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from the Chronology

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1799 in the year Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.

The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]

Akka Napoleon; Siege of Akka
1819–1831 `Abdu'lláh Páshá becomes the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians take `Akká he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverts to Turkish rule. [BBD5] `Akká; Israel; Egypt `Abdu'llah Pasha; governor of `Akka
1831 – 40 Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
  • 'Abdu'lláh Páshá is the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
Akka; Israel Egyptian; occupation; `Akka
1840 The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] `Akká; Israel Britain; British take `Akka; Egyptians
1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh reveals a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
  • President Grant of the United States is in office when Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
`Akká `Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Czar Alexander II; Queen Victoria; Pope Pius IX; President Grant; Lawh-i-Ra'is; Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'
1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
Haifa; Famagusta; `Akká; citadel Mishkin-Qalam; Áqa `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Ra'is; Dr. Petro; Mirza Ja'far
1868. c. Oct Nabíl is released from prison in Egypt and departs for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
  • He visits Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
Cairo; `Akká; Cyprus Nabil; cave of Elijah
1868. end Oct Nabíl enters `Akká in disguise but is recognized and after three days is thrown out of the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
  • He spends the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68]
`Akká Nabil
1869 Early in the year Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrives in `Akká from Iran and is the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
  • He is `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This is the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817]
`Akká; bath of Al-Jazzár Haji Amin-i-Ilahi
1869 The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrives in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He is able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He is still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
Badí` sees `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and is able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` enters the citadel and goes into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He meets Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
  • Badí` asks Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestows it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
  • The journey takes four months; he travels alone. [BKG298]
  • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
  • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.

“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. - The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)

'Akká; Mosul; Áqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri; Badi`; Lawḥ-i-Sulṭan; Tablet to Naṣiri’d-Din Shah
1869. Feb Nabíl makes a second attempt to enter `Akká. He is able to remain for 81 days and meets Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but does not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
  • DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
`Akká Nabil
1869. 1 May Nabíl meets Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57] `Akka; citadel Nabil
1870 `Údí Khammár completes the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH106-107]
  • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
'Akká; `Údi Khammar; `Abdu'llah Pasha
1870. 22 Jun Mírzá Mihdí, the Purest Branch, falls through the skylight in the roof of the prison in `Akká onto a crate lying on the floor below. [BKG311–12; GBP188; RB3:205]
  • It was a normal practice for prisoners to go onto the roof in the summer evenings for fresh air. [RB3:205]
  • He was chanting the verses of Bahá'u'lláh's Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih. [RB3:206]
  • He is so badly injured that his clothes have to be torn from him. [RB206]
  • Bahá'u'lláh comes to him at His bedside and asks His son whether he wishes to live; the Purest Branch begs Bahá'u'lláh to accept his life as a ransom for the opening of the gates of the prison to pilgrims. Bahá'u'lláh accepts this sacrifice. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
`Akká; citadel Mírzá Mihdí; Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih
1870. 23 Jun Mírzá Mihdí dies from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
  • He is interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
  • Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
`Akká Mirza Mihdi; The Purest Branch
1870. 29 Sep Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effects his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306] Cyprus; `Akka Mirza `Abdu'l-Ghaffar
1871 c. May Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasts four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
'Akká; tags (separated by commas)House of Rabi`ih
1871. End of the year Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet). It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh states that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the his nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31] Akka Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun; Fire Tablet; Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji;
1872. c. 1872 Bahá'u'lláh tasks Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She travels from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stays with the wife of the Báb then to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she travels to `Akká. [MKBM]
  • DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872.
  • BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
  • See CH75–79 (Visit to Shíráz) and CH80-90 (Her journey and subsequent marriage) for Munírih Khánum's own account.
Isfahan; Iran; Shiraz; Mecca; Akka; Munirih Khanum; Fatimih Khanum
1872. 22 Jan Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí these four kept vigil near the land gate to ensure no one would meet Bahá’u’lláh. They kept watch from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate so that if a pilgrim, after spending some six months traveling on foot, intended to enter the city they could somehow prevent his entrance. This situation lasted for some time. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the prison. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and during the night went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, P 31]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
`Akká; House of `Údí Khammár Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas `Abbud; Antichrist of the Baha'i Revelation
1872 Last months Munírih Khánum arrives in `Akká. She stays in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
  • Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
`Akká Munirih Khanum; Mirza Musa
1873 Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) becomes Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
  • His governorship lasts two years. [BKG337]
  • This `sagacious and humane governor' meets `Abdu'l-Bahá and is greatly impressed by Him. The governor peruses some of the writings, which also impress him. [BKG334; GPB191]
  • In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion is made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
  • See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct.
  • See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.
`Akká Ahmad Big Tawfiq (Ahmad Bey); Mutasarrif of `Akka
1873 1 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Vision, "Lawh-i-Rú'yá" in Arabic. See the Provisional Translation by Stephan Lambden. Akka Tablet of the Vision; Lawh-i-Ru'ya
1873 8 Mar Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
  • DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
  • See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
  • For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
  • She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
  • See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
  • See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
  • The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
'Akká; Munirih Khanum; Mirza Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Nahri; Diya'iyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-?asan; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad
1875 `Abdu'l-Bahá rents a small garden near `Akká for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BBD196–7; DH95]
  • See DH95 for its situation.
  • This garden on the river Na`mayn is later named Ridván by Bahá'u'lláh. [DH95]
'Akká; Ridvan Garden
1879. Summer An epidemic of plague breaks out in `Akká and environs. Among others who feel its effects are `Údí Khammár and his family who leave the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194] `Akká; Bahjí `Údi Khammar
1879 or 1880 Birth of Túbá Khánum, second daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH93, 95, ABMM] Akka Tuba Khanum
1881 The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden are purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
  • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden are brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
Akka; Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden
1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
Akka; BWC Trustee of the Huququ'llah; The second Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Haji Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Amin-i-Ilahi; Jinab-i-Shah; Hand of the Cause; Apostles of Baha'u'llah; Haji Ghulam-Rida; Amin-i-Amin; Huququ’llah
1887 Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
`Akká; Mirza Musa; Áqay-i-Kalim; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Karbala'i Hasan Khan; Karbala'i Sadiq
1890 In the year Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

`Akká; Haifa; Tihrán; Qazvín; Kalát-i-Nadírí; Mashhad; Haji Ákhund; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; (Khayru'llah)
1890 E. G. Browne is in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh is staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrives. [BBR253] 'Akká; Haifa; E. G. Browne; Templer colony
1892 Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, commits suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG427–8; DH81; EB270; GPB222]
  • He leaves a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
  • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
  • He is buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
  • He is one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh.
Akka Nabil-i-Akbar; suicide;
1896. c. 1896 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sends letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129] Akka Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-Breaker
1896 in the year Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, marries Mírzá Hádí Afnán of Shíráz. [BW4:234 (GENEALOGY); DH59–60]
  • These are the parents of Shoghi Effendi.
  • For a picture of Díyá'íyyih Khánum see MA105.
'Akká. Diya'iyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Afnan; Shoghi Effendi
1896 c. Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
  • He establishes it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
  • See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
Akka; `Abdu'llah Pasha; House of `Abdu'llah Pasha
1898. 20 Aug Jamál Effendi passes away in `Akká. [EB128] `Akká Jamal Effendi
1898. 11 Nov Kheiralla arrives in `Akká. [BFA1:XXVIII, 141]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá confers titles on him: `Bahá's Peter', the `Second Columbus' and `Conqueror of America'. [BFA1:142; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
`Akka Kheiralla
1898. 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257]
  • They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
  • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
  • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
  • Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
  • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
  • Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
  • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
`Akká; Cairo; House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; The Kitab-i-Aqdas; Anton Haddad; pilgrimage; BWC Pilgrimage
1898. c. 20 Dec The second group of Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká, staying three days before returning to Cairo. [BFA1:145]
  • See BFA1:145 for those included in this group.
`Akká
1900 Apr Dr Yúnis Khán arrives in `Akká to act as translator for `Abdu'l-Bahá. He remains for nine years. [BW12:679] `Akká Dr Yunis Khan
1901 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá writes His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It is written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
  • It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
  • For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
`Akká Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Baha
1901 20 Aug Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposes the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
  • This is the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
  • For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá suspends the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
  • He directs that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
  • For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
`Akka; Egypt Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Covenant-breakers
1901 Sep Thomas Breakwell goes on pilgrimage to `Akká, the first Englishman to do so. [BFA2:154; BW7:709]
  • For an account of this pilgrimage see AB77 and BW7:710.
`Akká Thomas Breakwell; pilgrimage
1902 Pilgrims from the East and the West are once again permitted to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB232] Haifa; Akka Pilgrims
1903 Feb Mírzá Badí`u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, writes to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
  • His letter gives details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
  • This reconciliation is short-lived. [AB102]
`Akka Mirza Badi`u'llah; Muhammad-`Ali
1904 Through the year the Covenant-breakers plot until the friendly governor of `Akká is replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirring up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria write false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí draws up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
These actions result in the arrival of a Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summons `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon His replies the inquiry collapses. [AB113–14; CB233]
Haifa; Akka Covenant-breakers; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan `Abdu'l-Hamid
1904 Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, dies. She and all her four surviving children are Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-`Ulya; Fatimih Khanum; Covenant-breaker
1904 Laura Clifford Barney makes a number of extended visits to `Akká in this period. She brings with her questions to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá, the answers to which she notes down. These questions and answers result in the book Some Answered Questions. [AB81–2; BFA2:238]
  • See AB81–2 for information about Laura Clifford Barney.
  • The translator during this period was Dr Yúnis Afrukhtih (Yúnis Khán), whose memoirs, not yet published in English, make a valuable contribution to the history of the Faith. [BW12:679–81]
  • He arrived in `Akká in 1900 and remained nine years. [BW12:679]
`Akká Laura Clifford Barney; Some Answered Questions; Dr Yunis Afrukhtih (Yunis Khan)
1905 Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.

A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]

Alaska; Germany; `Akká Agnes Alexander; travel teacher; Baha'i group; Commission of Inquiry; `Árif Bey
1906 Mar Mrs Whyte, the wife of a well-known Scottish clergyman, makes a pilgrimage to `Akká with Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper. In answer to a letter Whyte leaves for `Abdu'l-Bahá upon their departure, He reveals the Tablet the `Seven Candles of Unity'. [AB361–2]
  • See AB360–2 and SWAB29–32 for text of the Tablet.
  • See AB355–9 and SBR20–1 for accounts of Mrs Whyte's pilgrimage.
  • See also Khursheed, The Seven Candles of Unity.
  • Her account of the meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in her book entitled Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]
`Akká Mrs Whyte; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; pilgrimage; Seven Candles of Unity'
1907 Feb Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
  • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
`Akká Corinne True; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1909 Summer Sir Ronald Storrs, then a student of Arabic of Edward Granville Browne, visits 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka. [BW10p192] Akka
1909 Nov Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
  • They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; Singapore; Burma; India; `Akká Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; travel teaching
1915 (in the year) Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, is put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
  • For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
  • He threatens to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB304, 317]
Haifa; Akka Jamal Pasha; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; ‘Abdu’l-Baha
1915 May The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká return to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147] Haifa; `Akká; Abú-Sinán
1918. 23 Dec Ahmad Sohrab leaves the Holy Land to take the Tablets of the Divine Pan to America. Akka Tablets of the Divine Plan; Ahmad Sohrab find reference
1922 6 Jan A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area is held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
  • More than a hundred poor are also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
  • For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
Haifa; `Akka `Abdu'l-Baha
1931 Mar Marion Jack paints a view from the Mansion at Bahjí. The painting will eventually hang in the Mansion. [CT174] ‘Akká Marion Jack; Mansion at Bahji
1932 Apr Pilgrims are able to stay overnight at Bahjí for the first time. [GBF101; PP232] ‘Akká Mansion at Bahji
1937 20 Dec Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, dies. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
  • For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
‘Akká Muhammad-‘Alí; Covenant -breaker
1939 5 Dec Shoghi Effendi disinters the remains of Navváb and the Purest Branch. [DH162; PP260]
  • He goes at daybreak to ‘Akká cemetery and removes the remains of Navváb to a new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He then goes to the Nabí Sálib cemetery and transfers the remains of the Purest Branch to a second new coffin. [DH162; PP260]
  • He transports them to Mount Carmel, near the grave of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [DH162; PP260]
  • For his cable announcing this to the Bahá’í world see BW8:245 and DH162 and PP261.
‘Akká; Mount Carmel Navváb; Purest Branch
1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] ‘Akká House of ‘Abbúd
1956 Shoghi Effendi buys the ruined house known as the Master’s Tea House. ‘Akká Master’s Tea House
1957 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Treasury Department of Israel has issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breakers
1957 Jun The Covenant-breakers completely abandon Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breakers
1957 6 Sep Shoghi Effendi announces ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
  • See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
‘Akká Bahji; Most Holy Shrine; Covenant-breaker; Shrine of Baha'u'llah
1957 18–25 Nov The first conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. Twenty-three Hands were present. [BBRSM128; DH215; MC8–11, TG158]
  • This is the first meeting of the Hands of the Cause as a group.
  • For a personal account of the Conclave by Hand of the Cause Zikrullah Khadem. see ZK119.
  • For the nature of the six Conclaves see MC9–10, 12.
‘Akká Bahji; Hand of the Cause; Zikrullah Khadem
1957 18 Nov The Hands of the Cause conduct a memorial meeting for Shoghi Effendi in the Haram-i-Aqdas. [BW13:341; MC35] ‘Akká Hand of the Cause; Haram-i-Aqdas
1957 25 Dec The Hands of the Cause announce the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
  • The rubble is used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and completing the northern gardens planned by him.
‘Akká Bahjí; Covenant-breaker
1958 21–28 Nov The Second Conclave of the Hands of the Cause convenes at Bahjí. [BW13:347–8; MC118]
  • It is attended by 25 of the 27 Hands of the Cause. [BW13:347; MC118]
  • The Hands of the Cause call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at the time of the Most Great Jubilee in 1963. BBRSM129; BW13:351; MC122]
‘Akká Bahá'í; Hand of the Cause; Most Great Jubilee
1959 The mansion at Mazra‘ih is renovated. [MC219] ‘Akká Mazra‘ih
1959 The House of ‘Abbúd is renovated and restored. [MC219] ‘Akká House of ‘Abbud
1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
  • For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
  • Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempts to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
‘Akká Bahji; Hand of the Cause; Charles Mason Remey
1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
  • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
  • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
  • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
‘Akká Hand of the Cause; UHJ; International Bahá’í Council; Charles Mason Remey
1960 18 – 27 Oct The fourth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC229] ‘Akká Bahji; Hand of the Cause; Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God
1961 15 Oct – 2 Nov The fifth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [MC297]
  • For the agenda see MC298.
‘Akká Hand of the Cause; Bahji
1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fifth Conclave. [MC313–23]
  • They call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MC321]
  • They ask the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MC321]
  • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, is to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MC322]
‘Akká Hand of the Cause; Bahjí; Most Great Jubilee; UHJ
1963 9 Apr The sixth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí.
  • For the agenda see MC404.
  • For cabled message from the Conclave see MC420.
‘Akká Hand of the Cause; Bahjí
1965 11 Nov The Universal House of Justice announces that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí has been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3] ‘Akká Bahji; Covenant-breaker; Mirza Diya’u’llah; Shrine of Baha’u’llah
1972 May The northeast and southeast quadrants of the gardens at Bahjí are completed and the southern gardens are extended to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Tea House. ‘Akká Bahji; ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s Tea House
1973 15 Mar The mansion at Mazra‘ih is purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; DH94; VV14]

From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

“The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side.” [MUHJ68-73]

‘Akká Mazra‘ih
1973 4 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces the completion of the final, south-western quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí. [BW16:135–6; DH122] ‘Akká Bahjí
1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá is purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
  • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
‘Akká; ; BWC house of ‘Abdu’llah Pasha
1977 Dec The restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá begins. [BW17:84] ‘Akká; ; BWC house of ‘Abdu’llah Pasha
1980 24 Sep Universal House of Justice announces that additional land has been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permits the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it is announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazar'ih property has been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area is being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980] ‘Akká Haram-i-Aqdas
1983 Ridván The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá in ‘Akká is completed. [BW18:77]
  • Delegates attending the fifth International Convention are the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
  • For pictures see BW18:78–80.
‘Akká House of ‘Abdu’llah Pasha; International Convention
1990 23 May The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102] World Centre; Akká; Haifa; Israel; BWC; terraces; Shrine of the Bab
2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] ‘Akká; BWC; Baha'u'llah; BWC Pilgrimage
2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC prison citadel
2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC; UNESCO; World Heritage Site; Shrine of Baha’u’llah; Shrine of the Bab
 
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