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Search Chronology for entries about "France"

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1865 French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17]

Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]

France; Russia Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; Petersburg University; Firsts, Other: Z****
1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
Sedan; France Napoleon III
1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles establishes the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
  • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the `first English believer', and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith', see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259.
Paris; France May Maxwell (Bolles); Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
1899. 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey becomes a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris; France Charles Mason Remey; May Maxwell (Bolles)
1900 26 Nov Agnes Alexander accepts the Faith in Rome after hearing the message from Mrs Dixon. She stays in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travels to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. She leaves Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. [BFA1p159] Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles)
1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learns of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he becomes a believer and immediately writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
1901 Hippolyte Dreyfus hears of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepts it. [AB81–2]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
  • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney he adopts the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; May Maxwell (Bolles); Laura Clifford Barney
1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell dies from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appears to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designates him one of three `luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam
1905 -1906 The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]

Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.

“To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]

In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]

The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications
1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departs from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol2 no.10 (8 September, 1911) p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; S. S. Corsica; Ships
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
  • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
  • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
  • He remains in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
  • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46]

In the afternoon all are invited to meet Him at #22 rue Seeden Rollin pre Saint Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Kitab-i-Nuqtatul-Kaf; Criticism and apologetics; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih
1911 10 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk later entitled "The Evolution of the Spirit" at 15 Rue Greuze, Paris. [Paris Talks p88-94] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Paris and returns to Egypt where He takes up residence in Rameh again. He passed the winter here and then embarked on His Second Western tour in March of 1912. [AB167; GPB280; SBR25] Egypt; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at which E. G. Browne is present. He visits `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]

Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrives in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]

London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB371]
  • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 6 Feb `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Versailles. [AB376] Paris; Versailles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in the Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Khazeh Fananapazir site.
  • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Pasteur Monnier
1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá travels from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
  • He tells His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
  • He does not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Stuttgart and returns to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 12 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]

In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.

3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days          
 21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days          
       1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days          
                      Total   171 days          
Paris; Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 13 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Marseilles on the S. S. Himalaya for Port Said. [AB395]
  • He sends a telegram to Haifa instructing the many pilgrims awaiting his return to come to Port Said. Because of the great numbers who come, there isn't sufficient hotel accommodations and a large tent is erected on the roof in which to hold meetings. SoW Vol 4 No 7 p121.
Marseilles; France; Port Said; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; S. S. Himalaya; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Paris. [UD84–5]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
1939 Feb A.-L.-M. Nicolas, the French consular official and Orientalist who made a study of the Bábí Faith, passes away in Paris.
  • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; Babi studies; Bahai studies
1939 3 Sep World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); Europe; 20th century; War (general)
1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave St Malo, France, for England one day before the city is occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seems acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80] St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
Reunion Island; France Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
1955 8–15 Feb The first people to become Bahá’ís in Réunion, Paul and Françoise Tayllamin (8 Feb) and Jean Donat and Julien Araye (15 Feb), enrol. Reunion Island; France First Bahais by country or area
1958 26 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of France is formed.
  • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
France NSA
1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship; France
1971 The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, to become Bahá’ís in France enrol at a campsite near Le Bourget airport. France
1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, compiler of Some Answered Questions, passes away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference is held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique is formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
Fort-de-France NSA
1990 The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
Chamonix; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1993 In the year EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
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