Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transliterationcompiled by Mike Thomas.
Arabic & Farsi transliteration
list and glossary for Bahá’ís
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· Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters and abjad values · Arabic numbers · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar (modern) · Qur’án súra names · Quranic names of God · Shrine of the Báb information · Traditional qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Word macros ·
This document lists the Roman script transliteration forms of many of the Arabic and Fársí (some are of Turkish origin) names and words used in the Bahá’í Writings as a guide to their transliteration. Hence, there is no need to include all possible combinations of those words used in the names of people and places. However, additional root words have been added as a guide to an understanding of the meaning of the words.*
* *Persian: “-yi-” (“of” in English), Ághá “of” Karand, after a vowel instead of “-i-” as in Káẓim-i-Zanjání. Ághá-yi-Karand (formal) and Ághá Karand (informal).
Why use transliteration?
“Regarding the transliteration of Persian and Arabic words the House of Justice requests that the method adopted by the beloved Guardian, and which is described in the various volumes of ‘The Bahá’í World’, be followed, as it permits all languages which use the Roman alphabet to transliterate such terms in the same way throughout the Bahá’í world.”1
Whatever “house styles” Publishing Trusts and other Bahá’í publishers may adopt, transliteration of oriental terms into languages using the Roman alphabet must at present be according to the system chosen by the Guardian and described in volumes of The Bahá’í World.2
1 From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, 16 July 1979
2 The Universal House of Justice, 21 July 1998, Current Guidance on Baha’i Publishing
Some sources of information are given in brackets. Authors of books, tablets, etc., “(by _____)”. The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice (caution: these contain errors); and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh. New entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian dictionaries—older entries will gradually be updated using these dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from a few knowledgeable individuals.
Arabic and Fársí do not have capital letters. When transcripted, capital letters should only be used for proper names and attributes of God, otherwise, lower case letters should be used. This document uses capital letters for all words/names as if they were proper names—these should be converted to lower case for other uses.
Most words (there are some commonly accepted exceptions, e.g. Bahá’ís) that have an English suffix should not be transcripted (e.g. Islamic, Qur’anic, Shi’ite, Shi’ism). Adding an ‘s’ to many words to represent the plural form is more recognizable to the English reader (bábs) than the often very different transcripted Arabic plural word (abváb). These and some other words are often better replaced by an English equivalent, e.g. Gate-hood for Bábíyyat instead of the incorrect hybrid forms: “Bábhood” or “Babhood”, etc.
Any variations in transliteration by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Bahá’í authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transliteration rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transliterated forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transliterated.
d)A search for the words in Arabic dictionaries (e.g. The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written Arabic).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Bahá’ís who are Arabic and/or Fársí speakers. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Although every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of this document, many older entries need to be rechecked or require additional information. Any corrections or suggested changes are welcomed.
Phonetic or common spelling
Some words in brackets in the third column indicate an old-style phonetical spelling that can be found in some older Bahá’í publications.
‘Ayn and Hamza consonants
These Arabic consonant letters for ‘ayn and hamza are represented by left and right curly apostrophes respectively—they are not quote marks nor are they interchangeable. The alternative plain text characters are ` and ' respectively.
Always include any initial ‘Ayn, and ending Hamza or ‘Ayn. It is important not to confuse any quote marks used in the text together with an ‘Ayn or a Hamza.
Elative word forms
In some languages such as Arabic, the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an adjective are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme”. The elative of kabár (big) is ‘akbar (bigger/biggest, greater/greatest).
The line placed under ‘ch’, ‘dh’, ‘kh’, ‘sh’, ‘th’ and ‘zh’ indicates that these combinations of two letters in Roman script represent the sound of a single letter in the original script.
This document is not a pronunciation guide. However, the following information is provided as a simple introduction.
Accenting provides a guide to the pronunciation of vowel sounds in standard Arabic. Any attempt to show how vowels are pronounced using English word examples is limited by the fact that English words themselves are pronounced differently in different English speaking regions. The sound of short vowels is also affected by which consonant precedes them.
áa long a as in ‘ah’, ‘arm’ or ‘father’
aa short a as in ‘band’, ‘account’ or ‘ran’
íthe vowel sound ‘ee’ as in ‘meet’ or ‘feet’
ia simple ‘i’ sound as in ‘hit’, ‘bit’ or ‘sit’
úa ‘oo’ sound as in ‘boot’, ‘moon’ or ‘root’
ua ‘o’ sound as in ‘put’
awas ‘ow’ sound in ‘vowel’
*This section should be revised using https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/382588/ocean2.0/Audio/prounounce.html
Categories of words in Arabic
Arabic divides all words into three categories. A verb (fi‘l) refers to an event, or motion, in time. A noun (ism) refers to a thing and makes no reference to time. A preposition (ḥarf) has no independent and substantive meaning but functions as a link between nouns and verbs. Gate of the heart, p. 205.
The first column of the following list contains a form of the words/names without acute accents, initial ‘Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transliteration, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort of the list itself. When searching for words containing a ‘v’ (Persian) or a ‘u’, look also for the word with a ‘w’ replacing the ‘v’ or ‘u’.
Searching the list
Simplify word searches by:
a)Removing the definite (al-, etc., refer to the entry for “al-” and the Arabic letters and abjad values section at the end of this list.)
b)Removing final letters such as “ah”, “ih”, “Yah” and “yih” (usually Fársí forms), and “h” and “t” that often represent a tá’ marbúṭa (refer to the tá’ marbúṭa entry).
Roman script transliterated forms of Arabic/Fársí words/names
· Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters and abjad values · Arabic numbers · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar (modern) · Qur’án súra names · Quranic names of God · Shrine of the Báb information · Traditional qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Caliphs · Word macros ·
· Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters and abjad values · Arabic numbers · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar (modern) · Qur’án súra names · Quranic names of God · Shrine of the Báb information · Traditional qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Word macros ·
A'zam, (see Azim)
A‘ẓam, f. ‘Uẓmá, pl. A‘áẓim
· Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters and abjad values · Arabic numbers · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar (modern) · Qur’án súra names · Quranic names of God · Shrine of the Báb information · Traditional qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Word macros ·
Da’a, Du’a’ Da‘á, Du‘á’ Ar. to call (someone); to summon, call or send for someone; to call up; to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something; to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da’i or Du’at Dá‘í, pl. Du‘át Pers. who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything; who prays for, invokes a blessing upon; the Muezzm who calls to prayers; Muḥammad (as caller to the faith). Also missionary
Da'if, Du'afa Ḍa‘if, pl. m. Ḍu‘afa’ weak, feeble; frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
Da’iya (Da’i), Dawa’in Dá‘iya (“Dá‘í”), pl. Dawá‘in one who calls for something, invites to something; propagandist, herald; (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion; requirements, exigencies. Hence, ad-dá‘iya, the caller.
Da’wa, Da’awa, Da’awin Da‘wá, pl. Da‘áwá, Da‘áwin allegation, pretension; claim; lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Dabistan Dabistán Pers. (Debistan) (either a contraction of dabíristán or an abbreviation of adabistán), a school
Dabistan al-Madhhahib Dabistán al-Madhháhib title of a book (“School of doctrines”) containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles. Persian Dabistánu’l-Madhháhib
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit Ḍábiṭ controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.); prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools); (pl. ḍubbáṭ) officer; (pl. ḍawábiṭ) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dad Dád Persian. He gave; a gift; justice, equity; redress of grievances; complaint, lamentation (under oppression); measure; a part, portion; revenge; a ringworm; life; age; a year
Dada Dada (Dadih) Pers. a grandfather; a title given to dervishes, especially qalandars; a nurse who brings up children
Dada Dádá Pers. a female servant, particularly an old one who has attended upon anyone from her youth; a handmaid.
Dahaji Dahají from Dahaj. Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají was named Ismu’lláhu’l-Jamál by Bahá’u’lláh. He rebelled against ‘Abdu’l-Bahá after the death of Bahá’u’lláh.
Dahr, Duhur, Adhur Dahr, pl. , Duhúr, Adhur time; long time, age, epoch; lifetime; eternity; fate, destiny; “world of duration”
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila Dajjál, pl. Dajjálún, Dajájila (“Dedjal”) swindler, cheat, imposter; quack, charlatan; Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ). The Antichrist, who it was believed would appear at the advent of the Promised One, to contend with and be ultimately defeated by Him. See Sufyání
Dakhil Dakhíl Pers. Interior, inner; intimate, familiar, confident; an intermeddler; an intruder; a proselyte; a foreign word adopted into Arabic
Dalil, Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla' Dalíl, pl. Adilla, Dalá’l, Adillá’ (the latter of persons) indication (of); sign, token; symptom; proof, evidence (of); guide; tourist guide; pilot (of a ship, of an airplane); guidebook, guide manual, handbook; directory, telephone directory; railroad guide, timetable; guide rail (technical); roller path (in steel construction)
Dalilu'l-Mutahayyirin Dalílu’l-Mutaḥayyirín Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Dall, Dawall, Dallin Ḍáll, pl. Ḍawáll, Ḍállín straying, roaming, wandering; astray, lost; erroneous, false. Ḍállín (gone astray)
Dani', Adniya', Adna' Daní’,pl. Adniyá’, Adná’ low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible; inferior, second-rate, of poor quality. Adná’ also “lowest” or “even closer”—being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Báb, that of servitude. (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Daoud Daoud Hebrew David See Dáwúd
Daqiqa, Daqa'iq Daqíqa, pl. Daqá’iq particle; nicety (“subtlety”); intricacy; detail, particular; minute (time unit)
Dar as-Salam, Daru’s-Salam Dár as-Salám, Pers. Dáru’s-Salám paradise, heaven; epithet of Baghdád (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God (Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory, p. 296)); Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Dar, Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara Dár f., pl. Dúr, Diyár, Diyárát, Diyara house; building, structure, edifice; habitation, dwelling, abode; residence, home; seat, side, locality; area, region; land, country; dár al-baqá’ the eternal abode, the hereafter; dár as-sa‘áda Constantinople; dár as-salṭana Constantinople (designation before World War I); dár as-salám paradise, heaven; dár al-hijra Medina. Example Dúru’l-Bahá’íyya
Darad Dárad See Maḍí Dárad
Darb, Durab, Adrab Ḍarb, pl. Ḍurúb, Aḍráb beating, striking, hitting, rapping; shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment; multiplication; coining, formation; minting (of money);— (pl. ḍurúb) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety; (pl. aḍráb) similar, like
Darband Darband Pers. gateway or mountain door. City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Dághistán (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus). Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal) that is now part of the north side of Teheran.
Darkala or Dar-Kala Dárkalá or Dár-Kalá A village in Núr in Mázindarán, a second ancestral home of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí.
Dars, Durus Dars, pl. Durús effacement, obliteration, extinction; (pl.) study, studies; lesson, chapter (of a textbook); class, class hour, period; lecture; lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Dars-i-Akhlaq Darsu’l-Akhláq, Pers. Dars-i-Akhláq “Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building” (“Dars Akhláq”)
Daru'l-funun Dáru’l-Funún (Centre for arts and sciences) The first technical college of Írán in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mírzá Taqí Khán. BKG 72
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij Dáru’l-Tabígh or Dáru’l-Tarwíj (Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
Daru's-Salam Dáru’s-Salám (Dar-es-Salaam) or the Abode of Peace [Baghdád] (or the City of God because peace is an attribute of God). BKG p. 296.
Darwish (Darvish), Darawish Darwísh, pl. Daráwísh poor, indigent; dervish or monk A beggar of faqír (poor one) “… those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship.” Attributed to Bahá’u’lláh in MF 39. May be written as Darwesh or Darvesh in Persian.
Darya Daryá Pers. a sea, ocean; a river; (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Dast, Dust Dast, pl. Dusút place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office; council; dast al-ḥukm (a ruler’s) throne
Dastan Dastán Pers. history, romance, fable; song, melody, trill, shake; the key of a musical instrument; foolish, idle talk; fraud, imposture, stratagem
Dastmal, Dast-mal Dast-mál, Dastmál Pers. rubbing the hands; a towel; a handkerchief; a kettle-holder; dinner-plate; easy, smooth; bare; a prisoner; wealth
Dawla (Daula), Duwal Dawla(h or t), pl. Duwal alternation, rotation, change; change of time, turn of fortune; dynasty; state, country; power, empire. e.g. Dawlat-Ábád and Dawlat-Ábádí
Dawlih Dawlih Pers. state or government. See Dawla
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar Dawr, pl. Adwár round (of a patrol; in sports); role, part (played by someone or something); film role, stage role; periodic change, rotation, alternation; crop rotation; period; (one’s) turn; phase, stage, step, degree, station; epoch, age, era, cycle; fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease); floor, story; musical composition; number, single performance (within a program)
Day of Resurrection Yawmu’l-Qiyámah The Great Day (al-Yawmu’l-‘Aẓím);
The Day of Resurrection (Yawmu’l-Qiyámah);
The Day of Decision (Yawmu’l-Faṣl);
The Day when the Hour shall come to pass (Yawmu’l-Sá‘ah);
The Day of Judgement (Yawmu’l-Dín);
The Day of Disillusion (Yawmu’t-Taghabún);
The Day of Reckoning (Yawmu’l-Ḥisáb)
Dayyan (Daiyan) Dayyán Pers. a requiter (rewarder) of good and evil; hence an epithet of God; a conqueror, a subduer; a judge, umpire, administrator
Dhabih Dhabíḥ sacrifice or slaughtered (Pers. Zabíḥ) Hájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl was known as Dhabíḥ. The name Ismá‘íl in Bábí-Bahá’í history is associated with the soubriquet ‘Dhabíḥ’. Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur’án, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice—hence the association of the name Ismá‘íl with Dhabíḥ. (E. G. Browne, Balyuzi.)
Dhabih Allah, Dhabihu’llah Dhabíḥ Alláh, Dhabíḥu’lláh “Sacrifice of God” Abraham’s sacrifice of His son
Dhahaba, Dhahab, Madhhab (Mazhab) Dhahaba (Dhaháb, Madhhab) to go (to); to betake oneself, travel (to); to go away, leave, depart; to disappear, vanish, decline, dwindle; to perish, die, be destroyed; with to carry something off, take something away, abduct, steal something, sweep something or someone away, annihilate, destroy something or someone
Dhaqa, Dhawq (Dhauq), Madhaq Dháqa, (Dhawq, Dhawáq, Madháq) to taste, sample (food, etc.); to try, try out, test (something); to get a taste (of something), experience, undergo, suffer (something), go through something; form IV to have (someone) taste or sample (something), give (someone something) to taste; form V to taste (something) slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly; to get a taste (of something); to sense, perceive (something); to enjoy thoroughly, savour, relish (something); to derive pleasure (from)
Dhara'a Dhara‘a (verb) to measure (something); to take the measure or measurements (of something); to cover (a distance); to cross, travel (a country), travel through; to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dhariyatun, Dhariyat Dháriyatun, pl. Dháriyát quick-scattering wind; that which scatters, that which blows away
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkár to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of); to keep in mind (something); to recall, recollect (something)
Dharr Dharr strewing, scattering, sprinkling; (collective) tiny particles, atoms, specks, motes. Root word dharra has another derivative, dhurríya, so dharr can be understood as “seeds”, as in progeny. See dharra and dhurríya.
Dhawq (Dhauq), Adhaq Dhawq, pl. Adhwáq gustatory sense; taste (for; also, e.g., literary taste); perceptivity, responsiveness (for); sensitivity, sensitiveness; savoir-vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact; liking, inclination; taste, flavour (of food, etc.)
Dhawqi (Dhauqi) Dhawqí of taste, gustative, gustatory. Form V “of sensing, perceiving”—see Dháqa
Dhi'b, Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban Dhi’b, pl. Dhi’áb, Dhu’bán wolf, jackal. Bahá’u’lláh named Shaykh Muḥammad Báqir (1819–1883) the “Wolf” and his son, Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (1846–1914), Ibn-i-Dhi’b (“Son of the Wolf”).
Dhi'l-Jawshan Dhi’l-Jawshan Ar. “clad in armour”. Term applied to Mullá ‘Abdu’lláh the arch-killer of Imám Ḥusayn
Dhikr, Adhkar Dhikr, pl. Adhkár recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration; reputation, repute, renown; naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation; report, account, narration, narrative; invocation of God, mention of the Lord’s name; (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulas in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing.
Dhikra, Dhikayat Dhikrá, pl. Dhikrayát remembrance, recollection, memory;—pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun Dhimmí, pl. Dhimmíyún a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur’án, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
Dhu'l-Awtad Dhu’l-Awtád is variously rendered by translators of the Qur’án as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc.
Dhu’l-Hijjih Dhu’l-Ḥijjih Twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or “Possessor of the Pilgrimage”)
Dhu'l-Qarnayn Dhu’l-Qarnayn Prophet in Qur’án 18:83–101—“the one with two horns” or “He of the Two Ages”. In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great.
Didam Baha’u’llahst Dídam Bahá’u’lláhst Pers. “I saw this was Bahá’u’lláh” (Dídam Bahá’u’lláhst) Summon up remembrance, p. 108.
Didan, Didam Dídan Pers. to see, look, observe; to perceive, feel; to expect, hope for; to visit (modern colloquialism). Dídam, saw
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin Dihqán, pl. Daháqina, Daháqín man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality; grandee (in ancient Persia)
Dil Dil Pers. the heart, mind, soul; marrow; pith of a tree; trunk of a tree; the centre; the eye; a dot; an enigma; cote (animal shelter)
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi Dimashqí, Dimishqí of Damascus, e.g. Damashqí Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in ‘Akká, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din, Adyan Dín, pl. Adyán religion, creed, faith, belief. Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah ad-Dín Pers. Salah-ud-Dín.
Dinar, Dananir Dínár, pl. Danánír (originally dinnár), a coin; a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar; a weight of gold (variously stated); (met.) the sun
Disatir (Desatir) Disátír Pers. is a literary forgery with Sufi leanings published in Bombay in 1818 from an Iranian manuscript
Disciples of ‘Abdu'l-Baha Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá Designated by Shoghi Effendi: Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont, Thornton Chase, Howard MacNutt, Sarah Farmer, Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, Lillian Kappes, Robert Turner (First Afro-American Bahá’í in America), Dr Arthur Brauns, W. H. Randall, Lua Getsinger (née Louisa A. Moore - Livá (banner), Lua - flag), Joseph Hannan, Chester I. Thatcher, Charles Greenleaf, Mrs J. D. Brittingham, Mrs Thornburgh, Helen S. Goodall, Arthur P. Dodge, William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Diwan (Divan), Dawawin Díwán (Díván), pl.Dawáwín account books of the treasury (in the older Islamic administration); collection of poems written by one author; governmental office, administrative office; chancellery, office, bureau, secretariat; council or state, cabinet; council, consultative assembly, board of advisers, executive committee; government; court or justice, tribunal; hall; davenport, divan; (railway) compartment. Used in titles, as in Amír-Díwán, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Diya'u'llah Ḍíyá’u’lláh light of God (Zíá’u’lláh or Ziaoullah). Mirza Ḍíyá’u’lláh—a son of Bahá’u’lláh
Diyala, Sirwan Diyálá (in ‘Iráq), Sírwan (in Írán) 445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern ‘Iráq, flowing on east side of Baghdád and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city. Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Du'a' Du‘á’, pl. Ad‘yá, Pers. Ad‘iyat (Ad’iyyih) call; invocation of God, supplication, prayer; request, plea; good wish; imprecation, course. Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Dumit Ḍúmiṭ ‘Azíz Sulaymán Ḍúmiṭ—his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Báb.
Dunam Dunam Ottoman Turkish origin. Modern metric unit is 1,000 m2 of land or about a quarter of an acre.
Dunya Dunyá (fem. of Adná) world; earth; this world (as opposed to ákhira); life in this world, worldly existence; worldly. temporal things or possessions; earthly things or concerns. See awwal and ákhirah
Durzi, Duruz Durzí, pl. Durúz Druse. The name Druze is derived from the name of Muḥammad bin Ismá‘íl Nashtakín ad-Darazí (from Persian darzí, "tailor") who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name Muwaḥḥidún (“Unitarian”)
Fa’ida, Fawa’id (Fava’id) Fá’ida, pl. Fawá’id utility, avail, benefit, advantage; gain, profit; interest (on money); useful lesson, moral; use (e.g., of a medicine). The Qur’án forbids usury, not reasonable interest. See riban.
Fa'iq Fá’iq superior; surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate; outstanding, remarkable, striking; pre-eminent; exceeding, extraordinary; going far beyond (a restriction, etc.); awake, waking, wakeful
Fa'il, Fa'ilun, Fa'ala Fá‘il, pl. Fá‘ilún, Fa‘ala effective; efficacious, efficient; (pl. fá‘ilún) doer, actor, perpetrator; (pl. fa‘ala) worker, workman, labourer;—active subject of a verbal clause (grammar). See maf‘úl, manṣúb and marfú‘
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala Fáḍil, pl. Fawáḍil, Fáḍilún, Fuḍalá Ar. (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess; (pl. fawáḍil) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;—(pl. fáḍilún, fuḍalá) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving; learned; man of culture and refinement. Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): fáḍil, fem. fáḍilat, fáḍila, pl. fáḍilát.
Fadil (Fazil), Fudala Faḍíl, pl. Fuḍalá’ outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent; distinguished, deserving; learned, erudite. As the day of the Badí‘ week, Faḍíl: grace, favour.
Fadila, Fada'il Faḍíla, pl. Faḍá’il moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue; merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul Faḍl, pl. Fuḍúl surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow; & leftover, remainder, remnant, rest; & matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter;—pl. that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity; & waste, refuse; & droppings, excrement. & Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): faḍlat, faḍla.
Fahima, Fahm, Faham Fahima, Fahm, Faham to understand, comprehend, realize (something); to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something); to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Faid (Faiz) Faiḍ (Faiẓ) Pers. of Fayḍ, hence Faiẓí. being plentiful, copious (water, tears); being brim-full (vessel or river); being published, spread (news), divulged (secret); dying, expiring, death; emanation; plenty, abundance; favour, grace, bounty
Fajr Fajr dawn, daybreak, morning twilight; dawn (figuratively), beginning, outset, start; (fem.) morning prayer (Islamic Law)
Fakara, Fakr Fakara (Fakr) to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something); to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhkhar Fakhkhár (fired) clay; earthenware, crockery, pottery. Tell ‘Akká (inaccurately also called Tell al-Fakhkhár (Hill of Shards) or Napoleon’s Hill.
Fani Fání Pers. frail, transitory, perishable, inconstant; tottering (old man); (in the parlance of the Sufis) one who has reached the state of fanáʼ, or annihilation
Far', Furu', Afru' Far‘, pl. Furú‘, Afru‘ twig, branch, bough, limb, (also colloquial) branches, twigs; derivative; section, subdivision; branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch; branch line, feeder line; branch wire (electricity)
Farabi Fárábí Abú Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Al Fárábí (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Born in Fáráb or Fáryáb.
Faraburz, Fariburz Faráburz, Faríburz Pers. glorious and mighty. Name of a mighty champion and minister of Írán.
Farada, Faruda, Furud Farada and Faruda (Furúd) to be single, be alone; to be singular, be unique;—farada (furúd) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Farah, Afrah Faraḥ, pl. Afráḥ joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness; wedding;—pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity; wedding (feast)
Farahan Faráhán merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy. County in Markazí Province, Írán.
Faraj Faraj freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering; joy; relaxation; relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort; happy ending
Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi Faraju’lláh Dhakí al Kurdí see Zakíy
Faramush-Khanih Farámúsh-Khánih Pers. house of oblivion, Freemasonry headquarters, a corruption of franc-maçonnerie (Freemasonry)
Farang, Firing Farang (hence Farangí), Firing Pers. from old French word franc (“Frank”), an Italian, European; a Christian; all nations that wear short garments; ruddy, of pleasing aspect; a galley. See afranj and ifranjí
Faraqa, Farq, Furqan Faraqa (Farq, Furqán) to separate, part, divide, sever, sunder (something); to make a distinction (between), distinguish, differentiate, discriminate (between). See Furqán
Faraqlit Fáraqlíṭ (Fáriq+líṭ) defender, deputy, or intercessor; a distinguisher between truth and error, i.e. Aḥmad, a name of Muḥammad. Arabic rendering of the Greek Paráklētos (Paraclete)
Farasha, Farashah, Farashun Farásha (n. Faráshun), Pers. Farásháh moth; butterfly; flighty, fickle person. Farásháh (now Islámiyih, Eslamiyeh) is a town SW of Yazd, Írán
Faraz Faráz Pers. above, up, upon, on, upwards, aloft, on the top; above and below, up and down; back, behind; after, hereafter
Farhand Farhand Pers. an excavation formed by a torrent; an artificial canal newly dug; a ditch; a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another; a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another; anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang Farhang Pers. good-breeding; greatness; excellence; gravity; wisdom, science; jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary; a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk; a subterraneous canal
Farid Faríd alone, lone, lonely, solitary; singular, unique, matchless, peerless, unrivaled, incomparable
Farida, Fara'id Fará’id, pl. Fará’íd precious pearl, precious gem, solitaire; (e.g.) quire (of paper). Mírzá Faḍl’s Kitábu’l-Fará’íd (Book of peerless gems)
Fariq, Fawariq Fáriq, pl. Fawáriq distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative;—pl. a separating or distinctive factor; distinctive characteristic, criterion; difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Faris, Fawaris Fáris, pl. Fawáris Pers. Mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal; a horseman, a cavalier; a lion; the Persians; Persia.
Farma Farmá One who issues orders. From the infinitive Farmúdan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farmán-Farmá, the one who establishes order; the Governor.
Farman-Farma Farmán-Farmá the one who establishes or issues the order; the commander or governor. Title of Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí-Sháh
Farman, Firman, Faraman Farmán, Per. also Firmán, pl. Farámán Royal decree, command, order or edict. Ar. plural also Faramát or Farámín
Farmaniyyih Farmáníyyih (“Farmanieh”) once a garden named after Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, now a district in NE of Teheran
Fars Fárs Pers. Persia, Parthia. Párs is the the proper and original name of this country, Arabs, who have not the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fárs
Farsakh, Farasikh Farsakh, pl. Farásikh Pers. A parasang, a league, about 18,000 feet in length; an hour; a long time; an interval; a chink, cleft; quiet, repose; perpetual; much.
Farsang Farsang Pers. A parsang, league, about 5.5 km—the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour. Derived from the Persian parsang (stone, sang, placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush Farsh, pl. Furúsh furnishing; furniture, household effects; mat, rug, carpet; anything spread on the ground as bedding; foundation (architecture)
Faryab (or Firyab) Fáryáb or Fíryáb “lands irrigated by diversion of river water”. Village 140 km NE of Bandar-‘Abbás, Írán
Fashar, Fishar Fashar, Fishár Pers. a scattering; diffusion; compression, constriction, squeezing; the piercing of one thing with another
Fasih, Fusaha', Fisah, Fusuh Faṣíḥ, pl. Fuṣaḥá’, Fiṣáḥ, Fuṣuḥ pure, good Arabic (language), literary; skilful in using the correct literary language; clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech); fluent, eloquent
Fasiq, Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa Fásiq, pl. Fásiqún, Fussáq, Fasaqa godless, sinful, dissolute, wanton, licentious, profligate, vicious, iniquitous, nefarious; trespasser, offender, sinner; fornicator, adulterer; a person not meeting the legal requirements of righteousness (Islamic Law)
Fasl, Fusul Faṣl, pl. Fuṣúl parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off; separation; division, partition; discharge, dismissal.—plural: section, part; chapter; act (of a play); movement (of a symphony, etc.); article (in a newspaper); class, grade (school); season.
Fasl al-Khitab, Faslu’l-Khitab Faṣl al-Khiṭáb, Pers. Faṣlu’l-Khiṭáb “sound or unmistakable judgement” (Fassl-ul-Khitab). The Conclusive Proof or The Decisive Decree by Mírzá Faḍl
Fassala, Fussila Faṣṣala, Fuṣṣila to detail, to enumerate; to expound, to elucidate, to explain; to make understandable, to clarify; to be made distinct
Fataha, Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fataḥa, Fatḥ, pl. Futuḥ, Futuḥát to open (something); to turn on (a faucet); to switch on, turn on (an apparatus); to dig (a canal); to build (a road); to open, preface, introduce, begin (something); to conquer, capture (something); to reveal, disclose (to someone or something); to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something; of God). Plural: conquest; victory, triumph; alms; donations, contributions
Fatiha, Fawatih Fátiḥa, pl. Fawátiḥ start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience; introduction, preface, preamble, proem. Al-Fátiḥa (or Al-Sab‘a Al Matḥání (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of Al-Fátiḥa must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur’án. See Qur’án 15:87.
Fatima, Fatimih or Fatimah Fáṭima (Fáṭimah), Pers, Fáṭimih (“One who weans”) Fem. of ‘Fátim’. Fáṭima was the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad and wife of the Imám ‘Alí. Fáṭimih-Bagum was the mother of the Báb. Fáṭimih Khánum (referred to as Mahd-i-‘Ulyá) (second wife of Bahá’u’lláh—daughter Ṣamadíyyih, son Muḥammad, son Ḍíyá’u’lláh, and son Badí’u’lláh)
Fatra, Fatarat Fatra, Fatarát lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility; tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling); (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause; period, spell, while
Fatwa, Fatva Pers., Fatawa Fatwá, pl. Fatáwá A judgement or sentence made by a Muslim muftí (and court)
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud Fayḍ, Pers. Fayẓ, pl. Fuyúḍ flood, inundation, deluge; emanation; superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance; (pl.) stream
Fayd-i-Aqdas Fayḍ-i-Aqdas (“most holy outpouring”) Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas (“holy outpouring”) and “most holy outpouring” (fayḍ-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitáb-i-Íqán), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation. See Faiḍ.
Fi Fí (prep.) in; at; on; near, by; within, during; among, in the company of, with; about, on; concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles); for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for; according to; in proportion to.
Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali Fí Khalali and Fí Khiláli during; in the course of, within, in a given period of
Fi'l Fi‘l, pl. Af‘ál, Afá‘íl activity, doing, work, action, performance; function;— (pl. af‘ál, fi‘ál) deed, act, action; effect, impact;— (pl. af‘ál) verb (gram.);—pl. afá‘íl great deeds, exploits, feats; machinations
Fiddih, (Fidda, Fizza) Fiḍḍih (Pers. fem.) Maid of the wife of the Báb. Ar. Fiḍḍa (silver). In Pers. may be written as Fiẓẓa.
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan) Firaydán (alt. pronunciation Farídán) Pers. county in Iṣfahán Province. The capital of the county is Dárán (or Dárún).
Firishta, Firishtih, Firishtagan Firishta, Fem. Firishtih, pl. Firishtagán Pers. an angel; a messenger, apostle. See Ar. Mal’ak/Malak
Firman Firmán Pers. See Farmán
Firuz Fírúz victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful; victory; prosperity; the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year; name of several Persian kings. See Ẓáfir
Fishar-i-Qabr Fishár-i-Qabr Pers. constriction in the grave. Promised after death tortures leading to a fear of being squeezed in the grave.
Fitna, Fitan Fitna, Pers. Fitnah, pl. Fitan temptation, trial; charm, attractiveness; enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation; infatuation; intrigue; sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife. Occurs when a Manifestation appears. See also Imtiḥán.
Fitr, Aftar Fitr, pl. Aftár small span (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended); corner
Fitrat Fitrat Ar. There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap. Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Báb and the rise of Bahá’u’lláh.
Fizan,Fezan, Fezzan, Fizzan Fízán (Turkish), Fizzán (Ar.) “rough rocks”, south-western region of modern Libya. It is largely desert, but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (wadis) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara Desert.
Fulad, Fuladi Fúlád, adj. Fúládí and Fuládí steel, of steel, made of steel; steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulan, Fulana Fulán, fem. Fulána (substituting for an unnamed or unspecified person or thing) so and so
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik) Funduq, Funduqa Pers. hazelnut of filbert-nut; a nut good against the sting of a scorpion; a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow. Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findík
Furqan Furqán proof, evidence, discriminator. An important attribute of al-Qur’án (see 2:185) is that of distinction (Furqán), for the word Qur’án describes how al-Qur’án is recited, whereas the word Furqán describes the criterion that distinguishes between truth (Ḥaqq) and falsehood (Báṭil) (see 25:1). Name of súra 25.
Gabr Gabr Pers. originally an ancient Persian (i.e. a Zoroastrain), one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster (a priest of the worshippers of fire); by the 13th century the word denoted a pagan, an infidel; a plant resembling ginger; a vest; a stone. After gabr came to have a pejorative implication, it was superseded in literature by the respectable Zartoshtí ("Zoroastrian”)
Gach Gach Pers. a kind of white earth of which lime is made of; a plaster of lime and gypsum mixed with sand and pounded marble.
Gandum-Pak-Kun Gandum-Pák-Kun Mullá Muḥammad Ja‘far—the first person in Iṣfahán to accept the Faith of the Báb
Ganj Ganj Pers. a store, hoard, hidden treasure; a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse; a mart; a case
Garb Garb west; occident; vehemence, violence, impetuosity, tempestuousness; al-Garb—the West, the Occident
Garbi Garbí western, westerly; occidental, Western; European; an Occidental, a Westerner;—al-Garbíyún the Western Church (Christian)
Garm Rud Garm Rúd (or Garmrúd) Village northern Írán (south of Sárí). Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rúd)
Gawhar (gohar, gauhar) Gawhar Pers. a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone; lustre of a gem or sword; root, origin; of a noble family; essence, substance, form; offspring; any hidden virtue; intellect, wisdom; a substitute. See Ar. jawhar
Gawhar Khanum Gawhar Khánum third wife of Bahá’u’lláh (broke Covenant after the passing of Bahá’u’lláh)—her daughter is Furúghíyyih
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufrán to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghali Ghálí Pers. dear, costly, high-priced, precious, valuable; one who exceeds bounds; a fanatic, a zealot; name of a poet
Ghalin, Ghulah Ghálin, pl. Ghuláh expensive, high priced; valuable, costly; dear, beloved; (pl.) adherent of an extreme sect; extremist, radical; fanatic adherent, fanatic
Ghannam Ghannám Ar. shepherd. House of Sulaymán-i-Ghannám in Baghdád. See Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
Gharasa, Ghars Gharasa, Ghars, pl. Ghirás to plant, implant (something in); to place, put, set, infix, interpose, interpolate, insert (something into) (Ghars numerical value of 1260)
Ghariq Gharíq Pers. drowned, immersed. Numerical value of 1310. Nabíl drowned in AH 1310—the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghashiya, Ghawashin Gháshiya, pl. Ghawáshin pericardium; misfortune, calamity, disaster; faint, swoon; insensibility, stupor; servants, attendants, retinue, suit. Al Gháshiyah, the overwhelming event, súra 88
Ghayb (Ghaib) Ghayb, pl. Ghuyúb absence; hidden, concealed, invisible; (pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible; that which is transcendental, the supernatural; divine secret. (invisible realm)
Ghaybat (Ghaibat) Ghaybat being concealed, absent, invisible; concealment, absence, invisibility; ecstacies. State of being hidden from view.
Ghaybat-i-Kubra Ghaybat-i-Kubrá Major Occultation. See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat-i-Sughra Ghaybat-i-Ṣughrá Minor Occultation. See appended Occultation note.
Ghazal Ghazál A poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. gazelle
Ghulam-Ahmad Ghulám-Aḥmad Mírzá Ghulám-Aḥmad of Qádíyán, India,(1839–1908). Followers later split into Aḥmadíyyah and Qádíyáníyyah
Gird Gird Pers. round; a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit; environs, parts adjacent; a collection, assembly; a host; a city; a tent, pavilion; (adverb) around. e.g. Kinár-Gird, a village where the Báb paused in His exile journey to Máh-Kú.
Gulpaygan Gulpáygán a city in and the capital of Gulpáygán County, Iṣfahán Province, Írán (about 160 km NW of Iṣfahán)
Gulshan (Golshan) Gulshán Pers. a rose or flower-garden; a bed of roses or flowers; a delightful spot; a place where a person enjoys himself; a pleasure-palace; florid, cheerful, agreeable. Former name of Ṭabas—city in South Khorasan Province, Írán.
Ha, Had, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Há look! there! há huwa look, there he is! há antum you there! as a prefix (mostly written defectively): hádá, f. hádihí, hádí,—pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádání, f. hátáni this one, this
Habba, Hubb Ḥabba, Ḥubb to love, like; to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone); to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone); to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba, Ḥabíb, pl. Aḥabbá, Aḥibba beloved, sweetheart, lover; darling; dear one, friend; dear
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar Ḥabr, Ḥibr, pl. Aḥbár a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe; bishop; rabbi
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont. dual m. Hádání, f. Hátáni
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Hádá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádihí, hádí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual masc. hádáni, dual fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadba, Ahdab Ḥadbá’, fem. Aḥdab, pl. Ḥudb hunchbacked, humped. The historic Great Mosque of al-Núrí in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname “the hunchback” (al-Ḥadbá’). See root word Ḥadiba
Hadd, Hudud Ḥadd, pl. Ḥudúd (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword); edge, border, brink, brim, verge; border (of a country), boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus; a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained); (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion); divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God); legal punishment (Islamic Law)
Hadiba, Hadab Ḥadiba, (verbal noun Ḥadab) to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadid, Hada'id Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥadá’id iron;—pl. iron parts (of a structure); forgings, hardware, ironware
Hadid, Hidad, Ahidda Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥidád, Aḥiddá’, Aḥidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.), keen (mind)
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara Ḥáḍir, pl. Ḥuḍḍar, Ḥuḍúr, Ḥaḍara present; attending; (pl. ḥuḍḍár, ḥaḍara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic. See ḥáẓir
Hadith, Ahadith Ḥadíth, pl. Aḥádíth, Ḥádithán speech; chat, chitchat, small talk; conversation, talk, discussion; interview; prattle, gossip; report, account, tale, narrative; Prophetic tradition, Ḥadíth, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions. Aḥádíth are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad and the Imáms. Two distinct types: al-Ḥadíth an-Nabawí and al-Ḥadíth al-Qudsí. The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muḥammad (a Ḥadíth where one of the Companions reports Muḥammad’s statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration.
Haditha, Hawadith Ḥáditha, pl. Ḥawádith occurrence, event, happening; plot (of a play); incident, episode; accident, mishap
Hadiya Ḥadiya to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place). Name given as location where of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, the leader of the Shaykhís, died. It is near the tomb of Muḥammad in Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí‘ in Medina.
Hadra (Hadrat), Hazrat Ḥaḍra(t), Pers. Ḥaẓrat presence, threshold; dignity; majesty; dominion, power; an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity; also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship. Used broadly by mystics as a synonym of ḥuḍúr, “being in the presence [of Alláh]”. Holiness (‘his excellency’ or ‘his honour’). Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut Ḥaḍramawt, Hadhramaut a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula—part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Húd)
Hadrat-i-A'la or Hadrat-i-'Ala Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá “His Holiness the Most Exalted One” (a designation of the Báb)
Hafiz Ḥáfiẓ a keeper, preserver, guardian; a commander, governor; the Preserver of all things (God); gifted with a good memory; one who has by heart the whole Qurʼán; a blind man (because such fall frequently under the preceding category); pen name of the greatest lyric, mystical poet of Persia, Khwája Shams al-Dín Muḥammad Ḥáfíẓ-i-Shírází (1320–1390), author of odes in the ghazal form. The Tomb of Ḥáfiẓ and its associated memorial hall, the Ḥáfiẓih, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shíráz, in his memory.
Hahut Háhút (realm of the “Absolute Unknown”, where God’s essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity). See Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút.
Hajib, Hujjab Ḥájib, pl. Ḥujjáb, Ḥajaba concealing, screening, protecting; doorman, gatekeeper; court official, equivalent to a chamberlain
Hajj, Hajjaj Ḥájj, pl. Ḥujjáj pilgrim; Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajr Hajr abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation; avoidance, abstention; separation from the beloved one; hottest time of the day. Variation hijr.
Hakim, Hukama' Ḥakím, pl. Ḥukamá’ wise, judicious; wise man, sage; philosopher; physician, doctor. al-Ḥakím, the divine name for the All-Wise.
Halal Ḥalál that which is allowed, permitted or permissible; allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate; lawful possession
Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat Halih-Halih-Yá-Bishárát “Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Haman Hamán Pers. only, solely; self-same, all one, one and the same, even that, that very; in this manner, exactly so, thus, equally; always, continually. Name of Abraham's brother; name of Pharaoh's vizier; name of a place in Kirmán where Sháh Niʻmatu’lláh Walí is buried
Hamaza, Hamz Hamaza, Hamz to prick; to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something); to spur (one’s horse); (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hammam Ḥammám, pl. Ḥammámát bath; swimming pool; spa, watering place (public baths) (error writings—H used)
Hamzih Ḥamzih (“The lion”—Alt. Ḥamzah used by Balyuzi) “Prince of Martyrs” a title given to Muḥammad’s uncle. Ḥamzih is a sign that is pronounced as a. Since ḥamzih is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes disregarded. Thus, Bahá can be read as either eight or nine (Bahá’).
Hana Ḥaná to bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline (toward someone); to feel for someone, sympathize (with someone), commiserate, pity (someone), feel compassion, feel pity (for someone)
Haram-i-Aqdas Ḥaram-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts) Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. NW quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí in the immediate area surrounding the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
Haram-i-Fatima-i-Ma'sumih Ḥaram-i-Fáṭima-i-Ma‘súmih Pers. Shrine of Fáṭima al-Ma‘súmih, sister of Imám ‘Alí ar-Riḍá (8th Imám), in Qum, Írán. See Ma‘súmih
Haram, Ahram Ḥaram, pl. Aḥrám forbidden, prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy, sacred, sacrosanct; something sacred, sacred object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct. [Ar.] The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar. Compare with Ḥill
Haram, Hurum Ḥarám, pl. Ḥurum forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; something forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo; sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed
Haranam, Haramayn (Haramain) al-Ḥaranám (Ar.), Ḥaramayn (Pers.) (dual pl.) Two Holy Places (i.e. Mecca and Medina). The “Twin Sacred Shrines” now refers to the places in Shíráz where the Báb was born and where He made His public declaration.
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf Ḥarf, pl. Ḥiraf, ḥurúf, aḥruf (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword); sharp edge; border, edge, rim, brink, verge; (pl. ḥurúf, aḥruf) letter; consonant; particle (grammar); type (typography)
Harut Hárút name of an angel, who, together with another named Márút (Qur’án 2:102), having severely censured mankind before the throne of God, was sent with him down to earth in human shapes to judge of the temptations to which man is subject. They could not withstand them: they were seduced by women, and committed every kind of iniquity; for which they were suspended by the feet in a well in Babylon, where they are to remain in great torment till the day of judgement. They are said to be teachers of magic to man. See Márút
Hasan, Hisan Ḥasan, pl. Ḥisán beautiful, handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good, agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite. Ḥasan is the name of the second Imám.
Hashara, Hashr Ḥashara, Ḥashr 1. to gather, assemble, rally (people), raising from the dead; to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together); to squeeze, press, force, stuff.
2. migration, evacuation, exile.
Hashim Háshim (of Shem) The Baní-Háshim were Muḥammad’s ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia. From ‘hashama’, “to destroy or smash to pieces”
Hashish, Hasha'ish Ḥashísh, pl. Ḥashá’ish herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Cannabis sativa), hashish, cannabis; stillborn child. Known by many names in Persia: ‘Parrot of all mysteries’, or plain ‘Mysteries’; or ‘Secrets’, or ‘Master Siyyid’—it being green, and the Siyyids, descendants of the Prophet, wear a turban as green as parrot feathers. (An ode of Ḥáfiẓ which must have puzzled translators is addressed to hashish and begins, ‘O thou parrot, speaker of secrets, may thy beak never lack for sugar!’) Summon up remembrance, p. 87.
Hashiya, Hawashin Ḥashiya, pl. Ḥawashin border; seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book); marginal gives; marginal notes; commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary; footnote; postscript; retinue, entourage, suite, servants; dependents;—pl. critical apparatus
Hashshash, Hashshashun (Hashshashin) Ḥashshásh, pl. Ḥashsháshún smoker or chewer of hashish, hashish addict. Assassins (Ḥashsháshín, from Assassiyun—“those faithful to the foundation”) is a name used to refer to medieval Nizárí (an-Nizáriyyún) Ismailis (Ismá‘íliyyún).
Hast Hast Pers. is, exists, remains; existence, being. hastam (I am), hastí (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastím (we are), hastíd (you are), hastand (they are)
Hatim, Hatam Ḥátim, Pers. Ḥátam Who or what renders necessary; one who decrees, ordains or pronounces judgement; a judge; a black crow, “the raven of separation”; name of a man of the Arabian tribe Tayy, celebrated for his liberality
Hawdaj (Haudaj) Hawdaj, pl. Hawádij camel litter, howdah; sedan chair, litter. Carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Hayat-Quli Khan Ḥayát-Qulí Khán Governor of Karand and a member of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís, a sect that equates Imám ‘Alí with God.
Hayf (Haif) Ḥayf (pun on the name Haifa) Pers. practising injustice; injustice, violence, oppression; revenge; a pity; alas! what a pity
Hayiya, Hayya, Yahya, Hayah Ḥayiya, Ḥayya, Yaḥyá (Ḥayáh) to live; ḥayya to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time); li-yaḥya l-malik (lit. to life the king) long live the king! ḥayiya, yaḥyá (ḥayá’) to be ashamed (of; because of) Form II ḥayyá to keep (someone) alive, grant (someone) a long life; to say to someone: may God preserve your life!; to greet, salute (someone) Form IV aḥyá to lend life (to someone, to something), enliven, animate, vitalize, endow with life, call into being (something), give birth (to); to revive, reanimate, revivify (something), give new life (to); to put on, produce, stage, arrange (e.g., a theatrical performance, a celebration, and the like); to celebrate (something, also a festival).
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil Haykal, pl. Hayákil temple; large building, edifice; altar; skeleton; framework (of a structure), frame; chassis (of an automobile); colossal, gigantic, huge
Hayy Ḥayy, pl. Aḥyá’ living, live, alive; lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed; living being, organism; tribe, tribal community; block of apartment houses; section, quarter (of a city). al-Ḥayy, divine name the Ever-Living
Hazar (Hizar) Hazár Pers. a thousand; a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale; a term employed in the game of nard
Hazir, Haziran Ḥáẓir, pl. Ḥáẓirán present, at hand, ready, prepared; at the service of, willing, content; (in grammar) the present tense; the second person; a large tribe. Pl. the people present, the audience. See ḥáḍir
Hazira, Haza'ir Ḥaẓírá, pl. Ḥaẓa’ir enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge; compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field, domain, realm (fig.)
Haziratu'l-Quds Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds Ar. the Sacred Fold or Paradise. Title given to Bahá’í administrative headquarters
Hifz Ḥifẓ preservation; maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding; protection, defence, guarding; custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage; retention; observance, compliance (with); memorizing, memorization; memory; (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation)
Hijab Ḥijáb, pl. Ḥujub, Aḥjiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain; woman’s veil; screen, partition, folding screen; barrier, bar; diaphragm. A veil that covers the head and chest.
Hijaz Ḥijáz “barrier”. al-ḥijáz (Hejaz) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
Hijr Ḥijr forbidden, interdicted, prohibited; northern wall of the Ka‘ba; lap; mare. Name of chapter 15 of the Qur’án (from 15:80, which refers to the rocky country of the Thamúd tribe to the north of al-Madínah) and translated as “rocky tract”.
Hijra Hijra departure, exit; emigration, exodus; immigration to; al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in ad 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri Hijrí of the Hegira pertaining to Muḥammad’s emigration in ad 622. A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muḥammad’s emigration. Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya Hijríya Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in ad 873 (ah 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikam Abu’l-Ḥikam “the Father of Wisdoms”. See Ḥikma
Hill Ḥill Pers. being lawful; a lawful thing; the dissolution of an oath; doffing the pilgrim's garb; a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin Ḥill, Ḥillin he was free to …, he was at liberty to …; he had free disposal of …. The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months. Compare with Ḥaram.
Hillah, Hilla, Hillih Ḥillah or Ḥilla, Pers. Ḥillih A city in central ‘Iráq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdád
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam Ḥilm, pl. Ḥulúm, Aḥlám gentleness, clemency, mildness; forbearance, indulgence; patience; insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin Ḥín, pl. Ḥín Aḥyán, Aḥáyín time; propitious time, good time, opportunity. value of 68
Hindu, Hinduwan Hindú, pl. Hinduwán (Pers.) Indian; black; servant; slave; robber; infidel; watch-man
Hiqf, Ahqaf Ḥiqf, pl. Aḥqáf wavy heap of sand;—pl. hills of sand extending a great way; name of a large district in Arabia formerly inhabited by the people of ʻÁd. Qur’án 46: al-Aḥqáf “The Wind-curved Sand Hills” or “The Winding Sand-tracts”
Hira Ḥirá’ Ghár Ḥirá’ (the Cave of Hira) is located on the western side of Jabal Ḥirá’ (Mount Hira), which is on the north side of Mecca. The mountain was renamed Jabal al-Núr (Mountain of Light) after Muḥammad’s revelation in the cave.
Hirman Ḥirmán deprivation, bereavement, dispossession (of someone, of something) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (from); excommunication (Christian); privation
Hisab, Hisabat Ḥisáb, pl. Ḥisábát arithmetic, reckoning, calculus; computation; calculation, estimation, appraisal; accounting, settlement; consideration; caution;— (pl.) bill, invoice; statement of costs (bank) account
Hisami Ḥisámí See Ḥusám
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina Ḥiṣán, pl. Ḥuṣun, Aḥsina horse; stallion; Ḥiṣán al-baḥr: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisn, Husun Ḥiṣn, pl. Ḥuṣún fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification, entrenchment; protection
Hitta Ḥiṭṭa alleviation, relief, mitigation; abasement, debasement, demotion, degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige); humiliation, insult, indignity
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum Ḥizám, pl. Ḥizámát, Aḥzima, Ḥuzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it); sword belt
Hizb, Ahzab Ḥizb, pl. Aḥzab group, troop, band, cohort, gang; associates, auxiliaries, confederates; arms, armour; party (politics); a 60th part of the Qur’án
Hudaybiyyah Ḥudaybiyyah Truce of al-Ḥudaybiyyah, in ah 6 (ad 628), at Ḥudaybiyyah spring about 20 km west of Mecca on the Old Mecca-Jiddah Road. The ruins of the old mosque marking the site is at 21.441960, 39.625601.
Huduth Ḥudúth setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon); occurrence, incident, happening. “originated nature”—contrast with Imkán (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujja Ḥujja, Per. Ḥujjat, pl. Ḥújaj argument; pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence; document, writ, deed, record; authority
Hujjat'u'llah Ḥujjat’u’lláh the proof of God. The last Imám is known as the Proof of God. Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatu'l-Islam Ḥujjatu’l-Islám Proof of Islám. Mullá Muḥammad-‘Alí of Zanján was called Ḥujjatu’l-Islám. The Báb called him Ḥujjatu’l-Zanjání.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran Ḥujr, Ḥajara to deny access (Ḥajr, Ḥijr, Ḥujr, Ḥijrán, Ḥujrán)
Hujrat (Hujrih), Hujra, Hujarat Ḥujrat, Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát Pers. a chamber, closet, cell; a box in a theatre, circus
Hukm, Ahkam Ḥukm, Aḥkám judgement, valuation, opinion; decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence; condemnation, conviction; administration of justice; jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law); regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree; judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power; government, regime;—pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
Hulul Ḥulúl stopping, putting up, staying; descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking; incarnation; setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn; substitution (for someone). In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
Hums Ḥums al-Ḥums is the name traditionally given to the inhabitants of the ḥaram of Mecca at the time of Muḥammad’s appearance, in so far as they were distinguished by special customs during the iḥrám from the other tribes who were together known as al-Ḥilla.
Hunayn (Hunain) Ḥunayn Battle of Ḥunayn (Qur’án 9:25) in a valley between Mecca and the city of Ṭá’if to the east of Mecca
Hurayra (Huraira), Hurayrih Hurayra(h), Pers. also Hurayrih a little cat or kitten. Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of “ah” or “ih”. Surname given to Abú Hurayrih ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán bin Sakhr (a companion of Muḥammad) because of the favourite kitten he used to carry around with him. A village about 24 km nw of central Damascus, Syria.
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur Ḥúríya, pl. Ḥúríyát, Ḥúr houri, virgin of paradise; nymph; young locust. Ḥúrí (adj.) (literally, white one)
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak) Húrmudúk Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvíd (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurqalya, Havarqalya Húrqalyá, Havarqalyá (speculative Pers.) intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Húrqalyá. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Húrqalyá. The occulted but living twelfth Imám and the cities of Jábulsá and Jábulqá, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Húrqalyá. Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227. From Hebrew רָקִיעַ (firmament, sky, ductile, heaven, expanse, canopy). See www.scribd.com/document/ 21263244/HURQALYA-HAVARQALYA and The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, pp. 106–7.
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara'ir Ḥurr, pl. m. Aḥrár, f. Ḥará’ir noble, free-born; genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living in freedom; freeman; independent; free unrestrained; liberal
Hurriya, Huriyat Ḥurriya, Per. Ḥurriyyah, pl. Ḥurriyát freedom, liberty; independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic)
Hurufat-i-'Alin Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álín The Exalted letters (by Bahá’u’lláh). See Ḥarf
Husamu's-Sultani, Hisamu's-Saltanih Ḥusámu’s-Sulṭaní (Ḥisámu’s-Salṭanih) (“Sword of the sovereign”) Title of Prince Sulṭán Murád Mírzá, son of ‘Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh
Hushidar, Hoshidar Hushidár One who increases holiness or promotes righeousness; name of a future saviour. Zoroastrian origin.
Huwa (Pers. Huva) Huwa he; it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun); God (or “the Most Great Name of God” according to the Báb). Huwa (“he” or “he is”) in the context of “‘He is’ God” is often incorrectly understood (as in the definition) to be the name of God. In the Bible it is represented in Hebrew by the tetragrammaton “yhwh”, sometimes pronounced as Yahweh. However, the Jews were forbidden to utter the name of God, and as ancient Hebrew script did not use vowels, it is not known how yhwh would have been pronounced, if it was permitted. If we say “yá huwa” in Arabic in reference to God, it means “O He is …”. Since Hebrew and Arabic are sister languages, it is not surprising that “yá huwa” sounds like Yahweh, which has commonly been represented by Jehovah. (In some European languages the “J” is pronounced as “Y”, “V” as “U”, and “W” as “UU”.) See note under Bahá’.
Huwaydar, Huvaydar Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar village north of the city Ba‘qúba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdád
Huwiya (Pers. Huwiyyat, Huviyyat) Huwíya essence, nature; coessentiality, consubstantiality; identity; identity card
-i- -i- Pers. sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it
I'qilhá wa tawakkal I’qilhá wa tawakkal Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God) in Tirmidhi’s collection of traditions
I'timad, I'timadat I‘timád, pl. I‘timádát reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in); confirmation; sanction, approbation, authorization; accreditation (of diplomats); (pl.) credit, loan
I’tiraf I‘tiráf recognition, acceptance; acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession; (Christian) confession
Ibn, Abna, Banun Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abná’, Banún Ar. son; descendant, scion; offspring, son (of a nation or people)
Ibnu'l-Alusi Ibnu’l-Álúsí the chief jurisconsult [muftí] of Baghdád—one of the five sons of the famous Shaykh Maḥmúd al-Álúsí. Probably one of the three eldest: ‘Abdu’lláh, Bahá’u’d-Dín; ‘Abdu’l-Baqí‘; and Siyyid Na‘mán, Khayru'd-Dín.
Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah Ibráhím-i-Khayru’lláh Syrian doctor, the first Bahá’í teacher in America, and later joined forces with Muḥammad-‘Ali, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His English wife, Miriam, remained loyal to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and later they were divorced. Refer to Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá’í Faith, pp. 114–117.
Idda (‘Iddah, ‘Iddat) ‘Idda number; several, numerous, many. ‘iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)
Ihtisham Iḥtishám being ashamed; bashfulness; having many dependants, followers, or domestics; pomp, retinue, magnificence, grandeur, state
Ihtisham-i-Dawlih Iḥtishám-i-Dawlih See Taḥashshum
Ijma' Ijmá‘ agreement, unanimity; unanimous resolution; (Isl. Law) consensus (of the authorities in a legal question; one of the four uṣúl of Islamic Law)
Ijtihad Ijtihád effort, exertion, endeavor, pains, trouble; application, industry, diligence; (Isl. Law) independent judgement in a legal or theological queetion, based on the interpretation and application of the 4 uṣúl, as opposed to taqlíd; individual judgment. The power of a Shí‘ih divine to issue ex cathedra decrees and judgements.
Ijtima', Ijyima'at Ijtimá‘, pl. Ijtimá‘át meeting; get-together, gathering, assembly; reunion; rally; convention; conjunction, constellation (astron.); confluence (of rivers); life in a social group, community life, social life
Ikhtiyar Ikhtiyár choice; election (also politics; pl. ikhtiyárát); selection; preference (to); option; free will (philosophy)
Ilkhani Ílkhání (“A tribal chief, a chieftain”) Also the name of a garden outside Ṭihrán where Ṭáhirih was martyred.
Ilm, ‘Ulum ‘Ilm, pl. ‘Ulúm Ar. knowledge, learning, lore; cognizance, acquaintance; information; cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge; (pl.) science
Ilmu't-Tajwid ‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd al-‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd or ‘Ilmu’l-Qira’ah—the science of reading the Qur’an correctly.
Iltibas Iltibás confusion, tangle, intricacy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, doubt. Also veiled or disguised.
Imad, Amad ‘Imád, pl. ‘Amad support, prop, stay (also fig.); bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar. Mír ‘Imád famous calligrapher.
Imam-Jum'ih Imám-Jum‘ih Pers. (Imam-Jom’a or Imam Jomai) The leader of the Shí’ah Friday prayers in the mosque of a city or town.
Imam-Zadih Ma'sum Imám-Zádih Ma’ṣúm Shrine in Ṭihrán where the Báb’s body was kept at the instruction of Bahá’u’lláh.
Imam, A'imma Imám, pl. A’imma (literally “Leader”, “guide”) The person who leads the congregation in the mosque, in prayer (hence, “prayer leader”), is called the Imám. The Imáma are called the “Kindred of God”, “Suns of immaculacy and Moons of majesty” by Bahá’u’lláh (GDM).
Imamat Imámat Pers. (verbal noun of Umma) imamate, taking the lead in religious matters, performing the functions of an Imám; the priestly office
Imara Imára position or rank of an emir; princely bearing or manners; principality, emirate; authority, power
Imkan, Imkanat Imkán, pl. Imkánát power, capacity, capability; faculty, ability; possibility. “inherent contingency”—contrast with Ḥudúth (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Imra', Imru' Imra’ and Imru’ (with definite article al-mar’) a man; person, human being; frequently for son, human being
Imran ‘Imrán (Amran in Bible and Joachim is known as ‘Imrán in the al-Qur’án) name of the father of Moses, Mary and of Abú Tálib
Imruz Imrúz today or this day. See yúm
Imtihan, Imtihanat Imtiḥán, pl. Imtiḥánát test, experiment; examination. Tests occur when a Manifestation appears. See also Fitna.
Imtiyaz, Imtiyazat Imtiyáz, pl. Imtiyazát distinction, (mark of) honour; advantage, benefit, merit; difference, distinction, differentiation, discrimination; special right, privilege; concession, patent, permit, license, franchise; (oil) concession; prerogative, priority right
Inayatu’llah Khan ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán Mírzá ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán (Enayet’o’llah), the son of Mullá Ismá‘íl, the martyr
Injil, Anajil Injíl, pl. Anájíl (Gk. Evangel) gospel. Injíl occurs twelve times in the Qur’án (as Gospel in English) and refers to the book given to Jesus by God. It is believed to be the true lost original Gospel promulgated by Jesus.
Inkar Inkár denial, disavowal, negation, contestation; refusal, rejection, non-acceptance, e.g. of Imám ‘Alí
Iqab ‘Iqáb infliction of punishment, punishment; penalty. Translated by Shoghi Effendi as “retribution” in The Hidden Words #93 (Persian). Mistaken for “eagle” in an early translation. See ‘uqáb
Iqbal Iqbál drawing near, advance, approach; coming, arrival, advent; turning, application, attention, response, responsiveness
Iqtidar, Iqtidarat Iqtidár, fem. pl. Iqtidárát might, power, strength, potency; ability, capability, faculty, capacity, efficiency, aptitude. Iqtidárát wa chand lawḥ-i-dígár ḥaḍrat-i-Bahá’u’lláh (Magnificences and select other Tablets of His Holiness Bahá’u’lláh)—a compilation of Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh.
Iqtiran Iqtirán connection, conjunction, union, association, affiliation; link, connectedness, simultaneous interaction; conjunction (astron.); new moon (as an astronomical aspect); marriage, wedding
Irada (Iradih), Iradat Iráda, (Pers. Irádih), pl. Irádát will, volition; wish; desire; (pl.) irade (a decree of an Islamic ruler), decree (of a ruler); will power
Iran Írán Írán, the kingdom of Persia proper, said to be named after Íraj, son of Farídún, to whom this part of his father's dominions was given
Iraq-i-'Ajam ‘Iráq-i-‘Ajam Persian ‘Iráq. ‘Iráq between the 11th to 19th centuries consisted of two neighbouring regions: Arabic ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Arab) and Persian ‘Iráq (ʿIráq-i ‘Ajam). Arabic ‘Iráq corresponded with ancient Babylonia (now central-southern ‘Iráq), and Persian ‘Iráq corresponded with the ancient Media (now central-western Írán). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Iraq-i-A'zam ‘Iráq-i-A‘ẓam A part of Írán once known as Persian ‘Iráq (the country around Media (the triangle between the ancient cities of Ecbatana (believed near Hamadan), Rhagae (southern Ṭihrán) and Aspadana (Iṣfahán)), in today's central Írán.
Irshad, Irshadat Irshád, pl. fem. Irshádát guidance; a conducting, showing the way (to); guiding hand; care; spiritual guidance; instruction; direction; directive; information; advising, advice;—pl. directives, directions, instructions, advice
Irtifa' Irtifá‘ rise (e.g., of prices); elevation; increase; height, altitude (e.g., of a mountain). The Báb uses irtifá‘ to mean abrogation (both removing and elevating) in relation to the abrogation of a former Dispensation and its fulfilment and exaltation by a new Dispensation. “Each Revelation, in simultaneously abrogating and exalting the previous Dispensation, is the return of the previous Revelation in the station of its perfection.” Gate of the heart, p. 277.
Isa ‘Ísá Pers. Jesus. See Yasú’
Isfahan Iṣfahán Pers. city 340 km south of Ṭihirán. Transliteration as per Shoghi Effendi. Iṣfáhán, Ispáhán and Ṣifáhán transliterations are also used outside the Faith as the name of the city, carpets, business names and food.
Isfahani Iṣfahání Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar ‘Alí-i-Iṣfahání (b. Iṣfahán, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920). Bahá’u’lláh gave him the titles “The Angel of Carmel” and “Sulṭán-i-Mu‘allimún” (The king of teachers). Author of Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr (Delight of Hearts)
Isfandiyar Isfandíyár Pers. Esfandiyár, Sepandiár, Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar. Legendary Iranian hero. (“Created holy and pure”) Name of loyal servant of Bahá.
Ishan Íshán “They” a designation by which Bahá’u’lláh was known. Also said to be honorific form of Persian pronoun for the third person singular
Ishara, Isharat Ishára, pl. Ishárát sign, motion, nod, wink, wave; gesture; signal; indication; allusion, hint, intimation; symbolic expression; (silent) reminder; advice, counsel, suggestion; instruction, order, command
Ishraq, Ishraqat Ishráq, pl. Ishráqát Pers. rising (the sun sunrise, morning; splendour, lustre, beauty. Tablet of Ishráqát (Splendours) (by Bahá’u’lláh) published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 101-134.
Ishti’al Ishti‘ál ignition, inflammation, combustion, burning. Name/pen name (aflame or blazing fire) given to Ali-Kuli Khan by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Iskandarun Iskandarún (Turkish İskenderun, Arabic Iskandarúna) Originally Alexandria, later Alexandretta, on Turkish coast north of Syria
Islah, Islahat Iṣláḥ, pl. Iṣláḥát restoration, restitution, redressing, reparation; improvement, amelioration, betterment, mending, correction; reconstruction; reconditioning, repair; renovation, refurbishing; adjustment, settling, remedying, removal, elimination; restoration of order, establishment of peace, happiness and order; reformation, reform; reclamation, cultivation (of land); (re)conciliation, settlement, compromise, peace making
Islam Islám submission, resignation, reconciliation (to the will of God in every age); or the total surrender of oneself to God. Titled “Perspicuous Religion” and “Well-established Path”. Redefined by the Báb as “Verily, the essence of religion is none other than submission unto This Remembrance [the Báb].”
Islami (Islamic) Islámí Islamic. No accents for the English Islamic! Incorrectly given as Muhammadic or Muhammedic.
Isma ‘Iṣma hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation; preservation, guarding, safeguarding; defence; protection; chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness; impeccance, sinlessness, infallibility. ‘immunity from sin and error’, (from ‘aṣama, ya‘ṣimu = to protect, to save from)
Isma al-sifatiya al-‘Iṣma al-Ṣifátíya Conferred infallibility (bestowed rather than innate). Immunity from error and infallibility of judgement—not freedom from sin, sinlessness or immaculateness.
Isma'il Ismá‘íl (Ishmael in Hebrew), the son of Abraham and the Egyptian Hagar, who was considered to be the forerunner of the desert Arabs. “Ismael”
Isma’iliyya, Isma’iliyyih, Isma’iliyyun Ismá‘íliyya (Ar), Ismá‘íliyyih (Per) Isma’ilism—branch of Shi’a Islám. pl. Ismá‘íliyyún. Pers. Ismá‘íliya
Ismu'llahi’l-Akhir Ismu’lláhi’l-Ákhir Ar. Ar. The Last name of God. This was the title given by the Báb to Quddús.
Ismu’llahi'l-Jud Ismu’lláhi’l-Júd “The Name of God, the Bounteous” (name given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh)
Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhu’l-Mihdí “The Name of God, Mihdí”. Name given to Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahají.
Isnad, Asanid Isnád, pl. Asáníd ascription (of an Islamic tradition), the (uninterrupted) chain of authorities on which a tradition is based
Israfil Isráfíl (Israfel) seraph. The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet on the Day of Judgement.
Istarabad (Astarabad) Istarábád See Astarábád
Istidlal Istidlál reasoning, argumentation, demonstration; conclusion, inference, deduction; proof, evidence (of)
Istikhlaf Istikhláf appoint someone to be successor. In the Qur’anic context, appointing a trustee or vicegerent, or “Law of Succession of Prophets”.
Istiqbal, Istiqbalat Istiqbál, pl. Istiqbálát reception; opposition (astron.); full moon (as an astronomical aspect); the future
Ithbat Ithbát establishment; assertion; confirmation; affirmation, attestation; demonstration; proof, evidence; registration, entering, listing, recording; documentation, authentication, verification
Ithna-'Ashariyyih Ithná-‘Asharíyyih lit. the Twelvers. Twelver Shí‘i or the branch of Islám Shi’ism that believes in 12 Imams
Itmam Itmám completion; perfection; termination, conclusion; consummation, execution, fulfilment, realization, effectuation, accomplishment
Itmi'nan (Itminan) Iṭmi’nán calm, repose, serenity, peace, peacefulness, tranquillity; reassurance, peace of mind, composure, calmness, equanimity; trust, confidence
Itmi'nan-i-Qalb (Itminan-i-Qalb) Iṭmi’nán-i-Qalb heart attaining tranquillity or composure of the heart
Ittihad Ittiḥád oneness, singleness, unity; concord, accord, unison, harmony, unanimity, agreement; combination; consolidation, amalgamation, merger, fusion; alliance, confederacy; association; federation; union. Symbolically, the identification of man with God
Izhar Iẓhár presentation, exposition, demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, exposure, revelation, announcement, declaration, manifestation, display; developing (photography)
Izza ‘Izza might, power, standing, weight; strength, force; honour, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown; pride
Izzat ‘Izzat Pers. being great, powerful, rare, valuable; grandeur, glory, power, might; honour, esteem; rareness
Ja'fari Ja‘farí Pers. the finest kind of gold (named after a celebrated alchemist); a kind of cupola; a sort of screen (the interstices of the frame being lozenged); lattice-work; name of a yellow flower; parsley; name of a fortress
Jabal-i-Basit Jabal-i-Básiṭ “the Open Mountain”—Máh-Kú (same numerical value as Básiṭ, 72) al-Básiṭ “the one who expands or stretches”)
Jabarut Jabarút (“the All-highest Dominion” or “the Empyrean Heaven”—realm of being). See Háhút, Láhút and Násút.
Jabir Jábir bonesetter Jábir Ibn-i-Ḥayyán was a follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions.
Jabr Jabr setting (of broken bones); force, compulsion; coercion, duress; power, might; (predestined, inescapable) decree of fate.
Jabr wa'l-muqabala Jabr wa’l-muqábala Al-Jabr wa’l-muqábala (“completing” or “restoring”, and “simplifying” or “balancing”) Part of a book title from which the word “algebra” is derived.
Jabulqa and Jabulsa Jábulqá and Jábulsá (According to Shí’ih traditions, the mythical twin cities of Jábulqá and Jábulsá are the dwelling place of the Hidden Imám (the Promised One), whence He will appear on the Day of Resurrection.)
Jadhib Jádhib attractive; magnetic (fig.); winning, fetching, engaging; charming, enticing, captivating, gripping
Jadhibiya, Jadhbiyyih Jádhibíyah gravitation; attraction; attractiveness; charm; fascination; magnetism
Jafr Jafr Islamic science of the numerical values of letters; numerology. ‘ilm al-jafr: divination, fortune telling.
Jahada, Jahd Jahada (Jahd) to endeavour, strive, labour, take pains, put oneself out; to over-work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (someone). Form III to endeavour, strive; to fight (for something); to wage holy war against the infidels. Form IV to strain, exert (something); to tire, wear out, fatigue (someone), give trouble (to).
Jalalu'd-Din Rumi Jalálu’d-Dín Rúmí [or Jaláli’d-Dín Rúmí or Jalála’d-Dín Rúmí] (called Mawláná (“our Master”), is the greatest of all Persian Súfí poets, and founder of the Mawlaví “whirling” dervish order.)
Jalil, Ajilla', Ajilla, Jala'il Jalíl, Ajillá’, Ajilla, Jalá’il great, important, significant, weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted, sublime; revered, honourable, venerable; glorious, splendid
Jam Jam Pers. name of an ancient king of Persia, whom they confound with Solomon and Alexander the Great; a monarch, a great king; the pupil of the eye; pure, free, exempt; essence, nature, person. (Zend or Avestan: yima and Sanskrit: yama [“the twins”]. Yama became Jam). See Jamshíd
Jam'iya, Jam'iyat Jam‘iya, pl. Jam‘iyát club, association, society; corporation, organization; assembly
Jama'a, Jama'at Jamá‘a(h), pl. Jamá‘át group (of people); band, gang, party, troop; community; squad (military unit)
Jami', Jawami' Jámi‘, pl. Jawámi‘ total; whole, entire; all; entirety; comprehensive, extensive, broad, general, universal; collector, gatherer; compiler (of a book); compositor, typesetter;—(pl.) mosque
Jammal, Jammalun Jammál, pl. Jammálún camel driver. Gardens of Jammál are at the south entrance of the Mansion of Bahjí.
Jamshid Jamshíd (“Djemsheed”) mythical King in Iranian traditions and culture. A compound of Jam and shíd formed by changes to the original Avestran names.
Jan Ján Pers. soul, vital spirit, mind; self; life; spirit, courage; wind; the mouth; arms; the father of demons; name of a race said to have inhabited the world before Adam; in modern conversation a word of endearment. See nafs
Jangal Jangal Pers. a wood, forest, thicket; a country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass; a jungle
Jangali Jangalí Pers. wild, untilled, jungle-like. Insult referring to uncultured people (raised in jungles)
Jani Jání Pers. soul; cordial, heartily loved, devoted. Title of a merchant of Kashán, Ḥájí Mírzá Jání, early historian of the Bábí Cause and a martyr.
Janib, Jawanib Jánib, pl. Jawánib side; lateral portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face (geometry); part, portion, partial amount; partial view, section (of a scene, picture or panorama); quantity, amount; a certain number (of), a few, some. “draw back”? Seven Valleys p. 43
Janna, Jannat (“Jinnat”), Jinan Janna, pl. Jannát, Jinán garden; paradise, heaven. Persian sing. Jannat
Jasad, Ajsad Jasad, pl. Ajsád body. Compare Jism
Jashn-i-A'zam Jashn-i-A‘ẓam (the Greatest Festival because ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was known as the Ghusn-i-A’ẓám [the Greatest Branch])—Day of the Covenant
Jasim, Jisam Jasím, pl. Jisám great, big, large; voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, immense; stout, corpulent; weighty, most significant, momentous, prodigious
Javad-i-Qazvini Javád-i-Qazvíní Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní. He went to Adrianople in 1867 and worked for many years as one of Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuenses. Bahá’u’lláh gave him the title Ismu'llahu'l-Javad (The Name of God, the All-Bountiful). He later joined Mírzá Muḥammad ‘Alí in opposing ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Javahiru'l-Asrar Javáhiru’l-Asrár “Gems of Divine Mysteries” or “The Essence of Mysteries” by Bahá’u’lláh. See jawhar and sirr
Jawab (Javab), Ajwiba, Jawabat Jawáb, pl. Ajwiba, Jawabát answer, reply; octave (to a given tone; music); (e.g. pronounced gawáb pl. jawabát) letter, message
Jawad, Ajwad, Ajawid, Jud Jawád, pl. Ajwád, Ajáwid, Ajawíd, Júd openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous;—pl. jiyád, ajyád, ajáwíd race horse, racer; charger
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir Jawhar, pl. Jawáhir intrinsic, essential nature, essence; content, substance (as opposed to form; philosophy); matter, substance; atom; jewel, gem;—pl. jewelry. See Pers. Gawhar
Jawsh (Jaush) Jawsh Pers. the breast; the middle of a man; midnight; a large section of the night, or the latter part of it; a march during the whole of the night. See jayb
Jawshan Kabir Jawshan Kabír long (“big”) Islamic prayer with 1,000 names and attributes of God that is Muḥammad’s “coat of amour” to protect Him from injuries
Jayb (Jaib), Juyub Jayb, pl. Juyúb breast, bosom, heart; sine (mathematics); hole, hollow, cavity, excavation; pocket; purse
Jidal, Mujadala, Mujadalat Jidál (m.), Mujádala (f.), pl. Mujádalát quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion, debate
Jiha, Jihat, Juhat Jiha (Pers. Jihat, Juhat), pl. Jihát side; direction; region, part, section, area; district, precinct, city quarter; agency, authority; administrative agency
Jilf, Ajlaf Jilf, pl. Ajláf Pers. any empty vessel, pot or pan; an animal disembowelled, and skinned; anything empty in the middle; silly, trifling
Jihad Jihád Commonly understood to be: fight, battle; jihad, holy war (against the infidels, as a religious duty). Literally means “striving” (see root jahada)—a witness or martyr. During and immediately after the time of Muḥammad, jihad was directed against pagans and idolaters—the polytheists—and was undertaken in defence of the realm of Islám. Meaning was later obscured and lost. See Qitál
Jinn Jinn (collective) jinn, demons (invisible beings, either harmful or helpful, that interfere with the lives of mortals)
Jirjis Jirjís Pers. George, particularly St. George of England; ranked among the prophets by Muslims.
Jism, Ajsam, Jusum Jism, pl. Ajsám, Jusúm body (also [new meaning] of an automobile); substance, matter; mass; form, shape. Compare jasad
Jizya (Pers. Jizyah), Jizan, Jiza' Jizya, pl. Jizan, Jizá’ tax; tribute; head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule
Jujih Khanum Jújih Khánum The minuscule Leona Barnitz was called Jújih Khánum (Little Chick Lady) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Juk Júk Jug-Basisht (Book of Juk), the Persian translation of the Yoga Vasistha, a syncretic philosophic text
Julfa (Jolfa) Julfá “New” (ad 1606) Julfá is an Armenian-populated area (one of the world’s largest) of Iṣfahán, located south of the Záyandí-Rúd. The people migrated from the Armenian city of Julfá in Azerbaijan.
Jumada al-Awwal, Jumada al-Ula Jumádá al-Awwal Fifth Islamic calendar month (the first of parched land). Also known as Jumádá al-Úlá.
Jumada ath-Thani, Jumada al-Akhir Jumádá ath-Thání Sixth Islamic calendar month (the second/last of parched land). Also known as Jumádá al-Ákhir.
Jumu’at al-Jumu‘at [a proper name] [the day of gathering, the day of congregating] Friday. Súra 62 named al-Jumu‘ah because verse 9 mentions the call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday”. See jum‘a
Junaina, Junaynih Junaina, pl. Junainát, Pers. Junaynih little garden; garden. Junaynih Garden—garden NW of Mazra‘ih, Israel
Ka'aba, Ku'ub Ka‘aba (Ku‘úb) to be full and round, be swelling (breasts) Form II to make cubic, to cube (something); to dice (something)
Ka'b, Ki'ab, Ku'ub Ka‘b, pl. Ki‘áb, Ku‘úb knot, knob, node (of cane); joint, articulation; ankle, anklebone
Ka'ba, Ka'abat, Ka'bih Ka‘ba (Ar), pl. Ka‘abát, Pers. Ka‘bih cube, cubic structure; (figurative.) shrine; object of veneration, focus of interest. The cubic building (the Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba) or the exalted Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba al-Musharrafah)) in the centre of the Mosque at Mecca that contains the Black Stone (al-Ḥajar al-Aswad). The sanctuary is believed to have been originally built by Ibráhím (Abraham) and Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), and appointed by Muḥammad as the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration) to which people turn in prayer in Mecca.
Kabara, Kabr, Kabri Kabara, Kabr to exceed in age (someone by), be older (than someone). Aqueduct from Kabrí (NE of Naḥáríya) to ‘Akká.
Kabir, Kibar Kabír, pl. Kibár great, big, large, sizable; bulky, voluminous, spacious; extensive, comprehensive; significant, considerable, formidable, huge, vast, enormous; powerful, influential, distinguished, eminent; important; old. e.g. Amír Kabír. Superlative form of ‘kabura’.
Kad-Khuda Kad-Khudá Pers. chief officer of a district; a mayor, magistrate, alderman or bailiff. Head man of a village, town, district or ward.
Kafir, Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar Káfir, pl. Káfirún, Kuffár, Kafara, Kifár irreligious, unbelieving; unbeliever, infidel, atheist; ungrateful
Kafur Káfúr (kafur) (a fountain intended to be drunk by the true and firm believers)—literally camphor, a medicine that is given as a soothing tonic in Eastern medicine. It is cool and it may have a good odour. Symbolically it is referred to as a spring in heaven or an added spiritual flavour etc. Used to denote whiteness—a compound of all colours
Kahir, Khidir, Khidr al-Khaḍir, al-Khiḍir (al-Khiḍr) a well-known legendary figure (“The Green One”) or immortal saint. Identified as “One of our servants” Qur’án 18:65. His name is not mentioned in the Qur’án, but tradition gives it as Khiḍr. His knowledge is fresh and green, and drawn out of the living sources of life (Alláh). Equivalent in the Bible is considered to be Melchizedek. Bahíyya Khánum, p. 99 states the Cave of Khiḍr is the Cave of Elijah.
Kaj Kulah (Kajkulah) Kaj Kuláh (or Kaj-Kuláh) Pers. A beau, lit. “wearing the cap awry”; a beloved object
Kajawa (Kajawih, Kajavih, Kijawih) Kajawa, Kajáwa, Kazáwa Pers. a type of pannier, howdah or litter for women, placed on camels (sometimes mules). See Hawdaj
Kalam Kalám talking, speaking; speech; language, mode of expression, style; talk, conversation, discussion; debate, dispute, controversy; words, word, saying, utterance, statement, remark; aphorism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of speech; (grammar) sentence, clause. Described as “speculative theology” by Momen. In Islám “the term ‘theology’ has never been used. Instead, the term kalám (discourse on the divine) was coined because the term ‘theology’ was identified with the doctrine of the holy trinity.” Making the crooked straight, p. 786.
Kalim, Kalma, Kulama Kalím two meanings: 1. wounded, injured; sore; (pl. kalmá). 2. person addressed; speaker, spokesman, mouthpiece (pl. kulamá’). Hence, “The Interlocutor”—title of Mírzá Músá, Bahá’u’lláh’s faithful brother; also Áqáy-i Kalím, Master of Discourse, his usual full title.
Kalima (Kalimah, Kalimat), Kalim Kalima fem., pl. Kalimát, Kalim (Kalim is the collective masc. pl.) word; speech, address; utterance, remark, saying; aphorism, maxim; brief announcement, a few (introductory) words; short treatise; importance, weight, influence, authority, ascendancy, powerful position. Final Arabic letter is a tá mabúta, hence singular forms Kalimah and Kalimat.
Kalimat-i-Maknunih Kalimát-i-Maknúnih “The Hidden Words” by Bahá’u’lláh. Also known as Ṣaḥífiy-i-Fáṭimíyyih (Book of Fáṭimih)
Kalimu'llah Kalímu’lláh “One who converses with God”. Title given to Moses in the Islamic Dispensation.
Kam, Chand Kam, Pers. Chand (interrogative and exclamatory particle with following noun in accusative) how much? how many! how much!
Kamal, Kamalat Kamál, pl. Kamalát perfection; completeness; completion, consummation, conclusion, termination, windup; maturity, ripeness
Kamil, Kamala Kámil, Kamala perfect, consummate; genuine, sterling; complete, full, plenary, full-strength; completed, concluded; whole, entire, total, integral
Kana, Kawn (Kaun), Kiyan, Kainina Kána (Kawn, Kiyán, Kainína) to be (past tense); to exist; to happen, occur, take place. Kuntu (I was)
Kar, Karat Kár, pl. Karát Ar. work, job, occupation, business; calling, vocation, profession, trade. e.g. Ustádhkár
Karama, Karamat Karáma, Karámát nobility; high-mindedness, noble-heartedness; generosity, magnanimity; liberality, munificence; honour, dignity; respect, esteem, standing, prestige; mark of honour, token of esteem, favour;—pl. miracle (worked by a saint)
Karand, Kirand (Kerand) Karand, Kirand a village about 100 km SE of Ṭihrán, home of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís (an Islamic sect, followers of the Imám ‘Alí).
Karbala (Karbila) Karbalá’ A Shi’ite holy city in ‘Iráq where the Imám Ḥusayn was murdered and is buried. Imám Ḥusayn said of name: “Anguish and distress”. See Balá
Karim, Kurama’, Kiram Karím, pl. Kuramá’, Kirám noble; distinguished, high-ranking, eminent; high-minded, noble-minded, noble-hearted; generous, liberal, munificent, hospitable, beneficent; benefactor; kind, kindly, friendly, amicable, obliging, gracious; respectable, honourable, decent; precious, valuable, costly; thoroughbred. Also “All-Bountiful”
Kashanih Káshánih town (Keşan, Turkey) that Bahá’u’lláh passed through on His way to Gallipoli (100 km south of Edirne)
Kashf, Kushuf, Kushufat Kashf, pl. Kushúf, Kushúfát uncovering, disclosure; baring, exposure, unveiling; revelation, illumination (mysticism); investigation, inquiry, search, quest, study; examination, scrutiny; inspection; boy scout movement;—(pl.) report, account; statement, specification, enumeration; table, schedule, chart; list, roster, index, register, inventory;—(pl. kushúfát) discoveries
Kashfi Kashfí of or pertaining to boy scouts. “the Discloser” or “one who discovers and explains the divine secrets”
Kashkul Kashkúl beggar’s bag; scrapbook; album. Described as a globe-shaped alms-basket (originally made from a sea-coconut) carried by dervishes.
Kasr, Kusur Kasr, pl. Kusúr breaking, fracturing; shattering, fragmentation; (pl.) break, breach, fracture; crack, rupture; fracture of a bone
Katama, Katm, Kitman Katama (Katm, Kitmán) to hide (something, from someone); to conceal, secrete, keep secret (something, from someone); to suppress, repress, restrain, check, curb, subdue (anger, passion); to hold (one’s breath); to lower, muffle (the voice); to stifle, smother, quench (fire)
Kathir, Kithar Kathír, pl. Kithár much, many, numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious; frequent; a large portion, a great deal, a great many, a lot
Katib, Katibun, Kuttab Kátib, pl. Kátibún, Kuttáb, Kataba writer; scribe, scrivener; secretary; clerk typist; office worker, clerical employee; clerk, registrar, actuary, court clerk; notary; writer, author
Kawih (Kavih) Káwih Pers. “Kaveh” in Iranian mythology is a blacksmith (Áhangar) from Isfahan. Pers./Kurdish Káwa. May mean strength, vigour. May have derived from the Ar. Qahwa.
Kay (Kai), Kayan Kay, pl. Kayán Pers. a star; the point made by the compasses at the centre of a circle; (pl.) great kings; the surname of the second dynasty of the Persian kings
Kazimayn Káẓimayn Káẓimayn (“Kazmin” or “Kazemain”) “the two Ká’ẓims” (Imám Músá al-Káẓim and Muḥammad al-Taqí, the seventh and ninth A’imma). Káẓimayn was a city built around the shrines of these A’imma—Al-Káẓimiya Mosque—now a suburb of Baghdád (about 7 km north of the city centre)
Khabar-Dar Khabar-Dár Pers. informed, appraised, certified; aware; careful, cautious; an informer, scout, spy; take care! beware! look out!
Khabar, Akhbar Khabar, pl. Akhbár news; information, intelligence: report, communication, message; notification; rumor; story; matter, affair. Traditions, sayings attributed to Muḥammad and to the Imams.
Khadhala, Khadhl, Khidhlan Khadhala (Khadhl, Khidhlán) to leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the lurch (or someone); to stay behind; to disappoint; pass
Khadi', Khuda', Khud'an, Khid'an Kháḍi‘, pl. Khuḍa‘, Khuḍ‘án, Khiḍ‘án submissive, humble; obedient, pliant, tractable; subject, liable, prone (to something). Pers. may use Kházih (Khazih)
Khadijih Khanum Khadíjih Khánum Mother of Bahá’u’lláh. Children of second marriage—Daughters Sárih Khánum and Nisá Khánum. Sons Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Mihdí
Khadim, Khuddam, Khudama Khádim, pl. Khuddám, Khudama domestic servant, help; manservant; woman servant; employee; attendant; waiter; deacon (Chr.) (Dhikru’lláh Khádem)
Khadimu'llah Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”) Title given to Mírzá Áqá Ján, he was the personal attendant of Bahá’u’lláh and later His amanuensis as well. (EGB, p. 65 by Balyuzi refers to the Tablet where the concept of Hand of the Cause of God is first mentioned in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh)
Khafi, Khafaya Khafí, pl. Khafáyá Pers. clandestine, concealed; secret. Quietly and privately, as in prayers, etc.
Khal, Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'la Khál, pl. Akhwál, Khu’úl, Khu’úla (maternal) uncle;— (pl. khílán) mole, birthmark (on the face); patch, beauty spot
Khalal, Khilal Khalal, pl. Khilál gap, interval, interstice; cleft, crack, rupture, fissure; a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance; defectiveness, imperfection; fault, flaw, defeat, shortcoming; disturbance, upset, disorder; damage, injury, harm (that something suffers or suffered); khilála during; between; through
Khalaqa, (Khalq) Khalaqa (Khalq) to create, make, originate (something); to shape, form, mould (something)
Khalid, Khwalid Khálid, pl. Khwálid everlasting, perpetual, eternal; immortal, deathless, undying; unforgettable, glorious;—pl. mountains
Khalifa, Khulafa Khalífa, pl. Khulafá Caliph lit. successor. The vicar, deputy, successor or representative of the Messenger of God (see Khiláfa)
Khalifa, Khulafa, Khala'if Khalífa, pl. Khulafá’, Khalá’if vicar, deputy; successor; caliph (plural—the institution, the Caliphate)
Khalij, Khulj, Khuljan Khalíj pl. Khulj, Khulján bay, gulf; canal; al-Khalíj—name of Cairo’s ancient city canal that was abandoned and leveled at the end of the 19th century. al-Khalíj Farsí—the Persian Gulf
Khaliq Kháliq creative; Creator, Maker (God). Used as a name, preceded by ‘Abd (servant)—‘Abdu’l-Kháliq “Servant of the Creator”.
Khalis Kháliṣ Pers. pure, unsullied; unadulterated; white; name of a stream in the east of Baghdád on the banks of which a castle of the same name is situated
Khalis, Khullas Kháliṣ, pl. Khullaṣ Ar. clear; pure, unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, frank, candid, true; free, exempt (from)
Khall Khall Ar. vinegar. See Pers. Sirka
Khalq Khalq creation; making; origination; something which is created, a creation; creatures; people, man, mankind; physical constitution. Khalqan a creation
Khalwa, Khalwat Khalwa, pl. Khalawát privacy, solitude; seclusion, isolation, retirement; place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, recess; secluded room; hermitage; religious assembly hall of the Druses; booth, cabin
Khammar, 'Udi Khammár, ‘Údí He placed the inscription “Greetings and salutations rest upon this mansion which increaseth in splendour through the passage of time. Manifold wonders and marvels are found therein, and pens are baffled in attempting to describe them” over his mansion’s door in ‘Akká (David Ruhe, Door of Hope). Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Khan-i-'Avamid Khán-i-‘Avámíd Inn of Pillars, ‘Akká. Also known as Khán-i-Jurayní, or Khán al-‘Umdán. See ‘Awámíd.
Khan, Khanat Khán, pl. Khánát hostel, caravansary; inn, pub, tavern. Originally from the Mongolian term for a ruler; a title meaning prince, chieftain or man of rank.
Khaniq, Khawaniq Khániq, Khawániq choking, strangling; suffocating, asphyxiating, stifling, smothering; throttling, throttle (in compounds; tech.); (pl.) choke coil, reactor (radio); gorge, ravine, canyon
Khar Khar Pers. an ass; a stupid fool; black viscous clay; sediment; the bridge of a violin; the commonest, ugliest, largest, or coarsest of its kind
Kharaja, Khuruj Kharaja, Khurúj to go out, walk out; to come out. An act of rebellion against authorities.
Khariq-i-'Adat Kháriq-i-‘Ádat (Khareki-Adat) Things that are contrary, rend or change the habits of men. Hence, sometimes ‘miracles’.
Khartum, Kharatim Kharṭúm, pl. Kharáṭím proboscis, trunk (of the elephant); hose. al-Kharṭúm (Khartoum)—capital of the Sudanese Republic
Khassiya, Khassiyat, Khasa'is Kháṣṣíya, pl. Kháṣṣíyát, Khaṣá’iṣ Ar. specialty, particularity, characteristic, peculiarity, property, special attribute, feature, trait, qualification; prerogative, privilege; jurisdiction, competence
Khatir, Khatirat Kháṭir, pl. Kháṭirát Pers. Whatever occurs to or passes in the mind; cogitation, thought, suggestion; memory, remembrance; mind, soul, heart; inclination, propensity; affection, favour; pleasure, will, choice; sake, account, behalf
Khatirat-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-'Akka Kháṭirat-i-Nuh-Sáliy-i-‘Akká Pers. Yúnis Khán, Memories of Nine Years in ‘Akká
Khawaj or Khajih Kháwaj Khájih Pers. (“eunuch, a master, a man of distinction or a teacher) See “Arches of the years”, p. 205 and listing for Khájih above
Khawar (Khavar) Kháwar or Khávar Pers. the West, but often used by poets for the east; the sun; a thorn
Khawari (Khavari) Kháwarí or Khávarí Pers. Western; eastern; the sun; surname of the poet Anwárí. From Khávar
Khawarij Khawárij the Khawarij, Kharijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam); dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels, outsiders or seceders
Khawf (Khauf), Khawfan (Khaufan) Khawf, Khawfan fear, dread (of); khawfan for fear (of), fearing (for). al-Khawf—mystical station of fear of the wrath and displeasure of God.
Khayru'n Nisa' Khayru’n Nisá’ (Ar. Khairu’n Nisá’) “The Most Virtuous among Women”. A title that Bahá’u’lláh gave to Khadíjih Bagum (wife of the Báb), and forbade all women, save Fáṭimih Bagum (the Báb's mother) from adopting the title.
Khidiw, Khudaiwi Khidíw, Khudaiwí viceroy. Eng. Khedive Per. Khidív (adj. Khidíwí, Eng. Khedivial) and Khidaywí
Khilafa Khiláfa vicarship, deputyship; succession; caliphate, office or rule of a caliph; (formerly) administrative department of caliphate
Khirqat, Khirqa Khirqat, Khirqa Pers. a patch, rag; a garment made of shreds and patches; a religious habit
Khirqiy-i-Sharif Khirqiy-i-Sharíf Mosque the Mosque of the Prophets’ Cloak, Istanbul. See Khirqa
Khul Khul Pers. bent, curved, crooked; mad; ashes; fundament. Possible word for ‘ashes’ in Arches of the years, p. 304.
Khulafa'u'r Rashidun Khulafá’u’r-Ráshidún (The) Rightly-Guided Caliphate—consisting of the first four caliphs in Islám’s history—was founded after Muḥammad’s death in 632. (sometimes al-Khulafá’a’r-Ráshidín or Khulafá’ Ráshidún). See Caliphs section below this list.
Khulq, Khuluq, Akhlaq Khulq, Khuluq, pl. Akhláq innate peculiarity; natural disposition, character, temper, nature;—pl. character (of a person); morals; morality
Khums, Akhmas Khums, pl. Akhmás one fifth. An additional religious tax (one-fifth) paid by Shí‘ Muslims to the Imám or his deputies
Khun-Baha Khún-Bahá blood price or value, “blood-money”. See Bahá’i Khun
Khurasan Khurásán (Khorasan) “where the sun arrives from”. Province in the north-eastern part of Írán until 2004—replaced by North Khurásán, South Khurásán and Razavi (Raḍawí) Khurásán Provinces.
Khuruj Khurúj exit; egression, emergence; departure; exodus; emigration; raid, foray, sortie (against), attack, assault (on)
Khusraw (Khusrav, Khusrau) Khusraw Pers. A celebrated Persian king (Khosrow, Khosroe, Khosru or Cyrus). Kay Khusraw Khudádád, believed to be the first to embrace the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh from the Zoroastrian community
Khutan (Khotan, Khoten) Khutan Pers. Ancient Buddhist city/region west of modern Hotan, Tibet, known for musk production
Khutba, Khutbih, Khutab Khuṭba(t), Pers. Khuṭbih, pl. Khuṭab public address; speech; lecture, discourse; oration; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday midday sermon
Khutbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya Khuṭbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya A sermon preached by Imám ‘Alí (a favourite among Shí‘í Muslims because it is a rare statement by ‘Alí on the usurpation of the caliphate by Abú Bakr) that was interrupted by a member of the audience asking a question. When begged by Ibn ‘Abbás to continue his address, ‘Alí answered, “The shiqshiqa has roared and subsided”, meaning the inspiration of the moment has gone.
Khutbiy-i-Dhikriyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Dhikríyyih “Sermon of Remembrance” (by the Báb). Also called Tafsír-i-Há’ (Interpretation of the Letter Há’) and Ṣaḥifiy-i-Ja‘faríyyih (Epistle of Ja‘far)
Khutbiy-i-Tutunjiyyih Khuṭbiy-i-Ṭutunjíyyih Pers. Sermon of the Gulf by Imám ‘Alí. See Khuṭbat al-Ṭutunjíyya
Khwush-Amadi (Khush Amadid) Khwush-Ámadí (“Khush ámadíd”) Pers. (“Khushamadid”) flattery; assenting; you are welcome. A blessed arrival?
Khwush-Qadam (Khush Ghadam) Khwush-Qadam (“Khush Ghadam”) Pers. a person who brings good fortune, welcome news, good omen (Maḥmúd’s Diary)
Kinyat, Kunyat, Kuna, Kaniy, Kani Kinyat, Kunyat, pl. Kuná, Kaníy, Kaní Pers. calling or naming (anyone) by a word that has another meaning, especially by the designation of father (abú) or son (ibn, vulg. bin), a filionymic (a name derived from that of a son), a patronymic (a name derived from the name of a father or ancestor). (Also (Kunyah, Kunyih)
Kisra, Akasira, Akasir Kisrá, pl. Akásira, Akásir Khosraw (Chosroes); designation of the Persian kings in general
Kiswa, Kusan, Kisan, Kasawin Kiswa, pl. Kusan, Kisan, Kasáwin clothing, clothes, apparel, attire, raiment; dress, garment; suit of clothes; uniform; draping, lining, casing, facing, panelling, wainscoting (e.g., of walls). Persian Kiswat (Kisvat), Kuswat, pl. Kusá
Kitab, Kutub Kitáb, pl. Kutub piece of writing, record, paper; letter, note, message; document, deed; contract (esp. marriage contract); book. Kitábun, a book
Kitab-i-Panj-Sha'n Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha’n “Book of the Five Modes of Revelation” (by the Báb)*
Kitman Kitmán Persian. The act of paying lip service to authority while holding personal opposition. Saying something that is not true. See Taqíya (Ar)
Kiya Kiyá Pers. a king, protector, defender; a hero, champion; a lord, master; a lord marcher, landgrave, margrave; a peasant; powerful; work, labour; the four elements; pure, clear, innocent; heat, cold, dryness, or moisture; the mouth; mastic. [MUHJ 521 has Kíyá]
Kufa, Kufah, Kufih Kúfa(h), Pers. Kúfih al-Kúfah city on the west bank of the Euphrates River 110 km south Baghdád. The Imám ‘Alí made it the centre of his operations, and was murdered in its mosque. Gave name to Kufic—ancient Arabic letters.
Kuh-i-Nur Kúh-i-Núr Mountain of Light—Shrine of the Báb, and the name of a famous diamond. Also spelt Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor and Koh-i-nur
Kull Kull totality, entirety; everyone, each one, anyone; (with following definite noun) whole, entire, all; (with following indefinite noun) every
Kulli Kulli total, entire, all-round, overall, sweeping, comprehensive, complete; absolute, universal
Kulliya, Kulliyat Kullíya, Pers. Kullíyat, pl. Kullíyát totality, entirety; integrity, wholeness, entireness, completeness; (pl.) faculty, school (of a university); college; institute of higher learning, academy, secondary school
Kulliyya Kulliyya fem. totality, entirety; completeness, fullness, wholeness; universality, generality; integrity
Kullu-Shay', Kull-i-Shay' Kullu-Shay’, Pers. Kull-i-Shay’ “all things”, numerical value of 361 (19×19) and a time period of 361 years). See Váḥid (unity 19)
Kumayl Kumayl bin-i-Ziyád an-Nakha’í Companion of Imám ‘Alí. Known as Kumayl. It is also the name of a prayer that he wrote.
Kun Kun (imperative Be!) The word Kun contains the consonants Káf and Nún (káf u nún), which in English, by happy circumstance, can be represented by “B” and “E”.
Kunya, Kunan, (Pers. Kunyah, Kunyih) Kunya, pl. Kunan Ar. surname, agnomen (honourable adult nickname consisting of abú (father) or umm (mother) followed by the name of the eldest child (often a son), e.g. Abú Bahá’u’lláh). By extension, it may also have hypothetical or metaphorical references, e.g. as a nickname or reference of an attachment (Abú Bakr, “father of the camel foal”, given because of this person’s love for camels), without literally referring to a son or a daughter.
Kursi, Karasiy Kursí, pl. Karásíy, Karásin chair; throne; seat; professorial chair; base, pedestal, socle (architecture); bearing (technology)
Kurur Kurúr return, comeback, recurrence; succession, sequence, order. Pers. A crore (500,000 in Persia)
Kush Kush Pers. A male; (imp. of kushtan (“kill”) in compound words) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses, as in azhdaha-kush, a dragon-killer
La ilaha illa’llah Lá iláha illá’lláh (There is no God [Letters of Denial (5)] but God [Letters of Affirmation (5)]) All else besides the Letters of Paradise is in Denial, while whatsoever appertaineth to the Letters of Paradise is Affirmation. Lá iláha illa’lláh, Muḥammadun rasúlu’lláh (There is no God but God and Muḥammad is his messenger), the Shí‘a call to prayer (adhán) contains the additional statement: ‘Alíun valíu’lláh (‘Alí is God’s (friend/helper/defender/vice-gerent)
La'in and Mal'un, Mala'in La‘ín and Mal‘ún, pl. Malá‘ín cursed; confounded; damned; outcast, execrable; detested, abhorred, abominable
Labada (Labbadih) Labáda Pers. (for Arabic lubbádát) a rain cloak; a quilted cloak; a great-coat, pelisse; a wrapper
Lahab, Lahib, Luhab Lahab, Lahíb, Luháb flame, blaze, flare. Abú Lahab (the ‘Father of Flame’) is known for his hatred of his nephew, Muḥammad.
Lahut Láhút (world of the Heavenly Court—realm of being, “divinity”). See Háhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút
Las-Furush Lás-Furúsh silk dealer in The Child of the Covenant and BKG 144. Possible spelling is Láẓ-Furúsh. See Láẓat and Farsh
Latafa, lutf, Altaf Laṭafa, Luṭf, pl. Alṭáf to be kind and friendly;—pl. benefits, favours; kindnesses
Lawh (Lauh), Alwah (Alavah), Alawih Lawḥ, pl. Alwáḥ, Aláwíḥ (masc.) board, blackboard; slate; tablet, epistle; slab; plate, sheet; pane; plank, board; panel; small board, signboard; shoulder blade, scapula. Sometimes singular transliterated as Lauḥ.
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz-Va-Vukala Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá “Tablet to ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz and ministers” by Bahá’u’lláh
Lawh-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq Lawḥ-i-‘Ashiq-va-Ma‘shúq “The Tablet of the Lover and the Beloved” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Anta'l-Kafi Lawḥ-i-Anta’l-Káfí “Tablet of ‘Thou the Sufficing’, known as the long healing prayer, Tablet of protection” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aqdas Lawḥ-i-Aqdas “The Most Holy Tablet”, sometimes referred to as ‘Tablet to the Christians’ (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Basitatu'l-Haqiqih Lawḥ-i-Basíṭatu’l-Ḥaqíqíh “Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality, of the Ground of Being” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq Lawḥ-i-Bulbulu’l-Firáq “Tablet of the Nightingale of Bereavement” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Du-Niday-i-Falah va Najah Lawḥ-i-Du-Nidáy-i-Faláḥ va Najáḥ “Tablet of Supplication” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá). More literally the Tablet of two Calls (the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh) for salvation and emancipation”
Lawh-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld Lawḥ-i-Ghulámu’l-Khuld “Tablet of the Deathless Youth, Eternal Youth, Youth of Paradise” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haft Sham' Wahdat Lawḥ-i-Haft Sham‘ Waḥdat “Tablet of the Seven Candles of Unity” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Lahih Lawḥ-i-Láhih “Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Mahfil-i-Shawr Lawḥ-i-Maḥfil-i-Shawr Tablet (or prayer) for spiritual assemblies, regarding gathering and consulting (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Mazzah Lawḥ-i-Mazzaḥ “Tablet of the Humorist” (by Bahá’u’lláh) Begins: “Bismilláhi’l-Mazzaḥ …”
Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm Lawḥ-i-Pisar-‘Amm “Tablet to the Cousin” in honour of Mírzá Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqa’l-Mukhlisun Lawḥ-i-Qad-Iḥtaráqa’l-Mukhliṣún “The Tablet of The Faithful Ones (Mukhliṣún) have burned (qad … iḥtaráq),’” which is translated as “the hearts of the sincere are consumed in the fire …”. Known in English as “The Fire Tablet” (see first and last lines) (by Bahá’u’lláh). See Iḥtiráq
Lawh-i-Shaykh-Fani Lawḥ-i-Shaykh-Fání Tablet to the Shaykh who has surrendered his will to God (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdiy-i-Dahaji Lawḥ-i-Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají (by Bahá’u’lláh). See Dahají
Lawh-i-Tuqa Lawḥ-i-Tuqá “Tablet of Virtue” (by Bahá’u’lláh) See Lawḥu’t-Tuqá
Lawha (Lauha), Lawhat, Alwah (Alvah) Lawḥa, pl. Lawḥát, Alwáḥ (fem.) board; blackboard; slate; tablet; slab; plate, sheet; pane; panel; plaque; plane, surface; screen; placard, poster; picture, painting. Sometimes singular transliterated as Lauḥ.
Layl (Lail), Layali Layl, pl. Layálí (usually m.) night-time, night (as opposed to nahár daytime);—pl. layálí (Syrian) a certain vocal style; laylan at night
Laylat al-Qadr, Laylatu’l-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr, Pers. Laylatu’l-Qadr Night of Power. The night in which, according to sura 97, the Qur’án was revealed, celebrated during the night between the 26th and 27th of Ramaḍán.
Li Li 1. (preposition) for; on behalf of, in favor of; to (of the dative); because of; for the sake of; due to, owing to; for, for the purpose of; at the time of, when, as; by (designating the author or originator).
2. (conjunction with the subjunctive) that, so that, in order that, in order to
Lillah Lilláh “for/to/towards Alláh”. The li at the beginning is a prepositional prefix. Morphologically, it would normally be li-Alláh (numerical value of 95—the á represents a stressed “a”, not an Alif). Compare al-Bayán.
Liqa' Rabb, Liqa-i-Rabb Liqá’ Rabb, Pers. Liqá-i-Rabb “Visitation of God” on the Day of Qiyámah. Since God is sanctified from all material existence and He can never be seen by the material eyes, this means seeing and meeting a Manifestation of God.
Liqa', Liqa'a Liqá’ encounter; meeting; get together; reunion; liqá’a (prep.) in exchange for, in return for, for, on
Lisanu'l-Mulk Lisánu’l-Mulk “Tongue of the Empire” Lisánu’l-Mulk-i-Sipihr of Káshán, 19th century Persian historian (pen name Sipihr)
Liwa’ (Liva), Alwiya, Alwiyat Liwá’, pl.Alwiya, Alwiyát banner, flag, standard; brigade; major general; rear admiral (Egypt.); province, district (Írán)
Lourenco Marques Lourenço Marques Portuguese explorer and pre-1975 name of Maputo, capital of Mozambique
Lujj, Lujja, Lujaj, Lijaj Lujj and Lujja, pl. Lujaj, Lijáj depth of the sea; gulf, abyss, chasm, depth
Lujjat, Lujja Lujjat, Lujja Pers. a large body, multitude; plenty (of water), the great deep, main, middle of the sea; an abyss; silver; a looking-glass, mirror
Lulin, Aftaba Lúlín Pers. a jug, flagon, or any similar vessel with a spout, and made of clay (those made of metal are called áftába).
Lutfi Luṭfí Pers. adopted, brought up in the family; an adopted child. ‘Umar Lütfí Páshá [Lüṭfí Paşa (Turk.)] (BKG 482)
Ma, ila ma, bi'ma, li-ma, hatta ma Ma for what? after prepositions: ilá ma whereto? where? which way? whither? bi-ma with what? wherewith? li-ma why? wherefore? ḥattá ma how far? to which point?
Ma'ida, Ma'idat Má’idat, Má’ida Pers. a table, especially one covered with victuals; a circle, circumference, circuit, orbit
Ma'juj (Magog), Majuj Ma’júj, Májúj Magog, son of Japhet; Eastern Tartary. See note for Ya’juj (Gog)
Ma'na, Ma'ni, Ma'ani Ma‘ná (also Ma‘ní), pl. Ma‘ání Pers. sense, meaning, signification, import, drift, reality; virtue, efficacy; spirituality; a thing; anything; a subject; a circumstance, an event. Plural: significations, senses; imports; mental images; intrinsic qualities; qualities that are commended or approved, charms, graces; elegance of language; mystical meanings; sublime realities, spiritual matters. A reference to the Imams as the repositories of the inner Word of God. See ma‘nan
Ma'nan, Ma'anin Ma‘nan, pl. Ma‘ánin Ar. sense, meaning, signification, import; concept, notion, idea, thought; thematic purport (e.g., of a work of art, as distinguished from its form); a rhetorical, figurative, or allegorical expression. al-Ma‘ání—the meanings. See ma‘ná
Ma'qul Ma‘qúl reasonable, sensible, intelligible, comprehensible, understandable, plausible, logical; rational; apprehensive faculty, comprehension, intellect, discernment, judiciousness, judgment; common sense (ex-cogitated, MF 156)
Ma'raj, Ma'arij Ma‘raj, pl. Ma‘árij place of ascent; (route of) ascent. See Mi‘raj
Ma'rifa, Ma'arif Ma‘rifa, pl. Ma‘árif knowledge, learning, lore, information, skill, know-how; cognition, intellection, perception, experience, realization; gnosis; acquaintance, cognizance, conversance; an acquainted person, an acquaintance, a friend; (grammar) definite noun; pl. al-Ma‘árif cultural affairs, education
Ma'ruf Ma‘rúf known, well-known; universally accepted, generally recognized; conventional; that which is good, beneficial, or fitting, good, benefit; fairness, equity, equitableness; kindness, friendliness, amicability; beneficence; favour rendered, courtesy, mark of friendship; active voice (grammar)
Ma'rifat Ma‘rifat Pers. knowing; knowledge, science, learning; insight in divine matters or mysteries; art, skill, craft; account, reason, means; by means of, through
Ma'sum Ma‘ṣúm inviolable, sacrosanct, protected by the laws of vendetta (Isl. Law); infallible, sinless, impeccant, impeccable; immaculate, morally infallible and rendered immune to error by God, infallible in judgements and decrees
Ma’un Ma‘ún variously interpreted as assistance to neighbours in the form of lending household utensils; voluntary and obligatory alms; obedience to prescribed rules
Mabda’ Mabda’, pl. Mabádi beginning, start, starting point; basis, foundation; principle; invention;—pl. principles, convictions (of a person); ideology; rudiments, fundamental concepts, elements
Mabsut Mabsúṭ extended, outstretched; rim, spread out; extensive, large, sizeable; detailed, elaborate (book); cheerful, happy, gay; feeling well, in good health. Nickname “happy”: Dr Ḍíyá Mabsúṭ Baghdádí
Madad, Amdad Madad, pl. Amdád help, aid, assistance, support, backing, reinforcement;—pl. resources; auxiliaries. House of Ḥájí ‘Alí Madad, in Baghdád that Bahá’u’lláh and family first occupied on arrival. This is not the Bayt-i-A‘ẓam.
Madhhab, Madhhahib Madhhab, pl. Madhháhib going, leave, departure; way out, escape (from); manner followed, adopted procedure or policy, road entered upon; opinion, view, belief; ideology; teaching, doctrine; movement, orientation, trend (also politics); school; mazhab, orthodox rite of fiqh (Islamic Law); religious creed, faith, denomination. Schools of law—the four Sunní legal schools (sing. madhhab) are: (1) the Hanafíte school, founded by Abu Hanifah (d. 767); (2) the Malakite school, founded by Málik ibn Anas (d. 795); (3) the Sháf’íte, founded by Sháf’í (d. 820); and (4) the strictest and most conservative Hanbalite school, founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855). Actions that might be considered lawful or unlawful are divided into five categories: (i) obligatory, (ii) prohibited, (iii) recommended but not obligatory, (iv) indifferent, and (v) disapproved but not forbidden.
Madi (Mazi) Máḍí (Máẓí) Pers. passing away; past; dead; swift, fleet, expeditious; sharp, piercing (sword)
Madih, Mada'ih Madíḥ, pl. Madá’iḥ praise, laudation, commendation; panegyrical poem, panegyric; eulogy, encomium, tribute
Madinah al-Madínah Medinah. Muḥammad migrated to Yathrib in 622 and it was renamed al-Madínat an-Nabí (later shortened to al-Madínah)
Madinatu's-Salam Madínatu’s-Salám the City of Peace (name given to Baghdád by ‘Abbásid Caliph al-Manṣúr) BKG 106.
Madkhal, Madakhil Madkhal, pl. Madákhil entrance; hallway, vestibule, anteroom; entrance hall, lobby, foyer; mouth (of a port, of a canal); oxygen anode (electricity); introduction (to a field of learning); behaviour, conduct. Madákhil: “commission, perquisite, douceur, consideration, pickings and stealings, profit …” The Dawn-Breakers xliv
Madkhul, Madakhil Madkhúl, pl. Madákhíl sickly, diseased, abnormal; (mentally) disordered; of weak character, spineless; (pl.) revenue, receipts, takings, returns
Madrasa, Madaris Madrasa, pl. Madáris, Madrasah Ar. a religious boarding school associated with a mosque; school. Madrasa becomes madrasih, madrisih or even madrasat (sing.) in Persian
Madrisiy-i-Daru'sh-Shafay Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy Madrisiy-i-Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh. DB 168
Maf'ul, Mafa'il Maf‘úl, pl. Mafá‘íl object (grammar);—(pl.) effect, impression, impact; effectiveness, validity. See fá‘il, manṣúb and marfú‘
Mah Máh Pers. the moon; a month, whether lunar or solar; name of the twelfth day of every solar month; name of the angel set over the moon, and any business transacted on the twelfth day of the month; a mistress
Mah-Ku Máh-Kú Four-towered fortress above the village of the same name in north-western Ádhirbáyján (Azerbaijan).
Mah-tab (Mahtab) Máh-táb Pers. moonlight, moonshine; the moon; the face of a mistress; breath, animal life
Mah-tabi (Mahtabi) Máh-tábí Pers. lit by the moon; a balcony or terrace (to enjoy tbe moonlight); blue light
Mahabba Maḥabba love; affection, attachment; fondness, tender and kind feelings, inclination, and love
Mahabbat, Mahabb, Mahab Maḥabbat in Perisan also maḥabb, maḥab. Love, affection; friendship, esteem, benevolence
Mahall-i-Darb Maḥall-i-Ḍarb Place of striking: location in Tabríz where the Báb was subjected to the bastinado after His examination by the divines.
Mahall, Mahallat Maḥall, pl. Maḥallát, Maḥáll place, location, spot, site, locale, locality, center; (place of) residence; business; business house, firm, commercial house; store, shop; object, cause (e.g., of dispute, admiration, etc.); gear (automobile). Maḥallát capital of Maḥallát County, Markazí Province, Írán. Táj Mahal (Urdu “palace”)
Mahalla, Mahallat Maḥalla, pl. Maḥallát way station, stopping place, stop, stopover, encampment; camp; section, part, quarter (of a city)
Mahallih Maḥallih Pers. location or place, see Garden of Murgh-Maḥallih, abode/place of birds/chickens.
Mahbub, Mahabib Maḥbúb, pl. Maḥábíb beloved; dear; lovable, desirable; popular; favourite; beloved one, lover; (pl.) gold piece, sequin (in Ottoman times) Title of the First Promised One expected by the Shi’ites.
Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada' Maḥbúbu’sh-Shuhadá’ (Beloved of Martyrs) Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn Brother of Mírzá Muḥammad-Ḥasan, both from Iṣfahán.
Mahiya, Mahiyat (Pers. Mahiyyat) Máhíya, pl. Máhíyát quality, quiddity (the inherent nature or essence of someone or something), essence, nature; salary, income; pay (military)
Mahram, Maharima Maḥram, pl. Maḥárim something forbidden. inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct, holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being in a degree of consanguinity precluding marriage (Isl. Law)
Mahtum Maḥtúm imposed, enjoined, obligatory; determined, definitive, determinate, unalterable, inevitable; destined, predestined, ordained (fate)
Mahw (Mahv) Maḥw effacement, obliteration, blotting out; erasure, deletion; elimination; abolition, abolishment, annulment. Compare ṣaḥw
Majd (Egyptian “Magd”) Majd, pl. Amjád glory; splendour, magnificence, grandeur; nobility, honour, distinction
Majdhub, Majadib Majdhúb, pl. Majádib attracted; possessed, maniacal, insane; (pl.) maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot
Majid Majíd glorious, illustrious; celebrated, famous; glorified, exalted; praiseworthy, laudable, admirable, excellent, splendid; noble
Majid-i-Masha'u'llah Majíd-i-Máshá’u’lláh the Báb’s remains were hidden overnight in this abandoned building near Ṭihrán
Majlas, Majlis Majlas Pers. sitting down; —majlis, time or place of sitting; an assembly, convivial meeting, congress, council
Majlis, Majalis Majlis, pl. Majális seat; session room, conference room; party, gathering, meeting; social gathering: session, sitting; council meeting; council; concilium; collegium, college: board, committee, commission; administrative board; court, tribunal
Majma, Majami Majma‘, pl. Majámi‘ place where two or more things meet, place or point of union, junction; meeting, congregation, convention, assembly
Majma'-i-Abrar Majma‘-i-Abrár the gathering place of the righteous, e.g. the House of Justice. See barr (reverent).
Majrur, Magarir Majrúr, pl. Magárir drawn, dragged, towed, etc.; word governed by a preposition, word in the genitive form; (pl.) drain, sewer
Makhluqat, Makhluqa, Makhaliq Makhlúqat, Makhlúqa a creature, a created thing;—pl. makhaliq, makhlúqát
Makhzun, Makhzunat Makhzún, pl. Makhzúnát stored, stored up, deposited, warehoused; (pl.) stock, supply, stock in trade
Malakut Malakút realm, kingdom, empire; kingship, royalty, sovereignty (Kingdom of Angels—realm of being). See Háhút, Láhút, Jabarút and Násút.
Malfuf Malfúf wound, coiled; wrapped up (in); rolled up, rolled together, convolute; twisted, wound (around); fastened, attached (to); swathed (in or with); plump, stout (body)
Malik, Malika, Mulaka Malík, fem. Malíka, pl. Mulaká king, monarch, ruler; master, possessor, owner, proprietor. See sulṭán (a higher level of sovereignty)
Malik, Mullak Málik, pl. Mullak, Mullák reigning, ruling; owning, possessing, holding; owner, proprietor, master, possessor, holder
Maliki Málikí state of master, mastership; royal, kingly; lordly. A Malikite is a member of a particular Sunní muslim sect (al-málikíya—a system of Sunní jurisprudence)
Man Man 1. (interr. pron.) who? which one? which ones?
2. (relative pron.) who; the one who; those who; one who; whoever, whosoever, everyone who, he who.
Man-Yuzhiruhu'llah Man-Yuẓhiruhu’lláh (man+yu+ẓahara+Alláh) “Him whom God shall make manifest” Title given by the Báb to the promised One. “He Who is made manifest in the past and in the future” is another rendering of “Him Whom God has manifested and will manifest”
Manhaj, Minhaj, Manahij Manhaj, Minhaj, pl. Manáhij open, plain, easy road, highway, path; manner, procedure, method; program; course
Mani Mání Pers. thou remainest; thou resemblest; rare, uncommon; name of a celebrated Persian painter, the founder of the sect of the Manicheans.
Mani', Muna'a Maní‘, pl. Muna‘á’ unapproachable, inaccessible, impervious, impenetrable, forbidding; well-fortified; mighty, strong, powerful; impregnable, unconquerable; insurmountable, insuperable, invincible, immune
Mann, Amnan Mann, pl. Amnán gracious bestowal; favor; benefit, blessing, boon; gift, present, largess; honeydew; manna;
a weight of 2 raṭl (Persian weight) There are two Pers. weights: 1) Normal Mann—about 3 kg. 2) King Mann or Mann-i-Sháhí’ is equal to 6.6 kg. The Writings usually refer to the later.
Manqul va ma'qul Manqúl va ma‘qúl “desumed” (select or borrow (from traditional) knowledge) versus “excognitated” (thought out, plan, devise) knowledge (MF, p. 156)
Manqul, Manqulat Manqúl, pl. Manqúlát carried, conveyed, transported; transferred; transmitted; translated; copied, transcribed; movable, mobile, portable; handed down, traditional; traditional stock
Mansub, Mansubat Manṣúb, pl. Manṣúbát erected; set-up, raised; planted in the ground; fixed, fastened, attached; installed in office; levelled, aimed (cannon; at); (pl.) word in the accusative or subjunctive. See fá‘il, maf‘úl and marfú‘
Mansur (Mansour) Manṣúr supported, aided (by God); victorious, triumphant; victor; “rendered victorious”. Al-Manṣúr is a district in western Baghdád. In the ne of the district is the Washshash neighbourhood.
Mansura (Mansoura), Manzurih Manṣúra, Pers. Manẓúrih, Manṣúríyyih al-Manṣúra is a city 115 km north of Cairo
Maqal Maqál speech; proposition, contention, teaching, doctrine; article; treatise; piece of writing
Maqala, Maqalat, Maqalih Maqála, (Pers. Maqálih), pl. Maqálát article; essay; treatise; piece of writing
Maqam ("Makam"), Maqamat Maqám, pl. Maqámát site, location, position; place, spot, point, locality; situation; station; standing, position, rank, dignity; tomb of a saint, sacred place; key, tonality, mode (music). Melodic modes used in traditional Arabic music. Ṣúfí spiritual stations. The Shrine of the Báb was called Maqám by Persian Bahá’ís (The Priceless Pearl, p. 235)
Maqam-i-Khidr Maqám-i-Khiḍr The Lower Cave of Elijah, blessed by the footsteps of Bahá’u’lláh for three days (according to Memoirs of Dr Mu’ayyad, 2:258) and of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for about two months (according to an unpublished manuscript). See also David S. Ruhe, Door of Hope, pp. 186–88.
Maqbul Maqbúl acceptable, reasonable; satisfactory; pleasing, obliging, complaisant, amiable; well-liked, likable, popular, welcome
Maqtal, Maqatil Maqtal, pl. Maqátil murder, death; murderous battle;—(pl.) vital part of the body (the injury of which will bring about death), mortal spot, mortal organ; Achilles’ heel, vulnerable spot
Mardah, Marzi Marḍáh, Pers. Marẓí a means affording satisfaction or gratification; satisfaction, pleasure. See Raḍiya
Mardiyyih, Marziya (Marzia, Marzieh) Marḍíyyih (Marẓíyyih) Pers. well-favoured. Marẓíya was sister of Qurratu’l-‘Ayn (Ṭáhirih). ‘Abdu’l-Bahá wrote to Marzieh (neé Khán) Gail: ‘O God, make her who is pleasing to God (Marzieh), well-pleased with God (Razieh).” Arches of the years, p. 82, referring to Qur’án 89:28. See Marḍáh
Marfu' Marfú‘ traceable in ascending order of traditions to Muḥammad (Prophetic tradition); (grammar) in the nominative or indicative, respectively. See fá‘il, maf‘úl and manṣúb
Marja' Marja‘ Pers. bringing back, restoring; return; time or place of return; a rendezvous, place of reference, refuge; a goal; (in grammar) antecedent; repetition; ultimate object
Marja'u't-Taqlid Marja‘u’t-Taqlíd lit. reference point for emulation. Un-elided forms: Marja‘ at-taqlíd (Pers. Marja‘-i-taqlíd). One who through his learning and probity is qualified to be followed in all points of religious practice and law by the generality of Shi‘is.
Marji, Maraji Marji‘, pl. Maráji‘ return; authority to which one turns or appeals; place of refuge, retreat; recourse resort; authority, responsible agency; source (esp. scientific), authoritative reference work; resource; starting point, origin; recourse
Markaz, Marakiz Markaz, pl. Marákiz foothold; stand, station; place where someone is posted or stationed; post; (police, etc.) station; office, branch office (com.); locality where something takes place, scene, site, seat; position (mil.); headquarters; main office, central office; central exchange (telephone)
Marut Márút great; name of a king; name of an angel, and companion of Hárút (Qur’án 2:102). See Hárút
Maryam Maryam Mary, Maria. Maryam, Bahá’u’lláh’s cousin, sister-in-law, friend, and faithful follower
Masabih as-Sunnah Maṣábíḥ as-Sunnah Lamps of Tradition by al-Ḥusayn ibn Mas‘úd Baghawī. See miṣbáḥ
Masdar, Masadir Maṣdar, pl. Maṣádir starting point, point of origin; origin, source (fig.); (gram.) infinitive, verbal noun; absolute or internal object
Mash'ar, Masha'ir Mash‘ar, pl. Mashá‘ir cultic shrine for ceremonies of the ḥajj; sensory organ;—pl. senses, feelings, sensations. Pers. explanation: A place dedicated to religious ceremonies, or where sacrifices are offered
Masha'u'llah or Ma Sha'llah Máshá’u’lláh or Má Shá’lláh (Máshá’lláh?) What God wills (Má+Shá’a+Alláh, “Mashallah”)
Mashaf, Mushaf, Masahif Maṣḥaf, Muṣḥaf, pl. Maṣáḥif volume; book; copy of the Qur’án. Muṣḥaf of Fáṭima—there is a legend that Gabriel brought this book to console Fáṭima after the death of her father.
Mashhad, Mashahid Mashhad, pl. Masháhid place of assembly, assembly, meeting; place where a martyr or hero died; religious shrine venerated by the people, especially the tomb of a saint; funeral cortege; profession; view, aspect, spectacle, sight, scenery; place or object of interest; scene (e.g., of a crime, of nature); act, number (as part of a program, e.g., in vaudeville), scene (in theatre, as part of a play); aspect. Capital of Khurásán (Khorasan), Írán, shrine city of Imám Riḍá.