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Abstract:
Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Baha'i history, with accents and underlines, and definitions.
Notes:

Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transliteration

compiled by Mike Thomas.
2016
Introduction
This document lists the Roman script transliteration forms of many of the Arabic and Fársí (some are of Turkish origin) names and words used in the Bahá’í Writings as a guide to their transliteration. Hence, there is no need to include all possible combinations of those words used in the names of people and places. However, additional root words have been added as a guide to an understanding of the meaning of the words.
Information sources
Some sources of information are given in brackets. Authors of books, tablets, etc., "(by _____)". The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice (caution: these contain errors); and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh. New entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian dictionaries—older entries will gradually be updated using these dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from a few knowledgeable individuals.
Capitalization
Arabic and Fársí do not have capital letters. When transcripted, capital letters should only be used for proper names and attributes of God, otherwise, lower case letters should be used. This document uses capital letters for all words/names as if they were proper names—these should be converted to lower case for other uses.
Hybrid word/names
Most words (there are some commonly accepted exceptions, e.g. Bahá’ís) that have an English suffix should not be transcripted (e.g. Islamic, Qur’anic, Shi’ite, Shi’ism). Adding an ‘s’ to many words to represent the plural form is more recognizable to the English reader (bábs) than the often very different transcripted Arabic plural word (abváb). These and some other words are often better replaced by an English equivalent, e.g. Gate-hood for Bábíyyat instead of the incorrect hybrid forms: "Bábhood" or "Babhood", etc.
Accuracy
Any variations in transliteration by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Bahá’í authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transliteration rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transliterated forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transliterated.
d)A search for the words in Arabic dictionaries (e.g. The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written Arabic).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Bahá’ís who are Arabic and/or Fársí speakers. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Although every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of this document, many older entries need to be rechecked or require additional information. Any corrections or suggested changes are welcomed.
Phonetic or common spelling
Some words in brackets in the third column indicate an old-style phonetical spelling that can be found in some older Bahá’í publications.
‘Ayn and Hamza consonants
These Arabic consonant letters for ‘ayn and hamza are represented by left and right curly apostrophes respectively—they are not quote marks nor are they interchangeable. The alternative plain text characters are ` and ' respectively.
Always include any initial ‘Ayn, and ending Hamza or ‘Ayn. It is important not to confuse any quote marks used in the text together with an ‘Ayn or a Hamza.
Elative word forms
In some languages such as Arabic, the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an adjective are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of "greatest", "supreme". The elative of kabár (big) is ‘akbar (bigger/biggest, greater/greatest).
Underscores
The line placed under ‘ch’, ‘dh’, ‘kh’, ‘sh’, ‘th’ and ‘zh’ indicates that these combinations of two letters in Roman script represent the sound of a single letter in the original script.
Vowel sounds*
This document is not a pronunciation guide. However, the following information is provided as a simple introduction.
Accenting provides a guide to the pronunciation of vowel sounds in standard Arabic. Any attempt to show how vowels are pronounced using English word examples is limited by the fact that English words themselves are pronounced differently in different English speaking regions. The sound of short vowels is also affected by which consonant precedes them.
áa long a as in ‘ah’, ‘arm’ or ‘father’
aa short a as in ‘band’, ‘account’ or ‘ran’
íthe vowel sound ‘ee’ as in ‘meet’ or ‘feet’
ia simple ‘i’ sound as in ‘hit’, ‘bit’ or ‘sit’
úa ‘oo’ sound as in ‘boot’, ‘moon’ or ‘root’
ua ‘o’ sound as in ‘put’
awas ‘ow’ sound in ‘vowel’
Categories of words in Arabic
Arabic divides all words into three categories. A verb (fi‘l) refers to an event, or motion, in time. A noun (ism) refers to a thing and makes no reference to time. A preposition (ḥarf) has no independent and substantive meaning but functions as a link between nouns and verbs. Gate of the heart, p. 205.
List arrangement
The first column of the following list contains a form of the words/names without acute accents, initial ‘Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transliteration, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort of the list itself. of the list itself. When searching for words containing a ‘v’ (Persian) or a ‘u’, look also for the word with a ‘w’ replacing the ‘v’ or ‘u’

Roman script transliterated forms of Arabic/Fársí words/names
Suffix
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
-dan -dán Pers.   (suffix and prefix) denoting what holds or contains anything (i.e container/box);   know thou;   (in compound) knowing, intelligent.
-hood -hood 1. A condition or state of being the thing or being in the role denoted by the word it is suffixed to, usually a noun, e.g. childhood.
2. A group sharing a specified condition or state, e.g. brotherhood
-ship -ship English suffix of nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc.
-un, -an, -in -un, -an, -in subjective/nominative, objective/accusative and possessive/genetive singular noun case endings (respectively) where they exist.
-yya, -yyih -yya, Pers. -yyih nisba, a suffix used to form adjectives in Arabic grammar
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
A'ishah, Aisha, Ayishah ‘Á’isha (Ar) or (Per) ‘Á’ishih, ‘Á’ishah wife of Muḥammad and daughter of Abú-Bakr
A'la, Ulya, Ulan, A'alin, A'lahu A‘lá, f. ‘Ulyá, pl. ‘Ulan, A‘álin higher, highest;   upper, uppermost;   ‘Álin the highest portion of something;   heights, peaks (fig.).   A‘láhu further up, above.   "The Most Exalted One" is a title of the Báb.
A'zam,   (see Azim) A‘ẓam, f. ‘Uẓmá, pl. A‘áẓim greater, bigger;   more significant, more important;   greatest, major, supreme;   most significant, paramount.   Comparative form of ‘aẓuma’ (to make great)
A'zami A‘ẓamí
Ab Áb August (month;   Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran).   Father (in parts of Iran).
Ab, Aba', Abu, Abi Ab, Abí, Abú, pl. Aba’ father (also eccl.): ancestor, forefather.   Abú (father of), Abul (the father of) and Abí (partial names) must be followed by another name.
Aba ‘Abá Ar.   loose outer garment, cloak, mantle or aba
Aba-Basir ‘Abá-Baṣír
Abad Abad, pl. Ábád Ar.   endless, eternal, eternity.   Pers.   populous, thriving, prosperous, developed, inhabited.   ábád suffix used in compound Persian names of towns and populated or inhabited areas
Abadan Ábádán city in Írán to the north of Kuwait City
Abadih Ábádih
Abadih'i Ábádih’í Layla Ábádih’í
Abahab, 'Adhabat, A'dhiba ‘Adháb, pl. ‘Adhábát, A‘dhiba pain, torment, suffering, agony, torture;   punishment, chastisement, castigation
Abarkuh (Abarqu, Abargu) Abarkúh (Abar-Kúh) village between Yazd and Shíráz
Abbas ‘Abbás The lion, also stern looking, formidable, stentorian.   Derived from ‘abasa, originally meaning a furious lion, hence with a lion’s characteristics.
Abbas Abad, Abbas-Abad, Abbasabad ‘Abbás Ábád, ‘Abbás-Ábád, ‘Abbásábád villages in Írán: Caspian Sea, part of Ṭihrán.
Abbas-'Ali ‘Abbás-‘Alí
Abbas-i-Nuri ‘Abbás-i-Núrí Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír
Abbas-Quli-i-Larijani ‘Abbás-Qulí-i-Laríjání
Abbasi, Abbasiun ‘Abbásí, pl. ‘Abbásíún descendant of al-‘Abbás, uncle of the Prophet Muḥammad.   Abbasid (Abbaside) Caliphs (750–861).
Abbasiyan ‘Abbásíyán Pers.   The princes of the house of ‘Abbás, the Abbasides.
Abbasiyya ‘Abbásiyya School
Abbud ‘Abbúd, Ilyás Christian merchant of ‘Akká
Abd-i-Hadir ‘Abd-i-Ḥáḍir "Servant in Attendance"
Abd-i-Manaf ‘Abd-i-Manáf
Abd, 'Abad, 'Abdu, "Abdu’l-" ‘Abd, pl. ‘Abád, ‘Ubdán, ‘Ibdán slave, serf;   bondsman, servant, worshipper;   (pl. ‘ibad) servant (of God), human being, man
Abda, 'Abdat ‘Abda, pl. ‘Abdát woman slave, slave girl, bondwoman
Abda' Abda‘ more amazing, more exceptional;   of even greater originality.   See Badí‘
Abdi'llah ‘Abdi’lláh variation of ‘Abdu’lláh (servant of God)
Abdu'dh-Dhikr ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr "the Servant of Remembrance"—a designation of the Báb
'Abdu’l Baghi ‘Abdu’l Baghí Mírzá ‘Abdu’l Baghí, father of Mírzá Aḥmad Suhráb (known as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab)
Abdu'l- ‘Abdu’l- partial name [Abd (slave) + u’l (the) = slave of the …] followed by one of the names of God.
Abdu'l-'Ali ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Abdu'l-'Aliy-i-Harati ‘Abdu’l-‘Alíy-i-Harátí
Abdu'l-'Azim ‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím
Abdu'l-'Azim-i-Khu'i ‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Abdu'l-'Aziz ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz Sulṭán
Abdu'l-Baha ‘Abdu’l-Bahá "The Servant of Glory" (of Bahá).   ‘Abbás Afandí (Effendi).   4 daughters: Ḍíyá’íyyih (mother of Shoghi Effendi), Ṭúbá, Rúḥá and Munavvar.   Wife Munírih Khánum
Abdu'l-Baqi ‘Abdu’l-Báqí "servant of the everlasting"
Abdu'l-Baqir ‘Abdu’l-Báqir
Abdu'l-Fattah ‘Abdu’l-Faṭṭáḥ
Abdu'l-Ghaffar ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár (MF)
Abdu'l-Ghani ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní
Abdu'l-Ghani Baydun ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Bayḍún
Abdu'l-Hadi ‘Abdu’l-Hádí
Abdu'l-Hamid ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd Sulṭán ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd Khán
Abdu'l-Haqq ‘Abdu’l-Ḥaqq
Abdu'l-Husayn ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn
Abdu'l-Husayn-i-Avarih ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Ávárih
Abdu'l-Husayn-i-Shushtari ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Shushtarí
Abdu'l-Jalil ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl
Abdu'l-Javad ‘Abdu’l-Javád
Abdu'l-Karim ‘Abdu’l-Karím
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Iravani ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Íravání
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Ṭihrání
Abdu'l-Khaliq ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq "Servant of the Creator"
Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Isfahani ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Iṣfahání
Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Yazdi ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Yazdí
Abdu'l-Majid ‘Abdu’l-Majíd
Abdu'l-Majid-i-Nishaburi ‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Níshábúrí
Abdu'l-Majid-i-Shirazi ‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Shírází
Abdu'l-Malik ‘Abdu’l-Malik Fifth Umayyad Caliph
Abdu'l-Muhammad ‘Abdu’l-Muḥammad
Abdu'l-Muttalib ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib
Abdu'l-Qadir ‘Abdu’l-Qádir BKG 124
Abdu'l-Vahhab ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Sha'rani ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Sha‘rání
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Shírází Pers.   ‘Abdu’l Wahab
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Turshizi ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Turshízí
Abdu'l-Vasi' ‘Abdu’l-Vási‘
Abdu’llah ‘Abdu’lláh servant of God
Abdu'llah Pasha ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá
Abdu'llah-i-Ghawgka ‘Abdu’lláh-i-Ghawghá’ Error The Dawn-Breakers 182, BKG 132
Abdu'llah-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’lláh-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'llah-i-Ubayy ‘Abdu’lláh-i-Ubayy
Abdu'r-Rahim-i-Qannad ‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Qannád
Abdu'r-Rahim-i-Yazdi ‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Yazdí (MF)
Abdu'r-Rahman Afandi Alusi ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán Afandí Álúsí
Abdu'r-Rahman-i-Karkuti ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán-i-Kárkútí
Abdu'r-Rasul-i-Qumi ‘Abdu’r-Rasúl-i-Qumí
Abdu’r-Razzaq ("‘Abdu’l-Razzak") ‘Abdu’r-Razzáq The "l" of "al" is not pronounced when it comes in front of letters called "solar letters" such as letters r, t, d, z, etc.
Abdu's-Sahib ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáḥib
Abdu's-Salam ‘Abdu’s-Salám
Abdu's-Salih ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáliḥ the Gardener of the Riḍván Garden, ‘Akká
Abdu's-Samad ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad (Sammad)
Abdu's-Samad-i-Hamadani ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad-i-Hamadání
Abdu'sh-Shams ‘Abdu’sh-Shams
Abdus, ‘Ubdus, ‘Abduh ‘Abdús, ‘Ubdús Pers.   name of a man.   ‘Abduh (‘abdu-hu), (I am) his servant or slave
Abgusht Ábgúsht stew
Abha Abhá more splendid, more brilliant.   "Most Glorious"
  · al-Abhá (El-Abha)   "The Most Glorious"
  · Abhá Beauty—Jamál-i-Abhá—a title of Bahá’u’lláh
  · Abhá Kingdom—The Most Glorious Kingdom (also Abhá Paradise)
See Alláh-u-Abhá and Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá
Abhar Abhar (Ar.)   more brilliant, more magnificent.   Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí-i-Abharí is known as Ibn-i-Abhar.
Abhar Abhar Pers.   a water-mill;   a vein in the back, the jugular vein;   the back of a bow
Abi-'Abdi'llah Abí-‘Abdi’lláh Arabic term used in reference to Imám Ja‘far Ṣádiq
Abi-Ghafray-i-Ta’i Abí-Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’í (SDC p. 48)
Abi-Quhafih Abí-Quḥáfih The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abid, Abidin ‘Ábid, ‘Ábidín An adorer, or servant of God;   worshipper—see as used in conjunction with Zayn.
Abivard Ábívard Now Dargáz, Khurásán, Írán
Abjad Abjad Derives from the Arabic word for "Alphabet": A (Alíf), B (Bá’), J (Jím), D (Dál)—first four consonant letters of the alphabet (ignoring those with the same base)
Abu 'Imran Musa ibn Maymun Abú ‘Imrán Músá ibn Maymún Maimonides (orig. Moshe ben Maimon)
Abu Dhar Abú Dhar (Abouzar)
Abu Dhar al-Ghifari al-Kinani Abú Dhar al-Ghifárí al-Kinání (Dhar‘ or Dharr?)   illiterate shepherd (of the Banú Ghifár,a Jewish tribe) who became a disciple of Muḥammad (ESW p. 183)   (Abu-Dhar Ghefan)
Abu-'Abdi'llah Abú-‘Abdi’lláh
Abu-'Abdu'llah ash-Shi'i Abú-‘Abdu’lláh ash-Shí’í
Abu-'Ali Abú-‘Alí
Abu-'Amir Abú-‘Ámir
Abu-'Umar-'Uthman Abú-‘Umar-‘Uthmán
Abu-Bakr Abú-Bakr
Abu-Bakri's-Siddiq Abú-Bakri’ṣ-Ṣiddíq The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abu-Hanifih Abú-Hanifih
Abu-Ja'far-i-Tusi Abú-Ja‘far-i-Ṭúsí follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions
Abu-Jahl Abú-Jahl (Abudjahl) ("father of ignorance")   Abu’l-Ḥakam ‘Amr Ibn Hishám
Abu-Nasr Farabi Abú-Naṣr Fárábí 4th century ah Persian philosopher and writer
Abu-Rahim Abú-Raḥím
Abu-Sinan Abú-Sinán Druze village of Abú Snan about 5 km east of Bahjí and west the druze village of Yarka‘ (Yirka, Yerka, Yirkih)
Abu-Sufyan Abú-Sufyán
Abu-Talib Abú-Ṭálib Abú-Ṭálib, Mullá   sons ‘Alí-Ashraf and Áqá Bálá
Abu-Talib-i-Sang-Sari Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sárí
Abu-Talib-i-Shahmirzadi Abú-Ṭálib-i-Shahmírzádí
Abu-Turab Abú-Turáb
Abu-Turab-i-Qazvini Abú-Turáb-i-Qazvíní
Abu'd-Dawahi Abú’d-Dawáhí Father of Misfortune
Abu'l-Bashar Abu’l-Bashar "the father of man"—one of the titles given by Muslims to Adam
Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpaygani Abu’l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání, Mírzá
Abu'l-Fath-i-Shahristani Abu’l-Fatḥ-i-Shahristání
Abu'l-Fatu Abu’l-Fatú (Mírzá Abu’l Fatoo)
Abu'l-Fida Abu’l-Fidá
Abu'l-Futuh Abu’l-Futúḥ ("the Father of Victories") name given to Enoch Olinga by Shoghi Effendi
Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Ardikání, Mullá Hájí Amín, Amín-i-Iláhí (Trustee [Amín] of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Abu'l-Hasan-i-Bazzaz Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Bazzáz
Abu'l-Huda Abu’l-Hudá, Shaykh
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Hamadání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Kashi Abu’l-Qásim-i-Káshí a learned Bábí from Káshán (Abu’l Káẓim)
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Khurasani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Khurásání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Mazkani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Mazkání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Qa'im-Maqam Abu’l-Qásim-i-Qá’im-Maqám
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Shirazi Abu’l-Qásim-i-Shírází
Abu'l-Qasim-ibn-i-Haji-Zayna Abu’l-Qásim-ibn-i-Ḥájí-Zayná
Abu'sh-Shurur Abu’sh-Shurúr "the father of iniquities or wickedness"   (EGB, Balyuzi)
Abuqir Abúqír Abú Qír is a village NE of Alexandria, Egypt
Abwab-i-Arba’ih (Abvab-i-Arba’ih) Abwáb-i-Arba‘ih Pers.   "the Four Gates" DB 178.   See Arba‘
Abyad ("Abiyad"), Baida, Bid Abyaḍ, fem. Baiḍá’, pl. Bíḍ white;   bright;   clean, shiny, polished;   blameless, noble, sincere (character);   empty, blank (sheet of paper);   pl. al-bíḍán the white race.   al-abyaḍ egg white
Abyan Abyan clearer, more distinct, more obvious.   Root bána, bayán
Ad ‘Ád Traditionally, a fourth generation descendent of Noah
Ad, Hud, Salih and Thamud ‘Ád, Húd, Ṣáliḥ and Thamúd People of ‘Ád, Húd, Ṣáliḥ and Thamúd
Ad'iyyih va Munajat Ad‘iyyih (or Ad‘íyih) va Munáját "Prayers and Supplications" (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Adab ‘Adab good manners, as in etiquette
Adalla Adalla "to lead or guide"
Adalla Aḍalla "to leave in error or lead astray"
Adam Ádam Adam
Adasiyyih ‘Adasíyyih (Adassish)—a town south-east of Tiberias (resting place of a half brother of Bahá’u’lláh)
Adha Aḍḥá ‘Íd al-Aḍḥá   Festival of Sacrifice
Adhab-i-Qabr ‘Adháb-i-Qabr chastisement in the grave
Adhan Adhán Muslim announcement or call to prayer
Adhar Ádharí
Adhar (Azar), Adhur (Azur) Ádhar, Ádhur Pers.   fire;   name of the angel presiding over fire, and the day ádhar;   affairs of the month and day ádhar, the former being the ninth solar month, the latter being the ninth day of any month, but particularly of the fourth month
Adharbayjan, Adhirbayjan Ádharbáyján Pers. or Ádhirbáyján (Turk) (Azerbayjan)
Adi ‘Ádí customary, usual, common, ordinary, normal, regular;   undistinguished, run-of-the-mill;   ordinary, regular (e.g., meeting, as opposed to extraordinary, special, emergency);   simple, plain, ordinary (man);   old, ancient, antique
Adi-Guzal Adí-Guzal ‘Ádí-Ghazal?
Adib Ádib host
Adib, Udaba' Adíb, pl. Udabá’ cultured, refined, educated;   well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane;   a man of culture and refined tastes;   man of letters, writer, author (superlative form of ‘Aduba’ [to learn])
Adibu'l-'Ulama Adíbu’l-‘Ulamá littérateur or literary man of the ‘Ulamá
Adirna, Adirnih Adirna, Pers. Adirnih Hadrianopolis (Adrianople in English), now known as Edirne.   Same numerical value, 260, as Sirr (Mystery")
Adja' Adjá’
Adl ‘Adl justice
Adliya ‘Adlíya justice, administration of justice, jurisprudence
Adna, Dunya, Adanin, Adnun, Dunan Adná, f. Dunyá (pl. m. Adánin, Adnún pl. f. Dunan) nearer, closer;   situated lower down, nether;   lower, inferior;   lowlier;   smaller, of less significance;   more appropriate, better suited, more suitable
Adrianople Adrianople (now Edirne)
Adu'dh-Dhikr ‘Adu’dh-Dhikr Ar.   Servant of the Remembrance. A designation of the Báb.
Adud, A’dad ‘Aḍud, pl. A’ḍád help, aid, assistance, support, backing;   helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer.   (pl.) upper arm;   strength, power, vigour, force
Adudu'd-Dawlih ‘Aḍudu’d-Dawlih (ad 978–983)
Afandi, Effendi Afandí, pl. Afandíyá gentleman (when referring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh);   (after the name) a title of respect.   Turkish title of nobility meaning a lord or master (Effendi—Pers. pronunciation, and spelling in English)   ("Sir")   It designates a higher rank than Big.
Afaqi Áfáqí coming from a distant country or region.   See ufq
Afchih Afchih or Afjih A village northeast of Ṭihrán in Lavásán District, TN p. 31
Affan ‘Affán Pers.   name of the father of the caliph ‘Usmán (Othmán or ‘Uthmán)
Afghani Afghán, Afghání adjective and noun.   al-afghán (the Afghans; Afghanistan)
Afghanistan Afghánistán Afghanistan
Afifi Muḥammad al‘Afífí Persian Consul in ‘Akká
Aflatun Aflátún
Afnan Afnán, fanan (sing.) boughs or twigs   Denotes the relatives of the Báb
Afnan-i-Kabir Afnán-i-Kabír
Afranj Afranj Pers.   Elegance, dignity, grace;   magnificence, grandeur, power;   maguitude;   a throne;   a crown;   provisions, necessaries.   The Franks, French;   the crusaders;   all Europeans.   Khán-i-Afranj in ‘Akká.
Afrasyab Áfrásyáb
Afrukhtih Yunis Afrúkhtih Yúnis
Afshar Afshár a branch of the Turkic Oghuz people
Afshin Afshín
Aftab Áftáb Pers.   sunlight
Aftabah (Aftabih) Áftábah Pers.   a ewer, water-pot, or kettle
Aftah, Mufattah Afṭaḥ and Mufaṭṭaḥ broad-headed, broad-nosed
Afus Afús village near Iṣfahán
Agahu'llah Ágáhu’lláh
Agha, Aghawat Ághá, pl. Aghawát (Ar.)   lord, master, sir;   eunuch, harem chamberlain
Aghsan Aghṣán (plural of ‘ghusn’)   branches.   Denotes the sons and male descendents of Bahá’u’lláh
AH ah—Anno Hejirae (in the year of the Hijira—small caps and precedes the date)
Ahad Aḥad fem.   one: somebody, someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in negative sentences and questions)
Ahadiya, Ahadiyat (Ahadiyyat) Aḥadíya, Pers. Aḥadíyat unity, oneness (also absolute unity)
Ahang Áhang Pers.   concord, symphony, harmony, modulation, melody, pitch, tune;   design, institution, purpose, intention;   canon, regulation;   rule, custom, manner of proceeding;   a row, a series;   the side (of a cistern);   the curve or arch of a cupola or dome;   a tether, stable, stall;   haste, expedition;   behold!
Ahangar Áhangar Pers,   blacksmith, a dealer in iron
Ahd, ‘Uhud ‘Ahd, pl. ‘Uhúd translated as Covenant in Bahá’í Writings.   Knowledge;   acquaintance, contact (with);   the well-known, familiar nature (of something);   close observance, strict adherence (to), keeping, fulfilment (of a promise);   delegation, assignment, committing (of something to someone), vesting (in someone of something), commissioning, charging, entrusting (of someone with something);   commission;   (pl.) commitment, obligation, liability;   responsibility;   pledge, vow;   promise; oath;   contract, compact, covenant, pact, treaty, agreement;   time, epoch, era.
Ahi Áhí Pers.   a fawn
Ahl-i-Baha Ahl-i-Bahá "people of Bahá"
Ahl-i-Bayan Ahl-i-Bayán "people of the Bayán"
Ahl-i-Haqq Ahl-i-Ḥaqq lit. people of the truth
Ahl, Ahlun, Ahalin Ahl, pl. Ahlún, Ahálin relatives, folks, family;   kin, kinfolk;   wife;   (with following genitive) people, members, followers, adherents, possessors, etc.;   inhabitants;   deserving, worthy (of something);   fit, suited, qualified (for);   pl. the natives, the native population
Ahlu'l-Kitab Ahlu’l-Kitáb "people of the Book"
Ahmad Aḥmad more laudable, more commendable, more praised   [Comparative form of ‘hamida’ (to praise)]—one of five names of Muḥammad
Ahmad Big Tawfiq Aḥmad Big Tawfíq
Ahmad-i-'Allaf Aḥmad-i-‘Alláf
Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i, Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, Shaykh
Ahmad-i-Azghandi Aḥmad-i-Azghandí
Ahmad-i-Bahrayni Aḥmad-i-Baḥrayní
Ahmad-i-Ibdal Aḥmad-i-Ibdál
Ahmad-i-Ibdal-i-Maraghi'i Aḥmad-i-Ibdál-i-Marághi’í
Ahmad-i-Kashani Aḥmad-i-Káshání
Ahmad-i-Katib Aḥmad-i-Kátib
Ahmad-i-Khurasani Aḥmad-i-Khurásání
Ahmad-i-Kirmani Aḥmad-i-Kirmání
Ahmad-i-Mu'allim Aḥmad-i-Mu‘allim
Ahmad-i-Nukhud-Biriz Aḥmad-i-Nukhud-Biríz
Ahmad-i-Payvandi Aḥmad-i-Payvandí
Ahmad-i-Qazvini Aḥmad-i-Qazvíní
Ahmad-i-Ruhi Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Ahmad-i-Saffar Aḥmad-i-Ṣaffár
Ahmad-i-Yazdi Aḥmad-i-Yazdí
Ahmad-ibn-i-Abi-Talib-i-Tabarsi Aḥmad-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib-i-Ṭabarsí
Ahmadiya, Ahmadiyyih Aḥmadíya, Pers. Aḥmadí, Aḥmadíy Belonging to Aḥmad (Muḥammad).   A Muslim.
Ahmadiyyih Aḥmadíyyih Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, India
Ahmar, Hamra, Humr Aḥmar, f. Ḥamrá, pl. Ḥumr red, red-coloured, ruddy;   rosy, pink.   Alhambra (Spanish), the Citadel of Granada, ("the Red Palace";   al-Ḥamrá, lit. "the red one")
Ahqaf Al-Aḥqáf "The Wind-curved Sandhills"   Qur’án 46
Ahrari Aḥrárí
Ahsa Aḥsá (place in northern Bahrain), birthplace of Shaykh Aḥmad, and district in north-east of Arabian peninsula)
Ahsa'i Aḥsá’í
Ahsanu'l-Qisas Aḥsánu’l-Qiṣaṣ The Best of Stories [Ar.]: a name for the Surih of Joseph.—Tafsír-i-Aḥsánu’l-Qiṣaṣ: the Báb’s commentary on the Súrih of Joseph, the Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, called the Qur’án of the Bábís.   Translated into Persian by Ṭáhirih.
Ahu Áhú Pers.   a vice, fault, defect, stain, spot, villainy;   flight, escape;   an exclamation, cry for help;   an asthma ;   a deer, roe, gazelle ;   any object of pursuit or chase;   a beautiful eye;   a mistress
Ahvaz Ahváz Ahváz in south-west Írán
Ain, Uyun, A'yun ‘Ain f., pl. Úyún, A‘yun eye;   evil eye;   spring, source, fountain-head (of water);   scout, reconnoiterer;   hole;   mesh;   flower, choice, prime (of something);   (pl. a‘yán) an eminent, important man, used esp. in pl.: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons;   substance, essence;   self, individuality;   chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic law)
Ajal Ajal, pl. Ájál appointed time, date, deadline;   instant of death;   respite, delay
Ajam ‘Ajam (collective) barbarians, non-Arabs, Persians.   (collective;   noun denoting an individual) stone kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)
Ajami, A’jam ‘Ajamí, pl. A‘jám barbarian, non-Arab;   Persian (adj. and n.)
Ajja, Ajij Ajja, Ajíj to burn, blaze, flame (fire).   e.g. Má’ ujáj bitter, salty water.
Ajudan-Bashi Ájúdán-Báshí (Chief Adjutant)
Ajvibatu'l-Masa'il Ajvibatu’l-Masá’il
Akbar-ibn-i-'Abid Akbar-ibn-i-‘Ábid
Akbar, Akbarun, Akabir Akbar, pl. Akbarún, Akábir greater, bigger, larger;   older;   senior-ranking [comparative form of ‘kabura’ (to elevate)].   Note: akbar, اكبر, consists of four consonants: ب ك ا ر (right to left in Arabic, or Alif, Káf, Bá’ and Rá’ in English)—the first a is an Alif.
Akh, Ikhwa, Ikhwan Akh, pl. Ikhwa, Ikhwán brother;   fellow man, neighbour;   friend;   pl. ikhwán specifically, brethren or members of an order;   al-ikhwán religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa‘úd in 1910
Akhbari Akhbárí school, founded by Mullá Muḥammad-Amír of Astarábád, in opposition to the mujtahids or the Uṣúlís. Akhbár (pl. of Khabar) means ‘news’ or ‘traditions’, and uṣúl means ‘principles’. The Akhbárís only accept the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and the Imáms; whereas the Uṣúlís (they constitute the vast majority of the Twelvers), maintain that the mujtahid has the right, as the deputy of the Hidden Imám, to deduce principles from the Qur’án as well as the traditions, and to use qiyás or ‘analogy’ to make an authoritative statement.
Akhir, Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir Ákhir, pl. Ákhirún, Ákhirát, Awakhir last, ultimate, utmost, extreme;   end, close, conclusion;   foot, bottom (of a paper)
Akhirah Ákhirah afterlife
Akhlat Akhláṭ (Siyyid Muḥammad Akhlate)
Akhtar-Khavari Akhtar-Khávarí
Akhtar, Akhtaran Akhtar, pl. Akhtarán Pers.   a star;   horoscope, predominant star at anyone’s nativity;   an omen, augury;   an ensign, standard;   name of an angel.   Name of a newspaper
Akhtaran Taban Akhtarán-i-Tábán Pers.   brilliant stars
Akhu’th-Thamarah Akhu’th-Thamarah "the Brother of the Fruit".   Báb: "Akhu’th-Thamarah, 238"—The fruit is Mírzá Yaḥyá and 238 equals Ḥusayn-‘Alí (Bahá’u’lláh)
Akhund Ákhúnd Muslim priest [akhond]   See ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí
Akif, Akifan ‘Ákif, pl. ‘Ákifán Pers.   assiduous, diligent;   constantly staying in the mosque and employed in devotion
Akka ‘Akká Also Akko or Acre (former name: Antiochia Ptolemais).   Houses used by the Bahá’ís: Malik, Khavvám and Rábi’ih, ‘Údí Khammár and ‘Abbúd.   Family left 1877 for Mazra‘ih
Akka Akka (‘Akk) to be sultry, muggy (day)
Al Ál family of.   Not the Arabic definite article al-
Al- al- the definite article in Arabic, often translated as "the" in English
Al-i-Muhammad Ál-i-Muḥammad children (or family) of Muḥammad
Ala ‘Alá’ high rank, high standing, nobility;   loftiness
Ala, Uluw ‘Alá, ‘Ulúw to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up;   to rise, ascend;   to ring out (voice);   etc.
Ala' Álá’ Pers.   benefits, favours, kindnesses
Ala'i ‘Alá’í
Ala'u'd-Dawlih ‘Alá’u’d-Dawlih, Yúsúf
Alam Alam, pl. Álám pain, ache, suffering, agony
Alam al-Hayawan ‘Álam al-Ḥayawán the animal kingdom
Alam al-Ma’adin ‘Álam al-Ma‘ádin the mineral kingdom
Alam an-Nabat ‘Álam an-Nabát the vegetable kingdom
Alam, A'lam ‘Alam, A‘lám (pl) sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic;   harelip;   road sign, signpost, guidepost;   flag, banner;   a distinguished, outstanding man;   an eminent personality, an authority, a star, a luminary
Alam, Alamun, Awalim ‘Álam, pl. ‘Álamún, ‘Awálim world;   universe, cosmos.   Pl. ‘Álamún—inhabitants of the world, specifically human beings.   al-‘álamán the two worlds = Europe and America.
Alama, Alamat, Ala'im ‘Aláma, pl. ‘Alámát, ‘Alá’im mark, sign, token;   badge, emblem;   distinguishing mark, characteristic
Alamu'l-amr ‘Álamu’l-Amr (lower) world of creation
Alamu'l-Haqq ‘Álamu’l-Ḥaqq (upper) eternally inaccessible world of God that is exalted beyond the grasp of the minds of men
Alamu'l-Huda ‘Alamu’l-Hudá "distinguished guide"
Alamu'l-Khalq ‘Álamu’l-Khalq (intermediate) world of the revelation of the divine command
Alaniya ‘Aláníya openness, overtness, publicness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy)
Alast, 'A last ’A last "Am I not?"   Cycle of ’A last is a reference to a pre historic Covenant between God and man. According to Qur’án 7:172, God called all the men in his presence before their creation and asked them "’A lastu bi Rabbikum?" "Am I not your Lord?" and all the men confirmed that by saying "yes, yes, thou art our Lord". This demonstrates the total and inherent essential dependence of man to the continuous grace of God.   So ’A last and Cycle of ’A last is a reference to this Covenant.
Alawi (Pers. Alavi) ‘Alawí upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi (adj. and n.);   pl. the Alawis (official name of the Nusairis inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria)
Alawiyan (Alaviyan) ‘Alawiyán princes, lords (descendants of ‘Alí)
Alburz Alburz, Alborz the principal mountain range in northern Írán
Alf, Uluf Alf, pl. Ulúf, Áláf thousand;   millennium
Alfi, 'Id Alfí, ‘Íd, Pers. ‘Ayd millennial celebration, millenary
Alfiyyih Alfíya, Pers. Alfíyyih al-Khulása al-Alfíyya by Ibn-i-Malik
Ali ‘Alí High, eminent   (The first Imám who was also the fourth Caliph and son-in-law of Muḥammad)
Ali ‘Álí high, sublime, eminent, excellent, grand;   the upper part;   above
Ali Big Yuz-Bashi ‘Alí Big Yúz-Báshí
Ali ibn Abi Talib ‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib Cousin and son-in-law of Muḥammad
Ali Pasha ‘Álí Páshá ‘Álí Páshá, Muḥammad Amín
Ali-'Askar-i-Tabrizi ‘Alí-‘Askar-i-Tabrízí Merchant from Tabríz
Ali-Abad (Aliabad) ‘Alí-Ábád a village SW of Ṭihrán
Ali-Ahmad ‘Alí-Aḥmad
Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání
Ali-Akbar-i-Mazgani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Mázgání (MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Najjar ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Najjár (MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Quchani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Qúchání
Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd)   Hand of the Cause
Ali-Asghar ‘Alí-Aṣghar (MF)
Ali-Baba ‘Alí-Bábá
Ali-Hamzih ‘Alí-Ḥamzih
Ali-ibn-i-Abi-Talib ‘Alí-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib
Ali-ibn-i-Muhammad ‘Alí-ibn-i-Muḥammad
Ali-ibn-i-Musa'r-Rida ‘Alí-ibn-i-Músá’r-Riḍá
Ali-Jan ‘Alí-Ján
Ali-Khan ‘Alí-Khán
Ali-Mardan ‘Alí-Mardán
Ali-Mirzay-i-Shirazi ‘Alí-Mírzáy-i-Shírází
Ali-Muhammad ‘Alí-Muḥammad
Ali-Murad ('Alimurad) ‘Alí-Murád (Sometimes shortened to ‘Alímurád)
Ali-Naqi ‘Alí-Naqí
Ali-Qabl-i-Muhammad ‘Alí-Qabl-i-Muḥammad
Ali-Quli Khan ‘Alí-Qulí Khán Ali-Quli Khan and Florence Breed—parents of Marzieh Gail
Ali-Rida ‘Alí-Riḍá
Ali-Shawkat ‘Alí-Shawkat (GPB 241)
Alif Alif Consonant
Alim, Ulama ‘Álim, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (adj. or noun)   knowing;   familiar, acquainted (with), cognizant (of);   expert, connoisseur, professional.   Plural: learned, erudite;   scholar, savant, scientist.   The ‘Ulamá’ is a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology.
Alima ‘Álima fem. woman of learning, woman scholar, e.g. singer, chanteuse
Alima ('Ilm) ‘Alima (‘Ilm) to know;   teach;   tell, notify;   to learn, study;   to inquire, ask
Alin ‘Álin high, tall, elevated;   loud, strong (voice);   higher (as opposed to elementary);   lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing;   excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity)
Alipur ‘Alípúr village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán
Aliy-i-Baraqani ‘Alíy-i-Baraqání
Aliy-i-Barfurushi ‘Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí entitled Quddús
Aliy-i-Bastami ‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí ‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí, Mullá   A Letter of the Living
Aliy-i-Kani ‘Alíy-i-Kání
Aliy-i-Kirmanshahi ‘Alíy-i-Kirmánsháhí
Aliy-i-Las-Furush ‘Alíy-i-Lás-Furúsh
Aliy-i-Miri ‘Alíy-i-Mírí
Aliy-i-Mudhahhib ‘Alíy-i-Mudhahhib
Aliy-i-Qazvini ‘Alíy-i-Qazvíní
Aliy-i-Sabzivari ‘Alíy-i-Sabzivárí
Aliy-i-Salmani ‘Alíy-i-Salmání
Aliy-i-Sardar ‘Alíy-i-Sardár
Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghih'i ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Maraghih’í
Aliy-i-Tabib-i-Zanjani ‘Alíy-i-Ṭabíb-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Tafrishi ‘Alíy-i-Tafríshí
Aliy-i-Turshizi ‘Alíy-i-Turshízí
Aliy-i-Zanjani ‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Zargar ‘Alíy-i-Zargar
Aliy-i-Zunuzi ‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí
Aliy, 'Ilya ‘Alíy, pl. ‘Ilya high, tall, elevated: exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent.   Plural: upper class, people of distinction, prominent people
Aliyu'llah ‘Alíyu’lláh ‘Alí is chosen by, or from God
Aliyu'llahi ‘Alíyu’lláhí Sect of Islám
Aliyyu'l-'Ala ‘Alíyyu’l-‘Alá
Alizadih ‘Alízádih Maqṣúd ‘Alízádih
Alladhi, Allati, Alladhina Alladhí, fem. Allatí (relative pronoun) he who, that which;   who, which, that.   Plurals: m. alladhína, fem. allátí, allawátí ("allawati"), allá’í ("alla’i")
Allaf ‘Alláf seller of provender (dry food such as hay and oats for livestock)
Allah Alláh God
Allah-Vardi, Allah-Virdi Alláh-Vardí, Alláh-Virdí
Allah-Yar Alláh-Yár
Allahu-‘Azam, Allah-u-‘Azam Alláhu-‘Aẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-‘Aẓam God is great
Allahu-A’zam, Allah-u-A’zam Alláhu-A‘ẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-A‘ẓam (greeting response to Alláh-u-Akbar—men)   God is the Most Mighty
Allahu-Abha, Allah-u-Abha Alláhu-Abhá, Pers. Alláh-u-Abhá (greeting response to Alláh-u-Ajmal—women)   God is Most Glorious, God is All-Glorious.   A form of the Greatest Name.   Bahá, or any of its derivatives such as Abhá, Yá Bahá’u’lláh, or Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá, are all referred to as the Greatest name.Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá (O Glory of Glories or O Glory of the All-Glorious) is an invocation used in the calligraphy designed by Mishkín-Qalam.
Allahu-Ajmal, Allah-u-Ajmal Alláhu-Ajmal, Pers. Alláh-u-Ajmal (greeting response to Alláh-u-Abhá—women)   God is the Most Beautiful.
Allahu-Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar Alláhu-Akbar, Pers. Alláh-u-Akbar greeting by a man to a man.   God is the Most Great or God is the Greatest.   See Alláh-u-A‘ẓam above
Allahu-Aqdam, Allah-u-Aqdam Alláhu-Aqdam, Pers. Alláh-u-Aqdam God is the Most Ancient
Allahu-Athar, Allah-u-Athar Alláhu-Aṭhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aṭhar God the Most Pure
Allahu-Azhar, Allah-u-Azhar Alláhu-Aẓhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aẓhar God is Most Manifest
Allahumma Alláhumma "O Thou My God".   Permitted by the Báb to be tattooed on chest of men, in the most beautiful calligraphy.
Allam ‘Allám knowing thoroughly
Allama ‘Alláma most erudite, very learned (of the ulama);   learned in every branch of the Islamic sciences
Allamiy-i-Hilli ‘Allámiy-i-Ḥillí "the very erudite Doctor", a title of the famed Shí’ih theologian, Jamálu’d-Dín Ḥasan ibn-i-Yúsuf ibn-i-‘Alí of Hilla (ad 1250–1325) (MF p. 169)
Allamiy-i-Nuri ‘Allámiy-i-Núrí
Alliyu'llahi ‘Allíyu‘lláhí a sect
Alus Álús Pers.   amorous or angry side-glance
Alusi Álúsí (Alossy)
Alvah-i-Laylatu'l-Quds Alváḥ-i-Laylatu’l-Quds Tablets of the Holy Night (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Alvah-i-Salatin Alváḥ-i-Saláṭín Tablets of the Sultans
Alvah-i-Tablighi-i-Amrika Alváḥ-i-Tablíghí-i-Amríká Pers.   collection of Tablets by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to America, translated as Tablets of the Divine Plan.   Amríká also given as Imríká
Alvah-i-Vasaya Alváḥ-i-Vaṣáyá Tablets of Commandments by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Alwai, Alawiyyah ‘Alwaí, pl. ‘Alawíyyah upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi or Alawite (Eng.);   pl. Alawis (Eng., official name of the Nusayris (Nuṣayríyyah), Islamic sect in Syria founded by Ibn Nuṣayr)
Ama ‘Amá’ Ar.   heavy clouds.   Pers.   deviation, aberration, loss of the way;   contention, litigation;   a cloud, high, dense, rainy, thin;   a black or white cloud;   a cloud which has shed rain;   blindness
Ama, Ima, Amawat Ama, pl. Imá’, Amawát Ar.   bondmaid, slave girl
Amal, A'mal ‘Amal, pl. ‘A‘mál doing, acting, action, activity;   work, labour;   course of action, way of acting, practice;   achievement, accomplishment;   activity (for), work (in the service of something);   making, production, manufacture, fabrication;   performance, execution;   make, workmanship;   practical work, practice;   —(pl.) act, action;   operation (military);   work, job, chore, labour;   deed, feat, achievement, exploit;   occupation, business;   trade, craft, handicraft;   vicegerency, province, district;   administrative district
Aman Amán Ar.   Security, safety;   peace;   shelter, protection;   clemency, quarter (mil.);   safeguarding, assurance of protection;   indemnity, immunity from punishment
Aman'u'llah Amán’u’lláh the protection of God
Amanat Amánat Per.   A deposit, charge, anything given in trust;   security, safety, protection;   safe-guard, safe-conduct;   sincerity, faith, religion.
Amara Amr, Awamir, Umur Amara, Amr, pl. 1 Awámir, 2 Umúr to order, command, bid, instruct (someone to do something), commission, charge, entrust (someone with something or to do something);   (pl. #1) order, command, instruction (to do something);   ordinance, decree;   power, authority;   (gram.) imperative;   (pl. #2) matter, affair, concern, business
Amat, Amih Amat, Amih Pers.   A female servant, a handmaid.   Ar. Ama
Amatu'l-A'la Amatu’l-A‘lá ("the Handmaid of the Most High")   Title given to Dr Susan Moody by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Amatu'l-Baha Amatu’l-Bahá Hand of the Cause of God, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum Rabbani.   ["It was Amatu'l-Bahá’s preference that Rabbani not be" transcripted.   Letter from her Literary Executors, 9 January 2007 to M.W.T.]   "The Handmaiden of the Glory", "Spiritual" and "Lady" (8 August 1910–19 January 2000), born Mary Sutherland Maxwell
Amatu'llah Amatu’lláh (The Handmaiden of God)
Amil, Awamil, Ummal ‘Ámil, pl. ‘Awámil, ‘Ummál active;   effective;   (pl. ‘Awámil) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power;   word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (gram.);   (pl. ‘Ummál) maker, producer, manufacturer;   doer, perpetrator, author;   worker, workman, workingman, labourer;   wage earner, employee;   governor.
Amin-i-Halabi Amín-i-Ḥalabí, Shaykh [Amín Ḥalabi]
Amin-i-Ilahi Amín-i-Iláhí Trusted of God
Amin, Umana Amín, pl. Umaná’ reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest;   safe, secure;   authorized representative or agent;   trustee;   guarantor (of);   chief, head;   superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper;   chamberlain;   master of a guild   [Superlative form of amuna or amána (to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy)]
Amini Amíní Persian name
Aminu'd-Dawlih Amínu’d-Dawlih
Aminu'l-'Ulama Amínu’l-‘Ulamá
Aminu'l-Bayan Amínu’l-Bayán "Trusted of the Bayán"
Aminu'llah Amínu’lláh "Trust of God"
Aminu's-Sultan Amínu’s-Sulṭán (MF)
Amir ‘Ámir inhabited;   peopled, populated, populous;   full, filled, filled up;   jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (with);   amply provided, splendidly furnished;   civilized; cultivated (land);   flourishing, thriving, prosperous
Amir Ámir commander;   lord, master;   orderer, purchaser, customer, client
Amir-Divan Amír-Díván
Amir-i-Kabir Amír-i-Kabír Great Prince
Amir-Kiya Amír-Kíyá
Amir-Nizam Amír-Niẓám Grand Vizir
Amir-Tuman Amír-Túmán
Amir-Zadih Amír-Zádih or Amírzádih Pers.   see Mírzá
Amir, Umara, Amirat Amír, pl. Umará’, pl. fem. Amírát commander, governor, lord;   prince, emir;   title of princes of a ruling house;   tribal chief
Amira'l-Mu'minin Amíra’l-Mu’minín Commander of the Faithful
Amiru'sh-Shu'ara' Amíru’sh-Shu‘ará’ (The Emir of Poets) (sing. shá‘ir)
Amman ‘Ammán Ancient Philadelphia, capital city of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Amr va Khalq Amr va Khalq Revelation and creation, compilation by Fáḍil Mázandarání
Amr-i-Abda' Amr-i-Abda‘ (the Most Wondrous New Cause)
Amr-i-Badi' Amr-i-Badí‘ (the Wondrous New Cause)
Amrika Amríká America
Amru'llah Amru’lláh "command of God", "House of God’s command" or "cause of God"
Amu ‘Amú
Amud, A'mida, Umud ‘Amúd, pl. A‘mida, ‘Umud flagpole, shaft (of a standard);   pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress;   lamppost;   (telephone, telegraph) pole;   column, pillar, pilaster;   stem (of a glass);   (pl.) column (of a newspaper)
Amud, Awamid, Avamid ‘Ámúd, pl. ‘Awámíd = ‘Amúd column, pillar.   See ‘Amúd.
Amul Ámul companion.   A town in Mázindarán province, on the Haraz River, near the Caspian Sea.
Anahita Anáhítá Old Pers.   immaculate, undefiled.   Venus, Aphrodite (Greek) and Venus Erucina (Roman).   See modern form Náhíd
Andalib ‘Andalíb
Andarun Andarún Pers.   within;   the inside;   the heart, bowels;   intrinsic, interior, internal.   Village 190 km ESE Ahváz, Írán
Andaruni Andarúní interior;   inner women’s apartments.   See bírúní
Andirmani Andirmání
Angur Angúr Pers.   a grape, a raisin;   granulations in a healing sore [angoor]
Anis, Anisa Anís, fem. Anísá close, intimate;   close friend;   friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous.   Close Companion is the title of Muḥammad-‘Alí-i-Zunúzí, the companion of the Báb in martyrdom, and Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ismá‘íl (referred to as Anís in Súriy-i-Ra’ís).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: By the symbolic Tree of Anísá is meant the divine Lote-Tree, the Tree of Life (Bahá’u’lláh)—see The Hidden Words, Persian 19 and Qur’án 24:35
Anqurah Ánqurah (modern Ankara)
Ansari, Ansariyyah Anṣárí, pl. Anṣaríyyah Related to Anṣár, the Helpers.   Those who rallied around Muḥammad after His flight from Mecca to Medina.   Anṣaríyyah is believed to be a mistransliteration of Nuṣayríyyah.   See ‘Alwaí
Anton Haddad Anṭún Ḥaddád known in the West as Anton Haddad
Anud Ánúd (anoud)   "hostile"
Anushirwan (Anushirvan, Nushirvan) Anúshírwán Sásáníyán king of Persia known for his just rule (ad 531–578). The Prophet Muḥammad was born in Arabia at the time of his reign (about 570-1).—SDC p. 68.   Persians some times use Anúshírván or even Núshírván. There are instances of Núshíraván and Núshíruván.
Anwari (Avari) Anwárí (Anvárí) Name of a famous Persian poet, who died ah. 586/ad 1190.
Anzali Anzalí Bandar-i-Anzali, Port of Enzeli, SW end of Caspian Sea, Írán.
Aqa Fatu'llah Áqá Fatu’lláh (Fatollah)
Aqa Ghulamu'llah Ahmaduff Áqá Ghulámu’lláh Áhmadúff
Aqa Jan Áqá Ján Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuensis, later known as Khádimu’lláh ("Servant of God")
Aqa Mirza 'Abdu'-r-Rahim-i-Burujirdi Áqá Mírzá ‘Abdu’-r-Raḥím-i-Burújirdí (Boroodjerdy)
Aqa Najaf-'Aliy-i-Zanjani Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aqa Siyyid Áqá Siyyid [Asseyid is an abbreviation]
Aqa-Baba Áqá-Bábá
Aqa, Aqayan Áqá, pl. Áqáyán Pers.   master, sir, gentleman;   when affixed to a name means Mr   (A male honorific title—‘the Master’ was given to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá by Bahá’u’lláh)
Aqasi Áqásí Turkish proper name, e.g. Ḥájí Mírzá Áqásí (Grand Vizier of Persia)
Aqay-i-Kalim Áqáy-i-Kalím (MF)
Aqay-i-Munir Áqáy-i-Munír
Aqay-i-Rikab-Saz Áqáy-i-Rikáb-Sáz
Aqay-i-Tabrizi Áqáy-i-Tabrízí (MF)
Aqdas Aqdas more hallowed, more sacred, holier.   The Most holy.   See Quds
Aqida, Aqa'id ‘Aqída, pl. ‘Aqá’id article of faith, tenet, doctrine;   dogma;   creed, faith, belief;   conviction
Aql ‘Aql intellect, intelligence, reason, insight, mind, rationality and wisdom
Aqsa Aqṣá "The Most Remote"   al-Masjid al-Aqṣá—Aqṣá Mosque at southern end of the Temple Mount, Jerusalem.   Name by which the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur’án and in the Writings.   See aṣ-Ṣakhrah
ar-Rahman ar-Raḥmán the Merciful (i.e. God), the Most Gracious.   The Báb permitted this phrase to be tattooed on the chest of women, in the most beautiful calligraphy.
ar-Rukn ar-Rabi', Rukn-i-Rabi ar-Rukn ar-Rábi‘, Pers. Rukn-i-Rábi‘ Fourth Pillar or Support (God, Muḥammad and the Imams are the first three)—a perfect Shí‘í man (ash-Shí‘í al-Kámil) believed always to exist among the Shi’ihs and to serve as a Channel of grace
Ar-Rum Ar-Rúm the Mediterranean
Arab, Urab, A’rub, Urban ‘Arab (coll.), pl. ‘Urúb, A‘rub Arabs;   true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins.   Other plurals: ‘Urbán, A‘ráb.
Arabi, al-‘Arabiya ‘Arabí Arab, Arabic, Arabian;   truly Arabic;   an Arab;   al-‘Arabíya, the language of the ancient Arabs;   classical, or literary, Arabic.
Arabistan ‘Arabistán
Arafat ‘Arafát Mt. ‘Arafát
Arafih ‘Arafih The day before the festival of Immolation of ‘Ídu’l-Aḍḥá (vigil of the Feast of Sacrifice, when Mecca pilgrims proceed to Mount ‘Arafát.   The ninth day of the month of Dhi’l-Ḥijjih).
Arafih Árafih
Arak Arák capital of Markazi Province, Írán (formerly Sulṭánábád)
Aran Árán now Aran va Bidgol, 9 km NE of Káshán
Arast, Arasta Arasṭ, Arasṭá Pers.   Aristotle
Arastu Hakim Arasṭú Ḥakím
Arba'a, Arba', Arba'at Arba‘a (fem. Arba‘), Pers. masc. Arba‘at four
Arba'ih Arba‘ih Pers.
Arba'un Arbá‘ún, Pers. Arbá‘úna, Arbá‘ína forty;   a ceremony held on the 40th day after someones death.   "Arba‘in" in The Kitáb-i-Íqán p. 242.
Arbab Arbáb, Dr Farzam
Arbil Arbíl (Erbil, Irbil) city 80 km ESE of Mosul, ‘Iráq
Ard al-Muqaddasa al-Arḍ al-Muqaddasa the Holy Land, Palestine.   Shoghi Effendi stated it became the Most Holy Land (al-Arḍ al-Aqdas) after the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh.
Ard wa Sama' Arḍ wa Samá’ earth and heaven.   ‘Earth’ is the earth of knowledge and understanding, the earth of new insight, etc. ‘Heaven’ is the heaven of new teachings and religion. By the shattering of the heaven (sky) on the day of resurrection, is meant that the heaven of the old religion is removed and a new one is raised through the Advent of a new Manifestation and the earth of recognition of God is decorated with Faith.
Ard-i-A'la Arḍ-i-A‘lá the Exalted Spot, the Shrine of the Báb and Zanján
Ard-i-Jannat Arḍ-i-Jannat the Land of Paradise, Mílán
Ard-i-Sirr Arḍ-i-Sirr the Land of Mystery, Adrianople
Ard, Arz, Aradin, Aradun, Arazi Arḍ fem., pl. Aráḍín, Aráḍún earth;   land, country, region, area;   terrain, ground, soil.   Pers.   arẓ, pl. aráẓí
Ardabil Ardabíl or Ardibíl city 175 km east of Tabirz,in the province of Ádhirbáyján, near the Caspian Sea
Ardakan Ardakán or Ardikán city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ardakani Ardakání
Ardashir Ardashír or Ardishír Artaxerxes in Greek. In his day his name had this form in Middle Persian: Artakhishatr. In the Achaemenian times it was pronounced thus: Artakhishatra.
Ardibili Ardibíl city on west side of Caspian Sea, Írán
Ardikan (Ardakan) Ardikán city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ardishir (Ardashir) Ardishír Pers.
Ardistan Ardistán Province in Írán
Arg Arg Pers.   the inner fortress or citadel of a walled city
Arid, Irad ‘Aríḍ, pl. ‘Iráḍ broad, wide;   extensive, vast
Arif ‘Áríf Pers.   one who knows;   an acquaintance ;   the next man to a chief or general, a deputy, lieutenant;   an usher at a school.
Arjumandi Arjumandí
Arsh, Urush, A'rash ‘Arsh, pl. ‘Urúsh, A‘rásh throne;   tribe
Arshin Árshín Russian cubit (арши́н)
Arshiyyih ‘Arshíyyih
Arslan Arslán
Asad, Usud, Usd Asad, pl. Usud, Usd, Usúd, Ásád lion;   Leo (astron.)
Asadu'llah Asadu’lláh Lion of God.   Compound proper name
Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani Asadu’lláh-i-Iṣfahání
Asadu'llah-i-Mazandarani Asadu’lláh-i-Mázandarání (MF, p. 4)
Asadu'llah-i-Sabbagh Asadu’lláh-i-Ṣabbágh (GPB 297)
Asadu'llahzadih Asadu’lláhzádih, Ḥusayn
Asadyari Asadyárí, ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Asafu'd-Dawla Áṣafu’d-Dawla
Asaturiyan Marcard Ásátúriyán Márcárd (Dr Marcard Assadorian)
Asbah, Asbahi Aṣbaḥ Pers.   Of a handsome face;   a tearing lion;   red-coloured;   name of a king of Yemen.   [Aṣbahí (ESW p. 158) Aṣbaḥí (Rev Bahá’u’lláh, 4:438)
Asdaq Aṣdaq Ibn-i-Aṣdaq   (Mírzá ‘Alí-Muḥammad).   Designated by Bahá’u’lláh as Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíh (Martyr, son of the Martyr). Son of Mullá Ṣádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání
Asdaqi Aṣdaqí
Asfiyyih ‘Aṣfiyyih Druse village of ‘Isfiya, east side Mt Carmel
Asghar, Sughra, Asaghir Aṣghar, fem. Ṣughra, pl. m. Aṣághir smaller, younger   [Comparative form of ṣaghíra (to belittle)]
Asgharzadih Aṣgharzádih Pers.   surname, e.g. Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aṣgharzádih
Ash-i-kashk Ásh-i-kashk (MF p. 68) barley soup with whey
Ash'ar Ash‘ar hairy, hirsute, long-haired, shaggy
Ash'ari Ash‘arí Ash’arism—early theological school of Islám. Followers: Ash’arites.   See Sha‘r
Ash'ath Ash‘ath Pers.   one whose hair is dishevelled and soiled with dust
Ashab Aṣḥáb Companions   Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Bahá’u’lláh)
Ashab, Sahba', Suhb Aṣhab, f. Ṣahbá’, pl. Ṣuhb reddish;   wine
Ashiq, Ushshaq, Awashiq (Avashiq) ‘Áshiq, pl. ‘Ushsháq, ‘Awáshiq lover;   fancier, fan;   pl. knucklebone;   (game of) knucklebones.   ‘Aváshiq is a village near Baghdád.
Ashiqa, Ishq ‘Ashiqa, ‘Ishq to love passionately (someone, something), be passionately in love (with someone, with something)
Ashjari Ashjárí ‘Azízu’lláh Ashjárí
Ashraf Ashraf more or most noble.   Ashraf Garden—large garden adjacent to the Riḍván and Firdaws Gardens (Paradise Garden west of Riḍván). Original owner Mullá Abú-Ṭálib. Son, ‘Alí-Ashraf later donated it.   Ashraf, Áqá Siyyid (mother of Ashraf—Umm-i-Ashraf)   Ashraf-i-Zanjání
Ashrafi Ashrafí Pers.   gold coin
Ashura Áshúrá the tenth day of the Muslim month Muḥarram—Shí’ih Muslims observe the first 10 days of the month as a period of mourning for the Imáms, ending with the Áshúrá, the commemoration of the martyrdom of the Imám Ḥusayn
Ashyab, Shaiba, Shib Ashyab, fem. Shaibá, pl. Shíb Ar.   white, grey (hair);   white-haired, grey-haired (person);   old, aged;   old man.
Asi, Asiyih Ásí, fem. Ásíyih Pers. Melancholy, solicitous, sorrowful;   a physician, surgeon.   Ásíyih is the name of Pharaoh’s daughter who rescued Moses.   See Navváb, title given to Bahá’u’lláh’s wife (Ásíyih Khánum)
Asif ‘Áṣif blowing violently
Asifu'd-Dawlih Áṣifu’d-Dawlih
Asiya Ásíya Asia
Askar, Asakir ‘Askar, pl. ‘Asákir army, host, troops
Askari ‘Askarí military
Asl-i-Qullu'l-Khayr Aṣl-i-Qullu’l-Khayr "Words of Wisdom" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Asl, Usul Aṣl, pl. Uṣúl root;   trunk (of a tree);   origin, source;   cause, reason;   descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a noble character);   foundation, fundament, basis;   the origins!;   pl. principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science)
Aslam Aslam safer;   freer;   sounder;   healthier ("most peaceful")
Aslas Aslas more tractable, more pliable, more obedient;   more flexible, smoother, more fluent.   See salis
Asma'u'l-Husna Asmá’u’l-Ḥusná Most Beauteous Names (of God)
Asman Ásmán Pers.   heaven, the celestial orb;   the ceiling of a house;   name of the angel of death
Asr, A'sir, 'Usur, A'sar ‘Aṣr, pl. A‘ṣur, ‘Uṣúr, A‘ṣár (act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out);   (act of) wringing (out);   (pl.) age, era, time;   period;   epoch; afternoon;   (fem.) afternoon prayer (Islamic Law)
Asrar-i-Shihadat-i-Imam Asrár-i-Shihádat-i-Imám
Astani Ástání, Yadu’lláh
Astarabad (Gurgan, Gurgin or Gorgan) Astarábád "City of Mules", now called Gúrgán (Gorgán) or Ástárá (Astara)—on south eastern Caspian Sea border of Írán.
Ata ‘Aṭá Gift
Ata'u'llah ‘Aṭá’u’lláh Gift of God
Ataba, Atab, A'tab ‘Ataba pl. ‘Atab, A‘táb Ar.   doorstep, threshold;   (door) lintel
Atabak Atábak Pers.   (from atá, a father, and bak, a lord), the lord father (a title given to the governors of Shíráz);   a guardian, preceptor, teacher;   the prime minister, or vizír;   honorary title of an ámir
Atabak-i-A’zam (Atabik-i-A’zam) Atábak-i-A‘ẓam Title of Mírzá ‘Alí-Asghar Khán
Atabat ‘Atabat, pl. ‘Atabát Pers.   A gate, a port;   the threshold;   the lintel of a door;   the round of a ladder, a step;   a royal court;   anything adverse or disagreeable.   Plural: Steps, thresholds.   The Shi‘ite holy shrines in ‘Iráq and the cities of their location: Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá—locations of the tombs of the first six Imams.
Atabat-i-Aliyat ‘Atabát-i-‘Álíyát (lit. Supreme Shrines) applied by Shí’ih Muslims to cities of Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá.   Bahá’í Shrines of Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Athar Aṭhar Pers.   more or most pure
Athar Athar, pl. Áthár track, trace, vestige;   sign, mark;   touch; impression, effect, action, influence (on);   tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Muḥammad and his Companions);   work (of art, esp. of literature);   ancient monument
Athari Atharí, Áthárí archaeologic(al);   archaeologist;   old, ancient, antique
Athim, Athama, Uthama' Áthim, pl. Athama, Athím, Uthamá’ sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;   sinner
Athir Athír Favoured, preferred (by someone), in favour (with someone);   select, exquisite, noble
Atifi ‘Áṭifí sentimental;   emotional;   emotive, feeling;   tender, affectionate, loving
Atish Átish Pers.   fire;   light, splendour;   rage;   levity, fickleness;   valour, value, dignity;   dearness, scarceness;   (metaphorically) the Devil;   a courageous man, bold, brave;   a lover;   fire of Jove;   desire, appetite, greed;   digestive heat;   sulphur.   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá said Marzieh Gale had átish and namak. Arches of the years, p. 87.
Atqan Atqan more perfect, more thorough
Atri ‘Aṭrí (distiller of ‘Aṭṭár)
Attar ‘Aṭṭár perfumer, perfume vendor;   druggist;   sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
Avih Ávih place in Írán
Aw (Au) Aw (Au) or (with following subjunctive) unless, except that
Awalim, Avalim ‘Awálim, Pers. ‘Aválim "Worlds"   secondary plural of ‘álam.   Pers. a compilation of Shi’ite traditions.
Awamid (Avarmid) ‘Awámíd see ‘Ámúd
Awarih, Avarih Áwárih, Ávárih Pers.   straggler, gadabout, immigrant, runabout, straggler, wanderer
Awj ("Auj"), Awji Awj noun.   highest point, acme, pinnacle;   culmination, climax;   apogee (astron.);   peak (fig.;   of power. of fame).   Adj. Awjí
Awraq-i-Nariyyih Awráq-i-Náríyyih Pers.   form "the Infernal Letters"   See waraq (paper) and nárí
Awsat ("Ausat"), Awasit, Wusta, Wusat Awsaṭ, pl. Awsaṭ middle, central;   the middle finger
Awtad Awtád pegs or tent stakes.   See Watad/Autád
Awwal, Ula, Awwalun, Awa'il Awwal, f. úlá, pl. m. Awwalún, Awá’il first;   foremost, most important, principal, chief, main;   first part, beginning;   (with def. article also) earlier, previous, former
Aya, Ayah, Ayat Áya, Per. Áyah, pl. Áyát sign, token, mark;   miracle;   wonder, marvel, prodigy;   model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece.   Commonly used to refer to each of the 6,236 verses in the Qur’án (6,348 áyát if all the Bismi’lláh [no plural] verses are included). Muslims regard each áya of the Qur’án as a sign from Alláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs)
Ayadi Ayádí Pers.   pl. of yad (hands)
Ayadiyi-Amru'llah Ayádiyi-Ámru’lláh Pers.   Hands of the Cause of God   (Cause or Command)
Ayatu'l-Kursi Áyatu’l-Kursí verse of the throne Qur’án 2:255
Ayatu'llah Áyatu’lláh "sign of God"   A Shí’ih religious leader in Írán and a title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in His Will and Testament
Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma' Áyatu’lláh al-‘Uzmá the greatest sign of God, a Marja‘ at-taqlíd
Ayatu'llah-i-Khurasani Áyatu’lláh-i-Khurásání (MF)
Ayn ‘Ayn Eye, spring
Ayn-'Ayn ‘Ayn-‘Ayn = ‘Abdu’l-Bahá ‘Abbás
Aynu'l-Baghar ‘Aynu’l-Baghar [ain o’lbagar]—a well outside ‘Akká
Aynu'l-Baqar ‘Aynu’l-Baqar an ancient spring ("The spring of the cow") between the moat around ‘Akká and Tel ‘Akká
Aynu'l-Sitt ‘Aynu’l-Sitt Spring of the cow—about 200 m south of ‘Aynu’l-Baqar
Ayyam-i-Ha Ayyám-i-Há "Days of Há" Intercalary days
Ayyam-i-Shidad Ayyám-i-Shidád "Days of stress"
Ayyub Ayyúb Job (prophet)
Ayyubiyun al-Ayyúbíyún the Ayubites
Az-Bagh-i-Ilahi Az-Bágh-i-Iláhí "From the Garden of Holiness" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Azad, Azadi Ázád (hence Ázádí) Pers.   free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted;   fault, less;   solitary, lonely;   a kind of faqír, or devotee;   a lily; a cypress;   a fresh date;   an evergreen;   a delicious kind of fish
Azal Azal Pers.   eternity (without beginning)
Azali Azalí, pl. Azálál Pers.   existing from all eternity, eternal;   God.   Also a follower of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Ṣubḥ-i-Azal ("Morn of Eternity")
Azamat ‘Azamat, ‘Azamút, pl. ‘Azamát Pers.   magnitude, magnificence, pride, pomp, grandeur;   (met.) a grandee.
Azamatu’llah ‘Aẓamatu’lláh Magnificence of God
Azamut ‘Aẓamút Ar.   greatness, magnitude, grandeur, dominion
Azan Áẓán or Aẓán (also Adhán) Pers.   announcing, giving notice;   the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Mu’aẓẓin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques;   listening to
Azghand Azghand (place)
Azhar Azhar shining, luminous, radiant, brilliant;   bright.   Al-Azhar University, Cairo
Azhar Aẓhar more distinct, more manifest, clearer
Azim-i-Khu'i ‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Azim-i-Tafrishi ‘Aẓím-i-Tafríshí (MF)
Azim, Uzama, Izam, Aza'im ‘Aẓím, pl. ‘Uẓamá, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓa’im great, big, large;   strong, powerful, mighty;   significant, important;   grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent;   lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb;   huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous;   hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive (see A‘ẓam)   The Great One (Superlative form of ‘aẓuma’)
Aziz ‘Azíz Strongest, most powerful (Superlative form of azza).   Also dear, beloved, valuable.
Azizi ‘Azízí
Azizu'llah Khan Bahadur ‘Azízu’lláh Khán Bahádur (Unfolding Destiny, p. 44)
Azuma, Izam, Azama ‘Aẓuma, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓáma to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty;   etc.
Azurdigan (Azordegan, Azordigan) Ázúrdigán Pers.   name
Azza, Izz, Azaza ‘Azza (‘Izz, ‘Izza ‘Azáza) to be or become strong, powerful, respected;   etc.
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ba Bá’ Arabic letter
Ba'tha, Ba'atat Ba‘tha, pl. ba‘athát delegation, deputation, mission;   expedition;   student exchange;   group of exchange students;   revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise.   The Báb is said to calculate the beginning of the Islamic revelation from the year Ba‘tha (the Call in ad 612) instead of the year of the Hijra (ad 622) when Muḥammad migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Bab-i-Amin Báb-i-Amín Shrine of the Báb door—centre NW side
Bab-i-Ashraf Báb-i-Ashraf Shrine of the Báb door—centre NE side (Tomb ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Bab-i-Bala Báb-i-Bálá Shrine of the Báb door—centre SE side
Bab-i-Fadl Báb-i-Faḍl Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end NW side
Bab-i-Giachery Báb-i-Giachery Shrine of the Báb door—sthern end NW side
Bab-i-Ioas Báb-i-Ioas Shrine of the Báb octagon door—SW side
Bab-i-Karim Báb-i-Karím Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end SE side
Bab-i-Makhsus Báb-i-Makhṣúṣ Special or specific gate
Bab-i-Maxwell Báb-i-Maxwell Shrine of the Báb door—centre SW side
Bab-i-Qassabchi Báb-i-Qaṣṣábchí Shrine of the Báb door—sthern end SE side
Bab, Abwab, Abvab Báb, pl. Abwáb, Pers. Abváb Gate   Title assumed by Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad (the Báb) after the declaration of his Mission in Shíráz in May 1844   His wife was Khadíjih-Bagum.   Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, the Persian and Arabic Bayán, Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih ("Seven Proofs") and the Kitáb-i-Asmá’.   Second wife Fáṭimih, married 1847, later Mírzá Yaḥyá briefly married her.   Some designations of the Báb are: Siyyid-i-Dhikr, Ṭal‘at-i-A‘lá, Siyyid-i-Báb, ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr, Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá, Bábu’lláh, Rabb-i-A‘lá, Nuqṭiy-i-Úlá and Nuqṭiy-i-Bayán. (DB 72)
Baba-Iski Bábá-Iskí Babaeski, near Adrianople, Turkey
Baba, Babawat Bábá, pl. Bábawát pope;   papa, father, daddy
Babak Bábak Pers.   (diminutive of báb), a little father;   one who educates;   faithful, constant, firm, strong;   a turquoise stone;   name of a king.
Baba-zadih (Babazadih) Bábá-Zádih
Babi-Dukhtaran Bábí-Dukhtarán Site in Shíráz where the Báb’s son is buried.
Babi, Babiyun Bábí, pl. Bábíyún A follower of the Báb (Bábís is generally used as the plural)
Babism or Babiism Bábí Faith It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective *converted to a noun)
Babiya, Babiyya, Babiyat, Babiyyat Bábíya, Pers. Bábíyat The status of the báb (Gate-hood) [replace "Babhood" by Gate-hood or Door-ship] (-hood or -ship—state of being, quality or condition)
Babiyyih Bábíyyih house of Báb in Mashhad
Babu'd-Din Bábu’d-Dín "The Gate of Religion"
Babu'l-Bab, Bab-i-Bab Bábu’l-Báb, Pers. Báb-i-Báb The "Gate of the Gate"   Mullá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í
Babu'llah Bábu’lláh ("The Gate of God") (a designation of the Báb)
Babu'llahu'l-A'zam Bábu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam the Most Great Báb
Babul Bábul an acacia tree (Acacia arabica) and the new name for Bárfurúsh
Bada Badá Ar.   to appear, show, become evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to light;   to be obvious;   to seem good, acceptable, proper (to someone).   form III to show, display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare openly
Bada', Bada'a Badá’ and Badá’a Ar.   obscenity, ribaldry, foulness (of language);   disgust, loathing, aversion, contempt
Bada' Badá’ Pers.   coming in the mind;   appearing;   beginning.   Two meanings:   1. Appearance after hiding involving alteration of the Divine Will or the non-fulfilment of the Divine Will.   A Shí’a concept where God may alter the course of human history as is seen to be fit.   2. Origination of a new idea.   The Sunní view on Badá’ is that it is not applicable to God.   The Báb made significant reinterpretations of the concept of badá’.   1. Change in divine revelation according to the principle of progressive revelation.   2. Acceptance embodies the recognition of God’s absolute power and authority and thus is the highest sign of spiritual maturity.   3. The concept of magnification (takbír), as the symbol of the completion of the four layers of the divine covenant.   One’s faith is complete and will not be subject to alteration or negation if one believes in all four supports or pillars of the covenant.   See Gate of the heart, pp. 207–11.
Badakhshan Badakhshán "Badakh Mountains". NE Afghánistán province
Badasht Badasht A village near Sháhrúd in Khurásán, venue of the first Bábí conference.
Badayi'u'l-Athar Badáyi‘u’l-Áthár diary of Mírzá Mamúd-i-Zarqání
Badi' Badí‘ unique, marvellous, wonderful, wondrous.   See abda‘.   Title given to Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí and Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ (Pride of Martyrs)
Badi'a, Bada'i Badí‘a, pl. Badá’i‘ an astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder;   original creation
Badi'ih Badí‘ih Pers.
Badi'u'l-Hayat Badí‘u’l-Ḥayát "Wondrous Life"   A name give by Bahá’u’lláh to Mírzá Ja‘far.
Badi'u'llah Badí‘u’lláh wonder of God
Badr, Budur Badr, pl. Budúr full moon
Badri Badrí
Badshah, Padshah Bádsháh, Pádsháh Pers.   An emporer, sovereign, monarch, king.   Also Pád-Sháh ("Padeshah")
Bagh gh garden
Bagh Bagh Persian.   A ditch;   name of an idol;   a god (enters into composition of names, as bagh-dád—"god-given")
Bagh-i-Firdaws gh-i-Firdaws place near ‘Akká
Bagh-i-Jannat gh-i-Jannat "Garden of Paradise"
Bagh-i-Takht gh-i-Takht
Bagh-Mishih gh-Mishih
Bagh-Panbih gh-Panbih
Baghban-Bashi ghbán-Báshí
Baghdad Baghdád city originally known as Dáru’s-Salám (the Abode of Peace) or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God.   Also known as Mádina as-Salám (City of Peace).   Name may be derived from ancient Persian Bagh (God) and Dád (gift), i.e. "Gift of God"
Baghdadi, Baghdadiun, Baghdida Baghdádí, pl. Baghdádíún, Baghádida native of Baghdád
Bagum Bagum (also Bigum) (Turk) dame.   Feminine form of ‘Big’.   A title placed after the name
Baha' Bahá’ beauty, magnificence, splendour;   brilliancy;   glory or light.   Title of Bahá’u’lláh.   See Abhá.   An Islamic Tradition states the Most great Name (Huwu) consists of four names: 1. "God" (Alláh),   2. "the Blessed" (Tabáraka),   3. "the Exalted" (Ta‘álá, from the same root as ‘Alí),   4. The hidden name of God—identified by the Báb as hidden in Ta‘álá, i.e. ‘Ali, but the ultimate name is Bahá.   See Gate of the heart, pp. 105–7.
Baha'i days of the week Bahá’í days of the week Bahá’í days of the week: Jalál (Glory, Saturday),   Jamál (Beauty, Sunday),   Kamál (Perfection, Monday),   Faḍíl (Grace, Tuesday),   ‘Idál (Justice, Wednesday),   Istijlál (Majesty, Thursday),   Istiqlál (Independence, Friday)
Baha'i years Bahá’í years In numerical order 1 to 19:
    Alíf (A)
    Bá’ (B)
    Ab (Father)
    Dál (D)
    Báb (Gate)
    Váv (Ar. Wáw, letter V)
    Ábád (Eternity)
    Júd (Generosity, Bounty)
    Bahá (Splendour)
    Hubb (Love)
    Bahháj (Delightful)
    Javáb (Ar. Jawád, Answer)
    Aḥad (Single)
    Vahháb (Ar. Wahháb, Bountiful)
    Vidád (Ar. Widád, Affection)
    Badí‘ (Beginning)
    Bahíy (Luminous)
    Abhá (Most luminous)
    Váhid (Ar, Wáhid, Unity)
Baha’i, Baha’iyun Bahá’í, pl. Bahá’íyún "Follower of the Glory"   (Bahá’ís is generally used plural)   A follower of Bahá’u’lláh;   a person of light, of enlightenment
Baha'ism or Baha'iism Bahá’í Faith It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Baha'iyya or Baha'iyyih Bahá’íyya (Ar) Bahá’íyyih (Per) (Ar. pl. Bahá’íyyát) [Bahá’í Dispensation] Feminine of Bahá’í.   ("Radiant" or "Full of Glory"—derived from Bahá)   Bahá’íyyih Khánum (also known by Persians as the variant Bahíyyih Khánum), The Greatest Holy Leaf
Baha'u'l-Abha Bahá’u’l-Abhá (previously written as Baha-el-Abha)   "The Glory of the All-Glorious" "The Glory of the Most Glorious"
Baha'u'llah Bahá’u’lláh ("The Glory of God")   Title of Mírzá Ḥusayn-Alí of Núr, founder of the Bahá’í Faith.
Bahadur, Bahaduran Bahádur, pl. Bahádurán Pers.   brave, bold, valiant, courageous, magnanimous, warlike, strong, athletic;   a soldier, champion, hero, chevalier, knight, horseman;   a title of honour conferred by the Great Mogul and other Eastern potentates, bearing some resemblance to the European title of military knighthood.   Abú Sa‘íd Baḥádur.   Baḥádur appears to be incorrect.
Bahar, Baharat Bahár, pl. Bahárát spice
Baharistan Baháristán
Bahhaj Bahháj delightful, blissful.   Form of the word bahija
Bahij Bahij, Bahíj magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful
Bahija Bahija to be glad, he happy (about), he delighted (at)
Bahir ("Bahira") Báhir dazzling, brilliant, splendid, sparkling.   Monk Báhir ("Bahira") who met 12-year old Muḥammad
Bahiri Báhirí
Bahiy Bahíy Ar.   beautiful, magnificent, splendid;   brilliant, radiant, shining
Bahiyya or Bahiyyih Bahíyya, Pers. Bahíyyih See Bahá’íyya (Ar) Bahá’íyyih (Per)
Bahja, Bahjat (Bahajah) Bahja, Pers. Bahjat splendour, magnificence, beauty, resplendence;   joy, delight
Bahjatu's-Sudur (Bihjatu's-Sudur) Bahjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr "Delight of hearts"
Bahji, Bahij Bahjí, Bahíj magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful.   That part of the plain of ‘Akká where the Shrine and the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh are located.
Bahman Bahman "Avalanche"   (the second month of the winter in Persian calendars)
Bahnimir Bahnimír city near southern coast of Caspian Sea
Bahr, Bihar, Buhar, Abhar, Abhur Baḥr, pl. Biḥár, Buḥúr, Abḥár, Abḥur sea;   large river;   a noble, or great, man (whose magnanimity or knowledge is comparable to the vastness of the sea);   meter (poet.).   Biḥár is a reference to Shí’ih traditions.
Bahram Bahrám
Bahramshahi Bahrámsháhí
Bahrani Baḥrání
Bahrayn Baḥrayn Islands in the southern Persian Gulf
Bahru'l-'Ulum Baḥru’l-‘Ulúm
Bahth, Buhuth, Abhath Baḥth, pl. Buḥút, Abḥáth search (for), quest (of);   examination, study;   research;   investigation, exploration;   discussion;   treatise;   (pl.) study, scientific report (on)
Baji Bájí Pers.   sister;   miss, lady (modern colloquialism)
Bakhit Bakhít "Lucky"
Bakhsh Bakhsh Pers.   fate, destiny, portion, share.   Name used for Persian political districts.
Bakht Bakht Pers.   fortune, prosperity, felicity, happiness;   luck (good or bad);   a horoscope, nativity, planet, constellation;   the nightmare
Bakhtavar Bakhtávar
Bakhtiyari Bakhtíyárí tribe of western Írán (Bachtiari)
Bakr, Abkhur, Bukran Bakr, pl. Abkur, Bukrán young camel.   Caliph Abú-Bakr
Bakri Bakrí follower of Abú-Bakr (i.e. a traditionalist)
Bakshish Bakshísh Per.   See Baqshísh
Baku Bákú Baku
Bala Bálá upper, up, above, better quality or prestigious.   Where there are two nearby villages, it can be used to indicate one is above the other or is of a better quality.
Bala Balá yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
Bala-Khanih Bálá-Khánih Balcony
Bala-Khiyaban Bálá-Khíyábán District in Mázindarán
Bala-Rastaq Bálá-Rastáq
Bala-Sari, Balasari Bálá-Sarí, Bálásarí term used by the Shaykhis to distinguish ordinary Shi’ites from members of their own sect.   Those who pray standing at the head of the Imám while facing the Qiblih (i.e. with their backs to the Imám)
Bala' Bala’ to test, to afflict
Balad, Bilad, Buldan Balad m. and f., pl. Bilád country;   town, city;   place, community, village;   bilád country;   buldán countries
Baladu'l-Amin Baladu’l-Amín "Protected Land"
Balagha Balágha eloquence;   art, of good style, art of composition;   literature
Balal Balál
Balda Balda (fem. Form) town, city;   place, community, village;   rural community;   township
Balih (Baleh) Balih Pers.   yes
Balinus Bálinus Apollonius was also known as Bálinus
Balkh Balkh city and province in Afghánistán
Ballur, Billaur, Bulur Ballúr, Billaur, Bulúr Pers.   crystal;   beryl
Baluch Balúch Iranian tribe who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pákistán, Írán, and Afghánistán.
Baluchistan Balúchistán
Bamdad, Bamdadan Bámdád, Bámdádán Pers.   early morning
Bana, Bayan Bána (Bayán) to be or become plain, evident, come out, come to light;   to be clear (to someone)
Banadak (Banaduk?) Sadat Banádak Sádát village 40 km south Yazd
Banani Banání Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, and wife Samíḥih
Banda, Bandagan Banda, pl. Bandagán Pers.   bondsman, servant, slave
Bandar, Banadir Bandar, pl. Banádir seaport;   commercial centre;   district capital (Egyptian)
Bandar-'Abbas Bandar-‘Abbás
Bandar-i-Jaz (Bandar-Gaz) Bandar-i-Jaz city in Írán, on Caspian Sea (SE corner)
Bandiy-i-Bab-i-Baha Bandiy-i-Báb-i-Bahá Pers.   bondsman at the door of Bahá (Bahá’u’lláh).   A designation used by Mishkín-Qalam.   See banda
Bandiy-i-Khuda Bandiy-i-Khudá bondsman or slave of God.   See banda
Bani Baní "the children of" or "descendants of"
Bani-Hashim Baní-Háshim The sons or children of Háshim, great-grandfather of Muḥammad. That is, the people deriving from the quasi-mythical Shem (Sám), son of Noah.
Bani-Umayyih Baní-Umayyih was a clan in the Quraysh tribe named after ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manáf’s adopted son Umayya ibn ‘Abd Shams.
Banu-Tamim Banú-Tamím Tribe of Arabia.   Tamím, the ancestor of the tribe, is a direct descendant of Adnan and is thus considered an Ishmaelite tribe descending from Ishmael, son of Abraham.   Banú used in combination—see Banún
Baqa Baqá’ remaining, staying, lingering, abiding;   continuation, continuance, duration;   survival, continuation of existence after life;   immortality, eternal life;   existence;   permanence.   See Faná’
Baqar Baqar cattle
Baqara, Baqarat Baqara, pl. Baqarát cow
Baqi' Baqí‘ remaining over;   rest, remainder, remnant;   arrears;   balance;   surplus.   Cemetery in Medina in the vicinity of the Tomb of Muḥammad.
Baqir Báqir ("One who expands or breaks")   Title of the fifth Shí‘a Imám and an Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islám.
Baqir-i-Bastami Báqir-i-Basṭámí
Baqir-i-Kafsh-Duz Báqir-i-Kafsh-Dúz
Baqir-i-Kandi Báqir-i-Kandí
Baqir-i-Kashani Báqir-i-Káshání
Baqir-i-Qa'ini Báqir-i-Qá’iní
Baqir-i-Rashti Báqir-i-Rash
Baqir-i-Sabbagh Báqir-i-Ṣabbágh
Baqir-i-Shiraz Báqir-i-Shíráz
Baqir-i-Tabrizi Báqir-i-Tabrízí
Baqiri Báqirí descendents of Muḥammad al-Báqir
Baqiyyatu'llah Baqíyyatu’lláh "Remnant of God"   A title of the Twelfth Imám that is also applied to the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Baqlava Báqlavá a sweetmeat
Baqshish Baqshísh, pl. Baqáshísh present of money;   tip, gratuity, baksheesh
Baraka, Barakat Baraka, pl. Barakát blessing, benediction
Baraka'llahu Fikum Báraka’lláhu Fíkum "May God bless you"
Baraqani Baraqání From Baraqán (Baraghán) village north of Karaj (NW of Ṭihrán)
Baratallih Baraṭallih place in ‘Iráq
Baratha Baráthá a mosque on a highway between Baghdád and Kaẓímayn
Barazat Barázát Temptation
Barfurush Bárfurúsh a town in Mázindarán, now known as Bábul (Babol)
Barki Barkí
Barr Barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, mainland;   open country
Barr, Abrar, Barara Barr and Bárr, pl. Abrár and Barara reverent, dutiful (+ preposition bi—toward), devoted (+ preposition bi—to);   pious, godly, upright, righteous;   kind
Bas Bas Pers.   a great number, many, more;   very much, greatly;   enough, sufficient;   often;   yes, indeed, certainly, it is so, very true, surely, undoubtedly, unquestionably
Basha, Badshah, Padshah, Padishah shá Pers.   Being, existing;   a basha (a corruption of bádsháh, pádsháh, pádisháh, etc.), governor of a province, counsellor of state, great lord;   also sometimes the grand vazir;   a kind of falcon, a hawk.
Basha, Bashawat, Pasha shá, (Pers. also Páshá), pl. Báshawát pasha   Turkish for a lord (or boy, prince).   Honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank in Turkey.
Bashir Bashír "Announcer"
Bashir wa Nadhir Bashír wa Nadhír Bahá’u’lláh appeared as the "Announcer and Warner", cf. Qur’án 35:22.
Bashir-i-Ilahi Bashír-i-Iláhí
Bashiri Bashírí
Bashnih Bashnih
Basir Baṣír (most insightful, discerning, endowed with insight, seeing)   Adjective, superlative form of Baṣár (sight).
Basir-i-Hindi Baṣír-i-Hindí Siyyid Baṣír-i-Hindí, the blind Indian Bábí
Basit Básiṭ "Open"
Basit Basíṭ, pl. Busaṭa simple; plain, uncomplicated;   slight, little, modest, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling
Basita al-Basíṭa the earth
Basmala Basmala, pl. Basmalát "word" derived from "in the name of" and is the act of uttering the invocation "In the name of God, the Benificent, the Merciful"
Basra Baṣra Pers.   Baṣrah   port in southern ‘Iráq (untranscripted variations: Basra, Bosrah)
Basri Baṣrí native of Baṣra
Basrih Baṣrih Bahá’í World XII, p. 855
Bast Bast Pers.   be bound or connected;   a lover, a sweetheart, one in whom the heart is bound up;   a turban, wreath for the head;   a knot;   a hundred;   a sanctuary, asylum;   a bank, a rampart;   a mountain;   distribution of water into canals, ditches, or drains
Bast Basṭ Pers.   (verbal noun), Stretching out (the hand);   distension;   diffusiveness;   being wide enough for;   preferring, exalting
Bastam, Bistam, Bustam Basṭám, Bisṭám or Busṭám place just north of Sháhrúd, Írán. Home of Mullá ‘Alí, the fourth Letter of Living
Batha, Bitah Baṭḥá, pl. Biṭáḥ A neighbourhood of Mecca [al-Makkah or al-Maakka—Bakka (Qur’án 3:96) may be an older name], TN p. 76.   lit. "basin shaped valley;   wide riverbed, wide bed of a stream or torrent;   level land, plain, level, flat(s)"
Batil Bátil "falsehood"
Batin, Bawatin Báṭin, pl. Bawáṭin inner, interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic;   hidden, secret—see Ẓáhir.   báṭin-i-báṭin—inner inward meaning
Batini Báṭiní internal
Battah Baṭṭáh village on coast of Libya, east of Bengazi, distance of 115 km
Batum Báṭúm now Batumi, Georgia
Bavanat Bavánát county in Fárs Province, Írán
Bavanat-i-Fars Bavánát-i-Fárs
Bay, Baya, Bayat Báy, f. Báya, pl. Báyát formerly, in Tunisia, a title after the names of the members of the Bey’s family.   See Beg
Bayan-i-'Arabi, Arabic Bayan Bayán-i-‘Arabí "Arabic Bayán" (by the Báb) completed after the Bayán-i-Fársí
Bayan-i-Farsi, Persian Bayan Bayán-i-Fársí "Persian Bayán" (Mother Book of the Bábí Revelation) (by the Báb)
Bayan, Bayanat Bayán, pl. Bayánát clearness, plainness, patency, obviousness;   statement, declaration, announcement;   manifestation;   explanation, elucidation, illustration;   information, news;   (official) report, (official) statement;   enumeration, index, list;   eloquence.   Also exposition or utterance.   Title given by the Báb to His Revelation, and, in particular, to His Books.   Muslims are puzzled by the chronology given in Qur’án 55:2–4. "Bayán (exposition) ["speech", 55:4] signifies the Revelation of the Báb, which unveils the hidden truth of the Qur’án. ‘Man’ [55:3] signifies the ‘Perfect Human Being’—the Manifestation of God …." Gate of the heart, p. 262.   al-Bayán (نايبلا or "ن ا ي ب ل ا") has an abjab value of 94 ("al" (value 31) consists of an unstressed Alif and Lám).   Compare lilláh
Bayanis Bayánís Those few who followed the Báb, but not Bahá’u’lláh or Ṣubḥi-i-Azal (EGB by Balyuzi)
Bayazid Báyazíd father of Yazíd
Bayda (Baida, Baiza), Baydun, Baydat Bayḍa (Pers. Baiẓa), Bayḍún, Bayḍát egg;   helmet;   main part, substance, essence.
Bayt (Bait), Buyut, Buyutat Bayt, pl. Buyút, Buyútát house, building;   tent (of nomads);   room;   apartment, flat;   (garden) bed;   family;   case, box, covering, sheath;   pl. large, respectable houses;   respectable families;   (pl. abyát) verse
Bayt-i-A'zam Bayt-i-A‘ẓam "The Most Great House" (House of Bahá’u’lláh in the Kakh quarter of Baghdád,occupied by the family shortly before Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kudistán)   See Madad, house of.
Bayt-i-Fanduq Bayt-i-Fanduq a house in the German Templar colony, Haifa, where Bahá’u’lláh stayed, 1883
Baytu'l-'Adl-i-A'zam Baytu’l-‘Adl-i-A‘ẓam The Universal House of Justice
Baytu'l-Hazan Baytu’l-Ḥazan house of sadness
Baytu'l-Ma'mur Baytu’l-Ma‘múr Ar.   Frequented Fane.   In Islám, the Ka‘bah or its archetype in heaven.
Baytu'l-Muqaddas Baytu’l-Muqaddas "The House of Holiness"—name given to Jerusalem
Baytu'llah Baytu’lláh the House of God—the Ka‘bah in Mecca
Bayyina (Bayyinah), Bayyinat Bayyina (Bayyinah), pl. Bayyinát clear proof, indisputable evidence;   evidence (Islamic Law);   a document serving as evidence
Bazar, Bazarat Bázár, pl. Bázárát bazaar
Bazari Bázárí merchant or craftsman of the bazzaar
Baz-Av-u-Bidih-Jami Báz-Áv-u-Bidih-Jámí "Return and grant a chalice" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Bazzaz Bazzáz draper, cloth merchant;   the mercer
Beg Beg, fem. Begum Pers.   A lord, a prince;   title put after the names of servants and petty officials.   Turkish Bey.   See Báy
Begum, Baygum Begum Great, a lady of rank, a princess—fem. form of Beg or Big
Bektashi Bektáshí Turkish.   Dervish order, mainly in Antolia and the Balkans.
Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia is a Biblical city (location uncertain), situated on a mountain overlooking the plain of Jezrael, whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith.   Hebrew בתוליה (a virgin).   Similar to Ar. Batúlí (virginal).
Bi bi (prep.)   in, at, on (place and time);   with (indicating connection, association, attendance);   with, through, by means of (designating instrumentality or agency, also with pass. = by);   for (= at the price of);   by (= to the amount of);   by (introducing an oath)
bi-Qamis al-Babiyya bi-Qamíṣ al-Bábiyya garment of Gatehood
bi-Qamis al-Wilaya bi-Qamíṣ al-Wiláya garment of Sanctity
Bid'a Bid’a innovation
Big Big (Great, a lord or prince)   Honorary title lower than Khán.
Bigliyirbigi Biglíyirbigí
Biharu'l-Anvar Biḥáru’l-Anvár A compilation of Shí’ih traditions   ‘Seas of Lights’.
Bihjatu’s-Sudur Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr "The Delight of Hearts" by Ḥaydar-‘Alí.   See bahja and ṣadr
Bika (not Baka) Bika A composite comprising the prefix "bi" with the suffix "ka", which stands for the 2nd person singular masculine pronoun "Thou" or "Thee". "Bika" can be translated as "upon Thee", "to Thee", "on Thee" or "about Thee", depending on the context.   "Baka" in Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas should be Bika.
Billahi'l-'Aliyyi'l-'Azim Billáhi’l-‘Alíyyi’l-‘Aẓím "in God, the Exalted, the Mighty" (bi+Alláh)
Bin Bin the son of
Bint Bint ("daughter of")
Binyamin Binyámín (Benjamin)
Birjand Bírjand city in eastern Írán
Birjis al-Birjís Jupiter (astronomy).   Martyr, Dr Sulaymán Birjís, Káshán (1897–1950)
Birkas Birkás possibly Kirkgöz, Turkey
Birujird Birújird Capital city of the province of Luristán, Mírzá Bururg was governor
Biruni Bírúní Outer or men’s quarters, see andarúní
Bishara, Bisharat, Basha'ir Bishára, pl. Bishárát, Bashá’ir good news, glad tidings;   annunciation, prophecy;   gospel.   Glad-Tidings by Bahá’u’lláh
Bishr bishr joy
Bismi'llah Bismi’lláh "word" derived from the expression "In the name of God".   Basmala is the act (verb) of saying the recurring Islamic phrase "Bismi’lláhi Ar-Raḥmáni Ar-Raḥími"—"In the name of God, the Most Compassionate (or Gracious), the Most Merciful".   Bismi’lláh is the first phrase of the first verse of every súra of the Qur’án except the ninth.   The verse is composed of 19 letters; in honour of each letter six chapters were revealed, totalling 114 chapters (the Báb, The Persian Bayán, 2d Váhid, 2:2).
Bismi'llahi'l-Amna'u'l-Aqdas Bismi’lláhi’l-Amna‘u’l-Aqdas ("In the Name of God, the Most Unapproachable, the Most Holy"—Báb) (DB 66)
Bismi'llahi'l-Bahiyyi'l-Abha Bismi’lláhi’l-Bahíyyi’l-Abhá "In the name of God, the Glorious, the Most Glorious" (used in calligraphic bird design by Mishkín-Qalam—described as a "bird of paradise in the form of the Greatest Holy Name sitting on the tree of Toubá (tree of paradise)"
Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r-Rahim Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím "In the Name of God, the Most gracious, the Most Merciful"—first verse of the Qur’án
Bist, Ishrun Bíst (Per), ‘Ishrún (Ar) "twenty"
Bistami Bisṭámí native of Basṭám
Bisyar Khub Bisyár Khúb ("Very or most good")
Biyaban Bíyábán
Buddha dhá (Ar.) Buddha Maitreya-Amitábha, the Buddha of the future, the Lord of the Age.   Maitrya or Maitreya—"Kindness";   Amitábha—"Infinite light".
Bujnurd Bujnúrd capital city of North Khurásán Province, Írán
Bukhara Bukhárá city in Uzbekistan
Bukharan Bukhárán people of Bukhárá
Bulbul, Balabil Bulbul, Balabil Nightingale
Buli, Bolu Búlí Ar. for town (Bolu) 260 km east of Istanbul.
Buluk Bulúk "district"   DB xl
Bulus Búlus Arabic form of Paul
Bunduq, Banadiq Bunduq, pl. Banádiq hazelnut(s), filberts;   hazel, hazel tree.   Pers. Funduq, Turk. Findík
Buni Buní ‘Abdu’lláh Buní   SDC 104
Buq'a, Buqa', Biqa' Buq‘a, pl. Buqa‘, Biqá‘ spot, blot, smudge, stain;   place, site, plot, patch, lot
Buq'atu'l-Hamra Buq‘atu’l-Ḥamrá’ ("Crimson Spot")   A hill called Samaríyyih near Bahjí where red flowers grew in abundance in the time of Bahá’u’lláh
Buq'atu'l-Khadra Buq‘atu’l-Khaḍrá "The Verdant Spot"
Burhan-i-Lami' Burhán-i-Lámi’ (Burhane Lame) published as "The Brilliant Proof"
Burhan, Barahin Burhán, pl. Baráhín proof
Burhani'd-Din Burháni’d-Dín Proof of religion
Burj, Buruj, Abraj Burj, pl. Buruj, Abráj tower, castle, sign of the zodiac
Burqa, Burqu', Baraqi' Burqu‘, (Pers. also Burqa‘), pl. Baráqi‘ veil (worn by women;   long, leaving the eyes exposed)
Burujird Burújird Capital city of the province of Luristán, place of the governorship of Mírzá Buzurg
Bushihr shihr Iranian town on the Persian Gulf
Bushru'i' Bushrú’í (of or from Bushrúyih)
Bushruyih Bushrúyih A town in Khurásán, birthplace of Mullá Ḥusayn, first disciple of the Báb
Busra or Bosra Buṣra Syrian town where 12-year old Muḥammad met the monk Báhir ("Bahira")
Bustan, Basatin Bustán, pl. Basátín garden or orchard.   TAB "Boston"
Bustani Bustání gardener;   garden (adj.);   horticultural
Buyuk Búyúk
Buyuk-Aqa Búyúk-Áqá
Buyuk-Chakmachih Búyúk-Chakmachih Büyükçekmece, Turkey
Buzurg Buzurg ("Great")   The title given by Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh to ‘Abbás, Bahá’u’lláh’s father.
Buzurg-Banna Buzurg-Banná
Buzurg-i-Nuri Buzurg-i-Núrí
Buzurg-i-Vazir Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá (Mírzá ‘Abbás of Núr) father of Bahá’u’lláh (third child of second wife, Khadíjih Khánum).
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Caravanserai Caravanserai (also caravansary)   An inn for caravans
Chadar, Chadur Chádar, Chádur Pers.   A tent, pavilion;   a mantle, scarf;   a veil;   a sheet;   a shroud, winding-sheet;   a table-cloth.   Shawl or a long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women
Chah-Qilan Cháh-Qílán
Chal Chál "Pit"
Changiz Changíz
Chaparchi Chápárchí "Courier"   DB 215
Chardivari Chárdívárí private home or four walls
Chashm Chashm Pers.   the eye;   hope;   an amulet or charm (particularly of holy writ) against fascination or enchantment
Chashmih-'Ali Chashmih-‘Alí
Chigan Chigán village near Iṣfahán
Chihar-Vadi Chihár-Vádí (Four Valleys) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Chihriq Chihríq "Grievious"   Fortress in Kurdish Ádhirbáyján, designated by the Báb as Jabal-i-Shadíd (the Grievous Mountain), numerical value of Chihríq & Shadíd is 318).
Chilaw-kabab Chilaw-kabáb (kabáb with rice)
Chinar-Sukhtih Chinár-Súkhtih
Chiragh Chirágh Pers.   A lamp;   light;   the wick of a candle;   a guide, director;   a client, dependant;   a horse's rearing;   a pasture.   See Ar. Siráj.
Chupan Chúpán, Dr
Comforter Comforter (Gk. Paracletos)   Muḥammad and Aḥmad ("the Praised One", "a Mercy for all creatures" and "most kind and merciful to the Believers") are almost a translation of the Greek word Periclytos.   The use of "Comforter" in the John 14:16 and 16:7 is based on the Greek word Paracletos ("Advocate", "one called to the help of another, a kind friend").   Muslims argue that Paracletos is a corrupt reading for Periclytos.
Cyrus Cyrús Name of a Persian king
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Da’a, Du’a’ Da‘á, Du‘á’ Ar.   to call (someone);   to summon, call or send for someone;   to call up;   to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something;   to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da’i or Du’at Dá‘í, pl. Du‘át Pers.   who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything;   who prays for, invokes a blessing upon;   the Muezzm who calls to prayers;   Muḥammad (as caller to the faith).   Also missionary
Da'if, Du'afa Ḍa‘if, pl. m. Ḍu‘afa’ weak, feeble;   frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
Da’iya (Da’i), Dawa’in Dá‘iya ("Dá‘í"), pl. Dawá‘in one who calls for something, invites to something;   propagandist, herald;   (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion;   requirements, exigencies.   Hence, ad-dá‘iya, the caller.
Da’wa, Da’awa, Da’awin Da‘wá, pl. Da‘áwá, Da‘áwin allegation, pretension;   claim;   lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Dabb, Dabab, Adubb, Dubban Ḍabb, pl. Ḍabáb, Aḍubb, Ḍubbán lizard
Dabistan Dabistán (Debistan)—a work containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles
Dabistanu'l-Madhahib Dabistánu’l-Madháhib book
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit Ḍábiṭ controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.);   prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools);   (pl. ḍubbáṭ) officer;   (pl. ḍawábiṭ) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dabita, Dawabit Ḍábiṭa, Ḍawábiṭ police;   (pl.) curbing force, order
Dad Dád Persian.   He gave;   a gift;   justice, equity;   redress of grievances;   complaint, lamentation (under oppression);   measure;   a part, portion;   revenge;   a ringworm;   life;   age;   a year
Dahaji Dahají Indian origin, blazing, very bright
Dahr Dahr (world of duration)
Dai'a, pl. Diya' Ḍai‘a, pl. Ḍiyá‘ landed estate, country estate, domain;   small village, hamlet
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila Dajjál, pl. Dajjálún, Dajájila ("Dedjal")   swindler, cheat, imposter;   quack, charlatan;   Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ).   The Antichrist, who it was believed would appear at the advent of the Promised One, to contend with and be ultimately defeated by Him.   See Sufyání
Dakhil Dakhíl Pers.   Interior, inner;   intimate, familiar, confident;   an intermeddler;   an intruder;   a proselyte;   a foreign word adopted into Arabic
Dakhili Dakhílí
Dal Dál Letter ‘D’
Dala'il-i-Sab'ih Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih "The Seven Proofs" (by the Báb)
Dalal Ḍalál a straying from the right path or from truth;   error
Dalil, Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla' Dalíl, pl. Adilla, Dalá’l, Adillá’ (the latter of persons) indication (of);   sign, token;   symptom;   proof, evidence (of);   guide;   tourist guide;   pilot (of a ship, of an airplane);   guidebook, guide manual, handbook;   directory, telephone directory;   railroad guide, timetable;   guide rail (technical);   roller path (in steel construction)
Dalilu'l-Mutahayyirin Dalílu’l-Mutaḥayyirín Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Dall, Dawall, Dallin Ḍáll, pl. Ḍawáll, Ḍállín straying, roaming, wandering;   astray, lost;   erroneous, false.   Ḍállín (gone astray)
Dallal Dallál auctioneer;   broker, jobber, middleman, agent, commission merchant;   hawker
Dalvand Dálvand
Damavand Damávand city, county and mountain south of the Caspian Sea
Damghan Dámghán city 125 km SE Sarí and 60 km SW of Sháhrúd
Danish Dánish Pers.   science, knowledge, learning;   excellence
Dani', Adniya', Adna' Daní’,pl. Adniyá’, Adná’ low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible;   inferior, second-rate, of poor quality.   Adná’ also "lowest" or "even closer"—being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Báb, that of servitude.   (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Daoud Daoud Hebrew David   See Dáwúd
Daoudis Daoudis Followers of David, a small sect of Islám.
Dar Dár f., pl. Dúr, Diyár, Diyárát, Diyara house;   building, structure, edifice;   habitation, dwelling, abode;   residence, home;   seat, side, locality;   area, region;   land, country (esp. pl. Diyár)
Dar as-Salam, Daru’s-Salam Dár as-Salám, Pers. Dáru’s-Salám paradise, heaven;   epithet of Baghdád (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God (Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory, p. 296));   Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Darab Dáráb A town in Fárs, southern Persia, home of Vaḥíd’s ancestors.
Darad Dárad See Maḍí Dárad
Darb, Durab, Adrab Ḍarb, pl. Ḍurúb, Aḍráb beating, striking, hitting, rapping;   shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment;   multiplication;   coining, formation;   minting (of money);   — (pl. ḍurúb) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety;   (pl. aḍráb) similar, like
Darband Darband Pers.   gateway or mountain door.   City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Dághistán (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus).   Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal) that is now part of the north side of Teheran.
Dard, Darad Dárd, Dárad Pers.   a name of God;   dárad he holds, has, is possessed of
Darkala or Dar-Kala Dárkalá or Dár-Kalá A village in Núr in Mázindarán, a second ancestral home of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí.
Dars, Durus Dars, pl. Durús effacement, obliteration, extinction;   (pl.) study, studies;   lesson, chapter (of a textbook);   class, class hour, period;   lecture;   lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Dars-i-Akhlaq Darsu’l-Akhláq, Pers. Dars-i-Akhláq "Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building" ("Dars Akhláq")
Daru'l-Athar Dáru’l-Áthár (Archives)
Daru'l-funun Dáru’l-Funún (Centre for arts and sciences)   The first technical college of Írán in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mírzá Taqí Khán.   BKG 72
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij Dáru’l-Tabígh or Dáru’l-Tarwíj (Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
Daru'l-Tashri' Dáru’l-Tashrí‘ (House of Legislation, Universal House of Justice)
Daru's-Salam Dáru’s-Salám (Dar-es-Salaam) or the Abode of Peace [Baghdád] (or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God).   BKG p. 296.
Daru's-Surur Dáru’s-Surúr "the happy home"
Daru'sh-Shafa Dáru’sh-Shafá House of treatment
Daru'sh-Shafay-i-Masjid-i-Shah Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh
Darughih Dárúghih (high constable or police magistrate)
Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani Darvísh Muḥammad-i-Írání Name used by Bahá’u’lláh while in Sulaymáníyyih
Darvish Sidq-'Ali Darvísh Ṣidq-‘Alí
Darvish-Salah Darvísh-Ṣaláḥ
Darwesh, "Darvish", Darawish Darwesh (or Darvesh), pl. Daráwísh Pers.   poor, indigent;   dervish or monk   Often written as Darvísh
Darwish, Darawish Darwísh, pl. Daráwísh poor, indigent;   dervish or monk   A beggar of faqír (poor one)   "… those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship." Attributed to Bahá’u’lláh in MF 39.   See Pers. Darwesh
Darya Daryá Pers.   a sea, ocean;   a river;   (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Daryay-i-Nur Daryáy-i-Núr Pers.   the Ocean of Light—the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh
Daryun Dáryún village near Iṣfahán
Dast, Dust Dast, pl. Dusút place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office;   council;   dast al-ḥukm (a ruler’s) throne
Dastan Dastán Pers.   history, romance, fable;   song, melody, trill, shake;   the key of a musical instrument;   foolish, idle talk;   fraud, imposture, stratagem
Dastjird Dastjird (Dastjerd) city 60 km WSW of Qum, Írán
Dastjirdan Dastjirdán people of Dastjird
Dastmal-Girih-Zan Dastmál-Girih-Zan
Dastmal, Dast-mal Dast-mál, Dastmál Pers.   rubbing the hands;   a towel;   a handkerchief;   a kettle-holder;   dinner-plate;   easy, smooth;   bare;   a prisoner;   wealth
Dastur Dastúr A Pársí priest
Dawla (Daula), Duwal Dawla, pl. Duwal alternation, rotation, change;   change of time, turn of fortune;   dynasty;   state, country;   power, empire
Dawlat Dawlat Pers.   from Ar. Dawla.   e.g. Dawlat-Ábád and Dawlat-Ábádíí
Dawlih Dawlih Pers.   state or government.   See Daula
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar Dawr, pl. Adwár round (of a patrol;   in sports);   role, part (played by someone or something);   film role, stage role;   periodic change, rotation, alternation;   crop rotation;   period;   (one’s) turn;   phase, stage, step, degree, station;   epoch, age, era, cycle;   fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease);   floor, story;   musical composition;   number, single performance (within a program)
Dawr al-Nabawi, Dur-i-Nabuwwat Dawr al-Nabawí, Dur-i-Nabuwwat Prophetic Cycle
Dawud Dáwúd, Dá’úd, (Pers. Dáwud) David
Day of Resurrection Yawmu’l-Qiyámah The Great Day (al-Yawmu’l-‘Aẓím);
The Day of Resurrection (Yawmu’l-Qiyámah);
The Day of Decision (Yawmu’l-Faṣl);
The Day when the Hour shall come to pass (Yawmu’l-Sá‘ah);
The Day of Judgement (Yawmu’l-Dín);
The Day of Disillusion (Yawmu’t-Taghabún);
The Day of Reckoning (Yawmu’l-Ḥisáb)
Daylam Daylam Old Province SW cnr Caspian Sea (now Gílán)
Dayyan Dayyán (Judge, also Rewarder)
Dhabih Dhabíḥ sacrifice or slaughtered   (Pers. Zabíḥ)   Hájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl was known as Dhabíḥ. The name Ismá‘íl in Bábí-Bahá’í history is associated with the soubriquet ‘Dhabíḥ’. Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur’án, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice—hence the association of the name Ismá‘íl with Dhabíḥ.   (E. G. Browne, Balyuzi.)
Dhabihu'llah Dhabíḥu’lláh "Sacrifice of God"
Dhakir, Dhakirin Dhákir, pl. Dhákirín Pers.   rememberer;   a praiser of God
Dhakira Dhákira memory
Dhar' Dhar‘ (verbal noun of dhara‘a)   power, ability, capability (to do something)
Dhara'a Dhara‘a (verb) to measure (something);   to take the measure or measurements (of something);   to cover (a distance);   to cross, travel (a country), travel through;   to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkár to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of);   to keep in mind (something);   to recall, recollect (something)
Dharr Dharr strewing, scattering, sprinkling;   (coll.) tiny particles, atoms, specks, motes
Dhi'b, Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban Dhi’b, pl. Dhi’áb, Dhu’bán wolf, jackal.   Ibn-i-Dhi’b ("Son of the Wolf")   Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí
Dhi'l-Hijjih Dhi’l-Ḥijjih Pers.   Twelth month in Islamic calendar
Dhi'l-Jawshan Dhi’l-Jawshan Ar.   "clad in armour".   Term applied to Mullá ‘Abdu’lláh the arch-killer of Imám Ḥusayn
Dhi'l-Qa'dih Dhi’l-Qa‘dih Pers.   Eleventh month in Islamic calendar
Dhibh Dhibḥ "Sacrificial victim"
Dhikr, Adhkar Dhikr, pl. Adhkár recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration;   reputation, repute, renown;   naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation;   report, account, narration, narrative;   invocation of God, mention of the Lord’s name;   (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulas in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing.
Dhikra, Dhikayat Dhikrá, pl. Dhikrayát remembrance, recollection, memory;   pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Dhikran Dhikrán remembrance
Dhikriyya Dhikriyya Pers.(?)   Remembranceship
Dhikru'llah Dhikru’lláh "Remembrance of God" (Pers. Zikru’lláh), early title used by the Báb
Dhikru'llah-i-A'zam Dhikru’lláh-i-A‘ẓam
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun Dhimmí, pl. Dhimmíyún a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur’án, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
Dhu'l-Awtad Dhu’l-Awtád
Dhu'l-Faqar Dhu’l-Faqár
Dhu’l-Hijjih Dhu’l-Ḥijjih Twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or "Possessor of the Pilgrimage")
Dhu’l-Qa‘da Dhu’l-Qa‘da Eleventh month of Islamic calendar (the one of truce/sitting)
Dhu'l-Qarnayn Dhu’l-Qarnayn Prophet in Qur’án 18:83–101—"the one with two horns" or "He of the Two Ages".   In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great.
Dih-Bala Dih-Bálá place (GPB p. 298)
Dih-Chah Dih-Cháh
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin Dihqán, pl. Daháqina, Daháqín man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality;   grandee (in ancient Persia)
Dihqani Dihqání
Dil Dil Pers.   the heart, mind, soul;   marrow;   pith of a tree;   trunk of a tree;   the centre;   the eye;   a dot;   an enigma;   cote (animal shelter)
Dimashq (Damashq), Dimishq Dimashq, Dimishq Damascus, capital of Syria
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi Dimashqí, Dimish of Damascus, e.g. Damashqí Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in ‘Akká, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din-i-Ilahi Dín-i-Iláhí (The Divine Faith)
Din-Muhammad-Vazir Dín-Muḥammad-Vazír
Din, Adyan Dín, pl. Adyán religion, creed, faith, belief.   Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah-ud-Dín.
Dinar, Dananir Dínár, pl. Danánír (originally dinnár), a coin; a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar;   a weight of gold (variously stated);   (met.) the sun
Dini Díní religious;   spiritual
Disciples of ‘Abdu'l-Baha Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Designated by Shoghi Effendi:   Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont,   Thornton Chase,   Howard MacNutt,   Sarah Farmer,   Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney,   Lillian Kappes,   Robert Turner (First Afro-American Bahá’í in America),   Dr Arthur Brauns,   W. H. Randall,   Lua Getsinger (née Louisa A. Moore - Livá (banner), Lua - flag),   Joseph Hannan,   Chester I. Thatcher,   Charles Greenleaf,   Mrs J. D. Brittingham,   Mrs Thornburgh,   Helen S. Goodall,   Arthur P. Dodge,   William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Divan Díván (Court, tribunal; poetical works)   Used in titles, as in Amír-Díván, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Divan-Khanih Díván-Khánih Court
Diya (Ziya is incorrect) Ḍíyá (Pers. pronunciation since the Hamza in Ḍiyá’ is not pronounced)   light, brightness, glow
Diya Ḍiyá’ Ar.   light, brightness, glow
Diya Baghdadi Ḍíyá Baghdádí [Dr Zia Baghdadi]
Diya'i Ḍíyá’í
Diya'iyyih Ḍíyá’íyyih (Ziaiyyih or Zia’iyyih)
Diya'u'd-Din Ḍíyá’u’d-Dín
Diya'u'l-Hajiyyih Ḍíyá’u’l-Ḥájíyyih
Diya'u'llah Ḍíyá’u’lláh (Zíá’u’lláh or Ziaoullah)
Diya'u'llah Asgharzaddih Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aṣgharzáddih [Ziaoullah (Ziaullah) Asgarzadeh]
Diya'ud-Din Ḍíyá’úd-Dín (Zia ed Din)
Diyala, Sirwan Diyálá (in ‘Iráq), Sírwan (in Írán) 445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern ‘Iráq, flowing on east side of Baghdád and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city.   Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Diyar-Bakr Díyár-Bakr place 400 miles NW Baghdád
Diyar-i-khatt Díyár-i-khatt
Dizva Dízvá
Du, Do Dú, Du, Do Pers.   two
Du'a' Du‘á’, pl. Ad‘yá, Pers. Ad‘iyat (Ad’iyyih) call;   invocation of God, supplication, prayer;   request, plea;   good wish;   imprecation, course.   Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Dudankih Dúdánkih
Dugh-Abad (Dughabad) gh-Ábád village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán
Duhan, Zuhwat, Zuha Duḥan; Pers. Ḍuḥwat, pl. Ḍuḥá Forenoon, luncheon-time
Dumit Ḍúmiṭ ‘Azíz Sulaymán Ḍúmiṭ—his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Báb.
Dunam Dunam Ottoman Turkish origin.   Modern metric unit is 1,000 m2 of land or about a quarter of an acre.
Durar'u'l-Bahá'íyya Duraru’l-Bahá’íyya Ar. (Pers. Duraru’l-Bahá’íyyah, -ih) (Dorar-ul-Bahiyyih)   "The Brilliant Pearls", trans. into English and published as "Miracles and Metaphors"
Durra(t) Durra(t) "Pearl", e.g. Durratu’l-Bahá’íyya (pl. Durar)
Durud Durúd (Dorud) place 260 km NW of Iṣfahán
Durzi, Duruz Durzí, pl. Durúz Druse.   The name Druze is derived from the name of Muḥammad bin Ismá‘íl Nashtakín ad-Darazí (from Persian darzí, "tailor") who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name Muwaḥḥidún ("Unitarian")
Dust (Dost), Dustan Dúst, pl. Dústán Persian   friend;   lover;   mistress, sweetheart.   Dúst-Muḥammad
Duz (Doz) Dúz Pers.   (in compound word) sewing
Duzd Duzd A thief, robber, assassin;   theft
Duzdab Duzdáb Pers.   "water thieves", renamed Záhidán (pl. "pious") late 1920s, capital of Sístán, Írán
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Erzurum Erzurum city in eastern Turkey ("Erzeroum"). Known as Theodosiopolis in Roman times. Neighbouring city of Artsn (Arzan) was destroyed 1048–49 and citizens moved to Theodosiopolis and called it Artsn Rum (Arzan of the Romans). Muslim citizens changed it to Arzan ar-Rúm (or Arz ar-Rúm) and then to Erzurum.
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Fa'ida, Fawa'id (Fava'id) Fá’ida, pl. Fawá’id utility, avail, benefit, advantage;   gain, profit;   interest (on money);   useful lesson, moral;   use (e.g., of a medicine)
Fa'iq Fá’iq superior;   surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate;   outstanding, remarkable, striking;   pre-eminent;   exceeding, extraordinary;   going far beyond (a restriction, etc.);   awake, waking, wakeful
Fa'iz, Fa'iza Fá’iz, fem. Fá’iza successful, victorious, triumphant;   victor, winner
Fa'izih Fá’izih Pers.   "she who has attained"—name given to Gulsurkh Bagum by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Fa'il, Fa'ilun, Fa'ala Fá‘il, pl. Fá‘ilún, Fa‘ala effective;   efficacious, efficient;   (pl. fá‘ilún) doer, actor, perpetrator;   (pl. fa‘ala) worker, workman, labourer;   —active subject of a verbal clause (grammar).   See maf‘úl, manṣúb and marfú‘
Fad-dan Fad-dán (feddan) about an acre in size
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala Fáḍil, pl. Fawáḍil, Fáḍilún, Fuḍalá Ar.   (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess;   (pl. fawáḍil) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;—(pl. fáḍilún, fuḍalá) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving;   learned;   man of culture and refinement.   Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): fáḍil, fem. fáḍilat, fáḍila, pl. fáḍilát.
Fadil (Fazil), Fudala Faḍíl, pl. Fuḍalá’ outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent;   distinguished, deserving;   learned, erudite.   As the day of the Badí‘ week, Faḍíl: grace, favour.
Fadil-i-Qa’ini Fáḍil-i-Qá’iní the Learned One of the Qá’in.   A district in the province of Khurásán
Fadila, Fada'il Faḍíla, pl. Faḍá’il moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue;   merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness
Fadilabad (Fazelabad) Fáḍilábád 28 km ENE of Gurgán (SE corner of the Caspian Sea), Írán
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul Faḍl, pl. Fuḍúl surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow; & leftover, remainder, remnant, rest; & matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter; & pl. that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity; & waste, refuse; & droppings, excrement. & Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): faḍlat, faḍla.
Fadlu'llah Faḍlu’lláh Grace of God
Fahandizh Fahandizh Pers.   a family name
Fahd, Fuhud, Afhud Fahd, pl. Fuhúd, Afhud lynx (also the term for cheetah and panther)
Fahima, Fahm, Faham Fahima, Fahm, Faham to understand, comprehend, realize (something);   to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something);   to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Fakara, Fakr Fakara (Fakr) to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something);   to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhara, Fakhr, Fakhar Fakhara, Fakhr, Fakhar, Fakhár glory, pride, honour
Fakhkhar Fakhkhár (fired) clay;   earthenware, crockery, pottery.   Tell ‘Akká (inaccurately also called Tell al-Fakhkhár (Hill of Shards) or Napoleon’s Hill.
Fakhru'd-Dawlih Fakhkhru’d-Dawlih (MF)
Fakhru'd-Din Fakhru’d-Dín (Fakr ed Din)
Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ (Pride of Martyrs)   Note final Hamza
Fakhura khúra pottery, earthenware manufactory
Falah Faláḥ thriving, prosperity;   salvation;   welfare;   success
Falsafa Falsafa to philosophize;   philosophy
Falsafi Falsafí Pers.   philosophical;   a philosopher
Fana Faná’ passing away, cessation of being;   perdition, ruin, destruction, annihilation;   evanescence, vanishing, termination, extinction;   exhaustion;   nonbeing, nonexistence, nonentity;   extinction of individual consciousness, recedence of the ego, obliteration of the self (myst.).   See Baqá’
Fanan, Afnan Fanan, Afnán (pl.) bough or twig   Denotes the male relatives of the Báb
Faqih, Fuqaha Faqíh, pl. Fuqahá legist, jurisprudent (and theologian), expert of fiqh
Faqir Faqír, pl. Fuqara’ Ar.   poor one, from faqr
Faqnas Faqnas phoenix
Faqr Faqr "poverty"
Far, Furu, Afru Far‘, pl. Furú‘, Afru‘ twig, branch, bough, limb, (also coll.) branches, twigs;   derivative;   section, subdivision;   branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch;   branch line, feeder line;   branch wire
Fara'id Fará’id
Farab Fáráb village 60 km south of Ardabíl, Írán
Farabi Fárábí Abú Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Al Fárábí (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Born in Fáráb or Fáryáb.
Faraburz, Fariburz Faráburz, Faríburz Pers.   glorious and mighty.   Name of a mighty champion and minister of Írán.
Farada, Faruda, Furud Farada and Faruda (Furúd) to be single, be alone;   to be singular, be unique;—farada (furúd) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Faraghih (Farugh) Farághih (Faraghe, Faragheh) village 160 km SW Yazd
Farah-Abad Faraḥ-Ábád "The Fair Abode of Joy", palace near Tehran that was built by Muẓaffari’d-Dín
Farah, Afrah Faraḥ, pl. Afráḥ joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness;   wedding;   pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity;   wedding (feast)
Farahan Faráhán merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy.   County in Markazí Province, Írán.
Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Pers.   intelligent, wise;   near
Faraj Faraj freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering;   joy; relaxation;   relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort;   happy ending
Faraju'llah Faraju’lláh God’s relief or rescue
Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi Faraju’lláh Dhakí al Kurdí see Zakíy
Faraju'llah Tafrishi Faraju’lláh Tafríshí (MF) (from Tafrísh)
Faramarz Farámarz
Faramush Fáramúsh Forgetfulness
Faran Fárán Pers.   Small village in Ardistán
Farang, Firing Farang (hence Farangí), Firing Pers.   from old French word franc ("Frank"), an Italian, European;   a Christian;   all nations that wear short garments;   ruddy, of pleasing aspect;   a galley. See afranj and ifranjí
Faraqa, Farq, Furqan Faraqa (Farq, Furqán) to separate, part, divide, sever, sunder (something);   to make a distinction (between), distinguish, differentiate, discriminate (between).   See Furqán
Faraqlit Faraqlít Paraclete
Farashah Farásháh
Farda Fardá Pers.   tomorrow.   A reply sometimes given to creditors since it never arrives
Farhad Farhád Pers.   elation, happiness
Farhand Farhand Pers.   an excavation formed by a torrent;   an artificial canal newly dug;   a ditch;   a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another;   a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another;   anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang Farhang Pers.   good-breeding;   greatness;   excellence;   gravity;   wisdom, science;   jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary;   a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk;   a subterraneous canal
Farhangi Farhangí Pers.   A preceptor, tutor, teacher, instructor;   a man learned in the law.
Farid Faríd alone, lone, lonely, solitary;   singular, unique, matchless, peerless, unrivaled, incomparable
Farid Fáriḍ old, advanced in years
Faridani Farídání
Faridu'd-Din 'Attar Farídu’d-Dín ‘Aṭṭár Great Persian mystic poet "the druggist"
Fariq, Fawariq Fáriq, pl. Fawáriq distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative;   (pl.) a separating or distinctive factor;   distinctive characteristic, criterion;   difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Faris, Fawaris Fáris, pl. Fawáris Pers.   Mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal;   a horseman, a cavalier;   a lion;   the Persians;   Persia.
Farma Farmá One who issues orders.   From the infinitive Farmúdan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farmán-Farmá, the one who establishes order;   the Governor.
Farma Farma Pers.   violet
Farmahin, Farahan Farmahín, Farahán Farmahín is in Farahán County and is 40 km north of Arák, Írán
Farman-Farma Farmán-Farmá the one who establishes or issues the order;   the commander or governor.   Title of Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí-Sháh
Farman, Firman, Faraman Farmán, Per. also Firmán, pl. Farámán Royal decree, command, order or edict.   Ar.   plural also Faramát or Farámín
Farmaniyyih Farmáníyyih ("Farmanieh") once a garden named after Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, now a district in NE of Teheran
Farnush Farnúsh
Farrash-Bashi Farrásh-Báshí Head farrásh
Farrash, Farrashun Farrásh, pl. Farráshún literally a carpet-spreader;   attendant and footman.
Farrukh Farrukh Pers.   Beautiful-faced;   happy, fortunate
Fars Fárs Pers.   Persia, Parthia.   Párs is the the proper and original name of this country, Arabs, who have not the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fárs
Fars-Namih Fárs-Námih
Farsakh, Farasikh Farsakh, pl. Farásikh Pers.   A parasang, a league, about 18,000 feet in length;   an hour;   a long time;   an interval;   a chink, cleft;   quiet, repose;   perpetual;   much.
Farsang Farsang Pers.   A parsang, league, about 5.5 km—the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour.   Derived from the Persian parsang (stone, sang, placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush Farsh, pl. Furúsh furnishing;   furniture, household effects;   mat, rug, carpet;   anything spread on the ground as bedding;   foundation (architecture)
Farsi Fársí modern Persian
Faruhar Farúhar
Faryab (or Firyab) Fáryáb or Fíryáb "lands irrigated by diversion of river water".   Village 140 km NE of Bandar-‘Abbás, Írán
Farzanih-Mu'ayyad Farzánih-Mu’ayyad
Fasa Fasá name of a district and village west of Iṣfahán, Írán
Fasih, Fusaha', Fisah, Fusuh Faṣíḥ, pl. Fuṣaḥá’, Fiṣáḥ, Fuṣuḥ pure, good Arabic (language), literary;   skilful in using the correct literary language;   clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech);   fluent, eloquent
Fasiqun Fásiqún ‘sinners’ or unbeliever
Fasl Faṣl parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off;   separation;   division, partition;   discharge, dismissal.   See plural Fuṣúl.
Faslu'l-Khitab Faṣlu’l-Khiṭáb "sound or unmistakable judgement" (Fassl-ul-Khitab) (Conclusive Proof)   Mírzá Faḍl
Fata Fatá’ youth, adolescence
Fata'l-Malih Fata’l-Malíḥ
Fata'l-Qazvini Fata’l-Qazvíní
Fataha, Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fataḥa, Fatḥ, pl. Futuḥ, Futuḥát to open (something);   to turn on (a faucet);   to switch on, turn on (an apparatus);   to dig (a canal);   to build (a road);   to open, preface, introduce, begin (something);   to conquer, capture (something);   to reveal, disclose (to someone or something);   to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something;   of God).   Plural: conquest; victory, triumph;   alms;   donations, contributions
Fatama, Fatm Faṭama, Faṭm to wean (an infant or a young animal
Fath-'Ali Fatḥ-‘Alí
Fath-'Ali Shah Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh A Qájár king, father of Muḥammad Sháh.
Fath-al-Futuh Fatḥ-al-Futúḥ Victory of Victories
Fath-i-A'zam Fatḥ-i-A‘ẓam "Fatheazam"
Fathu'llah Fatḥu’lláh "Victory of God"
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák-i-Qumí
Fathu'llah-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Qumí
Fatih Fátiḥ opener;   beginner;   conqueror, victor;   light (colour)
Fatiha, Fawatih Fátiḥa, pl. Fawátiḥ start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience;   introduction, preface, preamble, proem.   Al-Fátiḥa (or Al-Sab‘a Al Matḥání (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of Al-Fátiḥa must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur’án.   See Qur’án 15:87.
Fatim, Futum Faṭím, pl. Fuṭum weaned
Fatima, Fatimih or Fatimah Fáṭima (Fáṭimah), Pers, Fáṭimih ("One who weans")   Fem. of ‘Fátim’.   Fáṭima was the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad and wife of the Imám ‘Alí.   Fáṭimih-Bagum was the mother of the Báb.   Fáṭimih Khánum (referred to as Mahd-i-‘Ulyá) (second wife of Bahá’u’lláh—daughter Ṣamadíyyih, son Muḥammad, son Ḍíyá’u’lláh, and son Badí’u’lláh)
Fatimi Fáṭimí Fatimid (adj. and n.).   Not Fáṭimid
Fatimiy-i-Ma'sumih Fáṭimiy-i-Ma‘ṣúmih DB 224 incorrect
Fatiq Fatíq unstitched, ripped, ripped open, slit, rent, torn;   sharp
Fatra, Fatarat Fatra, Fatarát lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility;   tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling);   (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause;   period, spell, while
Fattah Faṭṭáḥ The Opener or The Opening.   Derived from Fataḥa.   al-Faṭṭáḥ is one of the names of God.
Fatwa, Fatva Pers., Fatawa Fatwá, pl. Fatáwá A judgement or sentence made by a Muslim muftí (and court)
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud Fayḍ, Pers. Fayẓ, pl. Fuyúḍ flood, inundation, deluge;   emanation;   superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance;   (pl.) stream
Fayd-i-Aqdas Fayḍ-i-Aqdas ("most holy outpouring")   Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas ("holy outpouring") and "most holy outpouring" (fayḍ-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitáb-i-Íqán), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.   Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation.   See Faiḍ.
Faydi (Faidi, Faizi), Fayzi Fayḍí, Pers. Fayẓí e.g. Afnán Fayḍí
Faydu’llah (Fazu’llah) Fayḍu’lláh Abundance from God
Fayha Fayḥá’ now known as Damascus (Summons of the Lord of Hosts para. 252)
Fi (prep.) in;   at;   on;   near, by;   within, during;   among, in the company of, with;   about, on;   concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles);   for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for;   according to;   in proportion to.
Fi'l Fi‘l, pl. Af‘ál, Afá‘íl activity, doing, work, action, performance;   function;   — (pl. af‘ál, fi‘ál) deed, act, action;   effect, impact;   — (pl. af‘ál) verb (gram.);   pl. afá‘íl great deeds, exploits, feats;   machinations
Fi's-Suluk Fi’s-Sulúk I and II "On the Virtuous Journey" (by the Báb)   [elided form of: fí as-Sulúk]
Fidal Fidál Ar.   grace.   Name given to Tuesday in Badí‘ calendar
Fiddih, (Fidda, Fizza) Fiḍḍih (Pers. fem.) Maid of the wife of the Báb.   Ar. Fiḍḍa (silver).   In Pers. may be written as Fiẓẓa.
Fikr Fikr meditation or reflection
Fin Fín Fín Garden in Káshán, Írán
Findik Findík Turkish "hazelnut"
Fiqh Fiqh understanding, comprehension;   knowledge.   Islamic jurisprudence
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan) Firaydán (alt. pronunciation Farídán) Pers.   county in Iṣfahán Province.   The capital of the county is Dárán (or Dárún).
Firaydun Firaydún An ancient Persian king.
Firayjat Firayját A place where Bahá’u’lláh stayed.   It is 5 km north of the Riḍván Garden, Baghdád.
Firdaws-i-A'la Firdaws-i-A‘lá ("Supreme Paradise")
Firdaws, al-; Faradis al-Firdaws fem., pl. Farádís Paradise
Firdawsi Firdawsí paradisiacal, heavenly
Firishta, Firishtih, Firishtagan Firishta, Fem. Firishtih, pl. Firishtagán Pers.   an angel;   a messenger, apostle.   See Ar. Mal’ak/Malak
Firman Firmán Pers.   See Farmán
Firuz Fírúz victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful;   victory;   prosperity;   the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year;   name of several Persian kings.   See Ẓáfir
Firuz-Kuh, Firuzkuh Fírúz-Kúh or Fírúzkúh village 125 km east of Teheran
Firuzabad Fírúzábád city 85 km south of Shíráz
Fitna, Fitan Fitna, Pers. Fitnah, pl. Fitan temptation, trial;   charm, attractiveness;   enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation;   infatuation;   intrigue;   sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife.   Occurs when a Manifestation appears.   See also Imtiḥán.
Fitr Fiṭr Breaking fast, alms giving at ‘Íd al-Fiṭr   Muslim festival marking the end of Ramaḍán
Fitra Fitr, pl. Aftár small span (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended);   corner
Fitrat Fitrat Ar.   There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap.   Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Báb and the rise of Bahá’u’lláh.
Fizan, Fezzan, Fizzan Fízán (turk), Fizzán (Ar.) (Fezzan) south-western region of Libya
Fu'ad, Af'ida Fu’ád, pl. Af’ida heart (Fuad)
Fu’adiyyih Fu’ádíyyih Daughter of Bahá’u’lláh and Munírih Khánum
Fulad, Fuladi Fúlád, adj. Fúládí and Fuládí steel, of steel, made of steel;   steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulk Fulk (m. and f.) ship, (also coll.) ships;   Ark (as in Noah’s)
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik) Funduq, Funduqa Pers.   hazelnut of filbert-nut;   a nut good against the sting of a scorpion;   a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow.   Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findík
Funun Funún (Arts and technology)   Plural of ‘fan’.
Furat Furát Pers.   very fine, sweet water or waters;   the river Euphrates;   the sea
Furqan Furqán proof, evidence, discriminator.   Another name for the Qur’án, signifying Distinction and that which distinguishes between truth and falsehood (see Qur’án 25:1). The duration of the cycle of the Furqán (Qur’án) is 1,260 years
Furugh Furúgh Pers.   splendour, light, brightness, flame
Furughi Furúghí (Forooghy)
Furughiyyih Furúghíyyih
Furuhi Furúhí
Furutan Furútan ("The humble")
Fusul Fuṣúl (pl. of Faṣl) section, part;   chapter;   act (of a play);   movement (of a symphony, etc.);   article (in a newspaper);   class, grade (school);   season.   See sing. Faṣl.
Fususu'l-Hikam Fuṣúṣu’l-Ḥikam (The Bezels of Wisdom by Ibnu’l-‘Arabí)
Futuhat-i-Makkiyyih Futúḥát-i-Makkíyyih by Shaykh Ibnu’l-‘Arabí.   See Fataḥa and Makkí
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Gabr Gabr Pers.   ancient Persian, one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster, a priest of the worshippers of fire;   a pagan, infidel;   a plant resembling ginger;   a vest;   a stone
Gach Gach Pers.   a kind of white earth of which lime is made of;   plaster
Gaf Gáf Persian letter representing g—a form of the Arabic letter káf
Gand Gand Pers.   anything fetid, bad smell, stink, funk.   Can result from a mispronounciation of qand
Gandum Gandum Pers.   wheat
Gandum-Pak-Kun Gandum-Pák-Kun Mullá Muḥammad Ja‘far—the first person in Iṣfahán to accept the Faith of the Báb
Ganj Ganj Pers.   a store, hoard, hidden treasure;   a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse;   a mart;   a case
Ganjih Ganjih (place)
Garm Rud Garm Rúd (or Garmrúd) Village northern Írán (south of Sárí).   Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rúd)
Garm-Siri Garm-Sírí "warm place"
Gav-Gan Gáv-Gán A village near Tabriz
Gawhar (gohar, gauhar) Gawhar Pers.   a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone;   lustre of a gem or sword;   root, origin;   of a noble family;   essence, substance, form;   offspring;   any hidden virtue;   intellect, wisdom;   a substitute.   See Ar. jawhar
Gawhar Khanum Gawhar Khánum third wife of Bahá’u’lláh (broke Covenant after the passing of Bahá’u’lláh)—her daughter is Furúghíyyih
Gawhar-Shad Gawhar-Shád
Ghadir, Ghudur, Ghudran Ghadír, pl. Ghudur, Ghudrán pond, pool, puddle;   stream, brook, creek, river
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufrán to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghaffar ("Gaffar") Ghaffár readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)   ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
Ghali Ghálí Pers.   dear, costly, high-priced, precious, valuable;   one who exceeds bounds;   a fanatic, a zealot;   name of a poet
Ghalin, Ghulah Ghálin, pl. Ghuláh expensive, high priced;   valuable, costly;   dear, beloved;   (pl.) adherent of an extreme sect;   extremist, radical;   fanatic adherent, fanatic
Ghani Ghaní Self-sufficient (able to do without, detached).   Khájih Ghaní or ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Baydún
Ghanim Ghánim Ar.   successful
Ghannam Ghannám Ar.   shepherd.   House of Sulaymán-i-Ghannám in Baghdád.   See Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
Ghar, Aghwar, Ghiran Ghár, pl. Aghwár, Ghírán cave, cavern
Gharasa, Ghars Gharasa, Ghars, pl. Ghirás to plant, implant (something in);   to place, put, set, infix, interpose, interpolate, insert (something into)   (Ghars numerical value of 1260)
Gharasi Gharasí (numerical value of 1270)
Gharasih Gharasih Pers.   (numerical value of 1265)
Ghariq Gharíq Pers.   drowned, immersed.   Numerical value of 1310.   Nabíl drowned in AH 1310—the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghashiya, Ghawashin Gháshiya, pl. Ghawáshin pericardium;   misfortune, calamity, disaster;   faint, swoon;   insensibility, stupor;   servants, attendants, retinue, suit.   Al Gháshiyah, the overwhelming event, súra 88
Ghawgha' (Ghaugha') Ghawghá’ mob, rabble, riffraff, din, noise, clamour
Ghawr Ghawr place near Tiberias, Israel
Ghawth Ghawth call for help;   help, aid, succour
Ghawthiyyih Ghawthíyyih garden of Ghawthíyyih
Ghayb (Ghaib) Ghayb, pl. Ghuyúb absence;   hidden, concealed, invisible;   (pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible;   that which is transcendental, the supernatural;   divine secret.   (invisible realm)
Ghayba (Ghaiba) Ghayba absence;   concealment, invisibility;   occultation.   See Tablet of Aḥmad
Ghaybat (Ghaibat) Ghaybat being concealed, absent, invisible;   concealment, absence, invisibility;   ecstacies.   State of being hidden from view.
Ghaybat-i-Kubra Ghaybat-i-Kubrá Major Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat-i-Sughra Ghaybat-i-Ṣugh Minor Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghayn Ghayn Arabic letter transcribed as gh
Ghazal Ghazál A poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.   gazelle
Ghazi Ghází war lord, warrior champion
Ghazna Ghazná or Ghazní city Afghánistán
Ghina' Ghiná’ singing, song   (term normally used to denote music and the human chanting voice)
Ghirsh, Ghursh, Ghurush Ghirsh, Ghursh, pl. Ghurúsh silver coin, piaster
Ghiyath Ghiyáth help, succour.   Abjab 1,511
Ghulam al-Khuld Ghulám al-Khuld Tablet of the Deathless Youth by Bahá’u’lláh
Ghulam-Ahmad Ghulám-Aḥmad Mírzá Ghulám-Aḥmad of Qádíyán, India,(1839–1908). Followers later split into Aḥmadíyyah and Qádíyáníyyah
Ghulam-Husayn Ghulám-Ḥusayn
Ghulam-Rida Ghulám-Riḍá
Ghulam-Riday-i-Kuchik Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Kúchik
Ghulam-Riday-i-Yazdi Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Yazdí
Ghulam, Ghilman, Ghilma Ghulám, pl. Ghilmán, Ghilma boy, youth, lad;   slave;   servant, waiter
Ghulamu'llah Ghulámu’lláh servant of God.   son of Javáv-i-Qazvíní
Ghulat Ghulát extremists.   adj. of Ghuluww
Ghuluww, Ghaliyya Ghuluww, Gháliyya exaggeration, extremism
Ghusn Ghuṣn "Branch" Masculine
Ghusn-i-A'zam Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám Greatest Branch
Ghusn-i-Mumtaz Ghuṣn-i-Mumtáz The Chosen Branch i.e. Shoghi Effendi
Ghusnu'llahu'l-A'zam Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam "The Greatest Branch of God"   BKG 250, 311, 420, 485
Ghusnu'llahu'l-Athar Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-Aṭhar "The Purest Branch of God"
Gilan Gílán A northern province of Írán on the Caspian Sea.
Giltughi Giltúghí Ḥájí Káẓim Giltúghí
Gird Gird Pers.   round;   a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit;   environs, parts adjacent;   a collection, assembly;   a host;   a city;   a tent, pavilion;   (adverb) around.   e.g. Kinár-Gird, a village where the Báb paused in His exile journey to Máh-Kú.
Girih Girih Pers.   a knot, a knur (as in a thread or on wood), a knob, a joint;   a button or anything for fastening garments;   a gland;   a kernel;   a purse;   an abscess;   a knuckle;   articulation;   three finger-breadths;   a difficulty;   the seed of a thorny tree used for tanning;   the heart
Gul-i-Gulab Gul-i-Gulab Red Rose, literally, "the flower of the rose-water".   See Jull and Julláb
Gul-Muhammad Gul-Muḥammad
Gul-Saba Gul-Sabá Pers.   Sheba rose (not Ṣabá as in Summon up remembrance)
Gul, Gulan Gul, pl. Gulán Pers.   a rose;   a flower;   embers;   a red colour
Guldanih Guldánih Guldánih ‘Alipúr
Gulistan Gulistán Pers.   "flower garden", "rose garden" or "place where flowers grow"
Gulmuhammadi Gulmuḥammadí Zabíḥu’lláh (Ar. Dhabíḥu’lláh) Gulmuḥammadí
Gulpaygan Gulpáygán a city in and the capital of Gulpáygán County, Iṣfahán Province, Írán (about 160 km NW of Iṣfahán)
Gulshan (Golshan) Gulshán Pers.   a rose or flower-garden;   a bed of roses or flowers;   a delightful spot;   a place where a person enjoys himself;   a pleasure-palace;   florid, cheerful, agreeable.   Former name of Ṭabas—city in South Khorasan Province, Írán.
Gulshani Gulshaní
Gumruk, Gamarik Gumruk, pl. Gamárik customs;   customhouse
Gunabad (Gonabad) Gunábád 225 km SW of Mashhad, Khurásán province
Gunjishk Gunjishk Pers.   a sparrow;   a chick;   any small bird
Guran Gúrán DB 547
Gurgin (Gurgan, Gorgan) Gurgín or Gurgán city near Caspian Sea (formerly Astrabád or Astarábád)
Gurgin Khan Gurgín Khán Nephew and successor of Governor Manúchihr Khán in Iṣfahán.
Gushtasb Gushtásb
Guzal Guzal (The Pass)   As in Ádí-Guzal, Sayyáh, the messenger.
Gyawur-Kyuy Gyáwur-Kyuy
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ha Há’ Arabic letter
Habba, Hubb Ḥabba, Ḥubb to love, like;   to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone);   to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone);   to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba, Ḥabíb, pl. Aḥabbá, Aḥibba beloved, sweetheart, lover;   darling;   dear one, friend;   dear
Habibi Ḥabíbi, Pers. Ḥabíbih my love
Habibu'llah Ḥabíbu’lláh beloved of God
Habibu'llah-i-Afnan Ḥabíbu’lláh-i-Afnán, Ḥájí Mírzá
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar Ḥabr, Ḥibr, pl. Aḥbár a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe;   bishop;   rabbi
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi Hádá, fem. Hádihí, Hádí, pl. Há’ulá’i this one, this
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont. dual m. Hádání, f. Hátáni
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Hádá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádihí, hádí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual masc. hádáni, dual fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadba, Ahdab Ḥadbá’, fem. Aḥdab, pl. ḥudb hunchbacked, humped.   The historic Great Mosque of al-Núrí in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname "the hunchback" (al-Ḥadbá’).   See root word Ḥadiba
Hadd, Hudud Ḥadd, pl. Ḥudúd (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   edge, border, brink, brim, verge;   border (of a country), boundary, borderline;   limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus;   a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained);   (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion);   divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God);   legal punishment (Islamic Law)
Hadiba, Hadab Ḥadiba, (verbal noun Ḥadab) to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward;   to be hunchbacked;   to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadiqatu'r-Rahman Ḥadíqatu’r-Raḥmán the Orchard of the Merciful
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara Ḥáḍir, pl. Ḥuḍḍar, Ḥuḍúr, Ḥaḍara present;   attending;   (pl. ḥuḍḍár, ḥaḍara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic.   See ḥáẓir
Hadith-i-Jabir Ḥadíth-i-Jábir
Hadith, Ahadith Ḥadíth, pl. Aḥádíth, Ḥádithán speech;   chat, chitchat, small talk;   conversation, talk, discussion;   interview;   prattle, gossip;   report, account, tale, narrative;   Prophetic tradition, Ḥadíth, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions.   Aḥádíth are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad and the Imáms.   Two distinct types: al-Ḥadíth an-Nabawí and al-Ḥadíth al-Qudsí.   The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muḥammad (a Ḥadíth where one of the Companions reports Muḥammad’s statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration.
Haditha, Hawadith Ḥáditha, pl. Ḥawádith occurrence, event, happening;   plot (of a play);   incident, episode;   accident, mishap
Hadiy-i-Dawlat-Abadi Hádíy-i-Dawlat-Ábádí
Hadiy-i-Nahri Hádíy-i-Nahrí (MF)
Hadiy-i-Qazvini Hádíy-i-Qazvíní
Hadiya Ḥadiya to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place).   Name given as location where of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, the leader of the Shaykhís, died. It is near the tomb of Muḥammad in Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí‘ in Medina.
Hadiya, Hadaya Hadíya, pl. Hadáyá gift, present, donation;   offering, sacrifice
Hadiya, Hadiyat Hádiyat, Hádiya, fem. Hádíyyih Pers.   the leader of a flock;   a stick, staff
Hadra Ḥaḍra presence
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut Ḥaḍramawt, Hadhramaut a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula—part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Húd)
Hadrat (Hazrat) Ḥaḍrat (Ḥaẓrat) Pers.   presence, threshold;   dignity;   majesty;   dominion, power;   an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity;   also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship, etc.;   a royal court;   a town residence;   a settled abode.   Holiness (‘his excellency’ or ‘his honour’).   Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadrat-i-A'la or Hadrat-i-'Ala Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá "His Holiness the Most Exalted One" (a designation of the Báb)
Hadrat-i-Mubashshir Ḥaḍrat-i-Mubashshir "the Herald"
Hadratu’llah (Hazratu’llah) Ḥaḍratu’lláh The Lord God
Hafiz Ḥáfiẓ Persian mystic poet of Shíráz (1320–1390), author of odes in the ghazal form.
Hafizu's-Sihhih Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih
Haft-Dast Haft-Dast Pers.   seven hands
Haft-Vadi Haft-Vádí (Seven Valleys) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Hahut Háhút (realm of the "Absolute Unknown", where God’s essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity).   See Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút.
Haifa Ḥaifá’ Haifa
Haira, Hairat Ḥaira (Ḥairat) confusion, perplexity, bewilderment, embarrassment, helplessness, embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
Hajar, Hijarat Ḥajar, pl. Ḥijárat a stone;   the philosopher’s stone
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran Hajara, Hajr, Hijrán to emigrate;   to dissociate oneself, separate, part, secede, keep away
Haji Shah-Muhammad Ḥájí Sháh-Muḥammad Sháh-Muḥammad Manshadí, Amín’l-Bayán (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Haji, Hajji Ḥájí, Ḥájjí "A pilgrim"   Muslim title, one who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Hajib, Hujjab Ḥájib, pl. Ḥujjáb, Ḥajaba concealing, screening, protecting;   doorman, gatekeeper;   court official, equivalent to a chamberlain
Hajibu'd-Dawlih Ḥájibu’d-Dawlih
Hajj, Hajjaj Ḥájj, pl. Ḥujjáj pilgrim;   Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajj, Hijja, Hijaj Ḥajj, Ḥijja, pl. Ḥijaj pilgrimage (to Mecca)
Hajr Hajr abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation;   avoidance, abstention;   separation from the beloved one;   hottest time of the day
Hakam, Hukkam Ḥakam, pl. Ḥukkam arbitrator, arbiter;   umpire, referee
Hakim-Bashi Ḥakím-Báshí Chief physician
Hakim-Ilahi Ḥakím-Iláhí the Divine Philosopher
Hakim, Hukama' Ḥakím, pl. Ḥukamá’ wise, judicious;   wise man, sage;   philosopher;   physician, doctor
Hakiman Ḥakímán Raḥmatu’lláh Ḥakímán
Hakimaniyan Ḥakímáníyan
Hakkak Ḥakkák a jeweller;   a polisher of precious stones;   a borer of pearls;   a lapidary
Halab Ḥalab milk
Halabi Ḥalabí
Halal Ḥalál that which is allowed, permitted or permissible;   allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate;   lawful possession
Halat Ḥálát (states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the Ṣúfí spiritual journey)
Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat Halih-Halih-Yá-Bishárát "Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Halim, Hulama Ḥalím, pl. Ḥulamá mild, mild-tempered, gentle;   patient;   forbearing
Hallaj Ḥalláj cotton ginner
Hama, Hamw Hamá, Hamw to flow;   to pour forth
Hamadan Hamadán "quelled or subsided"   A town in Írán, originally Ecbatana of the ancient Medes.
Hamam, Hamamat, Hama'im Ḥamám, pl. Ḥamámát, Ḥamá’im (Ar.)   dove, pigeon
Haman Hamán
Hamaza, Hamz Ḥamaza, Ḥamz to bite, or burn, the tongue (taste)
Hamaza, Hamz Hamaza, Hamz to prick;   to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something);   to spur (one’s horse);   (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hamd Ḥamd commendation, praise, laudation
Hamdan Ḥamdán praise, one who praises (God)
Hamdu lillah, al- al-Ḥamdu Lilláh thank God!   praise be to God!   praised be the Lord!   "Alhamdulillah"
Hamdu’llah Ḥamdu’lláh Praise of God
Hamid Ḥámid one who praises, a praiser
Hamid Ḥamíd praiseworthy, laudable, commendable;   benign, harmless (disease)
Hamif, Hunafa' Ḥaníf, pl. Ḥunafá’ true believer, orthodox;   one who scorns the false creeds surrounding him and professes the true religion;   true (religion)
Hammam Hammám careworn, worried;   anxious, solicitous;   eager, active, energetic
Hammam Ḥammám, pl. Ḥammámát bath;   swimming pool;   spa, watering place (public baths) (error writings—H used)
Hamza, Hamazat Hamza, pl. Hamazát Arabic glottal stop consonant
Hamzih Ḥamzih ("The lion"—Alt. Ḥamzah used by Balyuzi)   "Prince of Martyrs" a title given to Muḥammad’s uncle.   Ḥamzih is a sign that is pronounced as a. Since ḥamzih is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes disregarded. Thus, Bahá can be read as either eight or nine (Bahá’).
Hana-Sab Ḥaná-Sáb
Hanabali Ḥanabalí (a system of Sunní jurisprudence)
Hanafi Ḥanafí (a system of Sunní jurisprudence)
Hanafiyya Ḥanafiyya
Hanbal Ḥanbal
Hani, Hani'a Háni’, fem. Háni’a happy, delighted, glad;   servant;   fem. servant girl, maid
Hani’ Haní’ healthful, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, beneficial;   pleasant, agreeable;   easy, smooth, comfortable
Hanifa Ḥanífa al-ḥanífa as-samḥá’ the true and tolerant (religion. i.e., Islám).   Abú Ḥanífah or Ḥanífih (Pers. forms)
Hanza Hanzá village in Kirmán Province, Írán
Hanzala Ḥanẓala Ḥanẓala Ibn Abí ʿÁmir, one of the companions of Muḥammad
Haqani Ḥaqání
Haqiqat, Haqiqah Ḥaqíqat [Per.]   (alt. ḥaqíqah)   truth, the object of the mystic searcher (Ṣúfí).
Haqq (Haq), Huquq Ḥaqq, Pers. also Ḥaq, pl. Ḥuqúq truth;   correctness, rightness;   rightful possession;   property;   ones due;   duty;   proper manner;   true, authentic, real;   right, fair and reasonable;   correct, sound, valid;   (pl.) right, title, claim, legal claim.   Persian: name of a bird said to suspend itself by tbe claws at night and continually to cry ḥaq ḥaq.
Haqqu'llah, Huququ'llah Ḥaqqu’lláh, pl. Ḥuqúqu’lláh "Right(s) of God"
Haram ash-Sharif al-Ḥaram ash-Sharíf "the Noble Sanctuary" or Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Haram-i-Aqdas Ḥaram-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts)   Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.   NW quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí in the immediate area surrounding the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
Haram-i-Ma’sumih Ḥaram-i-Ma‘súmih DB 224
Haram, Ahram Ḥaram, pl. Aḥrám forbidden, prohibited, interdicted;   taboo; holy, sacred, sacrosanct;   something sacred, sacred object;   sacred possession;   wife;   sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct.   [Ar.]   The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar.   Compare with Ḥill
Haram, Hurum Ḥarám, pl. Ḥurum forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful;   something forbidden, offense, sin;   inviolable, taboo;   sacred, sacrosanct;   cursed, accursed
Haranam, Haramayn (Haramain) al-Ḥaranám (Ar.), Ḥaramayn (Pers.) (dual pl.)   Two Holy Places (i.e. Mecca and Medina).   The "Twin Sacred Shrines" now refers to the places in Shíráz where the Báb was born and where He made His public declaration.
Harati Harátí from Herat, Írán
Harf-i-Baqa Ḥarf-i-Baqá ("Letter of Eternity")
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf Ḥarf, pl. Ḥiraf (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   sharp edge;   border, edge, rim, brink, verge;   (pl. ḥurúf, aḥruf) letter;   consonant;   particle (gram.);   type (typography)
Hargah Hargáh ‘whenever or as soon as’
Harun Hárún Pers.   Aaron;   chief, leader;   a messenger, courier;   helplessness, indigence;   astonishment;   amazement
Harunu'r-Rashid Hárúnu’r-Rashíd Aaron the Just.   Fifth Abbasid Caliph
Hasan Ḥasan ("Good, praiseworthy")   The second Imám.
Hasan-'Ali Ḥasan-‘Alí
Hasan-'Amu Murtada Ḥasan-‘Amú Murtaḍá (MF)
Hasan-Abad (Hasanabad) Ḥasan-Ábád NE area of Ṭihrán
Hasan-i-'Ammu Ḥasan-i-‘Ammú
Hasan-i-Hakim-Bashi Ḥasan-i-Ḥakím-Báshí
Hasan-i-Khurasani Ḥasan-i-Khurásání
Hasan-i-Mazindarani Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání
Hasan-i-Niku Ḥasan-i-Níkú
Hasan-i-Safa Ḥasan-i-Ṣafá
Hasan-i-Vazir Ḥasan-i-Vazír
Hasan-i-Zunuzi Ḥasan-i-Zunúzí
Hasani Ḥasaní
Hasanzadih-Shakiri Ḥasanzádih-Shákirí
Hashara, Hashr Ḥashara, Ḥashr to gather, assemble, rally (people);   to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together);   to squeeze, press, force, stuff
Hashim shim (of Shem)   The Baní-Háshim were Muḥammad’s ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia.   From ‘hashama’, "to destroy or smash to pieces"
Hashimi, Hashimite shimí member of the Baní-Háshim
Hashish Ḥashísh hashish
Hashiya, Hawashin Ḥashiya, pl. Ḥawashin border;   seam, hem;   edge;   margin (of a book);   marginal gives;   marginal notes;   commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary;   footnote;   postscript;   retinue, entourage, suite, servants;   dependents;   pl. critical apparatus
Hashshashin Ḥashsháshin "Assasin", named for assasins who used hashish
Hasht Bihisht Hasht Bihisht by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Hast Hast Pers.   is, exists, remains;   existence, being.   hastam (I am), hastí (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastím (we are), hastíd (you are), hastand (they are)
Hasur Ḥaṣúr Pers.   close, avaricious
Hasuri Ḥaṣúrí
Hauran Ḥaurán the Hauran, a mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N Jordan.   The Druze of the area.
Hawdaj (Howdah) Hawdaj Howdah   A litter carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Haww Ḥawwá’ Eve
Hayat Ḥayát Life, existence
Hayat-Quli Ḥayát-Qulí
Hayat-Quli Khan Ḥayát-Qulí Khán Governor of Karand and a member of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís, a sect that equates Imám ‘Alí with God.
Haydar Ḥaydar Pers.   a lion;   a proper name
Haydar-'Ali Ḥaydar-‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá Born into Shaykhí family of Iṣfahán
Haydari Ḥaydarí
Hayiya, Hayya, Yahya, Hayah Ḥayiya, Ḥayya, Yaḥyá (Ḥayáh) to live;   ḥayya to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time);   li-yaḥya l-malik (lit. to life the king) long live the king!   ḥayiya, yaḥyá (ḥayá’) to be ashamed (of;   because of)   Form II ḥayyá to keep (someone) alive, grant (someone) a long life;   to say to someone: may God preserve your life!;   to greet, salute (someone)   Form IV aḥyá to lend life (to someone, to something), enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with life, call into being (something), give birth (to);   to revive, reanimate, revivify (something), give new life (to);   to put on, produce, stage, arrange (e.g., a theatrical performance, a celebration, and the like);   to celebrate (something, also a festival).
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil Haykal, pl. Hayákil temple;   large building, edifice;   altar;   skeleton;   framework (of a structure), frame;   chassis (of an automobile);   colossal, gigantic, huge
Haykalu't-tawhid Haykalu’t-tawḥíd ("posture of unity" or cross-legged)
Hayy Ḥayy, pl. Aḥyá’ living, live, alive;   lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed;   living being, organism;   tribe, tribal community;   block of apartment houses;   section, quarter (of a city)
Hayyan Ḥayyán lively, energetic.   Abú Músá Jábir ibn Hayyán (Geber)
Hazar (Hizar) Hazár Pers.   a thousand;   a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale;   a term employed in the game of nard
Hazir, Haziran Ḥáẓir, pl. Ḥáẓirán present, at hand, ready, prepared;   at the service of, willing, content;   (in grammar) the present tense;   the second person;   a large tribe.   Pl.   the people present, the audience.   See ḥáḍir
Hazira, Haza'ir Ḥaẓírá, pl. Ḥaẓa’ir enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge;   compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, pen, paddock, coop;   hangar, shed;   field, domain, realm (fig.)
Hazirat Ḥaẓírat Pers.   a city, a fixed residence
Haziratu'l-Quds Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds Ar.   the Sacred Fold or Paradise.   Title given to Bahá’í administrative headquarters
Hidayat Hidáyat (guidance, showing the way and guiding in the right path to the goal of perfection)
Hidayatu'llah Hidáyatu’lláh Guidance of God
Hifz Ḥifẓ preservation;   maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding;   protection, defence, guarding;   custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage;   retention;   observance, compliance (with);   memorizing, memorization;   memory;   (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation)
Hijab Ḥijáb, pl. Ḥujub, Aḥjiba cover, wrap, drape;   curtain;   woman’s veil;   screen, partition, folding screen;   barrier, bar;   diaphragm.   A veil that covers the head and chest.
Hijaz Ḥijáz "barrier".   al-ḥijáz (Hejaz) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
Hijra Hijra departure, exit;   emigration, exodus;   immigration to;   al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in ad 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri Hijrí of the Hegira pertaining to Muḥammad’s emigration in ad 622.   A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muḥammad’s emigration.   Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya Hijríya Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in ad 873 (ah 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikam Abu’l-Ḥikam "the Father of Wisdoms"
Hikma Ḥikma, Pers. Ḥikmat, pl. Ḥikam prudence and wisdom, philosophy
Hikmat-i-Ishraqi Ḥikmat-i-Ishráqí (Hekmat-i-Eshrakieh)—a system of old philosophies
Hill Ḥill Pers.   being lawful;   a lawful thing;   the dissolution of an oath;   doffing the pilgrim's garb;   a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin Ḥill, Ḥillin he was free to …, he was at liberty to …;   he had free disposal of ….   The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months.   Compare with Ḥaram.
Hillah, Hilla, Hillih Ḥillah or Ḥilla, Pers. Ḥillih A city in central ‘Iráq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdád
Hilli Ḥillí, ‘Allámiy-i-Ḥillí ("the very erudite doctor")
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam Ḥilm, pl. Ḥulúm, Aḥlám gentleness, clemency, mildness;   forbearance, indulgence;   patience;   insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hilmi Ḥilmí
Himar, Hamir, Humur, Ahmira Ḥimár, pl. Ḥimár, Ḥamír, Ḥumur, Aḥmira donkey, ass
Himma, Himam Himma, pl. Himam endeavor, ambition
Himmat-Abad Himmat-Ábád City in Kirmán
Himyari Ḥimyarí Ḥarbí al-Ḥimyarí was an Arab scholar from Yemen
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin Ḥín, pl. Ḥín Aḥyán, Aḥáyín time;   propitious time, good time, opportunity.   value of 68
Hind al-Hind, Pers. Hind India;   the (East) Indians
Hindi, Hunud Hindí, pl. Hunúd Ar.   Indian
Hindiyan Hindíyán village, south-east Írán
Hindiyyih Hindíyyih a district near Karbilá (MF)
Hindu, Hinduwan Hindú, pl. Hinduwán (Pers.)   Indian;   black;   servant;   slave;   robber;   infidel;   watch-man
Hindustan Hindústán Pers.   India
Hira Ḥirá’ Ghár Ḥirá’ (the Cave of Hira) is located on the western side of Jabal Ḥirá’ (Mount Hira), which is on the north side of Mecca. The mountain was renamed Jabal al-Núr (Mountain of Light) after Muḥammad’s revelation in the cave.
Hirat Hirát Herat, Afghánistán
Hirbud Hirbúd [Herbod or Herbud]—the mystics and holy people
Hirih Ḥírih a city
Hisab, Hisabat Ḥisáb, pl. Ḥisábát arithmetic, reckoning, calculus;   computation;   calculation, estimation, appraisal;   accounting, settlement;   consideration;   caution;   — (pl.) bill, invoice;   statement of costs (bank) account
Hisami Ḥisámí
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina Ḥiṣán, pl. Ḥuṣun, Aḥsina horse;   stallion;   Ḥiṣán al-baḥr: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisar Ḥiṣár block, blockage, barrier;   blockade;   siege.   A town in Khurásán province.
Hisham Hishám Pers.   beneficence, liberality.   Hishám ibn ‘Abdu’l-Malik, 10th Umayyad Caliph
Hishmat Ḥishmat decorum, chastity, bashful, modesty (fem.)
Hishmatu'd-Dawlih Ḥishmatu’d-Dawlih
Hishmatu'llah Ḥishmatu’lláh "chaste one of God"
Hisn, Husun Ḥiṣn, pl. Ḥuṣún fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold;   fortification, entrenchment;   protection
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum Ḥizám, pl. -át, Aḥzima, Ḥuzum belt, girth;   girdle;   cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it);   sword belt
Hizar Hizár Ar.   joking, jesting, fun-making.   Used in Persian with the same meaning as Hazár
Hizar Dastan Hizár Dastán Pers.   "thousand songs"
Hizavih Hizávih village <20 km NW of Arák (Sulṭán Ábád), Írán
Hizb, Ahzab Ḥizb, pl. Aḥzab group, troop, band, gang;   party (pol.);   the 60th part of the Koran
Hizbu'llah Ḥizbu’lláh "Party of God" (Hezbullah)
Hizqil Ḥizqíl Pers.   Ezekiel
Hubb Ḥubb love;   affection, attachment
Hubbu’llah Ḥubbu’lláh Love of God
Hubur Ḥubúr joy.   Ḥubúr (Hobour) Khánum
Hud Húd A prophet sent to the tribe of ‘Ád.   He is a descendent of Noah.
Huda Hudá "right way, guide"
Hudaybiyyah Ḥudaybíyyah al-Ḥudaybíyyah Truce of, in ah 6 (ad 628). At a spring of the same name about 16 km north of Mecca—no part of the city.
Huduth Ḥudúth setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon);   occurrence, incident, happening.   "originated nature"—contrast with Imkán (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujah Ḥujah Fársí form of previous (PDC p. 97)
Hujaja'l Bahiayyih Ḥujaja’l-Bahíyyih (The Bahá’í Proofs)
Hujja Ḥujja, Per. Ḥujjat, pl. Ḥújaj argument;   pretense, pretext, plea;   proof, evidence;   document, writ, deed, record;   authority
Hujja ala al-kull ḥujja alá al-kull "proof for all".   The Báb’s praise for Qurratu’l-‘Ayn
Hujjat'u'llah Ḥujjat’u’lláh the proof of God.   The last Imám is known as the Proof of God.   Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatu'l-Islam Ḥujjatu’l-Islám Proof of Islám.   Mullá Muḥammad-‘Alí of Zanján was called Ḥujjatu’l-Islám. The Báb called him Ḥujjatu’l-Zanjání.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran Ḥujr, Ḥajara to deny access   (Ḥajr, Ḥijr, Ḥujr, Ḥijrán, Ḥujrán)
Hujrih H‘ujrih (antechamber)
Hukm, Ahkam Ḥukm, Aḥkám judgement, valuation, opinion;   decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence;   condemnation, conviction;   administration of justice;   jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law);   regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree;   judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power;   government, regime;   pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
Hulul Ḥulúl stopping, putting up, staying;   descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking;   incarnation;   setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn;   substitution (for someone).   In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
Huma Humá (Humay) type of eagle
Hums Ḥums
Hunayn Ḥunayn
Huquq Ḥuqúq rights
Huququ'llah Ḥaqqu’lláh (sing.), Ḥuqúqu’lláh "Right(s) of God"
Hur-i-'Ujab Ḥúr-i-‘Ujáb "The Wondrous Maiden" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Huraira, Hurairah, Hurayrih Huraira, Per. Hurairah, Hurayrih a little cat or kitten. Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of "ah" or "ih".   Surname given to Abú Hurayrih ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán bin Sakhr (a companion of Muḥammad) because of the favourite kitten he used to carry around with him.
Hurayra Hurayra Syrian village.   See Huraira
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur Ḥúríya, pl. Ḥúríyát, Ḥúr houri, virgin of paradise;   nymph;   young locust.   Ḥúrí (adj.) (literally, white one)
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak) Húrmudúk Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvíd (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurqalya Húrqalyá intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Húrqalyá. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Húrqalyá. The occulted but living twelfth Imám and the cities of Jábulsá and Jábulqá, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Húrqalyá.   Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227.
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara'ir Ḥurr, pl. m. Aḥrar, f. Ḥara’ir noble, free-born;   genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated;   free; living in freedom;   freeman;   independent;   free unrestrained;   liberal
Hurriya al-'Ibada Ḥurriya al-‘Ibada freedom of worship
Hurriya al-Fikr Ḥurriya al-Fikr freedom of thought
Hurriya al-Kalam Ḥurriya al-Kalam freedom of speech
Hurriya an-Naṣr Ḥurriya an-Naṣr liberty of the press
Hurriya, Huriyat Ḥurriya, Per. Ḥurriyyah, pl. Ḥurriyát freedom, liberty;   independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic)
Huruf-i-Hayy Ḥurúf-i-Ḥayy Letters of the Living.   See Ḥarf and Sábiq
Hurufat-i-'Alin Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álín The Exalted letters (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See Ḥarf
Hurufis Ḥurúfís
Husam-i-Din, Hisam-i-Din Ḥusám-i-Dín (Ḥisám-i-Dín) sword of faith
Husamu's-Sultani, Hisamu's-Saltanih Ḥusámu’s-Sulṭaní (Ḥisámu’s-Salṭanih) ("Sword of the sovereign")   Title of Prince Sulṭán Murád Mírzá, son of ‘Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh
Husayn Ḥusayn (Diminutive form of Haṣan "Good")   Name of the third Imám, Ḥusayn.
Husayn-'Ali Ḥusayn-‘Alí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Isfahani Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Iṣfahání
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Jahrumi Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Jahrúmí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nur Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núr (GPB p. 338)
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nuri Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí, Mírzá   Bahá’u’lláh
Husayn-Abad Ḥusayn-Ábád
Husayn-Aqa Ḥusayn-Áqá (MF)
Husayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi Ḥusayn-Áqáy-i-Tabrízí (MF)
Husayn-i-Ashchi Ḥusayn-i-Áshchí
Husayn-i-Bushru'i Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í, Mullá   From Bushrúyih, Khurásán
Husayn-i-Kashani Ḥusayn-i-Káshání
Husayn-i-Kashi Ḥusayn-i-Káshí
Husayn-i-Shiraziy-i-Khurtumi Ḥusayn-i-Shírázíy-i-Khurṭúmí
Husayn-i-Turshizi Ḥusayn-i-Turshízí
Husayn-i-Yazdi Ḥusayn-i-Yazdí
Husayn-ibn-Ruh Ḥusayn-ibn-Rúḥ (one of "Four Gates")
Husayn-Khan Ḥusayn-Khán (the Mushiru’d-Dawlih)
Husayni Ḥusayní
Husayniyyih Ḥusayníyyih In Shí’ih Islám, a place used to mourn the death of Imám Ḥusayn
Husban Ḥusbān calculation, reckoning, accounting;   computation.   bi-Ḥuṣbán "By final calculation"
Hushang shang ("The first emanation, intelligence")
Hushidar, Hoshidar Hushidár One who increases holiness or promotes righeousness;   name of a future saviour.   Zoroastrian origin.
Hushmand shmand Pers.   wise
Husn Ḥusn beauty, handsomeness, prettiness, loveliness;   excellence, superiority, perfection
Husn al-Madkhal Ḥusn al-Madkhal good manners, good conduct
Husni-Farang Ḥusní-Farang Pers.   white, as the complexion of Europeans
Husniyyih Ḥusníyyih Pers.   "Beauty"   Fem. proper name.
Huwa (Pers. Huva) Huwa he;   it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun);   God (or "the Most Great Name of God" according to the Báb).   See note under Bahá.
Huwa'llah Huwa’lláh He is God
Huwaydar, Huvaydar Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar village north of the city Ba‘qúba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdád
Huwiya (Pers. Huwiyyat, Huviyyat) Huwíya essence, nature;   coessentiality, consubstantiality;   identity;   identity card
Huwiyya, (Huviyyah) Huwíyyah "Essence of Divinity"
Huzn, Hazan, Ahzan Ḥuzn, Pers. Ḥazan, pl. Aḥzán grief, sadness, affliction, sorrow
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
-i- -i- Pers.   sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it
i'tidal i‘tidál moderation
I'qilhá wa tawakkal I’qilhá wa tawakkal Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God)   in Tirmidhi’s collection of traditions
I'timad, I'timadat I‘timád, pl. I‘timádát reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in);   confirmation;   sanction, approbation, authorization;   accreditation (of diplomats);   (pl.) credit, loan
I'timadu’d-Dawlih I‘timádu’d-Dawlih
I'timadu’t-Tujjar I‘timádu’t-Tujjár
Iahut Iáhút Ar.   Divinity;   the inward or eternal aspect of reality.
Ibadat ‘Ibádát ‘acts of worship’, rites
Ibahih Ibáḥih ("permission" or abrogation of Islamic law on return of the Hidden Imám)
Ibn-i-, Ibnu'l- Ibn-i-, Ibnu’l- Pers./Ar. forms
Ibn, Abna, Banun Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abná’, Banún Ar.   son;   descendant, scion;   offspring, son (of a nation or people)
Ibna, Bint, Banat Ibna (colloquial bint), pl. Banát daughter;   bint girl;   ibna al-‘amm (female)
Ibrahim Ibráhím (Abraham)   Patriarch of the people of Israel.
Ibrahim-i-Isfahani Ibráhím-i-Iṣfahání
Ibrahim-i-Khalil Ibráhím-i-Khalíl
Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah Ibráhím-i-Khayru’lláh
Ibrani Ibrání Hebrew
Ibtihaju'l-Mulk Ibtiháju’l-Mulk
Idal ‘Idál Ar.   Justice
Idda (‘Iddah, ‘Iddat) ‘Idda number;   several, numerous, many.   ‘iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)
Idha Idhá "if" or "when"
Idhn Idhn permission, authorization
Idilkhani Idilkhání
Idris Idrís Idris (Enoch)
Ifranj al-Ifranj Ar.   the Franks, the Europeans
Ifranji Ifranjí Ar.   European
Ifridaws al-Ifrídaws Garden of Innermost Paradise (Gate of the Heart 60)
Ihsan Iḥsán beneficence, charity, almsgiving, performance of good deeds
Ihsanu'llah Iḥsánu’lláh
Ihtiraq Iḥtiráq burning, combustion;   fire, conflagration
Ihtiyaj, Ihtiyajat Iḥtiyáj, pl. Iḥtiyáját want, need, requirement, (pre)requisite, necessity;   pl. needs, necessities, necessaries
Ihtiyat, Ihtiyatat Iḥtiyáṭ, pl. Iḥtiyáṭát caution, cautiousness, prudence, circumspection, carefulness;   provision, care, attention, precaution, prevention;   (pl.) precautionary measures, precautions
Ijaza, ijazat Ijáza, pl. Ijázát licence or diploma bestowed by higher-ranking members of the ulama on those deemed knowledgeable in particular aspects of Islamic sciences
Ijma' Ijmá‘ agreement, unanimity;   unanimous resolution;   (Isl. Law) consensus (of the authorities in a legal question;   one of the four uṣúl of Islamic Law)
Ijtihad Ijtihád effort, exertion, endeavor, pains, trouble;   application, industry, diligence;   (Isl. Law) independent judgement in a legal or theological queetion, based on the interpretation and application of the 4 uṣúl, as opposed to taqlíd;   individual judgment.   The power of a Shí‘ih divine to issue ex cathedra decrees and judgements.
Ijtima', Ijyima'at Ijtimá‘, pl. Ijtimá‘át meeting;   get-together, gathering, assembly;   reunion;   rally;   convention;   conjunction, constellation (astron.);   confluence (of rivers);   life in a social group, community life, social life
Ijtima'i Ijtimá‘í community, group (used attributively);   social;   socialist(ic);   sociological
Ikhlas Ikhláṣ sincerity or fidelity
Ikhtiyar Ikhtiyár choice;   election (also politics;   pl. ikhtiyárát);   selection;   preference (to);   option;   free will (philosophy)
Iksir Iksír elixir, the philosopher's stone;   alchemy
Il-Khan Íl-Khán a title
Il, Ilat Íl, pl. Ílat Pers.   tribe (especially nomadic)
Ilah, Ilaha, Aliha, Ilahat Iláh, fem. Ilaha, pl. Áliha, fem. Ilahát god, deity, godhead
Ilahi Iláhí divine, of God;   theological.   Bashír-i-Iláhí
Ilahiyat al-Iláhíyát theological, spiritual concerns
Ilan Ílán
Ildirim Íldirím May be from Turkisk Yildirim (lightning)
Ilhad Ilḥád apostasy;   heterodoxy, heresy
Ilham, Ilhamat Ilhám, pl. Ilhámát inspiration;   instinct
Ilkhani Ílkhání ("A tribal chief, a chieftain")   Also the name of a garden outside Ṭihrán where Ṭáhirih was martyred.
Illa'llah Illá’lláh but God
Ilm al-Ilah ‘Ilm al-Iláh theology
Ilm al-wujudi ‘ilm al-wujudi existential knowledge
Ilm-al-yaqin ‘Ilm-al-yaqín "certain knowledge" or knowledge that is impossible to deny or disprove
Ilm, ‘Ulum ‘Ilm, pl. ‘Ulúm Ar.   knowledge, learning, lore;   cognizance, acquaintance;   information;   cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge;   (pl.) science
Ilmu't-Tajwid ‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd al-‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd or ‘Ilmu’l-Qira’ah—the science of reading the Qur’an correctly.
Iltibas Iltibás confusion, tangle, intricacy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, doubt.   Also veiled or disguised.
Ilyas Ilyás Elijah
Imad, Amad ‘Imád, pl. ‘Amad support, prop, stay (also fig.);   bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar.   Mír ‘Imád famous calligrapher.
Imadi'd-Dawlih ‘Imádi’d-Dawlih ("the Mainstay of the State")
Imadu'd-Din Imádu’d-Dín pillar of the Faith
Imam-Husayn Imám-Ḥusayn
Imam-Jum'ih Imám-Jum‘ih Pers.   (Imam-Jom’a or Imam Jomai)   The leader of the Shí’ah Friday prayers in the mosque of a city or town.
Imam-Zadih Imám-Zádih descendant of an Imám or his shrine
Imam-Zadih Ma'sum Imám-Zádih Ma’ṣúm Shrine in Ṭihrán where the Báb’s body was kept at the instruction of Bahá’u’lláh.
Imam-Zadih-Hasan Imám-Zádih-Ḥasan Shrine in Ṭiháran—a hiding place for the Báb’s remains.
Imam, A'imma Imám, pl. A’imma (literally "Leader", "guide")   The person who leads the congregation in the mosque, in prayer (hence, "prayer leader"), is called the Imám.   The Imáma are called the "Kindred of God", "Suns of immaculacy and Moons of majesty" by Bahá’u’lláh (GDM).
Imamate Imámat "office or function of an Imám"
Iman Ímán faith, belief
Imara, Imarat ‘Imára, pl. ‘Imárát, ‘Amá’ir building, edifice, structure;   real estate, tract lot
Imarat-i-Khurshid ‘Imárat-i-Khurshíd Structure of the sun or sun room (missing ‘Ayn in texts?)
Imatu'l-Kubra ‘Imatu’l-Kubrá al-‘Imatu’l-Kubrá ("Most Great Name")
Imda' Imḍá’ realization, execution, accomplishment, completion;   signing, signature
Imkan Imkán power, capacity, capability;   faculty, ability;   possibility.   "inherent contingency"—contrast with Ḥudúth (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Imra’a Imra’a woman, wife.   See plural Nisá’
Imran ‘Imrán (Amran) father of Moses
Imruz Imrúz today or this day.   See yúm
Imtihan, Imtihanat Imtiḥán, pl. Imtiḥánát test, experiment;   examination.   Tests occur when a Manifestation appears.   See also Fitna.
Imtiyaz imtíyáz (‘distinction’)
Inab, Inabun, A'nab ‘Inab (coll.; n. ‘Inabun), pl. A‘náb grape(s).   Not ‘Anab as in PUP 248 [aneb].
Inayat ‘Ináyat "Enayat"   "concern, attention"
Inayatu'llah ‘Ináyatu’lláh ‘Ináyatu’lláh Ishráqí
Inayatu’llah Khan ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán Mírzá ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán (Enayet’o’llah), the son of Mullá Ismá‘íl, the martyr
Injil Injíl (Gk. Evangel) mentioned in the Qur’án is supposed to be a lost original Gospel promulgated by Jesus.
Ins Ins (colloquial) man, mankind, human race
Insaf Inṣáf justice, equity
Insan, insana Insán, fem. Insána man, human being.   Insán al-‘ain pupil (of the eye)
Insan-i-kamil insán-i-kámil perfect human being
Insani Insání human;   humane;   humanitarian, philanthropist
Insha'allah Inshá’Alláh Ar.   "If God wills it"
Insi Insí human;   human being
Iqan Íqán lit. "certitude"
Iqbal Iqbál drawing near, advance, approach;   coming, arrival, advent;   turning, application, attention, response, responsiveness
Iqtidar, Iqtidarat Iqtidár, fem. pl. Iqtidárát might, power, strength, potency;   ability, capability, faculty, capacity, efficiency, aptitude.   Iqtidárát wa chand lawḥ-i-dígár ḥaḍrat-i-Bahá’u’lláh (Magnificences and select other Tablets of His Holiness Bahá’u’lláh)—a compilation of Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh.
Iqtiran Iqtirán connection, conjunction, union, association, affiliation;   link, connectedness, simultaneous interaction;   conjunction (astron.);   new moon (as an astronomical aspect);   marriage, wedding
Irada (Iradih), Iradat Iráda, (Pers. Irádih), pl. Irádát will, volition;   wish;   desire;   (pl.) irade (a decree of an Islamic ruler), decree (of a ruler);   will power
Iraj Íraj village near Nayríz
Iram Iram place in ancient Arabia (QU 89:7)
Iran Írán
Irani, Iranun Irání, pl. Iránún Iranian, Persian;   (pl.) a Persian, an Iranian
Iraq al-‘Iráq Iraq
Iraq-i-'Ajam ‘Iráq-i-‘Ajam Persian ‘Iráq.   ‘Iráq between the 11th to 19th centuries consisted of two neighbouring regions: Arabic ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Arab) and Persian ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Ajam).   Arabic ‘Iráq corresponded with ancient Babylonia (now central-southern ‘Iráq), and Persian ‘Iráq corresponded with the ancient Media (now central-western Írán). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Iraq-i-'Arab ‘Iráq-i-‘Arab Arabic ‘Iráq.   See note in previous entry.
Iraq-i-A'zam ‘Iráq-i-A‘ẓam A part of Írán once known as Persian ‘Iráq (the country around Media (the triangle between the ancient cities of Ecbatana (believed near Hamadan), Rhagae (southern Ṭihrán) and Aspadana (Iṣfahán)), in today's central Írán.
Iraqi, Iraqun ‘Iráqí, pl. ‘Iráqún Iraqi, Iraqian;   (pl.) an Iraqi
Irbil Irbíl (")Erbil) capital of ‘Iráqí Kurdistán
Irfan ‘Irfán gnosis, mystic knowledge, true or spiritual understanding
Iriwan (Irivan) Iriwán Yerevan, capital of Armenia
Irshad, Irshadat Irshád, pl. fem. Irshádát guidance;   a conducting, showing the way (to);   guiding hand;   care;   spiritual guidance;   instruction;   direction;   directive;   information;   advising, advice;   pl. directives, directions, instructions, advice
Irshadu'l-'Avam Irshádu’l-‘Avám ("Guidance unto the ignorant" by Hájí Muḥammad-Karím Khán) (MF)
Irtifa' Irtifá‘ rise (e.g., of prices);   elevation;   increase;   height, altitude (e.g., of a mountain).   The Báb uses irtifá‘ to mean abrogation (both removing and elevating) in relation to the abrogation of a former Dispensation and its fulfilment and exaltation by a new Dispensation.   "Each Revelation, in simultaneously abrogating and exalting the previous Dispensation, is the return of the previous Revelation in the station of its perfection." Gate of the heart, p. 277.
Isa ‘Ísá Pers.   Jesus.   See Yasú’
Isfahan Iṣfahán Pers.   city 340 km south of Ṭihirán.   Transliteration as per Shoghi Effendi.   Iṣfáhán, Ispáhán and Ṣifáhán transliterations are used outside the Faith as the name of the city, carpets, business names and food.
Isfahan nisf-i-jihan Iṣfahán niṣf-i-jihán "Iṣfahán is half the world"
Isfand Isfand Pers.   A species of rue;   a province of Nishábúr;   twelfth month of Iranian calendar
Isfandabad Isfandábád Esfandabd or Isfand-Abad.   Village between Yazd and Shíráz
Isfandiyar Isfandíyár Pers.   Esfandiyár, Sepandiár, Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar.   Legendary Iranian hero.   ("Created holy and pure")   Name of loyal servant of Bahá.
Ishan Íshán "They" a designation by which Bahá’u’lláh was known.   Also said to be honorific form of Persian pronoun for the third person singular
Ishaq Isḥáq Isaac;   becoming threadbare;   shrinking after milking (the teats);   drying up
Ishq ‘Ishq love, ardour of love, passion
Ishqabad ‘Ishqábád (Ashkabad or Ashgabat, Turmenistan) "City of Love"
Ishqi ‘Ish belonging to love
Ishqiy-i-Qarn-i-Bistum ‘Ishqíy-i-Qarn-i-Bístum
Ishraq Ishráq Ar.   radiance;   radiation, eradiation, emanation;   illumination.   Ishráq Khávarí
Ishraq, Ishraqat Ishráq, pl. Ishráqát Pers.   rising (the sun   sunrise, morning;   splendour, lustre, beauty.   Tablet of Ishráqát (Splendours) (by Bahá’u’lláh) published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 101-134.
Ishraqi Namaz Ishhráqí Namáz Pers.   morning prayer
Ishraqi, Ishraqiyan Ishráqí, pl. Ishráqíyán Pers.   of or pertaining to sunrise;   eastern, oriental;   having the splendour of the East.   (pl.) a sect of philosophers, illuminati.   Ishráqíyyih (Ishraqiyyih)
Ishraqiyun al-Ishráqíyún the Illuminists, adherents of Illuminism
Ishraqiyyih Ishráqíyyih
Ishtihard Ishtihárd (place)
Iskaf, Iskafi Iskáf and Iskáfí, pl. Asákifa shoemaker
Iskandar Iskandar Persian for Alexander
Iskandariya al-Iskandaríya Alexandria, Egypt
Iskandarun Iskandarún (Turkish İskenderun, Arabic Iskandarúna)   Originally Alexandria, later Alexandretta, on Turkish coast north of Syria
Islah, Islahat Iṣláḥ, pl. Iṣláḥát restoration, restitution, redressing, reparation;   improvement, amelioration, betterment, mending, correction;   reconstruction;   reconditioning, repair;   renovation, refurbishing;   adjustment, settling, remedying, removal, elimination;   restoration of order, establishment of peace, happiness and order;   reformation, reform;   reclamation, cultivation (of land);   (re)conciliation, settlement, compromise, peace making
Islam Islám submission, resignation, reconciliation (to the will of God);   or the total surrender of oneself to God.   Titled "Perspicuous Religion" and "Well-established Path".   Redefined by the Báb as "Verily, the essence of religion is none other than submission unto This Remembrance [the Báb]."
Islami (Islamic) Islámí Islamic.   No accents for the English Islamic!   Incorrectly given as Muhammadic or Muhammedic.
Ism-i-A'zam Ism-i-A‘ẓam Ar.   The Greatest name (of God)
Ism, Asma Ism, pl. Asmá’, Asámin name;   appellation;   reputation, standing, prestige
Isma ‘Iṣma hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation;   preservation, guarding, safeguarding;   defence;   protection;   chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness;   impeccance, sinlessness, infallibility.   ‘immunity from sin and error’, (from ‘aṣama, ya‘ṣimu = to protect, to save from)
Isma adh-dhatiyya al-‘Iṣma adh-Dhátiyya Essential infallibility
Isma al-sifatiya al-‘Iṣma al-Ṣifátíya Conferred infallibility (bestowed rather than innate).   Immunity from error and infallibility of judgement—not freedom from sin, sinlessness or immaculateness.
Isma'il Ismá‘íl (Ishmael in Hebrew), the son of Abraham and the Egyptian Hagar, who was considered to be the forerunner of the desert Arabs.
Isma'il-i-Kashani Ismá‘íl-i-Kashání
Isma'il-i-Kashi Ismá‘íl-i-Káshí
Isma'il-i-Zavari'i Ismá‘íl-i-Zavari’í
Isma'ili Ismá‘ílí, pl. Ismá‘íliyyún disciple, follower
Isma’iliyya, Isma’iliyyih, Isma’iliyyun Ismá‘íliyya (Ar), Ismá‘íliyyih (Per) Isma’ilism—branch of Shi’a Islám.   pl. Ismá‘íliyyún.   Pers. Ismá‘íliya
Ismat-i-Kubra ‘Iṣmat-i-Kubrá Great Infallibility
Ismatu'l-kubra al-‘iṣmatu’l-kubrá Most Great Infallibility
Ismu'l-Azal Ismu’l-Azal Name of Eternity (Mírzá Yaḥyá)
Ismu'llah Ismu’lláh "Name of God"
Ismu'llahi'l-A'zam Ismu’lláhi’l-A‘ẓam Name of God, Greatest
Ismu'llahi’l-Akhir Ismu’lláhi’l-Ákhir Ar. Ar.   The Last name of God. This was the title given by the Báb to Quddús.
Ismu'llahi'l-Jud Ismu’lláhi’l-Júd "The Name of God, Bounty" (name given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh)
Ismu'llahi'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhi’l-Mihdí "The Name of God, Mihdí’"
Ismu'llahu'l-Akhar Ismu’lláhu’l-Ákhar "The Last Name of God"
Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq "The Name of God, the Most Truthful"
Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhu’l-Mihdí "The Name of God, Mihdí".   Name given to Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahají.
Ismu'llahu'l-Munib Ismu’lláhu’l-Muníb "The Name of God, the Patron"
Ispahan Ispáhán Middle Persian.   Arabicized modern form is Iṣfahán
Isr, Asar Iṣr, pl. Áṣár covenant, compact,contract;   load, encumbrance, burden;   sin;   pl. bonds, ties
Isra'il Isrá’íl Israel.   Banú Isrá’íl—the Israelites;   Daulat Isrá’íl the State of Israel.
Israfil Isráfíl (Israfel)   seraph.   The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet on the Day of Judgement.
Istarabad (Astarabad) Istarábád See Astarábád
Istidlal Istidlál reasoning, argumentation, demonstration;   conclusion, inference, deduction;   proof, evidence (of)
Istijlal Istijlál Ar.   majesty
Istikhlaf Istikhláf appoint someone to be successor.   In the Qur’anic context, appointing a trustee or vicegerent, or "Law of Succession of Prophets".
Istiqbal, Istiqbalat Istiqbál, pl. Istiqbálát reception;   opposition (astron.);   full moon (as an astronomical aspect);   the future
Istiqlal Istiqlál Ar.   Independence
Itabaki-A'zam Íṭábakí-A‘ẓam "the greatest tutor"
Itabaki-Chupan Íṭábakí-Chúpán "the greatest tutor"
Ithbat Ithbát establishment;   assertion;   confirmation;   affirmation, attestation;   demonstration;   proof, evidence;   registration, entering, listing, recording;   documentation, authentication, verification
Ithna-'Ashariyyih Ithná-‘Asharíyyih lit. the Twelvers.   Twelver Shí‘i or the branch of Islám Shi’ism that believes in 12 Imams
Itmam Itmám completion;   perfection;   termination, conclusion;   consummation, execution, fulfilment, realization, effectuation, accomplishment
Itmam-i-Ni’mat Itmám-i-Ni‘mat completion of favour
Itrat ‘Itrat "Mantle"   ‘Itrat al-Nabí "[People of the] Mantle of the Prophet"
Ittihad Ittiḥád oneness, singleness, unity;   concord, accord, unison, harmony, unanimity, agreement;   combination;   consolidation, amalgamation, merger, fusion;   alliance, confederacy;   association;   federation;   union.   Symbolically, the identification of man with God
Izadi Ízadí Pers.   God;   an angel
Izdiwaj (Izdivaj) Izdiwáj Pers.   marrying;   marriage, wedding
Izmir (Smyrna) Izmír City in western extremity of Anatolia, Turkey. Formerly ancient city of Smyrna
Izra'il ‘Izrá’íl (Israfels) angel of death
Izza ‘Izza might, power, standing, weight;   strength, force;   honour, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown;   pride
Izzat ‘Izzat Pers.   being great, powerful, rare, valuable;   grandeur, glory, power, might;   honour, esteem;   rareness
Izzatu'llah ‘Izzatu’lláh Might or Power of God
Izzatu'llah Zahra'i ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai)
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ja'far Ja‘far little river, creek (Djaffar)   The name of the sixth Imám
Ja'far-i-Istarabadi Ja‘far-i-Istarábádí
Ja'far-i-Sadiq, Ja’far as-Sadiq Ja‘far-i-Ṣádiq, Ar. Ja‘far aṣ-Ṣádiq the Sixth Imám
Ja'far-i-Tabrizi Ja‘far-i-Tabrízí
Ja'far-i-Yazdi Ja‘far-i-Yazdí (MF)
Ja'far-Quli Ja‘far-Qulí
Ja'fari Ja‘farí Pers.   the finest kind of gold (named after a celebrated alchemist);   a kind of cupola;   a sort of screen (the interstices of the frame being lozenged);   lattice-work;   name of a yellow flower;   parsley;   name of a fortress
Ja'fariyyih Ja‘faríyyih
Jabal, Jibal, Ajbal Jabal, pl. Jibál, Ajbál mountain;   mountains, mountain range
Jabal-i-Basit Jabal-i-Básiṭ "the Open Mountain"—Máh-Kú (same numerical value as Básiṭ, 72) al-Básiṭ "the one who expands or stretches")
Jabal-i-Shadid Jabal-i-Shadíd "the Grievous Mountain"—fortress of Chihríq
Jabarut Jabarút ("the All-highest Dominion" or "the Empyrean Heaven"—realm of being).   See Háhút, Láhút and Násút.
Jabir Jábir bonesetter   Jábir Ibn-i-Ḥayyán was a follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions.
Jabr Jabr setting (of broken bones);   force, compulsion;   coercion, duress;   power, might;   (predestined, inescapable) decree of fate.
Jabr wa'l-muqabala Jabr wa’l-muqábala Al-Jabr wa’l-muqábala ("completing" or "restoring", and "simplifying" or "balancing")   Part of a book title from which the word "algebra" is derived.
Jabriyyah Jabríyyah Muslims who championed determinism
Jabulqa and Jabulsa Jábulqá and Jábulsá (According to Shí’ih traditions, the mythical twin cities of Jábulqá and Jábulsá are the dwelling place of the Hidden Imám (the Promised One), whence He will appear on the Day of Resurrection.)
Jadhbiyyid Jadhbíyyih Pers.   attraction
Jadhdhab Jadhdháb Attractive;   magnetic;   suction;   winning;   charming
Jadhib dhib attractive; magnetic (fig.);   winning, fetching, engaging;   charming, enticing, captivating, gripping
Jadhibiya, Jadhbiyyih dhibíyah gravitation;   attraction;   attractiveness;   charm;   fascination;   magnetism
Jadid, Judud, Judad Jadíd, pl. Judud, Judad new, recent;   renewed;   modern;   novel, unprecedented
Jadidu'llah Jadídu’lláh "New one of God"   Jadídu’lláh Ashraf
Jafr Jafr Islamic science of the numerical values of letters;   numerology.   ‘ilm al-jafr: divination, fortune telling.
Jahada, Jahd Jahada (Jahd) to endeavour, strive, labour, take pains, put oneself out;   to over-work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (someone).   Form III to endeavour, strive;   to fight (for something);   to wage holy war against the infidels.   Form IV to strain, exert (something);   to tire, wear out, fatigue (someone), give trouble (to).
Jahan (Jihan) Jahán (Jihán) Pers. world
Jahangir Jahángír Pers.   "conqueror of the world"   Núri’d-Dín Muḥammad Salím (Mughal Emperor)
Jahiliyyih Jáhilíyyih The dark age of ignorance among the Arabs before the appearance of Muḥammad.
Jahl, Jahal Jahl and Jahála ignorance;   folly, foolishness, stupidity
Jahrum Jahrum place south of Shíráz
Jalal Khazih Jalál Kházih [not Khazeh]
Jalal, Jallal Jalál (variation Jallál) Glory.   Jallál: greatness, superiority, renown
Jalaliyyih Jalálíyyih
Jalalu'd-Dawlih Jalálu’d-Dawlih
Jalalu'd-Din Rumi Jalálu’d-Dín Rúmí [or Jaláli’d-Dín Rúmí or Jalála’d-Dín Rúmí] (called Mawláná ("our Master"), is the greatest of all Persian Súfí poets, and founder of the Mawlaví "whirling" dervish order.)
Jali Jalí (loudly and publicly, as in prayers, etc.)
Jalil Jalíl grand, noble
Jalil-i-Khu'i Jalíl-i-Khu’í
Jalil-i-Tabrizi Jalíl-i-Tabrízí
Jam'iya, Jam'iyat Jam‘iya, pl. Jam‘iyát club, association, society;   corporation, organization;   assembly
Jamad, Jamadat Jamád, pl. Jamádát a solid;   inorganic body; mineral;   inanimate body, inanimate being
Jamadiyu'l-Avval Jamádíyu’l-Avval Fifth month in Islamic calendar
Jamadiyu'th-Thani Jamádíyu’th-Thání Sixth month in Islamic calendar
Jamal Jamál Ar.   Beauty
Jamal Effendi Jamál Effendi (a name applied to Sulaymán Khán-i-Tunukábání)
Jamal-i-Burujirdi Jamál-i-Burújirdí
Jamal-i-Mubarak Jamál-i-Mubárak "The Blessed Beauty".   Title occasionally used by Bahá’ís for Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal-i-Qidam Jamál-i-Qidam Ar.   The Ancient Beauty.   A title of Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal, Jimal Jamal, pl. Jimál, Ajmál Camel
Jamali'd-Din Jamáli’d-Dín Beauty of the Faith
Jamalu'd-Din-i-Afghani Jamálu’d-Dín-i-Afghání
Jami' Jámi‘ total;   whole, entire;   all;   entirety
Jammal, Jammalun Jammál, pl. Jammálún camel driver.   Gardens of Jammál are at the south entrance of the Mansion of Bahjí.
Jamshid Jamshíd (Djemsheed)   mythical King in Iranian traditions and culture
Jamshid-i-Gurji Jamshíd-i-Gurjí (MF)
Jan Ján Pers.   soul, vital spirit, mind;   self;   life;   spirit, courage;   wind;   the mouth;   arms;   the father of demons;   name of a race said to have inhabited the world before Adam;   in modern conversation a word of endearment
Jan Aqa Big Ján Áqá Big known as a Kaj Kuláh
Jan-i-Khamsih Ján-i-Khamsih
Janami Jánamí
Jangal Jangal Pers.   a wood, forest, thicket;   a country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass;   a jungle
Jangali Jangalí Pers.   wild, untilled, jungle-like.   Insult referring to uncultured people (raised in jungles)
Jani Jání ("Devoted")   Title of a merchant of Kashán, Ḥájí Mírzá Jání, early historian of the Bábí Cause and a martyr.
Janib Jánib (draw back)
Janna, Jannat ("Jinnat"), Jinan Janna, pl. Jannát, Jinán garden;   paradise
Jarib Jaríb 10,000 sq metres
Jasad, Ajsad Jasad, pl. Ajsád body.   Compare Jism
Jasb Jásb rural district, Markazí Province, Írán
Jashn Jashn Pers.   A feast, social entertainment;   convivial meeting;   a solemn feast
Jashn-i-A'zam Jashn-i-A‘ẓam (the Greatest Festival because ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was known as the Ghusn-i-A’ẓám [the Greatest Branch])—Day of the Covenant
Jasim Jásim healthy, strong, powerful, good health
Jasim, Jisam Jasím, pl. Jisám great, big, large;   voluminous, bulky, huge;   vast, immense;   stout, corpulent;   weighty, most significant, momentous, prodigious
Javad-i-Karbila'i Javád-i-Karbilá’í
Javad-i-Qazvini Javád-i-Qazvíní
Javad-i-Tabataba'i Javád-i-Ṭabáṭabá’í
Javahiru'l-Asrar Javáhiru’l-Asrár (Gems of Divine Mysteries or The Essence of Mysteries) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Javan Javán Pers.   young, youth
Jawab, Javab, Ajwiba jawáb, (Pers. Javáb), pl. Ajwiba answer, reply;   octave (to a given tone; mus.);   (pl. -át) letter, message
Jawad, Ajwad, Ajawid, Jud Jawád, pl. Ajwád, Ajáwid, Ajawíd, Júd openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous;   pl. jiyád, ajyád, ajáwíd race horse, racer;   charger
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir Jawhar, pl. Jawáhir intrinsic, essential nature, essence;   content, substance (as opposed to form;   philosophy);   matter, substance;   atom;   jewel, gem;   pl. jewelry.   See Pers. Gawhar
Jawhara, Jawharat Jawhara(t), pl. Jawharát "jewel or gem"
Jawsh (Jaush) Jawsh Pers.   the breast;   the middle of a man;   midnight;   a large section of the night, or the latter part of it;   a march during the whole of the night. See jayb
Jawshan (Jaushan) Jawshan breast plate, steel plate or chain mail
Jawshan Kabir Jawshan Kabír long ("big") Islamic prayer with 1,000 names and attributes of God that is Muḥammad’s "coat of amour" to protect Him from injuries
Jayb (Jaib), Juyub Jayb, pl. Juyúb breast, bosom, heart;   sine (mathematics);   hole, hollow, cavity, excavation;   pocket;   purse
Jayhun Jayhún Oxus River
Jaz Jaz Pers.   An island;   name of a country between Euphrates and Tigris (Mesopotamia, al-Jazírat)
Jazira, Jaza'ir, Juzur Jazíra, pl. Jazá’ir, Juzur Ar.   island
Jazirat al-Bahr Jazírat al-Baḥr Name given to Búshihr by the Báb
Jaziriy-i-Khadra Jazíriy-i-Khaḍrá "Verdant Isle"
Jazzar, Jazzarun Jazzár, pl. Jazzárún butcher
Jibra'il Jibrá’íl Gabriel
Jibt Jibt sorcery, divination or any false belief
Jidal, Mujadala Jidál (m.), Mujádala (f.), pl. Mujádalát quarrel, argument;   dispute, discussion, debate.   Al Mujádilah (The woman who pleads) Súrah 58.
Jiha, Jihat, Juhat Jiha (Pers. Jihat, Juhat), pl. Jihát side;   direction;   region, part, section, area;   district, precinct, city quarter;   agency, authority;   administrative agency
Jihat-i-Mahiyyati Jihat-i-Máhíyyatí Pers.   essential aspect
Jihat-i-Vujudi Jihat-i-Vujúdí Pers.   existential aspect
Jilf-ast Jilf-ast "he is a light-weight"
Jilf, Ajlaf Jilf, pl. Ajláf Pers.   any empty vessel, pot or pan;   an animal disembowelled, and skinned;   anything empty in the middle;   silly, trifling
Jihad Jihád Commonly understood to be: fight, battle;   jihad, holy war (against the infidels, as a religious duty).   Literally means "striving" (see root jahada)—a witness or martyr.   During and immediately after the time of Muḥammad, jihad was directed against pagans and idolaters—the polytheists—and was undertaken in defence of the realm of Islám. Meaning was later obscured and lost.   See Qitál
Jihan Jihán Pers.   world
Jillabiyya Jillábíyya Ar.   Gúllábíyya   Pers.   (galabieh)   coat
Jim Jím Arabic letter (j)
Jinab Jináb Ar.   Courtesy title sometimes translated as ‘His Honour’, or ‘The Honourable’.
Jinab-i Jináb-i (Janabe)
Jinab-i-'Azim Jináb-i-‘Aẓím
Jinab-i-Amin Jináb-i-Amín
Jinab-i-Avarih Jináb-i-Ávárih (Unfolding Destiny, p. 13.)
Jinab-i-Fadil-i-Mazindarani Jináb-i-Fáḍil-i-Mázindarání (Jenabi Fazel)
Jinab-i-Husayn Jináb-i-Ḥusayn
Jinab-i-Ibn-'Abhar Jináb-i-Ibn-‘Abhar (Jenabe Ayadi, Ibn Abhar)
Jinab-i-Ismu'llah Jináb-i-Ismu’lláh
Jinab-i-Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Jináb-i-Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq
Jinab-i-Khan Jináb-i-Khán
Jinab-i-Mirza Jináb-i-Mírzá
Jinab-i-Mishkin Jináb-i-Mishkín (MF p. 100)
Jinab-i-Muhammad-Taqi Jináb-i-Muḥammad-Taqí
Jinab-i-Mulla Jináb-i-Mullá
Jinab-i-Munib Jináb-i-Muníb (Memorials of the Faithful, GPB & Child of the Covenant 73)
Jinab-i-Munir Jináb-i-Munír
Jinab-i-Nabil-i-Akbar Jináb-i-Nabíl-i-Akbar
Jinab-i-Quddus Jináb-i-Quddús
Jinab-i-Sayyah Jináb-i-Sayyáḥ (MF)
Jinab-i-Shaykh Jináb-i-Shaykh
Jinab-i-Tahirih Jináb-i-Ṭáhirih
Jinab-i-Varqa Jináb-i-Varqá
Jinab-i-Zayn Jináb-i-Zayn (Jinabi Zain)
Jinn, Jinni Jinn (pl.), Jinní (sing.) supernatural creature(s)
Jirjis Jirjís Pers.   George, particularly St. George of England;   ranked among the prophets by Muslims.
Jism, Ajsam, Jusum Jism, pl. Ajsám, Jusúm body (also [new meaning] of an automobile);   substance, matter;   mass;   form, shape.   Compare jasad
Jizya (Pers. Jizyah), Jizan, Jiza' Jizya, pl. Jizan, Jizá’ tax;   tribute;   head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule
Ju Jú‘ hunger, starvation
Ju'an Jú‘án Said to be "I am hungry" in Chosen Highway, p. 212
Jubbih Jubbih Pers.   Outer coat, overcoat.
Jubbiy-i-Hizari'i Jubbiy-i-Hizári’í A type of overcoat
Jud Júd open-handedness, liberality, generosity, bounty
Juk Júk Book of Júk
Julab Juláb, Julláb rose water
Julfa Julfá (place, TN p. 94)
Jull, Gul Jull, Pers. Gul rose
Jum'a, Jum'ih, Juma', Juma'at Jum‘a, Per. Jum‘ih, pl. Juma‘, Juma‘át week;   Friday
Jum'ih-Bazar Jum‘ih-Bázár Friday Bazaar. Normal market with many temporary traders on Friday
Jumada Jumádá dry.   Name of the fifth and sixth months of the Muslim year
Jumada al-Awwal, Jumada al-Ula Jumádá al-Awwal Fifth Islamic calendar month (the first of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Úlá.
Jumada ath-Thani, Jumada al-Akhir Jumádá ath-Thání Sixth Islamic calendar month (the second/last of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Ákhir.
Jumhuriya, Jumhuriyat Jumhúriya, pl. Jumhúriyát republic
Junaina, Junaynih Junaina, pl. Junainát, Pers. Junaynih little garden;   garden.   Junaynih Garden—garden NW of Mazra‘ih, Israel
Jurj Jurj Pers.   wallets;   saddlebags.   Jurjí Zaydán
Juvayn, Juwayn Juvayn, Ar. Juwayn Joveyn, area about 50 km NNW of Sabzivár, Írán
Juz' Juz’ a 30th of the Qur’án
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf Ka‘b-ibn-i-Ashraf
Ka'b, Ka'ba, Ka'aba, Ka'iba Ka’b, Ka’ba, Ka’ába, Ka’iba to be dejected, dispirited, downcast, sad
Ka'b, Ki'ab, Ku'ub Ka‘b, pl. Ki‘áb, Ku‘úb knot, knob, node (of cane);   joint, articulation;   ankle, anklebone
Ka'ba, Ka'abat, Ka'bih Ka‘ba (Ar), pl. Ka‘abát, Pers. Ka‘bih cube, cubic structure;   (fig.) shrine;   object of veneration, focus of interest.   The cubic building (the Kaaba) in the centre of the Mosque at Mecca that contains the Black Stone (Hajaru’l-Aswad). The sanctuary is believed to have been originally built by Ibráhím (Abraham) and Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), and appointed by Muḥammad as the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration) to which people turn in prayer in Mecca.
Kabara Kabara to exceed in age, to be older
Kabara, Kabr, Kabri Kabara, Kabr to exceed in age (someone by), be older (than someone).   Aqueduct from Kabrí (NE of Naḥáríya) to ‘Akká.
Kabir, Kibar Kabír, pl. Kibár great, big, large, sizable;   bulky, voluminous, spacious;   extensive, comprehensive;   significant, considerable, formidable, huge, vast, enormous;   powerful, influential, distinguished, eminent; important;   old. e.g. Amír Kabír.   Superlative form of ‘kabura’.
Kabul Kábul capital of Afghánistán
Kabura Kabura to be or become great, big, large, to grow, increase
Kad-Khuda Kad-Khudá Pers.   chief officer of a district;   a mayor, magistrate, alderman or bailiff.   Head man of a village, town, district or ward.
Kaf Káf Arabic letter (k)
Kafi Káfí "Sufficient"
Kafir, Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar Káfir, pl. Káfirún, Kuffár, Kafara, Kifár irreligious, unbelieving;   unbeliever, infidel, atheist;   ungrateful
Kafiya Káfiyá by Ibn-i-Ḥájib
Kafur Káfúr (kafur) (a fountain intended to be drunk by the true and firm believers)—literally camphor, a medicine that is given as a soothing tonic in Eastern medicine. It is cool and it may have a good odour. Symbolically it is referred to as a spring in heaven or an added spiritual flavour etc. Used to denote whiteness—a compound of all colours
Kahruba'i Kahrubá’í’ electrician
Kaj Kulah (Kajkulah) Kaj Kuláh (or Kaj-Kuláh) Pers.   A beau, lit. "wearing the cap awry";   a beloved object
Kajavih Kajávih A type of pannier, howdah or litter.   See Hawdaj
Kalam Kalám talking, speaking;   speech;   language, mode of expression, style;   talk, conversation, discussion;   debate, dispute, controversy;   words, word, saying, utterance, statement, remark;   aphorism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of speech;   (grammar) sentence, clause.   Described as "speculative theology" by Momen.   In Islám "the term ‘theology’ has never been used. Instead, the term kalám (discourse on the divine) was coined because the term ‘theology’ was identified with the doctrine of the holy trinity." Making the crooked straight, p. 786.
Kalantar Kalántar A mayor or prefecture of police?
Kalat-i-Nadiri Kalát-i-Nádirí Kalat Nader, city 80 km north of Mashhad
Kalb, Kilab Kalb, pl. Kiláb dog
Kalbasi Kalbásí Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ibráhím-i-Kalbásí
Kalim, Kalma, Kulama Kalím two meanings: 1. wounded, injured;   sore;   (pl. kalmá).   2. person addressed;   speaker, spokesman, mouthpiece (pl. kulamá’). Hence, "The Interlocutor"—title of Mírzá Músá, Bahá’u’lláh’s faithful brother;   also Áqáy-i Kalím, Master of Discourse, his usual full title.
Kalima (Kalimah), Kalim, Kalimat Kalima (Kalimah) fem., pl. Kalimát (Kalim is the collective masc. pl.)   word;   speech, address;   utterance, remark, saying;   aphorism, maxim;   brief announcement, a few (introductory) words;   short treatise;   importance, weight, influence, authority, ascendancy, powerful position.   Final Arabic letter is a tá mabúta.
Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih Kalimát-i-Firdawsíyyih ("The Words of Paradise") (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kalimat-i-Maknunih Kalimát-i-Maknúnih "The Hidden Words" by Bahá’u’lláh.   Also known as Ṣaḥífiy-i-Fáṭimíyyih (Book of Fáṭimih)
Kalimu'llah Kalímu’lláh "One who converses with God".   Title given to Moses in the Islamic Dispensation.
Kam, Chand Kam, Pers. Chand (interrogative and exclamatory particle with following noun in accusative) how much? how many! how much!
Kamal, Kamalat Kamál, pl. Kamalát perfection;   completeness;   completion, consummation, conclusion, termination, windup;   maturity, ripeness
Kamalu'd-Din-i-Naraqi Kamálu’d-Dín-i-Naráqí
Kamil-Muqaddam Kámil-Muqaddam
Kamil, Kamala Kámil, Kamala perfect, consummate;   genuine, sterling;   complete, full, plenary, full-strength;   completed, concluded;   whole, entire, total, integral
Kamran Kámrán Pers.   Name.   successful, blessed, fortunate
Kana, Kawn (Kaun), Kiyan, Kainina Kána (Kawn, Kiyán, Kainína) to be (past tense);   to exist;   to happen, occur, take place.   Kuntu (I was)
Kand Kand Pers.   cutting.   Village in the province of Ṭihrán.
Kangavar Kangávar Persian town west of Mt. Alvand and Hamadán.
Kanz, Kunuz Kanz, pl. Kunúz treasure.   Kanzan "a hidden"
Kar, Karat Kár, pl. Karát Ar.   work, job, occupation, business;   calling, vocation, profession, trade.   e.g. Ustádhkár
Karama, Karamat Karáma, Karámát nobility;   high-mindedness, noble-heartedness;   generosity, magnanimity;   liberality, munificence;   honour, dignity;   respect, esteem, standing, prestige;   mark of honour, token of esteem, favour;   pl. miracle (worked by a saint)
Karand, Kirand (Kerand) Karand, Kirand a village about 100 km SE of Ṭihrán, home of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís (an Islamic sect, followers of the Imám ‘Alí).
Karb Karb anguish, distress
Karbala (Karbila) Karbalá’ A Shi’ite holy city in ‘Iráq where the Imám Ḥusayn was murdered and is buried.   Imám Ḥusayn said of name: "Anguish and distress".   See Balá
Karbala’i Karbalá’í prefixed title given to those performing the pilgrimage to Karbalá
Karbala’i (Karbila’i) Mihdi Milani Karbalá’í Mihdí Mílání (Kerbelaiy Mehdi Milani) (Karbilá’í)
Karim Karím ("Honourable" or "All-Bountiful")
Karkh Karkh west bank half of Baghdád (al-Karkh), or alternatively, the western shore of the Tigris River as it ran through Baghdád. Derived from the Syriac Karkha;   citadel.
Karkuk Karkúk (place, GPB p. 123)
Kashan shán One of the oldest cities of Írán, located in north central Persia.
Kashanih shánih village, Keşan, Turkey
Kashfi Kash "the Discloser" or "one who discovers and explains the divine secrets" (DB 177;   TN p. 7;   Chosen highway 22)
Kashghar shghar (Kashgar) part of Sinkiang, China
Kashi shí Pers.   short form of Káshání
Kashifu'l-Ghita Kashifu’l-Ghiṭá’ DB 71, 79, 431
Kashkul Kashkúl beggar’s bag;   scrapbook;   album.   Described as a globe-shaped alms-basket (originally made from a sea-coconut) carried by dervishes.
Kasr-i-Hudud Kasr-i-Ḥudúd lift or break bounds imposed by God
Kasr, Kusur Kasr, pl. Kusúr breaking, fracturing;   shattering, fragmentation;   (pl.) break, breach, fracture;   crack, rupture; fracture of a bone
Kathir, Kithar Kathír, pl. Kithár much, many, numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious;   frequent;   a large portion, a great deal, a great many, a lot
Kathiran Kathírán very, much, to a large extent;   often, frequently
Kathiri Kathírí
Katib-i-Sirr Kátibu’s-Sirr, Pers. Kátib-i-Sirr private secretary
Katib, Katibun, Kuttab Kátib, pl. Kátibún, Kuttáb, Kataba writer;   scribe, scrivener;   secretary;   clerk typist;   office worker, clerical employee;   clerk, registrar, actuary, court clerk;   notary; writer, author
Katiba, Katibat Kátiba, pl. Katibát woman secretary;   authoress, writer
Katibpur-Shahidi Kátibpúr-ahídí
Katurah Katúráh The name of the Abraham’s third wife.
Kawih (Kavih) Káwih Pers.   "Kaveh" in Iranian mythology is a blacksmith (Áhangar) from Isfahan.   Pers./Kurdish Káwa.   May mean strength, vigour. May have derived from the Ar. Qahwa.
Kawkab (Kaukab, Kokab), Kawakib Kawkab pl. Kawákib star (also, fig., of screen, stage, etc.);   white opacity in the cornea of the eye
Kawmu Kawmú gathering, assembly, group of people
Kawmu's-Sa'ayidih Kawmu’ṣ-Ṣa’áyidih village, Egypt
Kawthar, Kawsar Kawthar, Pers. Kawsar much, ample, abundant, plentiful, large quantity;   al-Kawthar—name of a lake or river in Paradise (that Muḥammad saw on his mystic night journey, Qur’án 108:1) whence all the other rivers derive their source.
Kay (Kai), Kayan Kay, pl. Kayán Pers.   a star;   the point made by the compasses at the centre of a circle;   (pl.) great kings;   the surname of the second dynasty of the Persian kings
Kayani, Kayaniyan Kayání, pl. Kayániyán Pers.   of the Kayanian race;   imperial, royal
Kaykhusraw (Kaikhusraw) Kaykhusraw Pers.   Also Kay Khusraw, Kay-Khusraw.   Legendary Persian warrior
Kazim Káẓim "One who suppresses his passion or anger"   The title of the seventh Imám of the Shí‘ih.
Kazim Kaẓím filled with anger
Kazim-i-Rashti Káẓim-i-Rashtí, Siyyid
Kazim-i-Zanjani Káẓim-i-Zanjání
Kazimayn Káẓimayn Káẓimayn ("Kazmin" or "Kazemain")   "the two Ká’ẓims" (Imám Músá al-Káẓim and Muḥammad al-Taqí, the seventh and ninth A’imma).   Káẓimayn was a city built around the shrines of these A’imma—Al-Káẓimiya Mosque—now a suburb of Baghdád (about 7 km north of the city centre)
Kazimi-Manshadi Káẓimí-Manshádí
Kaziran Kázirán (Kazerun)   90 km west of Shíráz
Kha Khá Name of Arabic letter
Khabar-Dar Khabar-Dár Pers.   informed, appraised, certified;   aware;   careful, cautious;   an informer, scout, spy;   take care! beware! look out!
Khabar, Akhbar Khabar, pl. Akhbár news;   information, intelligence: report, communication, message;   notification;   rumor;   story;   matter, affair.   Traditions, sayings attributed to Muḥammad and to the Imams.
Khadi', Khuda', Khud'an, Khid'an Kháḍi‘, pl. Khuḍa‘, Khuḍ‘án, Khiḍ‘án submissive, humble;   obedient, pliant, tractable;   subject, liable, prone (to something).   Pers.   may use Kházih (Khazih)
Khadi'i Kháḍi’í [Not Kháḍí’í, MUHJ 1963-86]
Khadij Khadíj premature child
Khadijih Khadíjih Muḥammad’s first wife.
Khadijih Khanum Khadíjih Khánum Mother of Bahá’u’lláh.   Children of second marriage—Daughters Sárih Khánum and Nisá Khánum.   Sons Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Mihdí
Khadijih-Bagum Khadíjih-Bagum Wife of the Báb.
Khadijih-Sultan Khadíjih-Sulṭán
Khadim, Khuddam, Khudama Khádim, pl. Khuddám, Khudama domestic servant, help;   manservant;   woman servant;   employee;   attendant;   waiter;   deacon   (Chr.) (Dhikru’lláh Khádem)
Khadimu'llah Khádimu’lláh ("Servant of God")   Title given to Mírzá Áqá Ján, he was the personal attendant of Bahá’u’lláh and later His amanuensis as well.   (EGB, p. 65 by Balyuzi refers to the Tablet where the concept of Hand of the Cause of God is first mentioned in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh)
Khafi Khafí (quietly and privately, as in prayers, etc.)
Khaima, Khaimat, Khiyam (Khayam) Khaim, pl. Khaimát, Khiyám, Khiyam tent;   tarpaulin;   arbour, bower;   pavilion
Khair, Khaiyar, Akhyar, Khuyur Khair, pl. Khiyár, Akhyár good;   excellent, outstanding, superior, admirable;   better;   best;   (pl. Khuyúr) good thing, blessing;   wealth, property;   good, benefit, interest, advantage;   welfare;   charity
Khairu’l-Ummah Khairu’l-Ummah good people/community Qur’án 3:110
Khajih Khájih ("Title of honour") Name of a fortress near the town of Nayríz.
Khal-i-A'zam Khál-i-A‘ẓam "the Greatest Uncle"   ‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá Siyyid, maternal uncle of the Báb
Khal-i-Asghar Khál-i-Aṣghar "Younger or Junior Uncle"
Khal, Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'la Khál, pl. Akhwál, Khu’úl, Khu’úla (maternal) uncle;   — (pl. khílán) mole, birthmark (on the face);   patch, beauty spot
Khalaqa, (Khalq) Khalaqa (Khalq) to create, make, originate (something);   to shape, form, mould (something)
Khaldun Khaldún Ibn-i-Khaldún ("Ibn-Kaldoon") (a famous Oriental historian)
Khalid, Khwalid Khálid, pl. Khwálid everlasting, perpetual, eternal;   immortal, deathless, undying;   unforgettable, glorious;   pl. mountains
Khalidiyyih Khalídíyyih Khalídíyyih Order
Khalifa, Khulafa Khalífa, pl. Khulafá Caliph   lit. successor.   The vicar, deputy, successor or representative of the Messenger of God   (see Khiláfa)
Khalifa, Khulafa, Khala'if Khalífa, pl. Khulafá’, Khalá’if vicar, deputy;   successor;   caliph (plural—the institution, the Caliphate)
Khalifatu Khalífatu successor of Muḥammad
Khalil Khalíl, pl. Akhillá, Khullán friend, bosom friend;   lovers.   The Friend, Abraham.
Khalil-i-Khu'i Khalíl-i-Khu’í
Khalilu'llah Khalílu’lláh the Friend of God (Abraham is known as)
Khaliq Kháliq creative;   Creator, Maker (God).   Used as a name, preceded by ‘Abd (servant)—‘Abdu’l-Kháliq "Servant of the Creator".
Khalis Kháliṣ Pers.   pure, unsullied;   unadulterated;   white;   name of a stream in the east of Baghdád on the banks of which a castle of the same name is situated
Khalis, Khullas Kháliṣ, pl. Khullaṣ Ar.   clear;   pure, unmixed, unadulterated;   sincere, frank, candid, true;   free, exempt (from)
Khalisizádih Kháliṣízádih itinerant traveller, Ákhúnd Turábí, Shaykh Muḥammad Kháliṣízádih
Khalkhal, Khalakhil Khalkhál, Khalákhíl anklet
Khalq Khalq creation;   making;   origination;   something which is created, a creation;   creatures;   people, man, mankind;   physical constitution
Khalq-i-Jadid Khalq-i-Jadíd Pers. (spiritual) rebirth
Khammar Khammár vintner, wine merchant, keeper of a wineshop
Khammar, 'Udi Khammár, ‘Údí He placed the inscription "Greetings and salutations rest upon this mansion which increaseth in splendour through the passage of time. Manifold wonders and marvels are found therein, and pens are baffled in attempting to describe them" over his mansion’s door   (David Ruhe, Door of Hope)
Khamsa, Khams Khamsa, fem. Khams Ar. five
Khamsih Khamsih Persian province
Khan-i-'Arab Khán-i-‘Arab
Khan-i-'Avamid Khán-i-‘Avámíd Inn of Pillars, ‘Akká.   Also known as Khán-i-Jurayní, or Khán al-‘Umdán.   See ‘Awámíd.
Khan-i-Ahi Khán-i-Áhí Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, a secretary of Russian Legation
Khan-i-Kalantar Khán-i-Kalántar
Khan-i-Kashi Khán-i-Káshí
Khan-i-Kirmani Khán-i-Kirmání
Khan-i-Larijani Khán-i-Laríjání
Khan-i-Nuri Khán-i-Núrí
Khan-i-Qazvini Khán-i-Qazvíní
Khan-i-Sardar Khán-i-Sardár
Khan-i-Shavirdi Khán-i-Shávirdí (A caravanserai in ‘Akká)
Khan-i-Tanakabuni Khán-i-Tanakábúní (GPB) Khán-i-Tunukábúní, Sulaymán (MF)
Khan, Khanat Khán, pl. Khánát hostel, caravansary;   inn, pub, tavern.   Originally from the Mongolian term for a ruler;   a title meaning prince, chieftain or man of rank.
Khandil Khándil pronunciation of Turkish Kandil (candle or oil lamp).   Arabic qindíl
Khani Khání
Khanidan Khánidán
Khanih Khánih Pers.   house
Khaniq, Khawaniq Khániq, Khawániq choking, strangling;   suffocating, asphyxiating, stifling, smothering;   throttling, throttle (in compounds;   tech.);   (pl.) choke coil, reactor (radio);   gorge, ravine, canyon
Khaniqayn Khániqayn A town in ‘Iráq on the border of Írán near Baghdád.
Khanum Khánum (Lady, wife) The feminine form of khán.
Kharaj Kharáj tax;   land tax (Islamic Law)
Kharaja, Khuruj Kharaja, Khurúj to go out, walk out;   to come out.   An act of rebellion against authorities.
Khariq-i-'Adat Kháriq-i-‘Ádat (Khareki-Adat) Things that are contrary, rend or change the habits of men. Hence, sometimes ‘miracles’.
Kharput Khárpút village
Kharras (Kharraz), Kharrasun Kharráṣ, pl. Kharráṣún liar, slanderer, calumniator
Khartum, Kharatim Kharṭúm, pl. Kharáṭím proboscis, trunk (of the elephant);   hose.   al-Kharṭúm (Khartoum)—capital of the Sudanese Republic
Khasa'il-i-Sab'ih Khaṣá’il-i-Sab‘ih "The Seven Proofs or Qualifications" (by the Báb)
Khash Khásh city in SE of Írán
Khasilat, Khasa'il Khaṣílat, pl. Khaṣá’il Pers.   manner, custom, usage, moral
Khass Kháṣṣ special, particular;   specific, peculiar;   relative, relevant
Khassiya, Khassiyat, Khasa'is Kháṣṣíya, pl. Kháṣṣíyát, Khaṣá’iṣ Ar.   specialty, particularity, characteristic, peculiarity, property, special attribute, feature, trait, qualification;   prerogative, privilege;   jurisdiction, competence
Khata Khatá Pers.   region in Tibet known for musk production
Khatam al-Anbiya Khátam an-Nabíyín the Seal (i.e. the last) of the Prophets (Muḥammad)
Khatam al-Wasiyyin Khátam al-Wasiyyín Seal of the Successors (‘Alí)
Khátam an-Nabiyin, Khatamu’n-Nabiyyin Khátam an-Nabíyín the Seal (i.e., the last) of the Prophets = Muḥammad.   Pers.   Khátamu’n-Nabíyyín
Khatam, Khitam Khátam, Khátim, pl. Khawátim seal ring, signet ring;   ring, finger ring;   seal, signet;   stamp
Khatib, Khutaba, Khuttab Kháṭib, pl. Khuṭabá, Khuṭṭáb suitor;   matchmaker
Khatib, Khutaba’ Khaṭíb, pl. Khuṭabá’ (public) speaker;   orator;   lecturer;   preacher;   suitor (for the hand of a girl);   fiancé
Khatiba, Khuttab Kháṭiba, pl. Khuṭṭáb woman matchmaker
Khatir, Khatirat Kháṭir, pl. Kháṭirát Pers.   Whatever occurs to or passes in the mind;   cogitation, thought, suggestion;   memory, remembrance;   mind, soul, heart;   inclination, propensity;   affection, favour;   pleasure, will, choice;   sake, account, behalf
Khatirat-i-Malmiri Kháṭirát-i-Málmírí Pers.   Memoirs of Málmírí
Khatirat-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-'Akka Kháṭirat-i-Nuh-Sáliy-i-‘Akká Pers.   Yúnis Khán, Memories of Nine Years in ‘Akká
Khatt Khaṭṭ Islamic calligraphy
Khatun Khátún Pers.   lady, matron;   proper fem. name
Khatun Jan Khátún Ján wife of Hádíy-i-Qazvíní (MF)
Khawaj or Khajih Kháwaj Khájih   Pers.   ("eunuch, a master, a man of distinction or a teacher)   See "Arches of the years", p. 205 and listing for Khájih above
Khawar (Khavar) Kháwar or Khávar Pers.   the West, but often used by poets for the east;   the sun;   a thorn
Khawari (Khavari) Kháwarí or Khávarí Pers.   Western;   eastern;   the sun;   surname of the poet Anwárí.   From Khávar
Khawarij Khawárij the Khawarij, Kharijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam);   dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels, outsiders or seceders
Khawf (Khauf), Khawfan (Khaufan) Khawf, Khawfan fear, dread (of);   khawfan for fear (of), fearing (for).   al-Khawf—mystical station of fear of the wrath and displeasure of God.
Khawwam, Khavvam Khawwám, Pers. Khavvám a surname
Khaybar Khaybar The name of a famous oasis, and of its principle settlement, near Medina.
Khayli khub Khaylí khúb (Kheili Khoob) ("very good")
Khayr Khayr See Khair, which probably should be Khaír—depends on pronunciation.
Khayrkhah Khayrkháh
Khayru'n Nisa' Khayru’n Nisá’ (Ar. Khairu’n Nisá’) "The Most Virtuous among Women".   A title that Bahá’u’lláh gave to Khadíjih Bagum (wife of the Báb), and forbade all women, save Fáṭimih Bagum (the Báb's mother) from adopting the title.
Khayru’llah Khayru’lláh (Ar. Khairu’lláh) "God’s Blessing" (Kheiralla), Dr Ibráhím George Khayru’lláh—the first Bahá’í teacher in America.   Refer to H. M. Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá’í Faith, pp. 114–117.
Khayyam Khayyám tentmaker
Khayyat, Khayyatun Khayyáṭ, pl. Khayyáṭún tailor
Khazar Khazar Baḥr al-Khazar (the Caspian Sea)
Khidiw, Khudaiwi Khidíw, Khudaiwí viceroy.   Eng. Khedive   Per. Khidív (adj. Khidíwí, Eng. Khedivial) and Khidaywí
Khilafa Khiláfa vicarship, deputyship;   succession;   caliphate, office or rule of a caliph;   (formerly) administrative department of caliphate
Khilafat Khiláfat Pers.   vicegerency of the Prophet
Khirqat, Khirqa Khirqat, Khirqa Pers.   a patch, rag;   a garment made of shreds and patches;   a religious habit
Khirqiy-i-Sharif Khirqiy-i-Sharíf Mosque the Mosque of the Prophets’ Cloak, Istanbul.   See Khirqa
Khitab Khiṭáb public address, speech, oration or letter
Khitabat dar Urupa va Imrika Khiṭábát dar Urúpá va Imríká (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Khiyaban Khíyábán a village in eastern Írán
Khuda Khudá Pers.   master, prince, Lord, God
Khuda Bakhsh Khudá Bakhsh Gift of God
Khudarahm Khudáraḥm Pers.   compassion of God
Khujand, Khuqand, Khukand Khujand, Khúkand city in Chinese Turestan about 110 km SSE Tashkent
Khul Khul Pers.   bent, curved, crooked;   mad;   ashes;   fundament.   Possible word for ‘ashes’ in Arches of the years, p. 304.
Khulafa'u'r Rashidun Khulafá’u’r-Ráshidún (The) Rightly-Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islám’s history, was founded after Muḥammad’s death in 632. (sometimes al-Khulafá’a’r-Ráshidín or Khulafá’ Ráshidún):
1.   Abú-Bakr Ibn Abí-Quḥáfah (632–34)
2.   ‘Umar Ibn al-Khaṭṭáb (634–44)
3.   ‘Uthmán Ibn ‘Affán (644–56)
4.   ‘Alí Ibn Abí-Ṭálib (656–61)
Khuld Khuld infinite duration, endless time, perpetuity, eternity
Khulq, Khuluq, Akhlaq Khulq, Khuluq, pl. Akhláq innate peculiarity;   natural disposition, character, temper, nature;   pl. character (of a person);   morals;   morality
Khumayni Khumayní "Khomeini"
Khums khums religious tax.   Shí’at offering (lit. one-fifth) to Imám or his deputy
Khun-Baha Khún-Bahá ("blood-money")
Khurasan Khurásán (Khorasan)   A province in the north-eastern part of Írán.
Khurasani Khurásání
Khurma'i Khurmá’í
Khursand Khursand Town 190 km west of Kirmán
Khurshid Khurshíd Pers. khur-shíd, the sun; sunshine; —khurshíd the Order of the Lion and the Sun
Khuruj Khurúj exit;   egression, emergence;   departure;   exodus;   emigration;   raid, foray, sortie (against), attack, assault (on)
Khush amadíd (Khushamadid) Khush ámadíd (Khwush-ámadí) Pers.   A blessed arrival (flattery;   assenting;   you are welcome)
Khush Ghadam Khush Ghadam (a person who brings good fortune, welcome news, good omen)   Maḥmúd’s Diary
Khushk Khushk Pers.   dry, withered;   useless, barren;   pure, mere, genuine;   avaricious, tenacious
Khushk-i-Nusrat Khushk-i-Nuṣrat a village between Ṭihrán and Qum
Khushkhu Khushkhú (Khwush-Khú) Pers.   good-natured, of an excellent disposition
Khusraw Parviz Khusraw Parvíz (Chosroes II), the Sásánian monarch (Parvez)
Khusraw, Khusrav, Khusrau Khusraw, Khusrav, Khusrau Pers. A celebrated Persian king (Khosrow, Khosroe or Khosru). Kay Khusraw Khudádád, believed to be the first to embrace the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh from the Zoroastrian community
Khutan (Khotan, Khoten) Khutan Pers.   Ancient Buddhist city/region west of modern Hotan, Tibet, known for musk production
Khutba, Khutbih, Khutab Khuṭba, Pers. Khuṭbih, pl. Khuṭab public address;   speech;   lecture, discourse;   oration;   sermon, specif., Muslim Friday midday sermon
Khutbiy-i-Dhikriyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Dhikríyyih "Sermon of Remembrance" (by the Báb).   Also called Tafsír-i-Há’ (Interpretation of the Letter Há’) and Ṣaḥifiy-i-Ja‘faríyyih (Epistle of Ja‘far)
Khutbiy-i-Jiddah Khuṭbiy-i-Jiddah "Sermon of Jiddah" (by the Báb)
Khutbiy-i-Qahriyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Qahríyyih "Sermon of Wrath" (by the Báb)
Khutbiy-i-Tutunjiyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Ṭutunjíyyih Per.   Sermon of the Gulf by Imám ‘Alí
Khuy Khuy (Khoy) city in and the capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Írán
Khuzistan Khúzistán Iranian Province at the north end of Persian Gulf (Khuzestan)
Khwaja Khwája (khajeh) Khwája Naṣíru’d-Dín Ṭúsí
Khwush, Khwash Khwush, Khwash Pers.   good, sweet, excellent, beautiful, fair, charming, pleasant, delightful, agreeable, cheerful, amiable, lovely, delicate, tender, kind, gentle, humane, mild, meek, elegant;   healthy, wholesome, temperate;   happy, well, pleased;   willingly
Kinan, Kinanat Kinán, pl. Kinánát, Akinna shed roof, pent roof, awning
Kinanih Kinánih Pers,   Kinánih, Baní
Kinar Kinár Pers.   the lap;   the bosom;   an embrace;   dalliance
Kinar-gird Kinár-gird A small fortress and village near Ṭihrán.
Kinari Kinárí Pers.   (gold or silver) lace
Kinyat, Kunyat, Kuna, Kaniy, Kani Kinyat, Kunyat, pl. Kuná, Kaníy, Kaní Pers.   calling or naming (anyone) by a word that has another meaning, especially by the designation of father (abú) or son (ibn, vulg. bin), a filionymic (a name derived from that of a son), a patronymic (a name derived from the name of a father or ancestor).   (Also (Kunyah, Kunyih)
Kiramat Kirámat (Keramat)   (liberality)
Kirman Kirmán
Kirmanshah Kirmánsháh Province and city in western Írán.
Kirmanshan Kirmanshán
Kisra Kisrá Chosroes
Kisras Kisrás Caesars
Kitab, Kutub Kitáb, pl. Kutub piece of writing, record, paper;   letter, note, message;   document, deed;   contract (esp. marriage contract);   book.   Kitábun, a book
Kitab-i-'Ahd Kitáb-i-‘Ahd "Book of the Covenant" or Testament (Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-'Ahdi Kitáb-i-‘Ahdí "Book of My Covenant"
Kitab-i-Aqdas Kitáb-i-Aqdas "Most Holy Book" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitabu'l-Asma' Kitábu’l-Asmá’ "Book of Divine Names"(by the Báb)
Kitab-i-Badi' Kitáb-i-Bádí’ "The Wondrous Book" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-Haykal Kitáb-i-Haykal
Kitab-i-Iqan Kitáb-i-Íqán "Book of Certitude" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-Mubin Kitáb-i-Mubín
Kitab-i-Natiq Kitáb-i-Náṭiq "The Speaking Book"
Kitab-i-Panj-Sha'n Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha’n "Book of the Five Modes of Revelation" (by the Báb)
Kitab-i-Samit Kitáb-i-Sámit "The Silent Book"
Kitabu'l-Yavaqit-iva'l-Javahir Kitábu’l-Yaváqít-iva’l-Javáhir DB 654
Kitabu'l-Fara'id Kitábu’l-Fará’id "Priceless Things" (by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl)
Kitabu'l-Fihrist Kitábu’l-Fihrist "Indexical Tablet" (by the Báb)
Kitabu'l-Haramayn Kitábu’l-Ḥaramayn DB 62
Kitabu'r-Ruh Kitábu’r-Rúḥ "Book of the Spirit" (by the Báb)
Kitman Kitmán Persian.   The act of paying lip service to authority while holding personal opposition.   Saying something that is not true.   See Taqíya (Ar)
Kiya Kiyá Pers.   a king, protector, defender;   a hero, champion;   a lord, master;   a lord marcher, landgrave, margrave;   a peasant;   powerful;   work, labour;   the four elements;   pure, clear, innocent;   heat, cold, dryness, or moisture;   the mouth;   mastic.   [MUHJ 521 has Kíyá]
Kiyan Kiyán (Keyan)   Dynasty [time of Alexander the Great]   Kiyániyán (Keyanian) kings of Persia.
Kubra, Kubrayat Kubrá, pl. Kubrayát fem. of Akbar
Kuchik chik "Small, young"
Kuchik-Chakmachih chik-Chakmachih Küçükçekmece, Turkey
Kufa, Kufah, Kufih Kúfa, Kúfah, Kúfih Formerly a city on the west bank of the Euphrates River. The Imám ‘Alí made it the centre of his operations, and was murdered in its mosque.   Gave name to Kufic—ancient Arabic letters.
Kuh (Koh) Kúh Pers.   A mountain, hill
Kuh-i-Nur Kúh-i-Núr Mountain of Light—Shrine of the Báb, and the name of a famous diamond.   Also spelt Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor and Koh-i-nur
Kujur Kujúr a village in Mázindarán Province, Írán
Kulah Kuláh Persian lambskin hat worn by government employees and civilians.
Kulah-i-farangi Kuláh-i-farangí (European hat—PDC p. 92)
Kulayn Kulayn A village southwest of Ṭihrán.
Kull Kull totality, entirety;   everyone, each one, anyone;   (with following definite noun) whole, entire, all;   (with following indefinite noun) every
Kulli Kulli universal, total, all, every
Kullu-Shay', Kull-i-Shay' Kullu-Shay’, Pers. Kull-i-Shay’ "all things", numerical value of 361 (19×19) and a time period of 361 years).   See Váḥid (unity 19)
Kullu't-Ta'am Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám "Tablet of All Food" by Bahá’u’lláh
Kulthum Kulthúm "Plump-faced, chubby, good looking"
Kumayl Kumayl bin-i-Ziyád an-Nakha’í Companion of Imám ‘Alí. Known as Kumayl.   It is also the name of a prayer that he wrote.
Kun Kun (imperative Be!)   The word Kun contains the consonants Káf and Nún (káf u nún), which in English, by happy circumstance, can be represented by "B" and "E".
Kunya, Kunan, (Pers. Kunyah, Kunyih) Kunya, pl. Kunan Ar.   surname, agnomen (honourable adult nickname consisting of abú (father) or umm (mother) followed by the name of the eldest child (often a son), e.g. Abú Bahá’u’lláh). By extension, it may also have hypothetical or metaphorical references, e.g. as a nickname or reference of an attachment (Abú Bakr, "father of the camel foal", given because of this person's love for camels), without literally referring to a son or a daughter.
Kurash (Kurush) Kúrash (Kúrush) Pers.   Cyrus, king of Persia
Kurdistan Kurdistán
Kursi, Karasiy Kursí, pl. Karásíy, Karásin chair;   throne;   seat;   professorial chair;   base, pedestal, socle (architecture);   bearing (technology)
Kurur Kurúr return, comeback, recurrence;   succession, sequence, order.   Pers.   A crore (500,000 in Persia)
Kush Kush Pers.   A male;   (imp. of kushtan ("kill") in compound words) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses, as in azhdaha-kush, a dragon-killer
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
La La (intensifying particle) truly, verily;   certainly, surely
La (particle) not, no!
La ilaha illa Huwa Lá iláha illá Huwa "There is no God but He" [10 letters]
La ilaha illa’llah Lá iláha illá’lláh (There is no God [Letters of Denial (5)] but God [Letters of Affirmation (5)])   All else besides the Letters of Paradise is in Denial, while whatsoever appertaineth to the Letters of Paradise is Affirmation.   Lá iláha illa’lláh, Muḥammadun rasúlu’lláh (There is no God but God and Muḥammad is his messenger), the Shí‘a call to prayer (adhán) contains the additional statement: ‘Alíun valíu’lláh (‘Alí is God’s (friend/helper/defender/vice-gerent)
La'in and Mal'un, Mala'in La‘ín and Mal‘ún, pl. Malá‘ín cursed;   confounded;   damned;   outcast, execrable;   detested, abhorred, abominable
Labad Labád Pers.   any outer wet weather garment
Labada (Labbadih) Labáda Pers.   (for Arabic lubbádát) a rain cloak;   a quilted cloak;   a great-coat, pelisse;   a wrapper
Labbad Labbád felt-maker;   felt
Labib, Alibba' Labíb, pl. Alibbá’ understanding, reasonable, sensible, intelligent
Lahab, Lahib, Luhab Lahab, Lahíb, Luháb flame, blaze, flare.   Abú Lahab (the ‘Father of Flame’) is known for his hatred of his nephew, Muḥammad.
Lahijan Láhíján Caspian sea resort in and the capital of Láhíján County
Lahut Láhút (world of the Heavenly Court—realm of being, "divinity").   See Háhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút
Lail, Layali Lail, pl. Laylálí (usually masc.)   nighttime, night;   pl. (syr.) a certain vocal style
Laila, Lailat, Layalin, Laya'il Laila, pl. Lailát, Layálin, Layá’il (fem.)   night;   evening;   soirée
Laisa Laisa there is not;   not;   except
Lam Lám Arabic letter
Lar Lár city in province of Fárs
Larijan Láríján district of Mázindarán Province
Las-Furush Lás-Furúsh silk dealer in The Child of the Covenant and BKG 144.   Possible spelling is Láẓ-Furúsh.   See Láẓat and Farsh
Lashkar-Nivis Lashkar-Nivís Paymaster-General
Latafa, lutf Laṭafa, Luṭf to be kind and friendly
Latafah laṭáfah "refinement" or "cleanliness"
Lavasan Lavásán rural district east of Ṭihrán
Lawh (Lauh), Alwah (Alavah), Alawih Lawḥ, pl. Alwáḥ, Aláwíḥ (masc.)   board, blackboard;   slate;   tablet, epistle;   slab;   plate, sheet;   pane;   plank, board;   panel;   small board, signboard;   shoulder blade, scapula.   Sometimes singular transliterated as Lauḥ.
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz-Va-Vukala Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá by Bahá’u’lláh
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-Vahhab Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-Vahháb "Tablet to ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-'Abdu'r-Razzaq Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’r-Razzáq "Tablet to ‘Abdu’r-Razzáq" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-'Ahd va Mithaq Lawḥ-i-‘Ahd va Mitháq (Imríká) (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-'Ammih Lawḥ-i-‘Ammih (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq Lawḥ-i-‘Ashiq-va-Ma‘shúq "The Tablet of the Lover and the Beloved" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aflakiyyih Lawḥ-i-Aflákíyyih "Tablet of the universe" (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Ahbab Lawḥ-i-Aḥbáb "Tablet for the Friends" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ahmad Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad "Tablet of Aḥmad" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Amr Lawḥ-i-Amr "Tablet of the Command" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Amvaj Lawḥ-i-Amváj "Tablet of the Waves" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Anta'l-Kafi Lawḥ-i-Anta’l-Káfí "Tablet of ‘Thou the Sufficing’, known as the long healing prayer, Tablet of protection" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aqdas Lawḥ-i-Aqdas "The Most Holy Tablet", sometimes referred to as ‘Tablet to the Christians’ (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba Lawḥ-i-Arḍ-i-Bá’ Tablet of the Land of Bá’, Beirut by Bahá’u’lláh
Lawh-i-Ashraf Lawḥ-i-Ashraf "Tablet for Ashraf (the Noble)" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ayat Lawḥ-i-Áyát (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Ayiy-i-Nur Lawḥ-i-Áyiy-i-Núr "Tablet of the Verse of Light" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Baha Lawḥ-i-Bahá "Tablet of Glory" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Baqa Lawḥ-i-Baqá "Tablet of Eternity" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Basitatu'l-Haqiqih Lawḥ-i-Basíṭatu’l-Ḥaqíqíh "Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality, of the Ground of Being" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bisharat Lawḥ-i-Bishárát "Tablet of Glad Tidings" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bismilih Lawḥ-i-Bismilih "Tablet of ‘In the Name of God’" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq Lawḥ-i-Bulbulu’l-Firáq "Tablet of the Nightingale of Bereavement" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Burhan Lawḥ-i-Burhán "Tablet of the Proof" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Do-Niday-i-Falah va Najah Lawḥ-i-Do-Nidáy-i-Faláḥ va Najáḥ (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Dr Forel Lawḥ-i-Dr Forel (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Dunya Lawḥ-i-Dunyá "Tablet of the World" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Fitnih Lawḥ-i-Fitnih "Tablet of the Test" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Fu'ad Lawḥ-i-Fu’ád "Tablet to Fu’ád Páshá" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld Lawḥ-i-Ghulámu’l-Khuld "Tablet of the Deathless Youth, Eternal Youth, Youth of Paradise" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Habib Lawḥ-i-Ḥabíb (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haft Sham Lawḥ-i-Haft Shám (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Haft-Pursish Lawḥ-i-Haft-Pursish "Tablet of Seven Questions" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hajj Lawḥ-i-Ḥajj Tablet of Visitation to be recited at Baghdád (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hawdaj Lawḥ-i-Hawdaj "Tablet of the Howdah" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haykal Lawḥ-i-Haykal "Tablet of the Temple", i.e. the body
Lawh-i-Hikmat Lawḥ-i-Ḥikmat "Tablet of Wisdom" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hirtik Lawḥ-i-Hirtík "Tablet to Georg David Hardegg" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hizar Bayti Lawḥ-i-Hizár Baytí "Tablet of One Thousand Verses" (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Huriyyih Lawḥ-i-Ḥúríyyih "Tablet of the Maiden" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hurufat Lawḥ-i-Ḥurúfát "Tablet of the Letters" (by the Báb)
Lawh-i-Husayn Lawḥ-i-Ḥusayn (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhi'b Lawḥ-i-Ibn-i-Dhi’b "The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ishraqat Lawḥ-i-Ishráqát "Tablet of Splendours" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ittihad Lawḥ-i-Ittiḥád "Tablet of Unity" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Jamal Lawḥ-i-Jamál Tablet to Áqá Jamál-i-Burújirdi, "Tablet of Beauty" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Karim Lawḥ-i-Karím "Tablet for Karím (the Noble)" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Karmil Lawḥ-i-Karmil "Tablet of Carmel" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Khurasan Lawḥ-i-Khurásán (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Kullu't-Ta'am Lawḥ-i-Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám "Tablet of All Food" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Lahih Lawḥ-i-Láhih (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds Lawḥ-i-Laylatu’l-Quds "Tablet of the Holy (Sacred) Night" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Madinatu'r-Rida Lawḥ-i-Madínatu’r-Riḍá "The City of Radiant Acquiescence" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Madinatu't-Tawhid Lawḥ-i-Madínatu’t-Tawḥíd "Tablet of the City of Unity" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mahfil-i-Shawr Lawḥ-i-Maḥfil-i-Shawr (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Mahfuz Lawḥ-i-Maḥfúẓ Guarded or Preserved Tablet
Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus Lawḥ-i-Malik-i-Rús "Tablet to the Czar Alexander III" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Malikih Lawḥ-i-Malikih "Tablet to Queen Victoria" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mallahu'l-Quds Lawḥ-i-Malláḥu’l-Quds "Tablet of the Holy Mariner" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Manikchi-Sahib Lawḥ-i-Mánikchí-Ṣáḥib (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Maqsud Lawḥ-i-Maqṣúd "Tablet of Maqṣud (the Goal, the Desired One)" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Maryam Lawḥ-i-Maryam (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mawlud Lawḥ-i-Mawlúd Tablet for the Birth of the Báb (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mazzah Lawḥ-i-Mazzaḥ "Tablet of the Humorist" (by Bahá’u’lláh)   Begins: "Bismilláhi’l-Mazzaḥ …"
Lawh-i-Mubahilih Lawḥ-i-Mubáhilih "Tablet of the Confrontation or Execration" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Muhabbat Lawḥ-i-Muḥabbat (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Napulyun Lawḥ-i-Nápulyún I and II "Tablets to Napoleon III" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Naqus Lawḥ-i-Náqús "Tablet of the Bell" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Nasir Lawḥ-i-Náṣir (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Nuqtih Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih "Tablet of the Point" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Pap Lawḥ-i-Páp "Tablet to the Pope" (Pius IX) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm Lawḥ-i-Pisar-‘Amm "Tablet to the Cousin" in honour of Mírzá Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa’l-Mukhlisun Lawḥ-i-Qad-Iḥtaráqa’l-Mukhliṣún "The Tablet of The Faithful Ones (Mukhliṣún) have burned (qad … iḥtaráq),’" which is translated as "the hearts of the sincere are consumed in the fire …".   Known in English as "The Fire Tablet" (see first and last lines)   (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See Iḥtiráq
Lawh-i-Qina' Lawḥ-i-Qiná‘ "Tablet of the Veil" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Quds Lawḥ-i-Quds "Tablet of Holiness" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ra'is Lawḥ-i-Ra’ís "Tablet to Ra’ís" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Rafi’ Lawḥ-i-Rafí‘ (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Raqsha' Lawḥ-i-Raqshá’ "Tablet to the She-Serpent" (Imám-Jum‘ih of Iṣfahán) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Rasul Lawḥ-i-Rasúl "Tablet of the Prophet" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ru'ya Lawḥ-i-Ru’yá "Tablet of the Vision" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ruh Lawḥ-i-Rúḥ "Tablet of the Spirit" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Sahab Lawḥ-i-Saḥáb "Tablet of the Cloud" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Salman Lawḥ-i-Salmán "Tablet of Salmán" I–III (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Samsun Lawḥ-i-Sámsún "Tablet of Sámsún" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Sayyah Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ "Tablet of Sayyáḥ (the Traveller)" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Shaykh-Fani Lawḥ-i-Shaykh-Fání (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji Lawḥ-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Sultan Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán "Tablet to the King of Persia" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tajalliyat Lawḥ-i-Tajallíyát "Tablet of Effulgences" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tanzih va Taqdis Lawḥ-i-Tanzíh va Taqdís (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Tarazat Lawḥ-i-Ṭarázát "Tablet of Ornaments" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tarbiyat Lawḥ-i-Tarbíyat (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Tawhid Lawḥ-i-Tawḥíd "Tablet of Unity" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tibb Lawḥ-i-Ṭibb "Tablet of Medicine" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tuqa Lawḥ-i-Tuqá "Tablet of Virtue" (by Bahá’u’lláh)   See Lawḥu’t-Tuqá
Lawh-i-Yaquti Lawḥ-i-Yáqútí "The Ruby Tablet"
Lawh-i-Yusuf Lawḥ-i-Yúsuf "Tablet of Joseph" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin Lawḥ-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín Tablet to Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ziyarih Lawḥ-i-Ziyárih "Tablet of Visitation" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawha (Lauha), Lawhat, Alwah (Alvah) Lawḥa, pl. Lawḥát, Alwáḥ (fem.) board;   blackboard;   slate;   tablet;   slab;   plate, sheet;   pane;   panel;   plaque;   plane, surface;   screen; placard, poster;   picture, painting.   Sometimes singular transliterated as Lauḥ.
Lawhu'r-Ridvan Lawḥu’r-Riḍván (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawhu'r-Ruh Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ "Tablet of Spirit" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawhu't-Tuqa Lawḥu’t-Tuqá "The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God" (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawlaka Lawláka Arabic "but for Thee"
Laylat (Lailat) Laylat night
Laylat al-Qadr, Laylatu’l-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr, Pers. Laylatu’l-Qadr Night of Power.   The night in which, according to sura 97, the Qur’án was revealed, celebrated during the night between the 26th and 27th of Ramaḍán.
Laylatu'l-Quds Laylatu’l-Quds "Holy Night"
Layli Laylí In a Persian folktale, the beloved of Majnún, the classic loved one.
Lazat, Laz Láẓat, pl. Láẓ Pers.   a dress of red Chinese silk, pl. soft, thin silk
Li Li 1. (preposition) for;   on behalf of, in favor of;   to (of the dative);   because of;   for the sake of;   due to, owing to;   for, for the purpose of;   at the time of, when, as;   by (designating the author or originator).
2. (conjunction with the subjunctive) that, so that, in order that, in order to
Lillah Lilláh "for/to/towards Alláh".   The li at the beginning is a prepositional prefix. Morphologically, it would normally be li-Alláh (numerical value of 95—the á represents a stressed "a", not an Alif). Compare al-Bayán.
Liman Límán, pl. Límánát harbour, port;   penitentiary
Liqa' Rabb, Liqa-i-Rabb Liqá’ Rabb, Pers. Liqá-i-Rabb "Visitation of God" on the Day of Qiyámah.   Since God is sanctified from all material existence and He can never be seen by the material eyes, this means seeing and meeting a Manifestation of God.
Liqa', Liqa'a Liqá’ encounter;   meeting;   get together;   reunion;   liqá’a (prep.) in exchange for, in return for, for, on
Liqa'i Liqá’í
Liqa'u'llah Liqá’u’lláh ‘attainment unto the Divine Presence’, resurection
Lisan, Alsina, Alsun Lisán, pl. Alsina, Alsun tongue;   language;   mouthpiece (fig.)
Lisanu'l-'Arab Lisánu’l-‘Arab The Arab tongue
Lisanu'l-Mulk Lisánu’l-Mulk Lisánu’l-Mulk-i-Sipihr of Káshán, 19th century Persian historian
Litani River Liṭání Liṭánī River
Liva Livá Pers.   Banner
Lourenco Marques Lourenço Marques Portuguese explorer and pre-1975 name of Maputo, capital of Mozambique
Lu'lu' Lu’lu’ (coll.; n. Lu’lu’un), pl. La’álí pearl, gem,jewel   (MCI, Resurrection & renewal)
Lulin, Aftaba Lúlín Pers.   a jug, flagon, or any similar vessel with a spout, and made of clay (those made of metal are called áftába).
Lubbada, Lubbadat Lubbáda, pl. Lubbádát horse blanket, saddle blanket;—(pl. labábíd) felt cap
Luqman Luqmán a famous legendary figure noted for his wisdom.   Prophet in Qur’án.
Luqmat Luqmat, Laqmat, Luqma, pl. Luqam Pers.   a mouthful, morsel;   a kind of fritter
Luqmatu’l-Qáḍí Luqmatu’l-Qáḍí Pers.   the choice morsel for the judge
Lur Lur Name of a warlike tribe living in Luristán.
Luristan Luristán An area in western Írán in the Zagros Mountains.
Lutf-'Ali Luṭf-‘Alí
Lutfi Luṭfí "kindness, friendliness, benevolence"   Note ‘Umar Lütfí Páshá [Lüṭfí Paşa (Turk.)] (BKG 482)
Lutfu'llah Luṭfu’lláh Kindness of God (Lotfullah)
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Ma (interrogative pronoun) what
Ma, ila ma, bi'ma, li-ma, hatta ma Ma for what?   after prepositions: ilá ma whereto? where? which way? whither?   bi-ma with what? wherewith?   li-ma why? wherefore?   ḥattá ma how far? to which point?
Ma', Miyah, Amwah Má’, pl. Miyáh, Amwáh water; liquid, fluid; juice
Ma'ad Ma‘ád lit. place or time of return.   Day of Resurrection
Ma'dan Ma‘dan (Syrian ma‘din) very good! bravo! well done!
Ma'dan Nuqrih Ma‘dan Nuqrih a village and silver mine on Euphrates
Ma'ida, Ma'idat Má’idat, Má’ida Pers.   a table, especially one covered with victuals;   a circle, circumference, circuit, orbit
Ma'ida, Mawaid Má’ida, pl. Má’idát, Mawá’id Ar.   table
Ma'idiy-i-Asmani Má’idiy-i-Ásmání Pers.   compilation of Bahá’í Writings.   "Heavenly Banquet"
Ma’juj (Magog) Ma’júj Magog.   See note for Ya’juj (Gog)
Ma'mun Ma’mún reliable, trustworthy
Ma'mur Ma‘múr frequented
Ma'na, Ma'ni, Ma'ani Ma‘ná (also Ma‘ní), pl. Ma‘ání Pers.   sense, meaning, signification, import, drift, reality;   virtue, efficacy;   spirituality;   a thing;   anything;   a subject;   a circumstance, an event.   Plural: significations, senses;   imports;   mental images; intrinsic qualities;   qualities that are commended or approved, charms, graces;   elegance of language;   mystical meanings;   sublime realities, spiritual matters.   A reference to the Imams as the repositories of the inner Word of God.   See ma‘nan
Ma'nan, Ma'anin Ma‘nan, pl. Ma‘ánin Ar.   sense, meaning, signification, import;   concept, notion, idea, thought;   thematic purport (e.g., of a work of art, as distinguished from its form);   a rhetorical, figurative, or allegorical expression.   See ma‘ná
Ma’nawi (Manavi) Ma‘nawí relating to the sense or import (of a word or expression)
Ma'qul Ma‘qúl reasonable, sensible, intelligible, comprehensible, understandable, plausible, logical;   rational;   apprehensive faculty, comprehension, intellect, discernment, judiciousness, judgment;   common sense (ex-cogitated, MF 156)
Ma'rifa, Ma'arif Ma‘rifa, pl. Ma‘árif knowledge, learning, lore, information.   Skill, know-how;   cognition, intellection, perception, experience, realization;   gnosis;   acquaintance, cognizance, conversance;   an acquainted person, an acquaintance, a friend
Ma'ruf Ma‘rúf known, well-known;   universally accepted, generally recognized;   conventional;   that which is good, beneficial, or fitting, good, benefit;   fairness, equity, equitableness;   kindness, friendliness, amicability;   beneficence;   favour rendered, courtesy, mark of friendship;   active voice (grammar)
Ma'rifat Ma‘rifat Pers.   knowing;   knowledge, science, learning;   insight in divine matters or mysteries;   art, skill, craft;   account, reason, means;   by means of, through
Ma'sum Ma‘ṣúm inviolable, sacrosanct, protected by the laws of vendetta (Isl. Law);   infallible, sinless, impeccant, impeccable;   immaculate, morally infallible and rendered immune to error by God, infallible in judgements and decrees
Ma'sum Ma‘ṣúm Pers.   defended, preserved;   innocent;   a proper name
Ma'sum Ma’ṣúm Pers.   guilty or suspected (person)
Ma'u'l-Furat Má’u’l-Furát sweet waters ("the fresh and thirst-quenching waters")
Mabda’ Mabda’, pl. Mabádi beginning, start, starting point;   basis, foundation;   principle;   invention;   pl. principles, convictions (of a person);   ideology;   rudiments, fundamental concepts, elements
Mabsut Mabsúṭ extended, outstretched;   rim, spread out;   extensive, large, sizeable;   detailed, elaborate (book);   cheerful, happy, gay;   feeling well, in good health.   Nickname "happy": Dr Ḍíyá Mabsúṭ Baghdádí
Madad, Amdad Madad, pl. Amdád help, aid, assistance, support, backing, reinforcement;   pl. resources; auxiliaries.   House of Ḥájí ‘Alí Madad, in Baghdád that Bahá’u’lláh and family first occupied on arrival. This is not the Bayt-i-A‘ẓam.
Madaha, Madh, Midha Madaḥa, Madḥ, Midḥa to praise, commend, laud, extol
Madelli Madellí city (probably Mitilíni (Mytilene), Lesvos Island)
Madhab, Madahib Madhab. pl. Madáhib denomination
Madhahib Madháhib Schools of law.   The four Sunní legal schools (sing. madhhab) are: (1) the Hanafíte school, founded by Abu Hanifah (d. 767);   (2) the Malakite school, founded by Málik ibn Anas (d. 795);   (3) the Sháf’íte, founded by Sháf’í (d. 820);   and (4) the strictest and most conservative Hanbalite school, founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855).   Actions that might be considered lawful or unlawful are divided into five categories: (i) obligatory, (ii) prohibited, (iii) recommended but not obligatory, (iv) indifferent, and (v) disapproved but not forbidden.
Madhhab Madhhab religion
Madhhab-i-Ithna-'Ashariyyih Madhhab-i-Ithná-‘Asharíyyih Shí‘ahs or "Church of the Twelve" DB lii
Madhkur Madhkúr mentioned;   said, above-mentioned;   celebrated
Madi (Mazi) Máḍí (Máẓí) Pers.   passing away;   past;   dead;   swift, fleet, expeditious;   sharp, piercing (sword)
Madi Darad Maḍí Dárad Pers.   a closing phrase
Madih, Mada'ih Madíḥ, pl. Madá’iḥ praise, laudation, commendation;   panegyrical poem, panegyric;   eulogy, encomium, tribute
Madinah al-Madínah Medinah.   Muḥammad migrated to Yathrib in 622 and it was renamed al-Madínat an-Nabí (later shortened to al-Madínah)
Madinat an-Nabi al-Madínat an-Nabí City of the Prophet
Madinatu'l-Khadra Madínatu’l-Khaḍrá (the Verdant City) title given to Sabzivár
Madinatu'n-Nabi Madínatu’n-Nabí City of the Prophet (Medina)
Madinatu's-Salam Madínatu’s-Salám the City of Peace (name given to Baghdád by ‘Abbásid Caliph al-Manṣúr)   BKG 106.
Madinatu't-Tawhid Madínatu’t-Tawḥíd (The City of Unity) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Madkhal, Madakhil Madkhal, pl. Madákhil entrance; hallway, vestibule, anteroom;   entrance hall, lobby, foyer;   mouth (of a port, of a canal);   oxygen anode (electricity);   introduction (to a field of learning);   behaviour, conduct.   Madákhil: "commission, perquisite, douceur, consideration, pickings and stealings, profit …"   The Dawn-Breakers xliv
Madkhul, Madakhil Madkhúl, pl. Madákhil sickly, diseased, abnormal;   (mentally) disordered;   of weak character, spineless;   (pl.) revenue, receipts, takings, returns
Madrasa, Madaris Madrasa, pl. Madáris, Madrasah Ar.   a religious boarding school associated with a mosque; school.   Madrasa becomes madrasih, madrisih or even madrasat (sing.) in Persian
Madrasiya Madrasíya school vacation
Madrisiy-i-Daru'sh-Shafay Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh.   DB 168
Madrisiyi-i-Sadr Madrisiyi-i-Ṣadr
Maf'ul, Mafa'il Maf‘úl, pl. Mafá‘íl object (grammar);   —(pl.) effect, impression, impact;   effectiveness, validity.   See fá‘il, manṣúb and marfú‘
Maghdub Maghḍúb object of anger
Maghfarat Maghfarat [Magfaret] (Requiem)
Mah-Ku Máh-Kú Four-towered fortress above the village of the same name in north-western Ádhirbáyján (Azerbaijan).
Mah-Parih Máh-Párih [Mahpareh mah + pareh] = ‘a portion of the moon’
Mahabad Mahábád [Mahabad], Persian seer
Mahabba Maḥabba "fondness, tender and kind feelings, inclination, and love"
Mahall-i-Darb Maḥall-i-Ḍarb Place of striking: location in Tabríz where the Báb was subjected to the bastinado after His examination by the divines.
Mahall, Mahallat Maḥall, pl. Maḥallát, Maḥáll place, location, spot, site, locale, locality, center;   (place of) residence;   business;   business house, firm, commercial house;   store, shop;   object, cause (e.g., of dispute, admiration, etc.);   gear (automobile).   Maḥallát capital of Maḥallát County, Markazí Province, Írán.   Táj Mahal (Urdu "palace")
Mahalla, Mahallat Maḥalla, pl. Maḥallát way station, stopping place, stop, stopover, encampment;   camp;   section, part, quarter (of a city)
Mahallih Maḥallih Pers.   location or place, see Garden of Murgh-Maḥallih, abode/place of birds/chickens.
Mahbub, Mahabib Maḥbúb, pl. Maḥábíb beloved;   dear;   lovable, desirable;   popular;   favourite;   beloved one, lover;   (pl.) gold piece, sequin (in Ottoman times)   Title of the First Promised One expected by the Shi’ites.
Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada' Maḥbúbu’sh-Shuhadá’ (Beloved of Martyrs)   Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn   Brother of Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥasan, both from Iṣfahán.
Mahd Maḥḍ of pure descent, pureblood;   pure, unmixed, unadulterated;   genuine;   sheer, downright, outright (e.g., lie, nonsense, etc.)
Mahd-i-'Ulya Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
Mahd, Muhud Mahd, pl. Muhúd bed;   cradle
Mahdi or Mihdi Mahdí or Mihdí, Mahdíy ‘The (rightly) guided one’, English Mahdi
Mahfil-i-rawhani Maḥfil-i-rawḥání (lit. spiritual gathering spiritual assembly)
Mahfurujak (Mahfaruzak) Máhfarújak village 10 km SW of Sarí and about 30 km from the Caspian Sea
Mahfuz Maḥfúẓ guarded or preserved
Mahiya, Mahiyat (Pers. Mahiyyat) Máhíya, pl. Máhíyát quality, quiddity (the inherent nature or essence of someone or something), essence, nature;   salary, income;   pay (military)
Mahin, Muhana' Mahín, pl. Muhaná’ despised, despicable, contemptible, vile
Mahmud Maḥmúd "Laudable, praiseworthy"
Mahmud Zarqani Maḥmúd Zarqání Mírzá Maḥmúd Zarqání
Mahmud-i-Alusi Maḥmúd-i-Álúsí
Mahmud-i-Khu'i Maḥmúd-i-Khu’í Mullá Maḥmúd-i-Khu’í
Mahmud-i-Muqari'i Maḥmúd-i-Muqári’í DB 422
Mahmud-i-Qamsari Maḥmúd-i-Qamṣarí DB 8, 9
Mahmudabad Maḥmúdábád city on southern coast of Caspian Sea, Írán
Mahmudi Maḥmúdí
Mahmudnizhad Maḥmúdnizhád Pers.   Muná Mahmúdnizhád
Mahram, Maharima Maḥram, pl. Maḥárim something forbidden.   inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct, holy, or sacred;   unmarriageable, being in a degree of consanguinity precluding marriage (Isl. Law)
Mahshid Mahshíd Pers.   moonlight;   the moon   [Mahshed]
Mahv Maḥv (effacement [negation or annihilation], compare with ṣaḥv)
Majd (Egyptian "Magd") Majd, pl. Amjád glory;   splendour, magnificence, grandeur;   nobility, honour, distinction
Majdhub, Majadib Majdhúb, pl. Majádib attracted;   possessed, maniacal, insane;   (pl.) maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot
Majdi'd-Din Majdi’d-Dín son of Áqáy-i-Kalím, a brother of Bahá’u’lláh
Majdu'd-Dawlih Majdu’d-Dawlih
Majdu'l-Ashraf Majdu’l-Ashraf
Majdu’llah Majdu’lláh Glory of God
Majid Majíd glorious, illustrious;   celebrated, famous;   glorified, exalted;   praiseworthy, laudable, admirable, excellent, splendid;   noble
Majidi Majídí (medjidie), a Turkish silver coin of 20 piasters coined under Sulṭán ‘Abdu’l-Majíd
Majlas, Majlis Majlas Pers.   sitting down;   —majlis, time or place of sitting;   an assembly, convivial meeting, congress, council
Majlis, Majalis Majlis, pl. Majális seat;   session room, conference room;   party, gathering, meeting;   social gathering: session, sitting;   council meeting;   council;   concilium;   collegium, college: board, committee, commission;   administrative board;   court, tribunal
Majlisi Majlisí "a place of sitting" or council
Majma, Majami Majma‘, pl. Majámi‘ place where two or more things meet, place or point of union, junction;   meeting, congregation, convention, assembly
Majma'-i-Abrar Majma‘-i-Abrár the gathering place of the righteous, e.g. the House of Justice.   See barr (reverent).
Majma'u'l-Fusaha' Majma‘u’l-Fuṣaḥá’ See majma‘ and faṣíḥ
Majmu'iy-i-Alwah Majmú‘iy-i-Alwáḥ
Majnun Majnún (lit. "insane").   Name of classical Persian lover who searches for his beloved Laylí.
Majrur, Magarir Majrúr, pl. Magárir drawn, dragged, towed, etc.;   word governed by a preposition, word in the genitive form;   (pl.) drain, sewer
Majuj Májúj (Magog)
Majus, Majusi Majús, pl. Majúsí Magus, Magi, Mugh   (Per.)   (applied to Zoroastrains by Persians)
Makatib-i-'Abdu’l-Baha Makátíb-i-‘Abdu’l-Bahá (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Makhfiy Makhfíy hidden, concealed
Makhsus Makhṣúṣ special
Makhtum Makhtúm Pers.   sealed, finished, concluded
Makhzum Makhzúm Pers.   pierced in the nose;   name of the founder of a tribe
Makhzun, Makhzunat Makhzún, pl. Makhzúnát stored, stored up, deposited, warehoused;   (pl.) stock, supply, stock in trade
Makkah Makkah more accurate spelling of Mecca
Makki Makkí Meccan
Maknun, Maknunih Maknún, Pers. Maknúnih hidden, concealed;   well-kept;   hidden content
Mal'ak, Malak, Mala'ik, Mala'ika Mal’ak & Malak, pl. Malá’ik, Malá’ika angel;   messenger, envoy.   Mala’ika can be written mala’ikah.
Malaki Malakí royal, kingly, regal;   monarchic, sovereign;   monarchist;   angelic
Malakiya, Malakiyat Malakíya, pl. Malakíyát monarchy, kingship, royalty
Malakut Malakút realm, kingdom, empire;   kingship, royalty, sovereignty   (Kingdom of Angels—realm of being).   See Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút and Násút.
Malayir Maláyir city SE of Ḥamdán, Írán
Malfuf Malfúf wound, coiled;   wrapped up (in);   rolled up, rolled together, convolute;   twisted, wound (around);   fastened, attached (to);   swathed (in or with);   plump, stout (body)
Malik, Mulaka Malík, fem. Malíka, pl. Mulaká’ "king, monarch, ruler;   master, possessor, owner, proprietor"
Malik, Mullak Málik, pl. Mullak, Mullák "ruling, reigning, possessional;   master, owner, possessor, holder"
Malik, Muluk, Amlak Malik, pl. Mulúk, Amlák king, sovereign, monarch;   present a gift to the king;   Al-Malik yellow sweet clover
Maliki Málikí A Malikite is a member of a particular Sunní muslim sect (al-málikíya—a system of Sunní jurisprudence) ("proprietary")
Maliku't-Tujjar Maliku’t-Tujjár ("the King of the Merchants") DB 447
Malmiri Málmírí Málmír is a village in Markazí province, Írán
Mamaqan Mamaqán city 50 km south of Zanján, Írán.   Other variations found are Mámáqán and Mamáqán.
Man Man 1.   (interr. pron.) who? which one? which ones?
2.   (relative pron.) who;   the one who;   those who;   one who;   whoever, whosoever, everyone who, he who.
Man-Yuzhiruhu'llah Man-Yuẓhiruhu’lláh (man+yu+ẓahara+Alláh)   "Him whom God shall make manifest" Title given by the Báb to the promised One. "He Who is made manifest in the past and in the future" is another rendering of "Him Whom God has manifested and will manifest"
Mandalij Mandalíj Possibly Mandalí—a town in ‘Iráq on the border with Írán
Manhaj, Minhaj, Manahij Manhaj, Minhaj, pl. Manáhij open, plain, easy road, highway, path;   manner, procedure, method;   program;   course
Mani Mání Pers.   thou remainest;   thou resemblest;   rare, uncommon;   name of a celebrated Persian painter, the founder of the sect of the Manicheans.
Mani', Muna'a Maní‘, pl. Muna‘á’ unapproachable, inaccessible, impervious, impenetrable, forbidding;   well-fortified;   mighty, strong, powerful;   impregnable, unconquerable;   insurmountable, insuperable, invincible, immune
Mann, Amnan Mann, pl. Amnán gracious bestowal;   favor;   benefit, blessing, boon;   gift, present, largess;   honeydew;   manna;
a weight of 2 raṭl (Persian weight)   There are two Pers. weights: 1) Normal Mann—about 3 kg.   2) King Mann or Mann-i-Sháhí’ is equal to 6.6 kg. The Writings usually refer to the later.
Manqul va ma'qul Manqúl va ma‘qúl "desumed" (select or borrow (from traditional) knowledge) versus "excognitated" (thought out, plan, devise) knowledge (MF, p. 156)
Manqul, Manqulat Manqúl, pl. Manqúlát carried, conveyed, transported;   transferred;   transmitted;   translated;   copied, transcribed;   movable, mobile, portable;   handed down, traditional;   traditional stock
Manshad Manshád village in Yazd province, Írán
Manshadi Manshádí from Manshád
Manshiyyih, Manshiyya Manshíyyih Pers., Manshiyyá Palestinian village north of Bahjí—destroyed 1948
Mansub, Mansubat Manṣúb, pl. Manṣúbát erected;   set-up, raised;   planted in the ground;   fixed, fastened, attached;   installed in office; levelled, aimed (cannon;   at);   (pl.) word in the accusative or subjunctive.   See fá‘il, maf‘úl and marfú‘
Mansur Manṣúr supported, aided (by God);   victorious, triumphant;   victor;   "rendered victorious"
Mansuri Manṣúrí
Mansuriyyih Manṣúríyyih town in Egypt
Mantiq Manṭiq (faculty of) speech;   manner of speaking, diction, enunciation;   eloquence;   logic
Mantiqu't-Tayr Manṭiqu’ṭ-Ṭayr Written by Shaykh Farídu’d-Dín ‘Aṭṭár
Manuchihr Manúchihr Persian ruler
Maqal Maqál speech;   proposition, contention, teaching, doctrine;   article;   treatise;   piece of writing
Maqala Shakhsi Sayyah Maqála-i-Shakhṣí Sayyáḥ ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, A Traveller’s Narrative in English
Maqala, Maqalat, Maqalih Maqála, (Pers. Maqálih), pl. Maqálát article;   essay;   treatise;   piece of writing
Maqaliy-i-Sayyah Maqáliy-i-Sayyáḥ (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Maqam-i-A'la Maqám-i-A‘lá "Exalted Spot"
Maqam-i-Khidr Maqám-i-Khiḍr The Lower Cave of Elijah, blessed by the footsteps of Bahá’u’lláh for three days (according to Memoirs of Dr Mu’ayyad, 2:258) and of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for about two months (according to an unpublished manuscript).   See also David S. Ruhe, Door of Hope, pp. 186–88.
Maqam-i-Mahmud Maqám-i-Maḥmúd "Praiseworthy Station"
Maqam-i-Nuzul Maqám-i-Nuzúl "Arc of descent"
Maqam, Maqamat Maqám, pl. Maqámát site, location, position;   place, spot, point, locality;   situation;   station;   standing, position, rank, dignity;   tomb of a saint, sacred place;   key, tonality, mode (mus.).   Melodic modes used in trad. Arabic music.   Ṣúfí spiritual stations.
Maqbul Maqbúl acceptable, reasonable;   satisfactory;   pleasing, obliging, complaisant, amiable;   well-liked, likable, popular, welcome
Maqsud Maqṣúd aimed at, intended;   intentional, designed, deliberate;   meant
Maraghi’i Marághi’í ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí Khán-i-Marághi’í
Maraghih (Maragheh) Marághih city 75 km south of Tabriz, Ádhirbáyján
Mard, Mardan Mard, pl. Mardán Pers.   man, hero, warrior
Mardah, Marzi Marḍáh, Pers. Marẓí a means affording satisfaction or gratification;   satisfaction, pleasure.   See Raḍiya
Mardin Márdín A city in southeastern Turkey
Mardiyyih, Marziya (Marzia, Marzieh) Marḍíyyih (Marẓíyyih) Pers.   well-favoured.   Marẓíya was sister of Qurratu’l-‘Ayn (Ṭáhirih).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá wrote to Marzieh (neé Khán) Gail: ‘O God, make her who is pleasing to God (Marzieh), well-pleased with God (Razieh)." Arches of the years, p. 82, referring to Qur’án 89:28.   See Marḍáh
Marfu’ Marfú‘ traceable in ascending order of traditions to Muḥammad (Prophetic tradition);   (grammar) in the nominative or indicative, respectively.   See fá‘il, maf‘úl and manṣúb
Marhaba marḥabá Ar.   welcome, well done
Mariah Máríah (Mary)
Marja'u't-Taqlid Marja‘u’t-Taqlíd lit. reference point for emulation.   Un-elided forms: Marja‘ at-taqlíd (Pers. Marja‘-i taqlíd).   One who through his learning and probity is qualified to be followed in all points of religious practice and law by the generality of Shi‘is.
Marji, Maraji Marji‘, pl. Maráji‘ return;   authority to which one turns or appeals;   place of refuge, retreat;   recourse resort;   authority, responsible agency;   source (esp. scientific), authoritative reference work;   resource;   starting point, origin;   recourse
Markaz-i-Athar Markaz-i-Áthár (the centre of relics, the Archives)
Markaz, Marakiz Markaz, pl. Marákiz foothold;   stand, station;   place where someone is posted or stationed;   post;   (police, etc.) station;   office, branch office (com.);   locality where something takes place, scene, site, seat;   position (mil.);   headquarters;   main office, central office;   central exchange (telephone)
Markazi Markazí central;   district (used attributively).   A province in Írán.
Marvdasht Marvdasht town in Írán
Marw, Marv Marw, Pers. Marv Merv, located near Mary, Turkenistan
Marwan, Marvan Marwán, Pers. Marvan Name of 4th and 14th Umayyad Caliphs
Maryam Maryam Mary, Maria
Mas'ala, Masa'il Masa’ala, pl. Masá’il question;   issue, problem;   matter, affair, case;   request
Mas’ud, Masa’id Mas‘úd, pl. Masá‘íd happy, lucky, fortunate
Mas'ud-Kaldih Mas‘úd-Kaldih
Masdar-i-Amr Maṣdar-i-Amr mystic source, source divine command, source of revelation
Masdar, Masadir Maṣdar, pl. Maṣádir starting point, point of origin;   origin, source (fig.);   (gram.) infinitive, verbal noun;   absolute or internal object
Mash'ar, Masha'ir Mash‘ar, pl. Mashá‘ir cultic shrine for ceremonies of the ḥajj;   sensory organ;   pl. senses, feelings, sensations.   Pers.   explanation: A place dedicated to religious ceremonies, or where sacrifices are offered
Mash'arihi'l-Fu'ad Mash‘arihi’l-Fu’ád "Sanctuary of His Heart"
Masha'u'llah or Ma Sha'llah shá’u’lláh or Má Shá’lláh What God wills (Má+Shá’a+Alláh, "Mashallah")
Mashhad, Mashahid Mashhad, pl. Masháhid place of assembly, assembly, meeting;   place where a martyr or hero died;   religious shrine venerated by the people, especially the tomb of a saint;   funeral cortege;   profession;   view, aspect, spectacle, sight, scenery;   place or object of interest;   scene (e.g., of a crime, of nature);   act, number (as part of a program, e.g., in vaudeville), scene (in theatre, as part of a play);   aspect.   Capital of Khurásán (Khorasan), Írán, shrine city of Imám Riḍá.
Mashhadi Mashhadí A Muslim who has performed the pilgrimage to Mashhad.
Mashhud Mashhúd taking place in the presence of spectators or witnesses;   happening before a large audience, well-attended;   memorable (day, event)
Mashi'a Mashi’a volition, will;   wish, desire
Mashiyyat Mashíyyat Ar.   "Will"
Mashriq, Mashariq Mashriq, pl. Masháriq place of sunrise, east;   place of rise;   the Orient, the East;   resplendent, radient, shining
Mashriqu'l-Adhkar Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Ar.   Dawning-place of the praises, prayers, remembrances or mentions of God.   "The place of prayers".   Title for a Bahá’í House of Worship.   Masháriq Adhkár (places of prayers)
Mashyakha, Mashayikh, Masha'ikh Mashyakha, pl. Masháyikh, Mashá’ikh Ar.   office, or dignity, of a sheik;   sheikdom (in general, specif., anyone of the semi-independent territories on the Persian Gulf);   an administrative subdivision (Tun.);   professoriate (e.g., of Al Azhar).   See Shaykh
Masih Masíḥ (the Messiah, the Anointed) From Meshiah (Hebrew).
Masikh Masíkh transformed;   disfigured, defaced, deformed, ugly;   tasteless, insipid, stale ("a monster")—refer to SWA 140)
Masil al-Maṣil Mosul
Masjid Masjid Ar.   (Literally, place of prostration)   Mosque, temple or place of worship.
Masjid-al-Aqsa al-Masjid-al-Aqṣá Aqṣá Mosque, near the Dome of the Rock
Masjid-i-Haram Masjid-i-Ḥarám Sacred Mosque (in Mecca)
Masjid-i-Jami' Masjid-i-Jámi‘ Mosque in Nayríz
Masjid-i-Kufih Masjid-i-Kúfih (MF)
Masjid-i-Masha'u'llah Masjid-i-Mashá’u’lláh
Masjid-i-Shah Masjid-i-Sháh mosque in Ṭihrán
Masqat Masqaṭ Muscat
Masqat, Masqit, Masaqit Masqaṭ, Masqiṭ, pl. Masáqiṭ place where a falling object lands;   waterfall
Masrur Masrúr glad, happy, delighted
Mast Mast Pers.   drunk, intoxicated; libidinous, lustful, wanton, furious;   an animal in rut.   Ḥájjí Zayn al-‘Ábidín Shírwání (Mast ‘Alí Sháh)—Persian scholar and mystic (1193–1253 Sh./1779–1837)
Mast Mást Pers.   sour, coagulated milk;   mastic (Arabic gum)
Mathani Mathání oft-repeated (Qur’án 15:85).   See Fátiḥa
Mathnavi Mathnaví written by Mawláná Jalálu’d-Dín-i-Rúmí.   Mathnaví refers to the meter and rhyme scheme of a type of Persian poem written in couplets. The form is commonly used for epic, mystical poems.
Mathnaviy-i-Mubarak Mathnavíy-i-Mubárak 300 line Persian poem by Bahá’u’lláh
Matla'-i-Anwar Maṭla‘-i-Anwár (the Dawning Place of Light, the Shrine of the Báb)
Matla', Matali' Maṭla‘, pl. Maṭáli‘ rise, time of rising (of celestial bodies);   point of ascent;   starting point, point, of departure;   break (e.g., of day), dawn (e.g., of an era);   onset, outset, start, beginning;   introduction, preface, proem;   opening verses (of a poem);   prelude;   lookout;   ladder, steps, stairs
Mawhibat Mawhiba(t), pl. Mawáhib gift;   talent;   "bounty"
Mawla (Maula), Mawali Mawlá (Maulá), Pers. Mullá, pl. Mawálí A magistrate of a large city;   a lord, master;   a schoolmaster, doctor, learned man, a judge, a priest.   See ‘Ulamá
Mawla', Mawali Mawla’, pl. Mawálí Pers.   A king, prince, sovereign, lord, master, judge, magistrate.   A follower, client.   A benefactor, helper.   A companion, confederate, partner.   A stranger.   A visitor, guest.   See Maulan
Mawlah (Maulah), Mawlat Mawláh, Pers. Mawlát mistress, lady of rank
Mawlan (Maulan), Mawalin Mawlan, pl. Mawálin Ar.   master, lord;   protector, patron;   client;   charge;   mend, companion, associate;   the Lord, God;   Mawláya and Mawláná are forms of address to a sovereign
Mawlana Mawláná Ar.   our lord, master—it is a title
Mawlana (Maulana) Mawláná (Mauláná) form of address to a sovereign, "our Master"
Mawlawi (Maulawi), Malulawiya Mawlawí (Maulawí), pl. Mawlawíya Pers.   Judicial, belonging to a judge or magistrate;   a doctor of Islamic law;   an assistant lawyer;   a learned man;   divine, religious, belonging to God;   a dervish, Muslim monk;   dervish of the order of Maulá Jalál-ud-dín Rúmí.   Variation Mawlaví
Mawlawiyat (Maulawiyat) Mawlawíyat Pers.   A resemblance to, or equality with, a prince, lord, master or benefactor.
Maydan Maydán Pers.   square, open place, or a sub-division of a farsakh
Maydan-i-Khan Maydán-i-Khán
Maydan-i-Shah Maydán-i-Sháh
Maykhana (Maikhana, Maykhanih) Maykhána Pers.   a wine-cellar, tavern;   drinking utensils, wine-service;   hence also "spiritual wine"
Maymun, Maimun, Mayamin Maymún, Maimún, pl. Mayamín fortunate, lucky;   blessed;   monkey.   See Abú ‘Imrán Músá ibn Maymún (Maimonides)
Mazandaran, Mazindaran Mázandarán, Mázindarán A province in northern Írán, on the Caspian Sea.
Mazdak Mazdak The story of Mazdak [he preached a community of property and families, and a simple ascetic life], in the days of King Kobad [Kavi Kavata, Kai Kobad or Kavadh] sons were Kavi Usan (or Kai Kaus) and Kavi Haosravah (Kai Khosrau or Khosrau Anushirvan)], the father of the Great Anoshirwan [Anushirvan—"having an immortal soul"], is given in the history of Sháh-Nameh (Book of Kings) of Firdawsí (Firdausi in English), and also in all the Persian histories. (The Bahá’í Proofs)
Mazhar, Mazahir Maẓhar, pl. Maẓáhir (external) appearance, external make-up, guise;   outward bearing, comportment, conduct, behaviour;   exterior, look(s), sight, view;   semblance, aspect;   bearer or object of a phenomenon, object in which something manifests itself;   phenomenon;   symptom (med.);   pl. manifestations, expressions.   The place or bearer of divine revelation, a revealer of God’s Word.
Mazhariyyat Maẓharíyyat manifestation-hood
Mazharu'l-ilahi Maẓharu’l-iláhí Manifestation of God
Mazkan, Mazgan Mazkán (Mazgán) village in Markazí Province, Írán
Mazlun Maẓlún Pers.   (also Ar.?)   injured, oppressed;   seized forcibly;   upturned (earth);   mild, gentle, modest.   Áqá Ḥusayn Maẓlún
Mazra Mazra‘ (arable) land
Mazra'a, Mazra'ih Mazra‘a, Pers. Mazra‘ih, Ar. pl. Mazári‘ field under cultivation;   farm;   plantation;   country estate.   Place north of ‘Akká and about 0.5 km from the sea.   House of Bahá’u’lláh is north of this village.
Mazra'iy-i-Vashshash Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh Pers.   once a field on outskirts of Baghdád between the centre and Káẓimayn where Bahá’u’lláh celebrated Riḍván (1863), now the neighbourhood of al-Washshásh
Mazzah Mazzaḥ "Humorist or Playful", one of the Names of God according to Bahá’u’lláh
Mi'raj, Ma'arij Mi‘ráj, pl. Ma‘áríj ladder, stairs.   al-Mi‘ráj ("The ascent") refers to Muḥammad’s vision of His night journey to the outermost mosque and His ascent to the heavens on His steed Burak.
Midhat Midḥat Páshá Pers.   see Midḥat
Midhat Midḥat Pers.   praising;   praise, encomium;   a laudable action, anything deserving commendation
Miftahu Babi'l-Abwab Miftáḥu Bábi’l-Abwáb [Meftah Bab-el-Abwab]   "The Key to the Gate of Gates"—book written by Mírzá Muḥammad-Mihdí Khán
Mihdala, Mahadil Miḥdala, pl. Maḥádil roller, steamroller
Mihdi Mihdí (also Mahdí) One who guides aright, the Guided One.   A title of the Twelfth (expected) Imám or Qá’im.   Mírzá Mihdí ("The Purest Branch")
Mihdi-hood Mihdí-hood (avoid this Arabic-English combination)   state of being guided
Mihdi-Quli Mihdí-Qulí
Mihdiy-i-'Atri Mihdíy-i-‘Aṭrí, Hájí Mullá so named, because he was a distiller of ‘Aṭṭár
Mihdiy-i-Dahaji Mihdíy-i-Dahají
Mihdiy-i-Kandi Mihdíy-i-Kandí
Mihdiy-i-Kashani Mihdíy-i-Káshání (MF)
Mihdiy-i-Khu'i Mihdíy-i-Khu’í
Mihdiy-i-Rashti Mihdíy-i-Rash
Mihdiy-i-Yazdi Mihdíy-i-Yazdí (MF)
Mihdiyabad Mihdíyábád a village near the city of Yazd in Persia. (Bahá’í Education, p. 41)
Mihdizadih Mihdízádih (Mihdí-Zádih)
Mihr Mihr Pers.   the sun;   love, friendship, affection, kindness;   mercy, pity;   the month of September;   the sixteenth day of every month;   death;   a mandrake;   a red stone;   a gilded ball fixed on a canopy or standard;   name of a fire-temple;   name of an angel
Mihr-'Ali Mihr-‘Alí Khán
Mihrab Miḥráb, pl. Maḥárib Ar.   Prayer niche in a mosque showing the direction of Mecca.   The principle place in a mosque where the imám prays with his face turned towards Mecca.
Mihrangiz Mihrangíz (Mehrangiz) (a sister of Shoghi Effendi)
Mihri Mihrí Pers.   a stringed instrument (psaltery, sackbut);   a kind of lute
Mihriban Mihribán city 70 km east of Tabriz
Mihriyar Mihríyár (TN p. 16)   Ibn-i-Mihríyár (a native of Ahváz, thought to be in touch with the Hidden Imám during the Minor Occultation.   The "Gates" were ‘Uthmán ibn Sa’íd; his son Muḥammad ibn ‘Uthmán; Ḥusayn ibn Rúḥ; and ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad Símarí)
Mihriz Mihríz a gate in Yazd
Milan Mílán (Meelan)   A town in Ádhirbáyján (Azerbaijan), north-western Írán.
Milh, Amlah, Milah Milḥ m. and f., pl. Amláḥ, Miláḥ salt;   gunpowder;   witticism, wittiness, wit
Milhu'l-Ujaj Milḥu’l-Ujáj "salt that burneth bitterly".   See ajja
Mim Mím 24th Arabic letter
Minahiju'l-Ahkam Mináhiju’l-Aḥkám (pls of Manhaj and Ḥukm)
Minan, Mina Minan m., Miná fem. the valley of Miná, the site of Miná, a pilgrim "tent city" on the eastern side of Mecca
Minhu Minhu from them or from among them
Mir Mír contraction of Amír.   Also descendant of Muḥammad or Sayyid
Mir'ah, Mara'in, Maraya Mir’áh, pl. Mará’in, Maráyá looking glass, mirror;   reflection, reflected image
Mir'at Mir’át Pers.   A looking-glass, mirror.   See miráya
Mir'atu’l-Azaliyyih Mir’átu’l-Azalíyyih "Everlasting mirror"
Miraya, Mirayat Miráya, pl. Miráyát looking glass mirror
Mirza, Amir-Zadih, Amirzada Mírzá, Amírzáda or Pers. Amírzádih Pers.   contraction of amír-zád ("child of a prince").   A title of nobility (signifies a prince) when placed after a name;   but it means a gentleman, an educated person, a scholar, worthy person, mister when it appears before the name.
Mirzay-i-Halabi-Saz Mírzáy-i-Ḥalabí-Sáz, Ḥájí
Misbah, Masabih Miṣbáḥ, pl. Maṣábíḥ lamp;   light, luminary (also figuratively);   head-light (of an automobile)
Mishah, Mishkawat, Mashakin Mishkáh, pl. Mishkáwát, Mashákin niche (for a lamp);   lamp, pendent lamp
Mishkatu'l-Masabih Mishkátu’l-Maṣábíḥ "A niche for lamps".   A book of Sunní traditions
Mishkin Mishkín Pers.   "musk-scented"; "jet-black" (dried musk powder is black—"black like musk", Ghulám al-Khuld, Bahá’u’lláh)
Mishkin-Qalam Mishkín-Qalam Pers.   Mírzá Ḥusayn-i-Isfahání (surnamed Mishkín-Qalam, meaning "musk-scented pen" or "jet-black pen", by Muḥammad Sháh because of the beauty and inner mystical message of his works);   1826–1912.   He was one of the nineteen Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh, as well as a famous calligrapher of 19th century Persia.   He is the author of a calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name used by Bahá’ís.
Misk, Mashmum Misk (m. & f.), also Mashmúm Ar.   musk
Mithaqiyan tháqíyán Firaydún Mítháqíyán
Mithqal, Mathaqil Mithqál, pl. Matháqíl a unit of weight used for weighing gold, silver and saffron (4.68 gm). Traditionally, 24 chickpeas, changed by the Báb to 19 chickpeas (3.641666 gm).
Miyandu'ab Míyándu’áb Míyándu’áb, Ádhirbáyján (MF)
Mizan, Mawazin Mízán, pl. Mawázín balance, scales;   weight;   measure;   poetic measure, metre;   rule, method;   justice, equity, fairness, impartiality
Mu'abbir Mu‘abbir interpreter (of feelings, of dreams);   expressive, significant.   Soothsayer (PDC)
Mu'abbiri Mu‘abbirí Pers.   interpretation of dreams
Mu'adhdhin, Mu'adhdhun Mu’adhdhin, pl. Mu’adhdhún muezzin, announcer of the hour of prayer
Mu'allim Mu‘allim A teacher or tutor.   al-Mu‘allimu’th-Thání (The Second Teacher—a title of Avicenna (2nd after Abú Rayḥán al-Bírúní)
Mu’ammar Mu‘ammar, pl. Mu‘ammarún senior (in sports)
Mu’assasa, Mu’assasat Mu’assasa, pl. -át foundation, establishment;   firm (commerce);   institution;   organization
Mu'assis Mu’assis he who lays a foundation;   founder;   a strengthener;   enactor (e.g. of law)
Mu’assisiy-i-Ayadiy-i-Amru’llah Mu’assisiy-i-Ayádíy-i-Amru’lláh Pers.   Bahá’u’lláh: "The institution of the Hands of the Cause of God"
Mu'attar Mu‘aṭṭar perfumed, scented, fragrant
Mu'awiya, Mu'aviya Mu‘áwíya Ar.   (Pers. Mu‘ávíya, Mu‘ávíyah, Mu‘ávíyyah, also -ih endings)   Name of first and third Umayyad caliphs. The first established the Umayyad dynasty (based in Damascus).
Mu'awwil Mu‘awwil Interpreter
Mu'ayyad (Mu'aiyad) Mu’ayyad Pers.   confirmed, fortified, assisted
Mu'azzin Mu’aẓẓin should be Mu’adhdhin
Mu'in Mu‘ín Pers.   an assistant
Mu'ina Mu‘íná abbreviation of Mu’ín Ághá
Mu'inu'l-Mulk Mu‘ínu’l-Mulk BKG 397
Mu'inu's-Saltanih Mu‘ínu’s-Salṭanih DB 76
Mu'issu's-Saltanih Mu‘íssu’s-Salṭanih
Mu'jiza, Mu'jizat Mu‘jizá, pl. Mu‘jizát (Mo’jaza)   miracle
Mu'min Mu’min believing, faithful;   believer.   (Momen)
Mu'tamad Mu‘tamad reliable, dependable;   object of reliance, support;   sanctioned, approved, authorized;   accredited;   commissioner, authorized agent, proxy, envoy, representative;   commissary, commissar
Mu'taman Mu’taman entrusted;   confidant
Mu'tamid Mu‘tamid Pers.   One who rests or leans upon;   a believer;   resolved, determined.
Mu'tamidu'd-Dawlih Mu‘tamidu’d-Dawlih Pers.   support of the dynasty   (BKG 33, not correct in GPB 14)
Mu'tamidu's-Saltanih Mu‘tamidu’s-Salṭanih
Mu'tasim Mu‘taṣim Caliph Al-Mu‘taṣim
Mu'tazilah, Mu'tazilite Mu‘tazilah "Seceders"
Mubahala, Mubahilih Mubáhala, Pers. Mubáhilih A public confrontation that goes back to the days of Muḥammad when a deputation of the unbelievers of Najrán in Medina challenged the Prophet to a confrontation. It is a challenge between truth and falsehood. The two parties come together face to face and it is believed that in such a confrontation the power of truth will destroy the ungodly.   Ancient religious test.
Muballighin Muballighín Name given to Bahá’í teachers or "missionaries" (especially those on journeys to spread the Bahá’í Faith). Used to refer to Bahá’í scholars of high stature, especially those who can communicate the Message of Bahá’u’lláh to others. In Írán, they were the people who were very knowledgeable about the Faith and their responsibility was to travel and teach the Faith.
Mubarak Mubárak blessed, fortunate, lucky.   One title of Bahá’u’lláh: Jamál-i-Mubárak, the Blessed Beauty.
Mubashshir, Mubashshirat Mubashshir pl. Mubashshirát announcer, messenger (of glad tidings);   evangelist (Chr.);   preacher;   missionary (Christian)
Mubayyin Mubayyin "the expounder"
Mubayyin-i-kitab Mubayyin-i-Kitáb interpreter of the Book (‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Mudaf Muḍáf added, subjoined, adjoined, apposed;   construct state (grammar).   muḍáf ilayh the second, or governed, noun of a genitive construction (grammar)
Mudarris, Mudarrisun Mudarris, pl. Mudarrisún teacher, instructor;   lecturer
Mudir, Mudira, Mudara Mudír, fem. Mudirá, Mudará head, chief, director;   administrator;   manager;   intendant, superintendent;   rector (of a university);   (pl.) administrative officer at the head of a county
Mudiy Muḍíy departure, leave;   passing;   lapse, elapsing, expiration (of a period of time);   continuation (of something);   deeper penetration, deeper insight (into);   carrying out, execution, pursuit (of an intention, of a plan)
Mufaddal Mufaḍḍal a devoted follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down many of his traditions.
Mufawada, Mufavidat (Mufavidat) Mufáwaḍa, pl. Mufawiḍát negotiation, parley, talk, conference;   partnership (Isl. Law).   Pers. "variations" Mufávaḍa, pl. Mufaviḍát
Mufsid-i-fil-ard Mufṣid-i-fil-arḍ "spreading corruption on earth"
Mufti, Muftiyun Muftí, pl. Muftíyun In Sunní Islám, a consulting Canon lawyer, who delivers legal opinions on points of Islamic law to the qáḍí (judge)
Mugul, Mughul Mugúl, Pers, Mughul A Mogul, Mongol, Mughal;   the Great Mogul, emperor of Hindústán;   the Tartars, natives of Túrán, Scythia, or Transoxiana;   the Georgian Christians.
Muguli, Mughuli Mugúlí, Pers. Mughulí Pers.   Of or relating to the Moguls (Mongolian);   Mogul, Tartar;   (met.) fearless;   cruel, severe, terrible
Muhaddith, Muhaddithun Muḥaddith, pl. Muḥaddithún speaker, talker;   spokesman;   conversation partner, interlocutor;   relator, narrator;   a transmitter of Prophetic traditions, traditionary, representative of the science or study of Ḥadíth
Muhaddithin Muḥaddithín, pl. Muḥaddithún (narrator—PDC p. 91)
Muhaimin (Muhaiman, Muhaymin) Muhaimin supervising, superintending, controlling;   guardian;   protector;   master (of something, also, e.g., of a situation)
Muhajir, Muhajirun Muhájir, pl. Muhájirún emigrant.   Raḥmatu’lláh Muhájir
Muhammad Muḥammad praised;   commendable,   laudable;   the Praised One 1 . Derived from ḥamd (praise).
Muhammad Pasha Safwat Muḥammad Páshá Ṣafwat (Safouat) in ‘Akká
Muhammad-'Ali Muḥammad-‘Alí
Muhammad-'Ali Sabbaq Muḥammad-‘Alí Ṣabbáq (MF)
Muhammad-'Ali-i-Dallak Muḥammad-‘Alí-i-Dallák (MF)
Muhammad-'Ali-i-Zunuzi Muḥammad-‘Alí-i-Zunúzí
Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Ardikani Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Ardikání (MF)
Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Barfurushi Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí
Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Isfahani Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Isfahání (MF)
Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Nahri Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Nahrí
Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Salmani Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Salmání
Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Zanjani Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Zunuzi Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí surnamed Anís
Muhammad-Baqir Muḥammad-Báqir, Shaykh Named by Bahá’u’lláh ‘The Wolf’ (Dhi’b)
Muhammad-Hadi Muḥammad-Hádí
Muhammad-Hadiy-i-Farhadi Muḥammad-Hádíy-i-Farhádí The Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, vol. II, p. 172.
Muhammad-Hadiy-i-Sahhaf Muḥammad-Hádíy-i-Ṣaḥḥáf
Muhammad-Hasan Muḥammad-Ḥasan Muḥammad-Ḥasan-i-Qazvíní was given the name Fata’l-Qazvíní by Ṭáhirih
Muhammad-Husayn Muḥammad-Ḥusayn
Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kashani Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Káshání
Muhammad-i-Adhirbayjani Muḥammad-i-Ádhirbayjání
Muhammad-i-Furughi Muḥammad-i-Fúrúghí
Muhammad-i-Hadiy-i-Sahhaf Muḥammad-i-Hádíy-i-Ṣaḥḥáf
Muhammad-i-Hana-Sab Muḥammad-i-Ḥaná-Sáb
Muhammad-i-Isfahani Muḥammad-i-Iṣfahání Muḥammad-i-Iṣfahání, Siyyid, Anti-Christ of the Bahá’í Revelation.
Muhammad-i-Mamaqani Muḥammad-i-Mamáqání
Muhammad-i-Manshadi Muḥammad-i-Manshádí
Muhammad-i-Mazindarani Muḥammad-i-Mázindarání
Muhammad-i-Mukari Muḥammad-i-Mukárí Mír Muḥammad-i-Mukárí
Muhammad-i-Mustafay Muḥammad-i-Muṣṭafáy-i-Baghdádí
Muhammad-i-Qa'ini Muḥammad-i-Qá’iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar)
Muhammad-i-Sarraf Muḥammad-i-Sarraf (MF 13)
Muhammad-i-Shibl Muḥammad-i-Shibl (MF)
Muhammad-i-Tabrizi Muḥammad-i-Tabrízí
Muhammad-i-Tahir-i-Malmiri, Haji Muḥammad-i-Ṭáhir-i-Málmírí, Ḥájí father of Adib Taherzadeh
Muhammad-i-Vakil Muḥammad-i-Vakíl (MF)
Muhammad-i-Zarandi Muḥammad-i-Zarandí Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí (Nabíl-i-A’ẓam)
Muhammad-Ibrahim Muḥammad-Ibráhím
Muhammad-Ibrahim-i-Tabrizi Muḥammad-Ibráhím-i-Tabrízí
Muhammad-Isma'il Muḥammad-Ismá‘íl
Muhammad-Ja'far Muḥammad-Ja‘far
Muhammad-Javad-i-Qazvini Muḥammad-Javád-i-Qazvíní
Muhammad-Kamal Muḥammad-Kamál
Muhammad-Karim Muḥammad-Karím
Muhammad-Karim-i-'Attar Muḥammad-Karím-i-‘Aṭṭár
Muhammad-Mihdi Muḥammad-Mihdí
Muhammad-Mustafa Muḥammad-Muṣṭafá
Muhammad-Quli Muḥammad-Qulí Mírzá Muḥammad-Qulí Faithful half-brother of Bahá’u’lláh.
Muhammad-Rida Muḥammad-Riḍá
Muhammad-Riday-i-Isfahani Muḥammad-Riḍáy-i-Iṣfahání
Muhammad-Riday-i-Shirazi Muḥammad-Riḍáy-i-Shírází (MF)
Muhammad-Riday-i-Yazdi Muḥammad-Riḍáy-i-Yazdí
Muhammad-Sadiq Muḥammad-Ṣádiq
Muhammad-Taqi Muḥammad-Taqí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí (Hand of the Cause of God addressed by Bahá’u’lláh as Ibn-i-Abhar—"the son of Abhar")
Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Harati Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Harátí
Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Juvayni Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Juvayní
Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí ShaykhMuḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí Also known as Áqá Najafí, ‘The Son of the Wolf’
Muhammad-Yusuf Muḥammad-Yúsúf
Muhammadabadi Muḥammadábádí Áqá Muḥammad-Riḍáy-i-Muḥammadábádí
Muhammadun Rasulu'llah Muḥammadun Rasúlu’lláh Lá Iláha Illa’lláh, Muḥammadun Rasúlu’lláh (There is no God but God and Muḥammad is his messenger—split into Letters of Denial (5) followed by Letters of Affirmation (5) [Muḥammad, ‘Alí, Fáṭima, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn]). The Shí’ah call to prayer (adhán) contains the additional statement ‘Alíun valíu’lláh (‘Alí is God’s (friend/helper/defender/vicegerent)).
Muhammar Muḥammar roasted
Muhammarih Muḥammarih or Muḥammarah Former name of Perisan city Khurramshahr
Muhandis Muhandis builder, architect
Muhaqqiq Muḥaqqiq investigator;   inquirer;   examining magistrate
Muharram Muḥarram "Forbidden"   Name of the first month in the Islamic calendar.
Muhit Muḥíṭ "Encompassing, comprehensive, aquainted or familiar with"
Muhit-i-Sha'ir-i-Kirmani Muḥíṭ-i-Shá‘ir-i-Kirmání Alt. Muḥíṭ-i-Kirmání (Mírzá Muḥammad-i-Ḥusayn-i-Kirmání See DB 39 and BKG 152
Muhiyu'd-Din Muḥiyu’d-Dín Should be Muḥyí’d-Dín.   See Pers. Muḥyí’d-Dín or Bahá’í writings Muḥyi’d-Dín
Muhkam, Muhkama, Muhkamat Muḥkam, f. Muḥkama, pl. Muḥkamát strengthened, reinforced;   firm, solid, sturdy;   tight, taut;   perfect, masterly, masterful;   well-aimed (blow, hit);   accurate, precise, exact;   decisive, fundamental and clear.   See mutashábih.   Refer to Qur’án 3:7.
Muhraq Muḥraq crematory
Muhraqa Muḥraqá "fiery place".   A peak on the Carmel mountain range with an incredible view of the Jezreel valley, the hills of lower Galilee and Samaria, the Kishon River, and the Mediterranean.   Traditionally the site where Elijah fought the prophets of Baal in the Bible (1 Kings 18:20–46).   The Carmelite order have a monastery here.
Muhriq, Muharriq Muḥriq, Pers. Muḥarriq an incendiary
Muhriqu'l-Qulub Muḥriqu’l-Qulúb
Muhsin Muḥsin beneficent, charitable
Muhtadi Muhtadí "Rightly guided"
Muhyi Muḥyí Pers.   a reviver, giver of life
Muhyi'd-Din Muḥyí’d-Dín Pers.   the reviver of religion   ("Moheyddin")
Muhyi'd-Din-i-'Arabi Muḥyí’d-Dín-i-‘Arabí Pers.   Arab reviver of religion
Mujaddid Mujaddid (Renewer, i.e. of Islám)
Mujahada Mujáhada fighting for the faith
Mujtahid, Mujtahidun Mujtahid, pl. Mujtahidún one who strives or one who exerts himself.   diligent, industrious;   a legist formulating independent decisions in legal or theological matters, based on the interpretation and application of the four uṣúl, as opposed to muqallid,   Highest rank of Shi’ite divine—doctor of law
Mujudalat, Mujadala Mujúdalat, Mujádala Pers.   Contending, disputing;   contention, dispute, altercation, conflict.   Mujádalih Mosque and area (NW) of old ‘Akká.
Mukhabara, Mukhabarat Mukhábara, pl. Mukhábarát correspondence, (esp. written) information.   Qalam al-Mukhábarát—intelligence bureau ("secret police")
Mukhaddira Mukhaddira, Pers. Mukhaddirih a girl kept in seclusion from the outside world, "veiled"
Mukhit Mukhṭi’ mistaken, at fault, wrong;   incorrect, wrong, erroneous.   Hence, Mukhṭi’ah, the Errant.
Mukhlis, Mukhlisun Mukhliṣ, pl. Mukhliṣún devoted;   sincere, frank, candid;   loyal;   faithful (to someone, to something);   pure-hearted, virtuous, righteous;   (in letters) approx.: yours truly …, sincerely yours …
Mukhtar Mukhtár free to choose, having the choice or option
Muljam, Maljum Muljam, Muljúm muljam bridled, curbed, harnessed
Mulk Mulk rule, reign, supreme authority, dominion, domination, dominance, sway, power;   sovereignty, kingship, royalty;   monarchy;   tenure, holding, right of possession, possessory right, ownership
Mulla Mullá Ar. bread baked in hot ashes.   Pers. A schoolmaster, doctor, learned man, a judge, a priest
Mulla-Bashi Mullá-Báshí (MF p. 172)
Mulla'i Mullá’í Pers.   of or relating to a mullá;   office or profession of a mullá;   doctorship;   teaching
Mullani Mullání Pers.   wife of a mullá, a learned woman;   a schoolmistress.   See Mawlá
Mumtaz Mumtáz distinguished, differentiated;   exquisite, select, choice, rare;   outstanding, superior, first-rate, first-class, top-notch, exceptional, excellent;   privileged;   special, extra;   (as an examination grade) passed with distinction, excellent
Muna, Mina Muná, Miná desire, hope, longing.   Muná Mahmúdnizhád (Mona)
Munadi Munádí ("Monadi")   Pers.   a crier, herald, proclaimer;   a small drum that is beaten to notify or proclaim anything.   Nephew of Hand of Cause Ibn Ábhar
Munadin Munádin Ar.   caller;   herald;   town crier;   auctioneer;   O announcer (radio)
Munadiy-i-'Ahd Munádíy-i-‘Ahd Herald of the Covenant
Munafiq, Munafiqun Munafiq, pl. Munáfiqún hypocrite, dissembler
Munafiqa Munáfaqa hypocrisy, dissimulation, dissemblance
Munajah Munájáh lit. secret conversation;   confidential talk.   Name given to prayers by Bahá’u’lláh, Báb, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi for communing with God.
Munajat, Munajatha Munáját, pl. Munájáthá (transliteration variation of Munájáh)   secret conversation, whispering, prayer, longing or yearning;   supplication for repentance of sins.   Pers.: adding Há’ to a noun forms the plural, hence the unusual Tá’ Há’ (th, not Thá’ (th)) combination of letters.
Munajáthay-i-Siyam Munájátháy-i-Ṣíyám Prayers for Fasting (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Munajjim, Munajjimun, Najjam Munajjim and Najjám, pl. Munajjimún (Monadjem)   an astrologer
Munawwar, Munavvar Munawwar, Munavvar Brilliant, illuminated, radiant
Mundhir Mundhir warner, cautioner
Munib Muníb repentent
Munir, Munirih Munír, Pers. Munírih luminous, radiant, brilliant, shining;   enlightening, illuminative.   Munírih Khánum, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Munkir Munkir one who denies, rejects, disapproves, ignores, repudiates, takes ill or feels disobliged;   averse, disapproving;   a renegade, an apostate;   one who places no confidence in another, but disbelieves what he professes;   ungrateful
Muntasib, Muntasibun Muntasib, pl. Muntasibún member, affiliate;   related to;   connected by blood (Muntasibyn, Muntasebeen)
Muntazar Munṭaẓar awaited, expected
Munzawi Munzawí Pers.   (Munzavi or the hybrid "Munzavis")   solitary, recluse;   a hermit;   enclosed;   shrivelled, puckered (leather).   See Mutawaḥḥid
Munzawin Munzawin seclusive, secluding;   retired, secluded, outlying, remote, out-ofthe-way, obscure
Muqaddam Muqaddam put before something, prefixed, prefaced (to something), anteceding, preceding (something);   front, face;   fore part, front part;   prow, bow (of a ship);   nose (of an airplane, and the like);   antecedent of a proportion (math.);   overseer, supervisor;   foreman;   a military rank, approx.: major or lieutenant colonel;   officially appointed legal guardian (Tunisia);   administrator or trustee of a wakf estate
Muqaddas, Muqaddasat Muqaddas, pl. Muqaddasát hallowed, sanctified, dedicated, consecrated;   holy, sacred;   pl. sacred things, sacrosanct things.   Muqaddasín (saints plural, gen., accus.—PDC p. 92)
Muqallad Muqallad (Muqallid) imitated, imitation, forged, counterfeit(ed), fake, sham, spurious, false;   tradition-bound.   See taqlíd
Muqanna Muqanna‘ veiled, masked
Muqarrab, Muqarrabun Muqarrab, pl. Muqarrabún close companion, favorite, protégé, intimate
Muqimi-Abyanih Muqímí residential   Muqímí-Abyánih
Murad Murád wanted, desired, intended;   design, purpose, intention
Muradi, Muradiyyih, Muradiyat Murádí, pl. fem. Murádiyát Pers.   favourably, agreeably to ones wish;   understood, implied;   secondary;   figurative;   metaphorical;   change, small money.   Pers.   fem. sing. Murádíyyih (Turk. Muradiye)—the name of a mosque (Turk. cammii) in Edirne, Turkey
Muradiyyih Murádíyyih Pers.   for the Turkish Muradiye.   A mosque (cammii) in Edirne, Turkey
Muravvihu's-Saltanih Muravvihu’s-Salṭanih "He Who Gives the Kingdom Life"   title given to Florence Breed, Arches of the Years, p. 65.
Murchih-Khar Múrchih-Khár (place in the Shimírán district)
Murgh Murgh Pers.   a bird, fowl;   anything flying either on the wings as a bee or by means of membranes as a bat;   the sun;   a lump or branched stick of ginger.   Name of a market in Shíráz.
Murgh-Mahallih Murgh-Maḥallih "Abode of the birds".   Name of a garden that was the summer residence of Bahá’u’lláh.
Mursal Mursal (term for a figure of salvation—messenger, prophet)
Murshid, Murshida, Mushidun Murshid, fem. Murshida, pl. Murshidún leader;   guide to the right way;   adviser;   spiritual guide;   informer;   instructor
Murtada (Murtaza) Murtaḍá (Murtaẓa) Pers.   agreeable;   chosen, approved;   a title of ‘Alí (ḍ or ẓ depends on transliteration used)
Murtada-Quli Murtaḍá-Qulí
Murtaday-i-Ansari Murtaḍáy-i-Anṣárí, Shaykh
Murtadi (Murtazi) Murtaḍí (Murtaẓí) Pers.   one who makes choice of, or approves;   content, satisfied;   belonging or referring to ‘Alí (ḍ or ẓ depends on transliteration used)
Murtus Múrṭus TB 150
Musa Músá Moses;   razor.   Bahá’u’lláh’s faithful brother, Jináb Mírzá Músá (known as Áqáy-i-Kalím)
Musa Banani Músá Banání
Musa’l- Músa’l- This may be a Fársí form.   Músá al- in Arabic.   Examples: Músá al-Ash’arí (Abú-Músá al-Ash’arí), Músá al-Káẓim (Imám Músá al-Káẓim) and Músá ar-Riḍá (‘Alí Ibn Músá ar-Riḍá) may be written as Músa’l-Ash’arí, Músa’l-Káẓim and Músa’r-Riḍá respectively.
Musafihih Muṣáfiḥih The Arabic form of greeting, later adopted by the Persians, of embracing and touching the right cheeks and then the left cheeks.
Musafir Khanih Músáfir Khánih [Mossafer or Mosafer Kaneh]—Persian Hospice for men or Pilgrim House (Guest House)
Musakhkhirin Musákhkhirín spirit-subduer
Musalla Muṣallá "The Oratory" (Mosallah)—a mosque in Yazd
Musawah, Musawat (Musavat) Musáwáh, Pers. Musáwát equality, equivalence;   equal rights, equality before the law;   settlement.   The The Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh IV, p. 195 uses muvását
Musay-i-Qumi Músáy-i-Qumí
Musha'arat, Musha'ara (Musha'arih) Mushá‘arat, Mushá‘ara Pers. contending with, or excelling in poetry
Mushawar (Mushavar), Mushawir Musháwar adviser, counsellor.   Musháwir is seeker of advice or counsel.
Mushir Mushír indicative (of);   adviser, counsellor, consultant
Mushiru'd-Dawlih Mushíru’d-Dawlih
Mushk, Mishk Mushk Per.   musk (MF 98)
Mushkin Mushkín Pers. Musky, black, of a dark colour
Mushrikun Mushrikún idol worshippers
Mushta' Mushtá‘ partner, co-partner, co-owner
Mushta'il-Usku'i Mushtá‘il-Uskú’í
Musiba, Musibat Muṣíba, pl. Muṣíbát, Maṣá’ib misfortune, calamity, disaster
Musibat-i-Hurufat-i-'Aliyat Muṣíbát-i-Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álíyát "The Calamities of the Letters of Loftiness"
Muslih Muṣliḥ peacemaker, conciliator;   reformer, reformist;   salt
Muslihu'd-Din Muṣliḥu’d-Dín of Shíráz
Muslim Muslim (fem. muslima).   pl. Muslimún (fem. Muslimát) follower of Islám
Musta'in Musta‘ín One who asks for assistance, help, aid, support.   Abbassid Caliph ad 862–866
Mustafa Muṣṭafá Pers.   chosen, elected;   a man's name, particularly a name of Muḥammad
Mustaghath Mustagháth the one called upon for help;   the one invoked.   "He Who is invoked or called to help" or "the time of invocation".   Used as the name of God by the Báb. He stated its numerical value (2001) is the fixed time limit for the advent of the Promised One [Manifestation, i.e. Bahá’u’lláh] of the Báb.   See also Ghiyáth (1,511)
Mustaghith Mustaghíth complainant, plaintiff;   the person who is asking for help and delivery.
The Báb may have used Mustaghíth as an abbreviation of Huwa’l-Ghiyáth al-Mustaghíth ("He is the help unto the invoker of help"). Alternatively, He is defining the realm of absolute unity where the true Mustaghíth is none but God, e.g. Bahá’u’lláh apparently asks for Mustagháth (The Kitáb-i-Íqán, pp. 229, 248) while in reality He is the Mustagháth. The Báb uses Mustaghíth as the name of God, Who is not the seeker of help but the desired Saviour.   (Explanation based on notes from Nader Saiedi, Oct. 2016)
Mustaqim, Mustaqimat Mustaqím, pl. Mustaqímát upright, erect;   straight;   dead straight, straight as a die;   directed straight ahead;   correct, right, sound, proper, in order;   even, regular, symmetrical, proportionate, harmonious;   honest, straightforward, upright, righteous, honourable;   (pl.) a straight, straight line (math.)
Mustashar Mustashár adviser, counsellor, consultant, councillor;   chancellor
Mustasharu'l-Mulk Mustasháru’l-Mulk
Mustawfi Mustawfí Pers. examiner or auditor of accounts
Mustawfiyu'l-Mamalik Mustawfíyu’l-Mamálík (MF)
Mustayqiz Mustayqiẓ "Sleeper Awakened" by Mírzá Yaḥyá
Mutahhar Muṭahhar pure, immaculate
Mutahhari Muṭahharí
Mutammin Mutammim Pers.   a completer, perfecter, finisher;   (in mathematics) a complement;   one who runs to despatch a wounded man;   one who hangs an amulet round the neck of an infant to protect it against fascination
Mutammin-i-Bayan Mutammin-i-Bayán "Completion of the Bayán" written by Mírzá Yaḥyá
Mutasarrif Mutaṣarrif provincial governor
Mutashabih, mutashabihat Mutashábih, Mutashábihát (pl. mutashábihát) ambiguous, equivocal and allegorical.   Refer to Qur’án 3:7.
Mutasharri' Mutasharri‘ Pers.   skilled in law; orthodox.   (plural not formed by adding an "s" – A Traveller’s Narrative 89)
Mutawahhid Mutawaḥḥid solitary, rare, sporadic, isolated;   recluse, hermit.   See Munzawí
Mutawalli, Mutavalli Mutawallí Pers.   Superintendent or treasurer (custodian) of a mosque;   an administrator or procurator of any religious or charitable foundation;   a prefect, governor;   one who turns his back, a fugitive;   near;   a kinsman, a friend;   one who receives another as such.
Mutisarrif Mutiṣarrif (pl. Mutiṣarrifún?) An administrative authority of an Ottoman region. [matassaref] (approximates a provincial governor)
Mutlaq Muṭlaq Pers.   free exempt, unrestrained;   unconditional;   indefinite, not shackled;   independent, absolute, entire, universal;   principal, supreme.   Possible Motlagh.
Muttahid, Muttahidih Muttaḥid, Pers. Muttaḥidih united, combined, consolidated, amalgamated;   uniform, standardized;   harmonious, unanimous, in agreement, concordant
Muttalib Muṭṭalib ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭallib, son of Háshim, father of ‘Abdu’lláh (father of Muḥammad)
Muttaqin Muttaqin, (pl.?) Muttaqín god-fearing, godly, devout, pious
Muwahhad Muwaḥḥad combined, consolidated, amalgamated;   united;   unified;   standardized, regularized;   having one diacritical point (letter)
Muwahhid (Muvahhid) Muwaḥḥid professor of the unity of God
Muwahhidin (Muvahhidin) Muwaḥḥidín (Believers in the unity of God)
Muwaqqar (Muvaqqar) Muwaqqar respected, held in respect;   venerable, reverend
Muwasah, Muwasat (Muvasat) Muwásáh (for mu’ásáh), Pers. Muwását consolation;   charity;   beneficence.   (sacrifice needs for others)
Muzaffar Muẓaffar victorious, successful, triumphant
Muzaffari'd-Din Muẓaffari’d-Dín, Sháh
Muzhgan Muzhgán Pers.   eye-lashes
1  Muḥammad: Prophet of Islám born Mecca 570 or 571, Mission 610, public declaration 612, fled to Medina 622–632. Five names: Muḥammad; Aḥmad; Al-Maḥi ("Effacing", "Eraser"), by means of which God effaces infidelity; Al-Ḥáshir ("Gatherer"), who will gather people; and Al-‘Áqib ("Final"), that is to say, the last of the Prophets.  
Muḥammad has an h underdot, except when an English suffix is added. Accepted exception appears to be "Muḥammad’s". Muhammadan implies a follower of Muḥammad instead of a "follower of God" (Muslim). Muhammadanism implies that the religion is the "religion of Muḥammad" instead of the "religion of God" (i.e Islám)—this is offensive to Muslims.
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Na (Nah) Na Pers.   (sometimes, in poetry, nah), no, not, neither, not yet
Na Khair (Na Khayr) Na Khair Pers.   no, not at all ("modern colloquialism")
Na’am Na‘am yes!   yes indeed!   certainly!   surely!   (introducing a verbal clause:) to be sure …
Na'am, La;   Balih, Nah Na‘am, Lá;   Pers. Balih, Nah Yes, No
Na’ib (1), Nuwwab Ná’ib, pl. Nuwwáb representative, agent, proxy, intermediary, substitute, alternate;   delegate;   deputy
Na’ib (2) Ná’ib share, portion;   allotment;   contingent, quota;   distributive share in estate, statutory portion
Na'ib al-'Amm Ná’ib al-‘Ámm general representative of the Hidden Imám
Na'ib al-Imam Ná’ib al-Imám representative of the Imám
Na'ib-i-Khass Ná’ib al-Kháṣṣ, Pers. Ná’ib-i-Kháṣṣ exclusive representative of the Imám (Naib-i-Khas)
Na'ibu’l-Iyalih Ná’ibu’l-Íyálih
Na'im Na‘ím amenity, comfort, ease, happiness, felicity;   gentle, tranquil, peaceful;   blissful
Na'imi Na‘ímí
Na'imiyan Na‘ímíyán
Na’in Ná’in far, far away, distant, remote;   outlying, out-of-the-way, secluded
Na’in (Naeyn or Nayin) Ná’ín ("Náyin", DB) city 135 km ENE of Iṣfahán.
Na'mayn Na‘mayn Riḍván Garden of (an island in a stream 2.5 km SE of old ‘Akká).   Na‘mayn means: "two yeses". There is a tradition in Islám that on the last Day in response to the Divine Call, "Am I not your Lord?" two yeses will be heard.
Naba', Anba' Naba’, pl. Anbá’ news, tidings information, intelligence;   announcement, report, news item, dispatch
Naba'u'l-'Azim, Naba'-i-'Azím A’n-Naba’u’l-‘Azím The Great Announcement, The Exalted News or The Greatest News of the Day of the Lord regarding the Promised One (Bahá’u’lláh).   Persian Naba’-i-‘Aẓím (Greatest News)
Nabat Nabát A plant, sugar-candy.   Fem. name
Nabawi Nabawí prophetic, of or pertaining to a prophet or specifically to the Prophet Muḥammad.
Nabi, Anbyat Nabí, pl. Anbyát Term for a figure of salvation—prophet, but not a Messenger of God
Nabil Nabíl Ar.   "Noble, excellent or learned"
Nabil-i-A'zam Nabíl-i-A‘ẓam See Nabíl-i-Zarandí
Nabil-i-Akbar Nabíl-i-Akbar Title given to Áqá Muḥammad-i-Qá’iní by Bahá’u’lláh
Nabil-i-Qa'ini Nabíl-i-Qá’iní (MF)
Nabil-i-Zarandi Nabíl-i-Zarandí Surnamed or titled Nabíl-i-A‘ẓam   Author of The Dawn-breakers
Nabiyu'llah Nabíyu’lláh "Prophet of God"
Nabiyu’llah Salih Nabíyu’lláh Ṣáliḥ (MF 53)
Nadara, Nadira, Nadura, Nadra, Nudur Naḍara, Naḍira, Naḍura, Naḍra, Nuḍúr to be flourishing, blooming, verdant, fresh, beautiful;   to be bright, brilliant, luminous, radiant
Nadir Nádir rare;   infrequent;   strange, odd, unusual, uncommon;   excellent, precious, priceless;   an eccentric, a crank, an odd fellow
Nadhir, Nudhur Nadhír, pl. Nudhur consecrated to God;   vowed, solemnly pledged;   warner;   herald, harbinger, forerunner;   warning;   alarm
Nadr-ibn-i-Harith Naḍr-ibn-i-Ḥárith See Naḍara
Nafadha, Nafadh, Nufudh Nafadha, Nafádh, Nufúdh to pierce, bore
Nafas-i-Rahman Nafas-i-Raḥmán "Breath of the All-Merciful"
Nafila, Nawafil Náfila, Pers. Nafl, Ar. pl. Nawáfil supererogatory (beyond religious(?) requirements, voluntary) performance;   work of supererogation;   gift, present;   booty, loot, spoil
Nafkha Nafkha (expressing single action) blow, puff;   breath;   gust;   distention, inflation, swelling;   conceit, overweeningness, haughtiness
Nafkha'i-Sur Nafkha’i-Ṣúr blowing of a trumpet, proclamation. Latest is the announcement of the Advent of Bahá’u’lláh
Nafs Nafs, Per. Ján (soul, self or desire) (Logos and Civilization, p. 101)   Ten stages of nafs (‘Abdu’l-Bahá): the desiring and aggressive soul (nafs-i-ammárih), the blaming soul (nafs-i-lavvámih), the inspired soul (nafs-i-mulhamih), the well-assured soul (nafs-i-muṭma’innih), the pleased soul (nafs-i-ráḍíyih), the soul pleasing unto God (nafs-i-marḍíyyih), the perfect soul (nafs-i-kámilih), the celestial Soul (nafs-i-malakútíyyih), the heavenly Soul (nafs-i-jabarútíyyih), and the Holy Divine Soul (nafs-i-láhútíyyih qudsíyyih).
Nafy Nafy expulsion;   banishment, exile, expatriation;   ejection, ousting, eviction, ostracism;   deportation;   denial, disclaimer, disavowal, repudiation, disproof, refutation, rebuttal, refusal, rejection, disallowance, prohibition, ban;   negation
Nafy wa Ithbat Nafy wa Ithbát negation and affirmation
Nahariyat, Nahariya Naḥáríyat, Naḥáríya Islamic sect
Nahid (Anahita) Náhíd Pers.   (Anáhítá) (Zuhrah in Arabic)   Venus.   Anáhítá was one of the supreme ‘Ízids’ of the Mazdean (Zoroastrian) Faith.   Greeks knew Anáhítá as Aphrodite and Romans as Venus Erucina
Nahj, Nuhuj Nahj, pl. Nuhúj open way;   road;   method, procedure, manner
Nahr Naḥr killing, slaughtering, butchering
Nahr, Anhur, Anhar, Nuhur Nahr, pl. Anhur, Anhár, Nuhúr stream, river;   (pl. anhur and anhár) column (of a newspaper).   Also used as suffix to a proper name suffix, i.e. Siyyid Muḥammad-‘Alí y-i-Nahrí, father of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s wife, Munírih Khánum.   The Dawn-Breakers 132 and GPB 9 use "Nahr" when mentioning slaughtering.
Nahw (Nahv), Anha Naḥw, pl. Anḥá’ direction;   side;   section, part;   way, course, method, manner, mode, fashion;   (with following genitive) corresponding to, analogous to, similar to, like, somewhat like;   (gram.) grammar;   syntax.   Hence possessive forms: Naḥwí or Naḥví
Naja, Najw, Najah Najá (Najw, Najá’, Najáh) to save oneself, be saved, be rescued, make for safety, get away (from), escape (something), be delivered (from)
Najaf Najaf Shi’ite shrine city in ‘Iráq.   Examples: Najaf-‘Alí, Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Najaf-Abad or Najafabad Najaf-Ábád or Najafábád place near Iṣfahán
Najah Najáḥ favourable, successful outcome, happy ending;   success;   satisfactory development, good progress;   passing (of an examination)
Najas, Najasa, Najasat Najas and Najása, pl. Najását impurity, uncleanness, uncleanliness, dirt, filth, squalor
Najat Naját Pers.   escaping;   liberation, freedom, salvation, escape, flight;   avidity;   envy
Najb, Nujaba Najb and Nujaba noble, highminded, generous, magnanimous
Najib, Nujub, Nujaba, Anjab Najíb, pl. Nujub, Nujabá, Anjáb of noble breed;   highborn, highbred, of noble descent, noble, distinguished, aristocratic, patrician;   excellent, superior, outstanding
Najibiyyih Najíbíyyih Najíbíyyih Garden outside Baghdád where Bahá’u’lláh made His public Declaration.
Najm, Nujum, Anjum Najm, pl. Nujúm, Anjum celestial body;   star;   lucky star;   constellation, asterism;   (colloquial) herbs, herbage, grass
Najran Najrán city in south western Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen
Nakhjavan Nakhjaván
Nakhjavani Nakhjavání
Nakhud khud traditionally, 24 mitháqíl. Changed by the Báb to 19 mitháqíl (0.191666 gm).
Namad Namad Pers.   felt;   a garment of coarse cloth;   a cloak worn during rain;   a rug or coarse carpet on which people sit;   a thick veil
Namad-Sadh (Namad-Saz), Namadgar Namad-Sádh, namadgar Pers.   a felt-manufacturer
Namak, Nimak Namak, Nimak Pers.   salt;   spirit, animation;   wit, graces, elegance;   bread, subsistence
Namari Namarí Pers.   resembling a leopard;   of the tribe of Namir
Namaz Namáz Per.,   Prayer, see Ṣalát (Ar.)
Namaz-Khanih Namáz-Khánih "Prayer-house"
Namdar Námdár Pers.   renowned, celebrated, illustrious, famous, glorious
Namih Námih Pers.   book
Namiq Námiq adorner, decorator, embellisher
Namir, Numur, Anmur Namir, pl. Numur, Anmár leopard;   tiger;   clean, pure, healthy, wholesome.
Namiri, Namiriyyah Namírí, pl. Namíríyyah Another name for the Nuṣayríyyah sect
Namus-i-A'zam Námús-i-A‘ẓam "The Most Great Law"—the UHJ constitution 2 
Namus-i-Akbar Námús-i-Akbar "the Greater Law"—the NSAs constitution
Namus, Nawamis Námús, pl. Nawámís law;   rule;   honour
Nanih Nanih "A mother or grandmother"
Naqib, Nuqaba' Naqíb, pl. Nuqabá’ leader, head, headman;   director, principal, chief;   chairman of a guild;   president;   syndic, corporation lawyer;   (mil.) captain (army), lieutenant (navy).
Naqid Naqíḍ opposed, opposite, contrary, antithetical, contradictory;   antithesis, opposition, contrast, opposite
Naqidin Náqiḍín opposers or violators.   Bahá’í: Covenant-breakers (so-called "nakazeen"or Nághi dín)
Naqidu'l-Mithaq Náqiḍu’l-Mitháq "breaker of the covenant"
Naqsh-i-Fil Hajar Naqsh-i-Fil Ḥajar "Engraving on Stone"
Naqshbandi Naqshbandí Súfí Order
Nar, Niran Nár f., pl. Nírán fire;   rifle fire, gunfire;   conflagration;   inferno (abjad 251).   Bábí doctrine: State of ignorance and social sphere to which belong all opponents
Narajila Nárajíla Ar.   coconut;   Persian water pipe, narghile   see Qalyán
Naraq Naráq town west of Káshán
Naraqi Naráqí
Nard Nard chess, draughts, backgammon
Nari Nárí fiery, igneous, fire- (in compound words);   burning, blazing, red-hot
Nasif Naṣíf veil   (Naṣíf Ḥawwá’ Khammár, ‘Akká)
Nasikh, Nussakh Násikh, pl. Nussákh abrogative, abolishing;   copyist, transcriber
Nasikhu't-Tavarikh Násikhu’t-Taváríkh Superceder of Histories ("Nasikhut-Tawarikh") by Muḥammad-Taqí Khán
Nasir li-Dini'llah Náṣir li-Díni’lláh the Defender of the Faith of God
Nasir, Nasirun, Ansar, Nussar Náṣir, pl. Náṣirún, Anṣár, Nuṣṣár helper;   protector;   granting victory.   pl. adherents, followers, partisans, sponsors, patrons, friends.   The Medinites who rallied around Muḥammad after His migration from Mecca to Medina were called the Anṣár
Nasir, Nusara Naṣír, pl. Nuṣará’ helper;   supporter, defender, protector;   ally, confederate;   adherent, follower, partisan;   furtherer, promoter, patron
Nasira an-Náṣira Nazareth
Nasiri Náṣirí of Nazareth;   Nazarene
Nasiri Tusi Náṣirí Ṭúsí (Baseer Tousy) from Ṭús or Tous
Nasiri'd-Din-i-Tusi Náṣiri’d-Dín-i-Ṭúsí
Nasr Naṣr help, aid, assistance, support, backing;   victory;   triumph
Nasraniya Naṣránáya Christianity
Nasru'llah Naṣru’lláh "Victory of God"
Nasru'llah Bagiruf Naṣru’lláh Bágirúf [Áqá Siyyid Nasru’lláh Bakeroff]
Nassa, Nass Naṣṣa, Naṣṣ to fix, lay down, appoint, stipulate
Nasta'liq Nasta‘líq Persian script, invented by Mír ‘Alí Tabrízí
Nasut Násút (mortal world—realm of being).   See Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút and Malakút.
Natiq, Natiqa, Natiqat Náṭiq, fem. Náṭiqa, Náṭiqat talking, speaking;   endowed with the faculty of speech;   eloquent;   plain, distinct, clear;   endowed with reason, reasonable, rational (being);   speaker (fem. written in TAB as Natekah and Nateghéh)
Navvab Navváb Urdu (from Arabic Nuwwáb).   First wife of Bahá’u’lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, her father was known as Navváb
Navvabih Navvábih Pers.   name used by Navváb for his daughter, Ásíyih Khánum
Naw-Bakhti Naw-Bakh
Naw-Firist Naw-Firist near Bírjand, birthplace of Nabíl-i-Akbar
Naw-Nahalan (Nawnahalan) Naw-Nahálán the young sapling or new born.   The Shirkát-i-Naw-Nahálán, the Bahá’í Children’s Savings Company, began as a savings vehicle for Bahá’í children in 1917.
Naw-Ruz Naw-Rúz "New Day"   The Bahá’í New Year’s Day, which usually falls on 21 March. If the vernal equinox falls after sunset, it is celebrated on 22 March.   Persian calendar—the day that the sun enters Aries.   The four great festivals of pre-Islamic Írán consisted of Naw-Rúz (Spring), Tír (Summer), Mihragán (Autumn), Sadih (Winter).   Mihragán—the festival of Mihr (Sun), recalled the worship of Mithrá.
Naw' Naw‘ "species, kind, sort and type"
Nawruzi-Iranzad Nawrúzí-Íránzád
Nawshiravan Nawshíraván palace of, Ctesiphon (near Baghdád) (MF p. 19)
Nayibu's-Saltanih Náyibu’s-Salṭanih
Nayriz Nayríz A town in the province of Fárs, southeast of Shíráz.
Nayyir Nayyir luminous;   shining, brilliant;   lighted, illuminated, brightly lit, full of light;   clear, plain, distinct
Nayyirih Nayyirih luminous, shining, brilliant   ("Neyerre")
Nazala, Nuzul Nazala (Nuzūl) to dismount, alight;   to descend, go down, come down, move down, get down, step down, climb down;   to get off (e.g., a train), get out, step out (e.g., of a car), debark, disembark (from a vessel);   to put down, land (airplane);   to fall (rain);   to descend from heaven, be revealed (esp., the Qur’án);   to fall, sink, sag (prices), drop (water level);   to subside, abate, let up, decrease;   to stop, or halt, for a rest, to camp;   to stop, stop over, put up, take up quarters, take lodgings, lodge, room, stay to live
Nazar, Anzar Naẓar, pl. Anẓár seeing, eyesight, vision;   look, glance, gaze;   sight;   outlook, prospect;   view;   aspect;   appearance, evidence;   insight, discernment, penetration;   perception;   contemplation;   examination (of);   inspection, study, perusal;   consideration, reflection;   philosophical speculation;   theory;   handling (of a matter);   trial, hearing (of a case in court);   supervision, control, surveillance;   competence, jurisdiction;   attention, heed, regard, notice, observance.   Mírzá Naẓar ‘Alí
Nazim, Nawazim Náẓim, pl. Nawáẓim arranger;   organizer, adjuster;   regulator;   versifier, poet;   weir, barrage
Nazimu'l-Hukama Náẓimu’l-Ḥukama wise arranger
Nazir, Nuzara', Naza'r Naẓír, pl. Nuẓará’, fem. pl. Naẓá’r similar, like, same, equal, matching, corresponding, comparable;   an equivalent;   facings opposites parallel;   (with foll. genit.) in the manner of, in the same manner as, just like, just as;   transcript, copy
Nazir, Nuzzar Náẓir, pl. Nuẓẓár observer, viewer, spectator, onlooker;   overseer, supervisor;   inspector;   manager, director, superintendent, administrator, principal, chief, (cabinet) minister (now obsolete)
Ni'ma, Ni'am, An'um, Ni'mat, Ni'amat Ni‘ma, pl. Ni‘am, An‘um, Ni‘mát, Ni‘imát Ar.   benefit, blessing, boon, benefaction, favour, grace, kindness
Ni'mat, pl. Ni'am, Ni'amát Ni‘mat, pl. Ni‘am, Ni‘amát Pers.   the hand;   graciousness, beneficence, a benefit, boon, blessing, favour;   a kind, helping hand;   riches, good things;   delight, pleasure, joy
Ni'matu'llah Ni‘matu’lláh Blessing of God.   Ni‘matu’lláh-i-Mázindarání
Nida', Nidat Nidá’, pl. Nidát shout;   call;   exclamation;   summons;   public announcement;   proclamation, appeal;   address;   vocative (gram.)
Nih nih Jan Nih nih Ján [Neh-neh jan] ("Grandma dear")
Nikah Nikáḥ marriage;   marriage contract;   matrimony, wedlock
Niku Níkú Pers.   good
Niqab Niqáb Cloth covering face of women
Nirumand Nírúmand Pers.   powerful;   rich, prosperous
Nisba, Nisab Nisba, Nisab ascription, attribution, imputation;   kinship, relationship, affinity, relationship by marriage;   connection, link;   agreement, conformity, affinity;   — (pl.) relation, reference, bearing;   ratio, rate;   measure;   proportion (mathematics);   percentage;   adjective denoting descent or origin, ending in yya (Ar.) and yyih (Pers.)
Nisf-i-Jahan (Nisf-i-Jihan) Niṣf-i-Jahán (Niṣf-i-Jihán) half the world
Nisf, Ansaf Niṣf, pl. Anṣáf half, moiety (kinship);   middle
Nisfi Niṣfí half-, semi-, hemi-, demi-
Nishan Nishán and Níshan, pl. Nayashín sign;   mark;   aim, goal;   target;   decoration, medal, order;   (e.g.) bridal attire
Nishapur or Nishabur shápúr A town in northeast Persia west of Mashhad, famous for its emerald mines.
Nisibin Niṣíbín Nusaybin, city in eastern Turkey
Nissa Nissá ancient city (Nisa) near Ashgabat in Turkmenistan
Nist Níst Pers.   it is not;   nought;   annihilation
Nist-Pul Níst-Púl Pers.   "no money"
Niswa, Niswan, Nisa' Niswa, Niswán, Nisá’ women.   Name of the younger sister of Bahá’u’lláh.   See sing. Imra’a
Niyaba Niyába representation, replacement, substitution, proxy, deputyship;   branch office, branch, agency;   delegation;   prosecution, office of the district attorney.   Prophet-hood.
Niyabi Niyabí vicarious, deputed, delegated;   representative
Niyakan Níyákán (Neyakan, Niakan) village about 140 km west of Iṣfahán
Niyala Níyálá A village in Khurásán (Khorasan)
Niyavaran Níyávarán [Neyaveran] A village in Shimírán District, north of Teheran. (PDC p. 11)
Niyaz-i-Baghdadi Níyáz-i-Baghdádí
Nizam Niẓám "Order, system"   Used as a name or title in conjunction with another word, i.e. Niẓámu’l-‘Ulamá, Niẓámu’l-Mulk, or Amír-Niẓám.
Nizami Niẓámí
Nizamiy-i-Ganjavi Niẓámíy-i-Ganjaví (Nezami Ganjawy)—one of the great poets and philosophers of the 6th century of Islám
Nizamu'd-Dawlih Niẓámu’d-Dawlih
Nizamu'd-Din Niẓámu’d-Dín
Nizamu'l-’Ulama Niẓámu’l-‘Ulamá "the one who puts order among the learned"
Nizhad Nizhád Pers.   Family, origin, root, or principle;   seed, descent, extraction;   noble, born of a distinguished race.
Nizhad-Namih Nizhád-Námih Persian   "The book of ancestry".
Nu'man Nu’mán blood
Nuayn-i-Nayyirayn Núayn-i-Nayyirayn [Núr Ibn Nayyerin]
Nubuwa Nubúwa prophethood, prophecy
Nubuwat Nubuwat "prophecy, forecast and prediction"
Nudbih Nudbih Prayer of "Lamentation" of the Imám ‘Alí
Nuh Núḥ Noah
Nuh Nuh Per.   nine
Nuk Núk a village near Bírjand, Írán.   Pers. "foolish/stupid people"
Nun Nún Arabic letter
Nuqtatu'l-Kaf Nuqṭatu’l-Káf The Point of Káf
Nuqtawi Nuqṭawí sect of Islám
Nuqtih Nuqṭih Ar.   Point
Nuqtiy-i-Bayan Nuqṭiy-i-Bayán "Point of the Bayán" (a designation of the Báb)
Nuqtiy-i-Ukhra Nuqṭiy-i-Ukh "The Last Point"
Nuqtiy-i-Ula Nuqṭiy-i-Úlá "Primal Point" (a designation of the Báb)
Nur, Anwar (Anvar) Núr, pl. Anwár (Anvár) light;   ray of light, light beam;   brightness, gleam, glow;   illumination;   light, lamp (abjad 256)   District of Mázindarán province.   Bahá also signifies "Light".   Bahá’u’lláh came from Núr, hence "Light upon light"
Nurani Núrání luminous, radiant
Nuri Núrí luminary, luminous, like light;   light-, lighting- (in compounds);   bright, shining, brilliant, radiant
Nuri'd-Din-i-Zayn Núri’d-Dín-i-Zayn (Zeine), Mírzá
Nuri'd-Din, Nuru’d-Din Núri’d-Dín (of), Núru’d-Dín (subj.) Light of Faith
Nuru'l-Azam Núru’l-A‘ẓam "Most Great Light"
Nuru'llah Núru’lláh Light of God
Nusayr (Nusair) Nuṣayr (Victory, dimim. form of Naṣr)   Name of the founder of an Islamic sect.
Nusayri (Nusairi), Nusayriyyah Nuṣayrí, pl. Nuṣayríya, Nuṣayríyyah Related to Nuṣayr.   pl. Nusseyrites People of victory, a small Islamic sect of western Írán and northern Syrian.   see ‘Alwaí.
Nusra, Nusrat Nuṣra, Pers. Nuṣrat assistance, help, defence, efficient aid;   victory.   "assisting, proclaiming, serving the Cause of God and rendering it victorious".   In Islám, nuṣrat was traditionally understood to include coercion, fighting and war. [See, for example, the Qur’án 4:74–6; 22:40–1; 47:5–8.] However, Bahá’u’lláh creates an entirely new meaning for the term by rejecting holy war, forbidding the coercion of people to faith, and annulling the denial of rights to non-believers. He replaces those traditional meanings of nuṣrat with a concept of assisting the Cause of God that is based on non-violence and communication.   Refer to The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, para. 73
Nusratu'llah Nuṣratu’lláh Assistance of God
2 Ian Semple, Interpretation and the Guardianship, 18 February 1984.  
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
No entries at this time
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Pa Pers.   the foot;   a footstep, vestige;   cause, pretence, pretext;   power, strength;   opposition, resistance
Pa-Qal'iyi Pá-Qal‘iyí Pers.   "carpet weaver"   DB 100
Pahlav, Pahlaw Pahlav Pers.   A hero;   a wrestler;   a saint;   a city;   name of a country where Pehlevi is spoken
Pahlavan, Pahlawan Pahlaván Pers.   A hero, champion, brave warrior, strong athletic man;   rough, rugged in figure or in speech
Pahlavi Pahlaví Family name of the dynasty of Sháhs begun in 1925 by Riḍá Khán.
Pak Pák Pers.   pure, chaste, innocent, clean, neat;   perfect, full, complete;   all, entire;   downright
Pakbaz Pákbáz utmost detachment or those who risk all they have in gambling, those who give away whatever they have
Pakdini Pákdíní Pers.   pure religion
Pakistan Pákistán Derived from Persian for "Land (stán) of the Pure (pák)"
Pakistani Pákistání
Panbih-Chulih Panbih-Chúlih (Panbeh Chooleh)   a village 18 km north of Sárí
Panj Panj Pers.   five;   fifth;   in fives;   the five senses
Par-Pa (Parpa) Par-Pá (Parpá) Pers.   feather foot;   "light foot" surname given to Hájí Mírzá Jání (The Dawn-Breakers 101)
Par, Parr Par, Parr Pers.   a wing;   a feather;   a leaf;   the arm from the collar-bone to the tip of the finger;   the sails or paddles of a mill;   a side, skirt, or margin;   leaf of a tree;   light, ray
Paracletes (Paracletos), Faraqlit Paraclytes, Fáraqlíṭ (Fáriq+líṭ) Paracletes (Gk., comforter or spirit of truth) resembles Fáraqlíṭ (one that discriminates between truth and falsehood, i.e. Aḥmad, a name of Muḥammad).  See periclytes
Paran Párán A mountain range north of Sinai and south of Seir; all are sacred as places of revelation.   Teman lies in northwest Edam, not far from Párán.   Moses uses "Párán" with special reference to Muḥammad and "Seir" to Jesus Christ.
Pari Parí Pers.   winged; a good genius, a fairy
Pari-Rukh, Pari-Rukhsar Parí-Rukh, Parí-Rukhsár Pers.   angel-cheeked, fairy-faced
Pars Párs Pers.   a leopard (pard);   an animal smaller than a leopard and trained to hunt;   ounce, cheetah;   Persia (original and proper name). Arabs substituted the P for an F: Fárs
Parsi Pársí A Persian [parsee]
Parwin (Parvin, Parvyn) Parwín (Parvín) Pers.   Pleiades
Parwiz (Parviz) Parwíz (Parvíz) Name of Persian king
Pasha shá see shá
Pasha'i shá’í
Pashay-i-Qibrisi sháy-i-Qibrisí
Payam Payám Pers.   news, advice;   message;   rumour, fame
Paykar Paykar Pers.   face, countenance;   form, figure, mould, model;   portrait, likeness;   an idol-temple
Payman Paymán Pers.   measuring;   promise, agreement, compact, convention, treaty, stipulation, pledge, security, confirmation;   asseveration, oath, kindred
Payrawi (Pay-rawi, Payravi) Payrawí (Payraví) a following, pursuit;   search;   dependence, consequence
Periclytes (Periclitos) Periclytes very illustrious, greatly praised (meaning of Muḥammad).   Muslims claim periclitos was replaced by paracletos (or comforter) in the Bible.   See paracletes
Pichan chán Pers.   complicated, twisted
Pidar-Jan Pidar-Ján [Pedar Jan] ("Father Dear")   title given to ‘Abdu’lláh of Qazvín (MF)
Pir Pír Pers.   An old man;   a founder or chief of a religious body or sect
Pishdadiyan shdádíyán shdádíyán Dynasty (e.g. Firaydún)
Pishkish shkish "Present", "tip", "duoceur"
Pishnamaz shnamáz Pers.   the cleric who leads the congregation in prayer in the mosque
Plevna Plevna Pleven, Bulgaria
Prayer Prayer There are three types of revealed prayers: ṣalát [ritual or obligatory prayers revealed by Bahá’u’lláh], du’á’ (prayers for certain occasions and requirements) and munájáh (prayers that are more in the character of communing with God) [revealed by the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi].   See Ṣalát
Pul Púl Pers.   a bridge;   a small piece of copper coin;   money;   a fish-scale;   a station on a journey, an inn
Pul-i-Sirat, as-Sirat Pul-i-Ṣiráṭ (Pers.), aṣ-Ṣiráṭ (Ar.) The Bridge on the Path.   The hair-narrow bridge that every person must pass on the Yawm ad-Dín ("Day of the Way of Life", i.e. the Day of Judgement) to enter Paradise.
Pur Pur Pers.   full;   laden, charged;   complete;   much, very
Pur Púr Pers.   a son;   a horse;   one who shams ignorance;   steel;   a woodcock;   Porus, king of the Pauravas
Pur-dil (Purdil) Pur-dil (Purdil) Pers.   "full heart" full of courage, intrepid, magnanimous;   intelligent;   liberal
Pur-Ustadkar Púr-Ustádkár Pers.   See púr, ustád and kár
Pustchi Pústchí
Unaccented forms Transliterated forms Explanations and comments
Qa’da Qa‘da sitting;   backside, seat, buttocks, posteriors;   space occupied while sitting, seating space
Qa'ida, Qawa'id Qá‘ida, pl. Qawá‘id foundation, groundwork;   basis;   fundament
Qa'im-i-Al-i-Muhammad Qá’im-i-Ál-i-Muḥammad "He who shall arise of the family of Muḥammad"
Qa'im-Maqam Qá’im-Maqám or Qá’imaqám administrative officer at the head of a qaḍá’.   Title of a local governor in Írán
Qa'im, Quwwam, Quyyam Qá’im, pl. Quwwam, Quyyam (pl. also Quwwám, Quyyám)   rising, getting up;   standing;   upright, erect;   stand-up;   existing, existent;   visible, conspicuous;   firm, steadfast, staunch, unflinching, unshakable;   revolting, rebelling (against)   (Forerunner—"He Who shall arise" (of the family of Muḥammad)—for the return of Imám Ḥusayn.   The Sunnis (Ar. Sunníún) await the appearance of the Mihdí and also "the return of Jesus Christ".   The Promised One of Islám (Qá’im-i-Ál-i-Muḥammad).   Sometimes given as Kaem and Khaem.
Qa'imiyya Qá’imíyya Station of the Qá’im ("He Who shall arise").   Qa’im-hood, Qa’im-ship.   Similar to Messiahship (station of the promised and expected deliverer/redeemer/saviour of the Jewish people)
Qa'in Qá’in (Qaen, Ghayen, Qayen or Ghaen)   capital city of Qá’in County in South Khorasan Province, Írán
Qa'ini Qá’iní name by which Mírzá Habíb-i-Shírází was known
Qabr, Qubur Qabr, pl. Qubúr grave, tomb, sepulchre
Qabus Qábús nightmare
Qabz, Qubuz Qabẓ, pl. Qubúẓ Pers.   (verbal noun) Taking, seizing, arresting, grasping, griping, clutching;   keeping back, restraining ones hand from taking hold of;   flying or walking swiftly;   driving (camels) fast;   capture, sequestration, confiscation;   receipt, voucher;   contraction;   pl. receipt papers
Qad Qad indicates the termination of an action;   sometimes corresponding to English "already";   sometimes, at times;   perhaps, or English "may", "might"
Qada' Qaḍá’ settling, finishing, ending, closing, termination, conclusion, windup, completion, accomplishment;   carrying out, execution, performance, effectuation;   fulfilment, satisfaction, gratification (of a wish, of a desire);   provision (for a need);   compliance (with a request);   payment, settlement, discharge (of a debt);   passing, spending (of a period of time);   divine decree (mystical station of submitting to the divine decree), destiny, fate;   judgement, sentence, (judicial) decision, (court) ruling, ordinance;   administration of the law, judiciary, jurisprudence, justice;   law;   jurisdiction;   office of judge, judicature;   judging, rendering of judgement;   sentencing, condemnation (of someone);   extermination, annihilation, extirpation
Qadar, Aqdar Qadar, pl. Aqdár divine fore-ordainment, predestination;   fate, destiny, lot.   Decision, destiny, measure or desert, mystical station of consciousness of ones destiny.
Qadariyyah Qadaríyyah Muslims advocating teaching of man’s free will.   See Jabríyyah
Qadi Qáḍí (Cadi)   A judge (civil, criminal or religious in Islám).   See Qáḍin
Qadi-Kala Qáḍí-Kalá village (TN p. 22)
Qadim, Qadimun, Qudum Qádim, pl. Qádimún, Qudúm, Quddám one arriving, arriver, arrival, newcomer
Qadimi Qadímí
Qadin, Qudah Qáḍin, pl. Quḍáh decisive, conclusive;   deadly, lethal;   judge, magistrate, justice, cadi
Qadir Qadír possessing power or strength, powerful, potent;   having mastery (over something), capable (of something);   omnipotent, almighty, all-powerful (God)—abjad value 144
Qadir Qádir possessing power or strength, powerful, potent;   having mastery (over something), being equal (to something);   capable (of something), able (to do something);   efficient, capable, talented
Qadiriya Qádiríya BKG 124
Qadiriyyih Qádiríyyih Qádiríyyih Order
Qadisiyyah al-Qádisíyyah Battle of, June 637
Qadiyan Qádíyán Qádíyán, Punjab, India (BA p. 74)
Qahirih Qáhirih "the All-Victorious", now known as Cairo
Qahqaha, Qahqahih Qahqaha, Pers. Qahqahih loud burst of laughter
Qahr Qahr vanquishing, subdual, subjection, subjugation;   compulsion, coercion, force;   (eg.) annoyance, trouble, sorrow, grief
Qahru'llah Qahru’lláh Annoyance of God.   "The Wrath of God"
Qaht Qaḥṭ (Ar.)   want of rain;   drought, dryness;   famine;   dearth, lack, want, scarcity
Qahtan Qahtán, Baní
Qahtan Qaḥṭán Pers.   name of the son of Amír, son of Sálikh, father of a tribe (Baní Qaḥṭán);   name of a man called the father of Yaman (1 Chron. 1. 17–20);   name of a desert
Qahwa-khana Qahwa-khána Pers.   coffee house   [Qahviyi-khánigí (Chosen highway 100)]
Qahwa, Qahawat, Qahawi Qahwa, pl. Qahawát and Qaháwí coffee;   pl. café, coffeehouse.
Qahwachi, Qahwa-chi, Qahvih-chi Qahwachí, Qahwa-chí, Qahvih-chí Pers.   coffee house keeper or coffee maker
Qajar Qájár Name of a Turkoman tribe whose leaders reigned from 1795 to 1925 in Persia;   the dynasty was begun by Áqá Muḥammad Khán.
Qal wa-qil, Qil wa-qal Qál wa-qíl, Qíl wa-qál long palaver;   idle talk, prattle, gossip.
Qal'a, Qila', Qulu' Qal’a, pl. Qilá’, Qulú’ fortress, stronghold, fort;   citadel.   Pers., also Qal’ih
Qalam-dan (Qalamdan) Qalam-dán (Qalamdán) Pers.   pencil-box
Qalam, Aqlam Qalam, pl. Aqlám reed pen;   pen;   writing, script, calligraphic style, ductus;   handwriting;   style;   office, bureau, agency, department;   window, counter;   item, entry
Qalandar Qalandar Order of wandering dervishes
Qalb, Qulub Qalb, pl. Qulúb heart;   middle, centre;   core, gist, essence;   marrow, medulla, pith;   the best or choicest part;   mind, soul, spirit
Qalbi Qalbí, qalbíyan of or pertaining to the heart, heart;   (in compounds), cardiac, cardiacal;   cordial, hearty, warm, sincere.   Qalbíyan cordially, heartily, warmly, sincerely.
Qalyan Qalyán Persian (Nargileh)   pipe for smoking through water.
Qamar, Aqmar Qamar Ar.   snow blindness;   — (pl. aqmár) moon;   satellite (astronomy)
Qamar Qamar Pers.   the moon (especially from the third day to the end of the month);   (variation) having the eyes dazzled from the reflection of snow or any bright colour;   satisfying thirst;   being abundant (forage, etc.);   being spoiled;   watching, lying awake in moonlight
Qamaran al-Qamarán (dual) the sun and moon.  Pers. Qamarání
Qams Qamṣ gallop
Qamsar (Ghamsar, Kamsar) Qamṣar village 25 km south of Káshán, Írán
Qanah, Qanan, Quniy, Qina, Qanawat Qanáh plurals: qanan, quníy, qiná’, qanawát, qanayát.   spear, (bamboo) lance;   shaft;   tube, duct, pipe;   — (pl. aqniya, qanawát) canal;   stream, waterway
Qanat Qanát a gently sloping underground channel with a series of vertical access shafts, used to transport water from an aquifer under a hill.   From qanáh
Qanbar Qanbar Masc. proper name
Qand, Qunud Qand, pl. Qunúd hard crystalline mass formed by evaporating or boiling cane sugar, candy
Qanitih Qánitih The attendant of Ṭáhirih at Badasht.
Qannad Qannád Pers.   A maker of sugar-candy;   a confectioner.   Áqá Ríḍáy-i-Qannád
Qanun, Qawanin Qánún, pl. Qawánín canon;   established principle, basic rule, axiom, norm, regulation, rule, ordinance, prescript, precept, statute;   law;   code;   tax, impost
Qara Qará Pers.   black
Qara-Guhar Qará-Guhar "Big and heavy"   Name given to one of two dreadful chains (the other was Salásil) in the Black Pit of Ṭihrán.
Qara, Qurra Qárá, pl. Qurrá Reciter(s) of the Qur’án by heart
Qaraba Qarába relation, relationship, kinship
Qarabat Qarábat "relationship, proximity, nearness or kinship"   Súrih of Qarábat (by the Báb)
Qarad Qarád Pers.   being corroded, worm-eaten (leather);   being silent (especially from an impediment in speech);   being crisp and curly (hair);   being matted and impacted (wool);   palm-branches stripped of their leaves;   being small (teeth);   being spoiled in flavour;   tautology
Qari', Qari'un, Qurra' Qárí’, pl. Qárí’ún, Qurrá’ intoner or reciter (esp. of the Qur’án);   reader
Qari'a, Qawari' Qári‘a, pl. Qawári‘ (sudden) misfortune, calamity;   adversity.   Al Qári‘ah, the Great Calamity, súra 101
Qarn, Qurun Qarn, pl. Qurún horn (of an animal;   as a wind instrument);   feeler, tentacle, antenna;   top, summit, peak (of a mountain);   the first visible part of the rising sun;   capsule, pod (botany);   century.
Qarun Qárún a cousin of Moses (Korah) (