Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transliterationcompiled by Mike Thomas.
Download MS Word copy (833.0Kb - 12 February 2017)
· Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters and abjad values · Arabic numbers · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘ days of the week · Badí‘ months · Badí‘ years · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar (modern) · Qur’án súra names · Shrine of the Báb · Umayyad Caliphs · Word macros ·
This document lists the Roman script transliteration forms of many of the Arabic and Fársí (some are of Turkish origin) names and words used in the Bahá’í Writings as a guide to their transliteration. Hence, there is no need to include all possible combinations of those words used in the names of people and places. However, additional root words have been added as a guide to an understanding of the meaning of the words.*
* *Persian: “-yi-” (“of” in English), Ághá “of” Karand, after a vowel instead of “-i-” as in Káẓim-i-Zanjání. Ághá-yi-Karand (formal) and Ághá Karand (informal).
Why use transliteration?
“Regarding the transliteration of Persian and Arabic words the House of Justice requests that the method adopted by the beloved Guardian, and which is described in the various volumes of ‘The Bahá’í World’, be followed, as it permits all languages which use the Roman alphabet to transliterate such terms in the same way throughout the Bahá’í world.”1
Whatever “house styles” Publishing Trusts and other Bahá’í publishers may adopt, transliteration of oriental terms into languages using the Roman alphabet must at present be according to the system chosen by the Guardian and described in volumes of The Bahá’í World.2
1 From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, 16 July 1979
2 The Universal House of Justice, 21 July 1998, Current Guidance on Baha’i Publishing
Some sources of information are given in brackets. Authors of books, tablets, etc., “(by _____)”. The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice (caution: these contain errors); and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh. New entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian dictionaries—older entries will gradually be updated using these dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from a few knowledgeable individuals.
Arabic and Fársí do not have capital letters. When transcripted, capital letters should only be used for proper names and attributes of God, otherwise, lower case letters should be used. This document uses capital letters for all words/names as if they were proper names—these should be converted to lower case for other uses.
Most words (there are some commonly accepted exceptions, e.g. Bahá’ís) that have an English suffix should not be transcripted (e.g. Islamic, Qur’anic, Shi’ite, Shi’ism). Adding an ‘s’ to many words to represent the plural form is more recognizable to the English reader (bábs) than the often very different transcripted Arabic plural word (abváb). These and some other words are often better replaced by an English equivalent, e.g. Gate-hood for Bábíyyat instead of the incorrect hybrid forms: “Bábhood” or “Babhood”, etc.
Any variations in transliteration by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Bahá’í authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transliteration rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transliterated forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transliterated.
d)A search for the words in Arabic dictionaries (e.g. The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written Arabic).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Bahá’ís who are Arabic and/or Fársí speakers. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Although every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of this document, many older entries need to be rechecked or require additional information. Any corrections or suggested changes are welcomed.
Phonetic or common spelling
Some words in brackets in the third column indicate an old-style phonetical spelling that can be found in some older Bahá’í publications.
‘Ayn and Hamza consonants
These Arabic consonant letters for ‘ayn and hamza are represented by left and right curly apostrophes respectively—they are not quote marks nor are they interchangeable. The alternative plain text characters are ` and ' respectively.
Always include any initial ‘Ayn, and ending Hamza or ‘Ayn. It is important not to confuse any quote marks used in the text together with an ‘Ayn or a Hamza.
Elative word forms
In some languages such as Arabic, the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an adjective are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme”. The elative of kabár (big) is ‘akbar (bigger/biggest, greater/greatest).
The line placed under ‘ch’, ‘dh’, ‘kh’, ‘sh’, ‘th’ and ‘zh’ indicates that these combinations of two letters in Roman script represent the sound of a single letter in the original script.
This document is not a pronunciation guide. However, the following information is provided as a simple introduction.
Accenting provides a guide to the pronunciation of vowel sounds in standard Arabic. Any attempt to show how vowels are pronounced using English word examples is limited by the fact that English words themselves are pronounced differently in different English speaking regions. The sound of short vowels is also affected by which consonant precedes them.
áa long a as in ‘ah’, ‘arm’ or ‘father’
aa short a as in ‘band’, ‘account’ or ‘ran’
íthe vowel sound ‘ee’ as in ‘meet’ or ‘feet’
ia simple ‘i’ sound as in ‘hit’, ‘bit’ or ‘sit’
úa ‘oo’ sound as in ‘boot’, ‘moon’ or ‘root’
ua ‘o’ sound as in ‘put’
awas ‘ow’ sound in ‘vowel’
*This section should be revised using https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/382588/ocean2.0/Audio/prounounce.html
Categories of words in Arabic
Arabic divides all words into three categories. A verb (fi‘l) refers to an event, or motion, in time. A noun (ism) refers to a thing and makes no reference to time. A preposition (ḥarf) has no independent and substantive meaning but functions as a link between nouns and verbs. Gate of the heart, p. 205.
The first column of the following list contains a form of the words/names without acute accents, initial ‘Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transliteration, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort of the list itself. When searching for words containing a ‘v’ (Persian) or a ‘u’, look also for the word with a ‘w’ replacing the ‘v’ or ‘u’.
Roman script transliterated forms of Arabic/Fársí words/names
· Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters and abjad values · Arabic numbers · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘ days of the week · Badí‘ months · Badí‘ years · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar (modern) · Qur’án súra names · Shrine of the Báb · Umayyad Caliphs · Word macros ·
· Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters and abjad values · Arabic numbers · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘ days of the week · Badí‘ months · Badí‘ years · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar (modern) · Qur’án súra names · Shrine of the Báb · Umayyad Caliphs · Word macros ·
A'zam, (see Azim)
A‘ẓam, f. ‘Uẓmá, pl. A‘áẓim
Ahmar, Hamra, Humr Aḥmar, f. Ḥamrá, pl. Ḥumr red, red-coloured, ruddy; rosy, pink. Alhambra (Spanish), the Citadel of Granada, (“the Red Palace”; al-Ḥamrá, lit. “the red one”)
Ahsa Aḥsá (place in northern Bahrain), birthplace of Shaykh Aḥmad, and district in north-east of Arabian peninsula)
Ahsanu'l-Qisas Aḥsánu’l-Qiṣaṣ The Best of Stories [Ar.]: a name for the Surih of Joseph.—Tafsír-i-Aḥsánu’l-Qiṣaṣ: the Báb’s commentary on the Súrih of Joseph, the Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, called the Qur’án of the Bábís. Translated into Persian by Ṭáhirih.
Ahu Áhú Pers. a vice, fault, defect, stain, spot, villainy; flight, escape; an exclamation, cry for help; an asthma ; a deer, roe, gazelle ; any object of pursuit or chase; a beautiful eye; a mistress
Ain, Uyun, A'yun ‘Ain f., pl. Úyún, A‘yun eye; evil eye; spring, source, fountain-head (of water); scout, reconnoiterer; hole; mesh; flower, choice, prime (of something); (pl. a‘yán) an eminent, important man, used esp. in pl.: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons; substance, essence; self, individuality; chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic law)
Ajam ‘Ajam (collective) barbarians, non-Arabs, Persians. (collective; noun denoting an individual) stone kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)
Ajiba, 'Aja’ib ‘Ajíba, pl. ‘Ajá’ib wondrous thing, unheard of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder;—pl. remarkable things, curiosities, oddities
Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il, Ajwibatu’l-Masa’il Ajwibat al-Masá’il “Answers to some questions”, book by Shaykh Aḥmad. Pers. Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il (Ajvibatu’l-Masa’il)
Akbar, Akbarun, Akabir Akbar, pl. Akbarún, Akábir greater, bigger, larger; older; senior-ranking [comparative form of ‘kabura’ (to elevate)]. Note: akbar, اكبر, consists of four consonants: ب ك ا ر (right to left in Arabic, or Alif, Káf, Bá’ and Rá’ in English)—the first a is an Alif.
Akh, Ikhwa, Ikhwan Akh, pl. Ikhwa, Ikhwán brother; fellow man, neighbour; friend;—pl. ikhwán specifically, brethren or members of an order; al-ikhwán religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa‘úd in 1910
Akhbari Akhbárí school, founded by Mullá Muḥammad-Amír of Astarábád, in opposition to the mujtahids or the Uṣúlís. Akhbár (pl. of Khabar) means ‘news’ or ‘traditions’, and uṣúl means ‘principles’. The Akhbárí followers only accept the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and the Imáms; whereas the Uṣúlís (they constitute the vast majority of the Twelvers), maintain that the mujtahid has the right, as the deputy of the Hidden Imám, to deduce principles from the Qur’án as well as the traditions, and to use qiyás or ‘analogy’ to make an authoritative statement.
Akhir, Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir Ákhir, pl. Ákhirún, Ákhirát, Awakhir last, ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper)
Akhtar, Akhtaran Akhtar, pl. Akhtarán Pers. a star; horoscope, predominant star at anyone’s nativity; an omen, augury; an ensign, standard; name of an angel. Name of a newspaper
Akhu’th-Thamarah Akhu’th-Thamarah “the Brother of the Fruit”. Báb: “Akhu’th-Thamarah, 238”—The fruit is Mírzá Yaḥyá and 238 equals Ḥusayn-‘Alí (Bahá’u’lláh)
Akhund Ákhúnd Muslim priest [akhond] See ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí
Akif, Akifan ‘Ákif, pl. ‘Ákifán Pers. assiduous, diligent; constantly staying in the mosque and employed in devotion
Akka ‘Akká Also Akko or Acre (former name: Antiochia Ptolemais). Houses used by the Bahá’ís: Malik, Khavvám and Rábi’ih, ‘Údí Khammár and ‘Abbúd. Family left 1877 for Mazra‘ih
Al Ál family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; companions, partisans, people; mirage, fatamorgana. Not the Arabic definite article al-
Ala, Uluw ‘Alá, ‘Ulúw to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up; to rise, ascend; to ring out (voice); etc.
Alam, A'lam ‘Alam, A‘lám (pl) sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic; harelip; road sign, signpost, guidepost; flag, banner; a distinguished, outstanding man; an eminent personality, an authority, a star, a luminary
Alam, Alamun, Awalim ‘Álam, pl. ‘Álamún, ‘Awálim world; universe, cosmos. Pl. ‘Álamún—inhabitants of the world, specifically human beings. al-‘álamán the two worlds = Europe and America.
Alama, Alamat, Ala'im ‘Aláma, pl. ‘Alámát, ‘Alá’im mark, sign, token; badge, emblem; distinguishing mark, characteristic
Alami ‘Álami worldly, secular, world (adj.); international; world-wide, world-famous, enjoying world-wide renown
Alamu'l-Haqq ‘Álamu’l-Ḥaqq (upper) eternally inaccessible world of God that is exalted beyond the grasp of the minds of men
Alamut Alamút eagle-nest. Name of a region in Írán on the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range and a ruined fortress (55 km NE of Qazvín and 110 km NW of Ṭihrán.
Alast, 'A last ’A last “Am I not?” Cycle of ’A last is a reference to a pre historic Covenant between God and man. According to Qur’án 7:172, God called all the men in his presence before their creation and asked them “’A lastu bi Rabbikum?” “Am I not your Lord?” and all the men confirmed that by saying “yes, yes, thou art our Lord”. This demonstrates the total and inherent essential dependence of man to the continuous grace of God. So ’A last and Cycle of ’A last is a reference to this Covenant.
Alawi (Pers. Alavi) ‘Alawí upper; heavenly, celestial; Alawi (adj. and n.);—pl. the Alawis (official name of the Nusairis inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria)
Ali-Quli Khan (Ali-Kuli Khan) ‘Alí-Qulí Khán Better known as Ali-Kuli Khan, married Florence Breed (parents of Marzieh Gail)
Alim, Ulama ‘Álim, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (adj. or noun) knowing; familiar, acquainted (with), cognizant (of); expert, connoisseur, professional.—Pl. learned, erudite; scholar, savant, scientist. The ‘Ulamá’ is a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology.
Alin ‘Álin high, tall, elevated; loud, strong (voice); higher (as opposed to elementary); lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing; excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity)
Aliy, 'Ilya ‘Alíy, pl. ‘Ilya high, tall, elevated: exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent. (pl.) upper class, people of distinction, prominent people
Alladhi, Allati, Alladhina Alladhí, fem. Allatí (relative pronoun) he who, that which; who, which, that. Plurals: m. alladhína, fem. allátí, allawátí (“allawati”), allá’í (“alla’i”)
Allahu-A’zam, Allah-u-A’zam Alláhu-A‘ẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-A‘ẓam (greeting response to Alláh-u-Akbar—men) God is the Most Mighty
Allahu-Abha, Allah-u-Abha Alláhu-Abhá, Pers. Alláh-u-Abhá (greeting response to Alláh-u-Ajmal—women) God is Most Glorious, God is All-Glorious. A form of the Greatest Name. Bahá, or any of its derivatives such as Abhá, Yá Bahá’u’lláh, or Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá, are all referred to as the Greatest name.Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá (O Glory of Glories or O Glory of the All-Glorious) is an invocation used in the calligraphy designed by Mishkín-Qalam.
Allahu-Ajmal, Allah-u-Ajmal Alláhu-Ajmal, Pers. Alláh-u-Ajmal (greeting response to Alláh-u-Abhá—women) God is the Most Beautiful.
Allahu-Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar Alláhu-Akbar, Pers. Alláh-u-Akbar greeting by a man to a man. God is the Most Great or God is the Greatest. See Alláh-u-A‘ẓam above
Allahumma Alláhumma “O Thou My God”. Permitted by the Báb to be tattooed on chest of men, in the most beautiful calligraphy.
Allama ‘Alláma most erudite, very learned (of the ulama); learned in every branch of the Islamic sciences
Allamiy-i-Hilli ‘Allámiy-i-Ḥillí “the very erudite Doctor”, a title of the famed Shí’ih theologian, Jamálu’d-Dín Ḥasan ibn-i-Yúsuf ibn-i-‘Alí of Hilla (ad 1250–1325) (MF p. 169)
Alvah-i-Tablighi-i-Amrika Alváḥ-i-Tablíghí-i-Amríká Pers. collection of Tablets by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to America, translated as Tablets of the Divine Plan. Amríká also given as Imríká
Alwai, Alawiyyah ‘Alwaí, pl. ‘Alawíyyah upper; heavenly, celestial; Alawi or Alawite (Eng.);—pl. Alawis (Eng., official name of the Nusayris (Nuṣayríyyah), Islamic sect in Syria founded by Ibn Nuṣayr)
Ama ‘Amá’ Ar. heavy clouds. [Pers. deviation, aberration, loss of the way; contention, litigation; a cloud, high, dense, rainy, thin; a black or white cloud; a cloud which has shed rain; blindness.] See root word ‘amiya. Hence, ‘Amá’ can be translated as blindness, secrecy, obscurity, etc.; though it also has the sense of “cloud”, possibly “heavy and thick clouds (which hide and obscure) or (the opposite!) light diaphanous clouds. See http://hurqalya.ucmerced.edu/node/428
Amal, A'mal ‘Amal, pl. ‘A‘mál doing, acting, action, activity; work, labour; course of action, way of acting, practice; achievement, accomplishment; activity (for), work (in the service of something); making, production, manufacture, fabrication; performance, execution; make, workmanship; practical work, practice;—(pl.) act, action; operation (military); work, job, chore, labour; deed, feat, achievement, exploit; occupation, business; trade, craft, handicraft; vicegerency, province, district; administrative district
Aman Amán Ar. Security, safety; peace; shelter, protection; clemency, quarter (mil.); safeguarding, assurance of protection; indemnity, immunity from punishment
Amanat Amánat Per. A deposit, charge, anything given in trust; security, safety, protection; safe-guard, safe-conduct; sincerity, faith, religion.
Amara Amr, Awamir, Umur Amara, Amr, pl. 1 Awámir, 2 Umúr to order, command, bid, instruct (someone to do something), commission, charge, entrust (someone with something or to do something); (pl. #1) order, command, instruction (to do something); ordinance, decree; power, authority; (gram.) imperative; (pl. #2) matter, affair, concern, business
Amatu'l-A'la Amatu’l-A‘lá (“the Handmaid of the Most High”) Title given to Dr Susan Moody by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Amatu'l-Baha Amatu’l-Bahá Hand of the Cause of God, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum Rabbani (née Mary Sutherland Maxwell) (08-08-1910–19-01-2000). [“It was Amatu'l-Bahá’s preference that Rabbani not be” transcripted. Letter from her Literary Executors, 9 January 2007 to M.W.T.] “The Handmaiden of the Glory”, “Spiritual” and “Lady”
Amil, Awamil, Ummal ‘Ámil, pl. ‘Awámil, ‘Ummál active; effective; (pl. ‘Awámil) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power; word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (gram.); (pl. ‘Ummál) maker, producer, manufacturer; doer, perpetrator, author; worker, workman, workingman, labourer; wage earner, employee; governor.
Amin, Umana Amín, pl. Umaná’ reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest; safe, secure; authorized representative or agent; trustee; guarantor (of); chief, head; superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper; chamberlain; master of a guild [Superlative form of amuna or amána (to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy)]
Amir ‘Ámir inhabited; peopled, populated, populous; full, filled, filled up; jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (with); amply provided, splendidly furnished; civilized; cultivated (land); flourishing, thriving, prosperous
Amir-Zadih Amír-Zádih or Amírzádih Pers. see Mírzá
Amir, Umara, Amirat Amír, pl. Umará’, pl. fem. Amírát commander, governor, lord; prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling house; tribal chief
Amiya, ‘Aman ‘Amiya (‘Aman) to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight; to be blind (to something); to be obscure (to someone); form II to blind, render blind (someone); to blindfold (someone); to obscure, render cryptic, enigmatic or mysterious, mystify (something); form IV to blind, render blind (someone); to blindfold (someone); to make (someone) blind (to a fact); form V to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight; form VI to shut one’s eyes (on something), pretend not to see (something); to be blind (to). That is, ‘to become blind, to be obscure’
Amud, A'mida, Umud ‘Amúd, pl. A‘mida, ‘Umud flagpole, shaft (of a standard); pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress; lamppost; (telephone, telegraph) pole; column, pillar, pilaster; stem (of a glass); (pl.) column (of a newspaper)
Amud, Awamid, Avamid ‘Ámúd, pl. ‘Awámíd = ‘Amúd column, pillar. See ‘Amúd.
Anahita Anáhítá Old Pers. immaculate, undefiled. Venus, Aphrodite (Greek) and Venus Erucina (Roman). See modern form Náhíd
Andarun Andarún Pers. within; the inside; the heart, bowels; intrinsic, interior, internal. Village 190 km ESE Ahváz, Írán
Andaruni Andarúní interior; inner women’s apartments. See bírúní
Anis, Anisa Anís, fem. Anísá close, intimate; close friend; friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous. Close Companion is the title of Muḥammad-‘Alí-i-Zunúzí, the companion of the Báb in martyrdom, and Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ismá‘íl (referred to as Anís in Súriy-i-Ra’ís). ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: By the symbolic Tree of Anísá is meant the divine Lote-Tree, the Tree of Life (Bahá’u’lláh)—see The Hidden Words, Persian 19 and Qur’án 24:35
Ansari, Ansariyyah Anṣárí, pl. Anṣaríyyah Related to Anṣár, the Helpers. Those who rallied around Muḥammad after His flight from Mecca to Medina. Anṣaríyyah is believed to be a mistransliteration of Nuṣayríyyah. See ‘Alwaí
Anushirwan (Anushirvan, Nushirvan) Anúshírwán (Núshírván) Sásáníyán king of Persia known for his just rule (ad 531–578). The Prophet Muḥammad was born in Arabia at the time of his reign (about 570-1).—SDC p. 68. Persians some times use Anúshírván or even Núshírván. There are instances of Núshíraván and Núshíruván.
Anwari (Avari) Anwárí (Anvárí) Name of a famous Persian poet, who died ah 586/ad 1190. See núr
Aqa Jan Áqá Ján Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuensis, later known as Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”)
Aqa, Aqayan Áqá, pl. Áqáyán Pers. master, sir, gentleman; when affixed to a name means Mr (A male honorific title—‘the Master’ was given to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá by Bahá’u’lláh)
Aqdas Aqdas more hallowed, more sacred, holier. The Most holy. See Quds
Aqida, Aqa'id ‘Aqída, pl. ‘Aqá’id article of faith, tenet, doctrine; dogma; creed, faith, belief; conviction
Aqsa Aqṣá “The Most Remote” al-Masjid al-Aqṣá—Aqṣá Mosque at southern end of the Temple Mount, Jerusalem. Name by which the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur’án and in the Writings. See aṣ-Ṣakhrah
ar-Rahman ar-Raḥmán the Merciful (i.e. God), the Most Gracious. The Báb permitted this phrase to be tattooed on the chest of women, in the most beautiful calligraphy.
ar-Rukn ar-Rabi', Rukn-i-Rabi ar-Rukn ar-Rábi‘, Pers. Rukn-i-Rábi‘ Fourth Pillar or Support (God, Muḥammad and the Imams are the first three)—a perfect Shí‘í man (ash-Shí‘í al-Kámil) believed always to exist among the Shi’ihs and to serve as a Channel of grace
Arab, Urab, A’rub, Urban ‘Arab (coll.), pl. ‘Urúb, A‘rub Arabs; true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins. Other plurals: ‘Urbán, A‘ráb.
Arabi, al-‘Arabiya ‘Arabí Arab, Arabic, Arabian; truly Arabic; an Arab; al-‘Arabíya, the language of the ancient Arabs; classical, or literary, Arabic.
Arafih ‘Arafih The day before the festival of Immolation of ‘Ídu’l-Aḍḥá (vigil of the Feast of Sacrifice, when Mecca pilgrims proceed to Mount ‘Arafát. The ninth day of the month of Dhi’l-Ḥijjih).
Arba'un Arbá‘ún, Pers. Arbá‘úna, Arbá‘ína forty; a ceremony held on the 40th day after someones death. “Arba‘in” in The Kitáb-i-Íqán p. 242.
Ard al-Muqaddasa al-Arḍ al-Muqaddasa the Holy Land, Palestine. Shoghi Effendi stated it became the Most Holy Land (al-Arḍ al-Aqdas) after the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh.
Ard wa Sama' Arḍ wa Samá’ earth and heaven. ‘Earth’ is the earth of knowledge and understanding, the earth of new insight, etc. ‘Heaven’ is the heaven of new teachings and religion. By the shattering of the heaven (sky) on the day of resurrection, is meant that the heaven of the old religion is removed and a new one is raised through the Advent of a new Manifestation and the earth of recognition of God is decorated with Faith.
Ard, Arz, Aradin, Aradun, Arazi Arḍ fem., pl. Aráḍín, Aráḍún earth; land, country, region, area; terrain, ground, soil. Pers. arẓ, pl. aráẓí
Ardabil Ardabíl or Ardibíl city 175 km east of Tabirz,in the province of Ádhirbáyján, near the Caspian Sea
Ardashir, Ardishir Ardashír, Ardishír Pers. name of Persian rulers (Ardshír and Ardashír are derived from Middle Persian Artakhishatr, which was derived from the Greek Artaxerxes) and a village in East Azerbaijan Province, Írán.
Arif ‘Áríf Pers. one who knows; an acquaintance ; the next man to a chief or general, a deputy, lieutenant; an usher at a school.
Asbah, Asbahi Aṣbaḥ Pers. Of a handsome face; a tearing lion; red-coloured; name of a king of Yemen. [Aṣbahí (ESW p. 158) Aṣbaḥí (Rev Bahá’u’lláh, 4:438)
Asdaq Aṣdaq Ibn-i-Aṣdaq (Mírzá ‘Alí-Muḥammad). Designated by Bahá’u’lláh as Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíh (Martyr, son of the Martyr). Son of Mullá Ṣádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání
Asghar, Sughra, Asaghir Aṣghar, fem. Ṣughra, pl. m. Aṣághir smaller, younger [Comparative form of ṣaghíra (to belittle)]
Ash'ari Ash‘arí Ash’arism—early theological school of Islám. Followers: Ash’arites. See Sha‘r
Ashab al-Kahf Aṣḥáb al-Kahf “Companions of the cave”, a Christian and Islamic tradition that tells the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (a group of youths) who hide inside a cave outside the city of Ephesus around ad 250 to escape a religious persecution and emerge 300 years later.
Ashiq, Ushshaq, Awashiq (Avashiq) ‘Áshiq, pl. ‘Ushsháq, ‘Awáshiq lover; fancier, fan;—pl. knucklebone; (game of) knucklebones. ‘Aváshiq is a village near Baghdád.
Ashiqa, Ishq ‘Ashiqa, ‘Ishq to love passionately (someone, something), be passionately in love (with someone, with something)
Ashraf Ashraf more or most noble. Ashraf Garden—large garden adjacent to the Riḍván and Firdaws Gardens (Paradise Garden west of Riḍván). Original owner Mullá Abú-Ṭálib. Son, ‘Alí-Ashraf later donated it. Ashraf, Áqá Siyyid (mother of Ashraf—Umm-i-Ashraf) Ashraf-i-Zanjání
Ashura Áshúrá the tenth day of the Muslim month Muḥarram—Shí’ih Muslims observe the first 10 days of the month as a period of mourning for the Imáms, ending with the Áshúrá, the commemoration of the martyrdom of the Imám Ḥusayn
Ashyab, Shaiba, Shib Ashyab, fem. Shaibá, pl. Shíb Ar. white, grey (hair); white-haired, grey-haired (person); old, aged; old man.
Asi, Asiyih Ásí, fem. Ásíyih Pers. Melancholy, solicitous, sorrowful; a physician, surgeon. Ásíyih is the name of Pharaoh’s daughter who rescued Moses. See Navváb, title given to Bahá’u’lláh’s wife (Ásíyih Khánum)
Askari ‘Askarí, pl. ‘Askariyún, ‘Asákir military, army- (in compounds);—pl. al-‘askariyún, the military;—pl. ‘asákir soldier; private (military); policeman;—pl. enlisted men, ranks. The hidden Imám Mahdí, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-‘Askarí (disappeared ad 874)
Asl, Usul Aṣl, pl. Uṣúl root; trunk (of a tree); origin, source; cause, reason; descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a noble character); foundation, fundament, basis; the origins!;—pl. principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science)
Aslas Aslas more tractable, more pliable, more obedient; more flexible, smoother, more fluent. See salis
Asr, A'sir, 'Usur, A'sar ‘Aṣr, pl. A‘ṣur, ‘Uṣúr, A‘ṣár (act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out); (act of) wringing (out);—pl. age, era, time; period; epoch; afternoon; (fem.) afternoon prayer (Islamic Law)
Astarabad (Gurgan, Gurgin or Gorgan) Astarábád “City of Mules”, now called Gúrgán (Gorgán) or Ástárá (Astara)—on south eastern Caspian Sea border of Írán.
Aswad, Sawda, Sud, Sudan Aswad, fem. Saudá, pl. Súd black; dark-coloured; —aswad, pl. súdán a black, Negro
Atabak Atábak Pers. (from atá, a father, and bak, a lord), the lord father (a title given to the governors of Shíráz); a guardian, preceptor, teacher; the prime minister, or vizír; honorary title of an ámir
Atabat ‘Atabat, pl. ‘Atabát Pers. A gate, a port; the threshold; the lintel of a door; the round of a ladder, a step; a royal court; anything adverse or disagreeable. Plural: Steps, thresholds. The Shi‘ite holy shrines in ‘Iráq and the cities of their location: Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá—locations of the tombs of the first six Imams.
Atabat-i-Aliyat ‘Atabát-i-‘Álíyát (lit. Supreme Shrines) applied by Shí’ih Muslims to cities of Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá. Bahá’í Shrines of Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Athar Athar, pl. Áthár track, trace, vestige; sign, mark; touch; impression, effect, action, influence (on); tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Muḥammad and his Companions); work (of art, esp. of literature); ancient monument
Atish Átish Pers. fire; light, splendour; rage; levity, fickleness; valour, value, dignity; dearness, scarceness; (metaphorically) the Devil; a courageous man, bold, brave; a lover; fire of Jove; desire, appetite, greed; digestive heat; sulphur. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá said Marzieh Gale had átish and namak. Arches of the years, p. 87.
Awalim, Avalim ‘Awálim, Pers. ‘Aválim “Worlds” secondary plural of ‘álam. Pers. a compilation of Shi’ite traditions.
Awamid (Avarmid) ‘Awámíd see ‘Ámúd
Awj (“Auj”), Awji Awj noun. highest point, acme, pinnacle; culmination, climax; apogee (astron.); peak (fig.; of power. of fame). Adj. Awjí
Awtad Awtád pegs or tent stakes. See Watad/Autád
Awwal, Ula, Awwalun, Awa'il Awwal, f. Úlá, pl. m. Awwalún, Awá’il first; foremost, most important, principal, chief, main; first part, beginning; (with def. article also) earlier, previous, former. al-úlá “pre-existence”—ad-dunyá (earthly life) and al-Ákhirah (afterlife)
Aya (Ayat or Ayah), Ay, Ayat Áya(t) or Áya(h), collective Áy, pl. Áyát [sing. ends with a tá’ marbúṭa] sign, token, mark; miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece. Commonly used to refer to each of the 6,236 verses in the Qur’án (6,348 áyát if all the Bismi’lláh [no plural] verses are included). Muslims regard each áya of the Qur’án as a sign from Alláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs).
Ayatu'llah Áyatu’lláh “sign of God” A Shí’ih religious leader in Írán and a title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in His Will and Testament
Aynu'l-Baqar ‘Aynu’l-Baqar an ancient spring (“The spring of the cow”) between the moat around ‘Akká and Tel ‘Akká
Azad, Azadi Ázád (hence Ázádí) Pers. free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted; fault, less; solitary, lonely; a kind of faqír, or devotee; a lily; a cypress; a fresh date; an evergreen; a delicious kind of fish
Azali Azalí, pl. Azálál Pers. existing from all eternity, eternal; God. Also a follower of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Ṣubḥ-i-Azal (“Morn of Eternity”)
Azamat ‘Azamat, ‘Azamút, pl. ‘Azamát Pers. magnitude, magnificence, pride, pomp, grandeur; (met.) a grandee.
Azan Áẓán or Aẓán (also Adhán) Pers. announcing, giving notice; the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Mu’aẓẓin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques; listening to
Azim, Uzama, Izam, Aza'im ‘Aẓím, pl. ‘Uẓamá, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓa’im great, big, large; strong, powerful, mighty; significant, important; grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent; lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb; huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous; hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive (see A‘ẓam) The Great One (Superlative form of ‘aẓuma’)
Azuma, Izam, Azama ‘Aẓuma, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓáma to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty; etc.
Ba'tha, Ba'atat Ba‘tha, pl. ba‘athát delegation, deputation, mission; expedition; student exchange; group of exchange students; revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise. The Báb is said to calculate the beginning of the Islamic revelation from the year Ba‘tha (the Call in ad 612) instead of the year of the Hijra (ad 622) when Muḥammad migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Bab, Abwab, Abvab Báb, pl. Abwáb, Pers. Abváb Gate Title assumed by Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad (the Báb) after the declaration of his Mission in Shíráz in May 1844 His wife was Khadíjih-Bagum. Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, the Persian and Arabic Bayán, Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih (“Seven Proofs”) and the Kitáb-i-Asmá’. Second wife Fáṭimih, married 1847, later Mírzá Yaḥyá briefly married her. Some designations of the Báb are: Siyyid-i-Dhikr, Ṭal‘at-i-A‘lá, Siyyid-i-Báb, ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr, Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá, Bábu’lláh, Rabb-i-A‘lá, Nuqṭiy-i-Úlá and Nuqṭiy-i-Bayán. (DB 72)
Babak Bábak Pers. (diminutive of báb), a little father; one who educates; faithful, constant, firm, strong; a turquoise stone; name of a king.
Babism or Babiism Bábí Faith It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Babiya, Babiyya, Babiyat, Babiyyat Bábíya, Pers. Bábíyat The status of the báb (Gate-hood) [replace “Babhood” by Gate-hood or Door-ship] (-hood or -ship—state of being, quality or condition)
Babu'l-Bab, Bab-i-Bab Bábu’l-Báb, Pers. Báb-i-Báb The “Gate of the Gate” Mullá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í
Bada Badá Ar. to appear, show, become evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to light; to be obvious; to seem good, acceptable, proper (to someone). form III to show, display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare openly
Bada' Badá’ Pers. coming in the mind; appearing; beginning. Two meanings: 1. Appearance after hiding involving alteration of the Divine Will or the non-fulfilment of the Divine Will. A Shí’a concept where God may alter the course of human history as is seen to be fit. 2. Origination of a new idea. The Sunní view on Badá’ is that it is not applicable to God.
The Báb made significant reinterpretations of the concept of badá’. 1. Change in divine revelation according to the principle of progressive revelation. 2. Acceptance embodies the recognition of God’s absolute power and authority and thus is the highest sign of spiritual maturity. 3. The concept of magnification (takbír), as the symbol of the completion of the four layers of the divine covenant. One’s faith is complete and will not be subject to alteration or negation if one believes in all four supports or pillars of the covenant. See Gate of the heart, pp. 207–11.
Bada', Bada'a Badá’ and Badá’a Ar. obscenity, ribaldry, foulness (of language); disgust, loathing, aversion, contempt
Badhinjan, Baydhinjan (Baidinjan) Bádhinján and Baydhinján (collective; noun -un) pl. -át. eggplant, aubergine
Badi' Badí‘ unique, marvellous, wonderful, wondrous. See abda‘. Title given to Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí and Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ (Pride of Martyrs)
Badi'a, Bada'i Badí‘a, pl. Badá’i‘ an astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder; original creation
Badshah, Padshah Bádsháh, Pádsháh Pers. An emporer, sovereign, monarch, king. Also Pád-Sháh (“Padeshah”)
Bagh Bagh Persian. A ditch; name of an idol; a god (enters into composition of names, as bagh-dád—“god-given”)
Baghdad Baghdád city originally known as Dáru’s-Salám (the Abode of Peace) or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God. Also known as Mádina as-Salám (City of Peace). Name may be derived from ancient Persian Bagh (God) and Dád (gift), i.e. “Gift of God”
Baha' Bahá’ beauty, magnificence, splendour; brilliancy; glory or light. Title of Bahá’u’lláh. See Abhá.
An Islamic Tradition states the Most great Name (Huwu) consists of four names: 1. “God” (Alláh), 2. “the Blessed” (Tabáraka), 3. “the Exalted” (Ta‘álá, from the same root as ‘Alí), 4. The hidden name of God—identified by the Báb as hidden in Ta‘álá, i.e. ‘Ali, but the ultimate name is Bahá. See Gate of the heart, pp. 105–7.
Abjab: Bahá’ is eight plus one. (‘B’ is two, the short vowel is not written in, the ‘h’ is five, the long vowel is one, and the hamza, represented by the apostrophe, is also one.)
‘Abdu’l-Bahá interpreted Qur’án 69:17 as “… on that day Bahá will bear up the throne (the body) of thy Lord. On that day eight will bear up one.”
Baha'i days of the week Bahá’í days of the week Bahá’í days of the week: Jalál (Glory, Saturday), Jamál (Beauty, Sunday), Kamál (Perfection, Monday), Faḍíl (Grace, Tuesday), ‘Idál (Justice, Wednesday), Istijlál (Majesty, Thursday), Istiqlál (Independence, Friday)
Baha'i years Bahá’í years In numerical order 1 to 19:
Váv (Ar. Wáw, letter V)
Júd (Generosity, Bounty)
Javáb (Ar. Jawád, Answer)
Vahháb (Ar. Wahháb, Bountiful)
Vidád (Ar. Widád, Affection)
Abhá (Most luminous)
Váhid (Ar, Wáhid, Unity)
Baha’i, Baha’iyun Bahá’í, pl. Bahá’íyún “Follower of the Glory” (Bahá’ís is generally used plural) A follower of Bahá’u’lláh; a person of light, of enlightenment
Baha'ism or Baha'iism Bahá’í Faith It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Baha'iyya or Baha'iyyih Bahá’íyya (Ar) Bahá’íyyih (Per) (Ar. pl. Bahá’íyyát) [Bahá’í Dispensation] Feminine of Bahá’í. (“Radiant” or “Full of Glory”—derived from Bahá) Bahá’íyyih Khánum (also known by Persians as the variant Bahíyyih Khánum), The Greatest Holy Leaf
Baha'u'l-Abha Bahá’u’l-Abhá (previously written as Baha-el-Abha) “The Glory of the All-Glorious” “The Glory of the Most Glorious”
Baha'u'llah Bahá’u’lláh (“The Glory of God”) Title of Mírzá Ḥusayn-Alí of Núr, founder of the Bahá’í Faith.
Bahadur, Bahaduran Bahádur, pl. Bahádurán Pers. brave, bold, valiant, courageous, magnanimous, warlike, strong, athletic; a soldier, champion, hero, chevalier, knight, horseman; a title of honour conferred by the Great Mogul and other Eastern potentates, bearing some resemblance to the European title of military knighthood. Abú Sa‘íd Baḥádur. Baḥádur appears to be incorrect.
Baharistan Baháristán Pers. spring; vernal blossoms; title of a celebrated work of Ṣúfí, Persian poet, native of Jám, Búshihr Province, Írán
Bahir (“Bahira”) Báhir dazzling, brilliant, splendid, sparkling. Monk Báhir (“Bahira”) who met 12-year old Muḥammad
Bahja, Bahjat (Bahajah) Bahja, Pers. Bahjat splendour, magnificence, beauty, resplendence; joy, delight
Bahjatu’s-Sudur (Bihjatu’s-Sudur) Bahjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr “Delight of hearts”. Book by Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar-‘Alí
Bahji, Bahij Bahjí, Bahíj magnificent, splendid, beautiful; happy, joyous; delightful. That part of the plain of ‘Akká where the Shrine and the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh are located.
Bahr, Bihar, Buhar, Abhar, Abhur Baḥr, pl. Biḥár, Buḥúr, Abḥár, Abḥur sea; large river; a noble, or great, man (whose magnanimity or knowledge is comparable to the vastness of the sea); meter (poet.). Biḥár is a reference to Shí’ih traditions.
Bahram Bahrám Pers. the planet Mars; name of several kings of Persia, and of other kingdoms in the East (corrupted by the Greeks into Varanes); name of several heroes; the twentieth day of every month; name of an angel; the sword
Bahth, Buhuth, Abhath Baḥth, pl. Buḥút, Abḥáth search (for), quest (of); examination, study; research; investigation, exploration; discussion; treatise; (pl.) study, scientific report (on)
Bakht Bakht Pers. fortune, prosperity, felicity, happiness; luck (good or bad); a horoscope, nativity, planet, constellation; the nightmare
Bakshish Bakshísh Per. See Baqshísh
Bala Bálá upper, up, above, better quality or prestigious. Where there are two nearby villages, it can be used to indicate one is above the other or is of a better quality.
Bala-Sari, Balasari Bálá-Sarí, Bálásarí “above the head”. A term used by the Shaykhis (Shaykhí followers) to distinguish ordinary Shi’ites (the Bálá-Sarí) from members of their own sect. Those who pray standing at the head of the Imam while facing the Qiblih (i.e. with their backs to the Imam)
Balad, Bilad, Buldan Balad m. and f., pl. Bilád, Buldán country; town, city; place, community, village; —(pl. bilád) regions, habitations; provinces, territories; an inhabited country;—(pl. buldán) cities, countries
Baluch Balúch Iranian tribe who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pákistán, Írán, and Afghánistán.
Bana, Bayan Bána (Bayán) to be or become plain, evident, come out, come to light; to be clear (to someone)
Bandar-'Abbas Bandar-‘Abbás Pers. a port city and capital of Hurmúzgán Province on the southern Persian Gulf coast of Írán
Bandiy-i-Bab-i-Baha Bandiy-i-Báb-i-Bahá Pers. bondsman at the door of Bahá (Bahá’u’lláh). A designation used by Mishkín-Qalam. See banda
Bandiy-i-Khuda Bandiy-i-Khudá bondsman or slave of God. See banda
Bani-Hashim Baní-Háshim The sons or children of Háshim, great-grandfather of Muḥammad. That is, the people deriving from the quasi-mythical Shem (Sám), son of Noah.
Bani-Umayyih Baní-Umayyih was a clan in the Quraysh tribe named after ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manáf’s adopted son Umayya ibn ‘Abd Shams.
Banu-Tamim Banú-Tamím Tribe of Arabia. Tamím, the ancestor of the tribe, is a direct descendant of Adnan and is thus considered an Ishmaelite tribe descending from Ishmael, son of Abraham. Banú used in combination—see Banún
Baqa Baqá’ remaining, staying, lingering, abiding; continuation, continuance, duration; survival, continuation of existence after life; immortality, eternal life; existence; permanence. See Faná’
Baqi' Baqí‘ remaining over; rest, remainder, remnant; arrears; balance; surplus. Cemetery in Medina in the vicinity of the Tomb of Muḥammad.
Baqir Báqir (“One who expands or breaks”) Title of the fifth Shí‘a Imám and an Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islám.
Baqiya, Baqiyat, Baqaya Baqíya, Pers. Baqiyat, pl. Baqáyá remainder, rest; remnant, residue. Persian plural baqiyát
Baqiyyatu'llah Baqíyyatu’lláh “Remnant of God” A title of the Twelfth Imám that is also applied to the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Bara'a, Bara't Bará’a, pl. Bará’át being free; disavowal, withdrawal, repudiation; innocence, guiltlessness; naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness; (pl.) license, diploma, patent
Barr, Abrar, Barara Barr and Bárr, pl. Abrár and Barara reverent, dutiful (+ preposition bi—toward), devoted (+ preposition bi—to); pious, godly, upright, righteous; kind
Bas Bas Pers. a great number, many, more; very much, greatly; enough, sufficient; often; yes, indeed, certainly, it is so, very true, surely, undoubtedly, unquestionably
Basha, Badshah, Padshah, Padishah Báshá Pers. Being, existing; a basha (a corruption of bádsháh, pádsháh, pádisháh, etc.), governor of a province, counsellor of state, great lord; also sometimes the grand vazir; a kind of falcon, a hawk.
Basha, Bashawat, Pasha Báshá, (Pers. also Páshá), pl. Báshawát pasha Turkish for a lord (or boy, prince). Honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank in Turkey.
Bashir wa Nadhir Bashír wa Nadhír Bahá’u’lláh appeared as the “Announcer and Warner”, cf. Qur’án 35:22.
Basir Baṣír (most insightful, discerning, endowed with insight, seeing) Adjective, superlative form of Baṣár (sight).
Basit Básiṭ Pers. one who spreads abroad or stretches out; a name of God, who dispenses riches to whom he will; distant from water (pasture). “open”
Basit Basíṭ, pl. Busaṭa simple; plain, uncomplicated; slight, little, modest, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling
Basmala Basmala, pl. Basmalát “word” derived from “in the name of” and is the act of uttering the invocation “In the name of God, the Benificent, the Merciful”
Bast Bast Pers. be bound or connected; a lover, a sweetheart, one in whom the heart is bound up; a turban, wreath for the head; a knot; a hundred; a sanctuary, asylum; a bank, a rampart; a mountain; distribution of water into canals, ditches, or drains
Bast Basṭ Pers. (verbal noun), Stretching out (the hand); distension; diffusiveness; being wide enough for; preferring, exalting
Bastam, Bistam, Bustam Basṭám, Bisṭám or Busṭám place just north of Sháhrúd, Írán. Home of Mullá ‘Alí, the fourth Letter of Living
Batha, Bitah Baṭḥá, pl. Biṭáḥ A neighbourhood of Mecca [al-Makkah or al-Maakka—Bakka (Qur’án 3:96) may be an older name], TN p. 76. lit. “basin shaped valley; wide riverbed, wide bed of a stream or torrent; level land, plain, level, flat(s)”
Batil, Abtil Báṭil, pl. Abáṭíl nugatory (of no value or importance), vain, futile; false, untrue; absurd, groundless, baseless; worthless; invalid, null, void; deception, lie, falsehood;—pl. abáṭíl vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle talk, prattle
Batin, Bawatin Báṭin, pl. Bawáṭin inner, interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic; hidden, secret—see Ẓáhir. báṭin-i-báṭin—inner inward meaning
Bay, Baya, Bayat Báy, f. Báya, pl. Báyát formerly, in Tunisia, a title after the names of the members of the Bey’s family. See Beg
Bayan-i-'Arabi, Arabic Bayan Bayán-i-‘Arabí “Arabic Bayán” (by the Báb) completed after the Bayán-i-Fársí
Bayan-i-Farsi, Persian Bayan Bayán-i-Fársí “Persian Bayán” (Mother Book of the Bábí Revelation) (by the Báb)
Bayan, Bayanat Bayán, pl. Bayánát clearness, plainness, patency, obviousness; statement, declaration, announcement; manifestation; explanation, elucidation, illustration; information, news; (official) report, (official) statement; enumeration, index, list; eloquence. Also exposition or utterance. Title given by the Báb to His Revelation, and, in particular, to His Books. Muslims are puzzled by the chronology given in Qur’án 55:2–4. “Bayán (exposition) [“speech”, 55:4] signifies the Revelation of the Báb, which unveils the hidden truth of the Qur’án. ‘Man’ [55:3] signifies the ‘Perfect Human Being’—the Manifestation of God ….” Gate of the heart, p. 262. al-Bayán (نايبلا or “ن ا ي ب ل ا”) has an abjab value of 94 (“al” (value 31) consists of an unstressed Alif and Lám). Compare lilláh
Bayanis Bayánís Those few who followed the Báb, but not Bahá’u’lláh or Ṣubḥi-i-Azal (EGB by Balyuzi)
Bayda (Baida, Baiza), Baydun, Baydat Bayḍa (Pers. Baiẓa), Bayḍún, Bayḍát egg; helmet; main part, substance, essence.
Bayt (Bait), Buyut, Buyutat Bayt, pl. Buyút, Buyútát house, building; tent (of nomads); room; apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; case, box, covering, sheath;—pl. large, respectable houses; respectable families; (pl. abyát) verse
Bayt-i-A'zam Bayt-i-A‘ẓam “The Most Great House” (House of Bahá’u’lláh in the Kakh quarter of Baghdád,occupied by the family shortly before Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kudistán) See Madad, house of.
Bayt-i-Fanduq Bayt-i-Fanduq a house in the German Templar colony, Haifa, where Bahá’u’lláh stayed, 1883
Baytu'l-'Adl-i-A'zam Baytu’l-‘Adl-i-A‘ẓam The Universal House of Justice. Minimum of nine members (all men), number will be gradually “increased nine by nine” (Summon up remembrance, p. 248)
Bayyina (Bayyinah), Bayyinat Bayyina (Bayyinah), pl. Bayyinát clear proof, indisputable evidence; evidence (Islamic Law); a document serving as evidence
Beg Beg, fem. Begum Pers. A lord, a prince; title put after the names of servants and petty officials. Turkish Bey. See Báy
Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia is a Biblical city (location uncertain), situated on a mountain overlooking the plain of Jezrael, whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith. Hebrew בתוליה (a virgin). Similar to Ar. Batúlí (virginal).
Bi bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); with (indicating connection, association, attendance); with, through, by means of (designating instrumentality or agency, also with pass. = by); for (= at the price of); by (= to the amount of); by (introducing an oath)
bi-Farmayid (Bifarmayid) bi-Farmáyíd Pers. “here you are”, please come and eat, please come and sit, …, etc.
Bidil Bídil Pers. heartless, dispirited, out of heart; pusillanimous; love-sick; ignorant; melancholy, dejected, sad, stupid.
Bidil, Abdu’l-Qadir Bídil, Abdu’l-Qádir Mawláná Abu’l-Ma‘ání Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Qádir Bídil (1642–1720), a famous representative of Dari poetry and Sufism in Afghanistan. He is considered the most difficult and challenging poet of Safavid-Mughal poetry. The pairing of Bídil’s patronymic, Abu’l-Ma‘ání, “The Father of Meanings”, with his devastating nom de plume, Bídil, “The Heartless”, illustrates perfectly the conceptual coupling of Love and Meaning in the sensibilities of the literary self-expression of his audiences.
Bigliyirbigi Biglíyirbigí Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (Ottoman Turkish: “Bey of Beys”, meaning “the Commander of Commanders” or “the Lord of Lords”). Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces. Equivalents in Arabic were ámir al-umará, and in Persian, mír-i mírán.
Bika (not Baka) Bika A composite comprising the prefix “bi” with the suffix “ka”, which stands for the 2nd person singular masculine pronoun “Thou” or “Thee”. “Bika” can be translated as “upon Thee”, “to Thee”, “on Thee” or “about Thee”, depending on the context. “Baka” in Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas should be Bika.
Birun Bírún Pers. without, out of doors; exterior, extrinsic, foreign; the outside; from, a great way from
Biruni Bírúní Pers. outer or men’s quarters. See andarúní
Bishara, Bisharat, Basha'ir Bishára, pl. Bishárát, Bashá’ir good news, glad tidings; annunciation, prophecy; gospel. Glad-Tidings by Bahá’u’lláh
Bismi'llah Bismi’lláh “word” derived from the expression “In the name of God”. Basmala is the act (verb) of saying the recurring Islamic phrase “Bismi’lláhi Ar-Raḥmáni Ar-Raḥími”—“In the name of God, the Most Compassionate (or Gracious), the Most Merciful”. Bismi’lláh is the first phrase of the first verse of every súra of the Qur’án except the ninth. The verse is composed of 19 letters; in honour of each letter six chapters were revealed, totalling 114 chapters (the Báb, The Persian Bayán, 2d Váhid, 2:2).
Bismi'llahi'l-Amna'u'l-Aqdas Bismi’lláhi’l-Amna‘u’l-Aqdas (“In the Name of God, the Most Unapproachable, the Most Holy”—Báb) (DB 66)
Bismi'llahi'l-Bahiyyi'l-Abha Bismi’lláhi’l-Bahíyyi’l-Abhá “In the name of God, the Glorious, the Most Glorious” (used in calligraphic bird design by Mishkín-Qalam—described as a “bird of paradise in the form of the Greatest Holy Name sitting on the tree of Toubá (tree of paradise)”
Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r-Rahim Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím “In the Name of God, the Most gracious, the Most Merciful”—first verse of the Qur’án
Bisutun (Bisotun) Bísutún Pers. pillarless. Bísutún city 36 km NE Kirmásháh, at the foot of Mount Bísutún on which there is the huge Bísutún Inscription in 3 cuneiform scripts (crucial to the decipherment of one of the cuneiform scripts)
Buddha Búdhá (Ar.) Buddha Maitreya-Amitábha, the Buddha of the future, the Lord of the Age. Maitrya or Maitreya—”Kindness”; Amitábha—“Infinite light”.
Buluk Bulúk Pers. a tract of country that a subject obtains either by gift, purchase, or succession, holding of the sovereign upon feudal tenure; a district (modern colloquialism)
Bunduq, Banadiq Bunduq, pl. Banádiq hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, hazel tree. Pers. Funduq, Turk. Findík
Buq'a, Buqa', Biqa' Buq‘a, pl. Buqa‘, Biqá‘ spot, blot, smudge, stain; place, site, plot, patch, lot
Buq'atu'l-Hamra Buq‘atu’l-Ḥamrá’ (“Crimson Spot”) A hill called Samaríyyih near Bahjí where red flowers grew in abundance in the time of Bahá’u’lláh
Burqa, Burqu', Baraqi' Burqu‘, (Pers. also Burqa‘), pl. Baráqi‘ veil (worn by women; long, leaving the eyes exposed)
Burujird Burújird Capital city of the province of Luristán, place of the governorship of Mírzá Buzurg
Chadar, Chadur Chádar, Chádur Pers. A tent, pavilion; a mantle, scarf; a veil; a sheet; a shroud, winding-sheet; a table-cloth. Shawl or a long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women
Chaman, Chamman Chamán (Chammán) Pers. walking, giving oneself haughty, swinging, or graceful airs in walking; a goblet of wine; a party of friends
Chashm Chashm Pers. the eye; hope; an amulet or charm (particularly of holy writ) against fascination or enchantment
Chay (Cha'i) Cháy (Chá’í) Pers. tea. See Sháy
Chihriq Chihríq “Grievious” Fortress in Kurdish Ádhirbáyján, designated by the Báb as Jabal-i-Shadíd (the Grievous Mountain), numerical value of Chihríq & Shadíd is 318).
Chiragh Chirágh Pers. A lamp; light; the wick of a candle; a guide, director; a client, dependant; a horse's rearing; a pasture. See Ar. Siráj.
Chiz, Chi Chíz, Chí Pers. something; who? what? which? a Turkish affix to form words denoting the agent
Comforter Comforter (Gk. Paracletos) Muḥammad and Aḥmad (“the Praised One”, “a Mercy for all creatures” and “most kind and merciful to the Believers”) are almost a translation of the Greek word Periclytos. The use of “Comforter” in the John 14:16 and 16:7 is based on the Greek word Paracletos (“Advocate”, “one called to the help of another, a kind friend”). Muslims argue that Paracletos is a corrupt reading for Periclytos.
Da’a, Du’a’ Da‘á, Du‘á’ Ar. to call (someone); to summon, call or send for someone; to call up; to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something; to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da’i or Du’at Dá‘í, pl. Du‘át Pers. who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything; who prays for, invokes a blessing upon; the Muezzm who calls to prayers; Muḥammad (as caller to the faith). Also missionary
Da'if, Du'afa Ḍa‘if, pl. m. Ḍu‘afa’ weak, feeble; frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
Da’iya (Da’i), Dawa’in Dá‘iya (“Dá‘í”), pl. Dawá‘in one who calls for something, invites to something; propagandist, herald; (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion; requirements, exigencies. Hence, ad-dá‘iya, the caller.
Da’wa, Da’awa, Da’awin Da‘wá, pl. Da‘áwá, Da‘áwin allegation, pretension; claim; lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Dabistan Dabistán Pers. (Debistan) (either a contraction of dabíristán or an abbreviation of adabistán), a school
Dabistan al-Madhhahib Dabistán al-Madhháhib title of a book (“School of doctrines”) containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles. Persian Dabistánu’l-Madhháhib
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit Ḍábiṭ controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.); prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools); (pl. ḍubbáṭ) officer; (pl. ḍawábiṭ) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dad Dád Persian. He gave; a gift; justice, equity; redress of grievances; complaint, lamentation (under oppression); measure; a part, portion; revenge; a ringworm; life; age; a year
Dada Dada (Dadih) Pers. a grandfather; a title given to dervishes, especially qalandars; a nurse who brings up children
Dada Dádá Pers. a female servant, particularly an old one who has attended upon anyone from her youth; a handmaid.
Dahr, Duhur, Adhur Dahr, pl. , Duhúr, Adhur time; long time, age, epoch; lifetime; eternity; fate, destiny; “world of duration”
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila Dajjál, pl. Dajjálún, Dajájila (“Dedjal”) swindler, cheat, imposter; quack, charlatan; Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ). The Antichrist, who it was believed would appear at the advent of the Promised One, to contend with and be ultimately defeated by Him. See Sufyání
Dakhil Dakhíl Pers. Interior, inner; intimate, familiar, confident; an intermeddler; an intruder; a proselyte; a foreign word adopted into Arabic
Dalil, Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla' Dalíl, pl. Adilla, Dalá’l, Adillá’ (the latter of persons) indication (of); sign, token; symptom; proof, evidence (of); guide; tourist guide; pilot (of a ship, of an airplane); guidebook, guide manual, handbook; directory, telephone directory; railroad guide, timetable; guide rail (technical); roller path (in steel construction)
Dalilu'l-Mutahayyirin Dalílu’l-Mutaḥayyirín Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Dall, Dawall, Dallin Ḍáll, pl. Ḍawáll, Ḍállín straying, roaming, wandering; astray, lost; erroneous, false. Ḍállín (gone astray)
Dani', Adniya', Adna' Daní’,pl. Adniyá’, Adná’ low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible; inferior, second-rate, of poor quality. Adná’ also “lowest” or “even closer”—being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Báb, that of servitude. (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Daoud Daoud Hebrew David See Dáwúd
Daqiqa, Daqa'iq Daqíqa, pl. Daqá’iq particle; nicety (“subtlety”); intricacy; detail, particular; minute (time unit)
Dar as-Salam, Daru’s-Salam Dár as-Salám, Pers. Dáru’s-Salám paradise, heaven; epithet of Baghdád (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God (Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory, p. 296)); Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Dar, Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara Dár f., pl. Dúr, Diyár, Diyárát, Diyara house; building, structure, edifice; habitation, dwelling, abode; residence, home; seat, side, locality; area, region; land, country; dár al-baqá’ the eternal abode, the hereafter; dár as-sa‘áda Constantinople; dár as-salṭana Constantinople (designation before World War I); dár as-salám paradise, heaven; dár al-hijra Medina. Example Dúru’l-Bahá’íyya
Darad Dárad See Maḍí Dárad
Darb, Durab, Adrab Ḍarb, pl. Ḍurúb, Aḍráb beating, striking, hitting, rapping; shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment; multiplication; coining, formation; minting (of money);— (pl. ḍurúb) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety; (pl. aḍráb) similar, like
Darband Darband Pers. gateway or mountain door. City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Dághistán (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus). Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal) that is now part of the north side of Teheran.
Darkala or Dar-Kala Dárkalá or Dár-Kalá A village in Núr in Mázindarán, a second ancestral home of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí.
Dars, Durus Dars, pl. Durús effacement, obliteration, extinction; (pl.) study, studies; lesson, chapter (of a textbook); class, class hour, period; lecture; lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Dars-i-Akhlaq Darsu’l-Akhláq, Pers. Dars-i-Akhláq “Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building” (“Dars Akhláq”)
Daru'l-funun Dáru’l-Funún (Centre for arts and sciences) The first technical college of Írán in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mírzá Taqí Khán. BKG 72
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij Dáru’l-Tabígh or Dáru’l-Tarwíj (Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
Daru's-Salam Dáru’s-Salám (Dar-es-Salaam) or the Abode of Peace [Baghdád] (or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God). BKG p. 296.
Darwish, Darawish Darwísh, pl. Daráwísh poor, indigent; dervish or monk A beggar of faqír (poor one) “… those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship.” Attributed to Bahá’u’lláh in MF 39. May be written as Darwesh or Darvesh in Persian.
Darya Daryá Pers. a sea, ocean; a river; (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Dast, Dust Dast, pl. Dusút place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office; council; dast al-ḥukm (a ruler’s) throne
Dastan Dastán Pers. history, romance, fable; song, melody, trill, shake; the key of a musical instrument; foolish, idle talk; fraud, imposture, stratagem
Dastmal, Dast-mal Dast-mál, Dastmál Pers. rubbing the hands; a towel; a handkerchief; a kettle-holder; dinner-plate; easy, smooth; bare; a prisoner; wealth
Dawla (Daula), Duwal Dawla, pl. Duwal alternation, rotation, change; change of time, turn of fortune; dynasty; state, country; power, empire
Dawlih Dawlih Pers. state or government. See Daula
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar Dawr, pl. Adwár round (of a patrol; in sports); role, part (played by someone or something); film role, stage role; periodic change, rotation, alternation; crop rotation; period; (one’s) turn; phase, stage, step, degree, station; epoch, age, era, cycle; fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease); floor, story; musical composition; number, single performance (within a program)
Day of Resurrection Yawmu’l-Qiyámah The Great Day (al-Yawmu’l-‘Aẓím);
The Day of Resurrection (Yawmu’l-Qiyámah);
The Day of Decision (Yawmu’l-Faṣl);
The Day when the Hour shall come to pass (Yawmu’l-Sá‘ah);
The Day of Judgement (Yawmu’l-Dín);
The Day of Disillusion (Yawmu’t-Taghabún);
The Day of Reckoning (Yawmu’l-Ḥisáb)
Dayyan (Daiyan) Dayyán Pers. a requiter (rewarder) of good and evil; hence an epithet of God; a conqueror, a subduer; a judge, umpire, administrator
Dhabih Dhabíḥ sacrifice or slaughtered (Pers. Zabíḥ) Hájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl was known as Dhabíḥ. The name Ismá‘íl in Bábí-Bahá’í history is associated with the soubriquet ‘Dhabíḥ’. Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur’án, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice—hence the association of the name Ismá‘íl with Dhabíḥ. (E. G. Browne, Balyuzi.)
Dhabih Allah, Dhabihu’llah Dhabíḥ Alláh, Dhabíḥu’lláh “Sacrifice of God” Abraham’s sacrifice of His son
Dhahaba, Dhahab, Madhhab (Mazhab) Dhahaba (Dhaháb, Madhhab) to go (to); to betake oneself, travel (to); to go away, leave, depart; to disappear, vanish, decline, dwindle; to perish, die, be destroyed; with to carry something off, take something away, abduct, steal something, sweep something or someone away, annihilate, destroy something or someone
Dhaqa, Dhawq (Dhauq), Madhaq Dháqa, (Dhawq, Dhawáq, Madháq) to taste, sample (food, etc.); to try, try out, test (something); to get a taste (of something), experience, undergo, suffer (something), go through something; form IV to have (someone) taste or sample (something), give (someone something) to taste; form V to taste (something) slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly; to get a taste (of something); to sense, perceive (something); to enjoy thoroughly, savour, relish (something); to derive pleasure (from)
Dhara'a Dhara‘a (verb) to measure (something); to take the measure or measurements (of something); to cover (a distance); to cross, travel (a country), travel through; to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dhariyatun, Dhariyat Dháriyatun, pl. Dháriyát quick-scattering wind; that which scatters, that which blows away
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkár to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of); to keep in mind (something); to recall, recollect (something)
Dhawq (Dhauq), Adhaq Dhawq, pl. Adhwáq gustatory sense; taste (for; also, e.g., literary taste); perceptivity, responsiveness (for); sensitivity, sensitiveness; savoir-vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact; liking, inclination; taste, flavour (of food, etc.)
Dhawqi (Dhauqi) Dhawqí of taste, gustative, gustatory. Form V “of sensing, perceiving”—see Dháqa
Dhi'b, Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban Dhi’b, pl. Dhi’áb, Dhu’bán wolf, jackal. Bahá’u’lláh named Shaykh Muḥammad Báqir (1819–1883) the “Wolf” and his son, Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (1846–1914), Ibn-i-Dhi’b (“Son of the Wolf”).
Dhi'l-Jawshan Dhi’l-Jawshan Ar. “clad in armour”. Term applied to Mullá ‘Abdu’lláh the arch-killer of Imám Ḥusayn
Dhikr, Adhkar Dhikr, pl. Adhkár recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration; reputation, repute, renown; naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation; report, account, narration, narrative; invocation of God, mention of the Lord’s name; (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulas in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing.
Dhikra, Dhikayat Dhikrá, pl. Dhikrayát remembrance, recollection, memory;—pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun Dhimmí, pl. Dhimmíyún a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur’án, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
Dhu'l-Awtad Dhu’l-Awtád is variously rendered by translators of the Qur’án as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc.
Dhu’l-Hijjih Dhu’l-Ḥijjih Twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or “Possessor of the Pilgrimage”)
Dhu'l-Qarnayn Dhu’l-Qarnayn Prophet in Qur’án 18:83–101—“the one with two horns” or “He of the Two Ages”. In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great.
Didam Baha’u’llahst Dídam Bahá’u’lláhst Pers. “I saw this was Bahá’u’lláh” (Dídam Bahá’u’lláhst) Summon up remembrance, p. 108.
Didan, Didam Dídan Pers. to see, look, observe; to perceive, feel; to expect, hope for; to visit (modern colloquialism). Dídam, saw
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin Dihqán, pl. Daháqina, Daháqín man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality; grandee (in ancient Persia)
Dil Dil Pers. the heart, mind, soul; marrow; pith of a tree; trunk of a tree; the centre; the eye; a dot; an enigma; cote (animal shelter)
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi Dimashqí, Dimishqí of Damascus, e.g. Damashqí Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in ‘Akká, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din, Adyan Dín, pl. Adyán religion, creed, faith, belief. Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah-ud-Dín.
Dinar, Dananir Dínár, pl. Danánír (originally dinnár), a coin; a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar; a weight of gold (variously stated); (met.) the sun
Disatir (Desatir) Disátír Pers. is a literary forgery with Sufi leanings published in Bombay in 1818 from an Iranian manuscript
Disciples of ‘Abdu'l-Baha Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá Designated by Shoghi Effendi: Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont, Thornton Chase, Howard MacNutt, Sarah Farmer, Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, Lillian Kappes, Robert Turner (First Afro-American Bahá’í in America), Dr Arthur Brauns, W. H. Randall, Lua Getsinger (née Louisa A. Moore - Livá (banner), Lua - flag), Joseph Hannan, Chester I. Thatcher, Charles Greenleaf, Mrs J. D. Brittingham, Mrs Thornburgh, Helen S. Goodall, Arthur P. Dodge, William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Diwan (Divan), Dawawin Díwán (Díván), pl.Dawáwín account books of the treasury (in the older Islamic administration); collection of poems written by one author; governmental office, administrative office; chancellery, office, bureau, secretariat; council or state, cabinet; council, consultative assembly, board of advisers, executive committee; government; court or justice, tribunal; hall; davenport, divan; (railway) compartment. Used in titles, as in Amír-Díwán, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Diyala, Sirwan Diyálá (in ‘Iráq), Sírwan (in Írán) 445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern ‘Iráq, flowing on east side of Baghdád and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city. Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Du'a' Du‘á’, pl. Ad‘yá, Pers. Ad‘iyat (Ad’iyyih) call; invocation of God, supplication, prayer; request, plea; good wish; imprecation, course. Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Dumit Ḍúmiṭ ‘Azíz Sulaymán Ḍúmiṭ—his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Báb.
Dunam Dunam Ottoman Turkish origin. Modern metric unit is 1,000 m2 of land or about a quarter of an acre.
Dunya Dunyá (fem. of Adná) world; earth; this world (as opposed to ákhira); life in this world, worldly existence; worldly. temporal things or possessions; earthly things or concerns. See awwal and ákhirah
Durar al-Baha'iyya, Durar'u'l-Baha’iyya ad-Durar al-Bahá’íyya Pers. Duraru’l-Bahá’íyyah (or -ih) (Dorar-ul-Bahiyyih) “The Brilliant Pearls”, translated into English and published as “Miracles and Metaphors”
Durzi, Duruz Durzí, pl. Durúz Druse. The name Druze is derived from the name of Muḥammad bin Ismá‘íl Nashtakín ad-Darazí (from Persian darzí, "tailor") who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name Muwaḥḥidún (“Unitarian”)
Erzurum Erzurum city in eastern Turkey (“Erzeroum”). Known as Theodosiopolis in Roman times. Neighbouring city of Artsn (Arzan) was destroyed 1048–49 and citizens moved to Theodosiopolis and called it Artsn Rum (Arzan of the Romans). Muslim citizens changed it to Arzan ar-Rúm (or Arz ar-Rúm) and then to Erzurum.
Fa'ida, Fawa'id (Fava'id) Fá’ida, pl. Fawá’id utility, avail, benefit, advantage; gain, profit; interest (on money); useful lesson, moral; use (e.g., of a medicine)
Fa'iq Fá’iq superior; surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate; outstanding, remarkable, striking; pre-eminent; exceeding, extraordinary; going far beyond (a restriction, etc.); awake, waking, wakeful
Fa'il, Fa'ilun, Fa'ala Fá‘il, pl. Fá‘ilún, Fa‘ala effective; efficacious, efficient; (pl. fá‘ilún) doer, actor, perpetrator; (pl. fa‘ala) worker, workman, labourer;—active subject of a verbal clause (grammar). See maf‘úl, manṣúb and marfú‘
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala Fáḍil, pl. Fawáḍil, Fáḍilún, Fuḍalá Ar. (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess; (pl. fawáḍil) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;—(pl. fáḍilún, fuḍalá) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving; learned; man of culture and refinement. Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): fáḍil, fem. fáḍilat, fáḍila, pl. fáḍilát.
Fadil (Fazil), Fudala Faḍíl, pl. Fuḍalá’ outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent; distinguished, deserving; learned, erudite. As the day of the Badí‘ week, Faḍíl: grace, favour.
Fadila, Fada'il Faḍíla, pl. Faḍá’il moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue; merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul Faḍl, pl. Fuḍúl surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow; & leftover, remainder, remnant, rest; & matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter;—pl. that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity; & waste, refuse; & droppings, excrement. & Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): faḍlat, faḍla.
Fahima, Fahm, Faham Fahima, Fahm, Faham to understand, comprehend, realize (something); to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something); to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Faid (Faiz) Faiḍ (Faiẓ) Pers. of Fayḍ, hence Faiẓí. being plentiful, copious (water, tears); being brim-full (vessel or river); being published, spread (news), divulged (secret); dying, expiring, death; emanation; plenty, abundance; favour, grace, bounty
Fajr Fajr dawn, daybreak, morning twilight; dawn (figuratively), beginning, outset, start; (fem.) morning prayer (Islamic Law)
Fakara, Fakr Fakara (Fakr) to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something); to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhkhar Fakhkhár (fired) clay; earthenware, crockery, pottery. Tell ‘Akká (inaccurately also called Tell al-Fakhkhár (Hill of Shards) or Napoleon’s Hill.
Fana Faná’ passing away, cessation of being; perdition, ruin, destruction, annihilation; evanescence, vanishing, termination, extinction; exhaustion; nonbeing, nonexistence, nonentity; extinction of individual consciousness, recedence of the ego, obliteration of the self (myst.). See Baqá’
Fani Fání Pers. frail, transitory, perishable, inconstant; tottering (old man); (in the parlance of the Sufis) one who has reached the state of fanáʼ, or annihilation
Far', Furu', Afru' Far‘, pl. Furú‘, Afru‘ twig, branch, bough, limb, (also colloquial) branches, twigs; derivative; section, subdivision; branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch; branch line, feeder line; branch wire (electricity)
Farabi Fárábí Abú Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Al Fárábí (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Born in Fáráb or Fáryáb.
Faraburz, Fariburz Faráburz, Faríburz Pers. glorious and mighty. Name of a mighty champion and minister of Írán.
Farada, Faruda, Furud Farada and Faruda (Furúd) to be single, be alone; to be singular, be unique;—farada (furúd) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Farah, Afrah Faraḥ, pl. Afráḥ joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness; wedding;—pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity; wedding (feast)
Farahan Faráhán merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy. County in Markazí Province, Írán.
Faraj Faraj freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering; joy; relaxation; relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort; happy ending
Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi Faraju’lláh Dhakí al Kurdí see Zakíy
Faramush-Khanih Farámúsh-Khánih Pers. house of oblivion, Freemasonry headquarters, a corruption of franc-maçonnerie (Freemasonry)
Farang, Firing Farang (hence Farangí), Firing Pers. from old French word franc (“Frank”), an Italian, European; a Christian; all nations that wear short garments; ruddy, of pleasing aspect; a galley. See afranj and ifranjí
Faraqa, Farq, Furqan Faraqa (Farq, Furqán) to separate, part, divide, sever, sunder (something); to make a distinction (between), distinguish, differentiate, discriminate (between). See Furqán
Farasha, Farashah, Farashun Farásha (n. Faráshun), Pers. Farásháh moth; butterfly; flighty, fickle person. Farásháh (now Islámiyih, Eslamiyeh) is a town SW of Yazd, Írán
Faraz Faráz Pers. above, up, upon, on, upwards, aloft, on the top; above and below, up and down; back, behind; after, hereafter
Farhand Farhand Pers. an excavation formed by a torrent; an artificial canal newly dug; a ditch; a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another; a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another; anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang Farhang Pers. good-breeding; greatness; excellence; gravity; wisdom, science; jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary; a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk; a subterraneous canal
Farid Faríd alone, lone, lonely, solitary; singular, unique, matchless, peerless, unrivaled, incomparable
Farida, Fara'id Fará’id, pl. Fará’íd precious pearl, precious gem, solitaire; (e.g.) quire (of paper). Mírzá Faḍl’s Kitábu’l-Fará’íd (Book of peerless gems)
Fariq, Fawariq Fáriq, pl. Fawáriq distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative; (pl.) a separating or distinctive factor; distinctive characteristic, criterion; difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Faris, Fawaris Fáris, pl. Fawáris Pers. Mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal; a horseman, a cavalier; a lion; the Persians; Persia.
Farma Farmá One who issues orders. From the infinitive Farmúdan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farmán-Farmá, the one who establishes order; the Governor.
Farman-Farma Farmán-Farmá the one who establishes or issues the order; the commander or governor. Title of Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí-Sháh
Farman, Firman, Faraman Farmán, Per. also Firmán, pl. Farámán Royal decree, command, order or edict. Ar. plural also Faramát or Farámín
Farmaniyyih Farmáníyyih (“Farmanieh”) once a garden named after Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, now a district in NE of Teheran
Fars Fárs Pers. Persia, Parthia. Párs is the the proper and original name of this country, Arabs, who have not the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fárs
Farsakh, Farasikh Farsakh, pl. Farásikh Pers. A parasang, a league, about 18,000 feet in length; an hour; a long time; an interval; a chink, cleft; quiet, repose; perpetual; much.
Farsang Farsang Pers. A parsang, league, about 5.5 km—the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour. Derived from the Persian parsang (stone, sang, placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush Farsh, pl. Furúsh furnishing; furniture, household effects; mat, rug, carpet; anything spread on the ground as bedding; foundation (architecture)
Faryab (or Firyab) Fáryáb or Fíryáb “lands irrigated by diversion of river water”. Village 140 km NE of Bandar-‘Abbás, Írán
Fashar, Fishar Fashar, Fishár Pers. a scattering; diffusion; compression, constriction, squeezing; the piercing of one thing with another
Fasih, Fusaha', Fisah, Fusuh Faṣíḥ, pl. Fuṣaḥá’, Fiṣáḥ, Fuṣuḥ pure, good Arabic (language), literary; skilful in using the correct literary language; clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech); fluent, eloquent
Fasiq, Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa Fásiq, pl. Fásiqún, Fussáq, Fasaqa godless, sinful, dissolute, wanton, licentious, profligate, vicious, iniquitous, nefarious; trespasser, offender, sinner; fornicator, adulterer; a person not meeting the legal requirements of righteousness (Islamic Law)
Fasl, Fusul Faṣl, pl. Fuṣúl parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off; separation; division, partition; discharge, dismissal.—plural: section, part; chapter; act (of a play); movement (of a symphony, etc.); article (in a newspaper); class, grade (school); season.
Fasl al-Khitab, Faslu’l-Khitab Faṣl al-Khiṭáb, Pers. Faṣlu’l-Khiṭáb “sound or unmistakable judgement” (Fassl-ul-Khitab). The Conclusive Proof or The Decisive Decree by Mírzá Faḍl
Fassala, Fussila Faṣṣala, Fuṣṣila to detail, to enumerate; to expound, to elucidate, to explain; to make understandable, to clarify; to be made distinct
Fataha, Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fataḥa, Fatḥ, pl. Futuḥ, Futuḥát to open (something); to turn on (a faucet); to switch on, turn on (an apparatus); to dig (a canal); to build (a road); to open, preface, introduce, begin (something); to conquer, capture (something); to reveal, disclose (to someone or something); to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something; of God). Plural: conquest; victory, triumph; alms; donations, contributions
Fatiha, Fawatih Fátiḥa, pl. Fawátiḥ start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience; introduction, preface, preamble, proem. Al-Fátiḥa (or Al-Sab‘a Al Matḥání (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of Al-Fátiḥa must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur’án. See Qur’án 15:87.
Fatima, Fatimih or Fatimah Fáṭima (Fáṭimah), Pers, Fáṭimih (“One who weans”) Fem. of ‘Fátim’. Fáṭima was the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad and wife of the Imám ‘Alí. Fáṭimih-Bagum was the mother of the Báb. Fáṭimih Khánum (referred to as Mahd-i-‘Ulyá) (second wife of Bahá’u’lláh—daughter Ṣamadíyyih, son Muḥammad, son Ḍíyá’u’lláh, and son Badí’u’lláh)
Fatra, Fatarat Fatra, Fatarát lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility; tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling); (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause; period, spell, while
Fatwa, Fatva Pers., Fatawa Fatwá, pl. Fatáwá A judgement or sentence made by a Muslim muftí (and court)
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud Fayḍ, Pers. Fayẓ, pl. Fuyúḍ flood, inundation, deluge; emanation; superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance; (pl.) stream
Fayd-i-Aqdas Fayḍ-i-Aqdas (“most holy outpouring”) Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas (“holy outpouring”) and “most holy outpouring” (fayḍ-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitáb-i-Íqán), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation. See Faiḍ.
Fi Fí (prep.) in; at; on; near, by; within, during; among, in the company of, with; about, on; concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles); for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for; according to; in proportion to.
Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali Fí Khalali and Fí Khiláli during; in the course of, within, in a given period of
Fi'l Fi‘l, pl. Af‘ál, Afá‘íl activity, doing, work, action, performance; function;— (pl. af‘ál, fi‘ál) deed, act, action; effect, impact;— (pl. af‘ál) verb (gram.);—pl. afá‘íl great deeds, exploits, feats; machinations
Fiddih, (Fidda, Fizza) Fiḍḍih (Pers. fem.) Maid of the wife of the Báb. Ar. Fiḍḍa (silver). In Pers. may be written as Fiẓẓa.
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan) Firaydán (alt. pronunciation Farídán) Pers. county in Iṣfahán Province. The capital of the county is Dárán (or Dárún).
Firishta, Firishtih, Firishtagan Firishta, Fem. Firishtih, pl. Firishtagán Pers. an angel; a messenger, apostle. See Ar. Mal’ak/Malak
Firman Firmán Pers. See Farmán
Firuz Fírúz victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful; victory; prosperity; the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year; name of several Persian kings. See Ẓáfir
Fishar-i-Qabr Fishár-i-Qabr Pers. constriction in the grave. Promised after death tortures leading to a fear of being squeezed in the grave.
Fitna, Fitan Fitna, Pers. Fitnah, pl. Fitan temptation, trial; charm, attractiveness; enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation; infatuation; intrigue; sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife. Occurs when a Manifestation appears. See also Imtiḥán.
Fitra Fitr, pl. Aftár small span (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended); corner
Fitrat Fitrat Ar. There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap. Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Báb and the rise of Bahá’u’lláh.
Fulad, Fuladi Fúlád, adj. Fúládí and Fuládí steel, of steel, made of steel; steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulan, Fulana Fulán, fem. Fulána (substituting for an unnamed or unspecified person or thing) so and so
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik) Funduq, Funduqa Pers. hazelnut of filbert-nut; a nut good against the sting of a scorpion; a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow. Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findík
Furqan Furqán proof, evidence, discriminator. An important attribute of al-Qur’án (see 2:185) is that of distinction (Furqán), for the word Qur’án describes how al-Qur’án is recited, whereas the word Furqán describes the criterion that distinguishes between truth (Ḥaqq) and falsehood (Báṭil) (see 25:1). Name of súra 25.
Gabr Gabr Pers. ancient Persian, one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster, a priest of the worshippers of fire; a pagan, infidel; a plant resembling ginger; a vest; a stone
Gach Gach Pers. a kind of white earth of which lime is made of; a plaster of lime and gypsum mixed with sand and pounded marble.
Gandum-Pak-Kun Gandum-Pák-Kun Mullá Muḥammad Ja‘far—the first person in Iṣfahán to accept the Faith of the Báb
Ganj Ganj Pers. a store, hoard, hidden treasure; a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse; a mart; a case
Garb Garb west; occident; vehemence, violence, impetuosity, tempestuousness; al-Garb—the West, the Occident
Garbi Garbí western, westerly; occidental, Western; European; an Occidental, a Westerner;—al-Garbíyún the Western Church (Christian)
Garm Rud Garm Rúd (or Garmrúd) Village northern Írán (south of Sárí). Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rúd)
Gawhar (gohar, gauhar) Gawhar Pers. a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone; lustre of a gem or sword; root, origin; of a noble family; essence, substance, form; offspring; any hidden virtue; intellect, wisdom; a substitute. See Ar. jawhar
Gawhar Khanum Gawhar Khánum third wife of Bahá’u’lláh (broke Covenant after the passing of Bahá’u’lláh)—her daughter is Furúghíyyih
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufrán to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghali Ghálí Pers. dear, costly, high-priced, precious, valuable; one who exceeds bounds; a fanatic, a zealot; name of a poet
Ghalin, Ghulah Ghálin, pl. Ghuláh expensive, high priced; valuable, costly; dear, beloved; (pl.) adherent of an extreme sect; extremist, radical; fanatic adherent, fanatic
Ghannam Ghannám Ar. shepherd. House of Sulaymán-i-Ghannám in Baghdád. See Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
Gharasa, Ghars Gharasa, Ghars, pl. Ghirás to plant, implant (something in); to place, put, set, infix, interpose, interpolate, insert (something into) (Ghars numerical value of 1260)
Ghariq Gharíq Pers. drowned, immersed. Numerical value of 1310. Nabíl drowned in AH 1310—the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghashiya, Ghawashin Gháshiya, pl. Ghawáshin pericardium; misfortune, calamity, disaster; faint, swoon; insensibility, stupor; servants, attendants, retinue, suit. Al Gháshiyah, the overwhelming event, súra 88
Ghayb (Ghaib) Ghayb, pl. Ghuyúb absence; hidden, concealed, invisible; (pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible; that which is transcendental, the supernatural; divine secret. (invisible realm)
Ghaybat (Ghaibat) Ghaybat being concealed, absent, invisible; concealment, absence, invisibility; ecstacies. State of being hidden from view.
Ghaybat-i-Kubra Ghaybat-i-Kubrá Major Occultation. See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat-i-Sughra Ghaybat-i-Ṣughrá Minor Occultation. See appended Occultation note.
Ghazal Ghazál A poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. gazelle
Ghulam-Ahmad Ghulám-Aḥmad Mírzá Ghulám-Aḥmad of Qádíyán, India,(1839–1908). Followers later split into Aḥmadíyyah and Qádíyáníyyah
Gird Gird Pers. round; a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit; environs, parts adjacent; a collection, assembly; a host; a city; a tent, pavilion; (adverb) around. e.g. Kinár-Gird, a village where the Báb paused in His exile journey to Máh-Kú.
Girih Girih Pers. a knot, a knur (as in a thread or on wood), a knob, a joint; a button or anything for fastening garments; a gland; a kernel; a purse; an abscess; a knuckle; articulation; three finger-breadths; a difficulty; the seed of a thorny tree used for tanning; the heart
Gulpaygan Gulpáygán a city in and the capital of Gulpáygán County, Iṣfahán Province, Írán (about 160 km NW of Iṣfahán)
Gulshan (Golshan) Gulshán Pers. a rose or flower-garden; a bed of roses or flowers; a delightful spot; a place where a person enjoys himself; a pleasure-palace; florid, cheerful, agreeable. Former name of Ṭabas—city in South Khorasan Province, Írán.
Ha, Had, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Há look! there! há huwa look, there he is! há antum you there! as a prefix (mostly written defectively): hádá, f. hádihí, hádí,—pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádání, f. hátáni this one, this
Habba, Hubb Ḥabba, Ḥubb to love, like; to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone); to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone); to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba, Ḥabíb, pl. Aḥabbá, Aḥibba beloved, sweetheart, lover; darling; dear one, friend; dear
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar Ḥabr, Ḥibr, pl. Aḥbár a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe; bishop; rabbi
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont. dual m. Hádání, f. Hátáni
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Hádá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádihí, hádí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual masc. hádáni, dual fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadba, Ahdab Ḥadbá’, fem. Aḥdab, pl. Ḥudb hunchbacked, humped. The historic Great Mosque of al-Núrí in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname “the hunchback” (al-Ḥadbá’). See root word Ḥadiba
Hadd, Hudud Ḥadd, pl. Ḥudúd (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword); edge, border, brink, brim, verge; border (of a country), boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus; a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained); (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion); divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God); legal punishment (Islamic Law)
Hadiba, Hadab Ḥadiba, (verbal noun Ḥadab) to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadid, Hada'id Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥadá’id iron;—pl. iron parts (of a structure); forgings, hardware, ironware
Hadid, Hidad, Ahidda Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥidád, Aḥiddá’, Aḥidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.), keen (mind)
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara Ḥáḍir, pl. Ḥuḍḍar, Ḥuḍúr, Ḥaḍara present; attending; (pl. ḥuḍḍár, ḥaḍara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic. See ḥáẓir
Hadith, Ahadith Ḥadíth, pl. Aḥádíth, Ḥádithán speech; chat, chitchat, small talk; conversation, talk, discussion; interview; prattle, gossip; report, account, tale, narrative; Prophetic tradition, Ḥadíth, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions. Aḥádíth are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad and the Imáms. Two distinct types: al-Ḥadíth an-Nabawí and al-Ḥadíth al-Qudsí. The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muḥammad (a Ḥadíth where one of the Companions reports Muḥammad’s statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration.
Haditha, Hawadith Ḥáditha, pl. Ḥawádith occurrence, event, happening; plot (of a play); incident, episode; accident, mishap
Hadiya Ḥadiya to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place). Name given as location where of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, the leader of the Shaykhís, died. It is near the tomb of Muḥammad in Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí‘ in Medina.
Hadra Ḥaḍra presence. Used broadly by mystics as a synonym of ḥuḍúr, “being in the presence [of Alláh]”.
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut Ḥaḍramawt, Hadhramaut a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula—part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Húd)
Hadrat (Hazrat) Ḥaḍrat (Ḥaẓrat) Pers. presence, threshold; dignity; majesty; dominion, power; an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity; also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship, etc.; a royal court; a town residence; a settled abode. Holiness (‘his excellency’ or ‘his honour’). Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadrat-i-A'la or Hadrat-i-'Ala Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá “His Holiness the Most Exalted One” (a designation of the Báb)
Hafiz Ḥáfiẓ a keeper, preserver, guardian; a commander, governor; the Preserver of all things (God); gifted with a good memory; one who has by heart the whole Qurʼán; a blind man (because such fall frequently under the preceding category); pen name of the greatest lyric, mystical poet of Persia, Khwája Shams al-Dín Muḥammad Ḥáfíẓ-i-Shírází (1320–1390), author of odes in the ghazal form. The Tomb of Ḥáfiẓ and its associated memorial hall, the Ḥáfiẓih, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shíráz, in his memory.
Hahut Háhút (realm of the “Absolute Unknown”, where God’s essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity). See Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút.
Haira, Hairat Ḥaira (Ḥairat) confusion, perplexity, bewilderment, embarrassment, helplessness, embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran Hajara, Hajr, Hijrán to emigrate; to dissociate oneself, separate, part, secede, keep away
Hajib, Hujjab Ḥájib, pl. Ḥujjáb, Ḥajaba concealing, screening, protecting; doorman, gatekeeper; court official, equivalent to a chamberlain
Hajj, Hajjaj Ḥájj, pl. Ḥujjáj pilgrim; Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajr Hajr abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation; avoidance, abstention; separation from the beloved one; hottest time of the day. Variation hijr.
Halal Ḥalál that which is allowed, permitted or permissible; allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate; lawful possession
Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat Halih-Halih-Yá-Bishárát “Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Haman Hamán Pers. only, solely; self-same, all one, one and the same, even that, that very; in this manner, exactly so, thus, equally; always, continually. Name of Abraham's brother; name of Pharaoh's vizier; name of a place in Kirmán where Sháh Niʻmatu’lláh Walí is buried
Hamaza, Hamz Hamaza, Hamz to prick; to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something); to spur (one’s horse); (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hamif, Hunafa' Ḥaníf, pl. Ḥunafá’ true believer, orthodox; one who scorns the false creeds surrounding him and professes the true religion; true (religion)
Hammam Ḥammám, pl. Ḥammámát bath; swimming pool; spa, watering place (public baths) (error writings—H used)
Hamzih Ḥamzih (“The lion”—Alt. Ḥamzah used by Balyuzi) “Prince of Martyrs” a title given to Muḥammad’s uncle. Ḥamzih is a sign that is pronounced as a. Since ḥamzih is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes disregarded. Thus, Bahá can be read as either eight or nine (Bahá’).
Hana Ḥaná to bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline (toward someone); to feel for someone, sympathize (with someone), commiserate, pity (someone), feel compassion, feel pity (for someone)
Hani’ Haní’ healthful, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, beneficial; pleasant, agreeable; easy, smooth, comfortable
Hanifa Ḥanífa al-ḥanífa as-samḥá’ the true and tolerant (religion. i.e., Islám). Abú Ḥanífah or Ḥanífih (Pers. forms)
Haqq (Haq), Huquq Ḥaqq, Pers. also Ḥaq, pl. Ḥuqúq truth; correctness, rightness; rightful possession; property; ones due; duty; proper manner; true, authentic, real; right, fair and reasonable; correct, sound, valid; (pl.) right, title, claim, legal claim. Persian: name of a bird said to suspend itself by tbe claws at night and continually to cry ḥaq ḥaq.
Haqqat or Haqqah Ḥáqqat or Ḥáqqah (tá’ marbúṭa) that which sorts out truth from falsehood; that which is inevitable (an epithet of the Day of Judgement). Qur’án 69. The Sure Reality or the Reality
Haram-i-Aqdas Ḥaram-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts) Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. NW quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí in the immediate area surrounding the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
Haram, Ahram Ḥaram, pl. Aḥrám forbidden, prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy, sacred, sacrosanct; something sacred, sacred object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct. [Ar.] The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar. Compare with Ḥill
Haram, Hurum Ḥarám, pl. Ḥurum forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; something forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo; sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed
Haranam, Haramayn (Haramain) al-Ḥaranám (Ar.), Ḥaramayn (Pers.) (dual pl.) Two Holy Places (i.e. Mecca and Medina). The “Twin Sacred Shrines” now refers to the places in Shíráz where the Báb was born and where He made His public declaration.
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf Ḥarf, pl. Ḥiraf (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword); sharp edge; border, edge, rim, brink, verge; (pl. ḥurúf, aḥruf) letter; consonant; particle (gram.); type (typography)
Harun Hárún Pers. Aaron; chief, leader; a messenger, courier; helplessness, indigence; astonishment; amazement
Harut Hárút name of an angel, who, together with another named Márút (Qur’án 2:102), having severely censured mankind before the throne of God, was sent with him down to earth in human shapes to judge of the temptations to which man is subject. They could not withstand them: they were seduced by women, and committed every kind of iniquity; for which they were suspended by the feet in a well in Babylon, where they are to remain in great torment till the day of judgement. They are said to be teachers of magic to man. See Márút
Hashara, Hashr Ḥashara, Ḥashr 1. to gather, assemble, rally (people), raising from the dead; to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together); to squeeze, press, force, stuff.
2. migration, evacuation, exile.
Hashim Háshim (of Shem) The Baní-Háshim were Muḥammad’s ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia. From ‘hashama’, “to destroy or smash to pieces”
Hashish, Hasha'ish Ḥashísh, pl. Ḥashá’ish herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Cannabis sativa), hashish, cannabis; stillborn child. Known by many names in Persia: ‘Parrot of all mysteries’, or plain ‘Mysteries’; or ‘Secrets’, or ‘Master Siyyid’—it being green, and the Siyyids, descendants of the Prophet, wear a turban as green as parrot feathers. (An ode of Ḥáfiẓ which must have puzzled translators is addressed to hashish and begins, ‘O thou parrot, speaker of secrets, may thy beak never lack for sugar!’) Summon up remembrance, p. 87.
Hashiya, Hawashin Ḥashiya, pl. Ḥawashin border; seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book); marginal gives; marginal notes; commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary; footnote; postscript; retinue, entourage, suite, servants; dependents;—pl. critical apparatus
Hashshash, Hashshashun (Hashshashin) Ḥashshásh, pl. Ḥashsháshún smoker or chewer of hashish, hashish addict. Assassins (Ḥashsháshín, from Assassiyun—“those faithful to the foundation”) is a name used to refer to medieval Nizárí (an-Nizáriyyún) Ismailis (Ismá‘íliyyún).
Hast Hast Pers. is, exists, remains; existence, being. hastam (I am), hastí (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastím (we are), hastíd (you are), hastand (they are)
Hatim, Hatam Ḥátim, Pers. Ḥátam Who or what renders necessary; one who decrees, ordains or pronounces judgement; a judge; a black crow, “the raven of separation”; name of a man of the Arabian tribe Tayy, celebrated for his liberality
Hawdaj (Haudaj) Hawdaj, pl. Hawádij camel litter, howdah; sedan chair, litter. Carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Hayat-Quli Khan Ḥayát-Qulí Khán Governor of Karand and a member of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís, a sect that equates Imám ‘Alí with God.
Hayf (Haif) Ḥayf (pun on the name Haifa) Pers. practising injustice; injustice, violence, oppression; revenge; a pity; alas! what a pity
Hayiya, Hayya, Yahya, Hayah Ḥayiya, Ḥayya, Yaḥyá (Ḥayáh) to live; ḥayya to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time); li-yaḥya l-malik (lit. to life the king) long live the king! ḥayiya, yaḥyá (ḥayá’) to be ashamed (of; because of) Form II ḥayyá to keep (someone) alive, grant (someone) a long life; to say to someone: may God preserve your life!; to greet, salute (someone) Form IV aḥyá to lend life (to someone, to something), enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with life, call into being (something), give birth (to); to revive, reanimate, revivify (something), give new life (to); to put on, produce, stage, arrange (e.g., a theatrical performance, a celebration, and the like); to celebrate (something, also a festival).
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil Haykal, pl. Hayákil temple; large building, edifice; altar; skeleton; framework (of a structure), frame; chassis (of an automobile); colossal, gigantic, huge
Hayy Ḥayy, pl. Aḥyá’ living, live, alive; lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed; living being, organism; tribe, tribal community; block of apartment houses; section, quarter (of a city)
Hazar (Hizar) Hazár Pers. a thousand; a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale; a term employed in the game of nard
Hazir, Haziran Ḥáẓir, pl. Ḥáẓirán present, at hand, ready, prepared; at the service of, willing, content; (in grammar) the present tense; the second person; a large tribe. Pl. the people present, the audience. See ḥáḍir
Hazira, Haza'ir Ḥaẓírá, pl. Ḥaẓa’ir enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge; compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field, domain, realm (fig.)
Haziratu'l-Quds Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds Ar. the Sacred Fold or Paradise. Title given to Bahá’í administrative headquarters
Hifz Ḥifẓ preservation; maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding; protection, defence, guarding; custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage; retention; observance, compliance (with); memorizing, memorization; memory; (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation)
Hijab Ḥijáb, pl. Ḥujub, Aḥjiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain; woman’s veil; screen, partition, folding screen; barrier, bar; diaphragm. A veil that covers the head and chest.
Hijaz Ḥijáz “barrier”. al-ḥijáz (Hejaz) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
Hijr Ḥijr forbidden, interdicted, prohibited; northern wall of the Ka‘ba; lap; mare. Name of chapter 15 of the Qur’án (from 15:80, which refers to the rocky country of the Thamúd tribe to the north of al-Madínah) and translated as “rocky tract”.
Hijra Hijra departure, exit; emigration, exodus; immigration to; al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in ad 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri Hijrí of the Hegira pertaining to Muḥammad’s emigration in ad 622. A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muḥammad’s emigration. Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya Hijríya Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in ad 873 (ah 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikam Abu’l-Ḥikam “the Father of Wisdoms”. See Ḥikma
Hill Ḥill Pers. being lawful; a lawful thing; the dissolution of an oath; doffing the pilgrim's garb; a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin Ḥill, Ḥillin he was free to …, he was at liberty to …; he had free disposal of …. The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months. Compare with Ḥaram.
Hillah, Hilla, Hillih Ḥillah or Ḥilla, Pers. Ḥillih A city in central ‘Iráq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdád
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam Ḥilm, pl. Ḥulúm, Aḥlám gentleness, clemency, mildness; forbearance, indulgence; patience; insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin Ḥín, pl. Ḥín Aḥyán, Aḥáyín time; propitious time, good time, opportunity. value of 68
Hindu, Hinduwan Hindú, pl. Hinduwán (Pers.) Indian; black; servant; slave; robber; infidel; watch-man
Hiqf, Ahqaf Ḥiqf, pl. Aḥqáf wavy heap of sand;—pl. hills of sand extending a great way; name of a large district in Arabia formerly inhabited by the people of ʻÁd. Qur’án 46: al-Aḥqáf “The Wind-curved Sand Hills” or “The Winding Sand-tracts”
Hira Ḥirá’ Ghár Ḥirá’ (the Cave of Hira) is located on the western side of Jabal Ḥirá’ (Mount Hira), which is on the north side of Mecca. The mountain was renamed Jabal al-Núr (Mountain of Light) after Muḥammad’s revelation in the cave.
Hirman Ḥirmán deprivation, bereavement, dispossession (of someone, of something) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (from); excommunication (Christian); privation
Hisab, Hisabat Ḥisáb, pl. Ḥisábát arithmetic, reckoning, calculus; computation; calculation, estimation, appraisal; accounting, settlement; consideration; caution;— (pl.) bill, invoice; statement of costs (bank) account
Hisami Ḥisámí See Ḥusám
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina Ḥiṣán, pl. Ḥuṣun, Aḥsina horse; stallion; Ḥiṣán al-baḥr: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisn, Husun Ḥiṣn, pl. Ḥuṣún fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification, entrenchment; protection
Hitta Ḥiṭṭa alleviation, relief, mitigation; abasement, debasement, demotion, degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige); humiliation, insult, indignity
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum Ḥizám, pl. Ḥizámát, Aḥzima, Ḥuzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it); sword belt
Hizb, Ahzab Ḥizb, pl. Aḥzab group, troop, band, cohort, gang; associates, auxiliaries, confederates; arms, armour; party (politics); a 60th part of the Qur’án
Hudaybiyyah Ḥudaybíyyah al-Ḥudaybíyyah Truce of, in ah 6 (ad 628). At a spring of the same name about 16 km north of Mecca—no part of the city.
Huduth Ḥudúth setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon); occurrence, incident, happening. “originated nature”—contrast with Imkán (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujja Ḥujja, Per. Ḥujjat, pl. Ḥújaj argument; pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence; document, writ, deed, record; authority
Hujjat'u'llah Ḥujjat’u’lláh the proof of God. The last Imám is known as the Proof of God. Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatu'l-Islam Ḥujjatu’l-Islám Proof of Islám. Mullá Muḥammad-‘Alí of Zanján was called Ḥujjatu’l-Islám. The Báb called him Ḥujjatu’l-Zanjání.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran Ḥujr, Ḥajara to deny access (Ḥajr, Ḥijr, Ḥujr, Ḥijrán, Ḥujrán)
Hujrat (Hujrih), Hujra, Hujarat Ḥujrat, Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát Pers. a chamber, closet, cell; a box in a theatre, circus
Hukm, Ahkam Ḥukm, Aḥkám judgement, valuation, opinion; decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence; condemnation, conviction; administration of justice; jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law); regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree; judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power; government, regime;—pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
Hulul Ḥulúl stopping, putting up, staying; descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking; incarnation; setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn; substitution (for someone). In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
Hums Ḥums al-Ḥums is the name traditionally given to the inhabitants of the ḥaram of Mecca at the time of Muḥammad’s appearance, in so far as they were distinguished by special customs during the iḥrám from the other tribes who were together known as al-Ḥilla.
Hunayn (Hunain) Ḥunayn Battle of Ḥunayn (Qur’án 9:25) in a valley between Mecca and the city of Ṭá’if to the east of Mecca
Huraira, Hurairah, Hurayrih Huraira, Per. Hurairah, Hurayrih a little cat or kitten. Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of “ah” or “ih”. Surname given to Abú Hurayrih ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán bin Sakhr (a companion of Muḥammad) because of the favourite kitten he used to carry around with him.
Hurayra Hurayra Syrian village. See Huraira
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur Ḥúríya, pl. Ḥúríyát, Ḥúr houri, virgin of paradise; nymph; young locust. Ḥúrí (adj.) (literally, white one)
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak) Húrmudúk Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvíd (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurqalya Húrqalyá intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Húrqalyá. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Húrqalyá. The occulted but living twelfth Imám and the cities of Jábulsá and Jábulqá, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Húrqalyá. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227.
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara'ir Ḥurr, pl. m. Aḥrar, f. Ḥara’ir noble, free-born; genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living in freedom; freeman; independent; free unrestrained; liberal
Hurriya, Huriyat Ḥurriya, Per. Ḥurriyyah, pl. Ḥurriyát freedom, liberty; independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic)
Hurufat-i-'Alin Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álín The Exalted letters (by Bahá’u’lláh). See Ḥarf
Husamu's-Sultani, Hisamu's-Saltanih Ḥusámu’s-Sulṭaní (Ḥisámu’s-Salṭanih) (“Sword of the sovereign”) Title of Prince Sulṭán Murád Mírzá, son of ‘Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh
Hushidar, Hoshidar Hushidár One who increases holiness or promotes righeousness; name of a future saviour. Zoroastrian origin.
Huwa (Pers. Huva) Huwa he; it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun); God (or “the Most Great Name of God” according to the Báb). See note under Bahá.
Huwaydar, Huvaydar Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar village north of the city Ba‘qúba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdád
Huwiya (Pers. Huwiyyat, Huviyyat) Huwíya essence, nature; coessentiality, consubstantiality; identity; identity card
-i- -i- Pers. sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it
I'qilhá wa tawakkal I’qilhá wa tawakkal Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God) in Tirmidhi’s collection of traditions
I'timad, I'timadat I‘timád, pl. I‘timádát reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in); confirmation; sanction, approbation, authorization; accreditation (of diplomats); (pl.) credit, loan
I’tiraf I‘tiráf recognition, acceptance; acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession; (Christian) confession
Ibn, Abna, Banun Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abná’, Banún Ar. son; descendant, scion; offspring, son (of a nation or people)
Ibnu'l-Alusi Ibnu’l-Álúsí the chief jurisconsult [muftí] of Baghdád—one of the five sons of the famous Shaykh Maḥmúd al-Álúsí. Probably one of the three eldest: ‘Abdu’lláh, Bahá’u’d-Dín; ‘Abdu’l-Baqí‘; and Siyyid Na‘mán, Khayru'd-Dín.
Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah Ibráhím-i-Khayru’lláh Syrian doctor, the first Bahá’í teacher in America, and later joined forces with Muḥammad-‘Ali, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His English wife, Miriam, remained loyal to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and later they were divorced. Refer to Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá’í Faith, pp. 114–117.
Idda (‘Iddah, ‘Iddat) ‘Idda number; several, numerous, many. ‘iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)
Ihtisham Iḥtishám being ashamed; bashfulness; having many dependants, followers, or domestics; pomp, retinue, magnificence, grandeur, state
Ihtisham-i-Dawlih Iḥtishám-i-Dawlih See Taḥashshum
Ihtiyaj, Ihtiyajat Iḥtiyáj, pl. Iḥtiyáját want, need, requirement, (pre)requisite, necessity;—pl. needs, necessities, necessaries
Ihtiyat, Ihtiyatat Iḥtiyáṭ, pl. Iḥtiyáṭát caution, cautiousness, prudence, circumspection, carefulness; provision, care, attention, precaution, prevention; (pl.) precautionary measures, precautions
Ijad Íjád creation, procreation, production, origination; procuring, procurement, furnishing, supply; calculation, computation, evaluation
Ijaza, ijazat Ijáza, pl. Ijázát licence or diploma bestowed by higher-ranking members of the ulama on those deemed knowledgeable in particular aspects of Islamic sciences
Ijma' Ijmá‘ agreement, unanimity; unanimous resolution; (Isl. Law) consensus (of the authorities in a legal question; one of the four uṣúl of Islamic Law)
Ijtihad Ijtihád effort, exertion, endeavor, pains, trouble; application, industry, diligence; (Isl. Law) independent judgement in a legal or theological queetion, based on the interpretation and application of the 4 uṣúl, as opposed to taqlíd; individual judgment. The power of a Shí‘ih divine to issue ex cathedra decrees and judgements.
Ijtima', Ijyima'at Ijtimá‘, pl. Ijtimá‘át meeting; get-together, gathering, assembly; reunion; rally; convention; conjunction, constellation (astron.); confluence (of rivers); life in a social group, community life, social life
Ikhtiyar Ikhtiyár choice; election (also politics; pl. ikhtiyárát); selection; preference (to); option; free will (philosophy)
Ilkhani Ílkhání (“A tribal chief, a chieftain”) Also the name of a garden outside Ṭihrán where Ṭáhirih was martyred.
Ilm, ‘Ulum ‘Ilm, pl. ‘Ulúm Ar. knowledge, learning, lore; cognizance, acquaintance; information; cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge; (pl.) science
Ilmu't-Tajwid ‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd al-‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd or ‘Ilmu’l-Qira’ah—the science of reading the Qur’an correctly.
Iltibas Iltibás confusion, tangle, intricacy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, doubt. Also veiled or disguised.
Imad, Amad ‘Imád, pl. ‘Amad support, prop, stay (also fig.); bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar. Mír ‘Imád famous calligrapher.
Imam-Jum'ih Imám-Jum‘ih Pers. (Imam-Jom’a or Imam Jomai) The leader of the Shí’ah Friday prayers in the mosque of a city or town.
Imam-Zadih Ma'sum Imám-Zádih Ma’ṣúm Shrine in Ṭihrán where the Báb’s body was kept at the instruction of Bahá’u’lláh.
Imam, A'imma Imám, pl. A’imma (literally “Leader”, “guide”) The person who leads the congregation in the mosque, in prayer (hence, “prayer leader”), is called the Imám. The Imáma are called the “Kindred of God”, “Suns of immaculacy and Moons of majesty” by Bahá’u’lláh (GDM).
Imamat Imámat Pers. (verbal noun of Umma) imamate, taking the lead in religious matters, performing the functions of an Imám; the priestly office
Imara Imára position or rank of an emir; princely bearing or manners; principality, emirate; authority, power
Imkan Imkán power, capacity, capability; faculty, ability; possibility. “inherent contingency”—contrast with Ḥudúth (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Imra', Imru' Imra’ and Imru’ (with definite article, al-mar’, man) a man; person, human being; frequently for son
Imran ‘Imrán (Amran in Bible and Joachim is known as ‘Imrán in the al-Qur’án) name of the father of Moses, Mary and of Abú Tálib
Imruz Imrúz today or this day. See yúm
Imtihan, Imtihanat Imtiḥán, pl. Imtiḥánát test, experiment; examination. Tests occur when a Manifestation appears. See also Fitna.
Imtiyaz, Imtiyazat Imtiyáz, pl. Imtiyazát distinction, (mark of) honour; advantage, benefit, merit; difference, distinction, differentiation, discrimination; special right, privilege; concession, patent, permit, license, franchise; (oil) concession; prerogative, priority right
Inayatu’llah Khan ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán Mírzá ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán (Enayet’o’llah), the son of Mullá Ismá‘íl, the martyr
Injil Injíl (Gk. Evangel) mentioned in the Qur’án is supposed to be a lost original Gospel promulgated by Jesus.
Inkar Inkár denial, disavowal, negation, contestation; refusal, rejection, non-acceptance, e.g. of Imám ‘Alí
Inshiqaq Inshiqáq separation, segregation, dissociation, spilt; schism (Christian); dissension, discord, disunion
Iqab ‘Iqáb infliction of punishment, punishment; penalty. Translated by Shoghi Effendi as “retribution” in The Hidden Words #93 (Persian). Mistaken for “eagle” in an early translation. See ‘uqáb
Iqbal Iqbál drawing near, advance, approach; coming, arrival, advent; turning, application, attention, response, responsiveness
Iqtidar, Iqtidarat Iqtidár, fem. pl. Iqtidárát might, power, strength, potency; ability, capability, faculty, capacity, efficiency, aptitude. Iqtidárát wa chand lawḥ-i-dígár ḥaḍrat-i-Bahá’u’lláh (Magnificences and select other Tablets of His Holiness Bahá’u’lláh)—a compilation of Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh.
Iqtiran Iqtirán connection, conjunction, union, association, affiliation; link, connectedness, simultaneous interaction; conjunction (astron.); new moon (as an astronomical aspect); marriage, wedding
Irada (Iradih), Iradat Iráda, (Pers. Irádih), pl. Irádát will, volition; wish; desire; (pl.) irade (a decree of an Islamic ruler), decree (of a ruler); will power
Iran Írán Iran, the kingdom of Persia proper, said to be named after Íraj, son of Farídún, to whom this part of his father's dominions was given
Iraq-i-'Ajam ‘Iráq-i-‘Ajam Persian ‘Iráq. ‘Iráq between the 11th to 19th centuries consisted of two neighbouring regions: Arabic ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Arab) and Persian ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Ajam). Arabic ‘Iráq corresponded with ancient Babylonia (now central-southern ‘Iráq), and Persian ‘Iráq corresponded with the ancient Media (now central-western Írán). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Iraq-i-A'zam ‘Iráq-i-A‘ẓam A part of Írán once known as Persian ‘Iráq (the country around Media (the triangle between the ancient cities of Ecbatana (believed near Hamadan), Rhagae (southern Ṭihrán) and Aspadana (Iṣfahán)), in today's central Írán.
Irshad, Irshadat Irshád, pl. fem. Irshádát guidance; a conducting, showing the way (to); guiding hand; care; spiritual guidance; instruction; direction; directive; information; advising, advice;—pl. directives, directions, instructions, advice
Irtifa' Irtifá‘ rise (e.g., of prices); elevation; increase; height, altitude (e.g., of a mountain). The Báb uses irtifá‘ to mean abrogation (both removing and elevating) in relation to the abrogation of a former Dispensation and its fulfilment and exaltation by a new Dispensation. “Each Revelation, in simultaneously abrogating and exalting the previous Dispensation, is the return of the previous Revelation in the station of its perfection.” Gate of the heart, p. 277.
Isa ‘Ísá Pers. Jesus. See Yasú’
Isfahan Iṣfahán Pers. city 340 km south of Ṭihirán. Transliteration as per Shoghi Effendi. Iṣfáhán, Ispáhán and Ṣifáhán transliterations are also used outside the Faith as the name of the city, carpets, business names and food.
Isfahani Iṣfahání Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar ‘Alí-i-Iṣfahání (b. Iṣfahán, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920). Bahá’u’lláh gave him the titles “The Angel of Carmel” and “Sulṭán-i-Mu‘allimún” (The king of teachers). Author of Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr (Delight of Hearts)
Isfandiyar Isfandíyár Pers. Esfandiyár, Sepandiár, Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar. Legendary Iranian hero. (“Created holy and pure”) Name of loyal servant of Bahá.
Ishan Íshán “They” a designation by which Bahá’u’lláh was known. Also said to be honorific form of Persian pronoun for the third person singular
Ishara, Isharat Ishára, pl. Ishárát sign, motion, nod, wink, wave; gesture; signal; indication; allusion, hint, intimation; symbolic expression; (silent) reminder; advice, counsel, suggestion; instruction, order, command
Ishraq, Ishraqat Ishráq, pl. Ishráqát Pers. rising (the sun sunrise, morning; splendour, lustre, beauty. Tablet of Ishráqát (Splendours) (by Bahá’u’lláh) published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 101-134.
Ishraqi, Ishraqiyan Ishráqí, pl. Ishráqíyán Pers. of or pertaining to sunrise; eastern, oriental; having the splendour of the East. (pl.) a sect of philosophers, illuminati. Ishráqíyyih (Ishraqiyyih)
Ishraqiyyih, Ishraqiya Ishráqiyyih, Ar. Ishráqíya a Persian mystical order founded by Suhrawardí (c. 1155–1191), a Persian theologian and philosopher
Ishti’al Ishti‘ál ignition, inflammation, combustion, burning. Name/pen name (aflame or blazing fire) given to Ali-Kuli Khan by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Iskandarun Iskandarún (Turkish İskenderun, Arabic Iskandarúna) Originally Alexandria, later Alexandretta, on Turkish coast north of Syria
Islah, Islahat Iṣláḥ, pl. Iṣláḥát restoration, restitution, redressing, reparation; improvement, amelioration, betterment, mending, correction; reconstruction; reconditioning, repair; renovation, refurbishing; adjustment, settling, remedying, removal, elimination; restoration of order, establishment of peace, happiness and order; reformation, reform; reclamation, cultivation (of land); (re)conciliation, settlement, compromise, peace making
Islam Islám submission, resignation, reconciliation (to the will of God); or the total surrender of oneself to God. Titled “Perspicuous Religion” and “Well-established Path”. Redefined by the Báb as “Verily, the essence of religion is none other than submission unto This Remembrance [the Báb].”
Islami (Islamic) Islámí Islamic. No accents for the English Islamic! Incorrectly given as Muhammadic or Muhammedic.
Isma ‘Iṣma hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation; preservation, guarding, safeguarding; defence; protection; chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness; impeccance, sinlessness, infallibility. ‘immunity from sin and error’, (from ‘aṣama, ya‘ṣimu = to protect, to save from)
Isma al-sifatiya al-‘Iṣma al-Ṣifátíya Conferred infallibility (bestowed rather than innate). Immunity from error and infallibility of judgement—not freedom from sin, sinlessness or immaculateness.
Isma'il Ismá‘íl (Ishmael in Hebrew), the son of Abraham and the Egyptian Hagar, who was considered to be the forerunner of the desert Arabs.
Isma’iliyya, Isma’iliyyih, Isma’iliyyun Ismá‘íliyya (Ar), Ismá‘íliyyih (Per) Isma’ilism—branch of Shi’a Islám. pl. Ismá‘íliyyún. Pers. Ismá‘íliya
Ismu'llahi’l-Akhir Ismu’lláhi’l-Ákhir Ar. Ar. The Last name of God. This was the title given by the Báb to Quddús.
Ismu’llahi'l-Jud Ismu’lláhi’l-Júd “The Name of God, the Bounteous” (name given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh)
Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhu’l-Mihdí “The Name of God, Mihdí”. Name given to Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahají.
Isnad, Asanid Isnád, pl. Asáníd ascription (of an Islamic tradition), the (uninterrupted) chain of authorities on which a tradition is based
Isra' Isrá’ nocturnal journey; al-Isrá’ “the Night Journey”: Muḥammad’s midnight journey to the seven heavens
Israfil Isráfíl (Israfel) seraph. The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet on the Day of Judgement.
Istarabad (Astarabad) Istarábád See Astarábád
Istidlal Istidlál reasoning, argumentation, demonstration; conclusion, inference, deduction; proof, evidence (of)
Istikhlaf Istikhláf appoint someone to be successor. In the Qur’anic context, appointing a trustee or vicegerent, or “Law of Succession of Prophets”.
Istiqbal, Istiqbalat Istiqbál, pl. Istiqbálát reception; opposition (astron.); full moon (as an astronomical aspect); the future
Ithbat Ithbát establishment; assertion; confirmation; affirmation, attestation; demonstration; proof, evidence; registration, entering, listing, recording; documentation, authentication, verification
Ithna-'Ashariyyih Ithná-‘Asharíyyih lit. the Twelvers. Twelver Shí‘i or the branch of Islám Shi’ism that believes in 12 Imams
Itmam Itmám completion; perfection; termination, conclusion; consummation, execution, fulfilment, realization, effectuation, accomplishment
Itmi'nan (Itminan) Iṭmi’nán calm, repose, serenity, peace, peacefulness, tranquillity; reassurance, peace of mind, composure, calmness, equanimity; trust, confidence
Itmi'nan-i-Qalb (Itminan-i-Qalb) Iṭmi’nán-i-Qalb heart attaining tranquillity or composure of the heart
Ittihad Ittiḥád oneness, singleness, unity; concord, accord, unison, harmony, unanimity, agreement; combination; consolidation, amalgamation, merger, fusion; alliance, confederacy; association; federation; union. Symbolically, the identification of man with God
Izhar Iẓhár presentation, exposition, demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, exposure, revelation, announcement, declaration, manifestation, display; developing (photography)
Izza ‘Izza might, power, standing, weight; strength, force; honour, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown; pride
Izzat ‘Izzat Pers. being great, powerful, rare, valuable; grandeur, glory, power, might; honour, esteem; rareness
Ja'fari Ja‘farí Pers. the finest kind of gold (named after a celebrated alchemist); a kind of cupola; a sort of screen (the interstices of the frame being lozenged); lattice-work; name of a yellow flower; parsley; name of a fortress
Jabal-i-Basit Jabal-i-Básiṭ “the Open Mountain”—Máh-Kú (same numerical value as Básiṭ, 72) al-Básiṭ “the one who expands or stretches”)
Jabarut Jabarút (“the All-highest Dominion” or “the Empyrean Heaven”—realm of being). See Háhút, Láhút and Násút.
Jabir Jábir bonesetter Jábir Ibn-i-Ḥayyán was a follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions.
Jabr Jabr setting (of broken bones); force, compulsion; coercion, duress; power, might; (predestined, inescapable) decree of fate.
Jabr wa'l-muqabala Jabr wa’l-muqábala Al-Jabr wa’l-muqábala (“completing” or “restoring”, and “simplifying” or “balancing”) Part of a book title from which the word “algebra” is derived.
Jabulqa and Jabulsa Jábulqá and Jábulsá (According to Shí’ih traditions, the mythical twin cities of Jábulqá and Jábulsá are the dwelling place of the Hidden Imám (the Promised One), whence He will appear on the Day of Resurrection.)
Jadhib Jádhib attractive; magnetic (fig.); winning, fetching, engaging; charming, enticing, captivating, gripping
Jadhibiya, Jadhbiyyih Jádhibíyah gravitation; attraction; attractiveness; charm; fascination; magnetism
Jafr Jafr Islamic science of the numerical values of letters; numerology. ‘ilm al-jafr: divination, fortune telling.
Jahada, Jahd Jahada (Jahd) to endeavour, strive, labour, take pains, put oneself out; to over-work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (someone). Form III to endeavour, strive; to fight (for something); to wage holy war against the infidels. Form IV to strain, exert (something); to tire, wear out, fatigue (someone), give trouble (to).
Jalalu'd-Din Rumi Jalálu’d-Dín Rúmí [or Jaláli’d-Dín Rúmí or Jalála’d-Dín Rúmí] (called Mawláná (“our Master”), is the greatest of all Persian Súfí poets, and founder of the Mawlaví “whirling” dervish order.)
Jalil, Ajilla', Ajilla, Jala'il Jalíl, Ajillá’, Ajilla, Jalá’il great, important, significant, weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted, sublime; revered, honourable, venerable; glorious, splendid
Jam Jam Pers. name of an ancient king of Persia, whom they confound with Solomon and Alexander the Great; a monarch, a great king; the pupil of the eye; pure, free, exempt; essence, nature, person. (Zend or Avestan: yima and Sanskrit: yama [“the twins”]. Yama became Jam). See Jamshíd
Jam'iya, Jam'iyat Jam‘iya, pl. Jam‘iyát club, association, society; corporation, organization; assembly
Jama'a, Jama'at Jamá‘a(h), pl. Jamá‘át group (of people); band, gang, party, troop; community; squad (military unit)
Jamal-i-Mubarak Jamál-i-Mubárak “The Blessed Beauty”. Title occasionally used by Bahá’ís for Bahá’u’lláh.
Jammal, Jammalun Jammál, pl. Jammálún camel driver. Gardens of Jammál are at the south entrance of the Mansion of Bahjí.
Jamshid Jamshíd (“Djemsheed”) mythical King in Iranian traditions and culture. A compound of Jam and shíd formed by changes to the original Avestran names.
Jan Ján Pers. soul, vital spirit, mind; self; life; spirit, courage; wind; the mouth; arms; the father of demons; name of a race said to have inhabited the world before Adam; in modern conversation a word of endearment. See nafs
Jangal Jangal Pers. a wood, forest, thicket; a country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass; a jungle
Jangali Jangalí Pers. wild, untilled, jungle-like. Insult referring to uncultured people (raised in jungles)
Jani Jání Pers. soul; cordial, heartily loved, devoted. Title of a merchant of Kashán, Ḥájí Mírzá Jání, early historian of the Bábí Cause and a martyr.
Janib, Jawanib Jánib, pl. Jawánib side; lateral portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face (geometry); part, portion, partial amount; partial view, section (of a scene, picture or panorama); quantity, amount; a certain number (of), a few, some. “draw back”? Seven Valleys p. 43
Janna, Jannat (“Jinnat”), Jinan Janna, pl. Jannát, Jinán garden; paradise, heaven. Persian sing. Jannat
Jasad, Ajsad Jasad, pl. Ajsád body. Compare Jism
Jashn-i-A'zam Jashn-i-A‘ẓam (the Greatest Festival because ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was known as the Ghusn-i-A’ẓám [the Greatest Branch])—Day of the Covenant
Jasim, Jisam Jasím, pl. Jisám great, big, large; voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, immense; stout, corpulent; weighty, most significant, momentous, prodigious
Javahiru'l-Asrar Javáhiru’l-Asrár “Gems of Divine Mysteries” or “The Essence of Mysteries” by Bahá’u’lláh. See jawhar and sirr
Jawab (Javab), Ajwiba, Jawabat Jawáb, pl. Ajwiba, Jawabát answer, reply; octave (to a given tone; music); (e.g. pronounced gawáb pl. jawabát) letter, message
Jawad, Ajwad, Ajawid, Jud Jawád, pl. Ajwád, Ajáwid, Ajawíd, Júd openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous;—pl. jiyád, ajyád, ajáwíd race horse, racer; charger
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir Jawhar, pl. Jawáhir intrinsic, essential nature, essence; content, substance (as opposed to form; philosophy); matter, substance; atom; jewel, gem;—pl. jewelry. See Pers. Gawhar
Jawsh (Jaush) Jawsh Pers. the breast; the middle of a man; midnight; a large section of the night, or the latter part of it; a march during the whole of the night. See jayb
Jawshan Kabir Jawshan Kabír long (“big”) Islamic prayer with 1,000 names and attributes of God that is Muḥammad’s “coat of amour” to protect Him from injuries
Jayb (Jaib), Juyub Jayb, pl. Juyúb breast, bosom, heart; sine (mathematics); hole, hollow, cavity, excavation; pocket; purse
Jidal, Mujadala, Mujadalat Jidál (m.), Mujádala (f.), pl. Mujádalát quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion, debate
Jiha, Jihat, Juhat Jiha (Pers. Jihat, Juhat), pl. Jihát side; direction; region, part, section, area; district, precinct, city quarter; agency, authority; administrative agency
Jilf, Ajlaf Jilf, pl. Ajláf Pers. any empty vessel, pot or pan; an animal disembowelled, and skinned; anything empty in the middle; silly, trifling
Jihad Jihád Commonly understood to be: fight, battle; jihad, holy war (against the infidels, as a religious duty). Literally means “striving” (see root jahada)—a witness or martyr. During and immediately after the time of Muḥammad, jihad was directed against pagans and idolaters—the polytheists—and was undertaken in defence of the realm of Islám. Meaning was later obscured and lost. See Qitál
Jinn Jinn (collective) jinn, demons (invisible beings, either harmful or helpful, that interfere with the lives of mortals)
Jirjis Jirjís Pers. George, particularly St. George of England; ranked among the prophets by Muslims.
Jism, Ajsam, Jusum Jism, pl. Ajsám, Jusúm body (also [new meaning] of an automobile); substance, matter; mass; form, shape. Compare jasad
Jizya (Pers. Jizyah), Jizan, Jiza' Jizya, pl. Jizan, Jizá’ tax; tribute; head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule
Jujih Khanum Jújih Khánum The minuscule Leona Barnitz was called Jújih Khánum (Little Chick Lady) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Juk Júk Jug-Basisht (Book of Juk), the Persian translation of the Yoga Vasistha, a syncretic philosophic text
Julfa (Jolfa) Julfá “New” (ad 1606) Julfá is an Armenian-populated area (one of the world’s largest) of Iṣfahán, located south of the Záyandí-Rúd. The people migrated from the Armenian city of Julfá in Azerbaijan.
Jumada al-Awwal, Jumada al-Ula Jumádá al-Awwal Fifth Islamic calendar month (the first of parched land). Also known as Jumádá al-Úlá.
Jumada ath-Thani, Jumada al-Akhir Jumádá ath-Thání Sixth Islamic calendar month (the second/last of parched land). Also known as Jumádá al-Ákhir.
Jumu’at al-Jumu‘at [a proper name] [the day of gathering, the day of congregating] Friday. Súra 62 named al-Jumu‘ah because verse 9 mentions the call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday”. See jum‘a
Junaina, Junaynih Junaina, pl. Junainát, Pers. Junaynih little garden; garden. Junaynih Garden—garden NW of Mazra‘ih, Israel
Ka'aba, Ku'ub Ka‘aba (Ku‘úb) to be full and round, be swelling (breasts) Form II to make cubic, to cube (something); to dice (something)
Ka'b, Ki'ab, Ku'ub Ka‘b, pl. Ki‘áb, Ku‘úb knot, knob, node (of cane); joint, articulation; ankle, anklebone
Ka'ba, Ka'abat, Ka'bih Ka‘ba (Ar), pl. Ka‘abát, Pers. Ka‘bih cube, cubic structure; (figurative.) shrine; object of veneration, focus of interest. The cubic building (the Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba) or the exalted Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba al-Musharrafah)) in the centre of the Mosque at Mecca that contains the Black Stone (al-Ḥajar al-Aswad). The sanctuary is believed to have been originally built by Ibráhím (Abraham) and Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), and appointed by Muḥammad as the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration) to which people turn in prayer in Mecca.
Kabara, Kabr, Kabri Kabara, Kabr to exceed in age (someone by), be older (than someone). Aqueduct from Kabrí (NE of Naḥáríya) to ‘Akká.
Kabir, Kibar Kabír, pl. Kibár great, big, large, sizable; bulky, voluminous, spacious; extensive, comprehensive; significant, considerable, formidable, huge, vast, enormous; powerful, influential, distinguished, eminent; important; old. e.g. Amír Kabír. Superlative form of ‘kabura’.
Kad-Khuda Kad-Khudá Pers. chief officer of a district; a mayor, magistrate, alderman or bailiff. Head man of a village, town, district or ward.
Kafir, Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar Káfir, pl. Káfirún, Kuffár, Kafara, Kifár irreligious, unbelieving; unbeliever, infidel, atheist; ungrateful
Kafur Káfúr (kafur) (a fountain intended to be drunk by the true and firm believers)—literally camphor, a medicine that is given as a soothing tonic in Eastern medicine. It is cool and it may have a good odour. Symbolically it is referred to as a spring in heaven or an added spiritual flavour etc. Used to denote whiteness—a compound of all colours
Kahir, Khidir, Khidr al-Khaḍir, al-Khiḍir (al-Khiḍr) a well-known legendary figure (“The Green One”) or immortal saint. Identified as “One of our servants” Qur’án 18:65. His name is not mentioned in the Qur’án, but tradition gives it as Khiḍr. His knowledge is fresh and green, and drawn out of the living sources of life (Alláh). Equivalent in the Bible is considered to be Melchizedek. Bahíyya Khánum, p. 99 states the Cave of Khiḍr is the Cave of Elijah.
Kaj Kulah (Kajkulah) Kaj Kuláh (or Kaj-Kuláh) Pers. A beau, lit. “wearing the cap awry”; a beloved object
Kajawa (Kajáwih, Kajávih, Kijáwih) Kajawa, Kazáwa a type of pannier, howdah or litter for women. See Hawdaj
Kalam Kalám talking, speaking; speech; language, mode of expression, style; talk, conversation, discussion; debate, dispute, controversy; words, word, saying, utterance, statement, remark; aphorism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of speech; (grammar) sentence, clause. Described as “speculative theology” by Momen. In Islám “the term ‘theology’ has never been used. Instead, the term kalám (discourse on the divine) was coined because the term ‘theology’ was identified with the doctrine of the holy trinity.” Making the crooked straight, p. 786.
Kalim, Kalma, Kulama Kalím two meanings: 1. wounded, injured; sore; (pl. kalmá). 2. person addressed; speaker, spokesman, mouthpiece (pl. kulamá’). Hence, “The Interlocutor”—title of Mírzá Músá, Bahá’u’lláh’s faithful brother; also Áqáy-i Kalím, Master of Discourse, his usual full title.
Kalima (Kalimah, Kalimat), Kalim Kalima fem., pl. Kalimát, Kalim (Kalim is the collective masc. pl.) word; speech, address; utterance, remark, saying; aphorism, maxim; brief announcement, a few (introductory) words; short treatise; importance, weight, influence, authority, ascendancy, powerful position. Final Arabic letter is a tá mabúta, hence singular forms Kalimah and Kalimat.
Kalimat-i-Maknunih Kalimát-i-Maknúnih “The Hidden Words” by Bahá’u’lláh. Also known as Ṣaḥífiy-i-Fáṭimíyyih (Book of Fáṭimih)
Kalimu'llah Kalímu’lláh “One who converses with God”. Title given to Moses in the Islamic Dispensation.
Kam, Chand Kam, Pers. Chand (interrogative and exclamatory particle with following noun in accusative) how much? how many! how much!
Kamal, Kamalat Kamál, pl. Kamalát perfection; completeness; completion, consummation, conclusion, termination, windup; maturity, ripeness
Kamil, Kamala Kámil, Kamala perfect, consummate; genuine, sterling; complete, full, plenary, full-strength; completed, concluded; whole, entire, total, integral
Kana, Kawn (Kaun), Kiyan, Kainina Kána (Kawn, Kiyán, Kainína) to be (past tense); to exist; to happen, occur, take place. Kuntu (I was)
Kar, Karat Kár, pl. Karát Ar. work, job, occupation, business; calling, vocation, profession, trade. e.g. Ustádhkár
Karama, Karamat Karáma, Karámát nobility; high-mindedness, noble-heartedness; generosity, magnanimity; liberality, munificence; honour, dignity; respect, esteem, standing, prestige; mark of honour, token of esteem, favour;—pl. miracle (worked by a saint)
Karand, Kirand (Kerand) Karand, Kirand a village about 100 km SE of Ṭihrán, home of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís (an Islamic sect, followers of the Imám ‘Alí).
Karbala (Karbila) Karbalá’ A Shi’ite holy city in ‘Iráq where the Imám Ḥusayn was murdered and is buried. Imám Ḥusayn said of name: “Anguish and distress”. See Balá
Karim, Kurama’, Kiram Karím, pl. Kuramá’, Kirám noble; distinguished, high-ranking, eminent; high-minded, noble-minded, noble-hearted; generous, liberal, munificent, hospitable, beneficent; benefactor; kind, kindly, friendly, amicable, obliging, gracious; respectable, honourable, decent; precious, valuable, costly; thoroughbred. Also “All-Bountiful”
Karkh Karkh west bank half of Baghdád (al-Karkh), or alternatively, the western shore of the Tigris River as it ran through Baghdád. Derived from the Syriac Karkha; citadel.
Kashf, Kushuf, Kushufat Kashf, pl. Kushúf, Kushúfát uncovering, disclosure; baring, exposure, unveiling; revelation, illumination (mysticism); investigation, inquiry, search, quest, study; examination, scrutiny; inspection; boy scout movement;—(pl.) report, account; statement, specification, enumeration; table, schedule, chart; list, roster, index, register, inventory;—(pl. kushúfát) discoveries
Kashfi Kashfí of or pertaining to boy scouts. “the Discloser” or “one who discovers and explains the divine secrets”
Kashkul Kashkúl beggar’s bag; scrapbook; album. Described as a globe-shaped alms-basket (originally made from a sea-coconut) carried by dervishes.
Kasr, Kusur Kasr, pl. Kusúr breaking, fracturing; shattering, fragmentation; (pl.) break, breach, fracture; crack, rupture; fracture of a bone
Katama, Katm, Kitman Katama (Katm, Kitmán) to hide (something, from someone); to conceal, secrete, keep secret (something, from someone); to suppress, repress, restrain, check, curb, subdue (anger, passion); to hold (one’s breath); to lower, muffle (the voice); to stifle, smother, quench (fire)
Kathir, Kithar Kathír, pl. Kithár much, many, numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious; frequent; a large portion, a great deal, a great many, a lot
Katib, Katibun, Kuttab Kátib, pl. Kátibún, Kuttáb, Kataba writer; scribe, scrivener; secretary; clerk typist; office worker, clerical employee; clerk, registrar, actuary, court clerk; notary; writer, author
Kawih (Kavih) Káwih Pers. “Kaveh” in Iranian mythology is a blacksmith (Áhangar) from Isfahan. Pers./Kurdish Káwa. May mean strength, vigour. May have derived from the Ar. Qahwa.
Kawkab (Kaukab, Kokab), Kawakib Kawkab pl. Kawákib star (also, fig., of screen, stage, etc.); white opacity in the cornea of the eye
Kawthar, Kawsar Kawthar, Pers. Kawsar much, ample, abundant, plentiful, large quantity; al-Kawthar—name of a lake or river in Paradise (that Muḥammad saw on his mystic night journey, Qur’án 108:1) whence all the other rivers derive their source.
Kawus (Kavus) Káwús Pers. name of an ancient king of Persia; pure; elegant, graceful; radical; firm, constant; generous, noble; strengthened by divine aid; a subduer, conqueror; a spark; light, splendour, coruscation; swiftness, impetuosity.
Kay (Kai), Kayan Kay, pl. Kayán Pers. a star; the point made by the compasses at the centre of a circle; (pl.) great kings; the surname of the second dynasty of the Persian kings
Kaysaniyya Kaysániyya Kaysanite, see Mukhtáriyya. Name may have been based on the kunya (surname) Kaysán, allegedly given to Al-Mukhtár (see Mukhtár) by ‘Alí, or the name of a freed Mawlá of ‘Alí who was killed at the Battle of Ṣiffín called Kaysán. More likely named after Abú ‘Amra Kaysán, a prominent Mawlá and chief of Al-Mukhtár’s personal bodyguard. The Kaysanites were also known as Ḥanafiyya (after Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah)
Kazimayn Káẓimayn Káẓimayn (“Kazmin” or “Kazemain”) “the two Ká’ẓims” (Imám Músá al-Káẓim and Muḥammad al-Taqí, the seventh and ninth A’imma). Káẓimayn was a city built around the shrines of these A’imma—Al-Káẓimiya Mosque—now a suburb of Baghdád (about 7 km north of the city centre)
Khabar-Dar Khabar-Dár Pers. informed, appraised, certified; aware; careful, cautious; an informer, scout, spy; take care! beware! look out!
Khabar, Akhbar Khabar, pl. Akhbár news; information, intelligence: report, communication, message; notification; rumor; story; matter, affair. Traditions, sayings attributed to Muḥammad and to the Imams.
Khadhala, Khadhl, Khidhlan Khadhala (Khadhl, Khidhlán) to leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the lurch (or someone); to stay behind; to disappoint; pass
Khadi', Khuda', Khud'an, Khid'an Kháḍi‘, pl. Khuḍa‘, Khuḍ‘án, Khiḍ‘án submissive, humble; obedient, pliant, tractable; subject, liable, prone (to something). Pers. may use Kházih (Khazih)
Khadijih Khanum Khadíjih Khánum Mother of Bahá’u’lláh. Children of second marriage—Daughters Sárih Khánum and Nisá Khánum. Sons Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Mihdí
Khadim, Khuddam, Khudama Khádim, pl. Khuddám, Khudama domestic servant, help; manservant; woman servant; employee; attendant; waiter; deacon (Chr.) (Dhikru’lláh Khádem)
Khadimu'llah Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”) Title given to Mírzá Áqá Ján, he was the personal attendant of Bahá’u’lláh and later His amanuensis as well. (EGB, p. 65 by Balyuzi refers to the Tablet where the concept of Hand of the Cause of God is first mentioned in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh)
Khafi, Khafaya Khafí, pl. Khafáyá Pers. clandestine, concealed; secret. Quietly and privately, as in prayers, etc.
Khaima, Khaimat, Khiyam (Khayam) Khaim, pl. Khaimát, Khiyám, Khiyam tent; tarpaulin; arbour, bower; pavilion
Khair, Khaiyar, Akhyar, Khuyur Khair, pl. Khiyár, Akhyár good; excellent, outstanding, superior, admirable; better; best; (pl. Khuyúr) good thing, blessing; wealth, property; good, benefit, interest, advantage; welfare; charity
Khal, Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'la Khál, pl. Akhwál, Khu’úl, Khu’úla (maternal) uncle;— (pl. khílán) mole, birthmark (on the face); patch, beauty spot
Khalal, Khilal Khalal, pl. Khilál gap, interval, interstice; cleft, crack, rupture, fissure; a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance; defectiveness, imperfection; fault, flaw, defeat, shortcoming; disturbance, upset, disorder; damage, injury, harm (that something suffers or suffered); khilála during; between; through
Khalaqa, (Khalq) Khalaqa (Khalq) to create, make, originate (something); to shape, form, mould (something)
Khalid, Khwalid Khálid, pl. Khwálid everlasting, perpetual, eternal; immortal, deathless, undying; unforgettable, glorious;—pl. mountains
Khalifa, Khulafa Khalífa, pl. Khulafá Caliph lit. successor. The vicar, deputy, successor or representative of the Messenger of God (see Khiláfa)
Khalifa, Khulafa, Khala'if Khalífa, pl. Khulafá’, Khalá’if vicar, deputy; successor; caliph (plural—the institution, the Caliphate)
Khalij, Khulj, Khuljan Khalíj pl. Khulj, Khulján bay, gulf; canal; al-Khalíj—name of Cairo’s ancient city canal that was abandoned and leveled at the end of the 19th century. al-Khalíj Farsí—the Persian Gulf
Khaliq Kháliq creative; Creator, Maker (God). Used as a name, preceded by ‘Abd (servant)—‘Abdu’l-Kháliq “Servant of the Creator”.
Khalis Kháliṣ Pers. pure, unsullied; unadulterated; white; name of a stream in the east of Baghdád on the banks of which a castle of the same name is situated
Khalis, Khullas Kháliṣ, pl. Khullaṣ Ar. clear; pure, unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, frank, candid, true; free, exempt (from)
Khall Khall Ar. vinegar. See Pers. Sirka
Khalq Khalq creation; making; origination; something which is created, a creation; creatures; people, man, mankind; physical constitution
Khalwa, Khalwat Khalwa, pl. Khalawát privacy, solitude; seclusion, isolation, retirement; place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, recess; secluded room; hermitage; religious assembly hall of the Druses; booth, cabin
Khammar, 'Udi Khammár, ‘Údí He placed the inscription “Greetings and salutations rest upon this mansion which increaseth in splendour through the passage of time. Manifold wonders and marvels are found therein, and pens are baffled in attempting to describe them” over his mansion’s door in ‘Akká (David Ruhe, Door of Hope). Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Khan-i-'Avamid Khán-i-‘Avámíd Inn of Pillars, ‘Akká. Also known as Khán-i-Jurayní, or Khán al-‘Umdán. See ‘Awámíd.
Khan, Khanat Khán, pl. Khánát hostel, caravansary; inn, pub, tavern. Originally from the Mongolian term for a ruler; a title meaning prince, chieftain or man of rank.
Khaniq, Khawaniq Khániq, Khawániq choking, strangling; suffocating, asphyxiating, stifling, smothering; throttling, throttle (in compounds; tech.); (pl.) choke coil, reactor (radio); gorge, ravine, canyon
Khar Khar Pers. an ass; a stupid fool; black viscous clay; sediment; the bridge of a violin; the commonest, ugliest, largest, or coarsest of its kind
Kharaja, Khuruj Kharaja, Khurúj to go out, walk out; to come out. An act of rebellion against authorities.
Khariq-i-'Adat Kháriq-i-‘Ádat (Khareki-Adat) Things that are contrary, rend or change the habits of men. Hence, sometimes ‘miracles’.
Khartum, Kharatim Kharṭúm, pl. Kharáṭím proboscis, trunk (of the elephant); hose. al-Kharṭúm (Khartoum)—capital of the Sudanese Republic
Khassiya, Khassiyat, Khasa'is Kháṣṣíya, pl. Kháṣṣíyát, Khaṣá’iṣ Ar. specialty, particularity, characteristic, peculiarity, property, special attribute, feature, trait, qualification; prerogative, privilege; jurisdiction, competence
Khátam an-Nabiyin, Khatamu’n-Nabiyyin Khátam an-Nabíyín the Seal (i.e., the last) of the Prophets = Muḥammad. Pers. Khátamu’n-Nabíyyín
Khatam, Khitam Khátam, Khátim, pl. Khawátim seal ring, signet ring; ring, finger ring; seal, signet; stamp
Khatib, Khutaba’ Khaṭíb, pl. Khuṭabá’ (public) speaker; orator; lecturer; preacher; suitor (for the hand of a girl); fiancé
Khatir, Khatirat Kháṭir, pl. Kháṭirát Pers. Whatever occurs to or passes in the mind; cogitation, thought, suggestion; memory, remembrance; mind, soul, heart; inclination, propensity; affection, favour; pleasure, will, choice; sake, account, behalf
Khatirat-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-'Akka Kháṭirat-i-Nuh-Sáliy-i-‘Akká Pers. Yúnis Khán, Memories of Nine Years in ‘Akká
Khawaj or Khajih Kháwaj Khájih Pers. (“eunuch, a master, a man of distinction or a teacher) See “Arches of the years”, p. 205 and listing for Khájih above
Khawar (Khavar) Kháwar or Khávar Pers. the West, but often used by poets for the east; the sun; a thorn
Khawari (Khavari) Kháwarí or Khávarí Pers. Western; eastern; the sun; surname of the poet Anwárí. From Khávar
Khawarij Khawárij the Khawarij, Kharijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam); dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels, outsiders or seceders
Khawf (Khauf), Khawfan (Khaufan) Khawf, Khawfan fear, dread (of); khawfan for fear (of), fearing (for). al-Khawf—mystical station of fear of the wrath and displeasure of God.
Khayr Khayr See Khair, which probably should be Khaír—depends on pronunciation.
Khayru'n Nisa' Khayru’n Nisá’ (Ar. Khairu’n Nisá’) “The Most Virtuous among Women”. A title that Bahá’u’lláh gave to Khadíjih Bagum (wife of the Báb), and forbade all women, save Fáṭimih Bagum (the Báb's mother) from adopting the title.
Khidiw, Khudaiwi Khidíw, Khudaiwí viceroy. Eng. Khedive Per. Khidív (adj. Khidíwí, Eng. Khedivial) and Khidaywí
Khilafa Khiláfa vicarship, deputyship; succession; caliphate, office or rule of a caliph; (formerly) administrative department of caliphate
Khirqat, Khirqa Khirqat, Khirqa Pers. a patch, rag; a garment made of shreds and patches; a religious habit
Khirqiy-i-Sharif Khirqiy-i-Sharíf Mosque the Mosque of the Prophets’ Cloak, Istanbul. See Khirqa
Khul Khul Pers. bent, curved, crooked; mad; ashes; fundament. Possible word for ‘ashes’ in Arches of the years, p. 304.
Khulafa'u'r Rashidun Khulafá’u’r-Ráshidún (The) Rightly-Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islám’s history, was founded after Muḥammad’s death in 632. (sometimes al-Khulafá’a’r-Ráshidín or Khulafá’ Ráshidún):
1. Abú-Bakr Ibn Abí-Quḥáfah (632–34)
2. ‘Umar Ibn al-Khaṭṭáb (634–44)
3. ‘Uthmán Ibn ‘Affán (644–56)
4. ‘Alí Ibn Abí-Ṭálib (656–61)
Khulq, Khuluq, Akhlaq Khulq, Khuluq, pl. Akhláq innate peculiarity; natural disposition, character, temper, nature;—pl. character (of a person); morals; morality
Khuruj Khurúj exit; egression, emergence; departure; exodus; emigration; raid, foray, sortie (against), attack, assault (on)
Khush amadíd (Khushamadid) Khush ámadíd (Khwush-ámadí) Pers. A blessed arrival (flattery; assenting; you are welcome)
Khush Ghadam Khush Ghadam (a person who brings good fortune, welcome news, good omen) Maḥmúd’s Diary
Khusraw (Khusrav, Khusrau) Khusraw Pers. A celebrated Persian king (Khosrow, Khosroe, Khosru or Cyrus). Kay Khusraw Khudádád, believed to be the first to embrace the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh from the Zoroastrian community
Khutan (Khotan, Khoten) Khutan Pers. Ancient Buddhist city/region west of modern Hotan, Tibet, known for musk production
Khutba, Khutbih, Khutab Khuṭba(t), Pers. Khuṭbih, pl. Khuṭab public address; speech; lecture, discourse; oration; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday midday sermon
Khutbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya Khuṭbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya A sermon preached by Imám ‘Alí (a favourite among Shí‘í Muslims because it is a rare statement by ‘Alí on the usurpation of the caliphate by Abú Bakr) that was interrupted by a member of the audience asking a question. When begged by Ibn ‘Abbás to continue his address, ‘Alí answered, “The shiqshiqa has roared and subsided”, meaning the inspiration of the moment has gone.
Khutbiy-i-Dhikriyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Dhikríyyih “Sermon of Remembrance” (by the Báb). Also called Tafsír-i-Há’ (Interpretation of the Letter Há’) and Ṣaḥifiy-i-Ja‘faríyyih (Epistle of Ja‘far)
Khutbiy-i-Tutunjiyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Ṭutunjíyyih Pers. Sermon of the Gulf by Imám ‘Alí. See Khuṭbat al-Ṭutunjíyya
Khwush, Khwash Khwush, Khwash Pers. good, sweet, excellent, beautiful, fair, charming, pleasant, delightful, agreeable, cheerful, amiable, lovely, delicate, tender, kind, gentle, humane, mild, meek, elegant; healthy, wholesome, temperate; happy, well, pleased; willingly
Kinyat, Kunyat, Kuna, Kaniy, Kani Kinyat, Kunyat, pl. Kuná, Kaníy, Kaní Pers. calling or naming (anyone) by a word that has another meaning, especially by the designation of father (abú) or son (ibn, vulg. bin), a filionymic (a name derived from that of a son), a patronymic (a name derived from the name of a father or ancestor). (Also (Kunyah, Kunyih)
Kisra, Akasira, Akasir Kisrá, pl. Akásira, Akásir Khosraw (Chosroes); designation of the Persian kings in general
Kiswa, Kusan, Kisan, Kasawin Kiswa, pl. Kusan, Kisan, Kasáwin clothing, clothes, apparel, attire, raiment; dress, garment; suit of clothes; uniform; draping, lining, casing, facing, panelling, wainscoting (e.g., of walls). Persian Kiswat (Kisvat), Kuswat, pl. Kusá
Kitab, Kutub Kitáb, pl. Kutub piece of writing, record, paper; letter, note, message; document, deed; contract (esp. marriage contract); book. Kitábun, a book
Kitab-i-Panj-Sha'n Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha’n “Book of the Five Modes of Revelation” (by the Báb)*
Kitman Kitmán Persian. The act of paying lip service to authority while holding personal opposition. Saying something that is not true. See Taqíya (Ar)
Kiya Kiyá Pers. a king, protector, defender; a hero, champion; a lord, master; a lord marcher, landgrave, margrave; a peasant; powerful; work, labour; the four elements; pure, clear, innocent; heat, cold, dryness, or moisture; the mouth; mastic. [MUHJ 521 has Kíyá]
Kufa, Kufah, Kufih Kúfa, Kúfah, Kúfih Formerly a city on the west bank of the Euphrates River. The Imám ‘Alí made it the centre of his operations, and was murdered in its mosque. Gave name to Kufic—ancient Arabic letters.
Kuh-i-Nur Kúh-i-Núr Mountain of Light—Shrine of the Báb, and the name of a famous diamond. Also spelt Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor and Koh-i-nur
Kull Kull totality, entirety; everyone, each one, anyone; (with following definite noun) whole, entire, all; (with following indefinite noun) every
Kulli Kulli total, entire, all-round, overall, sweeping, comprehensive, complete; absolute, universal
Kulliya, Kulliyat Kullíya, Pers. Kullíyat, pl. Kullíyát totality, entirety; integrity, wholeness, entireness, completeness; (pl.) faculty, school (of a university); college; institute of higher learning, academy, secondary school
Kulliyya Kulliyya fem. totality, entirety; completeness, fullness, wholeness; universality, generality; integrity
Kullu-Shay', Kull-i-Shay' Kullu-Shay’, Pers. Kull-i-Shay’ “all things”, numerical value of 361 (19×19) and a time period of 361 years). See Váḥid (unity 19)
Kumayl Kumayl bin-i-Ziyád an-Nakha’í Companion of Imám ‘Alí. Known as Kumayl. It is also the name of a prayer that he wrote.
Kun Kun (imperative Be!) The word Kun contains the consonants Káf and Nún (káf u nún), which in English, by happy circumstance, can be represented by “B” and “E”.
Kunya, Kunan, (Pers. Kunyah, Kunyih) Kunya, pl. Kunan Ar. surname, agnomen (honourable adult nickname consisting of abú (father) or umm (mother) followed by the name of the eldest child (often a son), e.g. Abú Bahá’u’lláh). By extension, it may also have hypothetical or metaphorical references, e.g. as a nickname or reference of an attachment (Abú Bakr, “father of the camel foal”, given because of this person’s love for camels), without literally referring to a son or a daughter.
Kursi, Karasiy Kursí, pl. Karásíy, Karásin chair; throne; seat; professorial chair; base, pedestal, socle (architecture); bearing (technology)
Kurur Kurúr return, comeback, recurrence; succession, sequence, order. Pers. A crore (500,000 in Persia)
Kush Kush Pers. A male; (imp. of kushtan (“kill”) in compound words) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses, as in azhdaha-kush, a dragon-killer
La ilaha illa’llah Lá iláha illá’lláh (There is no God [Letters of Denial (5)] but God [Letters of Affirmation (5)]) All else besides the Letters of Paradise is in Denial, while whatsoever appertaineth to the Letters of Paradise is Affirmation. Lá iláha illa’lláh, Muḥammadun rasúlu’lláh (There is no God but God and Muḥammad is his messenger), the Shí‘a call to prayer (adhán) contains the additional statement: ‘Alíun valíu’lláh (‘Alí is God’s (friend/helper/defender/vice-gerent)
La'in and Mal'un, Mala'in La‘ín and Mal‘ún, pl. Malá‘ín cursed; confounded; damned; outcast, execrable; detested, abhorred, abominable
Labada (Labbadih) Labáda Pers. (for Arabic lubbádát) a rain cloak; a quilted cloak; a great-coat, pelisse; a wrapper
Lahab, Lahib, Luhab Lahab, Lahíb, Luháb flame, blaze, flare. Abú Lahab (the ‘Father of Flame’) is known for his hatred of his nephew, Muḥammad.
Lahut Láhút (world of the Heavenly Court—realm of being, “divinity”). See Háhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút
Las-Furush Lás-Furúsh silk dealer in The Child of the Covenant and BKG 144. Possible spelling is Láẓ-Furúsh. See Láẓat and Farsh
Latafa, lutf, Altaf Laṭafa, Luṭf, pl. Alṭáf to be kind and friendly;—pl. benefits, favours; kindnesses
Lawh (Lauh), Alwah (Alavah), Alawih Lawḥ, pl. Alwáḥ, Aláwíḥ (masc.) board, blackboard; slate; tablet, epistle; slab; plate, sheet; pane; plank, board; panel; small board, signboard; shoulder blade, scapula. Sometimes singular transliterated as Lauḥ.
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz-Va-Vukala Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá “Tablet to ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz and ministers” by Bahá’u’lláh
Lawh-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq Lawḥ-i-‘Ashiq-va-Ma‘shúq “The Tablet of the Lover and the Beloved” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Anta'l-Kafi Lawḥ-i-Anta’l-Káfí “Tablet of ‘Thou the Sufficing’, known as the long healing prayer, Tablet of protection” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aqdas Lawḥ-i-Aqdas “The Most Holy Tablet”, sometimes referred to as ‘Tablet to the Christians’ (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Basitatu'l-Haqiqih Lawḥ-i-Basíṭatu’l-Ḥaqíqíh “Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality, of the Ground of Being” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq Lawḥ-i-Bulbulu’l-Firáq “Tablet of the Nightingale of Bereavement” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Du-Niday-i-Falah va Najah Lawḥ-i-Du-Nidáy-i-Faláḥ va Najáḥ “Tablet of Supplication” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá). More literally the Tablet of two Calls (the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh) for salvation and emancipation”
Lawh-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld Lawḥ-i-Ghulámu’l-Khuld “Tablet of the Deathless Youth, Eternal Youth, Youth of Paradise” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haft Sham' Wahdat Lawḥ-i-Haft Sham‘ Waḥdat “Tablet of the Seven Candles of Unity” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Lahih Lawḥ-i-Láhih “Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Mahfil-i-Shawr Lawḥ-i-Maḥfil-i-Shawr Tablet (or prayer) for spiritual assemblies, regarding gathering and consulting (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Mazzah Lawḥ-i-Mazzaḥ “Tablet of the Humorist” (by Bahá’u’lláh) Begins: “Bismilláhi’l-Mazzaḥ …”
Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm Lawḥ-i-Pisar-‘Amm “Tablet to the Cousin” in honour of Mírzá Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa’l-Mukhlisun Lawḥ-i-Qad-Iḥtaráqa’l-Mukhliṣún “The Tablet of The Faithful Ones (Mukhliṣún) have burned (qad … iḥtaráq),’” which is translated as “the hearts of the sincere are consumed in the fire …”. Known in English as “The Fire Tablet” (see first and last lines) (by Bahá’u’lláh). See Iḥtiráq
Lawh-i-Shaykh-Fani Lawḥ-i-Shaykh-Fání Tablet to the Shaykh who has surrendered his will to God (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Tuqa Lawḥ-i-Tuqá “Tablet of Virtue” (by Bahá’u’lláh) See Lawḥu’t-Tuqá
Lawha (Lauha), Lawhat, Alwah (Alvah) Lawḥa, pl. Lawḥát, Alwáḥ (fem.) board; blackboard; slate; tablet; slab; plate, sheet; pane; panel; plaque; plane, surface; screen; placard, poster; picture, painting. Sometimes singular transliterated as Lauḥ.
Layl (Lail), Layali Layl, pl. Layálí (usually m.) night-time, night (as opposed to nahár daytime);—pl. layálí (Syrian) a certain vocal style; laylan at night
Laylat al-Qadr, Laylatu’l-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr, Pers. Laylatu’l-Qadr Night of Power. The night in which, according to sura 97, the Qur’án was revealed, celebrated during the night between the 26th and 27th of Ramaḍán.
Li Li 1. (preposition) for; on behalf of, in favor of; to (of the dative); because of; for the sake of; due to, owing to; for, for the purpose of; at the time of, when, as; by (designating the author or originator).
2. (conjunction with the subjunctive) that, so that, in order that, in order to
Lillah Lilláh “for/to/towards Alláh”. The li at the beginning is a prepositional prefix. Morphologically, it would normally be li-Alláh (numerical value of 95—the á represents a stressed “a”, not an Alif). Compare al-Bayán.
Liqa' Rabb, Liqa-i-Rabb Liqá’ Rabb, Pers. Liqá-i-Rabb “Visitation of God” on the Day of Qiyámah. Since God is sanctified from all material existence and He can never be seen by the material eyes, this means seeing and meeting a Manifestation of God.
Liqa', Liqa'a Liqá’ encounter; meeting; get together; reunion; liqá’a (prep.) in exchange for, in return for, for, on
Lisanu'l-Mulk Lisánu’l-Mulk “Tongue of the Empire” Lisánu’l-Mulk-i-Sipihr of Káshán, 19th century Persian historian (pen name Sipihr)
Liwa’ (Liva), Alwiya, Alwiyat Liwá’, pl.Alwiya, Alwiyát banner, flag, standard; brigade; major general; rear admiral (Egypt.); province, district (Írán)
Lourenco Marques Lourenço Marques Portuguese explorer and pre-1975 name of Maputo, capital of Mozambique
Lujj, Lujja, Lujaj, Lijaj Lujj and Lujja, pl. Lujaj, Lijáj depth of the sea; gulf, abyss, chasm, depth
Lujjat, Lujja Lujjat, Lujja Pers. a large body, multitude; plenty (of water), the great deep, main, middle of the sea; an abyss; silver; a looking-glass, mirror
Lulin, Aftaba Lúlín Pers. a jug, flagon, or any similar vessel with a spout, and made of clay (those made of metal are called áftába).
Lutfi Luṭfí Pers. adopted, brought up in the family; an adopted child. ‘Umar Lütfí Páshá [Lüṭfí Paşa (Turk.)] (BKG 482)
Ma, ila ma, bi'ma, li-ma, hatta ma Ma for what? after prepositions: ilá ma whereto? where? which way? whither? bi-ma with what? wherewith? li-ma why? wherefore? ḥattá ma how far? to which point?
Ma'ida, Ma'idat Má’idat, Má’ida Pers. a table, especially one covered with victuals; a circle, circumference, circuit, orbit
Ma'juj (Magog), Majuj Ma’júj, Májúj Magog, son of Japhet; Eastern Tartary. See note for Ya’juj (Gog)
Ma'na, Ma'ni, Ma'ani Ma‘ná (also Ma‘ní), pl. Ma‘ání Pers. sense, meaning, signification, import, drift, reality; virtue, efficacy; spirituality; a thing; anything; a subject; a circumstance, an event. Plural: significations, senses; imports; mental images; intrinsic qualities; qualities that are commended or approved, charms, graces; elegance of language; mystical meanings; sublime realities, spiritual matters. A reference to the Imams as the repositories of the inner Word of God. See ma‘nan
Ma'nan, Ma'anin Ma‘nan, pl. Ma‘ánin Ar. sense, meaning, signification, import; concept, notion, idea, thought; thematic purport (e.g., of a work of art, as distinguished from its form); a rhetorical, figurative, or allegorical expression. al-Ma‘ání—the meanings. See ma‘ná
Ma'qul Ma‘qúl reasonable, sensible, intelligible, comprehensible, understandable, plausible, logical; rational; apprehensive faculty, comprehension, intellect, discernment, judiciousness, judgment; common sense (ex-cogitated, MF 156)
Ma'raj, Ma'arij Ma‘raj, pl. Ma‘árij place of ascent; (route of) ascent. See Mi‘raj
Ma'rifa, Ma'arif Ma‘rifa, pl. Ma‘árif knowledge, learning, lore, information, skill, know-how; cognition, intellection, perception, experience, realization; gnosis; acquaintance, cognizance, conversance; an acquainted person, an acquaintance, a friend; (grammar) definite noun; pl. al-Ma‘árif cultural affairs, education
Ma'ruf Ma‘rúf known, well-known; universally accepted, generally recognized; conventional; that which is good, beneficial, or fitting, good, benefit; fairness, equity, equitableness; kindness, friendliness, amicability; beneficence; favour rendered, courtesy, mark of friendship; active voice (grammar)
Ma'rifat Ma‘rifat Pers. knowing; knowledge, science, learning; insight in divine matters or mysteries; art, skill, craft; account, reason, means; by means of, through
Ma'sum Ma‘ṣúm inviolable, sacrosanct, protected by the laws of vendetta (Isl. Law); infallible, sinless, impeccant, impeccable; immaculate, morally infallible and rendered immune to error by God, infallible in judgements and decrees
Ma’un Ma‘ún variously interpreted as assistance to neighbours in the form of lending household utensils; voluntary and obligatory alms; obedience to prescribed rules
Mabda’ Mabda’, pl. Mabádi beginning, start, starting point; basis, foundation; principle; invention;—pl. principles, convictions (of a person); ideology; rudiments, fundamental concepts, elements
Mabsut Mabsúṭ extended, outstretched; rim, spread out; extensive, large, sizeable; detailed, elaborate (book); cheerful, happy, gay; feeling well, in good health. Nickname “happy”: Dr Ḍíyá Mabsúṭ Baghdádí
Madad, Amdad Madad, pl. Amdád help, aid, assistance, support, backing, reinforcement;—pl. resources; auxiliaries. House of Ḥájí ‘Alí Madad, in Baghdád that Bahá’u’lláh and family first occupied on arrival. This is not the Bayt-i-A‘ẓam.
Madhhab, Madhhahib Madhhab, pl. Madhháhib going, leave, departure; way out, escape (from); manner followed, adopted procedure or policy, road entered upon; opinion, view, belief; ideology; teaching, doctrine; movement, orientation, trend (also politics); school; mazhab, orthodox rite of fiqh (Islamic Law); religious creed, faith, denomination. Schools of law—the four Sunní legal schools (sing. madhhab) are: (1) the Hanafíte school, founded by Abu Hanifah (d. 767); (2) the Malakite school, founded by Málik ibn Anas (d. 795); (3) the Sháf’íte, founded by Sháf’í (d. 820); and (4) the strictest and most conservative Hanbalite school, founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855). Actions that might be considered lawful or unlawful are divided into five categories: (i) obligatory, (ii) prohibited, (iii) recommended but not obligatory, (iv) indifferent, and (v) disapproved but not forbidden.
Madi (Mazi) Máḍí (Máẓí) Pers. passing away; past; dead; swift, fleet, expeditious; sharp, piercing (sword)
Madih, Mada'ih Madíḥ, pl. Madá’iḥ praise, laudation, commendation; panegyrical poem, panegyric; eulogy, encomium, tribute
Madinah al-Madínah Medinah. Muḥammad migrated to Yathrib in 622 and it was renamed al-Madínat an-Nabí (later shortened to al-Madínah)
Madinatu's-Salam Madínatu’s-Salám the City of Peace (name given to Baghdád by ‘Abbásid Caliph al-Manṣúr) BKG 106.
Madkhal, Madakhil Madkhal, pl. Madákhil entrance; hallway, vestibule, anteroom; entrance hall, lobby, foyer; mouth (of a port, of a canal); oxygen anode (electricity); introduction (to a field of learning); behaviour, conduct. Madákhil: “commission, perquisite, douceur, consideration, pickings and stealings, profit …” The Dawn-Breakers xliv
Madkhul, Madakhil Madkhúl, pl. Madákhíl sickly, diseased, abnormal; (mentally) disordered; of weak character, spineless; (pl.) revenue, receipts, takings, returns
Madrasa, Madaris Madrasa, pl. Madáris, Madrasah Ar. a religious boarding school associated with a mosque; school. Madrasa becomes madrasih, madrisih or even madrasat (sing.) in Persian
Madrisiy-i-Daru'sh-Shafay Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh. DB 168
Maf'ul, Mafa'il Maf‘úl, pl. Mafá‘íl object (grammar);—(pl.) effect, impression, impact; effectiveness, validity. See fá‘il, manṣúb and marfú‘
Mah Máh Pers. the moon; a month, whether lunar or solar; name of the twelfth day of every solar month; name of the angel set over the moon, and any business transacted on the twelfth day of the month; a mistress
Mah-Ku Máh-Kú Four-towered fortress above the village of the same name in north-western Ádhirbáyján (Azerbaijan).
Mah-tab (Mahtab) Máh-táb Pers. moonlight, moonshine; the moon; the face of a mistress; breath, animal life
Mah-tabi (Mahtabi) Máh-tábí Pers. lit by the moon; a balcony or terrace (to enjoy tbe moonlight); blue light
Mahabba Maḥabba love; affection, attachment; fondness, tender and kind feelings, inclination, and love
Mahabbat, Mahabb, Mahab Maḥabbat in Perisan also maḥabb, maḥab. Love, affection; friendship, esteem, benevolence
Mahall-i-Darb Maḥall-i-Ḍarb Place of striking: location in Tabríz where the Báb was subjected to the bastinado after His examination by the divines.
Mahall, Mahallat Maḥall, pl. Maḥallát, Maḥáll place, location, spot, site, locale, locality, center; (place of) residence; business; business house, firm, commercial house; store, shop; object, cause (e.g., of dispute, admiration, etc.); gear (automobile). Maḥallát capital of Maḥallát County, Markazí Province, Írán. Táj Mahal (Urdu “palace”)
Mahalla, Mahallat Maḥalla, pl. Maḥallát way station, stopping place, stop, stopover, encampment; camp; section, part, quarter (of a city)
Mahallih Maḥallih Pers. location or place, see Garden of Murgh-Maḥallih, abode/place of birds/chickens.
Mahbub, Mahabib Maḥbúb, pl. Maḥábíb beloved; dear; lovable, desirable; popular; favourite; beloved one, lover; (pl.) gold piece, sequin (in Ottoman times) Title of the First Promised One expected by the Shi’ites.
Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada' Maḥbúbu’sh-Shuhadá’ (Beloved of Martyrs) Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn Brother of Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥasan, both from Iṣfahán.
Mahd Maḥḍ of pure descent, pureblood; pure, unmixed, unadulterated; genuine; sheer, downright, outright (e.g., lie, nonsense, etc.)
Mahiya, Mahiyat (Pers. Mahiyyat) Máhíya, pl. Máhíyát quality, quiddity (the inherent nature or essence of someone or something), essence, nature; salary, income; pay (military)
Mahram, Maharima Maḥram, pl. Maḥárim something forbidden. inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct, holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being in a degree of consanguinity precluding marriage (Isl. Law)
Mahtum Maḥtúm imposed, enjoined, obligatory; determined, definitive, determinate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, predestined, ordained (fate)
Mahw (Mahv) Maḥw effacement, obliteration, blotting out; erasure, deletion; elimination; abolition, abolishment, annulment. Compare ṣaḥw
Majd (Egyptian “Magd”) Majd, pl. Amjád glory; splendour, magnificence, grandeur; nobility, honour, distinction
Majdhub, Majadib Majdhúb, pl. Majádib attracted; possessed, maniacal, insane; (pl.) maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot
Majid Majíd glorious, illustrious; celebrated, famous; glorified, exalted; praiseworthy, laudable, admirable, excellent, splendid; noble
Majid-i-Masha'u'llah Majíd-i-Máshá’u’lláh the Báb’s remains were hidden overnight in this abandoned building near Ṭihrán
Majlas, Majlis Majlas Pers. sitting down; —majlis, time or place of sitting; an assembly, convivial meeting, congress, council
Majlis, Majalis Majlis, pl. Majális seat; session room, conference room; party, gathering, meeting; social gathering: session, sitting; council meeting; council; concilium; collegium, college: board, committee, commission; administrative board; court, tribunal
Majma, Majami Majma‘, pl. Majámi‘ place where two or more things meet, place or point of union, junction; meeting, congregation, convention, assembly
Majma'-i-Abrar Majma‘-i-Abrár the gathering place of the righteous, e.g. the House of Justice. See barr (reverent).
Majrur, Magarir Majrúr, pl. Magárir drawn, dragged, towed, etc.; word governed by a preposition, word in the genitive form; (pl.) drain, sewer
Makhluqat, Makhluqa, Makhaliq Makhlúqat, Makhlúqa a creature, a created thing;—pl. makhaliq, makhlúqát
Makhzun, Makhzunat Makhzún, pl. Makhzúnát stored, stored up, deposited, warehoused; (pl.) stock, supply, stock in trade
Maktub, Makatib Maktúb, pl. Makátíb written, written down, recorded; fated, foreordained, destined; something written, writing;—(pl.) a writing, message, note; letter
Mal'ak, Malak, Mala'ik, Mala'ika Mal’ak & Malak, pl. Malá’ik, Mala’ika(h or t) an angel (as sent by God); messenger, envoy; embassy, mission; an epistle. Derived from root IV كلأ (L’K) to send [Letters & Essays].—pl. also malá’ika. Alternatives are due sometimes showing the tá’ marbúṭa (letter) at the end
Malakut Malakút realm, kingdom, empire; kingship, royalty, sovereignty (Kingdom of Angels—realm of being). See Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút and Násút.
Malfuf Malfúf wound, coiled; wrapped up (in); rolled up, rolled together, convolute; twisted, wound (around); fastened, attached (to); swathed (in or with); plump, stout (body)
Malik, Malika, Mulaka Malík, fem. Malíka, pl. Mulaká’ king, monarch, ruler; master, possessor, owner, proprietor
Malik, Mullak Málik, pl. Mullak, Mullák reigning, ruling; owning, possessing, holding; owner, proprietor, master, possessor, holder
Maliki Málikí state of master, mastership; royal, kingly; lordly. A Malikite is a member of a particular Sunní muslim sect (al-málikíya—a system of Sunní jurisprudence)
Man Man 1. (interr. pron.) who? which one? which ones?
2. (relative pron.) who; the one who; those who; one who; whoever, whosoever, everyone who, he who.
Man-Yuzhiruhu'llah Man-Yuẓhiruhu’lláh (man+yu+ẓahara+Alláh) “Him whom God shall make manifest” Title given by the Báb to the promised One. “He Who is made manifest in the past and in the future” is another rendering of “Him Whom God has manifested and will manifest”
Manhaj, Minhaj, Manahij Manhaj, Minhaj, pl. Manáhij open, plain, easy road, highway, path; manner, procedure, method; program; course
Mani Mání Pers. thou remainest; thou resemblest; rare, uncommon; name of a celebrated Persian painter, the founder of the sect of the Manicheans.
Mani', Muna'a Maní‘, pl. Muna‘á’ unapproachable, inaccessible, impervious, impenetrable, forbidding; well-fortified; mighty, strong, powerful; impregnable, unconquerable; insurmountable, insuperable, invincible, immune
Mann, Amnan Mann, pl. Amnán gracious bestowal; favor; benefit, blessing, boon; gift, present, largess; honeydew; manna;
a weight of 2 raṭl (Persian weight) There are two Pers. weights: 1) Normal Mann—about 3 kg. 2) King Mann or Mann-i-Sháhí’ is equal to 6.6 kg. The Writings usually refer to the later.
Manqul va ma'qul Manqúl va ma‘qúl “desumed” (select or borrow (from traditional) knowledge) versus “excognitated” (thought out, plan, devise) knowledge (MF, p. 156)
Manqul, Manqulat Manqúl, pl. Manqúlát carried, conveyed, transported; transferred; transmitted; translated; copied, transcribed; movable, mobile, portable; handed down, traditional; traditional stock
Mansub, Mansubat Manṣúb, pl. Manṣúbát erected; set-up, raised; planted in the ground; fixed, fastened, attached; installed in office; levelled, aimed (cannon; at); (pl.) word in the accusative or subjunctive. See fá‘il, maf‘úl and marfú‘
Maqal Maqál speech; proposition, contention, teaching, doctrine; article; treatise; piece of writing
Maqala, Maqalat, Maqalih Maqála, (Pers. Maqálih), pl. Maqálát article; essay; treatise; piece of writing
Maqam-i-Khidr Maqám-i-Khiḍr The Lower Cave of Elijah, blessed by the footsteps of Bahá’u’lláh for three days (according to Memoirs of Dr Mu’ayyad, 2:258) and of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for about two months (according to an unpublished manuscript). See also David S. Ruhe, Door of Hope, pp. 186–88.
Maqam, Maqamat Maqám, pl. Maqámát site, location, position; place, spot, point, locality; situation; station; standing, position, rank, dignity; tomb of a saint, sacred place; key, tonality, mode (mus.). Melodic modes used in trad. Arabic music. Ṣúfí spiritual stations.
Maqbul Maqbúl acceptable, reasonable; satisfactory; pleasing, obliging, complaisant, amiable; well-liked, likable, popular, welcome
Maqtal, Maqatil Maqtal, pl. Maqátil murder, death; murderous battle;—(pl.) vital part of the body (the injury of which will bring about death), mortal spot, mortal organ; Achilles’ heel, vulnerable spot
Mardah, Marzi Marḍáh, Pers. Marẓí a means affording satisfaction or gratification; satisfaction, pleasure. See Raḍiya
Mardiyyih, Marziya (Marzia, Marzieh) Marḍíyyih (Marẓíyyih) Pers. well-favoured. Marẓíya was sister of Qurratu’l-‘Ayn (Ṭáhirih). ‘Abdu’l-Bahá wrote to Marzieh (neé Khán) Gail: ‘O God, make her who is pleasing to God (Marzieh), well-pleased with God (Razieh).” Arches of the years, p. 82, referring to Qur’án 89:28. See Marḍáh
Marfu' Marfú‘ traceable in ascending order of traditions to Muḥammad (Prophetic tradition); (grammar) in the nominative or indicative, respectively. See fá‘il, maf‘úl and manṣúb
Marja' Marja‘ Pers. bringing back, restoring; return; time or place of return; a rendezvous, place of reference, refuge; a goal; (in grammar) antecedent; repetition; ultimate object
Marja'u't-Taqlid Marja‘u’t-Taqlíd lit. reference point for emulation. Un-elided forms: Marja‘ at-taqlíd (Pers. Marja‘-i-taqlíd). One who through his learning and probity is qualified to be followed in all points of religious practice and law by the generality of Shi‘is.
Marji, Maraji Marji‘, pl. Maráji‘ return; authority to which one turns or appeals; place of refuge, retreat; recourse resort; authority, responsible agency; source (esp. scientific), authoritative reference work; resource; starting point, origin; recourse
Markaz, Marakiz Markaz, pl. Marákiz foothold; stand, station; place where someone is posted or stationed; post; (police, etc.) station; office, branch office (com.); locality where something takes place, scene, site, seat; position (mil.); headquarters; main office, central office; central exchange (telephone)
Marut Márút great; name of a king; name of an angel, and companion of Hárút (Qur’án 2:102). See Hárút
Maryam Maryam Mary, Maria. Maryam, Bahá’u’lláh’s cousin, sister-in-law, friend, and faithful follower
Masabih as-Sunnah Maṣábíḥ as-Sunnah Lamps of Tradition by al-Ḥusayn ibn Mas‘úd Baghawī. See miṣbáḥ
Masdar, Masadir Maṣdar, pl. Maṣádir starting point, point of origin; origin, source (fig.); (gram.) infinitive, verbal noun; absolute or internal object
Mash'ar, Masha'ir Mash‘ar, pl. Mashá‘ir cultic shrine for ceremonies of the ḥajj; sensory organ;—pl. senses, feelings, sensations. Pers. explanation: A place dedicated to religious ceremonies, or where sacrifices are offered
Masha'u'llah or Ma Sha'llah Máshá’u’lláh or Má Shá’lláh (Máshá’lláh?) What God wills (Má+Shá’a+Alláh, “Mashallah”)
Mashaf, Mushaf, Masahif Maṣḥaf, Muṣḥaf, pl. Maṣáḥif volume; book; copy of the Qur’án. Muṣḥaf of Fáṭima—there is a legend that Gabriel brought this book to console Fáṭima after the death of her father.
Mashhad, Mashahid Mashhad, pl. Masháhid place of assembly, assembly, meeting; place where a martyr or hero died; religious shrine venerated by the people, especially the tomb of a saint; funeral cortege; profession; view, aspect, spectacle, sight, scenery; place or object of interest; scene (e.g., of a crime, of nature); act, number (as part of a program, e.g., in vaudeville), scene (in theatre, as part of a play); aspect. Capital of Khurásán (Khorasan), Írán, shrine city of Imám Riḍá.
Mashhud Mashhúd taking place in the presence of spectators or witnesses; happening before a large audience, well-attended; memorable (day, event)
Mashriq, Mashariq Mashriq, pl. Masháriq place of sunrise, east; place of rise; the Orient, the East; resplendent, radient, shining
Mashriqu'l-Adhkar Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Ar. Dawning-place of the praises, prayers, remembrances or mentions of God. “The place of prayers”. Title for a Bahá’í House of Worship. Masháriq Adhkár (places of prayers)
Mashyakha, Mashayikh, Masha'ikh Mashyakha, pl. Masháyikh, Mashá’ikh Ar. office, or dignity, of a sheik; sheikdom (in general, specif., anyone of the semi-independent territories on the Persian Gulf); an administrative subdivision (Tun.); professoriate (e.g., of Al Azhar). See Shaykh
Masikh Masíkh transformed; disfigured, defaced, deformed, ugly; tasteless, insipid, stale (“a monster”)—refer to SWA 140)
Mast Mast Pers. drunk, intoxicated; libidinous, lustful, wanton, furious; an animal in rut. Ḥájjí Zayn al-‘Ábidín Shírwání (Mast ‘Alí Sháh)—Persian scholar and mystic (1193–1253 Sh./1779–1837)
Mathani Mathání oft-repeated or repetition (Qur’án 15:85). See Fátiḥa
Mathiq, Mawathiq Mátháq, pl. Mawáthiq covenant, agreement, contract, treaty, pact, alliance; charter
Mathnavi Mathnaví written by Mawláná Jalálu’d-Dín-i-Rúmí. Mathnaví refers to the meter and rhyme scheme of a type of Persian poem written in couplets. The form is commonly used for epic, mystical poems.
Matla', Matali' Maṭla‘, pl. Maṭáli‘ rise, time of rising (of celestial bodies); point of ascent; starting point, point, of departure; break (e.g., of day), dawn (e.g., of an era); onset, outset, start, beginning; introduction, preface, proem; opening verses (of a poem); prelude; lookout; ladder, steps, stairs
Mawla (Maula), Mawali Mawlá (Maulá), Pers. Mullá, pl. Mawálí A magistrate of a large city; a lord, master; a schoolmaster, doctor, learned man, a judge, a priest. See ‘Ulamá
Mawla', Mawali Mawla’, pl. Mawálí Pers. A king, prince, sovereign, lord, master, judge, magistrate. A follower, client. A benefactor, helper. A companion, confederate, partner. A stranger. A visitor, guest. See Maulan
Mawlan (Maulan), Mawalin Mawlan, pl. Mawálin Ar. master, lord; protector, patron; client; charge; mend, companion, associate; the Lord, God; Mawláya and Mawláná are forms of address to a sovereign
Mawlawi (Maulawi), Malulawiya Mawlawí (Maulawí), pl. Mawlawíya Pers. Judicial, belonging to a judge or magistrate; a doctor of Islamic law; an assistant lawyer; a learned man; divine, religious, belonging to God; a dervish, Muslim monk; dervish of the order of Maulá Jalál-ud-dín Rúmí. Variation Mawlaví
Mawlawiyat (Maulawiyat) Mawlawíyat Pers. A resemblance to, or equality with, a prince, lord, master or benefactor.
Mawlud (Maulud), Mawalid Mawlúd, pl. Mawálíd produced, born, come into the world; birth; birthday;—(pl.) newborn baby, infant; child, son;—creations, novelties
Mawqif (Mauqif), Mawaqif Mauqif, pl. Mawáqif stopping place; station; (cab, etc.) stand; (bus, train, etc.) stop; parking lot, parking place; stopover, stop; place, site; scene, scenery; position, posture; situation; attitude; stand, position, opinion
Maykhana (Maikhana, Maykhanih) Maykhána Pers. a wine-cellar, tavern; drinking utensils, wine-service; hence also “spiritual wine”
Maymun, Maimun, Mayamin Maymún, Maimún, pl. Mayamín fortunate, lucky; blessed; monkey. See Abú ‘Imrán Músá ibn Maymún (Maimonides)
Mazdak Mazdak The story of Mazdak [he preached a community of property and families, and a simple ascetic life], in the days of King Kobad [Kavi Kavata, Kai Kobad or Kavadh] sons were Kavi Usan (or Kai Kaus) and Kavi Haosravah (Kai Khosrau or Khosrau Anushirvan)], the father of the Great Anoshirwan [Anushirvan—“having an immortal soul”], is given in the history of Sháh-Nameh (Book of Kings) of Firdawsí (Firdausi in English), and also in all the Persian histories. (The Bahá’í Proofs)
Mazhar, Mazahir Maẓhar, pl. Maẓáhir (external) appearance, external make-up, guise; outward bearing, comportment, conduct, behaviour; exterior, look(s), sight, view; semblance, aspect; bearer or object of a phenomenon, object in which something manifests itself; phenomenon; symptom (med.); pl. manifestations, expressions. The place or bearer of divine revelation, a revealer of God’s Word.
Mazlun Maẓlún Pers. (also Ar.?) injured, oppressed; seized forcibly; upturned (earth); mild, gentle, modest. Áqá Ḥusayn Maẓlún
Mazra'a, Mazra'ih Mazra‘a, Pers. Mazra‘ih, Ar. pl. Mazári‘ field under cultivation; farm; plantation; country estate. Place north of ‘Akká and about 0.5 km from the sea. House of Bahá’u’lláh is north of this village.
Mazra'iy-i-Vashshash Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh Pers. once a field on outskirts of Baghdád between the centre and Káẓimayn where Bahá’u’lláh celebrated Riḍván (1863), now the neighbourhood of al-Washshásh
Mazzah, Mazih Mazzaḥ and Maziḥ joker, jester, buffoon, wag, “Humorist or Playful”, a name of God according to Bahá’u’lláh
Mi’raj, Ma’arij Mi‘raj or Mi‘ráj, pl. Ma‘áríj ladder, stairs. al-Mi‘ráj (“The ascent”) Muḥammad’s vision of His night journey to the outermost mosque and His ascent to the heavens on His steed Burak. See ma‘raj
Midhat Midḥat Páshá Pers. see Midḥat
Miftahu Babi'l-Abwab Miftáḥu Bábi’l-Abwáb [Meftah Bab-el-Abwab] “The Key to the Gate of Gates”—book written by Mírzá Muḥammad-Mihdí Khán
Mihdi Mihdí (also Mahdí) One who guides aright, the Guided One. A title of the Twelfth (expected) Imám or Qá’im. Mírzá Mihdí (“The Purest Branch”)
Mihr Mihr Pers. the sun; love, friendship, affection, kindness; mercy, pity; the month of September; the sixteenth day of every month; death; a mandrake; a red stone; a gilded ball fixed on a canopy or standard; name of a fire-temple; name of an angel
Mihrab Miḥráb, pl. Maḥárib Ar. Prayer niche in a mosque showing the direction of Mecca. The principle place in a mosque where the imám prays with his face turned towards Mecca.
Mihriyar Mihríyár (TN p. 16) Ibn-i-Mihríyár (a native of Ahváz, thought to be in touch with the Hidden Imám during the Minor Occultation. The “Gates” were ‘Uthmán ibn Sa’íd; his son Muḥammad ibn ‘Uthmán; Ḥusayn ibn Rúḥ; and ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad Símarí)
Milhu'l-Ujaj Milḥu’l-Ujáj “salt that burneth bitterly”. See ajja
Minan, Mina Minan m., Miná fem. the valley of Miná, the site of Miná, a pilgrim “tent city” on the eastern side of Mecca
Mir Muhammad-Husayn Mír Muḥammad-Ḥusayn surnamed the “She-Serpent” (Raqshá’) by Bahá’u’lláh. Responsible for the deaths of the brothers named the “King of Martyrs” and “Beloved of Martyrs”. See Shaykh Muḥammad Báqir.
Mir'ah, Mara'in, Maraya Mir’áh, pl. Mará’in, Maráyá looking glass, mirror; reflection, reflected image
Mir'at Mir’át Pers. A looking-glass, mirror. See miráya
Mir’at al-Wadiyyah Mir’át al-Waḍiyyah “Polished Mirrors” by Cornelius van Dyck. See waḍí’
Mirza, Amir-Zadih, Amirzada Mírzá, Amírzáda or Pers. Amírzádih Pers. contraction of amír-zád (“child of a prince”). A title of nobility (signifies a prince) when placed after a name; but it means a gentleman, an educated person, a scholar, worthy person, mister when it appears before the name.
Misbah, Masabih Miṣbáḥ, pl. Maṣábíḥ lamp; light, luminary (also figuratively); head-light (of an automobile)
Mishkin Mishkín Pers. “musk-scented”; “jet-black” (dried musk powder is black—“black like musk”, Ghulám al-Khuld, Bahá’u’lláh)
Mishkin-Qalam Mishkín-Qalam Pers. Mírzá Ḥusayn-i-Isfahání (surnamed Mishkín-Qalam, meaning “musk-scented pen” or “jet-black pen”, by Muḥammad Sháh because of the beauty and inner mystical message of his works); 1826–1912. He was one of the nineteen Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh, as well as a famous calligrapher of 19th century Persia. He is the author of a calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name used by Bahá’ís.
Misr, Amsar, Masr Miṣr, pl. Amṣár big city; metropolis, capital; —miṣr (colloquial) maṣr Egypt; Cairo
Mithqal, Mathaqil Mithqál, pl. Matháqíl a unit of weight used for weighing gold, silver and saffron (4.68 gm). Traditionally, 24 chickpeas, changed by the Báb to 19 chickpeas (3.641666 gm).
Mizan, Mawazin Mízán, pl. Mawázín balance, scales; weight; measure; poetic measure, metre; rule, method; justice, equity, fairness, impartiality
Mu'allim Mu‘allim A teacher or tutor. al-Mu‘allimu’th-Thání (The Second Teacher—a title of Avicenna (2nd after Abú Rayḥán al-Bírúní)
Mu'assasa, Mu'assasát Mu’assasa, pl. Mu’assasát foundation, establishment; firm (commerce); institution; organization
Mu’assisiy-i-Ayadiy-i-Amru’llah Mu’assisiy-i-Ayádíy-i-Amru’lláh Pers. Bahá’u’lláh: “The institution of the Hands of the Cause of God”
Mu'awiya, Mu'aviya Mu‘áwíya Ar. (Pers. Mu‘ávíya, Mu‘ávíyah, Mu‘ávíyyah, also -ih endings) Name of first and third Umayyad caliphs. The first established the Umayyad dynasty (based in Damascus).
Mu'azzin Mu’aẓẓin should be Mu’adhdhin
Mu’jam, Ma’ajim Mu‘jam, pl. Ma‘ájim incomprehensible, unintelligible, obscure (language, speech); dotted, provided with a diacritical point (letter);—(pl.) dictionary, lexicon
Mu’tah Mu’tah a town in Karak Governorate in Jordan. In Islamic tradition it is known for the Battle of Mu'tah in ad 629, the first military engagement between Arab Muslims and the Byzantine Empire.
Mu'tamad Mu‘tamad reliable, dependable; object of reliance, support; sanctioned, approved, authorized; accredited; commissioner, authorized agent, proxy, envoy, representative; commissary, commissar
Mu'tazilat, Mu'tazila Mu‘tazilat, Mu‘tazila(h) a sect of Muslim schismatics, an offset of the sect qadaríyat (al-Mu‘tazilah is Mu’tazilite in English)
Mubahala, Mubahilih Mubáhala, Pers. Mubáhilih A public confrontation that goes back to the days of Muḥammad when a deputation of the unbelievers of Najrán in Medina challenged the Prophet to a confrontation. It is a challenge between truth and falsehood. The two parties come together face to face and it is believed that in such a confrontation the power of truth will destroy the ungodly. Ancient religious test.
Muballighin Muballighín Name given to Bahá’í teachers or “missionaries” (especially those on journeys to spread the Bahá’í Faith). Used to refer to Bahá’í scholars of high stature, especially those who can communicate the Message of Bahá’u’lláh to others. In Írán, they were the people who were very knowledgeable about the Faith and their responsibility was to travel and teach the Faith.
Mubarak Mubárak blessed, fortunate, lucky. One title of Bahá’u’lláh: Jamál-i-Mubárak, the Blessed Beauty.
Mubashshir, Mubashshirat Mubashshir pl. Mubashshirát announcer, messenger (of glad tidings); evangelist (Chr.); preacher; missionary (Christian)
Mubtil, Mubattil, Mubtilun Mubṭil, Mubaṭṭal, pl. Mubṭilún Pers. who or what invalidates; frustrative; a defacer, destroyer; one who embellishes his speech with lies
Mudaf Muḍáf added, subjoined, adjoined, apposed; construct state (grammar). muḍáf ilayh the second, or governed, noun of a genitive construction (grammar)
Mudir, Mudira, Mudara Mudír, fem. Mudirá, Mudará head, chief, director; administrator; manager; intendant, superintendent; rector (of a university); (pl.) administrative officer at the head of a county
Mudiy Muḍíy departure, leave; passing; lapse, elapsing, expiration (of a period of time); continuation (of something); deeper penetration, deeper insight (into); carrying out, execution, pursuit (of an intention, of a plan)
Mufakhkhamu’d-Dawlih Mufakhkhamu’d-Dawlih Iranian state title of Isḥáq Khán, went to USA as Persian Minister to the United States in 1901
Mufawada, Mufavidat (Mufavidat) Mufáwaḍa, pl. Mufawiḍát negotiation, parley, talk, conference; partnership (Isl. Law). Pers. “variations” Mufávaḍa, pl. Mufaviḍát
Mufti, Muftiyun Muftí, pl. Muftíyun In Sunní Islám, a consulting Canon lawyer, who delivers legal opinions on points of Islamic law to the qáḍí (judge)
Mugul, Mughul Mugúl, Pers, Mughul A Mogul, Mongol, Mughal; the Great Mogul, emperor of Hindústán; the Tartars, natives of Túrán, Scythia, or Transoxiana; the Georgian Christians.
Muguli, Mughuli Mugúlí, Pers. Mughulí Pers. Of or relating to the Moguls (Mongolian); Mogul, Tartar; (met.) fearless; cruel, severe, terrible
Muhaddith, Muhaddithun Muḥaddith, pl. Muḥaddithún speaker, talker; spokesman; conversation partner, interlocutor; relator, narrator; a transmitter of Prophetic traditions, traditionary, representative of the science or study of Ḥadíth
Muhaimin (Muhaiman, Muhaymin) Muhaimin supervising, superintending, controlling; guardian; protector; master (of something, also, e.g., of a situation)
Muhammad Muḥammad praised; commendable, laudable; the Praised One 1 . Derived from ḥamd (praise).
Muhammad-i-Isfahani Muḥammad-i-Iṣfahání Muḥammad-i-Iṣfahání, Siyyid, Anti-Christ of the Bahá’í Revelation.
Muhammad-Taqi Muḥammad-Taqí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí (Hand of the Cause of God addressed by Bahá’u’lláh as Ibn-i-Abhar—“the son of Abhar”)
Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí ShaykhMuḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí Also known as Áqá Najafí, ‘The Son of the Wolf’
Muhammadun Rasulu'llah Muḥammadun Rasúlu’lláh Lá Iláha Illa’lláh, Muḥammadun Rasúlu’lláh (There is no God but God and Muḥammad is his messenger—split into Letters of Denial (5) followed by Letters of Affirmation (5) [Muḥammad, ‘Alí, Fáṭima, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn]). The Shí’ah call to prayer (adhán) contains the additional statement ‘Alíun valíu’lláh (‘Alí is God’s (friend/helper/defender/vicegerent)).
Muhit, Muhitat Muḥíṭ, pl. Muḥíṭát surrounding (something); comprehensive; familiar, acquainted (with);—(pl.) circumference, periphery; extent, range, scope, compass, reach, domain, area; milieu, environment, surroundings; ocean
Muhit-i-Sha'ir-i-Kirmani Muḥíṭ-i-Shá‘ir-i-Kirmání Alt. Muḥíṭ-i-Kirmání (Mírzá Muḥammad-i-Ḥusayn-i-Kirmání See DB 39 and BKG 152
Muhiyu'd-Din Muḥiyu’d-Dín Should be Muḥyí’d-Dín. See Pers. Muḥyí’d-Dín or Bahá’í writings Muḥyi’d-Dín
Muhkam, Muhkama, Muhkamat Muḥkam, f. Muḥkama, pl. Muḥkamát strengthened, reinforced; firm, solid, sturdy; tight, taut; perfect, masterly, masterful; well-aimed (blow, hit); accurate, precise, exact; decisive, fundamental and clear. See mutashábih. Refer to Qur’án 3:7.
Muhraqa Muḥraqá “fiery place”. A peak on the Carmel mountain range with an incredible view of the Jezreel valley, the hills of lower Galilee and Samaria, the Kishon River, and the Mediterranean. Traditionally the site where Elijah fought the prophets of Baal in the Bible (1 Kings 18:20–46). The Carmelite order have a monastery here.
Mujtahid, Mujtahidun Mujtahid, pl. Mujtahidún one who strives or one who exerts himself. diligent, industrious; a legist formulating independent decisions in legal or theological matters, based on the interpretation and application of the four uṣúl, as opposed to muqallid, Highest rank of Shi’ite divine—doctor of law
Mujudalat, Mujadala Mujúdalat, Mujádala Pers. Contending, disputing; contention, dispute, altercation, conflict. Mujádalih Mosque and area (NW) of old ‘Akká.
Mukhabara, Mukhabarat Mukhábara, pl. Mukhábarát correspondence, (esp. written) information. Qalam al-Mukhábarát—intelligence bureau (“secret police”)
Mukhataba, Mukhatabaat Mukháṭaba, pl. Mukháṭabát address; public address, speech; proclamation; conversation, talk; conference, parley
Mukhit Mukhṭi’ mistaken, at fault, wrong; incorrect, wrong, erroneous. Hence, Mukhṭi’ah, the Errant.
Mukhlis, Mukhlisun Mukhliṣ, pl. Mukhliṣún devoted; sincere, frank, candid; loyal; faithful (to someone, to something); pure-hearted, virtuous, righteous; (in letters) approx.: yours truly …, sincerely yours …
Mukhtar Mukhtár free to choose, having the choice or option. Al-Mukhtár Abú ‘Ubayd Masúd Thaqafí( born in Ṭá’if in ce 622, ah 1)
Mukhtariyya Mukhtáriyya Shí‘a sect of Islam. The followers of Al-Mukhtár Abú (see Mukhtár) were initially named Mukhtáriyya, but were soon more commonly referred to as the Kaysániyya (i.e. Kaysanites). See Kaysániyya
Mulk Mulk rule, reign, supreme authority, dominion, domination, dominance, sway, power; sovereignty, kingship, royalty; monarchy; tenure, holding, right of possession, possessory right, ownership
Mulla Mullá Ar. bread baked in hot ashes. Pers. A schoolmaster, doctor, learned man, a judge, a priest
Mulla'i Mullá’í Pers. of or relating to a mullá; office or profession of a mullá; doctorship; teaching
Mullani Mullání Pers. wife of a mullá, a learned woman; a schoolmistress. See Mawlá
Mumtaz Mumtáz distinguished, differentiated; exquisite, select, choice, rare; outstanding, superior, first-rate, first-class, top-notch, exceptional, excellent; privileged; special, extra; (as an examination grade) passed with distinction, excellent
Munadi Munádí (“Monadi”) Pers. a crier, herald, proclaimer; a small drum that is beaten to notify or proclaim anything. Nephew of Hand of Cause Ibn Ábhar
Munajah Munájáh lit. secret conversation; confidential talk. Name given to prayers by Bahá’u’lláh, Báb, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi for communing with God.
Munajat, Munajatha Munáját, pl. Munájáthá (transliteration variation of Munájáh) secret conversation, whispering, prayer, longing or yearning; supplication for repentance of sins. Pers.: adding Há’ to a noun forms the plural, hence the unusual Tá’ Há’ (th, not Thá’ (th)) combination of letters.
Munajathay-i-Siyam Munájátháy-i-Ṣiyám “Prayers for Fasting” (by Bahá’u’lláh). Note “t” and “h”, not “th”. Not sure why Hasan Balyuzi,Shoghi Effendi and Adib Taherzadeh use Ṣíyám
Munir, Munirih Munír, Pers. Munírih luminous, radiant, brilliant, shining; enlightening, illuminative. Munírih Khánum, wife of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá