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Search Chronology for entries about "Baghdád"

from the Chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Constantinople; Istanbul; Iraq; Baghdád; Najaf; Karbalá Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Shaykhi; Mulla `Ali; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Shi`i; Sunni; `ulama; martyr; Babi; Mulla Hasan Gawhar; Babism
1845. 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád.A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdád; Iraq trial; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami
1945 c. 13 Jan A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. Baghdád; Iraq fatwa; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Bab
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Baghdád; Karbalá; Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum; Greatest Holy Leaf; daughter Baha'u'llah; Navvab; sister `Abdu'l-Baha; Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i Dispensation; Babi; Bab; Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kázimayn; Baghdád; Iraq; Persia; Iran; Hamadán; Kirmánsháh Tahirih; Babi; Siyyid `Ali Bishr; Bab; Mah-Ku; Hakim Masih; Jewish; doctor; Baha'i; Najib Pasha
1851. 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stays here for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]

  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
Karbalá; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; pilgrimage; Babis
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Tehran; Takur; Iran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq Life of Bahaullah; Siyah-Chal; Prison; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; martyr; poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya; - Basic timeline
1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Íran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq Life of Bahaullah; Banishment of Bahaullah; brother; wife; son; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Bahiyyih Khanum; Mirza Musa and Mirza Muhammad-Qul; Russia
1853. 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrive in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]
  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shoghi Effendi describes this as being the lowest period of the faith of the Báb. [DB651, GPB113-114]
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gives birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
Baghdad; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Navvab; son
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]

  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]

  • The revelation of this Tablet points up Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
Baghdád; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; birth; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya; Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘am; Tablet All Food; Mirza Yahya'
1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]

  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]

  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
Kurdistan; Baghdad Life of Bahaullah; Dervish; Sulaymaniyyih; Sar-Galu; Aqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyi-i-Izz-i-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab; Mirza Yahya; Sufism; Daoud Toeg; Caves
1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point, joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home. See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals. Baghdád; Iraq;
1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period are so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He reveals a vast number of works and then commands that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; writing
1856 – 1863 It is in this period that Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh describes the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150]

  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA1507.
Baghdad; Iraq; Kurdistan Writings of Bahaullah; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Sufism; Shaykh Muhyid-Din; Qadi Khaniqayn; - Basic timeline
1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returns from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán.

"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
Baghdád; Iraq; Sulaymáníyyih; Kurdistán Baha'u'llah; Sulaymaniyyih
1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Life of Bahaullah
1857. c. 1857 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Four Valleys, addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání and describing four stages of the spiritual life. [SA157–8] Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Four Valleys; Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahman-i-Talabani
1858 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40] Baghdad; Iraq Writings of Bahaullah; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Fatimih; Tigris; Rivers - Basic timeline
1860. c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq Mirza Mihdi; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdad; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran Writings and talks of Abdul-Baha; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Islam; Hidden Treasure; Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Akhund; Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Hands of the Cause; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ismulahul-Asdaq; Ibn Asdaq; Life of Bahaullah
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Tehran; Iran; Persia Writings of Bahaullah; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Muhammad, Haji Mirza Siyyid; - Basic timeline
1862. c. Mar - Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdád; Iraq Sadhijiyyih; daughter; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offers Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offers Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]

  • Bahá'u'lláh declines the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
Baghdád; Iraq; India; Britain; Colonel; Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British; Consul-General; Baha'u'llah; Ottoman
1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Life of Bahaullah; Banishment of Bahaullah; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
1863. Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrates the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh; Tigris; Baghdád; Iraq Baha'u'llah; Naw-Ruz
1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Life of Bahaullah; Banishment of Bahaullah; deputy; governor; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship; removal
    1963 Mar - Apr At some point prior to the public declaration in the Garden of Ridván, Bahá'u'lláh confides in His Son that He is the One promised by the Báb. [CH82] Baghdád; Iraq;
    1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
    • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
    • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
    • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
    • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
    Baghdád; Mosul; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Iran; Persia Mirza Yahya
    1864 c. At some point during this period After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name is mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akk´and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

    Baghdád; Iraq; Adrianople House of Baha’u’llah; Abdu'r '-Rasul-Qumi
    1867. Apr An appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrives at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers] Baghdad; Shushtar Petition; US Congress 1867 Petition
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam is dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
    • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
    • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
    • For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]
    Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrimage; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
    • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
    • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
    • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
    • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
    • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
    Baghdád; Mosul King of Martyrs; Beloved of Martyrs; charity fund
    1868. 26 Jul Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]
    • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
    • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
    • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
    Adrianople; Baghdad Life of Bahaullah; Banishment of Bahaullah; Sultan `Abdu'l-`Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; firman
    1878 to 1881 The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
    • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
    • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
    • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
    Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tehran Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Jinab-i-Shah Muhammad; Aminu'l-Bayan; Trustee of the Bayan; Remains of the Bab; Mosque of Imamzadih Zayd; Huququ’llah
    1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdad Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause of God
    1920 The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 after Mandate After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorizes repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attract the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sue for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád is granted and the Bahá'is are evicted. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturns an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad is decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allows them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
    • Before the application goes before the Court the Shi'a group prevail upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and the return the keys to them. All this is against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
    • The case is passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decides in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq takes over the keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1922 22 Feb King Feisal of Iraq orders the Bahá'ís to be turned out of the Most Great House in Baghdád to keep the peace. [BW354; GPB343; PP54] Baghdad King Feisal; Most Great House; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1923 The keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád are delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appeal to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1923 20 Dec The Peace Court rules in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, orders that the property not be returned until ownership can be established. [SETPE1p26]
    • The Guardian sends 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities were the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructs that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sends over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
    • The Iráqí government refuses to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reports in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is now before the court of the First Instance and has been postponed for some time. He states that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents are likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government is likely to delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá’u’lláh’s house in Baghdád are given to the Shí’ís. [UD45] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Shi’is
    1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal rules against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sends a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1927 The Baghdád believers take photographs of the cave in the Sargul Mountain near Sulaymáníyyih where Bahá'u'lláh spent two years in solitude. [BW2Surveyp.33, SETPE1p141] Baghdád; Sulaymáníyyih Sulaymaniyyih
    1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq submits a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Baghdád; Iraq; Petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
    • The Shí’ís turn the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Shi’is; Husayniyyih
    1928 Nov It is recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopts the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá’í community to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:50-55]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
    Baghdád; Iraq; Council of the League of Nations; Mandates Commissions; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relents under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169] Baghdad House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
    • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Montfort Mills
    1930 2 Jan Martha Roots meets with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad. The King says that a committee has been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Martha Root
    1932 3 Oct The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq comes to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Molsems and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances, while there for a medical examination. [Wikipedia]

    • Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
    Baghdad; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi; King Faisal; The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration; Mandatory Iraq
    1932 3 Nov-6 Dec Meeting of the 22nd Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva at which the Bahá’ís plead their case for the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW5:351–4] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1933 23 Oct-4 Nov The 24th session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations is held in Geneva at which the case of the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is again raised. [BW5:354–5] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1947 23 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. He became a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. After WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and the erection of the Haziratu'l-Quds in the village of Avashiq, the first in Iraq. His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503] Baghdad Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Shrine of the Bab
    1959 19 Oct The Hands of the Cause announce that the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Buzurg, have been reinterred in the Bahá’í burial ground in the vicinity of the Most Great House in Baghdád. [MC165] Baghdád; Iraq Most Great House; Mirza Buzurg
    1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defends the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
    • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís are arrested. [BW16:138]
    Baghdád religious persecution
    1974 1 Feb The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
    • After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
    • He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
    • In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
    • He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
    • Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
    • He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
    • He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
    • He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
    • The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave]
    Hull; Quebec; Baghdad; Sulaymáníyyih; Kurdistán Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam
    1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentences 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís are fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdád; Iraq religious persecution
    2013 24 - 26 Jun Contrary to the plans of the Department of Antiquities, the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is razed to make way for the construction of a mosque. [Message from the Universal House of Justice date 17 July 2013, SETPE1p170] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    2013 27 Jun In a message from the Universal House of Justice to all National Spiritual Assemblies it advises of the news of the destruction of the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad. [Message of 27 Jun 2013]
    In truth, I declare, it shall be so abased in the days to come as to cause tears to flow from every discerning eye...And in the fulness of time, shall the Lord by the power of truth exalt it in the eyes of all the world, cause it to become the mighty standard of His domination, the shrine round which shall circle the concourse of the faithful. [BA99-100, BWNS961]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
     
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