur-i-Nabuwwat
Dawr al-Nabawí, Dur-i-Nabuwwat
Prophetic Cycle
Dawud (Davud), Da'ud
Dáwúd, Dá’úd, (Pers. Dáwud)
Day of Resurrection
The Great Day (al-Yawmu’l-‘Aẓím);
The Day of Resurrection (Yawmu’l-Qiyámah);
The Day of Decision (Yawmu’l-Faṣl);
The Day when the Hour shall come to pass (Yawmu’l-Sá‘ah);
The Day of Judgement (Yawmu’l-Dín);
The Day of Disillusion (Yawmu’t-Taghabún);
The Day of Reckoning (Yawmu’l-Ḥisáb)
Old Province SW cnr Caspian Sea (now Gílán)
Dayyan (Daiyan)
Pers.   a requiter (rewarder) of good and evil;   hence an epithet of God;   a conqueror, a subduer;   a judge, umpire, administrator
sacrifice or slaughtered   (Pers. Zabíḥ)   Hájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl was known as Dhabíḥ.  The name Ismá‘íl in Bábí-Bahá’í history is associated with the soubriquet ‘Dhabíḥ’. Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur’án, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice—hence the association of the name Ismá‘íl with Dhabíḥ.   (E. G. Browne, Balyuzi.)
Dhabih Allah, Dhabihu’llah
Dhabíḥ Alláh, Dhabíḥu’lláh
“Sacrifice of God”   Abraham’s sacrifice of His son
Dhahaba, Dhahab, Madhhab (Mazhab)
Dhahaba (Dhaháb, Madhhab)
to go (to);   to betake oneself, travel (to);   to go away, leave, depart;   to disappear, vanish, decline, dwindle;   to perish, die, be destroyed;   with to carry something off, take something away, abduct, steal something, sweep something or someone away, annihilate, destroy something or someone
Dhahab (m. and f.)
gold;   gold piece, gold coin
golden, of gold;   precious, excellent, apposite (e.g., advice, saying, etc.)
Dhakawat (Dhakavat, Zakawat)
Pers.   intelligence, sharp-mindedness
Dhakir, Dhakirin
Dhákir, pl. Dhákirín
Pers.   rememberer;   a praiser of God
Dhaqa, Dhawq (Dhauq), Madhaq
Dháqa, (Dhawq, Dhawáq, Madháq)
to taste, sample (food, etc.);   to try, try out, test (something);   to get a taste (of something), experience, undergo, suffer (something), go through something;   form IV to have (someone) taste or sample (something), give (someone something) to taste;   form V to taste (something) slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly;   to get a taste (of something);   to sense, perceive (something);   to enjoy thoroughly, savour, relish (something);   to derive pleasure (from)
(verbal noun of dhara‘a)   power, ability, capability (to do something)
(verb) to measure (something);   to take the measure or measurements (of something);   to cover (a distance);   to cross, travel (a country), travel through;   to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dhariyatun, Dhariyat
Dháriyatun, pl. Dháriyát
quick-scattering wind;   that which scatters, that which blows away
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkár
to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of);   to keep in mind (something);   to recall, recollect (something)
strewing, scattering, sprinkling;   (collective) tiny particles, atoms, specks, motes.   Root word dharra has another derivative, dhurríya, so dharr can be understood as “seeds”, as in progeny.   See dharra and dhurríya.
Dharra, Dharr
Dharra (Dharr)
to strew, scatter, spread (something);   to sprinkle (on something, something)
scattering, dispersing, the act of blowing away
Dhat, Dhawat
Dhát, pl. Dhawát
being, essence, nature;   self;   person, personality;   the same, the self-same;   -self
personality;   subjectivism (philosophy);   identity (of a person)
Dhawq (Dhauq), Adhaq
Dhawq, pl. Adhwáq
gustatory sense;   taste (for;   also, e.g., literary taste);   perceptivity, responsiveness (for);   sensitivity, sensitiveness;   savoir-vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact;   liking, inclination;   taste, flavour (of food, etc.)
Dhawqi (Dhauqi)
of taste, gustative, gustatory.   Form V “of sensing, perceiving”—see Dháqa
Dhi'b, Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban
Dhi’b, pl. Dhi’áb, Dhu’bán
wolf, jackal.   Bahá’u’lláh named Shaykh Muḥammad Báqir (1819–1883) the “Wolf” and his son, Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (1846–1914), Ibn-i-Dhi’b (“Son of the Wolf”).
Pers.   Twelth month in Islamic calendar
Ar.   “clad in armour”.   Term applied to Mullá ‘Abdu’lláh the arch-killer of Imám Ḥusayn
Pers.   Eleventh month in Islamic calendar
sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice
Dhikr, Adhkar
Dhikr, pl. Adhkár
recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration;   reputation, repute, renown;   naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation;   report, account, narration, narrative;   invocation of God, mention of the Lord’s name;   (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulas in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing.
Dhikra, Dhikayat
Dhikrá, pl. Dhikrayát
remembrance, recollection, memory;—pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Pers.(?)   Remembranceship
“Remembrance of God” (Pers. Zikru’lláh), early title used by the Báb
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun
Dhimmí, pl. Dhimmíyún
a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur’án, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
is variously rendered by translators of the Qur’án as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc.
“that which possesses a spine”.   The name of the well-known sword of Muḥammad and Imám ‘Alí. So named because it had projections and jags, like the spinal cord, on its back.
Dhu’l-Hijjih Dhu’l-Ḥijjih Twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or “Possessor of the Pilgrimage”)
Dhu’l-Qa‘da Dhu’l-Qa‘da Eleventh month of Islamic calendar (the one of truce/sitting)
Dhu'l-Qarnayn Dhu’l-Qarnayn Prophet in Qur’án 18:83–101—“the one with two horns” or “He of the Two Ages”.   In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great.
Dhurriya, Dhurriyat, Dharariy
Dhurríya, pl. Dhurríyát, Dharáríy
progeny, descendants, children, offspring. See root Dharra
Didam Baha'u'llahst Dídam Bahá’u’lláhst Pers.   “I saw this was Bahá’u’lláh”   Summon up remembrance, p. 108.
Didan, Didam Dídan Pers.   to see, look, observe;   to perceive, feel;   to expect, hope for;   to visit (modern colloquialism).   Dídam, saw
Dih (Deh), Dihak
Dih, pl. Dihák
village, country
Dih-Bala Dih-Bálá place (GPB p. 298)
Dih-Chah Dih-Cháh Deh Chah, village NNE Nayríz
peasant, villager
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin Dihqán, pl. Daháqina, Daháqín man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality;   grandee (in ancient Persia)
Dihqani Dihqání
Dil Dil Pers.   the heart, mind, soul;   marrow;   pith of a tree;   trunk of a tree;   the centre;   the eye;   a dot;   an enigma;   cote (animal shelter)
Pers.   demonstrations of love;   comfort, consolation
Dil-Gusha (Dilgusha) Dil-Gushá Pers.   exhilarating;   “expansion” or “delight” of the heart
(Delli Abbas) a small town 12 km nw of al-Miqdádiyah and 90 km ne of Baghdád, in ‘Iráq
Dimashq (Damashq), Dimishq Dimashq, Dimishq Damascus, capital of Syria
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi Dimashqí, Dimish of Damascus, e.g. Damashqí Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in ‘Akká, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din al-Qayyin
al-Dín al-Qayyim
True Religion (Qur’án 30:30)
Din-i-Ilahi Dín-i-Iláhí (The Divine Faith)
Din-Muhammad-Vazir Dín-Muḥammad-Vazír
Din, Adyan Dín, pl. Adyán religion, creed, faith, belief.   Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah ad-Dín Pers. Salah-ud-Dín.
Dinar, Dananir Dínár, pl. Danánír (originally dinnár), a coin; a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar;   a weight of gold (variously stated);   (met.) the sun
Dini Díní religious;   spiritual
Dirbas, Darabis (Pers. Zarrabis) Dirbás, Darábís bolt, door bolt
Disatir (Desatir) Disátír Pers.   is a literary forgery with Sufi leanings published in Bombay in 1818 from an Iranian manuscript
Disciples of ‘Abdu'l-Baha Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá Designated by Shoghi Effendi:   Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont,   Thornton Chase,   Howard MacNutt,   Sarah Farmer,   Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney,   Lillian Kappes,   Robert Turner (First Afro-American Bahá’í in America),   Dr Arthur Brauns,   W. H. Randall,   Lua Getsinger (née Louisa A. Moore - Livá (banner), Lua - flag),   Joseph Hannan,   Chester I. Thatcher,   Charles Greenleaf,   Mrs J. D. Brittingham,   Mrs Thornburgh,   Helen S. Goodall,   Arthur P. Dodge,   William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Diwan (Divan), Dawawin Díwán (Díván), pl.Dawáwín account books of the treasury (in the older Islamic administration);   collection of poems written by one author;   governmental office, administrative office;   chancellery, office, bureau, secretariat;   council or state, cabinet;   council, consultative assembly, board of advisers, executive committee;   government;   court or justice, tribunal;   hall;   davenport, divan;   (railway) compartment.   Used in titles, as in Amír-Díwán, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Diwan-Khanih, Divan-Khanih Díwán-Khánih Court
Diya (Deya), Dia, Ziya, Zia Ḍíyá’ (ضيىاء), Ḍiyá’ (ضياء) light, brightness, glow.   Transliterated as ḍíyá’ (Shoghi Effendi) or ḍiyá’ (also with ẓ instead of ḍ).   The same issue with the “íyá” letter combination also occurs with díyár.
Diya Baghdadi Ḍíyá Baghdádí [Dr Zia Baghdadi]
Diya'i Ḍíyá’í
Diya'iyyih Ḍíyá’íyyih (Ziaiyyih or Zia’iyyih)
Diya'u'd-Din Ḍíyá’u’d-Dín
Diya'u'l-Hajiyyih Ḍíyá’u’l-Ḥájíyyih
Diya'u'llah Ḍíyá’u’lláh light of God (Zíá’u’lláh or Ziaoullah).   Mirza Ḍíyá’u’lláh—a son of Bahá’u’lláh
Diya'ud-Din Ḍíyá’úd-Dín (Zia ed Din)
Diyala, Sirwan Diyálá (in ‘Iráq), Sírwan (in Írán) 445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern ‘Iráq, flowing on east side of Baghdád and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city.   Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Diyar-Bakr (Diar-Bakr)
Díyár-Bakr or Diyár-Bakr
(Diyár Bakr or Diyárbakir, “land of Bakr” tribe) city in SE Turkey, 630 km NW Baghdád.   Transcribed Díyár-Bakr by Shoghi Effendi.   Is also transcribed as Díár Bakr.   Renamed Diyabakir (Turkish, “land of copper”) by Atatürk in 1931.
Diyar-i-Khatt Díyár-i-Khaṭṭ “domain of writing” or “realm of calligraphy”. Verse inscribed by Nabíl when asked by Mishkín-Qalam: Dar díyár-i-khaṭṭ sháh-i-ṣáḥib-‘alam Bandiy-i-báb-i-Bahá, Mishkín-Qalam.” “In the realm of calligraphy, the king who possesses the Banner, is the servant of the gate of Bahá [the Báb], Mishkín-Qalam.”
Dizij, Dizaj
Dízij Ábád, village 11 km ese of the centre of Zanján
Dizva Dízvá village supposed to be near the Shrine of Shaykh Ṭabarsí
Du, Do Dú, Du, Do Pers.   two
Du'a' Du‘á’, pl. Ad‘yá, Pers. Ad‘iyat (Ad’iyyih) call;   invocation of God, supplication, prayer;   request, plea;   good wish;   imprecation, course.   Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Dugh-Abad (Dughabad) gh-Ábád village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán
Duhan, Duha, Zuha, Zuhwat Ḍuḥan, Ḍuḥá, Pers. Ḍuḥwat Forenoon, luncheon-time
Dukhan Dukhán (Dukkán), pl. Adkhina smoke, fume, vapour;   tobacco
Dumit Ḍúmiṭ ‘Azíz Sulaymán Ḍúmiṭ—his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Báb.
Dunam Dunam Ottoman Turkish origin.   Modern metric unit is 1,000 m2 of land or about a quarter of an acre.
Dunya Dunyá (fem. of Adná) world;   earth;   this world (as opposed to ákhira);   life in this world, worldly existence;   worldly.   temporal things or possessions;   earthly things or concerns.   See awwal and ákhirah
Durar al-Baha'iyya, Durar'u'l-Baha’iyya
ad-Durar al-Bahá’íyya
Pers.   Duraru’l-Bahá’íyyah (or -ih) (Dorar-ul-Bahiyyih)   “The Brilliant Pearls”, translated into English and published as “Miracles and Metaphors”
(collective) pearls
Durra(t), Durrun, Durar
Durra(t), Durrun, pl. Durar
pearl, e.g. Durratu’l-Bahá’íyya
Durud Durúd (Dorud) place 260 km NW of Iṣfahán
Durzi, Duruz Durzí, pl. Durúz Druse.   The name Druze is derived from the name of Muḥammad bin Ismá‘íl Nashtakín ad-Darazí (from Persian darzí, "tailor") who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name Muwaḥḥidún (“Unitarian”)
Dust (Dost), Dustan Dúst, pl. Dústán Pers.   friend;   lover;   mistress, sweetheart.   Dúst-Muḥammad
internationality;   internationalism;   the International …
Duz (Doz) Dúz Pers.   (in compound word) sewing
Duzd Duzd A thief, robber, assassin;   theft
Duzdab Duzdáb Pers.   “water thieves”, renamed Záhidán (pl. “pious”) late 1920s, capital of Sístán, Írán
Unaccented forms
Transliterated forms
Explanations and comments
Eirene, Eirenion
Eiréné (Greek)
one, peace, quietness, rest.   Greek goddess of peace (Roman counterpart is Pax).   The Eirenion Hall was built in 1897 on the Green Acre property and was used as a lecture hall during the summer lecture series at Green Acre. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave a number of talks in the hall in 1912.
city in eastern Turkey (“Erzeroum”). Known as Theodosiopolis in Roman times. Neighbouring city of Artsn (Arzan) was destroyed 1048–49 and citizens moved to Theodosiopolis and called it Artsn Rum (Arzan of the Romans). Muslim citizens changed it to Arzan ar-Rúm (or Arz ar-Rúm) and then to Erzurum.
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Fa’ida, Fawa’id (Fava’id) Fá’ida, pl. Fawá’id utility, avail, benefit, advantage;   gain, profit;   interest (on money);   useful lesson, moral;   use (e.g., of a medicine).   The Qur’án forbids usury, not reasonable interest.   See riban.
Fa'iq Fá’iq superior;   surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate;   outstanding, remarkable, striking;   pre-eminent;   exceeding, extraordinary;   going far beyond (a restriction, etc.);   awake, waking, wakeful
Fa'iz, Fa'iza Fá’iz, fem. Fá’iza successful, victorious, triumphant;   victor, winner
Fa'izih Fá’izih Pers.   “she who has attained”—name given to Gulsurkh Bagum by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Fa'il, Fa'ilun, Fa'ala Fá‘il, pl. Fá‘ilún, Fa‘ala effective;   efficacious, efficient;   (pl. fá‘ilún) doer, actor, perpetrator;   (pl. fa‘ala) worker, workman, labourer;—active subject of a verbal clause (grammar).   See maf‘úl, manṣúb and marfú‘
Fad-dan Fad-dán (feddan) about an acre in size
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala Fáḍil, pl. Fawáḍil, Fáḍilún, Fuḍalá Ar.   (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess;   (pl. fawáḍil) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;—(pl. fáḍilún, fuḍalá) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving;   learned;   man of culture and refinement.   Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): fáḍil, fem. fáḍilat, fáḍila, pl. fáḍilát.
Fadil (Fazil), Fudala Faḍíl, pl. Fuḍalá’ outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent;   distinguished, deserving;   learned, erudite.   As the day of the Badí‘ week, Faḍíl: grace, favour.
Fadil-i-Qa’ini Fáḍil-i-Qá’iní the Learned One of the Qá’in.   A district in the province of Khurásán
Fadila, Fada'il Faḍíla, pl. Faḍá’il moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue;   merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness
Fadilabad (Fazelabad) Fáḍilábád 28 km ENE of Gurgán (SE corner of the Caspian Sea), Írán
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul Faḍl, pl. Fuḍúl surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow; & leftover, remainder, remnant, rest; & matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter;—pl. that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity; & waste, refuse; & droppings, excrement. & Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): faḍlat, faḍla.
Fadlu'llah Faḍlu’lláh Grace of God
Fahandizh Fahandizh Pers.   a family name
Fahd, Fuhud, Afhud Fahd, pl. Fuhúd, Afhud lynx (also the term for cheetah and panther)
Fahima, Fahm, Faham Fahima, Fahm, Faham to understand, comprehend, realize (something);   to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something);   to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Fahm, Afham
Fahm, pl. Afhám
understanding;   comprehension, grasp;   perceptive faculty, perceptivity;   brains, intellect;   discernment, acumen, penetration, insight, intelligence
Faid (Faiz) Faiḍ (Faiẓ) Pers. of Fayḍ, hence Faiẓí.   being plentiful, copious (water, tears);   being brim-full (vessel or river);   being published, spread (news), divulged (secret);   dying, expiring, death;   emanation;   plenty, abundance; favour, grace, bounty
Fajr Fajr dawn, daybreak, morning twilight;   dawn (figuratively), beginning, outset, start;   (fem.) morning prayer (Islamic Law)
Fakara, Fakr Fakara (Fakr) to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something);   to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhkhar Fakhkhár (fired) clay;   earthenware, crockery, pottery.   Tell ‘Akká (inaccurately also called Tell al-Fakhkhár (Hill of Shards) or Napoleon’s Hill.
glory, pride;   honor;   vainglorious poetry (as a literary genre)
Fakhru'd-Dawlih Fakhkhru’d-Dawlih (MF)
Fakhru'd-Din Fakhru’d-Dín (Fakr ed Din)
Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ Pride of Martyrs.   Note final Hamza
Fakhura khúra pottery, earthenware manufactory
Falah Faláḥ thriving, prosperity;   salvation;   welfare;   success
Falak al-Buruj
Falak al-Burúj
the celestial spheres
Falak, Aflak
Falak, pl. Aflák
celestial sphere;   celestial body, star;   circuit, orbit (of celestial bodies).   Hence, falak al-burúj (the celestial spheres);   falak al-manázil (the celestial stations);   falak az-zuḥal (the sphere of Saturn);   falak al-mushtarí (the sphere of Jupiter);   falak al-mirrikh (the sphere of Mars);   falak ash-shams (the sphere of the Sun);   falak az-zuhrah (the sphere of Venus);   falak ‘uṭárid (the sphere of Mercury);   falak al-qamar (the sphere of the moon)
Falaq Falaq daybreak, dawn
Falsafa Falsafa to philosophize;   philosophy
Falsafi Falsafí Pers.   philosophical;   a philosopher
passing away, cessation of being;   perdition, ruin, destruction, annihilation;   evanescence, vanishing, termination, extinction;   exhaustion;   non-being, non-existence, non-entity;   extinction of individual consciousness, recedence of the ego, obliteration of the self (mysticism)
Fana' Fi'lláh Faná’ Fí’lláh the annihilation of self in God (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana' wa Baqa Faná’ wa Baqá’ annihilation and subsistence (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana'yan (Fana'ian or Fanaian)
Mírzá Faraju’lláh Faná’yán (Junún) (ad 1871–1945)—a shoemaker, Bahá’í and poet
Fanan, Afnan Fanan, Afnán (pl.) bough or twig   Denotes the male relatives of the Báb
Fani Fání Pers.   frail, transitory, perishable, inconstant;   tottering (old man);   (in the parlance of the Sufis) one who has reached the state of fanáʼ, or annihilation
evanescent, transitory, transient, ephemeral, vain;   exhausted;   far advanced in years, very old
Faniya, Fana'
Faniya (Faná’)
to pass away, perish, cease to exist, come to nought;   to come to an end, cease, wane, dwindle, evanesce, vanish;   to be extinguished, become extinct;   to be exhausted, be consumed, be spent;   to undergo obliteration of the self;   to become totally absorbed (by).   See Baqá’
Fann, Funun, Afnan, Afanin
Fann, pl. Funún, Afnán, Afánín
kind, specimen, variety;—pl. Afánín various sides (of something), diversity;—pl. Funún sciences, arts;   modes, ways, manners;   tricks, artifices;   arts and sciences or technology
Faqarat, Faqar
Faqárat, pl. Faqár
back joint or vertebrae
Faqih, Fuqaha
Faqíh, pl. Fuqahá’
legist, jurisprudent (and theologian), expert of fiqh
Faqir, Fuqara'
Faqír, pl. Fuqara’
poor, poverty-stricken;   poor man, pauper;   mendicant dervish, Sufi mendicant
poverty;   need, lack, want
Far', Furu', Afru' Far‘, pl. Furú‘, Afru‘ twig, branch, bough, limb, (also colloquial) branches, twigs;   derivative;   section, subdivision;   branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch;   branch line, feeder line;   branch wire (electricity)
Farab Fáráb village 60 km south of Ardabíl, Írán
Farabi Fárábí Abú Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Al Fárábí (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Born in Fáráb or Fáryáb.
Faraburz, Fariburz Faráburz, Faríburz Pers.   glorious and mighty.   Name of a mighty champion and minister of Írán.
Farada, Faruda, Furud Farada and Faruda (Furúd) to be single, be alone;   to be singular, be unique;—farada (furúd) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Faraghih (Farugh) Farághih (Faraghe, Faragheh) village 160 km SW Yazd
Farah-Abad Faraḥ-Ábád “The Fair Abode of Joy”, palace near Tehran that was built by Muẓaffari’d-Dín
Farah, Afrah Faraḥ, pl. Afráḥ joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness;   wedding;—pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity;   wedding (feast)
Farahan Faráhán merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy.   County in Markazí Province, Írán.
Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Pers.   intelligent, wise;   near
Faraj Faraj freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering;   joy; relaxation;   relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort;   happy ending
Faraju'llah Faraju’lláh God’s relief or rescue
Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi Faraju’lláh Dhakí al Kurdí see Zakíy
Faraju'llah Tafrishi Faraju’lláh Tafríshí (MF) (from Tafrísh)
Faramarz Farámarz Pers.   keeper of a citadel or fortress;   name of the son of Rustam
Faramush Fáramúsh Pers.   forgotten, forgetfulness
Faramush-Khanih Farámúsh-Khánih Pers.   house of oblivion, Freemasonry headquarters, a corruption of franc-maçonnerie (Freemasonry)
Faran Fárán Pers.   small village in Ardistán.   Ar. for Párán desert, mountain, wilderness, etc.
Farang, Firing Farang (hence Farangí), Firing Pers.   from old French word franc (“Frank”), an Italian, European;   a Christian;   all nations that wear short garments;   ruddy, of pleasing aspect;   a galley.  See afranj and ifranjí
Faraqa, Farq, Furqan Faraqa (Farq, Furqán) to separate, part, divide, sever, sunder (something);   to make a distinction (between), distinguish, differentiate, discriminate (between).   See Furqán
Faraqlit Fáraqlíṭ (Fáriq+líṭ) defender, deputy, or intercessor;   a distinguisher between truth and error, i.e. Aḥmad, a name of Muḥammad.   Arabic rendering of the Greek Paráklētos (Paraclete)
Farasha, Farashah, Farashun Farásha (n. Faráshun), Pers. Farásháh moth;   butterfly;   flighty, fickle person.   Farásháh (now Islámiyih, Eslamiyeh) is a town SW of Yazd, Írán
Faraz Faráz Pers.   above, up, upon, on, upwards, aloft, on the top;   above and below, up and down;   back, behind;   after, hereafter
Farazistan Farázistán The heavenly world, title of a volume by Muḥammad Ismá’íl Khán
Fard, Furud
Farḍ, pl. Furúḍ
notch, incision;   duty, precept, injunction, order, decree, ordinance, command;   religious duty (Islamic Law);   statutory portion, lawful shore (Islamic Law);   assumption, supposition, presupposition, premise, postulate, hypothesis
Farda Fardá Pers.   tomorrow.   A reply sometimes given to creditors since it never arrives
Farhad Farhád Pers.   elation, happiness
Farhand Farhand Pers.   an excavation formed by a torrent;   an artificial canal newly dug;   a ditch;   a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another;   a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another;   anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang Farhang Pers.   good-breeding;   greatness;   excellence;   gravity;   wisdom, science;   jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary;   a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk;   a subterraneous canal
Farhangi Farhangí Pers.   A preceptor, tutor, teacher, instructor;   a man learned in the law.
Farid Faríd alone, lone, lonely, solitary;   singular, unique, matchless, peerless, unrivaled, incomparable
Farid Fáriḍ old, advanced in years
Farida, Fara'id Fará’id, pl. Fará’íd precious pearl, precious gem, solitaire;   (e.g.) quire (of paper).   Mírzá Faḍl’s Kitábu’l-Fará’íd (Book of peerless gems)
Faridani Farídání
Faridu'd-Din 'Attar Farídu’d-Dín ‘Aṭṭár Great Persian mystic poet “the druggist”
Fariq, Fawariq Fáriq, pl. Fawáriq distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative;—pl. a separating or distinctive factor;   distinctive characteristic, criterion;   difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Arabic for Persia, also Balad Fáris (land of Persia)
Faris, Fawaris Fáris, pl. Fawáris Pers.   Mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal;   a horseman, a cavalier;   a lion;   the Persians;   Persia.
Arabic for Persian;   a Persian
Farma Farmá One who issues orders.   From the infinitive Farmúdan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farmán-Farmá, the one who establishes order;   the Governor.
Farma Farma Pers.   violet
Farmahin, Farahan Farmahín, Farahán Farmahín is in Farahán County and is 40 km north of Arák, Írán
Farman-Farma Farmán-Farmá the one who establishes or issues the order;   the commander or governor.   Title of Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí-Sháh
Farman, Firman, Faraman Farmán, Per. also Firmán, pl. Farámán Royal decree, command, order or edict.   Ar.   plural also Faramát or Farámín
Farmaniyyih Farmáníyyih (“Farmanieh”) once a garden named after Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, now a district in NE of Teheran
Farnush Farnúsh Pers.   fem. name
Farrash-Bashi Farrásh-Báshí Head farrásh
Farrash, Farrashun Farrásh one who spreads the carpets;   servant, attendant;   house servant, valet;   office boy, errand boy
Farrukh Farrukh Pers.   Beautiful-faced;   happy, fortunate
Fars Fárs Pers.   Persia, Parthia.   Párs is the the proper and original name of this country, Arabs, who have not the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fárs
Fars-Namih Fárs-Námih
Farsakh, Farasikh Farsakh, pl. Farásikh Pers.   A parasang, a league, about 18,000 feet in length;   an hour;   a long time;   an interval;   a chink, cleft;   quiet, repose;   perpetual;   much.
Farsang Farsang Pers.   A parsang, league, about 5.5 km—the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour.   Derived from the Persian parsang (stone, sang, placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush Farsh, pl. Furúsh furnishing;   furniture, household effects;   mat, rug, carpet;   anything spread on the ground as bedding;   foundation (architecture)
Farsi Fársí modern Persian
Faruhar Farúhar Pers.   possibly a form of Furúhar (same consonants)
Faryab, Faryaw, Firyab Fáryáb, Fáryáw Pers.   ground watered by irrigation.   Fáryáb (also Fíryáb), name of village 140 km NE of Bandar-‘Abbás, Írán;   and another 195 km SW of Balkh, Afghánistán.
Pers.   worthy, suiting, befitting.   Dr Arbáb Farzám
Pers.   science, learning;   strength, constancy; wise, learned
Farzanih-Mu'ayyad Farzánih-Mu’ayyad
Fasa Fasá village (43 km SW of Iṣfahán) and district, Írán
purity of the language;   fluency, eloquence
Fashar, Fishar Fashar, Fishár Pers.   a scattering;   diffusion;   compression, constriction, squeezing;   the piercing of one thing with another
Fasih, Fusaha', Fisah, Fusuh Faṣíḥ, pl. Fuṣaḥá’, Fiṣáḥ, Fuṣuḥ pure, good Arabic (language), literary;   skilful in using the correct literary language;   clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech);   fluent, eloquent
Fasiq, Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa Fásiq, pl. Fásiqún, Fussáq, Fasaqa godless, sinful, dissolute, wanton, licentious, profligate, vicious, iniquitous, nefarious;   trespasser, offender, sinner;   fornicator, adulterer;   a person not meeting the legal requirements of righteousness (Islamic Law)
Fasl, Fusul Faṣl, pl. Fuṣúl parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off;   separation;   division, partition;   discharge, dismissal.—plural: section, part;   chapter;   act (of a play);   movement (of a symphony, etc.);   article (in a newspaper);   class, grade (school);   season.
Fasl al-Khitab, Faslu’l-Khitab Faṣl al-Khiṭáb, Pers. Faṣlu’l-Khiṭáb “sound or unmistakable judgement” (Fassl-ul-Khitab).  The Conclusive Proof or The Decisive Decree by Mírzá Faḍl
Fass, Fusus
Faṣṣ, pl. Fuṣúṣ
stone of a ring;   clove (of garlic);   segment (of an orange);   lobe (anatatomy, botanical);   joint;   essence
Fassala, Fussila Faṣṣala, Fuṣṣila to detail, to enumerate;   to expound, to elucidate, to explain;   to make understandable, to clarify;   to be made distinct
Fata Fatá’ youth, adolescence
not to cease, to be (something)
Fata'l-Malih Fata’l-Malíḥ
Fata'l-Qazvini Fata’l-Qazvíní
Fataha, Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fataḥa, Fatḥ, pl. Futuḥ, Futuḥát to open (something);   to turn on (a faucet);   to switch on, turn on (an apparatus);   to dig (a canal);   to build (a road);   to open, preface, introduce, begin (something);   to conquer, capture (something);   to reveal, disclose (to someone or something);   to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something;   of God).   Plural: conquest; victory, triumph;   alms;   donations, contributions
Fatama, Fatm Faṭama, Faṭm to wean (an infant or a young animal
Fath-'Ali Fatḥ-‘Alí
Fath-'Ali Shah Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh A Qájár king, father of Muḥammad Sháh.
Fath-al-Futuh Fatḥ-al-Futúḥ Victory of Victories
Fath-i-A'zam Fatḥ-i-A‘ẓam “Fatheazam”
Fatḥa(h or t)
the vowel point, the short vowel a (grammar).   See ḍamma and kasra
Fathu'llah Fatḥu’lláh “Victory of God”
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák-i-Qumí
Fathu'llah-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Qumí
Fatih Fátiḥ opener;   beginner;   conqueror, victor;   light (colour)
Fatiha, Fawatih Fátiḥa, pl. Fawátiḥ start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience;   introduction, preface, preamble, proem.   Al-Fátiḥa (or Al-Sab‘a Al Matḥání (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of Al-Fátiḥa must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur’án.   See Qur’án 15:87.
Fatim, Futum Faṭím, pl. Fuṭum weaned
Fatima, Fatimih or Fatimah Fáṭima (Fáṭimah), Pers, Fáṭimih (“One who weans”)   Fem. of ‘Fátim’.   Fáṭima was the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad and wife of the Imám ‘Alí.   Fáṭimih-Bagum was the mother of the Báb.   Fáṭimih Khánum (referred to as Mahd-i-‘Ulyá) (second wife of Bahá’u’lláh—daughter Ṣamadíyyih, son Muḥammad, son Ḍíyá’u’lláh, and son Badí’u’lláh)
Fatimi Fáṭimí Fatimid (adj. and n.).   Not Fáṭimid
Fatimiy-i-Ma'sumih Fáṭimiy-i-Ma‘ṣúmih DB 224 incorrect
Fatiq Fatíq unstitched, ripped, ripped open, slit, rent, torn;   sharp
Fatir Fáṭir originator or creator.   al-Fáṭir, the Creator (God)
Fatra, Fatarat Fatra, Fatarát lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility;   tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling);   (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause;   period, spell, while
Fattah Faṭṭáḥ an opener;   a conqueror;   a judge, an arbiter;   one of the names of God (al-Faṭṭáḥ);   name of a bird.   Derived from Fataḥa.
Fatwa, Fatva Pers., Fatawa Fatwá, pl. Fatáwá A judgement or sentence made by a Muslim muftí (and court)
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud Fayḍ, Pers. Fayẓ, pl. Fuyúḍ flood, inundation, deluge;   emanation;   superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance;   (pl.) stream
Fayd-i-Aqdas Fayḍ-i-Aqdas (“most holy outpouring”)   Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas (“holy outpouring”) and “most holy outpouring” (fayḍ-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitáb-i-Íqán), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.   Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation.   See Faiḍ.
Faydi (Faidi, Faizi), Fayzi Fayḍí, Pers. Fayẓí e.g. Afnán Fayḍí
Faydu’llah (Fazu’llah) Fayḍu’lláh Abundance from God
Fayha Fayḥá’ now known as Damascus (Summons of the Lord of Hosts para. 252)
Fi (prep.) in;   at;   on;   near, by;   within, during;   among, in the company of, with;   about, on;   concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles);   for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for;   according to;   in proportion to.
Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali Khalali and Fí Khiláli during;   in the course of, within, in a given period of
Fi'l Fi‘l, pl. Af‘ál, Afá‘íl activity, doing, work, action, performance;   function;— (pl. af‘ál, fi‘ál) deed, act, action;   effect, impact;— (pl. af‘ál) verb (gram.);—pl. afá‘íl great deeds, exploits, feats;   machinations
Fi's-Suluk Fi’s-Sulúk I and II “On the Virtuous Journey” (by the Báb)   [elided form of: fí as-Sulúk]
Fidal Fiḍál grace, favour.   Name given to Tuesday in Badí‘ calendar.   See Faḍíl
Fidda, Fiddih (Fizza) Fiḍḍa(h) (Pers. fem. Fiḍḍih) silver.   Name of the maid of the wife of the Báb.   Pers. may be written as Fiẓẓa.
Fikr Fikr meditation or reflection
Fí+kum, on you
Fil, Fiyala, Fuyul, Afyal Fíl, pl. Fiyala, Fuyúl, Afyál (ivory) elephant;   bishop (chess)
Fin Fín Fín Garden in Káshán, Írán
Findik Findík Turkish “hazelnut”
Fiqh Fiqh understanding, comprehension;   knowledge.   Islamic jurisprudence
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan) Firaydán (alt. pronunciation Farídán) Pers.   county in Iṣfahán Province.   The capital of the county is Dárán (or Dárún).
Firaydun Firaydún An ancient Persian king.
Firayjat Firayját A place where Bahá’u’lláh stayed.   It is 5 km north of the Riḍván Garden, Baghdád.
Firdaws-i-A'la Firdaws-i-A‘lá (“Supreme Paradise”)
Firdaws (Firdaus), Faradis al-Firdaws fem., pl. Farádís Paradise
Firdawsi Firdawsí paradisiacal, heavenly
Firishta, Firishtih, Firishtagan Firishta, Fem. Firishtih, pl. Firishtagán Pers.   an angel;   a messenger, apostle.   See Ar. Mal’ak/Malak
Firman Firmán Pers.   See Farmán
part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   herd, flock
Firqa, Firaq
Firqa, pl. Firaq
part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   class;   grade, class (in school);   pupils or students of a course;   troupe, ensemble;   team, crew;   division (military);   sect
Firuz Fírúz victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful;   victory;   prosperity;   the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year;   name of several Persian kings.   See Ẓáfir
Firuz-Kuh, Firuzkuh Fírúz-Kúh or Fírúzkúh village 125 km east of Teheran
Firuzabad Fírúzábád city 85 km south of Shíráz
Fishar-i-Qabr Fishár-i-Qabr Pers.   constriction in the grave.   Promised after death tortures leading to a fear of being squeezed in the grave.
Fitna, Fitan Fitna,  Pers. Fitnah, pl. Fitan temptation, trial;   charm, attractiveness;   enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation;   infatuation;   intrigue;   sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife.   Occurs when a Manifestation appears.   See also Imtiḥán.
Fitr Fiṭr breaking fast, alms giving at ‘Íd al-Fiṭr (a Muslim festival marking the end of Ramaḍán)
Fitr, Aftar Fitr, pl. Aftár small span (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended);   corner
Fitra, Fitar
Fiṭra(t), pl. Fiṭar
creation;   idiosyncrasy;   tendency;   wisdom, sagacity;   deceit, trick;   religion;   the power of the Creator;—(pl.) nature, (natural) disposition, constitution, temperament, innate character, instinct
Fitrat Fitrat Ar.   There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap.   Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Báb and the rise of Bahá’u’lláh.
Fizan,Fezan, Fezzan, Fizzan Fízán (Turkish), Fizzán (Ar.) “rough rocks”, south-western region of modern Libya. It is largely desert, but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (wadis) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara Desert.
Fu'ad, Af'ida Fu’ád, pl. Af’ida heart (Fuad)
Fu’adiyyih Fu’ádíyyih Daughter of Bahá’u’lláh and Munírih Khánum
Fulad, Fuladi Fúlád, adj. Fúládí and Fuládí steel, of steel, made of steel;   steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulan, Fulana Fulán, fem. Fulána (substituting for an unnamed or unspecified person or thing) so and so
Fulk Fulk (m. and f.) ship, (also collective) ships;   Ark (as in Noah’s)
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik) Funduq, Funduqa Pers.   hazelnut of filbert-nut;   a nut good against the sting of a scorpion;   a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow.   Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findík
Furat Furát Pers.   very fine, sweet water or waters;   the river Euphrates;   the sea
Furqan Furqán proof, evidence, discriminator.   An important attribute of al-Qur’án (see 2:185) is that of distinction (Furqán), for the word Qur’án describes how al-Qur’án is recited, whereas the word Furqán describes the criterion that distinguishes between truth (Ḥaqq) and falsehood (Báṭil) (see 25:1).   Name of súra 25.
Furugh Furúgh Pers.   splendour, light, brightness, flame
Furughi Furúghí (Forooghy)
Furughiyyih Furúghíyyih
Furuhar, Farawahar (Faravahar)
Furúhar, Farawahár
classical Pers.   matter, essence (distinguished from accident).   The new Persian reading of Furúhar (frwhr فروهر) is Farawahár, Faravahár, Forouhar. The Farawahár, also known as Farr-i-Kiyání (فرکیانی) or Ashu Farúhar, is one of the best-known symbols of Írán. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism and Iranian nationalism. The Farawahár is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (pindár-i-nik), good words (speech) (guftár-i-nik) and good deeds (kirdár-i-nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism.   The winged-disc symbol (“guardian angel”) of Zoroastrianism is traditionally interpreted as a depiction of a frawashi—the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living and yet-unborn.
Furutan Furútan (“The humble”)
Fususu'l-Hikam Fuṣúṣu’l-Ḥikam The Bezels of Wisdom by Ibnu’l-‘Arabí.   See Faṣṣ and Ḥikma
Futuhat-i-Makkiyyih Futúḥát-i-Makkíyyih “Conquests of Mecca” by Shaykh Ibnu’l-‘Arabí.   See Fataḥa and Makkí
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Gabr Gabr Pers.   originally an ancient Persian (i.e. a Zoroastrain), one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster (a priest of the worshippers of fire);   by the 13th century the word denoted a pagan, an infidel;   a plant resembling ginger;   a vest;   a stone.   After gabr came to have a pejorative implication, it was superseded in literature by the respectable Zartoshtí ("Zoroastrian”)
Gach Gach Pers.   a kind of white earth of which lime is made of;   a plaster of lime and gypsum mixed with sand and pounded marble.
Gaf Gáf Persian letter representing g—a form of the Arabic letter káf
Gelibolu, Turkey
Gand Gand Pers.   anything fetid, bad smell, stink, funk.   Can result from a mispronounciation of qand
Gandum Gandum Pers.   wheat
Gandum-Pak-Kun Gandum-Pák-Kun Mullá Muḥammad Ja‘far—the first person in Iṣfahán to accept the Faith of the Báb
Ganj Ganj Pers.   a store, hoard, hidden treasure;   a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse;   a mart;   a case
Ganja, Ganjih Ganja, Ganjih (Ganjeh) city of Ganja in Ádharbayján, mentioned in a number of Bahá’í books.   There are 6 villages in Írán with Ganjeh in their names.
Gallabiya, Gallabiyat, Galalib
Gallábíya (Eg. Ar.), pl. Gallábíyát, Galálíb
galabia or galabieh, a loose, shirt-like garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea.   See jillábíya
Pers.   a suffix that, subjoined to a word, denotes agency or possession
Garb Garb west;   occident;   vehemence, violence, impetuosity, tempestuousness;   al-Garb—the West, the Occident
Garbi Garbí western, westerly;   occidental, Western;   European;   an Occidental, a Westerner;—al-Garbíyún the Western Church (Christian)
Pers.   any standard of measure, whether for land, cloth, grain, liquids, or time;   a measure of time, twenty-two minutes and thirty seconds;   the itch, scab;   practice, trade, office
Garm Rud Garm Rúd (or Garmrúd) Village northern Írán (south of Sárí).   Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rúd)
Garm-Siri Garm-Sírí “warm place”
Gawhar (gohar, gauhar) Gawhar Pers.   a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone;   lustre of a gem or sword;   root, origin;   of a noble family;   essence, substance, form;   offspring;   any hidden virtue;   intellect, wisdom;   a substitute.   See Ar. jawhar
Gawhar Khanum Gawhar Khánum third wife of Bahá’u’lláh (broke Covenant after the passing of Bahá’u’lláh)—her daughter is Furúghíyyih
Gawhar-Shad Gawhar-Shád
Ghadir Khumm
Ghadír Khumm
Muḥammad gave a speech (during which he designated ‘Alí as the leader of the Muslim ummah) on 18th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjih ah 10 (ad 632) at Ghadír Khumm, which is near the city of al-Juhfah.
Ghadir, Ghudur, Ghudran Ghadír, pl. Ghudur, Ghudrán pond, pool, puddle;   stream, brook, creek, river
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufrán to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghaffar (“Gaffar”) Ghaffár readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)   ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
Ghafir Gháfir forgiving;   merciful, compassionate
readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)
Ghali Ghalí Pers.   dear, highly-priced
Ghali Ghálí Pers.   dear, costly, high-priced, precious, valuable;   one who exceeds bounds;   a fanatic, a zealot;   name of a poet
Ghalin, Ghulah Ghálin, pl. Ghuláh expensive, high priced;   valuable, costly;   dear, beloved;   (pl.) adherent of an extreme sect;   extremist, radical;   fanatic adherent, fanatic
Ghamam, Ghamamun, Ghama'im
Ghamám, pl. Ghamá’im
clouds (collective noun Ghamámun)
Ghani Ghaní Self-sufficient (able to do without, detached).   Khájih Ghaní or ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Baydún
Ghaní ad-Dahr
Ghaní ad-Dahr
the appreciative
Ghanim Ghánim Ar.   successful
Ghanima, Ghana'im
Ghaníma(h), pl. Ghaná’im
spoils, booty, loot, prey
Ghannam Ghannám shepherd.   House of Sulaymán-i-Ghannám in Baghdád.   See Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
Ghar, Aghwar, Ghiran Ghár, pl. Aghwár, Ghírán cave, cavern
Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, Ghiras Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, pl. Ghirás to plant, implant (something in);   to place, put, set, infix, interpose, interpolate, insert (something into).   Ghars and Gharasih (Pers.) have numerical values of 1260 and 1265 respectively.   See DB p. 50.
Gharasi Gharasí (numerical value of 1270)
Ghariq Gharíq Pers.   drowned, immersed.   Numerical value of 1310.   Nabíl drowned in AH 1310—the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghashiya, Ghawashin Gháshiya, pl. Ghawáshin pericardium;   misfortune, calamity, disaster;   faint, swoon;   insensibility, stupor;   servants, attendants, retinue, suit.   Al Gháshiyah, the overwhelming event, súra 88
Ghawgha' (Ghaugha') Ghawghá’ mob, rabble, riffraff, din, noise, clamour
Ghawr Ghawr place near Tiberias, Israel
Ghawth Ghawth call for help;   help, aid, succour
Ghawthiyyih Ghawthíyyih garden of Ghawthíyyih
Ghayb (Ghaib) Ghayb, pl. Ghuyúb absence;   hidden, concealed, invisible;   (pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible;   that which is transcendental, the supernatural;   divine secret.   (invisible realm)
Ghayba (Ghaiba) Ghayba absence;   concealment, invisibility;   occultation.   See Tablet of Aḥmad
Ghaybat (Ghaibat) Ghaybat being concealed, absent, invisible;   concealment, absence, invisibility;   ecstacies.   State of being hidden from view.
Ghaybat-i-Kubra Ghaybat-i-Kubrá Major Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat-i-Sughra Ghaybat-i-Ṣugh Minor Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaym (Ghaim), Ghuyum, Ghiyam Ghaym, pl. Ghuyúm, Ghiyám (collective) clouds;   mist, fog
Ghaym al-Raqiq Ghaym al-Raqíq thin cloud
Ghayn Ghayn Arabic letter transcripted as gh
Ghayr (Ghair)
other than (with dependent genitive), different from, unlike, no, not, non-, un-, in-, dis-;   (preposition) ghayra except, save, but
Ghayr Mutashabih
Ghayr Mutashábíh
Ghazal Ghazál A poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.   gazelle
Ghazi Ghází war lord, warrior champion
Ghazna Ghazná or Ghazní city Afghánistán
Ghazza Ghazza Gaza (seaport in the Gaza strip)
Ghazzi Ghazzí gauze
Ghina' Ghiná’ singing, song   (term normally used to denote music and the human chanting voice)
Ghirsh, Ghursh, Ghurush Ghirsh, Ghursh, pl. Ghurúsh silver coin, piaster
Ghiyath Ghiyáth help, succour.   Abjab 1,511
Ghulam al-Khuld Ghulám al-Khuld Tablet of the Deathless Youth by Bahá’u’lláh
Ghulam-Ahmad Ghulám-Aḥmad Mírzá Ghulám-Aḥmad of Qádíyán, India,(1839–1908). Followers later split into Aḥmadíyyah and Qádíyáníyyah
Ghulam-Husayn Ghulám-Ḥusayn
Ghulam-Rida Ghulám-Riḍá
Ghulam-Riday-i-Kuchik Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Kúchik
Ghulam-Riday-i-Yazdi Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Yazdí
Ghulam, Ghilman, Ghilma Ghulám, pl. Ghilmán, Ghilma boy, youth, lad;   slave;   servant, waiter
Ghulamu'llah Ghulámu’lláh servant of God.   son of Javáv-i-Qazvíní
Ghuluw Ghulúw exceeding of proper bounds, excess, extravagance;   exaggeration
Ghuluww, Ghaliyya Ghuluww, Gháliyya exaggeration, extremism
Ghusl, Aghsal
Ghusl, pl. Aghsál
washing, ablution;   the major ritual ablution, i.e., a washing of the whole body (Islamic Law);   wash water
Ghusn-i-A'zam Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám Greatest Branch
Ghusn-i-Mumtaz Ghuṣn-i-Mumtáz The Chosen Branch i.e. Shoghi Effendi
Ghusn, Ghusun, Aghsan Ghuṣn, pl. Ghuṣún, Aghṣán twig, bough, limb, branch.   Aghṣán (branches) denotes the sons and male descendants of Bahá’u’lláh
Ghusnu'llahu'l-A'zam Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam “The Greatest Branch of God”   BKG 250, 311, 420, 485
Ghusnu'llahu'l-Athar Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-Aṭhar “The Purest Branch of God”
Gilan Gílán A northern province of Írán on the Caspian Sea.
Giltughi Giltúghí Ḥájí Káẓim Giltúghí
Gird Gird Pers.   round;   a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit;   environs, parts adjacent;   a collection, assembly;   a host;   a city;   a tent, pavilion;   (adverb) around.   e.g. Kinár-Gird, a village where the Báb paused in His exile journey to Máh-Kú.
Pers.   a knot, a knur (as in a thread or on wood), a knob, a joint;   a button or anything for fastening garments;   a gland;   a kernel;   a purse;   an abscess;   a knuckle;   articulation;   three finger-breadths;   a difficulty;   the seed of a thorny tree used for tanning;   the heart
Giwah (Givah, Giveh, Giwa)
Pers.   a soft, comfortable, durable and hand woven-top shoe common in several parts of Írán especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kermanshah Province.
Gugan (Gavgan (Gav-Gan), Gavkan)
village 50 km SW of Tabríz.   Letters transcribe as “Gawgán”
Gul-i-Gulab Gul-i-Gulab Red Rose, literally, “the flower of the rose-water”.   See Jull and Julláb
Gul-Muhammad Gul-Muḥammad
Gul-Saba Gul-Sabá Pers.   Sheba rose (not Ṣabá as in Summon up remembrance)
Gul, Gulan Gul, pl. Gulán Pers.   a rose;   a flower;   embers;   a red colour
Guldánih ‘Alipúr
Pers.   speech, conversation;   a saying;   a chapter
Pers.   flower garden, rose garden;   place where flowers grow;   a celebrated Persian book in prose and verse, by Abú-Muḥammad Muṣliḥ al-Dín bin ‘Abdu’lláh Shírází (better known by his pen-name Saʻdí) (1175–1291).
Zabíḥu’lláh (Ar. Dhabíḥu’lláh) Gulmuḥammadí
Gulpaygan Gulpáygán a city in and the capital of Gulpáygán County, Iṣfahán Province, Írán (about 160 km NW of Iṣfahán)
Gulshan (Golshan) Gulshán Pers.   a rose or flower-garden;   a bed of roses or flowers;   a delightful spot;   a place where a person enjoys himself;   a pleasure-palace;   florid, cheerful, agreeable.   Former name of Ṭabas—city in South Khorasan Province, Írán.
Gulshani Gulshaní
Gumruk, Gamarik Gumruk, pl. Gamárik customs;   customhouse
Gunabad (Gonabad) Gunábád 225 km SW of Mashhad, Khurásán province
Gunjishk Gunjishk Pers.   a sparrow;   a chick;   any small bird
Guran Gúrán Pers.   the rendezvous of an army;   an assembly-room;   rice browned in the oven.   A village in Lorestan Province, 174 km SW Káshán.   DB 547
Gurgin (Gurgan, Gorgan) Gurgín or Gurgán city near Caspian Sea (formerly Astrabád or Astarábád)
Gurgin Khan Gurgín Khán Nephew and successor of Governor Manúchihr Khán in Iṣfahán.
Gusha Gushá Pers.   opening, loosening, solving
Gushtasb, Gushasb Gushtásb, Gushásb Pers.   an ancient king of Persia
Guzal Guzal (The Pass)   As in Ádí-Guzal, Sayyáh, the messenger.
Gyawur-Kyuy Gyáwur-Kyuy probably the Turkish village of Güneyli Köyü (“Southern Village”), 11 km north of Gallipoli
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ha, Ha'at Há’, pl. Ha’át Arabic letter
Ha, Had, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani look! there!   há huwa look, there he is!   há antum you there!   as a prefix (mostly written defectively): hádá, f. hádihí, hádí,—pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádání, f. hátáni this one, this
Habash, Ahbash
al-Ḥabash, pl. al-Aḥbash
Abyssinia, Ethiopia;—pl. the Abyssinians, Ethiopians
Habba, Hubb Ḥabba, Ḥubb to love, like;   to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone);   to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone);   to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba, Ḥabíb, pl. Aḥabbá, Aḥibba beloved, sweetheart, lover;   darling;   dear one, friend;   dear
Habibi Ḥabíbi, Pers. Ḥabíbih my love
Habibu'llah Ḥabíbu’lláh beloved of God
Habibu'llah-i-Afnan Ḥabíbu’lláh-i-Afnán, Ḥájí Mírzá
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar Ḥabr, Ḥibr, pl. Aḥbár a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe;   bishop;   rabbi
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi Hádá, fem. Hádihí, Hádí, pl. Há’ulá’i this one, this
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont. dual m. Hádání, f. Hátáni
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Hádá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádihí, hádí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual masc. hádáni, dual fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadatha, Huduth
Ḥadatha (Ḥudúth)
to happen, occur, take place, come to pass.   Root of ḥadíth
Hadba, Ahdab Ḥadbá’, fem. Aḥdab, pl. Ḥudb hunchbacked, humped.   The historic Great Mosque of al-Núrí in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname “the hunchback” (al-Ḥadbá’).   See root word Ḥadiba
Hadd, Hudud Ḥadd, pl. Ḥudúd (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   edge, border, brink, brim, verge;   border (of a country), boundary, borderline;   limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus;   a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained);   (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion);   divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God);   legal punishment (Islamic Law)
a director, leader, guide;   one who enjoys rest or peace;   the neck;   head or point of an arrow;   an ox in the centre of a threshing-floor, round which the other oxen move when treading out the grain
Hadiba, Hadab Ḥadiba, (verbal noun Ḥadab) to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward;   to be hunchbacked;   to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadid, Hada'id Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥadá’id iron;—pl. iron parts (of a structure);   forgings, hardware, ironware
Hadid, Hidad, Ahidda Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥidád, Aḥiddá’, Aḥidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.), keen (mind)
Hadiqat Ḥadíqat an inclosed garden;   an orchard, a palm-plantation;   name of a village near Madína
Hadiqatu'r-Rahman Ḥadíqatu’r-Raḥmán the Orchard of the Merciful
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara Ḥáḍir, pl. Ḥuḍḍar, Ḥuḍúr, Ḥaḍara present;   attending;   (pl. ḥuḍḍár, ḥaḍara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic.   See ḥáẓir
Ḥádith, Ḥawádith, also Ḥáditháth
occurring, happening, taking place;   new, recent;   fresh;—(pl.) occurrence, incident, event, happening;   episode;   case (jurisprudence) accident, mishap
Hadith-i-Jabir Ḥadíth-i-Jábir
Hadith, Ahadith Ḥadíth, pl. Aḥádíth, Ḥádithán speech;   chat, chitchat, small talk;   conversation, talk, discussion;   interview; prattle, gossip;   report, account, tale, narrative;   Prophetic tradition, Hadith, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions.   Root of Ḥadíth is ḥadatha.   Aḥádíth are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad and the Imáms.   Two distinct types: al-Ḥadíth an-Nabawí and al-Ḥadíth al-Qudsí. The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muḥammad (a Ḥadíth where one of the Companions reports Muḥammad’s statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration.
Haditha, Hawadith Ḥáditha, pl. Ḥawádith occurrence, event, happening;   plot (of a play);   incident, episode;   accident, mishap
Hadiy-i-Dawlat-Abadi Hádíy-i-Dawlat-Ábádí
Hadiy-i-Nahri Hádíy-i-Nahrí (MF)
Hadiy-i-Qazvini Hádíy-i-Qazvíní
Hadiya Ḥadiya to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place).   Name given as location where of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, the leader of the Shaykhís, died. It is near the tomb of Muḥammad in Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí‘ in Medina.
Hadiya, Hadaya Hadíya, pl. Hadáyá gift, present, donation;   offering, sacrifice
Hadiya, Hadiyat Hádiyat, Hádiya, fem. Hádíyyih Pers.   the leader of a flock;   a stick, staff
Hadra (Hadrat), Hazrat Ḥaḍra(t), Pers. Ḥaẓrat presence, threshold;   dignity;   majesty;   dominion, power;   an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity;   also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship.   Used broadly by mystics as a synonym of ḥuḍúr, “being in the presence [of Alláh]”.   Holiness (‘his excellency’ or ‘his honour’).   Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut Ḥaḍramawt, Hadhramaut a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula—part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Húd)
Hadrat-i-A'la or Hadrat-i-'Ala Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá “His Holiness the Most Exalted One” (a designation of the Báb)
Hadrat-i-Mubashshir Ḥaḍrat-i-Mubashshir “His holiness the Herald”
Hadratu’llah (Hazratu’llah) Ḥaḍratu’lláh The Lord God
Hafiz Ḥáfiẓ a keeper, preserver, guardian;   a commander, governor;   the Preserver of all things (God);   gifted with a good memory;   one who has by heart the whole Qurʼán;   a blind man (because such fall frequently under the preceding category);   pen name of the greatest lyric, mystical poet of Persia, Khwája Shams al-Dín Muḥammad Ḥáfíẓ-i-Shírází (1320–1390), author of odes in the ghazal form. The Tomb of Ḥáfiẓ and its associated memorial hall, the Ḥáfiẓih, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shíráz, in his memory.
Hafizu's-Sihhih Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Rahím Khán Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih, Bahá’í World, vol. ix, pp. 613–4.
Haft-Dast Haft-Dast Pers.   seven hands
Haft-Vadi Haft-Vádí (Seven Valleys) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Hahut Háhút (realm of the “Absolute Unknown”, where God’s essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity).   See Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút.
Haifa Ḥaifá’ Haifa
Haira, Hairat
Ḥaira (Ḥairat)
confusion, perplexity, bewilderment, embarrassment, helplessness, embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
Hagar, wife of Abraham and the mother of Ismá‘íl
Hajar, Hijarat, Ahjar, Hijar
Ḥajar, pl. Ḥijára(t), Aḥjár, Ḥijár
stone;   the philosopher’s stone;   weight (placed as an equipoise on the scale of a balance)
Hajar al-Aswad
al-Ḥajar al-Aswad
Pers.   al-Ḥajaru’l-Aswad.   the Black Stone of the Ka‘ba at Mecca.   Size about 160 (6.3”) x 200 (7.9”) mm
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran
Hajara, Hajr, Hijrán
to emigrate;   to dissociate oneself, separate, part, secede, keep away
Haji Shah-Muhammad
Ḥájí Sháh-Muḥammad
Sháh-Muḥammad Manshadí, Amín’l-Bayán (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Hajib, Hujjab Ḥájib, pl. Ḥujjáb, Ḥajaba concealing, screening, protecting;   doorman, gatekeeper;   court official, equivalent to a chamberlain
Hajibu'd-Dawlih Ḥájibu’d-Dawlih
Hajj (Haji), Hajjaj, Hajij Ḥájj (Pers. Ḥájí), pl. Ḥujjáj, Hajíj pilgrim;   hadji;   Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajj, Hijja, Hijaj Ḥajj, Ḥijja, pl. Ḥijaj pilgrimage (to Mecca)
Hajr Hajr abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation;   avoidance, abstention;   separation from the beloved one;   hottest time of the day.   Variation hijr.
Hakam, Hukkam Ḥakam, pl. Ḥukkam arbitrator, arbiter;   umpire, referee
Hakim-Bashi Ḥakím-Báshí Chief physician
Hakim-Ilahi Ḥakím-Iláhí the Divine Philosopher
Hakim, Hukama' Ḥakím, pl. Ḥukamá’ wise, judicious;   wise man, sage;   philosopher;   physician, doctor.   al-Ḥakím, the divine name for the All-Wise.
Hakiman Ḥakímán Raḥmatu’lláh Ḥakímán
Hakkak Ḥakkák a jeweller;   a polisher of precious stones;   a borer of pearls;   a lapidary
Hal, Ahwal
Ḥál m. and f., pl. Aḥwál
condition, state;   situation;   position, status;   circumstance;   case;   present, actuality (as opposed to future);   circumstantial expression or phrase (grammar);—pl. conditions, circumstances;   matters, affairs, concerns;   cases;   ḥála (preposition) during;   immediately upon, right after;   just at;   in case of …, in the event of …, ḥálan presently, immediately, at once, right away, without delay;   now, actually, at present.   Pers. Ḥal-i-Shumá, (pl.) Aḥwál-i-Shumá (How are you?)
Hala, Halat
Ḥála, pl. Ḥálát
condition, state;   situation;   (possible, actual) case;   ḥálata (preposition) during.—pl. states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the Ṣúfí spiritual journey
Halab Ḥalab milk
Halabi Ḥalabí belonging to a milch cow;   native of Aleppo;   white iron, tin-plate
Halal Ḥalál that which is allowed, permitted or permissible;   allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate;   lawful possession
Halat Ḥálát (states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the Ṣúfí spiritual journey)
Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat Halih-Halih-Yá-Bishárát “Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Halim, Hulama Ḥalím, pl. Ḥulamá mild, mild-tempered, gentle;   patient;   forbearing
Hallaj Ḥalláj cotton ginner
Halqa, Halaqa, Halaq, Halaqat
Ḥalqa(t), Ḥalaqa pl. Ḥalaq, Ḥalaqát
ring (also earring, etc.);   link (of a chain);   circle (also of people);   group of students studying under a professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., at Al Azhar University);   part of a sequence or series;   ringlet;   disk;   decade;   market
Halqat adh-Dhahabiyya
al-Ḥalqat adh-Dhahabiyya
the golden circle
Hama, Hamw Hamá, Hamw to flow;   to pour forth
Pers.   a village in Írán
Hamadan Hamadán “quelled or subsided”   A town in Írán, originally Ecbatana of the ancient Medes.
Hamam, Hamamat, Hama'im Ḥamám, pl. Ḥamámát, Ḥamá’im (Ar.)   dove, pigeon
Haman Hamán Pers.   only, solely;   self-same, all one, one and the same, even that, that very;   in this manner, exactly so, thus, equally;   always, continually.   Name of Abraham's brother;   name of Pharaoh's vizier;   name of a place in Kirmán where Sháh Niʻmatu’lláh Walí is buried
Hamaza, Hamz Ḥamaza, Ḥamz to bite, or burn, the tongue (taste)
Hamaza, Hamz Hamaza, Hamz to prick;   to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something);   to spur (one’s horse);   (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hamd Ḥamd commendation, praise, laudation
Hamdan Ḥamdán praise, one who praises (God)
Hamdu lillah, al- al-Ḥamdu Lilláh thank God!   praise be to God!   praised be the Lord!   “Alhamdulillah”
Hamdu’llah Ḥamdu’lláh Praise of God
Hamid Ḥámid one who praises, a praiser
Hamid, amida (Hamidih, Hamideh) Ḥamíd, fem. Ḥamída (Pers. Ḥamídih) praiseworthy, laudable, commendable;   benign, harmless (disease)
Hammal Ḥammál Pers.   a porter, carrier of burdens
Hammam Hammám careworn, worried;   anxious, solicitous;   eager, active, energetic
Hammam Ḥammám, pl. Ḥammámát bath;   swimming pool;   spa, watering place (public baths) (error in Bahá’í writings—the underdot is omitted)
Hamsaya, Hamsayagan
Hamsáya, pl. Hamsáyagán
Pers.   under the same shade, i.e. neighbouring, neighbour
Hamza, Hamazat Hamza, pl. Hamazát Arabic glottal stop consonant that is pronounced as an a.   Since a hamza is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes it is disregarded. Thus, Bahá’ (the hamza is usually dropped) can be read as either eight or nine.
Hamza, Hamzah (Hamzeh) Ḥamza(h) derived from the Arabic word ḥamuza, meaning strong or steadfast.   Muḥammad’s uncle, Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib.
Hana Ḥaná to bend, curve, twist, turn;   to lean, incline (toward someone);   to feel for someone, sympathize (with someone), commiserate, pity (someone), feel compassion, feel pity (for someone)
Hana-Sab Ḥaná-Sáb Muḥammad-i-Ḥaná-Sáb
Hanabali, Hanabilat Ḥanabalí, pl. Ḥanábila(t) Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to the madhab of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal;   puritanical, strict in religious matters;—(pl.) Hanabalites, followers of Aḥmad ibn Ḥambal.   A system of traditional Sunní jurisprudence—smallest of the four (Ḥanabalí, Ḥanafí, Málikí and Sháfi‘í)
Hanafi, Hanafiun Ḥanafí, pl. Hanafíún, Ḥunafá’ orthodox.   One of the four religious Sunní Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).   It is named after the scholar Abú Ḥanífa an-Nu‘man ibn Thábit.
Hanafiya, Hanafiyya Ḥanafíya(t), Ḥanafiyya(t) true religion, orthodoxy
Hanbal Ḥanbal Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal
Hani, Hani'a
Háni’, fem. Háni’a
happy, delighted, glad;   servant;   fem. servant girl, maid
healthful, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, beneficial;   pleasant, agreeable;   easy, smooth, comfortable
Hanif, Hunafa’
Ḥaníf, pl. Ḥunafá’
true believer, orthodox;   one who scorns the false creeds surrounding him and professes the true religion;   true (religion)
al-ḥanífa as-samḥá’ the true and tolerant (religion. i.e., Islám).   Abú Ḥanífah or Ḥanífih (Pers. forms)
the true (i.e., Islamic) religion
village in Kirman Province, Írán (also known as Hamzá). About 110 km south of Kirmán.
Ḥanẓala Ibn Abí ʿÁmir, one of the companions of Muḥammad
probably should be Ḥaqqání
Haqiq, Ahiqqa'
Ḥaqíq, pl. Aḥiqqá’
worthy, deserving (of something), fit, competent, qualified;   entitled (to)
Haqiqa, Haqa'iq
Ḥaqíqa(t), pl. Ḥaqá’iq
truth, reality (also philosophy);   fact; the true state of affairs, the facts;   true nature, essence;   real meaning, true sense.   The object of the mystic searcher (ṣúfí).   Ḥaqíqa ends with a tá’ marbúṭa, hence other forms are ḥaqíqat and ḥaqíqah
real, true;   actual;   proper, intrinsic, essential;   genuine;   authentic;   positive
Haqq (Haq), Huquq
Ḥaqq, Pers. also Ḥaq, pl. Ḥuqúq
truth;   correctness, rightness;   rightful possession;   property;   ones due;   duty;   proper manner;   true, authentic, real;   right, fair and reasonable;   correct, sound, valid;   al-Ḥaqq an attribute of God;—pl. right, title, claim, legal claim.   Persian: name of a bird said to suspend itself by tbe claws at night and continually to cry ḥaq ḥaq.
Haqqa (Haqqah or Haqqat)
Ḥáqqa(h) or Ḥáqqa(t)
that which sorts out truth from falsehood;   that which is inevitable (an epithet of the Day of Judgement).   Qur’án 69.   The Sure Reality or the Reality
really, in reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in truth;   justly, rightly, by rights
correct, right, proper, sound, valid, legitimate, legal
Haqqu'llah, Huququ'llah
Ḥaqqu’lláh, pl. Ḥuqúqu’lláh
“Right(s) of God”
Harah, Harat Haráh, Pers. Harát Herat (city in NW Afghanistan)
Haram ash-Sharif al-Ḥaram ash-Sharíf “the Noble Sanctuary” or Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Haram-i-Aqdas Ḥaram-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts)   Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.   NW quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí in the immediate area surrounding the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
Haram-i-Fatima-i-Ma'sumih Ḥaram-i-Fáṭima-i-Ma‘súmih Pers.   Shrine of Fáṭima al-Ma‘súmih, sister of Imám ‘Alí ar-Riḍá (8th Imám), in Qum, Írán.   See Ma‘súmih
Haram, Ahram
Haram, pl. Ahrám, Ahrámát
Haram, Ahram Ḥaram, pl. Aḥrám forbidden, prohibited, interdicted;   taboo; holy, sacred, sacrosanct;   something sacred, sacred object;   sacred possession;   wife;   sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct.   [Ar.]   The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar.   Compare with Ḥill
Haram, Hurum Ḥarám, pl. Ḥurum forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful;   something forbidden, offense, sin;   inviolable, taboo;   sacred, sacrosanct;   cursed, accursed
Mecca and Madína, the two sacred cities
Haramayn (Haramain) al-Ḥaramayn (dual pl. form of Ḥaram, sanctuary) “The Two Holy Places” or “The Two Sanctuaries”, traditional Islamic appellations of the two holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.   The “Twin Sacred Shrines” now refers to the places in Shíráz where the Báb was born and where He made His public declaration.
Harati Harátí from Herat, Írán
of Herat
war, warfare, battle, conflict;   an enemy;   a proper name
Harf-i-Baqa Ḥarf-i-Baqá (“Letter of Eternity”)
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf Ḥarf, pl. Ḥiraf, ḥurúf, aḥruf (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   sharp edge;   border, edge, rim, brink, verge;   (pl. ḥurúf, aḥruf) letter;   consonant;   particle (grammar);   type (typography)
Hargah (Har-gah)
Pers.   whenever, wherever;   constantly
Harith (Haritha(h)), Hurrath
Ḥárith, pl. Ḥurráth
ploughman, cultivator, farmer.   Banú al-Ḥárith Jewish tribe of Arabia.   Naḍr-ibn-i-Ḥárith: religious leader during the time of Muḥammad.   Zayd ibn Ḥáritha(h) (c. ce 581–629) a companion of Muḥammad and adopted as his son. He is the only Muslim apart from Muḥammad who is mentioned by name (as Zayd) in the Qur'án (33:37).
excitement, agitation, commotion;   disorder, muddle, confusion.   al-Harj can be interpreted as “killing”.
Pers.   Aaron;   chief, leader;   a messenger, courier;   helplessness, indigence;   astonishment;   amazement
Harunu'r-Rashid Hárúnu’r-Rashíd Aaron the Just.   Fifth Abbasid Caliph
Harut Hárút name of an angel, who, together with another named Márút (Qur’án 2:102), having severely censured mankind before the throne of God, was sent with him down to earth in human shapes to judge of the temptations to which man is subject. They could not withstand them: they were seduced by women, and committed every kind of iniquity; for which they were suspended by the feet in a well in Babylon, where they are to remain in great torment till the day of judgement. They are said to be teachers of magic to man.   See Márút
Hasan, Hisan Ḥasan, pl. Ḥisán beautiful, handsome, lovely;   pretty, nice;   good, agreeable;   excellent, superior, exquisite.   Ḥasan is the name of the second Imám.
Hasana, Husn
Ḥasana (Ḥusn)
to be handsome, beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good;   to be expedient, advisable, suitable, proper, fitting;   to be in a proper state, be in a desirable condition
Hasan-'Ali Ḥasan-‘Alí
Hasan-'Amu Murtada Ḥasan-‘Amú Murtaḍá (MF)
Hasan-Abad (Hasanabad) Ḥasan Ábád an old and historical area to the north side of Ṭihrán
Hasan-i-'Ammu Ḥasan-i-‘Ammú
Hasan-i-Hakim-Bashi Ḥasan-i-Ḥakím-Báshí
Hasan-i-Khurasani Ḥasan-i-Khurásání
Hasan-i-Mazindarani Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání
Hasan-i-Niku Ḥasan-i-Níkú
Hasan-i-Safa Ḥasan-i-Ṣafá
Hasan-i-Vazir Ḥasan-i-Vazír
Hasan-i-Zunuzi Ḥasan-i-Zunúzí
Hasani Ḥasaní
Hasanzadih-Shakiri Ḥasanzádih-Shákirí (Ḥasan-i-Zádih-Shákirí)
Hashara, Hashr Ḥashara, Ḥashr 1. to gather, assemble, rally (people), raising from the dead;   to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together);   to squeeze, press, force, stuff.
2. migration, evacuation, exile.
Hashim shim breaker of bread into broth;   surname of an ancestor of Muḥammad, on account of his doing so for the benefit of the poor at the time of a great famine.   Of Shem.   The Baní-Háshim were Muḥammad’s ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia.   From ‘hashama’, “to destroy or smash to pieces”.
Hashimi, Hashimite shimí Hashemite, member of the Baní-Háshim
Hashish, Hasha'ish Ḥashísh, pl. Ḥashá’ish herbs, grasses;   weeds;   hay;   hemp (Cannabis sativa), hashish, cannabis;   stillborn child.   Known by many names in Persia: ‘Parrot of all mysteries’, or plain ‘Mysteries’; or ‘Secrets’, or ‘Master Siyyid’—it being green, and the Siyyids, descendants of the Prophet, wear a turban as green as parrot feathers. (An ode of Ḥáfiẓ which must have puzzled translators is addressed to hashish and begins, ‘O thou parrot, speaker of secrets, may thy beak never lack for sugar!’) Summon up remembrance, p. 87.
Hashiya, Hawashin Ḥashiya, pl. Ḥawashin border;   seam, hem;   edge;   margin (of a book);   marginal gives;   marginal notes;   commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary;   footnote;   postscript;   retinue, entourage, suite, servants;   dependents;—pl. critical apparatus
Hashshash, Hashshashun (Hashshashin) Ḥashshásh, pl. Ḥashsháshún smoker or chewer of hashish, hashish addict.   Assassins (Ḥashsháshín, from Assassiyun—“those faithful to the foundation”) is a name used to refer to medieval Nizárí (an-Nizáriyyún) Ismailis (Ismá‘íliyyún).
Hasht Hasht eight
Hasht Bihisht Hasht Bihisht The eight paradises by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Hasib, Husaba'
Ḥasíb, pl. Ḥusabá
respected, esteemed;   noble, of noble birth, highborn.   Also a revenger or resenter of an injury;   a reckoner (al-Ḥasíb a name of God).
Hast Hast Pers.   is, exists, remains;   existence, being.   hastam (I am), hastí (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastím (we are), hastíd (you are), hastand (they are)
Hasur Ḥaṣúr Pers.   close, avaricious
Hasuri Ḥaṣúrí
Hatim-i-Ta'i Ḥátim-i-Ṭá’í Arab poet known for his generosity/liberality.
Hatim, Hatam Ḥátim, Pers. Ḥátam Who or what renders necessary;   one who decrees, ordains or pronounces judgement;   a judge;   a black crow, “the raven of separation”;   name of a man of the Arabian tribe Tayy, celebrated for his liberality
wood gatherer;   wood-cutter, lumberjack;   vendor of firewood
Hauran Ḥaurán the Hauran, a mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N Jordan.   The Druze of the area.
Hawdaj (Haudaj) Hawdaj, pl. Hawádij camel litter, howdah;   sedan chair, litter.   Carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Hawl (Haul), Ahwal, Hu'ul
Hawl, pl. Ahwál, Hu’úl
terror, fright, alarm, shook, horror, dismay; power
Haww Ḥawwá’ Eve
Hayat Ḥayát Life, existence
Hayat-Quli Khan Ḥayát-Qulí Khán Governor of Karand and a member of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís, a sect that equates Imám ‘Alí with God.
Hayawan, Hayawanat
Ḥayawán, pl. Ḥayawánát
animal, beast;   (collectively) animals, living creatures
Haydar Ḥaydar Pers.   a lion;   a proper name
Haydar-'Ali Ḥaydar-‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá Born into Shaykhí family of Iṣfahán
Haydari Ḥaydarí
Hayf (Haif) Ḥayf (pun on the name Haifa)   Pers.   practising injustice;   injustice, violence, oppression;   revenge;   a pity;   alas! what a pity
Hayiya, Hayya, Yahya, Hayah Ḥayiya, Ḥayya, Yaḥyá (Ḥayáh) to live;   ḥayya to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time);   li-yaḥya l-malik (lit. to life the king) long live the king!   ḥayiya, yaḥyá (ḥayá’) to be ashamed (of;   because of)   Form II ḥayyá to keep (someone) alive, grant (someone) a long life;   to say to someone: may God preserve your life!;   to greet, salute (someone)   Form IV aḥyá to lend life (to someone, to something), enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with life, call into being (something), give birth (to);   to revive, reanimate, revivify (something), give new life (to);   to put on, produce, stage, arrange (e.g., a theatrical performance, a celebration, and the like);   to celebrate (something, also a festival).
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil Haykal, pl. Hayákil temple;   large building, edifice;   altar;   skeleton;   framework (of a structure), frame;   chassis (of an automobile);   colossal, gigantic, huge.   A broader definition given by Steingass: a figure, image, face, form, stature or shape of the body;   a long or tall horse;   anything large-sized;   a giant;   a tall plant;   a temple of idolaters;   a palace, stately edifice;   a Christian church;   a monastery;   an amulet or talisman inscribed with magic figures, hung round the body, as a defence against fascination or misfortune.
Haykalu't-tawhid Haykalu’t-tawḥíd “posture of unity”, or freely translated as cross-legged
Haytham (Haitham)
young eagle.   Abú ‘Alí al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (c.  965–c.  1040), Muslim Arab scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher.
Hayy Ḥayy, pl. Aḥyá’ living, live, alive;   lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed;   living being, organism;   tribe, tribal community;   block of apartment houses;   section, quarter (of a city).   al-Ḥayy, divine name the Ever-Living
Hayyan Ḥayyán lively, energetic.   Abú Músá Jábir ibn Hayyán (Geber)
Hazar (Hizar) Hazár Pers.   a thousand;   a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale;   a term employed in the game of nard
Hazir, Haziran Ḥáẓir, pl. Ḥáẓirán present, at hand, ready, prepared;   at the service of, willing, content;   (in grammar) the present tense;   the second person;   a large tribe.   Pl.   the people present, the audience.   See ḥáḍir
Hazira, Haza'ir Ḥaẓírá, pl. Ḥaẓa’ir enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge;   compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, pen, paddock, coop;   hangar, shed;   field, domain, realm (fig.)
Pers.   a city, a fixed residence
Ar.   the Sacred Fold or Paradise.   Title given to Bahá’í administrative headquarters
Hiba, Hibat
Hiba(t), pl. Hibát
gift, present, donation, grant
gift from God
guidance, showing the way and guiding in the right path to the goal of perfection
Guidance of God
preservation;   maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding;   protection, defence, guarding;   custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage;   retention;   observance, compliance (with);   memorizing, memorization;   memory;   (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation)
alphabetical;   satiric.   Modern dictionaries and other reference books use the hijá’í order wherein the Arabic letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape.
Ḥijáb, pl. Ḥujub, Aḥjiba
cover, wrap, drape;   curtain;   woman’s veil;   screen, partition, folding screen;   barrier, bar;   diaphragm.   A veil that covers the head and chest.
“barrier”.   al-ḥijáz (Hejaz) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
forbidden, interdicted, prohibited;   northern wall of the Ka‘ba;   lap; mare.   Name of chapter 15 of the Qur’án (from 15:80, which refers to the rocky country of the Thamúd tribe to the north of al-Madínah) and translated as “rocky tract”.
departure, exit;   emigration, exodus;   immigration to;   al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in ad 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri Hijrí of the Hegira pertaining to Muḥammad’s emigration in ad 622.   A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muḥammad’s emigration.   Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya Hijríya Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in ad 873 (ah 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikam Abu’l-Ḥikam “the Father of Wisdoms”.   See Ḥikma
Hikaya, Hikayat
Ḥikáya, pl. Ḥikáyát
story, tale, narrative, account;   (grammar) literal quotation (of the words of others)
Hikma Ḥikma, Pers. Ḥikmat, pl. Ḥikam prudence and wisdom, philosophy
Hikmat-i-Ishraqi Ḥikmat-i-Ishráqí (Hekmat-i-Eshrakieh)—a system of old philosophies
Hila, Hiyal, Ahayil
Ḥíla, pl. Ḥiyal, Aḥáyíl
artifice, ruse, stratagem, manoeuver, subterfuge, wile, trick;   device, shift;   a means to accomplish an end;   expedient, makeshift, dodge, way-out;   legal stratagem (for the purpose of in fraudem legis agere (in circumvention of the rules of law)
Hill Ḥill Pers.   being lawful;   a lawful thing;   the dissolution of an oath;   doffing the pilgrim's garb;   a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin Ḥill, Ḥillin he was free to …, he was at liberty to …;   he had free disposal of ….   The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months.   Compare with Ḥaram.
Hillah, Hilla, Hillih Ḥillah or Ḥilla, Pers. Ḥillih A city in central ‘Iráq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdád
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam Ḥilm, pl. Ḥulúm, Aḥlám gentleness, clemency, mildness;   forbearance, indulgence;   patience;   insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hilmi Ḥilmí
Himar, Hamir, Humur, Ahmira Ḥimár, pl. Ḥimár, Ḥamír, Ḥumur, Aḥmira donkey, ass
Himma, Himam Himma, pl. Himam endeavor, ambition
Himmat-Abad Himmat-Ábád city in Raḍawí Khurásán Ústán Province, Írán
Himyari Ḥimyarí Ḥarbí al-Ḥimyarí was an Arab scholar from Yemen
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin Ḥín, pl. Aḥyán, Aḥáyín time;   propitious time, good time, opportunity.   Abjab value of ḥín is 68. Hence, the “year of Ḥín” refers to ah 1268 or ad 1851–52.   Hin is an ancient Hebrew liquid measurement (mentioned in the Bible) of 3.8 to 6 litres.
Hind al-Hind, Pers. Hind India;   the (East) Indians.   Name of a wife of Abú Sufyán
Hindi, Hunud Hindí, pl. Hunúd Ar.   Indian
Hindiya (Hindiyyih) al-Hindiya(h) (Pers. Hindíyyih 1. city (on the Euphrates River, 20 km se Karbilá) and district in the Karbilá Governorate. The city used to be known as Ṭuwaíríj.
2. Saddat al-Hindíya(h) is a city on the Euphrates River in Iraq, 25 km ne of Karbilá and 8 km south of Musayyib (المسيب). Name derived from the Arabic word for “Indian”, in reference to the dozens of Indian manual labourers imported to the area by the British post World War i, to work on the cities vast agricultural lands.
Hindiyan (Hindian, Hinijan) Hindíyán (Hindíján) (Hendijan, Hendian) a city in and the capital of Hendijan County, Khuzestan Province, sw Írán
Hindu, Hinduwan Hindú, pl. Hinduwán (Pers.)   Indian;   black;   servant;   slave;   robber;   infidel;   watch-man
Hindustan Hindústán Pers.   India
Hiqf, Ahqaf Ḥiqf, pl. Aḥqáf wavy heap of sand;—pl. hills of sand extending a great way; name of a large district in Arabia formerly inhabited by the people of ʻÁd. Qur’án 46: al-Aḥqáf “The Wind-curved Sand Hills” or “The Winding Sand-tracts”
Hira Ḥirá’ Ghár Ḥirá’ (the Cave of Hira) is located on the western side of Jabal Ḥirá’ (Mount Hira), which is on the north side of Mecca. The mountain was renamed Jabal al-Núr (Mountain of Light) after Muḥammad’s revelation in the cave.
Hirat Hirát Herat, Afghánistán
Hirbud Hirbúd [Herbod or Herbud]—the mystics and holy people
Hirih Ḥírih a city
Hirman Ḥirmán deprivation, bereavement, dispossession (of someone, of something) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (from);   excommunication (Christian);   privation
Hisab, Hisabat Ḥisáb, pl. Ḥisábát arithmetic, reckoning, calculus;   computation;   calculation, estimation, appraisal;   accounting, settlement;   consideration;   caution;— (pl.) bill, invoice;   statement of costs (bank) account
Hisami Ḥisámí See Ḥusám
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina Ḥiṣán, pl. Ḥuṣun, Aḥsina horse;   stallion;   Ḥiṣán al-baḥr: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisar Ḥiṣár block, blockage, barrier;   blockade;   siege.   A town in Khurásán province.
Hisham Hishám Pers.   beneficence, liberality.   Hishám ibn ‘Abdu’l-Malik, 10th Umayyad Caliph
Hishmat Ḥishmat decorum, chastity, bashful, modesty (fem.)
Hishmatu'd-Dawlih Ḥishmatu’d-Dawlih
Hishmatu'llah Ḥishmatu’lláh “chaste one of God”
Hisn, Husun Ḥiṣn, pl. Ḥuṣún fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold;   fortification, entrenchment;   protection
Hitta Ḥiṭṭa alleviation, relief, mitigation;   abasement, debasement, demotion, degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige);   humiliation, insult, indignity
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum Ḥizám, pl. Ḥizámát, Aḥzima, Ḥuzum belt, girth;   girdle;   cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it);   sword belt
Hizar Hizár Ar.   joking, jesting, fun-making.   Used in Persian with the same meaning as Hazár
Hizar Dastan Hizár Dastán Pers.   “thousand songs”
Hizavih Hizávih village <20 km NW of Arák (Sulṭán Ábád), Írán
Hizb, Ahzab Ḥizb, pl. Aḥzab group, troop, band, cohort, gang;   associates, auxiliaries, confederates;   arms, armour;   party (politics);   a 60th part of the Qur’án
Hizbu'llah Ḥizbu’lláh “Party of God” (Hezbullah)
Hizqil Ḥizqíl Pers.   Ezekiel
Hubal (Hobal)
a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Ka‘bah in Mecca. His idol was a human figure, believed to control acts of divination, which was in the form of tossing arrows before the statue. The direction in which the arrows pointed answered questions asked of the idol.
Hubb Ḥubb love;   affection, attachment
Hubbu’llah Ḥubbu’lláh Love of God
Hubur Ḥubúr joy.   Ḥubúr (Hobour) Khánum
Hud Húd A prophet sent to the tribe of ‘Ád.   He is a descendent of Noah.
Hudaybiyyah Ḥudaybiyyah Truce of al-Ḥudaybiyyah, in ah 6 (ad 628), at Ḥudaybiyyah spring about 20 km west of Mecca on the Old Mecca-Jiddah Road.   The ruins of the old mosque marking the site is at 21.441960, 39.625601.
Hudur Ḥuḍúr presence;   visit, participation, attendance;   (as one plural of Ḥaḍra) those present
ḥuḍúrí (presence of) aḥkám (judgements)—judgements delivered in the presence of the litigant parties after oral proceedings.   Imám’s knowledge is inspired since it is obtained “in the presence of” (ḥuḍúrí) God.
Huduth Ḥudúth setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon);   occurrence, incident, happening.   “originated nature”—contrast with Imkán (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujaja'l Bahiayyih Ḥujaja’l-Bahíyyih The Bahá’í Proofs by Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl
Hujja Ḥujja(h or t), pl. Ḥújaj argument;   pretense, pretext, plea;   proof, evidence;   document, writ, deed, record;   authority.   A term used in Shí‘í terminology meaning “proof [implied: proof of God]”. It is usually used to refer to a single individual in any given human era who represents God’s “proof” to humanity.   The ḥujja is a prophet or an Imám who possess a relationship with God that is greater than anyone else.   “Ḥujahs” in The Promised Day is Come, p. 97 should be Ḥújaj.
Hujja ala al-kull ḥujja alá al-kull “proof for all”.   The Báb’s praise for Qurratu’l-‘Ayn
Hujjat'u'llah Ḥujjat’u’lláh the proof of God.   The last Imám is known as the Proof of God.   Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatu'l-Islam Ḥujjatu’l-Islám Proof of Islám.   Mullá Muḥammad-‘Alí of Zanján was called Ḥujjatu’l-Islám. The Báb called him Ḥujjatu’l-Zanjání.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran Ḥujr, Ḥajara to deny access   (Ḥajr, Ḥijr, Ḥujr, Ḥijrán, Ḥujrán)
Hujra, Hujarat, Hujar Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát, Ḥujar Ar.   room;   cell;   (railroad) compartment;   chamber
Hujrat (Hujrih), Hujra, Hujarat Ḥujrat, Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát Pers.   a chamber, closet, cell;   a box in a theatre, circus
Hukm, Ahkam
Ḥukm, Aḥkám
judgement, valuation, opinion;   decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence;   condemnation, conviction;   administration of justice;   jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law);   regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree;   judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power;   government, regime;—pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
stopping, putting up, staying;   descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking;   incarnation;   setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn;   substitution (for someone).   In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
phoenix or a type of eagle
Pers.   a queen of Persia, grandmother to Dáráb II;   name of a sister of Isfandyár;   name of a daughter of Bahman;   name of a daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople married to Bahrám Gúr;   name of the lover of Humáyún;   a standard bearing a figure of the bird humá.
Pers.   blessed, sacred, fortunate, august, royal, imperial;   name of several kings;   name of the mistress of Humáy
Humazatun (Humazah)
Humazatun (Humazah)
one given to backbiting, defamer, slander-monger
al-Ḥums is the name traditionally given to the inhabitants of the ḥaram of Mecca at the time of Muḥammad’s appearance, in so far as they were distinguished by special customs during the iḥrám from the other tribes who were together known as al-Ḥilla.
Hunayn (Hunain)
Battle of Ḥunayn (Qur’án 9:25) in a valley between Mecca and the city of Ṭá’if to the east of Mecca
Ḥaqqu’lláh (sing.), Ḥuqúqu’lláh
“Right(s) of God”
“The Wondrous Maiden” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Hur, Huran
Ḥúr (originally pl., also used as sing.)
Pers.   virgins or a virgin of Paradise, houri;—pl. ḥúr and ḥúrán
Hurayra (Huraira), Hurayrih
Hurayra(h), Pers. also Hurayrih
a little cat or kitten.   Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of “ah” or “ih”.   Surname given to Abú Hurayrih ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán bin Sakhr (a companion of Muḥammad) because of the favourite kitten he used to carry around with him.   A village about 24 km nw of central Damascus, Syria.
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur Ḥúríya, pl. Ḥúríyát, Ḥúr houri, virgin of paradise;   nymph;   young locust.   Ḥúrí (adjective) (literally, white one)
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak) Húrmudúk Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvíd (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurqalya, Havarqalya Húrqalyá, Havarqalyá (speculative Pers.) intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Húrqalyá. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Húrqalyá. The occulted but living twelfth Imám and the cities of Jábulsá and Jábulqá, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Húrqalyá.   Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227.   From Hebrew רָקִיעַ (firmament, sky, ductile, heaven, expanse, canopy).   See 21263244/HURQALYA-HAVARQALYA and The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, pp. 106–7.
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara'ir Ḥurr, pl. m. Aḥrár, f. Ḥará’ir noble, free-born;   genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated;   free; living in freedom;   freeman;   independent;   free unrestrained;   liberal
Hurriya al-'Ibada Ḥurriya al-‘Ibada freedom of worship
Hurriya al-Fikr Ḥurriya al-Fikr freedom of thought
Hurriya al-Kalam Ḥurriya al-Kalam freedom of speech
Hurriya an-Naṣr Ḥurriya an-Naṣr liberty of the press
Hurriya, Huriyat Ḥurriya, Per. Ḥurriyyah, pl. Ḥurriyát freedom, liberty;   independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic)
Huruf-i-Hayy Ḥurúf-i-Ḥayy Letters of the Living.   See Ḥarf and Sábiq
Hurufat-i-'Alin Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álín The Exalted letters (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See Ḥarf
Hurufi Ḥurúfí “letters”   a relator of traditions, a traditionist (not Ḥurúfís, MCI, p. 403).   See singular Ḥarf,
Hurufism, Sufi doctrine
Husam (Hisam) Ḥusám (Ḥisám) (sharp) sword, sword edge
Husam-i-Din, Hisam-i-Din Ḥusám-i-Dín (Ḥisám-i-Dín) sword of faith
Husamu's-Sultani, Hisamu's-Saltanih Ḥusámu’s-Sulṭaní (Ḥisámu’s-Salṭanih) (“Sword of the sovereign”)   Title of Prince Sulṭán Murád Mírzá, son of ‘Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh
Husayn Ḥusayn (Diminutive form of Haṣan “Good”)   Name of the third Imám, Ḥusayn.
Husayn-'Ali Ḥusayn-‘Alí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Isfahani Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Iṣfahání
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Jahrumi Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Jahrúmí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nur Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núr (GPB p. 338)
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nuri Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí, Mírzá   Bahá’u’lláh
Husayn-Abad Ḥusayn-Ábád
Husayn-Aqa Ḥusayn-Áqá (MF)
Husayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi Ḥusayn-Áqáy-i-Tabrízí (MF)
Husayn-i-Ashchi Ḥusayn-i-Áshchí
Husayn-i-Bushru'i Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í, Mullá   From Bushrúyih, Khurásán
Husayn-i-Kashani Ḥusayn-i-Káshání
Husayn-i-Kashi Ḥusayn-i-Káshí
Husayn-i-Shiraziy-i-Khurtumi Ḥusayn-i-Shírázíy-i-Khurṭúmí
Husayn-i-Turshizi Ḥusayn-i-Turshízí
Husayn-i-Yazdi Ḥusayn-i-Yazdí
Husayn-ibn-Ruh Ḥusayn-ibn-Rúḥ (one of “Four Gates”)
Husayn-Khan Ḥusayn-Khán (the Mushiru’d-Dawlih)
Husayni Ḥusayní
Husayniyyih Ḥusayníyyih In Shí’ih Islám, a place used to mourn the death of Imám Ḥusayn
Husban Ḥusbán calculation, reckoning, accounting;   computation.   bi-Ḥuṣbán “By final calculation”
Hushang (Hoshang) Húshang Pers.   name of the second king of Persia, of the Peshdadian dynasty;   wisdom, prudence, intellect.   “The first emanation, intelligence”
Hushidar, Hoshidar Hushidár One who increases holiness or promotes righeousness;   name of a future saviour.   Zoroastrian origin.
Hushmand shmand Pers.   wise
Husn Ḥusn beauty, handsomeness, prettiness, loveliness;   excellence, superiority, perfection
Husn al-Madkhal Ḥusn al-Madkhal good manners, good conduct
Husni-Farang Ḥusní-Farang Pers.   white, as the complexion of Europeans
Husniyya, Husniyyih Ḥusniyya(h) fem. , Pers. Ḥusníyyih possessing beauty
saffron.   See za‘farán
Huwa (Pers. Huva) Huwa he; it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun); God (or “the Most Great Name of God” according to the Báb). Huwa (“he” or “he is”) in the context of “‘He is’ God” is often incorrectly understood (as in the definition) to be the name of God. In the Bible it is represented in Hebrew by the tetragrammaton “yhwh”, sometimes pronounced as Yahweh. However, the Jews were forbidden to utter the name of God, and as ancient Hebrew script did not use vowels, it is not known how yhwh would have been pronounced, if it was permitted. If we say “yá huwa” in Arabic in reference to God, it means “O He is …”. Since Hebrew and Arabic are sister languages, it is not surprising that “yá huwa” sounds like Yahweh, which has commonly been represented by Jehovah. (In some European languages the “J” is pronounced as “Y”, “V” as “U”, and “W” as “UU”.) See note under Bahá’.
Huwa'llah Huwa’lláh He is God (huwa+ Alláh). Hence, defining Huwa as “God” gives “God God”???
Huwaydar, Huvaydar Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar village north of the city Ba‘qúba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdád
Huwiya (Pers. Huwiyyat, Huviyyat) Huwíya(h) or Huwíya(t), Pers. Huwíyyah essence, nature;   coessentiality, consubstantiality;   identity;   identity card.   “Essence of Divinity”
Huzn, Hazan, Ahzan Ḥuzn, Pers. Ḥazan, pl. Aḥzán grief, sadness, affliction, sorrow
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
-i- -i- Pers.   sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it
I'tidal I‘tidál moderation
inimitability, wondrous nature (of the Qur’án—i‘jáz al-Qur’án).   See ahdá
I'qilhá wa tawakkal I‘qilhá wa tawakkal Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God)—in Tirmidhi’s collection of traditions
continuing in prayer, remaining constantly in the mosque;   retirement, seclusion (in a place of worship);   restraining one’s passions from religious motives;   constant devotions.
I'timad, I'timadat I‘timád, pl. I‘timádát reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in);   confirmation;   sanction, approbation, authorization;   accreditation (of diplomats);   (pl.) credit, loan
I'timadu’d-Dawlih I‘timádu’d-Dawlih
I'timadu’t-Tujjar I‘timádu’t-Tujjár
I’tiraf I‘tiráf recognition, acceptance;   acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession;   (Christian) confession
Iahut Iáhút Ar.   Divinity;   the inward or eternal aspect of reality.
Ibada, 'Ibadat
‘Ibáda(t), pl. ‘Ibádát
worship, adoration, veneration;   devotional service, divine service (Christian);—pl. acts of devotion, religious observances (Islamic Law)
Ibaha, Ibahih Ibáḥa(h), Pers. Ibáḥih divulgence, disclosure (of a secret);   permission, authorization;   licentiousness.   “Permission” or abrogation of Islamic law on return of the Hidden Imám.
Iblis, Abalisa Iblís, pl. Abálisa devil, Satan
Ibn, Abna, Banun Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abná’, Banún Ar.   son;   descendant, scion;   offspring, son (of a nation or people)
Ibna, Bint, Banat Ibna (colloquial bint), pl. Banát daughter;   bint girl;   ibna al-‘amm (female)
Ibnu'l-, Ibn-i- Ibnu’l-, Pers. Ibn-i- elided forms of ibn
Ibnu'l-Alusi Ibnu’l-Álúsí the chief jurisconsult [muftí] of Baghdád—one of the five sons of the famous Shaykh Maḥmúd al-Álúsí. Probably one of the three eldest: ‘Abdu’lláh, Bahá’u’d-Dín; ‘Abdu’l-Baqí‘; and Siyyid Na‘mán, Khayru'd-Dín.
Ibrahim Ibráhím (Abraham)   Patriarch of the people of Israel.
Ibrahim-i-Isfahani Ibráhím-i-Iṣfahání
Ibrahim-i-Khalil Ibráhím-i-Khalíl
Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah Ibráhím-i-Khayru’lláh Syrian doctor, the first Bahá’í teacher in America, and later joined forces with Muḥammad-‘Ali, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His English wife, Miriam, remained loyal to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and later they were divorced.   Refer to Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá’í Faith, pp. 114–117.
Ibrani Ibrání Hebrew
Ibtihaj Ibtiháj joy, rejoicing, delight (at)
Ibtihaju'l-Mulk Ibtiháju’l-Mulk Ibtiháju’l-Mulk of Gílán
Id (Eid), 'Ayad
‘Íd, pl. ‘Ayád
feast, feast day, festival, holiday
Id al-Adha
‘Íd al-Aḍḥá
the Feast of Immolation (see Aḍḥan), or Greater Bayrám, on the 10th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjih
Id al-Fitr
‘Íd al-Fiṭr
Feast of Breaking the Ramaḍán Feast, or Lesser Bayrám, celebrated on the 1st of Shawwál
Idal ‘Idál justice.   See ‘adl
Idbar Idbár flight, retreat;   “turn around”
Idda (‘Iddah, ‘Iddat) ‘Idda number;   several, numerous, many.   ‘iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)
Idha Idhá 1. (introducing a nominal clause the subject of which may he expressed by ب ("b") with following genitive) and then, and all of a sudden;   (with noun in nominative case or with ب) there was … and all of a sudden there was …;
2. (conjunction) when;   if, whenever;   whether, if (introducing indirect questions)
Idhn Idhn permission, authorization
Idris Idrís Idris (Enoch)
Ifranj al-Ifranj Ar.   the Franks, the Europeans
Ifranji Ifranjí Ar.   European
Ifridaws al-Ifrídaws Garden of Innermost Paradise (Gate of the Heart 60)
encirclement, encompassment;   comprehension, grasp, understanding, knowledge, cognizance (of something), acquaintance, familiarity (with);   information, communication
Ihram Iḥrám state of ritual consecration of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the pilgrim, wearing two seamless woollen or linen sheets, usually white, neither combs nor shaves, and observes sexual continence);   garments of the Mecca pilgrim
Ihsan Iḥsán beneficence, charity, almsgiving, performance of good deeds
Ihsanu'llah Iḥsánu’lláh beneficence of God
Ihtiraq Iḥtiráq burning, combustion;   fire, conflagration
Ihtisham Iḥtishám being ashamed;   bashfulness;   having many dependants, followers, or domestics;   pomp, retinue, magnificence, grandeur, state
Ihtisham-i-Dawlih Iḥtishám-i-Dawlih See Taḥashshum
Ihtiyaj, Ihtiyajat
Iḥtiyáj, pl. Iḥtiyáját
want, need, requirement, (pre)requisite, necessity;—pl. needs, necessities, necessaries
Ihtiyat, Ihtiyatat
Iḥtiyáṭ, pl. Iḥtiyáṭát
caution, cautiousness, prudence, circumspection, carefulness;   provision, care, attention, precaution, prevention;   (pl.) precautionary measures, precautions
animation, enlivening;   revival, revitalization, revivification;   arranging, staging, conducting, putting on, holding (of a celebration)
creation, procreation, production, origination;   procuring, procurement, furnishing, supply;   calculation, computation, evaluation
Ijaza, Ijazat
Ijáza, pl. Ijázát
licence or diploma bestowed by higher-ranking members of the ulama on those deemed knowledgeable in particular aspects of Islamic sciences
Ijl, 'Ujul, 'Ijala ‘Ijl, pl. ‘Ujúl, ‘Ijala calf (e.g. the golden calf, al-dhahabí al-‘ijl)
Ijma' Ijmá‘ agreement, unanimity;   unanimous resolution;   (Isl. Law) consensus (of the authorities in a legal question;   one of the four uṣúl of Islamic Law)
Ijtihad Ijtihád effort, exertion, endeavor, pains, trouble;   application, industry, diligence;   (Isl. Law) independent judgement in a legal or theological queetion, based on the interpretation and application of the 4 uṣúl, as opposed to taqlíd;   individual judgment.   The power of a Shí‘ih divine to issue ex cathedra decrees and judgements.
Ijtima', Ijyima'at Ijtimá‘, pl. Ijtimá‘át meeting;   get-together, gathering, assembly;   reunion;   rally;   convention;   conjunction, constellation (astron.);   confluence (of rivers);   life in a social group, community life, social life
Ijtima'i Ijtimá‘í community, group (used attributively);   social;   socialist(ic);   sociological
Ikhlas Ikhláṣ sincerity or fidelity
Ikhtiyar, Ikhtiyarat Ikhtiyár, pl. Ikhtiyárát choice;   election (pl. also politics);   selection;   preference (to);   option;   free will (philosophy)
honour, respect, deference, tribute;   hospitable reception, hospitality;   kindness;   honorarium
Iksir Iksír elixir, the philosopher's stone;   alchemy
Il-Khan Íl-Khán Pers.   a commander;   a title of the Mogul emperors
Il, Ilat Íl, pl. Ílat Pers.   tribe (especially nomadic)
Ilah, Ilaha, Aliha, Ilahat Iláh, fem. Ilaha, pl. Áliha, fem. Ilahát god, deity, godhead
Ilahi Iláhí divine, of God;   theological.   Bashír-i-Iláhí
Ilahiyat al-Iláhíyát theological, spiritual concerns
Ilan Ílán a village 60 km NE of Qazvín and another 70 km SW Shíráz
Ildirim Íldirím May be from Turkisk Yildirim (lightning)
Ilhad Ilḥád apostasy;   heterodoxy, heresy
Ilham, Ilhamat Ilhám, pl. Ilhámát inspiration;   instinct
Ilkhani Ílkhání Pers.   Belonging or referring to an Ilkhan;   the leader of an army.   Also the name of a garden outside Ṭihrán where Ṭáhirih was martyred.
Illa, 'Illat, 'Ilal
‘Illa(t), pl. ‘Illát, ‘Ilal
illness, sickness, disease, malady;   deficiency, defect, weakness;   weakness, defectiveness (of a letter or word;   grammar);   a cause, reason;   metrical variation or irregularity (prosody);—(pl. ‘Ilal) cause, reason, occasion;   excuse, pretence, pretext, plea.   Aristotle claimed that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world: ‘illat al-máddí, material cause, matter of which a thing is made;   ‘illat aṣ-ṣúrí, formal cause, i.e. that form in which the essence of a thing consists;   ‘illat al-fá‘ilí, notional or efficient cause (as the maker, if the work of man);   ‘illat agh ghá‘í, final cause for which it was made.
Illa'llah Illá’lláh but God
Ilm adh-Dhawqi al-‘Ilm adh-Dhawqi intuitive insight (Remembrance of God, p. 5, Scholl)
Ilm al-Ilah ‘Ilm al-Iláh theology
Ilm al-wujudi ‘ilm al-Wujudi existential knowledge
Ilm-al-Yaqin ‘Ilm-al-Yaqín “Arc of descent”, literally “bringing forth”. Ends in material realities (‘Abdu’l-Bahá)—going away from God. Converse is the Arc of ascent (circle of existence) ends in spiritual realities
Ilm, ‘Ulum ‘Ilm, pl. ‘Ulúm Ar.   knowledge, learning, lore;   cognizance, acquaintance;   information;   cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge;   (pl.) science
scientific;   erudite (book);   learned (society)
Ilmiya, 'Ilmiyyyih
‘Ilmíya(t), Pers. also ‘Ilmíyyih
learning, scholarship
Ilmu't-Tajwid ‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd al-‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd or ‘Ilmu’l-Qira’ah—the science of reading the Qur’an correctly.
Iltibas Iltibás confusion, tangle, intricacy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, doubt.   Also veiled or disguised.
Ilyas Ilyás Elijah
Imad, Amad ‘Imád, pl. ‘Amad support, prop, stay (also figuratively);   bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar.   Mír ‘Imád famous calligrapher.
Imadi'd-Dawlih ‘Imádi’d-Dawlih (“the Mainstay of the State”)
Imadu'd-Din Imádu’d-Dín pillar of the Faith
Imam-Husayn Imám-Ḥusayn the third Imám
Imam-Jum'ih Imám-Jum‘ih Pers.   (Imam-Jom’a or Imam Jomai)   The leader of the Shí’ah Friday prayers in the mosque of a city or town.
Imam-Zadih Imám-Zádih descendant of an Imám or his shrine
Imam-Zadih Ma'sum Imám-Zádih Ma‘ṣúm also known as the Shrine of ibn Bábuyyih (Babawayh) in the ibn Bábuyyih Cemetery, south of Ṭihrán.   Place where the Báb’s body was kept at the instruction of Bahá’u’lláh.   Nabil suggests the Shrine of Imám-Zádih-Ḥasan.
Imam, A'imma Imám, pl. A’imma imam, prayer leader;   leader;   master;   plumb line.   The person who leads the congregation in the mosque, in prayer (hence, “prayer leader”).   The A’imma are called the “Kindred of God”, “Suns of immaculacy and Moons of majesty” by Bahá’u’lláh (GDM).
Imama Imáma(h) imamah, function or office of the prayer leader;   imamate;   leading position;   precedence
Iman Ímán faith, belief
Imara Imára position or rank of an emir;   princely bearing or manners;   principality, emirate;   authority, power
Imara, Imarat ‘Imára, pl. ‘Imárát, ‘Amá’ir building, edifice, structure;   real estate, tract, lot
Imarat-i-Khurshid ‘Imárat-i-Khurshíd Structure of the sun or sun room (missing ‘Ayn in texts?)
Imatu'l-Kubra ‘Imatu’l-Kubrá al-‘Imatu’l-Kubrá (“Most Great Name”)
Imda' Imḍá’ realization, execution, accomplishment, completion;   signing, signature
Imkan, Imkanat Imkán, pl. Imkánát power, capacity, capability;   faculty, ability;   possibility.   “inherent contingency”—contrast with Ḥudúth (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
possible, potential;   contingent
Imra', Imru' Imra’ and Imru’ (with definite article al-mar’) a man;   person, human being;   frequently for son, human being
Imra’a Imra’a woman, wife.   See plural Nisá’ and imra’
Imran ‘Imrán (Amran in Bible and Joachim is known as ‘Imrán in the al-Qur’án) name of the father of Moses, Mary and of Abú Tálib
Imru’ al-Qays (Imru’u’l-Qays) Imrú’ al-Qays ibn Ḥujr al-Kindí 6th century Arab poet
Imruz Imrúz today or this day.   See yúm
Imtihan, Imtihanat Imtiḥán, pl. Imtiḥánát test, experiment;   examination.   Tests occur when a Manifestation appears.   See also Fitna.
Imtiyaz, Imtiyazat Imtiyáz, pl. Imtiyazát distinction, (mark of) honour;   advantage, benefit, merit;   difference, distinction, differentiation, discrimination;   special right, privilege;   concession, patent, permit, license, franchise;   (oil) concession;   prerogative, priority right
Inab, Inabun, A'nab ‘Inab (coll.; n. ‘Inabun), pl. A‘náb grape(s).   Not ‘Anab as in PUP 248 [aneb].
Inaya, 'Inayatt ‘Ináya(t) Enayat” concern;   care, solicitude, providence (for);   care(fulness), painstaking, meticulousness (in);   heed, notice, regard, attention (to);   interest (in)
Inayatu'llah ‘Ináyatu’lláh care of God.   ‘Ináyatu’lláh Ishráqí
Inayatu’llah Khan ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán Mírzá ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán (Enayet’o’llah), the son of Mullá Ismá‘íl, the martyr
Infitar Infiṭár being split, cleft, riven
Inja Ínjá Pers.   this place;   here
Injil, Anajil Injíl, pl. Anájíl (Gk. Evangel) gospel.   Injíl occurs twelve times in the Qur’án (as Gospel in English) and refers to the book given to Jesus by God. It is believed to be the true lost original Gospel promulgated by Jesus.
Inkar Inkár denial, disavowal, negation, contestation;   refusal, rejection, non-acceptance, e.g. of Imám ‘Alí
Ins Ins (colloquial) man, mankind, human race
Insaf Inṣáf justice, equity
Insan-i-kamil insán-i-kámil perfect human being
Insan, insana Insán, fem. Insána man, human being.   Insán al-‘ain pupil (of the eye)
Insani Insání human;   humane;   humanitarian, philanthropist
creation;   origination;   bringing about;   setting up.   Establishment, organization, institution;   formation;   making, manufacture, production;   erection;   building, construction;   founding, foundation;   installation;   composition, compilation, writing;   letter writing;   style, art of composition;   essay, treatise.
“God willing” or “If God wills it”
(verb, form VII intransitive of Shaqqa) to split up, to crack (Qur’án 54:1)
splitting, cleaving or cracking the moon.   A miracle or “an impossible act”.   Refer to Qur’án 54:1.
separation, segregation, dissociation, spilt;   schism (Christian);   dissension, discord, disunion
Insi Insí human;   human being
Iqab ‘Iqáb infliction of punishment, punishment;   penalty.   Translated by Shoghi Effendi as “retribution” in The Hidden Words #93 (Persian).   Mistaken for “eagle” in an early translation.   See ‘uqáb
Iqal, 'Uqal
‘Iqál, pl. ‘Uqul
cord used for hobbling the feet of a camel;   a headband made of camel’s hair, holding the kúfíya in place
being sure, knowing for certain;   certitude
drawing near, advance, approach;   coming, arrival, advent;   turning, application, attention, response, responsiveness
Iqlim, Aqalim
Iqlím, pl. Aqálím
climate;   area, region;   province, district;   administrative district.
establishing, fixing (in a place);   promise, agreement, assurance, pledge;   consent, acquiescence, acceptance;   confirmation, ratification, affirmation, attestation, declaration;   settlement, compact, bargain;   confession, acknowledgment.
Iqtidar, Iqtidarat
Iqtidár, fem. pl. Iqtidárát
might, power, strength, potency;   ability, capability, faculty, capacity, efficiency, aptitude.   Iqtidárát wa chand lawḥ-i-dígár ḥaḍrat-i-Bahá’u’lláh (Magnificences and select other Tablets of His Holiness Bahá’u’lláh)—a compilation of Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh.
connection, conjunction, union, association, affiliation;   link, connectedness, simultaneous interaction;   conjunction (astron.);   new moon (as an astronomical aspect);   marriage, wedding
Irada (Iradih), Iradat
Iráda(h), (Pers. Irádih), pl. Irádát
will, volition;   wish;   desire;   (pl.) irade (a decree of an Islamic ruler), decree (of a ruler);   will power
village near Nayríz
Iram, Aram
Iram, pl. Árám
stone erected in the desert for the direction of travellers.   Iram of the Pillars (Iram dhát al-ʿimád), also called “Aram”, “Irum”, “Irem”, “Erum”, or the “City of the tent poles”, is a reference to a lost city, country or area mentioned in Qur’án 89:7, a place in ancient Arabia
Írán, the kingdom of Persia proper, said to be named after Íraj, son of Farídún, to whom this part of his father's dominions was given
Irani, Iranun
Írání, pl. Íránún
Iranian, Persian;   (pl.) a Persian, an Iranian
Iraq al-‘Iráq Iraq
Iraq-i-'Ajam ‘Iráq-i-‘Ajam Persian ‘Iráq.   ‘Iráq between the 11th to 19th centuries consisted of two neighbouring regions: Arabic ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Arab) and Persian ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Ajam).   Arabic ‘Iráq corresponded with ancient Babylonia (now central-southern ‘Iráq), and Persian ‘Iráq corresponded with the ancient Media (now central-western Írán). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Iraq-i-'Arab ‘Iráq-i-‘Arab Arabic ‘Iráq.   See note in previous entry.
Iraq-i-A'zam ‘Iráq-i-A‘ẓam A part of Írán once known as Persian ‘Iráq (the country around Media (the triangle between the ancient cities of Ecbatana (believed near Hamadan), Rhagae (southern Ṭihrán) and Aspadana (Iṣfahán)), in today's central Írán.
Iraqi, Iraqun ‘Iráqí, pl. ‘Iráqún Iraqi, Iraqian;   (pl.) an Iraqi
Irbil Irbíl (“)Erbil) capital of ‘Iráqí Kurdistán
Irfan ‘Irfán gnosis, mystic knowledge, true or spiritual understanding
Iriwan (Irivan) Iriwán Yerevan, capital of Armenia
Irshad, Irshadat Irshád, pl. fem. Irshádát guidance;   a conducting, showing the way (to);   guiding hand;   care;   spiritual guidance;   instruction;   direction;   directive;   information;   advising, advice;—pl. directives, directions, instructions, advice
Irshad al-'Awamm, Irshadu'l-'Avam Irshád al-‘Awámm, Pers. Irshádu’l-‘Avám “Guidance unto the ignorant” by Hájí Muḥammad-Karím Khán
Irtifa' Irtifá‘ rise (e.g., of prices);   elevation;   increase;   height, altitude (e.g., of a mountain).   The Báb uses irtifá‘ to mean abrogation (both removing and elevating) in relation to the abrogation of a former Dispensation and its fulfilment and exaltation by a new Dispensation.   “Each Revelation, in simultaneously abrogating and exalting the previous Dispensation, is the return of the previous Revelation in the station of its perfection.”  Gate of the heart, p. 277.
Isa ‘Ísá Pers.   Jesus.   See Yasú’
Isfahan Iṣfahán Pers.   city 340 km south of Ṭihirán.   Transcription as per Shoghi Effendi.   Iṣfáhán, Ispáhán and Ṣifáhán transcriptions are also used outside the Faith as the name of the city, carpets, business names and food.
Isfahan nisf-i-jihan Iṣfahán niṣf-i-jihán “Iṣfahán is half the world”
Isfahani Iṣfahání Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar ‘Alí-i-Iṣfahání (b. Iṣfahán, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920). Bahá’u’lláh gave him the titles “The Angel of Carmel” and “Sulṭán-i-Mu‘allimún” (The king of teachers). Author of Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr (Delight of Hearts)
Isfand Isfand Pers.   A species of rue;   a province of Nishábúr;   twelfth month of Iranian calendar
Isfandabad Isfandábád Esfandabd or Isfand-Abad.   Village between Yazd and Shíráz
Isfandiyar Isfandíyár Pers.   Esfandiyár, Sepandiár, Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar.   Legendary Iranian hero.   (“Created holy and pure”)   Name of loyal servant of Bahá.
Ishan Íshán “They” a designation by which Bahá’u’lláh was known.   Also said to be honorific form of Persian pronoun for the third person singular
Ishaq Isḥáq Isaac;   becoming threadbare;   shrinking after milking (the teats);   drying up
Ishara, Isharat Ishára, pl. Ishárát sign, motion, nod, wink, wave;   gesture;   signal;   indication;   allusion, hint, intimation;   symbolic expression;   (silent) reminder;   advice, counsel, suggestion;   instruction, order, command
Ishq ‘Ishq love, ardour of love, passion
Ishqabad ‘Ishqábád (Ashkabad or Ashgabat, Turmenistan) “City of Love”
Ishqi ‘Ish belonging to love
Ishqiy-i-Qarn-i-Bistum ‘Ishqíy-i-Qarn-i-Bístum “‘Ishqí of the twentieth century” (abjab value 1342 (ah 1342 or ad 1923.).   See Arches of the Years, p. 257.
Ishraq Ishráq radiance;   radiation, eradiation, emanation;   illumination.   Ishráq Khávarí
Ishraq, Ishraqat Ishráq, pl. Ishráqát Pers.   rising (the sun   sunrise, morning;   splendour, lustre, beauty.   Tablet of Ishráqát (Splendours) (by Bahá’u’lláh) published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 101-134.
Ishraqi Namaz
Ishhráqí Namáz
Pers.   morning prayer
Ishraqi, Ishraqiyan (Ishraqiyun)
Ishráqí, pl. Ishráqíyán
Pers.   of or pertaining to sunrise;   eastern, oriental;   having the splendour of the East.—(pl.) a sect of philosophers, illuminati, the Illuminists, adherents of Illuminism
Ishraqiya, Ishraqiyyih
Ishráqíya, Pers. Ishráqiyyih
a Persian mystical order founded by Shaháb ad-Dín Yaḥyá ibn Ḥabash Suhrawardí (c. 1155–1191), a Persian theologian and philosopher. Ideas arose out of perpatetic philosophy.
Ishti’al Ishti‘ál ignition, inflammation, combustion, burning.   Name/pen name (aflame or blazing fire) given to Ali-Kuli Khan by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ishtihard Ishtihárd a village between Karaj (west of Ṭihrán) and Qazvín
Iskaf, Iskafi Iskáf and Iskáfí, pl. Asákifa shoemaker
Iskandar Iskandar Persian for Alexander
Iskandariya al-Iskandaríya Alexandria, Egypt
Iskandarun Iskandarún (Turkish İskenderun, Arabic Iskandarúna)   Originally Alexandria, later Alexandretta, on Turkish coast north of Syria
Islah, Islahat Iṣláḥ, pl. Iṣláḥát restoration, restitution, redressing, reparation;   improvement, amelioration, betterment, mending, correction;   reconstruction;   reconditioning, repair;   renovation, refurbishing;   adjustment, settling, remedying, removal, elimination;   restoration of order, establishment of peace, happiness and order;   reformation, reform;   reclamation, cultivation (of land);   (re)conciliation, settlement, compromise, peace making
Islam Islám submission, resignation, reconciliation (to the will of God in every age);   or the total surrender of oneself to God.   Titled “Perspicuous Religion” and “Well-established Path”.   Redefined by the Báb as “Verily, the essence of religion is none other than submission unto This Remembrance [the Báb].”   Root is al-Silm rather than al-Salima or al-Salám.
Islami (Islamic) Islámí Islamic.   No accents for the English Islamic!   Incorrectly given as Muhammadic or Muhammedic.
Ism al-A'zam, Ism-i-A'zam al-Ism al-A‘ẓam, Pers. Ism-i-A‘ẓam The Greatest name (of God)
Ism, Asma Ism, pl. Asmá’, Asámin name;   appellation;   reputation, standing, prestige
Isma, 'Isam ‘Iṣma(t), pl. ‘Iṣam hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation;   preservation, guarding, safeguarding;   defence;   protection;   chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness;   impeccant, sinlessness, infallibility.   ‘immunity from sin and error’, (from ‘aṣama, ya‘ṣimu = to protect, to save from)
Isma adh-dhatiyya al-‘Iṣma adh-Dhátiyya Essential infallibility
Isma al-sifatiya al-‘Iṣma al-Ṣifátíya Conferred infallibility (bestowed rather than innate).   Immunity from error and infallibility of judgement—not freedom from sin, sinlessness or immaculateness.
Isma'il Ismá‘íl (Ishmael in Hebrew), the son of Abraham and the Egyptian Hagar, who was considered to be the forerunner of the desert Arabs.   “Ismael”
Isma'il-i-Kashani Ismá‘íl-i-Kashání
Isma'il-i-Kashi Ismá‘íl-i-Káshí
Isma'il-i-Zavari'i Ismá‘íl-i-Zavari’í
Isma'ili Ismá‘ílí, pl. Ismá‘íliyyún disciple, follower
Isma’iliyya, Isma’iliyyih, Isma’iliyyun Ismá‘íliyya (Ar), Ismá‘íliyyih (Per) Isma’ilism—branch of Shi’a Islám.   pl. Ismá‘íliyyún.   Pers. Ismá‘íliya
Ismat-i-Kubra ‘Iṣmat-i-Kubrá Great Infallibility
Ismatu'l-Kubra al-‘Iṣmatu’l-Kubrá Most Great Infallibility
Ismu'l-Azal Ismu’l-Azal Name of Eternity (Mírzá Yaḥyá)
Ismu'llah Ismu’lláh “Name of God”
Ismu'llahi'l-A'zam Ismu’lláhi’l-A‘ẓam Name of God, Greatest
Ismu'llahi’l-Akhir Ismu’lláhi’l-Ákhir Ar. Ar.   The Last name of God. This was the title given by the Báb to Quddús.
Ismu’llahi'l-Jud Ismu’lláhi’l-Júd “The Name of God, the Bounteous” (name given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh)
Ismu'llahi'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhi’l-Mihdí “The Name of God, Mihdí’”
Ismu'llahu'l-Akhar Ismu’lláhu’l-Ákhar “The Last Name of God”
Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq “The Name of God, the Most Truthful”
“The Name of God, Jamál”.   Name given to Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají by Bahá’u’lláh.
“The Name of God, the All-Bountiful”.   Title given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh.
Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhu’l-Mihdí “The Name of God, Mihdí”.   Name given to Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahají.
Ismu'llahu'l-Munib Ismu’lláhu’l-Muníb “The Name of God, the Patron”
Isnad, Asanid Isnád, pl. Asáníd ascription (of an Islamic tradition), the (uninterrupted) chain of authorities on which a tradition is based
Ispahan Ispáhán Middle Persian.   Arabicized modern form is Iṣfahán
Isr, Asar Iṣr, pl. Áṣár covenant, compact,contract;   load, encumbrance, burden;   sin;—pl. bonds, ties
Isra' Isrá’ nocturnal journey;   al-Isrá’ the “night journey” of Muḥammad “to the seven heavens”
Isra' Isrá‘ acceleration, speed-up; hurry
Isra'il Isrá’íl Israel.   Banú Isrá’íl—the Israelites;   Daulat Isrá’íl the State of Israel.
Israfil Isráfíl “the burning one” (Israfel) seraph.   The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet (ram’s horn) on the Day of Judgement.
Istah-banat Istah-bánát Estaban, village west of Nayríz
Istarabad (Astarabad) Istarábád See Astarábád
Istidlal Istidlál reasoning, argumentation, demonstration;   conclusion, inference, deduction;   proof, evidence (of)
Istijlal Istijlál Ar.   majesty
Istikhlaf Istikhláf appoint someone to be successor.   In the Qur’anic context, appointing a trustee or vicegerent, or “Law of Succession of Prophets”.
Istiqbal, Istiqbalat Istiqbál, pl. Istiqbálát reception;   opposition (astron.);   full moon (as an astronomical aspect);   the future
Istiqlal Istiqlál Ar.   Independence
Itabaki-A'zam Íṭábakí-A‘ẓam “the greatest tutor”.   Probably should be Atábak-i-A‘ẓam
Itabaki-Chupan Íṭábakí-Chúpán probably should be Atábak-i-Chúpán (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 421)
Ithbat Ithbát establishment;   assertion;   confirmation;   affirmation, attestation;   demonstration;   proof, evidence;   registration, entering, listing, recording;   documentation, authentication, verification
Ithna-'Ashariyyih Ithná-‘Asharíyyih lit. the Twelvers.   Twelver Shí‘i or the branch of Islám Shi’ism that believes in 12 Imams
Itmam Itmám completion;   perfection;   termination, conclusion;   consummation, execution, fulfilment, realization, effectuation, accomplishment
Itmam-i-Ni’mat Itmám-i-Ni‘mat completion of favour
Itmi'nan (Itminan) Iṭmi’nán calm, repose, serenity, peace, peacefulness, tranquillity;   reassurance, peace of mind, composure, calmness, equanimity;   trust, confidence
Itmi'nan-i-Qalb (Itminan-i-Qalb) Iṭmi’nán-i-Qalb heart attaining tranquillity or composure of the heart
Itra, ‘Itrat ‘Itra(t) little balls formed of musk or other aromatics, and worn as a necklace;   a progeny, family, near relations;   a bit of pure musk;   sweet marjoram;—‘Itrat al-Nabí “Family of the Prophet”
Ittihad Ittiḥád oneness, singleness, unity;   concord, accord, unison, harmony, unanimity, agreement;   combination;   consolidation, amalgamation, merger, fusion;   alliance, confederacy;   association;   federation;   union.   Symbolically, the identification of man with God
Izadi Ízadí Pers.   God;   an angel
Izar, Uzur
Izár m. and f., pl. Uzur
loincloth;   wrap, shawl;   wrapper, covering, cover
Izdiwaj (Izdivaj) Izdiwáj Pers.   marrying;   marriage, wedding
Izhar Iẓhár presentation, exposition, demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, exposure, revelation, announcement, declaration, manifestation, display;   developing (photography)
Izmir (Smyrna) Izmír City in western extremity of Anatolia, Turkey. Formerly ancient city of Smyrna
Izra'il ‘Izrá’íl (Israfels) angel of death
Izza ‘Izza might, power, standing, weight;   strength, force;   honour, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown;   pride
Izzat ‘Izzat Pers.   being great, powerful, rare, valuable;   grandeur, glory, power, might;   honour, esteem;   rareness
Izzatu'llah ‘Izzatu’lláh Might or Power of God
Izzatu'llah Zahra'i ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai)
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ja'far Ja‘far little river, creek (Djaffar)   The name of the sixth Imám
Ja’far as-Sadiq, Ja’far-i-Sadiq Ja‘far aṣ-Ṣádiq, Pers. Ja‘far-i-Ṣádiq the Sixth Imám
Ja'far-i-Istarabadi Ja‘far-i-Istarábádí
Ja'far-i-Tabrizi Ja‘far-i-Tabrízí
Ja'far-i-Yazdi Ja‘far-i-Yazdí (MF)
Ja'far-Quli Ja‘far-Qulí
Ja'fari Ja‘farí Pers.   the finest kind of gold (named after a celebrated alchemist);   a kind of cupola;   a sort of screen (the interstices of the frame being lozenged);   lattice-work;   name of a yellow flower;   parsley;   name of a fortress
Ja’fariyya, Ja’fariyyih Ja‘faríya, Pers. Ja‘faríyyih followers of the Sixth Imám that believed he did not die but is concealed and will return as the Mahdí. Náwus of Baṣra (hence, Náwusíya, alternative name of followers) was a prominent exponent of this idea.
Jabal-i-Basit Jabal-i-Básiṭ “the Open Mountain”—Máh-Kú (same numerical value as Básiṭ, 72) al-Básiṭ “the one who expands or stretches”)
Jabal-i-Shadid Jabal-i-Shadíd “the Grievous Mountain”—fortress of Chihríq
Jabal, Jibal, Ajbal Jabal, pl. Jibál, Ajbál mountain;   mountains, mountain range
Jabri, Jabariyan
Jabrí, pl. Jabariyán
one who believes in predestination, a fatalist
Jabarut Jabarút “the All-highest Dominion” or “the Empyrean Heaven”—realm of being.   See Háhút, Láhút and Násút.
Jabbar, Jabbarun, Jababir, Jababira
Jabbár, pl. Jabbárún, Jabábir, Jabábira
giant;   colossus;   tyrant, oppressor;   almighty, omnipotent (God);   gigantic, giant, colossal, huge;   Orion (astronomy)
Jabir Jábir bonesetter   Jábir Ibn-i-Ḥayyán was a follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions.
Jabr Jabr setting (of broken bones);   force, compulsion;   coercion, duress;   power, might;   (predestined, inescapable) decree of fate.
Jabr wa'l-muqabala Jabr wa’l-muqábala Al-Jabr wa’l-muqábala (“completing” or “restoring”, and “simplifying” or “balancing”)   Part of a book title from which the word “algebra” is derived.
Jabriyya Jabríyya(h) Muslims who championed determinism
Jabulqa and Jabulsa Jábulqá and Jábulsá (According to Shí’ih traditions, the mythical twin cities of Jábulqá and Jábulsá are the dwelling place of the Hidden Imám (the Promised One), whence He will appear on the Day of Resurrection.)
Jadhbiyyid Jadhbíyyih Pers.   attraction
Jadhdhab Jadhdháb Attractive;   magnetic;   suction;   winning;   charming
Jadhib dhib attractive; magnetic (fig.);   winning, fetching, engaging;   charming, enticing, captivating, gripping
Jadhibiya, Jadhbiyyih dhibíyah gravitation;   attraction;   attractiveness;   charm;   fascination;   magnetism
Jadid, Judud, Judad Jadíd, pl. Judud, Judad new, recent;   renewed;   modern;   novel, unprecedented
Jadidu'llah Jadídu’lláh “New one of God”   Jadídu’lláh Ashraf
Jaffa, Jafaf, Jufuf
Jaffa, Jafáf, Jufúf
to dry, become dry;   to dry out
Jafr Jafr Islamic science of the numerical values of letters;   numerology.   ‘ilm al-jafr: divination, fortune telling.
Jahada, Jahd Jahada (Jahd) to endeavour, strive, labour, take pains, put oneself out;   to over-work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (someone).   Form III to endeavour, strive;   to fight (for something);   to wage holy war against the infidels.   Form IV to strain, exert (something);   to tire, wear out, fatigue (someone), give trouble (to).
Jahan (Jihan) Jahán (Jihán) Pers. world
Jahangir Jahángír Pers.   “conqueror of the world”   Núri’d-Dín Muḥammad Salím (Mughal Emperor)
Jahil, Jahala, Juhhal, Juhala
Jáhil, pl. Jahala, Juhhal, Juhhál, Juhalá’
not knowing (something, how to do something);   ignorant, uneducated, illiterate;   foolish;   fool
Jahiliya, Jahiliyyih Jáhilíya, Pers. Jáhilíyyih state of ignorance;   pre-Islamic paganism.   The dark age of ignorance among the Arabs before the appearance of Muḥammad.
Jahl, Jahal
Jahl and Jahála
ignorance;   folly, foolishness, stupidity
Jahrum (Jahram, Jahrom)
city and county 155 km se of Shíráz
Jalal Khazih
Jalál Kházih
[not Khazeh]
Jalal Jalál loftiness, sublimity, augustness;   splendor, glory
Jalaliya, Jalaliyyih Jalaliya(t), Pers. Jalálíyyih name of a sect who worships the more terrible attributes of the deity;   the followers of Jalál Bukhárí
Jalalu'd-Dawlih Jalálu’d-Dawlih
Jalalu'd-Din Rumi Jalálu’d-Dín Rúmí [or Jaláli’d-Dín Rúmí or Jalála’d-Dín Rúmí] (called Mawláná (“our Master”), is the greatest of all Persian Súfí poets, and founder of the Mawlaví “whirling” dervish order.)
Jali, Jaliy Jalí, Jálí, Jalíy clear, plain, evident, patent, manifest, obvious, conspicuous;   shining, polished.   Loudly and publicly, as in prayers, etc.
Jalil, Ajilla', Ajilla, Jala'il Jalíl, Ajillá’, Ajilla, Jalá’il great, important, significant, weighty, momentous;   lofty, exalted, sublime;   revered, honourable, venerable;   glorious, splendid
Jalil-i-Khu'i Jalíl-i-Khu’í
Jalil-i-Tabrizi Jalíl-i-Tabrízí
Jam Jam Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia, whom they confound with Solomon and Alexander the Great;   a monarch, a great king;   the pupil of the eye;   pure, free, exempt;   essence, nature, person.   (Zend or Avestan: yima and Sanskrit: yama [“the twins”]. Yama became Jam).   See Jamshíd
Jam', Jumu'
Jam‘, pl. Jumú‘
gathering;   collection;   combination;   connection, coupling, joining;   accumulation;   (arithmetic) addition;   union, merger, aggregation, integration (of) holding together (of divergent, separate things);—(pl.) gathering, crowd, throng;   gang, troop
Jam'iya, Jam'iyat Jam‘iya(t), pl. Jam‘iyát club, association, society;   corporation, organization;   assembly
Jama'a, Jama'at Jamá‘a(h), pl. Jamá‘át group (of people);   band, gang, party, troop;   community;   squad (military unit)
Jamad, Jamadat Jamád, pl. Jamádát a solid;   inorganic body; mineral;   inanimate body, inanimate being
Jamadiyu'l-Avval Jamádíyu’l-Avval Fifth month in Islamic calendar
Jamadiyu'th-Thani Jamádíyu’th-Thání Sixth month in Islamic calendar
Jamal Jamál Ar.   Beauty
Jamal Afandi (Jamal Effendi) Jamál Afandí (Effendi) name given to Sulaymán Khán-i-Tunukábání
Jamal-i-Burujirdi Jamál-i-Burújirdí
Jamal-i-Mubarak Jamál-i-Mubárak “The Blessed Beauty”.   Title used by some Bahá’ís for Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal-i-Qidam Jamál-i-Qidam Ar.   The Ancient Beauty.   A title of Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal, Jimal Jamal, pl. Jimál, Ajmál Camel
Jamali'd-Din Jamáli’d-Dín Beauty of the Faith
Jamalu'd-Din-i-Afghani Jamálu’d-Dín-i-Afghání
Jami', Jawami' Jámi‘, pl. Jawámi‘ total;   whole, entire;   all;   entirety;   comprehensive, extensive, broad, general, universal;   collector, gatherer;   compiler (of a book);   compositor, typesetter;—(pl.) mosque
Jamil, Jamilih
Jamíl, Pers. Jamílih
beautiful, graceful, lovely, comely, pretty, handsome;   friendly act, favour, service, good turn;   courtesy
Jammal, Jammalun Jammál, pl. Jammálún camel driver.   Gardens of Jammál are at the south entrance of the Mansion of Bahjí.
Jamshid Jamshíd (“Djemsheed”)   mythical King in Iranian traditions and culture.   A compound of Jam and shíd formed by changes to the original Avestran names.
Jamshid-i-Gurji Jamshíd-i-Gurjí (MF)
Jan Ján Pers.   soul, vital spirit, mind;   self;   life;   spirit, courage;   wind;   the mouth;   arms;   the father of demons;   name of a race said to have inhabited the world before Adam;   in modern conversation a word of endearment.   See nafs
Jan Aqa Big Ján Áqá Big known as a Kaj Kuláh
Jan-i-Khamsih Ján-i-Khamsih
Janami Jánamí you are my life and soul;   you are close to me
city 230 km north of Yazd and 178 km NE of Ná’ín, Írán
Jangal Jangal Pers.   a wood, forest, thicket;   a country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass;   a jungle
Jangali Jangalí Pers.   wild, untilled, jungle-like.   Insult referring to uncultured people (raised in jungles)
Jani Jání Pers.   soul;   cordial, heartily loved, devoted.   Title of a merchant of Kashán, Ḥájí Mírzá Jání, early historian of the Bábí Cause and a martyr.
Janib, Jawanib Jánib, pl. Jawánib side;   lateral portion;   sidepiece;   flank;   wing;   face (geometry);   part, portion, partial amount;   partial view, section (of a scene, picture or panorama);   quantity, amount;   a certain number (of), a few, some.   “draw back”? Seven Valleys p. 43
Janna, Jannat (“Jinnat”), Jinan Janna(h or t), pl. Janna, Jinán garden;   paradise, heaven
Jarib Jaríb 10,000 sq metres
Jasad, Ajsad Jasad, pl. Ajsád body.   Compare Jism
Jasb Jásb rural district, Markazí Province, Írán
Jashn Jashn Pers.   A feast, social entertainment;   convivial meeting;   a solemn feast
Jashn-i-A'zam Jashn-i-A‘ẓam (the Greatest Festival because ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was known as the Ghusn-i-A’ẓám [the Greatest Branch])—Day of the Covenant
Jasim Jásim healthy, strong, powerful, good health
Jasim, Jisam Jasím, pl. Jisám great, big, large;   voluminous, bulky, huge;   vast, immense;   stout, corpulent;   weighty, most significant, momentous, prodigious
Jathiya thiya fem., the kneeling or crouching one
Javad-i-Karbila'i Javád-i-Karbilá’í
Javad-i-Qazvini Javád-i-Qazvíní Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní.   He went to Adrianople in 1867 and worked for many years as one of Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuenses. Bahá’u’lláh gave him the title Ismu'llahu'l-Javad (The Name of God, the All-Bountiful). He later joined Mírzá Muḥammad ‘Alí in opposing ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Javad-i-Tabataba'i Javád-i-Ṭabáṭabá’í
Javahiru'l-Asrar Javáhiru’l-Asrár “Gems of Divine Mysteries” or “The Essence of Mysteries” by Bahá’u’lláh.   See jawhar and sirr
Jaw'an (Jau'an), Jaw'a' (Jau'a), Jiya'
Jaw‘án, fem. Jaw‘á’, pl. Jiyá‘
hungry, starved, famished
Jawab (Javab), Ajwiba, Jawabat Jawáb, pl. Ajwiba, Jawabát answer, reply;   octave (to a given tone; music);   (e.g. pronounced gawáb pl. jawabát) letter, message
Jawad, Ajwad, Ajawid, Jud Jawád, pl. Ajwád, Ajáwid, Ajawíd, Júd openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous;—pl. jiyád, ajyád, ajáwíd race horse, racer;   charger
Jawan (Javan) Jawán Pers.   young;   young man, youth, lad
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir Jawhar, pl. Jawáhir intrinsic, essential nature, essence;   content, substance (as opposed to form;   philosophy);   matter, substance;   atom;   jewel, gem;—pl. jewelry.   See Pers. Gawhar
Jawhara (Jauhara), Jawharat Jawhara(t), pl. Jawharát jewel, gem
Pers.   eternal, perpetual
Pers.   eternal;   eternity
Jawsh (Jaush) Jawsh Pers.   the breast;   the middle of a man;   midnight;   a large section of the night, or the latter part of it;   a march during the whole of the night. See jayb
Jawshan (Jaushan) Jawshan breast plate, steel plate or chain mail
Jawshan Kabir Jawshan Kabír long (“big”) Islamic prayer with 1,000 names and attributes of God that is Muḥammad’s “coat of amour” to protect Him from injuries
Jayb (Jaib), Juyub
Jayb, pl. Juyúb
breast, bosom, heart;   sine (mathematics);   hole, hollow, cavity, excavation;   pocket;   purse
Oxus River
Pers.   An island;   name of a country between Euphrates and Tigris (Mesopotamia, al-Jazírat)
Jazba, Jazbat
Jaẓba, pl. Jaẓbát
Pers.   passion, rage, fury;   strong desire, craving for
rages of God
Jazira (Jazirih), Jaza'ir, Juzur
Jazíra(h or t), pl. Jazá’ir, Juzur
island.   Cizre (Kurdish), Jazírat ibn ‘Umar (Ar.), Jazírih (Pers.), town and district in SE Turkey
Jazirat al-Bahr
Jazírat al-Baḥr
Name given to Búshihr by the Báb
“Verdant Isle”
Jazzar, Jazzarun
Jazzár, pl. Jazzárún
sorcery, divination or any false belief
Jidal, Mujadala, Mujadalat
Jidál (m.), Mujádala (f.), pl. Mujádalát
quarrel, argument;   dispute, discussion, debate
Jiha, Jihat, Juhat
Jiha (Pers. Jihat, Juhat), pl. Jihát
side;   direction;   region, part, section, area;   district, precinct, city quarter;   agency, authority;   administrative agency
Jihad Jihád Commonly understood to be: fight, battle;   jihad, holy war (against the infidels, as a religious duty).   Literally means “striving” (see root jahada)—a witness or martyr.   During and immediately after the time of Muḥammad, jihad was directed against pagans and idolaters—the polytheists—and was undertaken in defence of the realm of Islám. Meaning was later obscured and lost.   See Qitál
Jihan Jihán Pers.   world
Jihat-i-Mahiyyati Jihat-i-Máhíyyatí Pers.   essential aspect
Jihat-i-Vujudi Jihat-i-Vujúdí Pers.   existential aspect
“he is a light-weight”
Jilf, Ajlaf Jilf, pl. Ajláf Ar.   boorish, rude, uncivil.
Pers.   i) any empty vessel, pot or pan;   an animal disembowelled, and skinned;   anything empty in the middle;   ii) silly, trifling
Jillabiya (Jilabiya, Jellabiya, Gallabiya) Jillábíya, pl. Jilábi galabia or galabieh, a loose, shirt-like garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea.   Gallábíya, pl. Gallábíyát, Galálíb in Egyptian Arabic.
Jim Jím Arabic letter (j)
Jinab Jináb Ar.   Courtesy title sometimes translated as ‘His Honour’, or ‘The Honourable’.
Jinab-i Jináb-i (Janabe)
Jinab-i-'Azim Jináb-i-‘Aẓím
Jinab-i-Amin Jináb-i-Amín
Jinab-i-Avarih Jináb-i-Ávárih (Unfolding Destiny, p. 13.)
Jinab-i-Fadil-i-Mazindarani Jináb-i-Fáḍil-i-Mázindarání (Jenabi Fazel)
Jinab-i-Husayn Jináb-i-Ḥusayn
Jinab-i-Ibn-'Abhar Jináb-i-Ibn-‘Abhar (Jenabe Ayadi, Ibn Abhar)
Jinab-i-Ismu'llah Jináb-i-Ismu’lláh
Jinab-i-Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Jináb-i-Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq
Jinab-i-Khan Jináb-i-Khán
Jinab-i-Mirza Jináb-i-Mírzá
Jinab-i-Mishkin Jináb-i-Mishkín (MF p. 100)
Jinab-i-Muhammad-Taqi Jináb-i-Muḥammad-Taqí
Jinab-i-Mulla Jináb-i-Mullá
Jinab-i-Munib Jináb-i-Muníb (Memorials of the Faithful, GPB & Child of the Covenant 73)
Jinab-i-Munir Jináb-i-Munír
Jinab-i-Nabil-i-Akbar Jináb-i-Nabíl-i-Akbar
Jinab-i-Quddus Jináb-i-Quddús
Jinab-i-Sayyah Jináb-i-Sayyáḥ (MF)
Jinab-i-Shaykh Jináb-i-Shaykh
Jinab-i-Tahirih Jináb-i-Ṭáhirih
Jinab-i-Varqa Jináb-i-Varqá
Jinab-i-Zayn Jináb-i-Zayn (Jinabi Zain)
Jinaza, Janaza, Jinazat, Janazat, Jana'iz
Jináza, Janza, pl. –át, Janá’iz
bier;   funeral procession.   Pers. sing. also jinázih.
Jinn Jinn (collective) jinn, demons (invisible beings, either harmful or helpful, that interfere with the lives of mortals)
Jinni, Jinniya Jinní, Jinníya (fem.) jinní, (demonic);   jinni (demon);   Jinníya (female demon)
Jirjis Jirjís Pers.   George, particularly St. George of England;   ranked among the prophets by Muslims.
Jism al-Kull
Jism al-Kull
the universal substance
Jism, Ajsam, Jusum Jism, pl. Ajsám, Jusúm body (also [new meaning] of an automobile);   substance, matter;   mass;   form, shape.   Compare jasad
Jizya (Pers. Jizyah), Jizan, Jiza' Jizya(h), pl. Jizan, Jizá’ tax;   tribute;   head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule
Ju Jú‘ hunger, starvation
Ju'an Jú‘án be hungry
Jubbih Jubbih Pers.   Outer coat, overcoat.
Jubbiy-i-Hizari'i Jubbiy-i-Hizári’í A type of overcoat
Jud Júd open-handedness, liberality, generosity, bounty
al-Juhfah (al-Jihfah)
city 183 km NE of Mecca
Juj (Jujih), Jawj (Jauj) Júj, Jauj Pers.   a cock's comb;   a crest;   a pennant, vane
Jujih Khanum Jújih Khánum The minuscule Leona Barnitz was called Jújih Khánum (Little Chick Lady) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Juk Júk Jug-Basisht (Book of Juk), the Persian translation of the Yoga Vasistha, a syncretic philosophic text
Julab Juláb, Julláb rose water
Julfa (Jolfa) Julfá “new” Julfá (since ad 1606) is an Armenian-populated area (one of the world’s largest) of Iṣfahán, located south of the Záyandí-Rúd. The people migrated from the Armenian city of Julfá in Azerbaijan.
Juljul, Jalajil Juljul, pl. Jalájil (little) bell, sleigh bell;   cowbell;   jingle
Jull, Gul Jull, Pers. Gul rose
Jum'a, Jum'ih, Juma', Juma'at Jum‘a, Per. Jum‘ih, pl. Juma‘, Juma‘át week;   Friday
Jum'ih-Bazar Jum‘ih-Bázár Friday Bazaar. Normal market with many temporary traders on Friday
Jumada Jumádá dry.   Name of the fifth and sixth months of the Muslim year
Jumada al-Awwal, Jumada al-Ula Jumádá al-Awwal Fifth Islamic calendar month (the first of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Úlá.
Jumada ath-Thani, Jumada al-Akhir Jumádá ath-Thání Sixth Islamic calendar month (the second/last of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Ákhir.
Jumhuriya, Jumhuriyat Jumhúriya, pl. Jumhúriyát republic
Jumu’at al-Jumu‘at [a proper name] [the day of gathering, the day of congregating] Friday.   Súra 62 named al-Jumu‘ah because verse 9 mentions the call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday”.   See jum‘a
Junaina, Junaynih Junaina, pl. Junainát, Pers. Junaynih little garden;   garden.   Junaynih Garden—garden NW of Mazra‘ih, Israel
possession, obsession;   mania, madness, insanity, dementia;   foolishness, folly;   frenzy, rage, fury;   ecstasy, rapture.   Pen name of Mírzá Faraju’lláh Faná’yán, see Faná’yán.
Jurj Jurj Pers.   wallets;   saddlebags.   Jurjí Zaydán
Pers.   to search, seek, inquire, ask for, examine, investigate;   to heap up, accumulate;   to find, acquire.
Juvayn, Juwayn Juvayn, Ar. Juwayn Joveyn, area about 50 km NNW of Sabzivár, Írán
Pers.   (imperative and participle of justan), seek thou;   seeking, desiring, wishing, asking
Juz’, Ajza’ Juz’, pl. Ajzá’ part, portion;   constituent, component;   fraction;   division;   section;   the 30th part of the Qur’án (= 2 ḥizb)
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ka'aba, Ku'ub Ka‘aba (Ku‘úb) to be full and round, be swelling (breasts)   Form II to make cubic, to cube (something);   to dice (something)
Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf Ka‘b-ibn-i-Ashraf a hermit who denounced Muḥammad as an imposter
Ka'b, Ka'ba, Ka'aba, Ka'iba Ka’b, Ka’ba, Ka’ába, Ka’iba to be dejected, dispirited, downcast, sad
Ka'b, Ki'ab, Ku'ub Ka‘b, pl. Ki‘áb, Ku‘úb knot, knob, node (of cane);   joint, articulation;   ankle, anklebone
Ka'ba, Ka'abat, Ka'bih Ka‘ba (Ar), pl. Ka‘abát, Pers. Ka‘bih cube, cubic structure;   (figurative) shrine;   object of veneration, focus of interest.   The cubic building (the Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba) or the exalted Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba al-Musharrafah)) in the centre of the Mosque at Mecca that contains the Black Stone (al-Ḥajar al-Aswad). The sanctuary is believed to have been originally built by Ibráhím (Abraham) and Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), and appointed by Muḥammad as the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration) to which people turn in prayer in Mecca.   The structure is 13.1 (43’) x 11.03 (36.2’) x 12.86 (42.2’) (HxWxD)
Kabara, Kabr, Kabri Kabara, Kabr to exceed in age (someone by), be older (than someone).   Aqueduct from Kabrí (NE of Naḥáríya) to ‘Akká.
Kabir, Kibar Kabír, pl. Kibár great, big, large, sizable;   bulky, voluminous, spacious;   extensive, comprehensive;   significant, considerable, formidable, huge, vast, enormous;   powerful, influential, distinguished, eminent; important;   old. e.g. Amír Kabír.   Superlative form of ‘kabura’.
Kabul Kábul capital of Afghánistán
Kabura Kabura to be or become great, big, large, to grow, increase
Kad-Khuda Kad-Khudá Pers.   chief officer of a district;   a mayor, magistrate, alderman or bailiff.   Head man of a village, town, district or ward.
liar, swindler;   lying, untruthful;   false, deceitful
Kaf Káf Arabic letter (k)
Kafan, Akfan
Kafan, pl. Akfán
shroud, winding sheet
Kaffara, Kaffarih
Kaffára(h), Pers. also Kaffárih
penance, atonement (‘an for a sin), expiation (‘an of);   reparation, amends;   expiatory gifts, expiations (distributed to the poor at a funeral)
Kafi Káfí Pers.   sufficient, enough;   efficacious, effective;   entire, perfect
Kafir, Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar Káfir, pl. Káfirún, Kuffár, Kafara, Kifár irreligious, unbelieving;   unbeliever, infidel, atheist;   ungrateful
Kafiya Káfiyá by Ibn-i-Ḥájib
Kafur Káfúr (kafur) (a fountain intended to be drunk by the true and firm believers)—literally camphor, a medicine that is given as a soothing tonic in Eastern medicine. It is cool and it may have a good odour. Symbolically it is referred to as a spring in heaven or an added spiritual flavour etc. Used to denote whiteness—a compound of all colours
Kahf, Kuhuf Kahf, pl. Kuhúf cave, cavern;   depression, hollow, cavity
Kahraba Kahrabá’ and Kahrabá amber;   electricity
Kahrabiya, Kahrabiya Kahrabá’íya and Kahrabíya electricity
Kahruba’i, Kahrabi Kahrubá’í and Kahrabí electric(al); electrician
Kaj Kulah (Kajkulah) Kaj Kuláh (or Kaj-Kuláh) Pers.   A beau, lit. “wearing the cap awry”;   a beloved object
Kajawa (Kajawih, Kajavih, Kijawih) Kajawa, Kajáwa, Kazáwa Pers.   a type of pannier, howdah or litter for women, placed on camels (sometimes mules).   See Hawdaj
Kalam Kalám talking, speaking;   speech;   language, mode of expression, style;  talk, conversation, discussion;   debate, dispute, controversy;   words, word, saying, utterance, statement, remark;   aphorism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of speech;   (grammar) sentence, clause.   Described as “speculative theology” by Momen.   In Islám “the term ‘theology’ has never been used.  Instead, the term kalám (discourse on the divine) was coined because the term ‘theology’ was identified with the doctrine of the holy trinity.”  Making the crooked straight, p. 786.
Kalantar Kalántar A mayor or prefecture of police?
Kalat-i-Nadiri Kalát-i-Nádirí Kalat Nader, city 80 km north of Mashhad
Kalb, Kilab Kalb, pl. Kiláb dog
Kalbasi Kalbásí Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ibráhím-i-Kalbásí
Kalim, Kalma, Kulama Kalím two meanings: 1. wounded, injured;   sore;   (pl. kalmá).   2. person addressed;   speaker, spokesman, mouthpiece (pl. kulamá’). Hence, “The Interlocutor”—title of Mírzá Músá, Bahá’u’lláh’s faithful brother;   also Áqáy-i Kalím, Master of Discourse, his usual full title.
Kalima (Kalimah, Kalimat), Kalim Kalima fem., pl. Kalimát, Kalim (Kalim is the collective masc. pl.)   word;   speech, address;   utterance, remark, saying;   aphorism, maxim;   brief announcement, a few (introductory) words;   short treatise;   importance, weight, influence, authority, ascendancy, powerful position.   Final Arabic letter is a tá mabúta, hence singular forms Kalimah and Kalimat.
Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih Kalimát-i-Firdawsíyyih (“The Words of Paradise”) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kalimat-i-Maknunih Kalimát-i-Maknúnih “The Hidden Words” by Bahá’u’lláh.   Also known as Ṣaḥífiy-i-Fáṭimíyyih (Book of Fáṭimih)
Kalimu'llah Kalímu’lláh “One who converses with God”.   Title given to Moses in the Islamic Dispensation.
Kam, Chand Kam, Pers. Chand (interrogative and exclamatory particle with following noun in accusative) how much? how many! how much!
Kamal, Kamalat Kamál, pl. Kamalát perfection;   completeness;   completion, consummation, conclusion, termination, windup;   maturity, ripeness
Kamalu'd-Din-i-Naraqi Kamálu’d-Dín-i-Naráqí
Kamil-Muqaddam Kámil-Muqaddam
Kamil, Kamala Kámil, Kamala perfect, consummate;   genuine, sterling;   complete, full, plenary, full-strength;   completed, concluded;   whole, entire, total, integral
Kamran Kámrán Pers.   Name.   successful, blessed, fortunate
Kana, Kawn (Kaun), Kiyan, Kainina Kána (Kawn, Kiyán, Kainína) to be (past tense);   to exist;   to happen, occur, take place.   Kuntu (I was)
Pers.   a turtle-dove
Kand Kand Pers.   cutting.   Village in the province of Ṭihrán.
Kangavar Kangávar Persian town west of Mt. Alvand and Hamadán.
Kanz, Kunuz Kanz, pl. Kunúz treasure
Kaqan, Khawaqin
Kháqán, pl. Khawáqín
overlord, ruler, sovereign, monarch, emperor
Kar, Karat Kár, pl. Karát Ar.   work, job, occupation, business;   calling, vocation, profession, trade.   e.g. Ustádhkár
Karama (Kirama, Kiramat), Karamat Karáma(t), Karámát nobility;   high-mindedness, noble-heartedness;   generosity, magnanimity;   liberality, munificence;   honour, dignity;   respect, esteem, standing, prestige;   mark of honour, token of esteem, favour;—pl. miracle (worked by a saint)
Karand, Kirand (Kerand) Karand, Kirand a village about 100 km SE of Ṭihrán, home of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís (an Islamic sect, followers of the Imám ‘Alí).
Karb Karb pressing heavily, weighing down the spirits (grief);   drawing tight (a fetter);   ploughing;   twisting a rope;   being near setting (the sun), almost extinguished (fire);   affliction, anguish, vexation, distress
Karbala, Karbila Karbalá, Karbilá a Shi’ite holy city in ‘Iráq where the Imám Ḥusayn was murdered and is buried.   Imám Ḥusayn said of the name: “Anguish and distress” (a combination of karb (the land that will cause many agonies) and balá’ (afflictions)).   There are two villages of the same name in Fars and Zanjan Provinces.   See Karb and Balá’
Karbala’i Karbalá’í prefixed title given to those performing the pilgrimage to Karbalá
Karbala’i (Karbila’i) Mihdi Milani Karbalá’í Mihdí Mílání (Kerbelaiy Mehdi Milani) (Karbilá’í)
Karim, Kurama’, Kiram Karím, pl. Kuramá’, Kirám noble;   distinguished, high-ranking, eminent;   high-minded, noble-minded, noble-hearted;   generous, liberal, munificent, hospitable, beneficent;   benefactor;   kind, kindly, friendly, amicable, obliging, gracious;   respectable, honourable, decent;   precious, valuable, costly;   thoroughbred.   Also “All-Bountiful”
a quarter in Baghdád bounded by the west bank of the Tigris River. Bahá’u’lláh’s family moved to al-Karkh prior to His return from Kurdistán.
Karkuk (Kirkuk) Karkúk city in northern ‘Iráq
Karwan-saray (Karvan-saray) Kárwán-saráy Pers.   caravanserai (roadside inn for travellers)
Kashan shán One of the oldest cities of Írán, located in north central Persia.
Kashanih shánih town (Keşan, Turkey) that Bahá’u’lláh passed through on His way to Gallipoli (100 km south of Edirne)
Kashf, Kushuf, Kushufat Kashf, pl. Kushúf, Kushúfát uncovering, disclosure;   baring, exposure, unveiling;   revelation, illumination (mysticism);   investigation, inquiry, search, quest, study;   examination, scrutiny;   inspection;   boy scout movement;—(pl.) report, account;   statement, specification, enumeration;   table, schedule, chart;   list, roster, index, register, inventory;—(pl. kushúfát) discoveries
Kashfi Kash of or pertaining to boy scouts.   “the Discloser” or “one who discovers and explains the divine secrets”
alternative name for the Shaykhis because God lifted (kashf) from their intellect and from their vision the veil of ignorance and lack of insight into the Religion, and removed the darkness of doubt and uncertainty from their minds and their hearts. They are the ones whose hearts God illumined with the light of guidance. The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, p. 48.
Kashghar shghar (Kashgar) part of Sinkiang, China
Kashi shí Pers.   short form of Káshání
Kashif Kashif Pers.   a discoverer, revealer, detector
Kashifu'l-Ghita Kashifu’l-Ghiṭá’ DB 71, 79, 431
Kashkul Kashkúl beggar’s bag;   scrapbook;   album.   Described as a globe-shaped alms-basket (originally made from a sea-coconut) carried by dervishes.
Kasr-i-Hudud Kasr-i-Ḥudúd lift or break bounds imposed by God
Kasr, Kusur Kasr, pl. Kusúr breaking, fracturing;   shattering, fragmentation;   (pl.) break, breach, fracture;   crack, rupture; fracture of a bone
defeat, breakdown, collapse;   the vowel point for the short vowel i (grammar);   nook of the house.   See ḍamma and fatḥa
Katama, Katm, Kitman Katama (Katm, Kitmán) to hide (something, from someone);   to conceal, secrete, keep secret (something, from someone);   to suppress, repress, restrain, check, curb, subdue (anger, passion);   to hold (one’s breath);   to lower, muffle (the voice);   to stifle, smother, quench (fire)
Kathir, Kithar Kathír, pl. Kithár much, many, numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious;   frequent;   a large portion, a great deal, a great many, a lot
Kathiran Kathírán very, much, to a large extent;   often, frequently
Kathiri Kathírí
Katib-i-Sirr Kátibu’s-Sirr, Pers. Kátib-i-Sirr private secretary
Katib, Katibun, Kuttab Kátib, pl. Kátibún, Kuttáb, Kataba writer;   scribe, scrivener;   secretary;   clerk typist;   office worker, clerical employee;   clerk, registrar, actuary, court clerk;   notary; writer, author
Katiba, Katibat Kátiba, pl. Katibát woman secretary;   authoress, writer
Katibpur-Shahidi Kátibpúr-ahídí
Katurah Katúráh Abraham’s third wife
Kawih (Kavih) Káwih Pers.   “Kaveh” in Iranian mythology is a blacksmith (Áhangar) from Isfahan.   Pers./Kurdish Káwa.   May mean strength, vigour. May have derived from the Ar. Qahwa.
Kawkab (Kaukab, Kokab), Kawakib
Kawkab pl. Kawákib
star (also, fig., of screen, stage, etc.);   white opacity in the cornea of the eye
Kawm (Kaum), Akwam, Kiman
Kawm, pl. Akwám, Kímán
heap, pile;   hill;—pl. kímán especially garbage piles, refuse dump
Kawm as-Sa'aydah, Kawmu's-Sa'ayidih
Kawm aṣ-Ṣa‘áydah
Per.   Kawmu’ṣ-Ṣa’áyidih.   A village about 8 km sw of Bibá, in Bibá (Beba) district, Muḥáfẓat Baní Sawíf (Beni Suef Governorate), 130 km ssw of Cairo, Egypt. A fierce attack on a small band of Bahá’ís in this village ended in being the “initial step”, Shoghi Effendi said, in “the eventual universal acceptance of the Bahá’í Faith, as one of the independent recognized religious systems of the world” (Bahá’í Administration, p. 101) by the Appellate religious court of Bibá, which delivered its judgement on 10 May 1925. (Priceless Pearl, p. 318). See also The Bahá’í World, III:48–50.
gathering, assembly, group of people
Kawn, Akwan
Kawn, pl. Akwán
being;   existence;   event, occurrence, incident
Kawthar, Kawsar
Kawthar, Pers. Kawsar
much, ample, abundant, plentiful, large quantity;   al-Kawthar—name of a lake or river in Paradise (that Muḥammad saw on his mystic night journey, Qur’án 108:1) whence all the other rivers derive their source.
Kawus (Kavus)
Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia;   pure;   elegant, graceful;   radical;   firm, constant;   generous, noble;   strengthened by divine aid;   a subduer, conqueror;   a spark;   light, splendour, coruscation;   swiftness, impetuosity.
Kay (Kai), Kayan Kay, pl. Kayán Pers.   a star;   the point made by the compasses at the centre of a circle;   (pl.) great kings;   the surname of the second dynasty of the Persian kings
Kayani, Kayaniyan Kayání, pl. Kayániyán Pers.   of the Kayanian race;   imperial, royal.   Dynasty [time of Alexander the Great] of the Kayániyán (Keyanian) kings of Persia.
Kaykhusraw (Kaikhusraw) Kaykhusraw Pers.   Also Kay Khusraw, Kay-Khusraw.   Legendary Persian warrior
Kaysanite, see Mukhtáriyya. Name may have been based on the kunya (surname) Kaysán, allegedly given to Al-Mukhtár (see Mukhtár) by ‘Alí, or the name of a freed Mawlá of ‘Alí who was killed at the Battle of Ṣiffín called Kaysán. More likely named after Abú ‘Amra Kaysán, a prominent Mawlá and chief of Al-Mukhtár’s personal bodyguard. The Kaysanites were also known as Ḥanafiyya (after Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah)
Kaywan (Kaiwan, Kayvan)
the planet Saturn;   like-wise his orbit;   a bow;   the seventh heaven
Kazim Káẓim “One who suppresses his passion or anger”   The title of the seventh Imám of the Shí‘ih.
Kazim Kaẓím filled with anger
Kazim-i-Rashti Káẓim-i-Rashtí, Siyyid
Kazim-i-Zanjani Káẓim-i-Zanjání
Kazimayn Káẓimayn Káẓimayn (“Kazmin” or “Kazemain”)   “the two Ká’ẓims” (Imám Músá al-Káẓim and Muḥammad al-Taqí, the seventh and ninth A’imma).   Káẓimayn was a city built around the shrines of these A’imma—Al-Káẓimiya Mosque—now a suburb of Baghdád (about 7 km north of the city centre)
Kazimi-Manshadi Káẓimí-Manshádí
Kaziran Kázirán (Kazerun)   90 km west of Shíráz
Kha Khá Name of Arabic letter
Khabar-Dar Khabar-Dár Pers.   informed, appraised, certified;   aware;   careful, cautious;   an informer, scout, spy;   take care! beware! look out!
Khabar, Akhbar Khabar, pl. Akhbár news;   information, intelligence: report, communication, message;   notification;   rumor;   story;   matter, affair.   Traditions, sayings attributed to Muḥammad and to the Imams.
green, greenness, green colour;   greens, herbs, pot-herbs
Khadhala, Khadhl, Khidhlan Khadhala (Khadhl, Khidhlán) to leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the lurch (or someone);   to stay behind;   to disappoint;   pass
Khadi', Khuda', Khud'an, Khid'an Kháḍi‘, pl. Khuḍa‘, Khuḍ‘án, Khiḍ‘án submissive, humble;   obedient, pliant, tractable;   subject, liable, prone (to something).   Pers.   may use Kházih (Khazih)
Khadi'i Kháḍi‘í [Doubtful Kháḍí’í in MUHJ 1963–86, p. 502.]
Khadij Khadíj Pers.   an abortion (of an animal)
Khadija (Khadijah or Khadijat), Khadijih Khadíja(h or t), Khadíjih Muḥammad’s first wife.
Khadijih Khanum Khadíjih Khánum Mother of Bahá’u’lláh.   Children of second marriage—Daughters Sárih Khánum and Nisá Khánum.   Sons Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Mihdí
Khadijih-Bagum Khadíjih-Bagum Wife of the Báb.
Khadijih-Sultan Khadíjih-Sulṭán
Khadim, Khuddam, Khudama Khádim, pl. Khuddám, Khudama domestic servant, help;   manservant;   woman servant;   employee;   attendant;   waiter;   deacon   (Chr.) (Dhikru’lláh Khádem)
Khadimu'llah Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”)   Title given to Mírzá Áqá Ján, he was the personal attendant of Bahá’u’lláh and later His amanuensis as well.   (EGB, p. 65 by Balyuzi refers to the Tablet where the concept of Hand of the Cause of God is first mentioned in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh)
Khadir, Khidir, Khidr al-Khaḍir, al-Khiḍir (al-Khiḍr) a well-known legendary figure (“The Green One”) or immortal saint. Identified as “One of our servants” Qur’án 18:65. His name is not mentioned in the Qur’án, but tradition gives it as Khiḍr. His knowledge is fresh and green, and drawn out of the living sources of life (Alláh). Equivalent in the Bible is considered to be Melchizedek.   Bahíyya Khánum, p. 99 states the Cave of Khiḍr is the Cave of Elijah.
Khafi, Khafaya Khafí, pl. Khafáyá Pers.   clandestine, concealed;   secret.   Quietly and privately, as in prayers, etc.
Khajih Khájih (“Title of honour”) Name of a fortress near the town of Nayríz.
Khal-i-A'zam Khál-i-A‘ẓam “the Greatest Uncle”   ‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá Siyyid, maternal uncle of the Báb
Khal-i-Asghar Khál-i-Aṣghar “Younger or Junior Uncle”
Khal, Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'la Khál, pl. Akhwál, Khu’úl, Khu’úla (maternal) uncle;— (pl. khílán) mole, birthmark (on the face);   patch, beauty spot
Khalal, Khilal Khalal, pl. Khilál gap, interval, interstice;   cleft, crack, rupture, fissure;   a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance;   defectiveness, imperfection;   fault, flaw, defeat, shortcoming;   disturbance, upset, disorder;   damage, injury, harm (that something suffers or suffered);   khilála during;   between;   through
Khalaqa, (Khalq) Khalaqa (Khalq) to create, make, originate (something);   to shape, form, mould (something)
Khaldun Khaldún Ibn-i-Khaldún (“Ibn-Kaldoon”) (a famous Oriental historian)
Khalid, Khwalid Khálid, pl. Khwálid everlasting, perpetual, eternal;   immortal, deathless, undying;   unforgettable, glorious;—pl. mountains
Khalidiya, Khalidiyyih Khálidíya(h), Pers. Khálidíyyih al-Khálidíya “belonging to Khálid”. Naqshbandíya Khálidíya, Khálidíya or Khálidí is the title of a branch of the Naqshbandíya Ṣúfí lineage, from the time of Khálid al-Baghdádí
Khalifa, Khulafa Khalífa, pl. Khulafá’, Khalá’if Caliph, literally, successor.   The vicar, deputy, successor or representative of the Messenger of God (see Khiláfa);—pl. the institution, the Caliphate
Khalifatu Khalífatu successor of Muḥammad
Khalij, Khulj, Khuljan Khalíj pl. Khulj, Khulján bay, gulf;   canal;   al-Khalíj—name of Cairo’s ancient city canal that was abandoned and leveled at the end of the 19th century.   al-Khalíj Farsí—the Persian Gulf
Khalil Khalíl, pl. Akhillá, Khullán friend, bosom friend;   lovers.   The Friend, Abraham.
Khalil-i-Khu'i Khalíl-i-Khu’í
Khalilu'llah Khalílu’lláh the Friend of God (Abraham is known as)
Khaliq Kháliq creative;   Creator, Maker (God).   Used as a name, preceded by ‘Abd (servant)—‘Abdu’l-Kháliq “Servant of the Creator”.
Khalis Kháliṣ Pers.   pure, unsullied;   unadulterated;   white;   name of a stream in the east of Baghdád on the banks of which a castle of the same name is situated
Khalis, Khullas Kháliṣ, pl. Khullaṣ Ar.   clear;   pure, unmixed, unadulterated;   sincere, frank, candid, true;   free, exempt (from)
Khalisizádih Kháliṣízádih itinerant traveller, Ákhúnd Turábí, Shaykh Muḥammad Kháliṣízádih
Khalkhal, Khalakhil Khalkhál, Khalákhíl anklet
Khall Khall Ar.   vinegar.   See Pers. Sirka
Khalq Khalq creation;   making;   origination;   something which is created, a creation;   creatures;   people, man, mankind;   physical constitution.   Khalqan a creation
Khalq-i-Jadid Khalq-i-Jadíd Pers. (spiritual) rebirth
Khalwa, Khalwat Khalwa, pl. Khalawát privacy, solitude;   seclusion, isolation, retirement;   place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, recess;   secluded room;   hermitage;   religious assembly hall of the Druses; booth, cabin
Khammar Khammár vintner, wine merchant, keeper of a wineshop
Khammar, 'Udi Khammár, ‘Údí He placed the inscription “Greetings and salutations rest upon this mansion which increaseth in splendour through the passage of time. Manifold wonders and marvels are found therein, and pens are baffled in attempting to describe them” over his mansion’s door in ‘Akká   (David Ruhe, Door of Hope).   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Khamsa, Khams Khamsa, fem. Khams Ar. five
Khamsih Khamsih Persian province
Khan-i-'Arab Khán-i-‘Arab
Khan-i-'Avamid Khán-i-‘Avámíd Inn of Pillars, ‘Akká.   Also known as Khán-i-Jurayní, or Khán al-‘Umdán.   See ‘Awámíd.
Khan-i-Ahi Khán-i-Áhí Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, a secretary of Russian Legation
Khan-i-Kalantar Khán-i-Kalántar
Khan-i-Kashi Khán-i-Káshí
Khan-i-Kirmani Khán-i-Kirmání
Khan-i-Larijani Khán-i-Laríjání
Khan-i-Nuri Khán-i-Núrí
Khan-i-Qazvini Khán-i-Qazvíní
Khan-i-Sardar Khán-i-Sardár
Khan-i-Shavirdi Khán-i-Shávirdí (A caravanserai in ‘Akká)
Khan-i-Tanakabuni Khán-i-Tanakábúní (GPB) Khán-i-Tunukábúní, Sulaymán (MF)
Khan, Khanat Khán, pl. Khánát hostel, caravansary;   inn, pub, tavern.   Originally from the Mongolian term for a ruler;   a title meaning prince, chieftain or man of rank.
Khandil Khándil pronunciation of Turkish Kandil (candle or oil lamp).   Arabic qindíl
Khani Khání
Khanidan Khánidán Pers.   to echo;   to obtain celebrity
Khanih Khánih Pers.   house
Khaniq, Khawaniq Khániq, Khawániq choking, strangling;   suffocating, asphyxiating, stifling, smothering;   throttling, throttle (in compounds;   tech.);   (pl.) choke coil, reactor (radio);   gorge, ravine, canyon
Khaniqayn Khániqayn A town in ‘Iráq on the border of Írán near Baghdád.
Khaniqin Khániqín city near eastern border of ‘Iráq, 145 km NE of Baghdád
Pers.   homemade
Khanjar, Khanajir
Khanjar, pl.Khanájir
dagger.   Shaykh Khanjar was given the name Salmán by Bahá’u’lláh—thereafter known as Shaykh Salmán
Khanum Khánum (Lady, wife) The feminine form of khán.
Khar Khar Pers.   an ass;   a stupid fool;   black viscous clay;   sediment;   the bridge of a violin;   the commonest, ugliest, largest, or coarsest of its kind
Kharaj Kharáj tax;   land tax (Islamic Law)
Kharaja, Khuruj Kharaja, Khurúj to go out, walk out;   to come out.   An act of rebellion against authorities.
autumn, fall
Khariq-i-'Adat Kháriq-i-‘Ádat (Khareki-Adat) Things that are contrary, rend or change the habits of men. Hence, sometimes ‘miracles’.
Kharput Khárpút Harput/Khárpút, ancient fortress about 5 km ne of Elâziǧ, Turkey
Kharras (Kharraz), Kharrasun Kharráṣ, pl. Kharráṣún liar, slanderer, calumniator
Khartum, Kharatim Kharṭúm, pl. Kharáṭím proboscis, trunk (of the elephant);   hose.   al-Kharṭúm (Khartoum)—capital of the Sudanese Republic
Khasa'il-i-Sab'ih Khaṣá’il-i-Sab‘ih “The Seven Proofs or Qualifications” (by the Báb)
Khash Khásh city in SE of Írán
Khasilat, Khasa'il Khaṣílat, pl. Khaṣá’il Pers.   manner, custom, usage, moral
Khass Kháṣṣ special, particular;   specific, peculiar;   relative, relevant
Khassa, Khawass
Kháṣṣa, pl. Khawáṣṣ
exclusive property;   private possession;   specialty, particularity, peculiarity, characteristic, property, attribute;   essence, intrinsic nature;   leading personalities, people of distinction, al-kháṣṣa the upper class, the educated
Khassiya, Khassiyat, Khasa'is Kháṣṣíya, pl. Kháṣṣíyát, Khaṣá’iṣ Ar.   specialty, particularity, characteristic, peculiarity, property, special attribute, feature, trait, qualification;   prerogative, privilege;   jurisdiction, competence
Pers.   region in Tibet known for musk production
Khatam al-Nabiyin
Khátam an-Nabíyín
the Seal (of approval) of the Prophets (Muḥammad), or “the best of prophets” (khayr an-nabiyyin).   Muḥammad was the last of the Manifestations to prophesy the coming of Bahá’u’lláh, and His Dispensation the last of the prophetic cycle of religion. With the appearance of the Báb, this cycle closed. The Báb’s Mission was not to foretell the Day of God but to announce it. Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh I:66.   Christopher Buck argues, based on The Kitáb-i-Íqán, that Muḥammad was last in terms of authority rather than in the temporal sense.
Khatam al-Wasiyyin
Khátam al-Wasiyyín
Seal of the Successors (‘Alí, son-in-law of Muḥammad)
Khátam an-Nabiyin, Khatamu’n-Nabiyyin
Khátam an-Nabíyín
the Seal (i.e., the best) of the Prophets = Muḥammad.   Pers. Khátamu’n-Nabíyyín
Khatam, Khatim, Khawatim
Khátam, Khátim, pl. Khawátim
seal or signet ring;   ring, finger ring;   seal, signet;   stamp. Khátam in Qur’án 33:40 can be interpreted as a “seal of approval”, “seal of perfection”, “beauty of” or the “best of”.   al-Tha‘labí stated that “al-Khátim is the one who sealed the prophets and al-Khátam is the best of the prophets in character and physical constitution”.   Umayyah ibn Abí aṣ-Ṣalt, a contemporary of Muḥammad, speaks of Muḥammad as being the one through whom ‘Allah sealed the prophets before him and after him’, thus clearly indicating an expectation of prophets after Muḥammad.   See “A Bahá’í approach to the claim of finality in Islam”, Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, Journal of Bahá’í Studies, 5:3, pp. 17–40; Islam and the Bahá’í Faith, Momen, chapter 3.
Khatama, Khatm, Khitam
Khatama, Khatm, Khitám
to seal, provide with a seal or signet (something);   to stamp, impress with a stamp (something);   to seal off, close, make impervious or inaccessible (something);   to put one’s seal (on), conclude, terminate (something);   to wind up, finish, complete (something);   to close, heal, cicatrize (wound).   Five forms in Qur’án 2:7, 6:46, 36.65, 42:24 and 45:23.
Khatib, Khutaba, Khuttab
Kháṭib, pl. Khuṭabá, Khuṭṭáb
suitor;   matchmaker
Khatib, Khutaba’
Khaṭíb, pl. Khuṭabá’
(public) speaker;   orator;   lecturer;   preacher;   suitor (for the hand of a girl);   fiancé
Khatiba, Khuttab Kháṭiba, pl. Khuṭṭáb woman matchmaker
Khatir, Khatirat Kháṭir, pl. Kháṭirát Pers.   Whatever occurs to or passes in the mind;   cogitation, thought, suggestion;   memory, remembrance;   mind, soul, heart;   inclination, propensity;   affection, favour;   pleasure, will, choice;   sake, account, behalf
Khatirat-i-Malmiri Kháṭirát-i-Málmírí Pers.   Memoirs of Málmírí
Khatirat-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-'Akka Kháṭirat-i-Nuh-Sáliy-i-‘Akká Pers.   Yúnis Khán, Memories of Nine Years in ‘Akká
writing or calligraphy in the shape of a bird
Khatt, Khutut Khaṭṭ, pl. Khuṭúṭ line;   stroke;   stripe, streak;   (railroad) line, line of communication;   telephone line;   frontline (military);   furrow, ridge;   handwriting;   writing, script;   calligraphy, penmanship
Khatun Khátún Pers.   lady, matron;   proper fem. name
Khatun Jan Khátún Ján wife of Hádíy-i-Qazvíní (MF)
Khatun, Khawatin
Khátún, pl. Khawátín
lady, socially prominent woman
Khawaj or Khajih Kháwaj Khájih   Pers.   (“eunuch, a master, a man of distinction or a teacher)   See “Arches of the years”, p. 205 and listing for Khájih above
Khawar (Khavar) Kháwar or Khávar Pers.   the West, but often used by poets for the east;   the sun;   a thorn
Khawari (Khavari) Kháwarí or Khávarí Pers.   Western;   eastern;   the sun;   surname of the poet Anwárí.   From Khávar
Khawarij Khawárij the Khawarij, Kharijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam);   dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels, outsiders or seceders
Khawf (Khauf), Khawfan (Khaufan) Khawf, Khawfan fear, dread (of);   khawfan for fear (of), fearing (for).   al-Khawf—mystical station of fear of the wrath and displeasure of God.
Khawwam, Khavvam Khawwám, Pers. Khavvám a surname
Khaybar Khaybar The name of a famous oasis, and of its principle settlement, near Medina.
Khayli (Khaili)
Pers.   many, very much;   very long
Khayli Khub Khaylí Khúb Pers.   (“Kheili Khoob”) very good, very well, all right
Khayli khush (khosh) amidad
Khaylí khush ámadíd
Pers.   a very blessed/welcome arrival that can be translated as “your coming gives me most great pleasure and delight”.   See Khwush
Khayma (Khaima), Khaymat
Khayma, pl. Khaymát, Khiyám, Khiyam
tent;   tarpaulin;   arbor, bower;   pavilion
Khayr (Khair), Khiyar, Akhyar, Khuyur
Khayr, pl. Khiyár, Akhyár
good;   excellent, outstanding, superior, admirable;   better;   best;   (pl. Khuyúr) good thing, blessing;   wealth, property;   good, benefit, interest, advantage;   welfare;   charity
Khayrkhah Khayrkháh Ibráhím Khayrkháh
Khayru'n Nisa' (Khairu'n Nisa') Khayru’n Nisá’ “The Most Virtuous among Women”—a title that Bahá’u’lláh gave to Khadíjih Bagum (wife of the Báb), and forbade all women, save Fáṭimih Bagum (the Báb's mother) from adopting the title.
Khayru'l-Ummah (Khairu'l-Ummah)
good people/community Qur’án 3:110
Khayru’llah (Khairu’llah) Khayru’lláh “God’s Blessing” (“Kheiralla”)
Khayyam Khayyám tentmaker
Khayyat, Khayyatun Khayyáṭ, pl. Khayyáṭún tailor
Khazar Khazar a member of a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century ce established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia. Baḥr al-Khazar (the Caspian Sea)
Khidiw, Khudaiwi, Khidaywi Khidíw, Khudaiwí viceroy.   Eng. khedive.   Pers. Khidív (a king, great prince, sovereign;   a benevolent, excellent man;   master, possessor, rich man;   a friend), (adjective Khidíwí, Eng. khedivial) and plural Khidaywí (“ay” or “í” may better represent the ي after the letter d in the singular and plural forms)
Khilafa Khiláfa vicarship, deputyship;   succession;   caliphate, office or rule of a caliph;   (formerly) administrative department of caliphate
Khilafat Khiláfat Pers.   vicegerency of the Prophet
Khilt, Akhlat
Khilṭ, pl. Akhláṭ
component of a mixture;   ingredient;—pl. mixture, blend   (Siyyid Muhammad Akhlate)
Khirqat, Khirqa Khirqat, Khirqa Pers.   a patch, rag;   a garment made of shreds and patches;   a religious habit
Khirqiy-i-Sharif Khirqiy-i-Sharíf Mosque the Mosque of the Prophets’ Cloak, Istanbul.   See Khirqa
Khitab, Khitabat Khiṭáb, pl. Khiṭabát public address, speech, oration or letter
Khitabat dar Urupa va Imrika Khiṭábát dar Urúpá va Imríká Letters to Europe and America (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
sealing wax;   end, close, conclusion, termination.   Qur’án 83:26
Khiyaban (Kheyaban) Khíyábán Pers.   a parterre (formal garden), flower-bed;   an avenue (modern meaning).   Two central intersecting avenues in Mashhad (Bala-Khíyábán (upper) and Pa’in-Khíyábán (lower)—since renamed);   a village in eastern Írán 200 km se of Mashhad.
Pers.   good;   beautiful, elegant, pleasant, graceful, lovely, amiable, charming, excellent, gracious;   beautifully, excellently;   firm, strong
Khuda Khudá Pers.   master, prince, Lord, God
Khuda Bakhsh Khudá Bakhsh Gift of God
Khudarahm Khudáraḥm Pers.   compassion of God
Khujand, Khuqand, Khukand Khujand, Khúkand city in Chinese Turestan about 110 km SSE Tashkent
Khul Khul Pers.   bent, curved, crooked;   mad;   ashes;   fundament.   Possible word for ‘ashes’ in Arches of the years, p. 304.
Khulafa'u'r Rashidun Khulafá’u’r-Ráshidún (The) Rightly-Guided Caliphate—consisting of the first four caliphs in Islám’s history—was founded after Muḥammad’s death in 632.   (sometimes al-Khulafá’a’r-Ráshidín or Khulafá’ Ráshidún).   See Caliphs section below this list.
Khuld Khuld infinite duration, endless time, perpetuity, eternity
Khulq, Khuluq, Akhlaq Khulq, Khuluq, pl. Akhláq innate peculiarity;   natural disposition, character, temper, nature;—pl. character (of a person);   morals;   morality
Persian (Khomein, Khowmeyn, and Khumain) a city in and the capital of Khumayn County, Markazí Province, Írán
Khumayni Khumayní Pers.   “Khomeini” of or from Khumayn
Khums, Akhmas Khums, pl. Akhmás one fifth.   An additional religious tax (one-fifth) paid by Shí‘í Muslims to the Imám or his deputies
Pers.   blood;   bloody;   killing;   revenge;   a shedder of blood;   life, soul;   selfishness;   pride;   a table;   reading;   singing
Khun-Baha Khún-Bahá blood price or value, “blood-money”.   See Bahá’i Khun
Pers.   the sun
Khurasan Khurásán (Khorasan)   “where the sun arrives from”.   Province in the north-eastern part of Írán until 2004—replaced by North Khurásán, South Khurásán and Razavi (Raḍawí) Khurásán Provinces.
Khurasani Khurásání
Khurma Khurmá Pers.   date (fruit)
Khurma'i Khurmá’í
Khursand Khursand Town 190 km west of Kirmán
Khurshid Khurshíd Pers.   khur-shíd, the sun;   sunshine
Khuruj Khurúj exit;   egression, emergence;   departure;   exodus;   emigration;   raid, foray, sortie (against), attack, assault (on)
Khushk Khushk Pers.   dry, withered;   useless, barren;   pure, mere, genuine;   avaricious, tenacious
Khushk-i-Nusrat Khushk-i-Nuṣrat a village between Ṭihrán and Qum
Khushkhu Khushkhú (Khwush-Khú) Pers.   good-natured, of an excellent disposition
Khusraw Parviz Khusraw Parvíz (Chosroes II), the Sásánian monarch (Parvez)
Khusraw (Khusrav, Khusrau) Khusraw Pers.   A celebrated Persian king (Khosrow, Khosroe, Khosru or Cyrus).   Kay Khusraw Khudádád, believed to be the first to embrace the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh from the Zoroastrian community
Khutan (Khotan, Khoten) Khutan Pers.   Ancient Buddhist city/region west of modern Hotan, Tibet, known for musk production
Khutba, Khutbih, Khutab Khuṭba(t), Pers. Khuṭbih, pl. Khuṭab public address;   speech;   lecture, discourse;   oration;   sermon, specif., Muslim Friday midday sermon
Khutbat at-Tutunjiyya
Khuṭbat aṭ-Ṭutunjíyya
Ar.   loosely “Sermon of the Gulf” or “Sermon of the Twin Gulfs”—a sermon or discourse attributed to Imam ‘Alí who delivered it between Kufah and Medina. Name derived from the occurrence (5x—in singular and dual forms) of the Arabic quadrilateral طتنج (Ṭ-T-N-J= ṭutunj? or تطنج = T-Ṭ-N-J = taṭanj?).   Pers. Khuṭbih-i-Ṭutunjíyya or Khuṭbatu’l-Ṭutunjíyyah.
Khutbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya Khuṭbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya A sermon preached by Imám ‘Alí (a favourite among Shí‘í Muslims because it is a rare statement by ‘Alí on the usurpation of the caliphate by Abú Bakr) that was interrupted by a member of the audience asking a question. When begged by Ibn ‘Abbás to continue his address, ‘Alí answered, “The shiqshiqa has roared and subsided”, meaning the inspiration of the moment has gone.
Khutbiy-i-Dhikriyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Dhikríyyih “Sermon of Remembrance” (by the Báb).   Also called Tafsír-i-Há’ (Interpretation of the Letter Há’) and Ṣaḥifiy-i-Ja‘faríyyih (Epistle of Ja‘far)
Khutbiy-i-Jiddah Khuṭbiy-i-Jiddah “Sermon of Jiddah” (by the Báb)
Khutbiy-i-Qahriyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Qahríyyih “Sermon of Wrath” (by the Báb)
Khutbiy-i-Tutunjiyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Ṭutunjíyyih Pers.   Sermon of the Gulf by Imám ‘Alí.   See Khuṭbat al-Ṭutunjíyya
Khuy Khuy (Khoy) city in and the capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Írán
Khuzistan Khúzistán Iranian Province at the north end of Persian Gulf (Khuzestan)
Khwaja Khwája (khajeh) Khwája Naṣíru’d-Dín Ṭúsí
Khwush-Amadi (Khush Amadid) Khwush-Ámadí (“Khush Ámadíd”) Pers.   (“Khushamadid”) flattery;   assenting;   you are welcome.   A blessed arrival?
Khwush-Qadam (Khush Ghadam) Khwush-Qadam (“Khush Ghadam”) Pers.   a person who brings good fortune, welcome news, good omen (Maḥmúd’s Diary)
Khwush, Khwash
Khwush, Khwash
Pers.   good, sweet, excellent, beautiful, fair, charming, pleasant, delightful, agreeable, cheerful, amiable, lovely, delicate, tender, kind, gentle, humane, mild, meek, elegant;   healthy, wholesome, temperate;   happy, well, pleased;   willingly
part, portion, share.   Kifl occurs in Qur'án 21:85 and 38:48 as Dha’l-Kifl, who is believed to be the name of Elijah, Joshua, Zachariah or Ezekiel.   Kifl can be interpreted as a prophet or Messenger of God.
dual noun of kifl.   Two share, double share or large share.   That is, Qur’án 57:28 can be understood as referring to two Messengers of God.
Kinan, Kinanat
Kinán, pl. Kinánát, Akinna
shed roof, pent roof, awning
Pers,   Kinánih, Baní
Pers.   the lap;   the bosom;   an embrace;   dalliance
Kinar-gird Kinár-gird A small fortress and village near Ṭihrán.
Kinari Kinárí Pers.   (gold or silver) lace
Kinyat, Kunyat, Kuna, Kaniy, Kani Kinyat, Kunyat, pl. Kuná, Kaníy, Kaní Pers.   calling or naming (anyone) by a word that has another meaning, especially by the designation of father (abú) or son (ibn, vulg. bin), a filionymic (a name derived from that of a son), a patronymic (a name derived from the name of a father or ancestor).   (Also (Kunyah, Kunyih)
Pers.   work, business, continued labour;   employment in which a man is constantly engaged;   profession, trade, art, occupation;   effect; manner, conduct;   action (good or bad)
Kirman Kirmán capital city of Kirmán province, Írán
Kirmanshah Kirmánsháh Province and city in western Írán.
Kisa' Kisá’, pl. Aksiya garment;   dress
Kishon River, Nachal HaKishon
Flows to the north side of Haifa into the Mediterranean Sea.   Arabic Nahr al-Muquṭṭa‘ (the river of slaughter or dismemberment) or al-Kíshwan.
Kisra, Akasira, Akasir Kisrá, pl. Akásira, Akásir Khosraw (Chosroes);   designation of the Persian kings in general
Kiswa, Kusan, Kisan, Kasawin Kiswa, pl. Kusan, Kisan, Kasáwin clothing, clothes, apparel, attire, raiment;   dress, garment;   suit of clothes;   uniform;   draping, lining, casing, facing, panelling, wainscoting (e.g., of walls).   Persian Kiswat (Kisvat), Kuswat, pl. Kusá
Kitab, Kutub Kitáb, pl. Kutub piece of writing, record, paper;   letter, note, message;   document, deed;   contract (esp. marriage contract);   book.   Kitábun, a book
Kitab al-Yawaqit Wa al-Jawahir
Kitáb al-Yawáqít Wa al-Jawáhir
(Pers. Kitábu’l-Yawáqít-i-Wa’l-Javáhir, also with v instead of w) by Siyyid ‘Abd al-Wahháb ibn Aḥmad ash-Sha‘rání (1492/3–1565, ah 898–973) was an Egyptian Sháfi'í scholar and mystic, founder of an Egyptian order of Sufism, eponynously known as Sha‘ráwiyyah.   Full title: Kitáb al-Yawáqít wa al-jawáhir fí bayán ‘aqá’id al-akábir (The book of rubies and jewels: an explanation of the tenets of faith of mystic luminaries).
Kitab-i-'Ahd Kitáb-i-‘Ahd “Book of the Covenant” or Testament (Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-'Ahdi Kitáb-i-‘Ahdí “Book of My Covenant”
Kitab-i-Badi' Kitáb-i-Badí‘ “The Wondrous Book” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-Haykal Kitáb-i-Haykal “Book of the Temple” (by the Báb).   Alternative name, Kitáb-i-Hayákil (Book of Temples (or Talismans)), or more loosely, as Kitábí dar Hayákil-i-Wáḥid (Book concerning the Temples (Talismans) of Unity).   Information provided by Bahá’u’lláh “… serve to identify the work referred to by these varying titles as … the final five sections … of the” Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha’n, pp. 405–47.   The sources for early Bábí doctrine and history, Denis MacEoin p. 89.
Kitab-i-Iqan Kitáb-i-Íqán “Book of Certitude” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-Mubin Kitáb-i-Mubín
Kitab-i-Natiq Kitáb-i-Náṭiq “The Speaking Book”
Kitab-i-Panj-Sha'n Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha’n “Book of the Five Modes of Revelation” (by the Báb)*
Kitab-i-Samit Kitáb-i-Sámit “The Silent Book”
Kitabu'l-Aqdas, Kitab-i-Aqdas al-Kitábu’l-Aqdas, Pers. Kitáb-i-Aqdas “The Most Holy Book” (by Bahá’u’lláh, written in Arabic). Published in English as The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
Kitabu'l-Asma' Kitábu’l-Asmá’ “Book of Divine Names”(by the Báb)
Kitabu'l-Fara'id Kitábu’l-Fará’id Priceless Things” (by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl)
Kitabu'l-Fihrist Kitábu’l-Fihrist “Indexical Tablet” (by the Báb)
Kitabu'l-Haramayn Kitábu’l-Ḥaramayn “The Book of the Two Holy Places”   DB 62
Kitabu'l-Yavaqit-iva'l-Javahir Kitábu’l-Yaváqít-iva’l-Javáhir DB 654
Kitabu'r-Ruh Kitábu’r-Rúḥ “Book of the Spirit” (by the Báb)
Kitman Kitmán Persian.   The act of paying lip service to authority while holding personal opposition.   Saying something that is not true.   See Taqíya (Ar)
Kiya Kiyá Pers.   a king, protector, defender;   a hero, champion;   a lord, master;   a lord marcher, landgrave, margrave;   a peasant;   powerful;   work, labour;   the four elements;   pure, clear, innocent;   heat, cold, dryness, or moisture;   the mouth;   mastic.   [MUHJ 521 has Kíyá]
Kiyan Kiyán (keyan) being, existence;   essence, substance;   nature.
Kubra, Kubrayat Kubrá, pl. Kubrayát fem. of Akbar
Kuchik chik “Small, young”
Kuchik-Chakmachih chik-Chakmachih Küçükçekmece (“little depression”), now an eastern suburb of Istanbul, 23 km west of the city centre, on the European shore of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
Kufa, Kufah, Kufih Kúfa(h), Pers. Kúfih al-Kúfah city on the west bank of the Euphrates River 110 km south Baghdád. The Imám ‘Alí made it the centre of his operations, and was murdered in its mosque.   Gave name to Kufic—ancient Arabic letters.
Kufiya, Kufiyat
Kúfíya, pl. Kúfíyát
English keffiyeh or kaffiyeh, square kerchief diagonally folded and worn under the ‘iqál as a headdress
Kufr, Kufran Kufr and Kufrán unbelief, infidelity
Kuh (Koh) Kúh Pers.   A mountain, hill
Kuh-i-Nur Kúh-i-Núr Mountain of Light—Shrine of the Báb, and the name of a famous diamond.   Also spelt Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor and Koh-i-nur
a village in Mázindarán Province, Írán
Kulah Kuláh Persian lambskin hat (usually black) worn by government employees and civilians.
(European hat—PDC p. 92)
Kulayn Kulayn A village southwest of Ṭihrán.
Kull Kull totality, entirety;   everyone, each one, anyone;   (with following definite noun) whole, entire, all;   (with following indefinite noun) every
Kulli Kulli total, entire, all-round, overall, sweeping, comprehensive, complete;   absolute, universal
Kulliya, Kulliyat Kullíya, Pers. Kullíyat, pl. Kullíyát totality, entirety;   integrity, wholeness, entireness, completeness;   (pl.) faculty, school (of a university);   college;   institute of higher learning, academy, secondary school
Kulliyya Kulliyya fem. totality, entirety;   completeness, fullness, wholeness;   universality, generality;   integrity
Kullu-Shay', Kull-i-Shay' Kullu-Shay’, Pers. Kull-i-Shay’ “all things”, numerical value of 361 (19×19) and a time period of 361 years).   See Váḥid (unity 19)
Kullu't-Ta'am Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám “Tablet of All Food” by Bahá’u’lláh.   Qur’án 3:93 is known as Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám, begins with “All food …”.
Kulthum Kulthúm “Plump-faced, chubby, good looking”
Kumayl Kumayl bin-i-Ziyád an-Nakha’í Companion of Imám ‘Alí. Known as Kumayl.   It is also the name of a prayer that he wrote.
Kun Kun (imperative Be!)   The word Kun contains the consonants Káf and Nún (káf u nún), which in English, by happy circumstance, can be represented by “B” and “E”.
Kunya, Kunan, (Pers. Kunyah, Kunyih) Kunya, pl. Kunan Ar.   surname, agnomen (honourable adult nickname consisting of abú (father) or umm (mother) followed by the name of the eldest child (often a son), e.g. Abú Bahá’u’lláh). By extension, it may also have hypothetical or metaphorical references, e.g. as a nickname or reference of an attachment (Abú Bakr, “father of the camel foal”, given because of this person’s love for camels), without literally referring to a son or a daughter.
Kur Kúr Pers.   blind;   one-eyed;   blind in a moral sense
Kura, Kurat
Kura, pl. Kurát, Kuran
globe, sphere;   ball.   Hence, kura al-athíríy (the ethereal globe);   kura al-hawá (the atmospheric globe);   kura al-má’ (the water globe);   kura at-turáb (the earth globe)
Kurash (Kurush) Kúrash (Kúrush) Pers.   Cyrus, king of Persia
the Kurds
Kurdi, Akrad
Kurdí, pl. Akrád
Kurdish;—pl. Kurd.   Pers.   kurdí a native of Kurdistán
Pers.   Kurdistan
Kurdistan, Bilad al-Kurd
Kúrdistán, Ar. Bilád al-Kurd
country of the Kurds, English Kurdistan
Kurji (Gurji)
Georgian (adj and n).   al-Kurj the Georgians
Kursi, Karasiy
Kursí, pl. Karásíy, Karásin
chair;   throne;   seat;   professorial chair;   base, pedestal, socle (architecture);   bearing (technology)
return, comeback, recurrence;   succession, sequence, order.   Pers.   A crore (500,000 in Persia)
Pers.   A male;   (imp. of kushtan (“kill”) in compound words) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses, as in azhdaha-kush, a dragon-killer
Pers.   an upper chamber, gallery, or balcony on the top of a house;   a hall, parlour
*  God Passes By uses an ‘Ayn: Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha‘n
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
La La (intensifying particle) truly, verily;   certainly, surely
La (particle) not, no!
La ilaha illa Huwa Lá iláha illá Huwa “There is no God but He” [10 letters]
La ilaha illa’llah Lá iláha illá’lláh (There is no God [Letters of Denial (5)] but God [Letters of Affirmation (5)])   All else besides the Letters of Paradise is in Denial, while whatsoever appertaineth to the Letters of Paradise is Affirmation.   Lá iláha illa’lláh, Muḥammadun rasúlu’lláh (There is no God but God and Muḥammad is his messenger), the Shí‘a call to prayer (adhán) contains the additional statement: ‘Alíun valíu’lláh (‘Alí is God’s (friend/helper/defender/vice-gerent)
La'in and Mal'un, Mala'in La‘ín and Mal‘ún, pl. Malá‘ín cursed;   confounded;   damned;   outcast, execrable;   detested, abhorred, abominable
Labad Labád Pers.   any outer wet weather garment
Labada (Labbadih) Labáda Pers.   (for Arabic lubbádát) a rain cloak;   a quilted cloak;   a great-coat, pelisse;   a wrapper
Labbad Labbád felt-maker;   felt
Labib, Alibba' Labíb, pl. Alibbá’ understanding, reasonable, sensible, intelligent
proposing to anyone anything obscure or confused, mystifying;   mixture, confusion, ambiguity
Ladud, Aladd, Ladda', Lidad, Alidda'
Ladúd, Aladd, fem. Laddá’, pl. Ludd
(other plurals: Lidád, Aliddá’) fierce, grim, dogged, tough.   City of Lod 15 km se Tel Aviv (formerly Lydda (Latin)), Arabic: al-Ludd.
of or pertaining to words, verbal;   literal;   pronounced;   oral
Lahab, Lahib, Luhab Lahab, Lahíb, Luháb flame, blaze, flare.   Abú Lahab (the ‘Father of Flame’) is known for his hatred of his nephew, Muḥammad.
Lahay, Lahih Láháy, Pers. Láhih The Hague (city in SW Netherlands)
Lahijan Láhíján Caspian sea resort in and the capital of Láhíján County
Lahut Láhút (world of the Heavenly Court—realm of being, “divinity”).   See Háhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút
Lail, Layali Lail, pl. Laylálí (usually masc.)   nighttime, night;—pl. (syr.) a certain vocal style
Laila, Lailat, Layalin, Laya'il Laila, pl. Lailát, Layálin, Layá’il (fem.)   night;   evening;   soirée
Lakin, Lakinna
Lákin, lákinna
however, yet, but
Lam Lám Arabic letter transcripted as L
lám-shaped, resembling the letter ل.
Lar Lár city in province of Fárs
Larijan Láríján district of Mázindarán Province
Las-Furush Lás-Furúsh silk dealer in The Child of the Covenant and BKG 144.   Possible spelling is Láẓ-Furúsh.   See Láẓat and Farsh
Lashkar-Nivis Lashkar-Nivís Paymaster-General
Latafa, lutf, Altaf Laṭafa, Luṭf, pl. Alṭáf to be kind and friendly;—pl. benefits, favours;   kindnesses
Latafah Laṭáfa(h) thinness fineness, delicateness;   gracefulness, loveliness, charm;   kindness, benevolence;   friendliness;   politeness, esprit, intellectual refinement, sophistication;   suavity, urbaneness
Latif, Litaf, Lutafa'
Laṭíf, pl. Liṭáf, Luṭafá‘
thin;   fine;   delicate, dainty;   little, small, insignificant;   gentle, soft, light, mild;   pleasant, agreeable;   amiable, friendly, kind, nice;   civil, courteous, polite;   affable, genial;   pretty, charming, lovely, graceful;   intellectually refined, full of esprit, brilliant, witty; elegant;   al-Laṭíf the Kind (one of the attributes of God)
Lavasan Lavásán rural district east of Ṭihrán
Law (Lau)
(conjunction) if (as a rule, introducing hypothetical conditional clauses)
Lawh (Lauh), Alwah (Alavah), Alawih Lawḥ, pl. Alwáḥ, Aláwíḥ (masc.)   board, blackboard;   slate;   tablet, epistle;   slab;   plate, sheet;   pane;   plank, board;   panel;   small board, signboard;   shoulder blade, scapula.   Sometimes singular transcripted as Lauḥ.
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz-Va-Vukala Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá “Tablet to ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz and ministers” by Bahá’u’lláh
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-Vahhab Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-Vahháb “Tablet to ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-'Abdu'r-Razzaq Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’r-Razzáq “Tablet to ‘Abdu’r-Razzáq” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-'Ahd va Mithaq Lawḥ-i-‘Ahd va Mitháq (Imríká) “Will and Testament” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-'Ammih Lawḥ-i-‘Ammih “Tablet to the Aunt” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq Lawḥ-i-‘Ashiq-va-Ma‘shúq “The Tablet of the Lover and the Beloved” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aflakiyyih Lawḥ-i-Aflákíyyih “Tablet of the universe” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Ahbab Lawḥ-i-Aḥbáb “Tablet for the Friends” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ahmad Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad “Tablet of Aḥmad” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Amr Lawḥ-i-Amr “Tablet of the Command” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Amvaj Lawḥ-i-Amváj “Tablet of the Waves” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Anta'l-Kafi Lawḥ-i-Anta’l-Káfí “Tablet of ‘Thou the Sufficing’, known as the long healing prayer, Tablet of protection” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aqdas Lawḥ-i-Aqdas “The Most Holy Tablet”, sometimes referred to as ‘Tablet to the Christians’ (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba Lawḥ-i-Arḍ-i-Bá “Tablet of the Land of Bá”—Beirut (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ashraf Lawḥ-i-Ashraf “Tablet for Ashraf (the Noble)” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ayat Lawḥ-i-Áyát “Tablet of the Verses” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Ayiy-i-Nur Lawḥ-i-Áyiy-i-Núr “Tablet of the Verse of Light” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Baha Lawḥ-i-Bahá “Tablet of Glory” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Baqa Lawḥ-i-Baqá “Tablet of Eternity” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Basitatu'l-Haqiqih Lawḥ-i-Basíṭatu’l-Ḥaqíqíh “Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality, of the Ground of Being” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bisharat Lawḥ-i-Bishárát “Tablet of Glad Tidings” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bismilih Lawḥ-i-Bismilih “Tablet of ‘In the Name of God’” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq Lawḥ-i-Bulbulu’l-Firáq “Tablet of the Nightingale of Bereavement” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Burhan Lawḥ-i-Burhán “Tablet of the Proof” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Du-Niday-i-Falah va Najah Lawḥ-i-Du-Nidáy-i-Faláḥ va Najáḥ “Tablet of Supplication” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá). More literally the Tablet of two Calls (the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh) for salvation and emancipation”
Lawh-i-Dr Forel Lawḥ-i-Dr Forel “Tablet to Dr Forel” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Dunya Lawḥ-i-Dunyá “Tablet of the World” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Fitnih Lawḥ-i-Fitnih “Tablet of the Test” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Fu'ad Lawḥ-i-Fu’ád “Tablet to Fu’ád Páshá” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld Lawḥ-i-Ghulámu’l-Khuld “Tablet of the Deathless Youth, Eternal Youth, Youth of Paradise” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Habib Lawḥ-i-Ḥabíb “Tablet of the Beloved” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haft Sham' Wahdat Lawḥ-i-Haft Sham‘ Waḥdat “Tablet of the Seven Candles of Unity” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Haft-Pursish Lawḥ-i-Haft-Pursish “Tablet of Seven Questions” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hajj Lawḥ-i-Ḥajj Tablet of Visitation to be recited at Baghdád (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hawdaj Lawḥ-i-Hawdaj “Tablet of the Howdah” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haykal Lawḥ-i-Haykal “Tablet of the Temple”, i.e. the body
Lawh-i-Hikmat Lawḥ-i-Ḥikmat “Tablet of Wisdom” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hirtik Lawḥ-i-Hirtík “Tablet to Georg David Hardegg” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hizar Bayti Lawḥ-i-Hizár Baytí “Tablet of One Thousand Verses” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Huriyyih Lawḥ-i-Ḥúríyyih “Tablet of the Maiden” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hurufat Lawḥ-i-Ḥurúfát “Tablet of the Letters” (by the Báb)
Lawh-i-Husayn Lawḥ-i-Ḥusayn (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhi'b Lawḥ-i-Ibn-i-Dhi’b “The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ishraqat Lawḥ-i-Ishráqát “Tablet of Splendours” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ittihad Lawḥ-i-Ittiḥád “Tablet of Unity” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Jamal Lawḥ-i-Jamál Tablet to Áqá Jamál-i-Burújirdi, “Tablet of Beauty” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Karim Lawḥ-i-Karím “Tablet for Karím (the Noble)” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Karmil Lawḥ-i-Karmil “Tablet of Carmel” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Khurasan Lawḥ-i-Khurásán (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Kullu't-Ta'am Lawḥ-i-Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám “Tablet of All Food” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Lahih Lawḥ-i-Láhih “Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds Lawḥ-i-Laylatu’l-Quds “Tablet of the Holy (Sacred) Night” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Madinatu'r-Rida Lawḥ-i-Madínatu’r-Riḍá “The City of Radiant Acquiescence” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Madinatu't-Tawhid Lawḥ-i-Madínatu’t-Tawḥíd “Tablet of the City of Unity” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mahfil-i-Shawr Lawḥ-i-Maḥfil-i-Shawr Tablet (or prayer) for spiritual assemblies, regarding gathering and consulting (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Mahfuz Lawḥ-i-Maḥfúẓ Guarded or Preserved Tablet
Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus Lawḥ-i-Malik-i-Rús “Tablet to the Czar Alexander III” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Malikih Lawḥ-i-Malikih “Tablet to Queen Victoria” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mallahu'l-Quds Lawḥ-i-Malláḥu’l-Quds “Tablet of the Holy Mariner” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Manikchi-Sahib Lawḥ-i-Mánikchí-Ṣáḥib “Tablet to Mánikchí-Ṣáḥib” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Maqsud Lawḥ-i-Maqṣúd “Tablet of Maqṣud (the Goal, the Desired One)” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Maryam Lawḥ-i-Maryam (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mawlud Lawḥ-i-Mawlúd Tablet for the Birth of the Báb (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mazzah Lawḥ-i-Mazzaḥ “Tablet of the Humorist” (by Bahá’u’lláh)   Begins: “Bismilláhi’l-Mazzaḥ …”
Lawh-i-Mubahilih Lawḥ-i-Mubáhilih “Tablet of the Confrontation or Execration” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Muhabbat Lawḥ-i-Muḥabbat “Tablet to Medina” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Napulyun Lawḥ-i-Nápulyún I and II “Tablets to Napoleon III” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Naqus Lawḥ-i-Náqús “Tablet of the Bell” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Nasir Lawḥ-i-Náṣir Tablet to Ḥájí Muḥammad Náṣir (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Nuqtih Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih “Tablet of the Point” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Pap Lawḥ-i-Páp “Tablet to the Pope” (Pius IX) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm Lawḥ-i-Pisar-‘Amm “Tablet to the Cousin” in honour of Mírzá Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa’l-Mukhlisun Lawḥ-i-Qad-Iḥtaráqa’l-Mukhliṣún “The Tablet of The Faithful Ones (Mukhliṣún) have burned (qad … iḥtaráq),’” which is translated as “the hearts of the sincere are consumed in the fire …”.   Known in English as “The Fire Tablet” (see first and last lines)   (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See Iḥtiráq
Lawh-i-Qina' Lawḥ-i-Qiná‘ “Tablet of the Veil” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Quds Lawḥ-i-Quds “Tablet of Holiness” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ra'is Lawḥ-i-Ra’ís “Tablet to Ra’ís” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Rafi' Lawḥ-i-Rafí‘ “Tablet of Elevation” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Raqsha' Lawḥ-i-Raqshá’ “Tablet to the She-Serpent” (Imám-Jum‘ih of Iṣfahán) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Rasul Lawḥ-i-Rasúl “Tablet of the Prophet” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ru'ya Lawḥ-i-Ru’yá “Tablet of the Vision” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ruh Lawḥ-i-Rúḥ “Tablet of the Spirit” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Sahab Lawḥ-i-Saḥáb “Tablet of the Cloud” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Salman Lawḥ-i-Salmán “Tablet of Salmán” I–III (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Samsun Lawḥ-i-Sámsún “Tablet of Sámsún” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Sayyah Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ “Tablet of Sayyáḥ (the Traveller)” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Shaykh-Fani Lawḥ-i-Shaykh-Fání Tablet to the Shaykh who has surrendered his will to God (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji Lawḥ-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See Dahají
Lawh-i-Sultan Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán “Tablet to the King of Persia” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tajalliyat Lawḥ-i-Tajallíyát “Tablet of Effulgences” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tanzih va Taqdis Lawḥ-i-Tanzíh va Taqdís “Tablet of Purity” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Tarazat Lawḥ-i-Ṭarázát “Tablet of Ornaments” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tarbiyat Lawḥ-i-Tarbíyat “Tablet of Education” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Tawhid Lawḥ-i-Tawḥíd “Tablet of Unity” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tibb Lawḥ-i-Ṭibb “Tablet of Medicine1” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tuqa Lawḥ-i-Tuqá “Tablet of Virtue” (by Bahá’u’lláh)   See Lawḥu’t-Tuqá
Lawh-i-Yaquti Lawḥ-i-Yáqútí “The Ruby Tablet”
Lawh-i-Yusuf Lawḥ-i-Yúsuf “Tablet of Joseph” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin Lawḥ-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín Tablet to Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ziyarih Lawḥ-i-Ziyárih “Tablet of Visitation” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawha (Lauha), Lawhat, Alwah (Alvah) Lawḥa, pl. Lawḥát, Alwáḥ (fem.) board;   blackboard;   slate;   tablet;   slab;   plate, sheet;   pane;   panel;   plaque;   plane, surface;   screen; placard, poster;   picture, painting.   Sometimes singular transcripted as Lauḥ.
Lawhu’r-Ridvan Lawḥu’r-Riḍván “Tablet of Riḍván” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawhu'r-Ruh Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ “Tablet of Spirit” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawhu't-Tuqa Lawḥu’t-Tuqá “The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawlaka Lawláka Arabic “but for Thee”
Layl (Lail), Layali Layl, pl. Layálí (usually m.)   night-time, night (as opposed to nahár daytime);—pl. layálí (Syrian) a certain vocal style;   laylan at night
Laylat (Lailat) Laylat night
Laylat al-Qadr, Laylatu’l-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr, Pers. Laylatu’l-Qadr Night of Power.   The night in which, according to sura 97, the Qur’án was revealed, celebrated during the night between the 26th and 27th of Ramaḍán.
Laylatu'l-Quds Laylatu’l-Quds “Holy Night”
Layli Laylí In a Persian folktale, the beloved of Majnún, the classic loved one.
Laysa (Laisa)
there is not;   not;   except
Lazat, Laz Láẓat, pl. Láẓ Pers.   a dress of red Chinese silk, pl. soft, thin silk
Li Li 1. (preposition) for;   on behalf of, in favor of;   to (of the dative);   because of;   for the sake of;   due to, owing to;   for, for the purpose of;   at the time of, when, as;   by (designating the author or originator).
2. (conjunction with the subjunctive) that, so that, in order that, in order to
Libas, Libasal, Albisa
Libás, pl. Libásál, Albisa
clothes, clothing;   costume;   apparel;   garment, robe, dress
a covering, especially that of the ka‘bah;   the covering of a camel-litter;   a kind of dress;   the membrane of the brain
Lillah Lilláh “for/to/towards Alláh”.   The li at the beginning is a prepositional prefix. Morphologically, it would normally be li-Alláh (numerical value of 95—the á represents a stressed “a”, not an Alif).  Compare al-Bayán.
Liman Límán, pl. Límánát harbour, port;   penitentiary
Liqa' Rabb, Liqa-i-Rabb Liqá’ Rabb, Pers. Liqá-i-Rabb “Visitation of God” on the Day of Qiyámah.   Since God is sanctified from all material existence and He can never be seen by the material eyes, this means seeing and meeting a Manifestation of God.
Liqa', Liqa'a Liqá’ encounter;   meeting;   get together;   reunion;   liqá’a (prep.) in exchange for, in return for, for, on
Liqa'i Liqá’í
Liqa'u'llah Liqá’u’lláh ‘attainment unto the Divine Presence’, resurection
Lisan, Alsina, Alsun Lisán, pl. Alsina, Alsun tongue;   language;   mouthpiece (fig.)
Lisanu'l-'Arab Lisánu’l-‘Arab The Arab tongue
Lisanu'l-Mulk Lisánu’l-Mulk “Tongue of the Empire”   Lisánu’l-Mulk-i-Sipihr of Káshán, 19th century Persian historian (pen name Sipihr)
Litani River Liṭání Liṭání River
Liwa’ (Liva), Alwiya, Alwiyat Liwá’, pl.Alwiya, Alwiyát banner, flag, standard;   brigade;   major general;   rear admiral (Egypt.);   province, district (Írán)
Lourenco Marques Lourenço Marques Portuguese explorer and pre-1975 name of Maputo, capital of Mozambique
Lu'lu' Lu’lu’ (coll.; n. Lu’lu’un), pl. La’álí pearl, gem, jewel   (MCI and Resurrection & renewal)
Lubbada, Lubbadat Lubbáda, pl. Lubbádát horse blanket, saddle blanket;—(pl. labábíd) felt cap
putting on a garment;   enjoying the company (of a wife, etc.)
Lugh, Lughat
Lugha(h), pl. Lughát
language;   dialect;   idiom;   vernacular;   lingo, jargon;   word;   expression, term;   al-lugha classical Arabic
Lujj, Lujja, Lujaj, Lijaj Lujj and Lujja, pl. Lujaj, Lijáj depth of the sea;   gulf, abyss, chasm, depth
Lujjat, Lujja Lujjat, Lujja Pers.   a large body, multitude;   plenty (of water), the great deep, main, middle of the sea;   an abyss;   silver;   a looking-glass, mirror
Lulin, Aftaba Lúlín Pers.   a jug, flagon, or any similar vessel with a spout, and made of clay (those made of metal are called áftába).
Luqman Luqmán a famous legendary figure noted for his wisdom.   Prophet in Qur’án.
Luqmat Luqmat, Laqmat, Luqma, pl. Luqam Pers.   a mouthful, morsel;   a kind of fritter
Luqmatu’l-Qáḍí Luqmatu’l-Qáḍí Pers.   the choice morsel for the judge
Lur Lur Name of a warlike tribe living in Luristán.
Luristan (Lorestan) Luristán a province and an area in western Írán in the Zagros Mountains
Lutf-'Ali Luṭf-‘Alí
Lutfi Luṭfí Pers.   adopted, brought up in the family;   an adopted child.   ‘Umar Lütfí Páshá [Lüṭfí Paşa (Turk.)] (BKG 482)
Lutfu'llah Luṭfu’lláh Kindness of God (Lotfullah)
Unaccented forms Translitera1ted forms Explanations and comments
Ma (interrogative pronoun) what
Ma, ila ma, bi'ma, li-ma, hatta ma Ma for what?   after prepositions: ilá ma whereto? where? which way? whither?   bi-ma with what? wherewith?   li-ma why? wherefore?   ḥattá ma how far? to which point?
Ma', Miyah, Amwah Má’, pl. Miyáh, Amwáh water; liquid, fluid1; juice
Ma'ad Ma‘ád lit. place or time of return.   Day of Resurrection
“son” of Lot (Lúṭ) and city in southern Jordan, 218 km sw of Amman
Ma'raka, Ma'ruka, 'Arik
Ma‘raka(t), Ma‘ruka, pl. ‘Arik
battlefield, battle
Ma'dan Ma‘dan (Syrian ma‘din) very good! bravo! well done!
Ma'dan Nuqrih Ma‘dan Nuqrih a village and silver mine on Euphrates
Ma'ida, Ma'idat Má’idat, Má’ida Pers.   a table, especially one covered with victuals;   a circle, circumference, circuit, orbit
Ma'ida, Mawaid Má’ida, pl. Má’idát, Mawá’id Ar.   table
Ma'idiy-i-Asmani Má’idiy-i-Ásmání Pers.   compilation of Bahá’í Writings.   “Heavenly Banquet”
Ma'juj (Magog), Majuj Ma’júj, Májúj Magog, son of Japhet;   Eastern Tartary.   See note for Ya’juj (Gog)
Ma'mun Ma’mún reliable, trustworthy
Ma'mur Ma‘múr frequented
Ma'na, Ma'ni, Ma'ani Ma‘ná (Pers. also Ma‘ní), pl. Ma‘ání Pers.   sense, meaning, signification, import, drift, reality;   virtue, efficacy;   spirituality;   a thing;   anything;   a subject;   a circumstance, an event.—pl.: significations, senses;   imports;   mental images;   intrinsic qualities;   qualities that are commended or approved, charms, graces;   elegance of language;   mystical meanings;   sublime realities, spiritual matters.   A reference to the Imams as the repositories of the inner Word of God.   See ma‘nan
Ma'nan, Ma'anin Ma‘nan, pl. Ma‘ánin Ar.   sense, meaning, signification, import;   concept, notion, idea, thought;   thematic purport (e.g., of a work of art, as distinguished from its form);   a rhetorical, figurative, or allegorical expression.   al-Ma‘ání—the meanings.   See ma‘ná
Ma’nawi (Manavi) Ma‘nawí relating to the sense or import (of a word or expression)
Ma'qul Ma‘qúl reasonable, sensible, intelligible, comprehensible, understandable, plausible, logical;   rational;   apprehensive faculty, comprehension, intellect, discernment, judiciousness, judgment;   common sense (ex-cogitated, MF 156)
Ma'raj, Ma'arij Ma‘raj, pl. Ma‘árij place of ascent;   (route of) ascent.   See Mi‘raj
Ma'rifa (Ma'rifat), Ma'arif Ma‘rifa(t), pl. Ma‘árif knowledge, learning, lore, information, skill, know-how;   cognition, intellection, perception, experience, realization;   gnosis;   acquaintance, cognizance, conversance;   an acquainted person, an acquaintance, a friend;   (grammar) definite noun;   pl. al-Ma‘árif cultural affairs, education.   Pers.   definition: knowing;   knowledge, science, learning;   insight in divine matters or mysteries;   art, skill, craft;   account, reason, means;   by means of, through
Ma'ruf Ma‘rúf known, well-known;   universally accepted, generally recognized;   conventional;   that which is good, beneficial, or fitting, good, benefit;   fairness, equity, equitableness;   kindness, friendliness, amicability;   beneficence;   favour rendered, courtesy, mark of friendship;   active voice (grammar)
Ma'sum Ma‘ṣúm inviolable, sacrosanct, protected by the laws of vendetta (Isl. Law);   infallible, sinless, impeccant, impeccable;   immaculate, morally infallible and rendered immune to error by God, infallible in judgements and decrees
Ma'sum Ma’ṣúm Pers.   guilty or suspect (person)
Pers.   Fáṭimah bint Músá al-Khádhim, sister of Imám ‘Alí ar-Riḍá (8th Imám), is commonly known as Fáṭima al-Ma‘súmih
Ma'u'l-Furat Má’u’l-Furát sweet waters (“the fresh and thirst-quenching waters”)
Ma’un Ma‘ún variously interpreted as assistance to neighbours in the form of lending household utensils;   voluntary and obligatory alms;   obedience to prescribed rules
Mabda’ Mabda’, pl. Mabádi beginning, start, starting point;   basis, foundation;   principle;   invention;—pl. principles, convictions (of a person);   ideology;   rudiments, fundamental concepts, elements
Mabsut Mabsúṭ extended, outstretched;   rim, spread out;   extensive, large, sizeable;   detailed, elaborate (book);   cheerful, happy, gay;   feeling well, in good health.   Nickname “happy”: Dr Ḍíyá Mabsúṭ Baghdádí
Madad, Amdad Madad, pl. Amdád help, aid, assistance, support, backing, reinforcement;—pl. resources; auxiliaries.   House of Ḥájí ‘Alí Madad, in Baghdád that Bahá’u’lláh and family first occupied on arrival. This is not the Bayt-i-A‘ẓam.
Madaha, Madh, Midha Madaḥa, Madḥ, Midḥa to praise, commend, laud, extol
Madaniya, Madaniyyah
Madaníya(t), Pers. Madaníyyih
Madda al-Kulliya
al-Mádda al-Kullíya
the universal matter
Madda, Mawadd
Mádda, pl. Mawádd
stuff, matter;   material possession;   substance;   material;   component, constituent, ingredient;   fundamental constituent, radical, chemical element, base;   subject, theme, topic;   school subject, field of study;   discipline, subject matter, curricular subject;   article, paragraph (e.g., of a law, treaty or contract);   stipulation, contractual term;—pl. material, materials;   agents, elements
Maddi, Maddiun
Máddí, Máddíún
material;   corporeal, physical;   materialistic;—(pl.) materialist;   objective
Madelli Madellí city (probably Mitilíni (Mytilene), Lesvos Island)
Madhhab, Madhhahib Madhhab, pl. Madhháhib going, leave, departure;   way out, escape (from);   manner followed, adopted procedure or policy, road entered upon;   opinion, view, belief;   ideology;   teaching, doctrine; movement, orientation, trend (also politics);   school;   mazhab, orthodox rite of fiqh (Islamic Law);   religious creed, faith, denomination.   Schools of law—the four Sunní legal schools (sing. madhhab) are: (1) the Hanafíte school, founded by Abu Hanifah (d. 767);   (2) the Malakite school, founded by Málik ibn Anas (d. 795);   (3) the Sháf’íte, founded by Sháf’í (d. 820);   and (4) the strictest and most conservative Hanbalite school, founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855).   Actions that might be considered lawful or unlawful are divided into five categories: (i) obligatory, (ii) prohibited, (iii) recommended but not obligatory, (iv) indifferent, and (v) disapproved but not forbidden.
Madhhab-i-Ithna-'Ashariyyih Madhhab-i-Ithná-‘Asharíyyih Shí‘ahs or “Church of the Twelve” DB lii
Madhkur Madhkúr mentioned;   said, above-mentioned;   celebrated
Madi (Mazi) Máḍí (Máẓí) Pers.   passing away;   past;   dead;   swift, fleet, expeditious;   sharp, piercing (sword)
Madi Darad Maḍí Dárad Pers.   a closing phrase
Madih, Mada'ih Madíḥ, pl. Madá’iḥ praise, laudation, commendation;   panegyrical poem, panegyric;   eulogy, encomium, tribute
Madina, Mudun, Mada'in
Madína(h), pl. Mudun, Madá’in
town, city;   Medina (city in western Saudi Arabia).   Citizens al-Anṣár Medinans
Madinah al-Madínah Medinah.   Muḥammad migrated to Yathrib in 622 and it was renamed al-Madínat an-Nabí (later shortened to al-Madínah)
Madinat an-Nabi al-Madínat an-Nabí City of the Prophet
Madinatu'l-Khadra Madínatu’l-Khaḍrá’ (the Verdant City) title given to Sabzivár
Madinatu'n-Nabi Madínatu’n-Nabí City of the Prophet (Medina)
Madinatu's-Salam Madínatu’s-Salám the City of Peace (name given to Baghdád by ‘Abbásid Caliph al-Manṣúr)   BKG 106.
Madinatu't-Tawhid Madínatu’t-Tawḥíd (The City of Unity) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Madkhal, Madakhil Madkhal, pl. Madákhil entrance; hallway, vestibule, anteroom;   entrance hall, lobby, foyer;   mouth (of a port, of a canal);   oxygen anode (electricity);   introduction (to a field of learning);   behaviour, conduct.   Madákhil: “commission, perquisite, douceur, consideration, pickings and stealings, profit …”   The Dawn-Breakers xliv
Madkhul, Madakhil Madkhúl, pl. Madákhíl sickly, diseased, abnormal;   (mentally) disordered;   of weak character, spineless;   (pl.) revenue, receipts, takings, returns
Madrasa, Madaris Madrasa, pl. Madáris, Madrasah Ar.   a religious boarding school associated with a mosque; school.   Madrasa becomes madrasih, madrisih or even madrasat (sing.) in Persian
Madrasiya Madrasíya school vacation
Madrisiy-i-Daru'sh-Shafay Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh.   DB 168
Madrisiyi-i-Sadr Madrisiyi-i-Ṣadr
Maf'ul, Mafa'il Maf‘úl, pl. Mafá‘íl object (grammar);—(pl.) effect, impression, impact;   effectiveness, validity.   See fá‘il, manṣúb and marfú‘
Maghdub Maghḍúb object of anger
Maghfarat, Maghfirat Maghfara(t), Maghfira(t) (Magfaret) pardon, forgiveness, remission
Mah Máh Pers.   the moon;   a month, whether lunar or solar;   name of the twelfth day of every solar month;   name of the angel set over the moon, and any business transacted on the twelfth day of the month;   a mistress
Mah-Ku Máh-Kú Four-towered fortress above the village of Cháh Máh-Kú in north-western Ádhirbáyján (Azerbaijan).   130 km NE of Van and 205 NW of Tabriz.   Named by the Báb the Jabal-i-Basit (the Open Mountain), the numerical values of Máh-Kú and Básiṭ is 72.
Mah-Parih Máh-Párih [Mahpareh mah + pareh] = ‘a portion of the moon’
Mah-tab (Mahtab) Máh-táb Pers.   moonlight, moonshine;   the moon;   the face of a mistress;   breath, animal life
Mah-tabi (Mahtabi) Máh-tábí Pers.   lit by the moon;   a balcony or terrace (to enjoy tbe moonlight);   blue light
Mahabad Mahábád Pers.   (Mehabad) is a town in and the capital of Mahábád County, West Ádharbayján Province
Mahabba Maḥabba love;   affection, attachment;   fondness, tender and kind feelings, inclination, and love
Mahabbat, Mahabb, Mahab Maḥabbat in Perisan also maḥabb, maḥab.   Love, affection;   friendship, esteem, benevolence
Mahall-i-Darb Maḥall-i-Ḍarb Place of striking: location in Tabríz where the Báb was subjected to the bastinado after His examination by the divines.
Mahall, Mahallat Maḥall, pl. Maḥallát, Maḥáll place, location, spot, site, locale, locality, center;   (place of) residence;   business;   business house, firm, commercial house;   store, shop;   object, cause (e.g., of dispute, admiration, etc.);   gear (automobile).   Maḥallát capital of Maḥallát County, Markazí Province, Írán.   Táj Mahal (Urdu “palace”)
Mahalla, Mahallat Maḥalla, pl. Maḥallát way station, stopping place, stop, stopover, encampment;   camp;   section, part, quarter (of a city)
Mahallih Maḥallih Pers.   location or place, see Garden of Murgh-Maḥallih, abode/place of birds/chickens.
Mahbub, Mahabib Maḥbúb, pl. Maḥábíb beloved;   dear;   lovable, desirable;   popular;   favourite;   beloved one, lover;   (pl.) gold piece, sequin (in Ottoman times)   Title of the First Promised One expected by the Shi’ites.
Mahbuba Maḥbúba sweetheart, darling, beloved woman
Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada' Maḥbúbu’sh-Shuhadá’ (Beloved of Martyrs)   Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn   Brother of Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥasan, both from Iṣfahán.
of pure descent, pureblood;   pure, unmixed, unadulterated;   genuine;   sheer, downright, outright (e.g., lie, nonsense, etc.)
Mahd, Muhud
Mahd, pl. Muhúd
bed;   cradle
Mahdi-Shahr (Mahdishahr)
Mahdí-Shahr (Mahdíshahr)
Town of Mahdí (Mehdishahr).   City 175 km east of Teheran in Semnan Province. Formerly, Sang-Sar or Sangsar—the name may have derived from Sakasar or Saksar (i.e. Saka (scythian) settlement).
Mahdiy (Mahdi or Mihdi)
Mahdíy, Mahdí
rightly guided;   Mahdi
(lit. spiritual gathering spiritual assembly)
Mahfurujak (Mahfaruzak) Máhfarújak village 10 km SW of Sarí and about 30 km from the Caspian Sea
Mahfuz Maḥfúẓ guarded or preserved
Mahiya, Mahiyat (Pers. Mahiyyat) Máhíya, pl. Máhíyát quality, quiddity (the inherent nature or essence of someone or something), essence, nature;   salary, income;   pay (military)
Mahin, Muhana' Mahín, pl. Muhaná’ despised, despicable, contemptible, vile
Mahmud Maḥmúd praised;   commendable, laudable, praiseworthy
Mahmud Zarqani Maḥmúd Zarqání Mírzá Maḥmúd Zarqání
Mahmud-i-Alusi Maḥmúd-i-Álúsí
Mahmud-i-Khu'i Maḥmúd-i-Khu’í Mullá Maḥmúd-i-Khu’í
Mahmud-i-Muqari'i Maḥmúd-i-Muqári’í DB 422
Mahmud-i-Qamsari Maḥmúd-i-Qamṣarí DB 8, 9
Mahmudabad Maḥmúdábád city on southern coast of Caspian Sea, Írán
Mahmudi Maḥmúdí
Mahmudnizhad Maḥmúdnizhád Pers.   Muná Mahmúdnizhád
Mahram, Maharima Maḥram, pl. Maḥárim something forbidden.   inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct, holy, or sacred;   unmarriageable, being in a degree of consanguinity precluding marriage (Isl. Law)
Mahshar, Mashir
Maḥshar, Maḥshir
place of assembly;   last judgement
Mahshid Mahshíd Pers.   moonlight; the moon.   mah [moon] + shíd [light];   also máh [moon] + khurshíd [sun], “moon and sun”
Mahtum Maḥtúm imposed, enjoined, obligatory;   determined, definitive, determinate, unalterable, inevitable;   destined, predestined, ordained (fate)
Mahw (Mahv) Maḥw effacement, obliteration, blotting out;   erasure, deletion;   elimination;   abolition, abolishment, annulment.   Compare ṣaḥw
passing by, through, or beyond;   way, road, passage;   trope, figure, metaphor, simile, allegory;   feigned, insincere, worldly, superficial, profane
Majd (Egyptian “Magd”) Majd, pl. Amjád glory;   splendour, magnificence, grandeur;   nobility, honour, distinction
Majdal (Majdil)
(“tower”) a former Palestinian village about 12 km east of Haifa, depopulated in 1925, now part of Kibbutz Ramat Yohanan in Israel
Majdhub, Majadib Majdhúb, pl. Majádib attracted;   possessed, maniacal, insane;   (pl.) maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot
Majdi'd-Din Majdi’d-Dín son of Áqáy-i-Kalím, a brother of Bahá’u’lláh
Majdu'd-Dawlih Majdu’d-Dawlih
Majdu'l-Ashraf Majdu’l-Ashraf
Majdu’llah Majdu’lláh Glory of God
Majid Majíd glorious, illustrious;   celebrated, famous;   glorified, exalted;   praiseworthy, laudable, admirable, excellent, splendid;   noble
Majid-i-Masha'u'llah Majíd-i-Máshá’u’lláh the Báb’s remains were hidden overnight in this abandoned building near Ṭihrán
Majidi Majídí (medjidie), a Turkish silver coin of 20 piasters coined under Sulṭán ‘Abdu’l-Majíd
Majlas, Majlis Majlas Pers.   sitting down;   —majlis, time or place of sitting;   an assembly, convivial meeting, congress, council
Majlis, Majalis Majlis, pl. Majális seat;   session room, conference room;   party, gathering, meeting;   social gathering: session, sitting;   council meeting;   council;   concilium;   collegium, college: board, committee, commission;   administrative board;   court, tribunal
Majlisi Majlisí a person invited to an assembly;   an assessor
Majma, Majami Majma‘, pl. Majámi‘ place where two or more things meet, place or point of union, junction;   meeting, congregation, convention, assembly
Majma'-i-Abrar Majma‘-i-Abrár the gathering place of the righteous, e.g. the House of Justice.   See barr (reverent).
Majma'u'l-Fusaha' Majma‘u’l-Fuṣaḥá’ See majma‘ and faṣíḥ
Majmu' Majmú‘ collected, gathered;   totality, whole;   total, sum (arithmetic)
Majmu'iy-i-Alwah Majmú‘iy-i-Alwáḥ
Majnun, Majanin Majnún, pl. Majánín possessed, obsessed;   insane, mad;   madman, maniac, lunatic;   crazy, cracked;   crackpot;   foolish; fool.   Name of classical Persian lover who searches for his beloved Laylí.
Majrur, Magarir Majrúr, pl. Magárir drawn, dragged, towed, etc.;   word governed by a preposition, word in the genitive form;   (pl.) drain, sewer
Majus, Majusi Majús, pl. Majúsí Magus, Magi, Mugh   (Per.)   (applied to Zoroastrains by Persians)
Makatib-i-'Abdu’l-Baha Makátíb-i-‘Abdu’l-Bahá “Tablets of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
status of the master or employer
Makhfiy Makhfíy hidden, concealed
Makhluq, Makhluqat, Makhliq
Makhlúq, pl. Makhlúqát, Mákhlíq
created;   creature, created being
Makhluqat, Makhluqa, Makhaliq Makhlúqat, Makhlúqa a creature, a created thing;—pl. makhaliq, makhlúqát
Makhsus Makhṣúṣ special
Makhtum Makhtúm Pers.   sealed, finished, concluded
Makhzum Makhzúm Pers.   pierced in the nose;   name of the founder of a tribe
Makhzun, Makhzunat Makhzún, pl. Makhzúnát stored, stored up, deposited, warehoused;   (pl.) stock, supply, stock in trade
Makkah Makkah more accurate spelling of Mecca
Maknun, Maknunih
Maknún, Pers. Maknúnih
hidden, concealed;   well-kept;   hidden content
Maktaba, Maktabat, Makatib
Maktaba(h), pl. Maktabát, Makátib
library;   bookstore;   desk
Maktub, Makatib
Maktúb, pl. Makátíb
written, written down, recorded;   fated, foreordained, destined;   something written, writing;—(pl.) a writing, message, note;   letter
Mal'ak, Malak, Mala'ik, Mala'ika
Mal’ak & Malak, pl. Malá’ik, Mala’ika(h or t)
an angel (as sent by God);   messenger, envoy;   embassy, mission;   an epistle.   Derived from root IV كلأ (L’K) to send [Letters & Essays].—pl. also malá’ika.   Alternatives are due sometimes showing the tá’ marbúṭa (letter) at the end
refuge, protection;   shelter;   asylum, sanctuary;   protector
Malaka, Malk, Mulk, Milk
Malaka (Malk, Mulk, Milk)
to take in possession, take over, acquire (something), seize, lay hands (on), possess oneself, take possession, lay hold (of);   to possess, own, have (something), be the owner (of);   to dominate, control (something): to be master (of);   to role, reign, exercise power or authority, hold sway;   to be capable (of), be equal (to).   Hence, milk al-yamín, those whom your right hand possesses, e.g. women slaves
royal, kingly, regal;   monarchic, sovereign;   monarchist;   angelic
Malakiya, Malakiyat
Malakíya, pl. Malakíyát
monarchy, kingship, royalty
Malakut Malakút realm, kingdom, empire;   kingship, royalty, sovereignty   (Kingdom of Angels—realm of being).   See Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút and Násút.
reproaching, reproving, blaming;   reprehension, reproach, rebuke, censure;   criticism;   contumely
Malayir Maláyir city SE of Ḥamdán, Írán
Malfuf Malfúf wound, coiled;   wrapped up (in);   rolled up, rolled together, convolute;   twisted, wound (around);   fastened, attached (to);   swathed (in or with);   plump, stout (body)
Malik, Malika, Mulaka Malík, fem. Malíka, pl. Mulaká king, monarch, ruler;   master, possessor, owner, proprietor.   See sulṭán (a higher level of sovereignty)
Malik, Mullak Málik, pl. Mullak, Mullák reigning, ruling;   owning, possessing, holding;   owner, proprietor, master, possessor, holder
Malik, Muluk, Amlak Malik, pl. Mulúk, Amlák king, sovereign, monarch;   present a gift to the king.
Malika, Malikat Malika, pl. Malikát queen
Maliki Málikí, pl. Mullákí state of master, mastership;   royal, kingly;   lordly.   A Malikite is a member of a particular Sunní muslim sect (al-málikíya—a system of Sunní jurisprudence)
Maliku't-Tujjar Maliku’t-Tujjár (“the King of the Merchants”) DB 447
Malja’, Malaji’
Malja’, pl. Maláji’
(place of) refuge, retreat;   shelter;   sanctuary, asylum;   home;   base;   pillbox, bunker, dugout
a village 65 km sw of Arák, in Markazí province, Írán
Malmiri Málmírí of or from Málmír
Mamaqan Mamaqán city 50 km south of Zanján, Írán.   Other variations found are Mámáqán and Mamáqán.
Mamlaka, Mamalik Mamlaka(h), pl. Mamálik kingdom, empire, state, country;   royal power, sovereignty
Man Man 1.   (interr. pron.) who? which one? which ones?
2.   (relative pron.) who;   the one who;   those who;   one who;   whoever, whosoever, everyone who, he who.
Man-Yuzhiruhu'llah Man-Yuẓhiruhu’lláh (man+yu+ẓahara+Alláh)   “Him whom God shall make manifest” Title given by the Báb to the promised One. “He Who is made manifest in the past and in the future” is another rendering of “Him Whom God has manifested and will manifest”
Manaf Manáf name of a pagan Arabian idol
Mandalij Mandalíj Possibly Mandalí—a town in ‘Iráq on the border with Írán
Manhaj, Minhaj, Manahij Manhaj, Minhaj, pl. Manáhij open, plain, easy road, highway, path;   manner, procedure, method;   program;   course