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Search Chronology for entries about "Iran"

from the Chronology

date event locations tags see also
1771 Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. Shiraz, Iran Fath-Ali Khan, Fath-Ali Shah
1778. c. 1778 Birth of Siyyid Muhammad Riday-i-Shírází, the father of the Báb. Shiraz, Iran Mirza Muhammad Rida, Siyyid Muhammad Rida Bahaikipedia
1783. c. 1783 Birth of Mírzá `Abbás-i-Irivání, later Prime Minister Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, in Máh-Kú. Mah-Ku, Iran Mirza `Abbas-i-Irivani, Prime Minister of Persia, Prime Minister of Iran, Haji Mirza Áqasi
1798 c. Mar Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaims himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. Persia, Iran Áqa Muhammad Khan, Qajars, Qajar dynasty, Shah
1797 Birth of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, in Rasht. Rasht, Iran Shaykhism, Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
1797 c. Aug Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumes leadership of Persia. Iran, Fath-`Ali Mirza
1806. c. 1806 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Khán-i-Farahání, later Prime Minister of Persia, in Hizávih. Hizávih, Iran Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-i-Farahani, Prime Minister of Persia, Prime Minister of Iran
1808. 5 Jan Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh. Iran Muhammad Mírzá, `Abbás Mírzá, Fath-`Alí Sháh
1817. c. 1817 Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd. Ardikán, Yazd, Iran, Persia Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani, Haji Amin, Hand of the Cause of God
1817 Shaykh Ahmad travels to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He is in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz, Tehran, Iran Shaykh Ahmad, Shaykhism
1817 The birth of Fátimih Umm-Salamih, Táhirih (the Pure One), Qurratu'l-'Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold). [BBD220; GPB7, 73, 75]
  • In BBRSM16 her name is given as Fátimih Bigum Baragháni and birth year is 1814.
Persia, Iran Fatimih Umm-Salamih, Tahirih, Pure One, Qurratu'l-'Ayn, Solace of the Eyes, Zarrin-Taj, Crown of Gold
1817. 12 Nov Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh).
  • He is of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He is a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
  • He is born in Tihrán. His father is Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father is also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
  • His mother is Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
  • He is born at dawn. [LOG353]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378.
  • RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
Tehran, Núr, Iran Baha'u'llah, Mirza Buzurg, Khadijih Khanum BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh
1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Najafábád, Iran Mulla Zaynu'l-`Ábidin, Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin, Apostle
1819 Death of Shaykh `Alí, son of Shaykh Ahmad. Shaykh Ahmad considers this loss as a sacrifice for `the Alí whose advent we all await'. [MH24] Iran, Persia Shaykh `Ali, Shaykh Ahmad
1819. 20 Oct Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
  • The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
  • The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
  • Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
  • His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
  • His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
  • He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
  • Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
  • See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Bab, Primal Point, Promised One, Siyyid-i-dhikr, Lord of Remembrance, Fatimih-Bagum, Zajra Bagum, Mirza Muhammad Rida, House of Hashim, `Abdu'dh-dhikr, Servant of Remembrance, Babu'llah, Gate of God, Hadrat-i-A`la, His Holiness Most Exalted One, Qa'im
1820 Birth of Khadíjih Bagum (daughter of Mírzá `Alí, a merchant of Shíráz), first wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran Khadijih Bagum
1820 Birth of Ásíyih Khánum (Navváb), first wife of Bahá'u'lláh, in Yálrúd. The only daughter of Mírzá Ismá'íl. Yálrúd, Iran Ásiyih Khanum, Navvab
1822 Birth of Mírzá-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (Quddús), the 18th Letter of the Living. Iran, Mirza-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi, Quddus, Letter of the Living
1825. c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran Áqa Husayn-i-Isfahani, Mishkin-Qalam, Apostle, calligrapher
1828 Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
  • The Báb is placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He is a leading merchant of Shíráz and is the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He is one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
  • According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
Shíráz, Iran Mirza Muhammad Rida, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, Khal-i-A`zam
1828 Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. [BBRSM55] Persia, Iran Defeat, Persians, Russians
1830 Mullá Husayn leaves his home in Mashhad to pursue his religious studies in Karbalá. [MH113] Mashad, Iran, Karbala, Iraq Mulla Husayn
1830. c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. Iran, Persia Marriage, Tahirih, Mulla Muhammad, Mulla Taqi
1831. c. 1831 Birth of Mírzá Yahyá (Subh-i-Azal), half brother of Bahá'u'lláh. Persia, Iran Mirza Yahya, Subh-i-Azal
1831 17 Jul Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh. Iran Nasiri'd-Din Mirza, Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
Iran, Fath-`Ali Shah, Muhammad Shah, Grand Vizier, Qa'im Maqam, Haji Mirza Áqasi
1835 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán, Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbubu'sh-Shuhada', Beloved of Martyrs
1835 Nov c. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí becomes Prime Minister of Persia. Iran Haji Mirza Áqasi, Prime Minister of Persia, Prime Minister of Iran
1837 Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahán, Iran Haji Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultanu'sh-Shuhada', King of Martyrs
1838 Manúchihr Khán is appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167] Isfahán, Iran Manuchihr Khan, Governor
1839 Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Persia, Iran British defeat Persia, war, Britain
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran, Persia Haji Ákhund, Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi, Hand of the Cause
1842 Aug The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382, DoH107]
  • See B80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, marriage, Khadijih-Bagum
1843 Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
  • The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
Iran, Persia Ahmad, son of Bab
1844 Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpáygán, Iran Gulpaygani, Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1844. 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
  • See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
Karbalá, Isfahán, Mashhad, Najaf, Búshihr, Shíráz, Iraq, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Siyyid Kazim, mourning, fasting
1844. 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvín, Iran Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle Bahá'u'lláh
1844. 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
  • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
  • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
  • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
Shíráz, Iran Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, declaration, Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Surih of Joseph, Tahirih, Bab, Babi Qur'an, Baha'u'llah, Adamic Cycle, Baha'i Cycle, Cycle of Fulfillment, Apostolic, Heroic, Primitive, Age, Shi'i Muslim, Babu'l-Bab, Siyyid-i-dhikr, Fort Tabarsi, Jinab-i Bab, Qa'im, Promised One
1844. 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran `Abdu'l-Baha, `Abbas Effendi, Baha'i, Baha'u'llah, Ghusn-i-A`zam, Most Great Branch, Sirru'llah, Mystery God, Áqa, Master, Sarkar-i-Áqa
1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
Persia, Iran Declaration, Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Mulla Husayn, Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Promised One, Letters of the Living, Quddus, Tahirih
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
  • The Báb addresses the Letters of the Living, giving each a specific task. [DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19] .
Iran, Persia, Turkey, Káshán, Isfahán, Tihrán, Tehran, Mázindarán, Khurásán, Qum Bab, Letters of the Living, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Tablet Baha'u'llah, Shah, Mulla Ja`far, sifter of wheat, Muhammad Shah, Sultan `Abdu'l-Majid, Tablet Bab
1844 30 Sep The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
  • Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
  • GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
  • See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
Iran, Bab, Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, letter, pilgrimage
1844 30 Sep The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
  • DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14October to 11 November, 1844).
  • SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
  • Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
Iran, Persia, Saudi Arabia, Shíráz, Búshihr, Mecca Bab, Quddus, Haji Mulla Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi, Ethiopian, servant, Mubarak
1845. c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Persia, Iran Mirza `Ali-Muhammad-i-Khurasani, Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause of God
1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave is life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Búshihr, Iran, Shíráz Bab, Quddus, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, dhasa'il-i-Sab`ih, Seven Qualifications, martyrdom
1845. Jun Quddús meets Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz. Mullá Sádiq, following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, sounds the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. [B78; DB144]
  • This provokes a public commotion. [B78; DB145; BBRSM16]
Shíráz, Iran Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas, Tablet Bab
1845. 23 Jun The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
  • The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
  • Búshihr,
  • The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
Fárs, Iran, Shíráz, Iran, Búshihr, governor, Husayn Khan, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib, arrest, torure, Husayn Khan
1845. 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey, Tehran, Iran Prince Dolgorukov, Russian
1845. 30 Jun The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
Dálakí, Fars, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Bab, governor, arrest
1845. Jul and months following The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
  • He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
  • The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
Shíráz, Isfahán, Khurásán, Yazd, Kirmán, Nayríz, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, Mosque Vakil, Hidden Imam, Mulla Husayn, uncle, Babi, Shah, Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi, Vahid, scholar, Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani, Hujjat, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi, learned, Tahirih, Shaykhi, Shi`ism, Karim Khan, Shaykhi, Ishaqu'l-Batil, Crushing Falsehood, Shaykhism
1845. 1 Nov The Times of London carries an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This is the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article is reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shíráz, Iran, London, England arrest, torture, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Baghdád, Karbalá, Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum, Greatest Holy Leaf, daughter Baha'u'llah, Navvab, sister `Abdu'l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi, Baha'i Dispensation, Babi, Bab, Tahirih, Shaykh Muhammad Shibl, Mufti Baghdad
1846. c. Feb - Mar 1846 The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]

The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]

Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran Shah, Manuchihr Khan, Bab, wife, Fatimih
1846. Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihrán, Tehran, Iran Prince Dolgorukov, Russian, Russia, ambassador
1846 Summer The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13] Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab, mother, wife, prayer, martyrdom, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, Babi
1846. 23 Sep The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
  • See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
  • DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
Shíráz, Iran, Persia Husayn Khan, governor, Bab, `Abdu'l-Hamid Khan, cholera, epidemic, Shah
1846 23 – 24 Sep The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
  • TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
  • B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
Shíráz, Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab
1846 Sep - Oct On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
  • See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
  • It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
Isfahán, Iran, Persia Bab, Manuchihr Khan, governor-general, Siyyid Muhammad, Imam-Jum`ih
1846 c. Nov Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9] Iran, Persia Manuchihr Khan, Bab, death-warrant
1847. Feb - Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihrán, Tehran, Isfahán, Iran Manuchihr Khan, Bab, Gurgin Khan, Nusayri horsemen
1847. 21 Mar En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22] Tihrán, Tehran, Káshán, Iran, Persia Báb, Hájí Mírzá Jání, dream
1847. 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihrán, Tehran, Kulayn, Iran Báb, fortress Kinár-Gird, Muhammad Big, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, prime minister
1847. 29 Mar The Báb arrives in Kulayn where He stays for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11] Kulayn, Iran Báb
1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kázimayn, Baghdád, Iraq, Persia, Iran, Hamadán, Kirmánsháh Tahirih, Babi, Siyyid `Ali Bishr, Bab, Mah-Ku, Hakim Masih, Jewish, doctor, Baha'i, Najib Pasha
1847. Apr The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Máh-Kú, Ádharbáyján, Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bab, Shah, prime minister, Haji Mirza Áqasi, fortress Mah-Ku
1847. 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Báb, letter, gifts, Bahá'u'lláh
1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bab, disappear
1847. c. 17 Apr The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
Iran, Persia, Tabríz, Zanján, Bab, letter, Shah, prime minister, Bab, Shah, Grand Vizier, Tahirih, Haji Sulayman Khan, Hujjat
1847. c. May Birth of Fátimih (Munírih) Khánum, wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Isfahán.
  • See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See CH84 for her account of a dream she had as a young child.
  • She was first cousin to the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. [CH86]
Isfahán, Iran, Persia Fatimih Khanum, Munirih, wife, `Abdu'l-Baha
1847 c. May - Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12] Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bab, Mah-Ku
1847. Jul The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
  • See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia Bab, prison
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia, Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, `Ali Khan, Babi, commentary, commentaries, Qur'an, Persian Bayan, Arabic Bayan, Bayan, Dala'il-i-Sab'ih, Seven Proofs, Christian, Muhammad, Tablet Muhammad Shah
1847. Aug Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten. Hamadán, Iran Persia Tahirih, Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati, Babi
1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

Hamadán, Qazvín, Mashhad, Khurásán, Shíráz, Máh-Kú, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran Persia Tahirih, Arab, Babis, Haji Mulla Taqi, Shaykhis, Mulla Husayn, pilgrimage, Baha'u'llah
1847. Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.

  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
Shíráz, Iran, Persia murder, Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi, uncle, Tahirih, Mulla `Abdu'llah
1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Tahirih, assassination, uncle, Babis, arrested, Khusraw Khan
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán, Tehran, Qazvín, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Mulla `Abdu'llah, murder, Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi, Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi, Babis, execute, execution, martyrdom, shrine, Imam-Zadih Zayd, Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi, death, prison, Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi, Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1848. early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihrán, Tehran, Ámul, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Babis, Shaykh Tabarsi, arrest, bastinado
1848 Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
Tihrán, Tehran, Qazvín, Khurásán, Iran, Persia Tahirih, escape, Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi, Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi, Vahid
1848. 20 March Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
  • MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
  • See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
  • The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
Mashhad, Mah-Ku, Iran Mulla Husayn, Bab Mulla Husayn
1848. 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
Mázindarán, Khuy, Urumiyyih, Maraghih, Milan, Tabriz, Zanjan, Qazvin, Tehran, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Baha'u'llah, Báb Mulla Husayn
1848. 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku, Chihriq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Báb, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, Russian, Russia, Prince Dolgorukov
1848. 10 Apr The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
  • He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
  • He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Báb, fortress, Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd', Grievous Mountain, Yahyá Khán, Muhammad Sháh, Máh-Kú
1848 Apr-Jul The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
  • Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
  • Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
  • So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
  • See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
  • A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
  • The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia, India Bab, Yahya Khan, Mah-Ku, Mirza Asadu'llah, Khuy, Dayyan, Babis, honey, dervish, navvab, Lawh-i-Hurufat, Tablet Letters
1848. late Spring Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, Mashhad, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Quddus, hidden treasure, Babiyyih, Babi, Centre, Center, Sam Khan
1848. summer Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
Mashhad, Badasht, Iran, Persia Quddus, Mulla Husayn, soldiers, confinement
1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht, Tabríz, Sháhrúd, Chihríq, Iran, Persia Conference Badasht, Baha'u'llah, Quddus, Tahirih, Bab, Bayan
1848. Jul After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
  • En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
  • A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9]
  • See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
Chihríq, Tabríz, Urúmíyyih, Iran, Persia Bab, trial, horse, sketch, portrait
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí, Tehran, Tihrán, Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Quddus, arrest, Mirza Muhammad-Taqi, Tahirih, Mahmud Khan, Kalantar, Mulla Husayn, Shah, pilgrimage, Tablet, Bab, Black Standard, green turban, new name, Siyyid `Ali
1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
Badasht, Mázindarán, Níyálá, Núr, Bandar-Jaz, Iran, Persia Babis, attack, Baha'u'llah, Tahirih, Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
1848. 21 Jul Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216] Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia Mullá Husayn
1848. last week
in Jul
The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
  • The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
  • He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
Tabríz, Badasht, Iran, Persia Bab, Crown Prince, Nasiri'd-Din Mirza, Qa'im, declaration, bastinado, punishment, Irish, physician, Dr William Cormick, fatwa, death, heresy Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
1848. Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
Mázindarán, Badasht, Khurásán, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Babis, Black Standard, prophecy, death, Muhammad Shah
1848 Aug The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
  • B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
  • On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
  • The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Bab, Haji Mirza Áqasi, Hujjat, Arabic Bayan
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz, Táliqán, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, arrest, Muhammad Shah, Russian agent, Russia, Haji Mirza Hasan, Adib, Hand Cause, Apostle
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran, Persia Muhammad Sháh, Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, Bahá'u'lláh, arrest
1848. 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
Tabríz, Síyáh-Chál', Iran, Persia, Iraq Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Báb, Bahá'u'lláh', martyrs, Bábí, Bahá'í, prime minister, Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání
1848. 10 Oct Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
  • MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
  • In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
  • It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Sa`idu'l-`Ulama
1848. 12 Oct The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5] Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Bábís, Bábí, shrine, Shaykh Tabarsí
1848. Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
    • The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
Iran, Persia Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, Babis', Babi, Baha'u'llah, fortress, Mulla Husayn, Quddus Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
1848. 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1848. 19 Dec The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí begins in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
  • DB361 says this was 1 December.
  • There are about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
  • The supply of bread and water to the fort is cut. A rainfall replenishes the water supply and ruins the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampers the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
Persian, Iran Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, `Abdu'llah Khan
1848. 21 Dec The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
  • For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
Persia, Iran Bábís, Bábí, Quddús, attack, `Abdu'lláh Khán, Tálár River
1849 Bahá'u'lláh marries his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb.
  • Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
Persia, Iran Baha'u'llah, marriage, wife, Fatimih Khanum Mahd-i-‘Ulya, Malik-Nisa Khanum, Mirza Buzurg, Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
1849. early Jan Arrival of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá and 3,000 royal troops in the vicinity of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí. [B173–4; BW18:381; DB363]

  • He sets up camp and his headquarters in the village of Vás-Kas. [DB363]
Vás-Kas, Persia, Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza, troops, shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. 11 Jan Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]

DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.

  • Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá flees barefoot. [DB366]
  • Mullá Husayn's sword is broken in the attack and he uses Quddús'. His companions bring him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]

    At daybreak the soldiers mount a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]

  • In this encounter Quddús is wounded in the mouth and is rescued by Mullá Husayn who disperses the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
Persia, Iran Quddus, Mulla Husayn, attack, army, Babis
1849. 27 Jan The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]

  • This is the third army to be mustered.
  • The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
Persia, Iran ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání, army, Mullá Husayn
1849. 1 Feb The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, turban, Bab
1849. 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, death, Babis, burial, Mihdi-Quli Mirza, martyred
1849. c. 11 Mar On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
  • DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
  • Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
Persia, Iran Mulla Husayn, death, ‘Abbas-Quli Khan, attack
1849. 27 Mar Renewed forces under Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá encamp in the neighbourhood of the fort, build fortifications and begin to bombard the shrine. [BW18:381; DB390–3]
  • DB391 says this was the ninth day after Naw-Rúz.
Persia, Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza, fort, shrine
1849. c. end Mar The army continues to fire on the shrine for a few days. Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir and 18 others attack the new fortifications and destroy some of them. [DB393–4] Persia, Iran army, shrine, attack, Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849. early Apr Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar arrives with more troops. [BW18:381] Persian, Iran Sulayman Khan-i-Afshar
1849. 26 Apr A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán is repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]

  • A few days later some of the Bábís leave the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they are put to death. [DB396–9]
Iran, Persia Sulaymán Khán, Bábís, Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir
1849. 9 May Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá sends an emissary to the fort to invite two representatives to his camp to conduct negotiations. On the strength of assurances written on a Qur'án, Quddús leaves the fort and enters the Prince's camp. [B175; BW18:381; DB399–400] Persia, Iran Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá, Quddús, fort
1849. 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.

  • They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
Iran, Persia Shaykh Tabarsi, fort, shrine, Babis
1849. 11 May Quddús is taken to Bárfurúsh and handed over to the priests. [DB408] Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddús
1849. 16 May Quddús is tortured and, in the public square, he is struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]

  • As he dies he begs God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains are gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddus, torture, death, burial
1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
  • DB430 says he languished in despondency and sorrow for five months.
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Bab, prison, massacre, Shaykh Tabarsi, martyr, Quddus
1849. 26 Nov The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431] Persia, Iran Báb, Mullá Ádí-Guzal, grave, Quddús, Mullá Husayn, pilgrimage
1850 early weeks Vahíd clashes with the authorities in Yazd. He escapes and makes a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B178 says this took place in the early weeks of 1850; B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
Yazd, Fárs, Iran, Persia Vahid
1850. 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mázindarán, Iran, Persia Mullá Ádí-Guzal, Báb
1850. 14 Feb Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381] Iran, Persia Bábí, informer, arrest
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia seven, Martyr, seven goats, Islam, Qá'im, Bábí, Grand Vizier, Prince Dolgorukov, Sheil
1850. spring The house of Vahíd in Yazd is attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd is dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd leaves Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Yazd, Iran, Persia Vahid, house, attack, Mulla Muhammad-Rida
1850. 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]

  • Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
Zanján, Iran, Persia Hujjat, Babi, ‘ulama Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
1850. 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanján, Iran, Persia Martyrdom, Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí
1850. 19 May The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Tihrán, Tehran, Zanján, Iran, Persia Governor, Hujjat, Mír Saláh, Zaynab, Bábí
1850. Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]

  • His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
Chihríq, Tabríz, Urúmíyyih, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Mirza Taqi Khan, Bab, American, missionaries, Mulla Baqir, Letters Living, ‘Jinab-i-Baha', Baha'u'llah, Tablet, ‘Baha'
1850. 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd receives a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leaves the fortress and is received into the camp of his enemies where he is entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayríz, Iran, Persia Vahíd, truce
1850. 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]

  • Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
Nayríz, Iran, Persia Vahíd, Bábí
1850. 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shíráz, Nayríz, Iran, Persia severed head, Bábí
1850. 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayríz, Tabríz, Iran, Persia Vahid, martyrdom, Bab
1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabríz, Iran, Persia Bab, turban, sash, barracks, Mirza Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Zunuzi, Anis, martyr
1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]

At noon the Báb and Anís are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men. [B157; DB512]

  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.

The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volley, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered. [B158; DB514]

  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.

    At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. [B159; TN27]

Tabríz, Iran, Persia Martyrdom, Bab, Anis, Sam Khan, Christian, colonel, Armenian
1850. 10 Jul The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]

  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
Iran, Persia Russian, Consul, Bakulin, sketch, Báb,
1850. 11 Jul The bodies are removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]

  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8 for the story of the recovery of the bodies.
  • The soldiers report that the bodies have been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
Iran, Persia silk, factory, bodies
1850. Jul The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
Iran, Persia, Iraq Bab, Faith Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
1850. 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting begun in May continues. He takes charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]

  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
Zanján, Iran, Persia ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief, army, Ashraf, mother
1850. 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions are executed in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran, Persia Vahid
1850. Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tries to deceive Hujjat into surrender by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responds by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who has them thrown into a dungeon. This signals the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanján, Tabarsí, Nayríz, Iran, Persia Muhammad Khan, Hujjat
1850. 29 Dec Hujjat dies of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
Zanján, Iran, Persia Hujjat, death
1851 Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), a prominent mujtahid, becomes a Bábí, in Najafábád. Najafábád, Iran Mulla Zaynu'l-'Abidin, Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin, mujtahid, Babi
1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]

  • With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
Zanján, Iran, Persia death, Hujjat, Babi
1851. 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán, Tehran, Zanján, Iran, Persia Bábís, executed
1851. 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd, Iran, Persia Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl, executed
1851. 1 May Áqá Husayn is blown from a cannon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd, Iran, Persia Áqá Husayn, cannon
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihrán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan, Baha'u'llah
1851. 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd, Iran, Persia Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání, death
1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591] Kirmánsháh, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah
1852 Birth of Mírzá Buzurg-i-Khurásání (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad, Iran, Persia Mirza Buzurg-i-Khurasani, Badi‘, birth, Apostle, Baha'u'llah
1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán is killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]

  • He chooses to have his veins opened and he bleeds to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Káshán, Iran, Persia Mirza Taqi Khan, death, Shah, mother, Mirza Áqa Khan
1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]

  • He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
Karbalá, Iraq, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Grand Vizier
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih, Lavásán, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Ja‘far-Quli Khan, Grand Vizier
1852. 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran, Persia Sháh, Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, Bahá'u'lláh
1852. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]

  • Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
Zargandih, Iran, Persia Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, Russian, Sháh, Prince Dolgorukov, Grand Vizier, arrest
1852 days following
16 Aug
For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]

He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Siyah-Chal
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Babis, arrest, execute, execution, Siyah-Chal, martyrdom
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bábí, arrest, torture, prison, Sháh, Mahmud Khán, Kalántar, martyr, Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihrán, Tehran, Tákur, Iran, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Baha'u'llah, Siyah-Chal, prison, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi, martyr, poison, chain, Mirza Yahya
1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, vision, maid, angels, Manifestation, Moses, Burning Bush, Zoroaster, Seven Visions, Buddha, Bodhi tree, Dove, Jesus, Gabriel, Muhammad, Bab, Declaration
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran, Persia, Iraq Baha'u'llah, release, Siyah-Chal, Russia, Minister, Prince Dolgorukov, Mirza Áqa Khan
1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Írán, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Baha'u'llah, brother, wife, son, Mirza Rida-Quli, Navvab, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, Bahiyyih Khanum, Mirza Musa and Mirza Muhammad-Qul, Russia
1853. 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayríz, Iran, Persia Bábís, upheaval, murder, governor
1853. Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]

  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
Nayríz, Iran, Persia upheaval, Mirza Na‘im-i-Nuri, Babi
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayríz, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Bábí, prisoner, martyr, Islam, prophecy, Qá'im
1853. 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz, Nayríz, Tihrán, Tehran, Ábádih, Iran, Persia Bábí, executed
1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Írán Anglo-Persian War
1858. Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Írán, Persia Mirza Áqa Khan, prime minister, Babi, Shah
1860. c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Mirza Mihdi, son, Baha'u'llah, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulya
1860 Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] Naw Firist, Bírjand, Iran, Persia Shaykh Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Qa'ini, birth, Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdád, Iraq, Mashhad, Iran, Persia ‘Abdu'l-Baha, Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, commentary, Islam, Hidden Treasure, ‘Ali Shawkat Pasha, Haji Ákhund, Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi, Hand Cause, Babi, Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani, Ismu'lahu'l-Asdaq, Ibn Asdaq, Baha'u'llah
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Baghdád, Iraq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Kitab-i-Íqan, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, Babi, prison, death, ‘Abdu'l-‘Ali Khan-i-Maraghi'i, Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, ring, shawl, Shahr-Banu, Mirza Muhammad-Hasan, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, Iraq
1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
  • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
  • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
  • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
  • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
Baghdád, Mosul, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey, Iran, Persia Mirza Yahya
1863. 3 May Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.

  • This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
  • His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
Najíbíyyih Garden, Firayját, Iraq, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Ridvan, Twelfth Day, Tablet, Áqa Mirza Áqa, horse, donkey, taj, Tigris
1864 Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Shíráz, Iran, Persia Mirza Hadi Shirazi, father, Shoghi Effendi
1864. 27 Mar Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas, who later becomes an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516] Rasht, Iran, Europe A. L. M. Nicolas, Báb
1865. c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
  • See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
Adrianople, Edirne, Yazd, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Tablet of Ahmad, Lawh-i-Ahmad
1865. Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He is buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] Qum, Iran, Karbalá, Iraq Prime Minister, Mirza Áqa Khan, death
1866. Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís are arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabríz, Iran, Persia Baha'i, arrest, Babi
1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
Tabríz, Iran, Persia Baha'i, arrest, execution, Azali
1967 16 March An appeal by 53 Bahá’ís is sent from Shushtar, Iran addressed to the US Congress. Shushtar, Iran Petition, United States Congress 1867 Petition
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tihrán instructing them to transfer secretly the remains of the Báb from the Imám-Zádih Ma‘súm, where they were concealed, to some other place of safety. [GPB177] Iran, Shrine of the Bab
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam is dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]
Shiraz, Iran, Baghdad, Iraq, Nabil-i-A‘zam, pilgrimage, Khadijih Khanum, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1869 – 1872 A great famine occurs in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population dies and a further 10 per cent emigrates. [BBRSM86; GPB233] Iran famine
1869. Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
Írán Badi`, Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' (Pride of Martyrs), Apostle of Baha'u'llah, Shah
1869. 25 Dec A mob attacks the Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, Iran, and two are severely beaten. [BW18:383] Fárán, Khurásán, Iran
1872. c. 1872 Bahá'u'lláh tasks Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She travels from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stays with the wife of the Báb then to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she travels to `Akká. [MKBM]
  • DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872.
  • BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
  • See CH75–79 (Visit to Shíráz) and CH80-90 (Her journey and subsequent marriage) for Munírih Khánum's own account.
Isfahan, Iran, Shiraz, Mecca, Akka, Munirih Khanum, Fatimih Khanum
1876 The conversion of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání, a leading clerical philosopher. [BBRSM88; EB264]
  • See EB263–5 for details of his life.
  • See BKG262 for details of his conversion.
Iran Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani
1878 to 1881 The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
  • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
  • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
  • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
Iran, Yazd, Baghdad, Tehran Trustee of the Huququ'llah, Jinab-i-Shah Muhammad, Aminu'l-Bayan, Trustee of the Bayan, Remains of the Bab, Mosque of Imamzadih Zayd, Huququ’llah
1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'Ini. He was born in Naw- Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i- Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • Bukhárá, Uzbekistan, Naw- Firist, Iran, Nabil-i-Akbar Áqa Muhammed-i-Qa'Ini, Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha, In Memoriam, Hand of the Cause of God
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
    • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22.
    • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
    • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Baha named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
    • Also see World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
    • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
    • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
    Yazd, Tihrán, Iran, Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha, In Memoriam, Hand of the Cause of God, Varqa
    1902 In Shíráz, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan is beaten so severely on the order of the mujtahid that he dies a few months later from the effects. [BW18:385] Shiraz, Iran Haji Abu'l-Hasan
    1904 At this point there are separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
    • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
    Hamadán, Tihrán, iran
    1905 - 1911 The `Constitutional Revolution' takes place in Iran. [BBRSM:87, 219]
    • The direct influence of the Bahá'ís in this movement was slight but many in Europe thought the Bahá'í influence was great. [BBR366]
    • The Constitutional Movement fails to bring the Bahá'ís any benefit; rather, they suffer as a result. [BBR366 g]
    Iran Constitutional Revolution
    1906 summer/autumn Hippolyte Dreyfus and Laura Barney visit Iran. [BFA2:XVI]
    • They are the first Western Bahá'ís to do so. [BFA2:XVI]
    Iran Hippolyte Dreyfus, Laura Barney
    1907 Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, is shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386] Nayríz, Iran persecution
    1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh
    1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. [BBR354, 482]
    • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
    Iran Muhammad-`Alí Sháh
    1908 `Alí Ádharí is martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386]

    Kirman, Iran persecution, martyr, `Ali Adhari
    1908 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Bahá'ís are attacked by Qavámu'l-Mulk from the pulpit of the Masjid-i-Naw in Shíráz. [BW18:386] Shiraz, Iran
    1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-`Ali Shah, Constitution
    1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicates and the Iranian Constitution is resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
    • The country soon deteriorates and anarchy prevails. It is effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
    Iran Muhammad-`Alí Sháh, Iranian Constitution
    1909 18 Jul The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. [BBR482; CBM57] Iran Ahmad Sháh
    1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
    • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
    Washington DC., Iran Persian-American Educational Society, Tarbíyat School
    1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tehran, Iran `Ali Muhammad Varqa, Hand of the Cause of God
    1915 Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá is martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387] Urúmíyyih, Iran, Mirza Husayn-i-Huda, martyr
    1917 Foreign troops occupy nearly all of neutral Iran. [AB416; BBRSM:87] Iran,
    1917 The Nownahalan (literally `saplings') Company is founded as a thrift club for Bahá'í children in Iran. [BI13]
    • See BI13 for its non-profit and charitable activities.
    Iran, Nownahalan Company
    1918 Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away early in the year.
    • For the story of his life see EB191-215.
    Iran, Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Baha'u'llah, In Memoriam
    1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, is shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís are looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz, Iran, Áqa Mirza Javad, I`timadu't-Tujjar, Iranian persecution
    1920 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, is martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387] Rasht, Iran, Mirza Ibrahim Khan, Ibtihaju'l-Mulk, martyr
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá is killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís are imprisoned. [BW18:387] Farúgh, Fárs, Iran, Mirza Mustafa
    1921 Feb Ahmad Sháh (reigned 1909–25), who succeeded to the throne at age 11, was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41. Iran, Ahmad Shah, Reza Shah
    1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í is poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevents the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar, Iran, Áqa Siyyid Mustafa Tabataba'i; Iranian persecution
    1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís are imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stir up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Marághih, Iran Iranian persecution
    1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, are attacked; some are arrested and imprisoned and others are forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran Iranian persecution
    1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd is beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd; Iranian persecution
    1924 22 Jun áqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran áqá Husayn-`Alí; Iranian persecution
    1925 31 Oct Ahmad Sháh is deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69] Iran Ahmad Shah, Qajar dynasty, Reza Shah
    1925 13 Dec Ridá (or Reza) Sháh accedes to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commences. [BBR482] Iran Rida Shah, Pahlavi dynasty
    1926 7 Apr Eight or perhaps as many as twelve Bahá’ís are beaten to death in Jahrum, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388, SETPE1p128, GBF36, UD49-53]
    • It is first reported that 12 Bahá’ís are killed. [PP98]
    • For the response of Shoghi Effendi see BA104–6, 106–8; GBF36–7; PP98–9; and UD48–53.
    • For Western accounts and responses see BBR465–72.
    • "The attacks were apparently instigated by a majlis representative who sought to gain favour with anti-Baha’i religious leaders in order to secure reelection. The Baha’is complained to the local and national authorities to obtain redress but were denied. This was the last incident of mass killing of Baha’is during Reza Shah’s reign." [Religious Contentions in Modern Iran,1881-1941 pg 229-230 by Mina Yazdani]
    Jahrum, Fárs, Iran religious persecution
    1926 29 Jun Three Bahá’ís are martyred in Zavárih, near Isfahán. [BW18:388] Zavárih, Iran religious persecution
    1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada makes representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
    • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
    America, Jahrum, Iran, NSA, Petition to Iranian government
    1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ is martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibíl, Iran Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’, martyrdom, religious persecution
    1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh is martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirmán, Iran Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh, martyrdom, religious persecution
    1928 Jan A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tries to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152] Iran, Haifa Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, Lord Plummer
    1931 28 Apr Mr Refo Capari (Chapary), the first Albanian Bahá’í, arrives in Tirana, Albania.
    • He became a Bahá’í in America some time before 1931.
    Tirana, Albania Refo Capari
    1932 The Iranian government introduces measures against the Bahá’ís throughout Iran. Restrictions are placed on the import of Bahá’í books and periodicals by post and on the publication of Bahá’í literature. Bahá’í marriages are not recognized. [BW18:388] Iran religious persecution
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler meets the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
    • She presents the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and receives assurances from him that this will be effected. [BW5:392]
    • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
    • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
    Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler, Petition to Shah of Íran
    1933 Bahá’ís in Gulpáygán, Iran, are refused admission to the public baths. Shaykh Ja‘far Hidáyat is beaten and expelled from the town. [BW18:388] Gulpáygán, Iran Shaykh Ja‘far Hidayat, religious persecution
    1933 The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, is closed. [BW18:388] Qazvín, Iran Tavakkul Baha’i School, religious persecution
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
    • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
    • She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
    • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
    • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
    • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
    • See also PP306–7.
    • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
    Isfahán, Iran, Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause, martyr, In Memoriam, Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1934 The first National Spiritual Assembly of Iran is elected. [BBRSM:121; BW6:268]
    • For a picture see BW6:268.
    Iran NSA
    1934 The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
    • Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
    • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
    • Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
    • Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
    • Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
    Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán religious persecution, Tarbiyat School
    1934 23 Oct Dr Susan Moody passes away in Iran. [BFA2:361]
    • For her services in Iran and an obituary see BW6:483–6.
    • She is buried near the graves of Lillian Kappes and Sarah Clock in the Tihrán Bahá’í cemetery. [BW6:486]
    Iran Dr Susan Moody, Lillian Kappes, Sarah Clock, In Memoriam
    1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
    • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
    • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
    • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
    • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
    • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
    Iran, Tihrán, Bandar Sháh, Arák, Qazví, Záhidán, religious persecution, LSA
    1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues. [BW18:389]
    • All Bahá’í meetings are banned throughout Iran.
    • Several local Bahá’í centres are attacked or closed down.
    • Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
    Iran, Bandar Sháh religious persecution, holy days
    1937 The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments are dismissed.
    • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz are arrested.
    • Bahá’ís closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh are arrested.
    • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns are prohibited by police order.
    • Five Bahá’í families are attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They are severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
    Iran, Ahváz, Bandar Sháh, Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák, Cham-tang religious persecution, LSA, holy days
    1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
    • They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
    Yazd, Tihrán, Iran, religious persecution
    1937 Jul Nine Bahá’ís are imprisoned in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. [BW18:389]
    • They are imprisoned for two months. [BW18:389]
    Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran religious persecution, holy days
    1937 Dec The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant BWC, Iran, Episodes in the History of the Covenant
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

    He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

    Tubingen, Germany, Tabriz, Iran The fourth Trustee of the Huququ'llah, Trustee of the Huququ'llah, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqa, Hand of the Cause, American University at Beirut, Huququ’llah
    1938 Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
    • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
    Iran; Tihrán; Kirmánsháh; Záhidán; Mashhad religious persecution
    1940s early The publication in Iran of Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, by Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century. The book argues that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bahá'í Faith. [Iran Press Watch] Iran, Persia Amir Kabir, Fereidoon Adamiyyat, historian, British, Britain, officers, Baha'i
    1941 Jan Nine Bahá’ís are arrested in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, and banished to other towns for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. BW18:389] Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran religious persecution, holy days
    1941 16 Sep In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicates and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascends to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
    • Ridá Sháh is overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
    • His reign can be described in three phases:

      The first phase, from1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Baha’is were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Baha’i campaign and its aftermaths.

      The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Baha’is enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Baha’is was essentially ignored or denied.

      The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani]

    Iran Rida Shah, Muhammad-Rida Shah
    1941 18 Oct Four members of a Bahá’í family are killed and several other family members severely beaten in an attack on their home by an armed mob in Panbih-Chúlih, near Sárí, Iran. [BW18:389] Panbih-Chúlih, Iran religious persecution
    1942 – early The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [22 February, 2009 Iran Press Watch]
    • See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahā’īs had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahā’īs and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahā’ī discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahā’īs as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahā’ī polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
    Iran, Persia Political, Confession, Memoir, Prince Dolgoruki, Dolgorukov, Babi, Islam
    1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí is martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] Nayríz, Iran Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí, martyr, religious persecution
    1944 12 May Bahá’ís are persecuted at Ábádih, Iran. The Bahá’í centre is attacked by a mob of four thousand, the building is looted and destroyed and several Bahá’ís badly beaten. [BW18:389]
    • For Western accounts see BBR479.
    Ábádih, Iran religious persecution
    1944 8 Aug Three Bahá’ís are murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted. [BW18:389] Sháhrúd, Iran religious persecution
    1945 Bahá’ís throughout Iran are dismissed from National Teacher Training Colleges by the National Board of Education. [BW18:390] Iran religious persecution
    1946 Oct The Bahá'ís of Iran launch a Forty-five Month Plan (1946 Oct-1949 Jul) The plan calls for goals in three adjoining countries. Every province has specific assignments. The Bahá'ís of Tehran are called upon to raise up fifty families as pioneers and one hundred and sixty answer the call over the duration of the plan. [Ruhi 8.2 p46]

    Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan Iran launches a Women's Plan.

    Iran Teaching Plans, Forty-five Month Plan, Women's Plan
    1946 Oct 11 A 45-month teaching plan (1946–53) for Iran is launched (ending on July 9th, 1950). [BBRSM158; CB316]
    • The objectives of the plan included;

      1 Consolidation of all local Bahá'í communities.

      2. Reestablishment of 62 dissolved Assemblies. (93 LSAs formed)

      3. Formation of 22 groups.(37 established)

      4. Creation of 13 new centres. (24 localities established)

      5. Development of Assemblies from groups located in Kabul, Afghanistan, Mecca, Arabia and Bahrein Island, Persian Gulf.

      6. Sending pioneers to India and 'Iráq to assist in the formation of new groups.

      The Bahá'ís of Tehran were called upon to send out 50 families into the pioneer field. (160 arose) Every individual Bahá'í was included in the operation of the Plan-as a volunteer, by deputizing a pioneer, by contributing funds, by circuit teaching or by providing hospitality to students whose parents had become pioneers. [The Baháʾí World 11, pp. 34-36]

    Iran 45-month teaching plan
    1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih is martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Baha’i, Habib Allah Hushmand, is murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran ‘Abbas Shahidzadih, martyr, religious persecution
    1948 The Bahá’í centre in Yazd, Iran, is attacked by a mob incited by Shaykh Khalisízádih. [BW18:390] Yazd, Iran Shaykh Khalisizadih, religious persecution
    1948 A Bahá’í is killed after an attack on his home at Chálih-Zamín, Iran. [BW18:390] Chálih-Zamín, Iran religious persecution
    1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand is martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] Sarvistán, Iran Habíbu’lláh Húshmand, martyr, religious persecution
    1949 Dr. Sulayman Birjis was brutally murdered in Kashan, Iran. His killers, who had collectively confessed to his murder, were all exonerated due to "the lack of evidence." [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Kashan, Iran.
    1950 (in the decade) In Iran, the Hujjatiyya Society is started by Shaykh Mahmúd Halabí to persecute and harass the Bahá’ís. [s1296]
    • During the Pahlaví era it confined itself to this end and was called the Anti-Bahá’í Society. [SI296]
    Iran Hujjatiyya Society, Shaykh Mahmud Halabi, Anti-Baha’i Society, religious persecution
    1950 3 Feb Dr Sulaymán Birgís is martyred in Káshán, Iran. [BW18:390]
    • For his obituary see BW12:684–5.
    Káshán, Iran Sulaymán Birgís, martyr, religious persecution
    1950 Sep - Oct Four Bahá’ís in Iran are arrested on trumped-up charges. The trial lasts until 1954, when the accused are given prison sentences. [BW18:390] Iran religious persecution
    1951 Throughout Iran, the government introduces repressive measures against Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
    • Bahá’ís are dismissed from government positions. [BW18:390]
    • Fifty Bahá’í employees of the public hospital in Mashhad are dismissed. [BW18:390]
    Iran; Mashhad religious persecution
    1951 Bahá’ís in Árán, Káshán, Iran, are attacked, and one dies. [BW18:390] Árán, Káshán, Iran religious persecution
    1951 12 Mar Bahá’ís in Taft, Iran, are attacked and one dies. [BW18:390] Taft, Iran religious persecution
    1951 Ridván Several National Spiritual Assemblies-Britain, Egypt, India, Iran and the United States, join forces in their first collaborative teaching effort called the Africa Campaign (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158, MBW135-140] Britain, Egypt, India, Iran, USA Teaching Plans, Africa Campaign
    1951 Jun Bahá’ís in Fárán, Iran, are attacked and several houses burned. [BW18:390] Fárán, Iran religious persecution
    1951 3 Aug The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Músá Banání, Mrs. Violette and Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth arrived in Kampala. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda] Kampala, Uganda, Iran, Persia Musa Banani, Nakhjavani, Bahiyyih, Philip Hainsworth
    1952 Bahá’ís and their homes are attacked in Najafábád, Iran, and several houses are set on fire. [BW18:390] Najafábád, Iran religious persecution
    1953 Bahá’ís and their houses are attacked in Bushrúyih and Fárán, Iran. [BW18:390] Bushrúyih and Fárán, Iran religious persecution
    1953 Áqá Rahmán Kulayní-Mamaqání is martyred in Durúd, Iran. [BW18:390] Durúd, Iran Áqa Rahman Kulayni-Mamaqani, martyrdom
    1953 Anjoman-e Hojjatieh ("Society of Allah's Proof Over Creation"), also called the Hojjatieh Society founded specifically as an anti-Bahá'í organization by a charismatic Shiite Muslim cleric, Shaikh Mahmoud Halabi in the aftermath of the coup d'état of 1953. Between the early 1950s and the early 1970s a great number of the future elite of the Islamic revolution were trained by Hujjatieh. During the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Society was to play an important role in stirring animosity against Bahá'ís. However, in part because of differences in theology—among other things the Hojjatieh believe a truly Islamic state cannot be established until the return of the 12th Imam—the Society fell into disfavour and was banned by the regime in 1984. [Hojjatieh Society, Wiki] Iran Hujjatieh, anti-Baha'i, Shaikh Mamud Halabi, Anjoman-e Hojjatieh
    1953 26 Sep The martyrdom of Rahmán Kulayní Mamaqání. He was stabbed by a ruffian in a mob. [BW12p710-711] Durúd, Iran martyrdom, Rahman Kulayni Mamaqani.
    1954 spring The Síyáh-Chál is acquired by the Bahá’ís. [BW12:64–5; SE153; SS45]
    • The purchase cost is $400,000. [BW12:65]
    Tihrán, Iran Siyah-Chal
    1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran are accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
    • This removes the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
    Iran NSA, LSA
    1954 Ridván Adelaide Sharp, who had been in Iran since 1929, is elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, the first woman elected to that body. [BFA2:361] Iran Adelaide Sharp, NSA
    1954 8 Dec Bahá’ís in Ádharbáyján are dismissed from their employment in the Ministries of Health and Public Highways. [BW18:390] Ádharbáyján, Iran religious persecution
    1955 18–22 Jan Five Bahá’ís are arrested and beaten in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran; four of these are dragged around the town; Bahá’í houses arc attacked, looted and set on fire. [BW18:390] Hisár, Khurásán, Iran religious persecution
    1955 4 Feb Bahá’í women in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran, are assaulted. [BW18:390] Hisár, Khurásán, Iran religious persecution
    1955 23 Apr Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
    • This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
    • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
    • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
    Tihrán, Shíráz, Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí, House of the Báb, Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, religious persecution
    1955 May-Jul Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continue throughout Iran. BW18:391]
    • Many Bahá’ís are beaten, including women and children.
    • Bahá’í houses and shops are looted and burned.
    • Bahá’ís employed in government service are dismissed.
    • Bodies of dead Bahá’ís are disinterred and mutilated.
    • Young Bahá’í women are abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
    • Several Bahá’í women are publicly stripped and/or raped.
    • Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís are looted and destroyed.
    • Bahá’í children are expelled from schools.
    • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is damaged.
    Shíráz, Iran religious persecution, House of the Bab in Shiraz
    1955 8 May Bahá’ís are beaten at Dámghán, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:390] Dámghán, Khurásán, Iran religious persecution
    1955 8 May The Bahá’í centre at Rasht, Iran, is attacked and taken over. [BW18:390] Rasht, Iran religious persecution
    1955 9 May Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted at Shíráz, Iran. [BW18:390] Shíráz, Iran religious persecution
    1955 9 May The Bahá’í centre at Ahváz, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:390] Ahváz, Iran religious persecution
    1955 16 May The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:390] Isfahán, Iran religious persecution
    1955 17 May The Iranian Minister of the Interior announces in parliament that the Government has issued orders for the suppression of the ‘Bahá’í sect’ and the liquidation of the Bahá’í centres. [BBRSM174; BW18:391] Iran religious persecution
    1955 24 May The Bahá’í centre at Karaj, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:391] Karaj, Iran religious persecution
    1955 27 May The Bahá’í centre at Máhfurúzak, Iran, is demolished. [BW18:391] Máhfurúzak, Iran religious persecution
    1955 30 May Bahá’ís are attacked and wounded and their houses attacked at Ábádih, Iran. [BW18:391] Ábádih, Iran religious persecution
    1955 28 Jul Seven Bahá’ís are stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    • Several other Bahá’ís, including women, are beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property are damaged. [BW18:391]
    • See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
    • See entry for 26 September, 2016.
    Hurmuzak, Iran religious persecution, Martydom
    1955 Sep-Oct Bahá’ís in Iran continue to be dismissed from their employment. Bahá’í students are expelled from Shíráz University. [BW18:391] Iran religious persecution
    1963 5 Jun onwards Throughout Iran, advantage is taken of the general anti-government disorder to launch attacks on Bahá’ís in several localities under the cover of these disturbances. [BW18:391]
    • The Bahá’í cemetery in Tihrán is attacked, its buildings burnt and graves desecrated. [BW18:391]
    • Bahá’í houses are attacked and burned at Árán and the local Bahá’í centre attacked. [BW18:391]
    • The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán is attacked. [BW18:391]
    • Several Bahá’í homes and businesses are attacked in Shíráz. BW18:391]
    • An attack on the House of the Báb in Shíráz is attempted. BW18:391]
    • Bahá’ís are dismissed from government employment. [BW18:391]
    Iran religious persecution
    1968 – 1969 Throughout Iran, pressure on Bahá’ís intensifies. [BW18:391]
    • Applications for government employment are refused. [BW18:391]
    • Bahá’ís are refused admission to colleges and universities. [BW18:391]
    • Bahá’í centres are closed. [BW18:391]
    • Individual Bahá’ís are attacked. [BW18:391]
    Iran religious persecution
    1975 Following the creation of the Rastákhíz political party by the Sháh of Iran and the refusal of the Bahá’ís to join it, although membership in it is compulsory, Bahá’ís throughout Iran are put under pressure. [BW18:391]
    • Many Bahá’ís lose their jobs. [BW18:391]
    Iran religious persecution
    1975 Nov In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born are destroyed on the pretext that the sites need to be cleared. [BW17:79] Shíráz, Iran religious persecution
    1977 14 May The house of a Bahá’í in Fádilábád, Iran, is attacked; the Bahá’í is killed and his sister severely injured. [BW18:391]
    • BW17:79 says this was June.
    Fádilábád, Iran religious persecution
    1978 In Iran, many local Bahá’í centres are seized by armed men of the revolutionary committees, along with files and membership lists. [BW17:79–80] Iran religious persecution
    1978 Ten Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, seven by mobs. [BW18:291]
    • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337.
    Iran religious persecution, murder
    1978 Dec Two hundred Bahá’í homes near Shíráz are burned and the Bahá’ís driven from them, property is stolen and many Bahá’ís are beaten. [BW17:79; BW19:42]
    • At one point 700 Bahá’ís are homeless and their means of livelihood destroyed. [BW17:79]
    Shíráz, Iran religious persecution
    1978 Dec Bahá’í homes in Andarún, Iran, are besieged; one Bahá’í is badly beaten. [BW18:275–6] Andarún, Iran religious persecution
    1978 15 Dec A cabled message is sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá’ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz are in peril. [BW17:79] Iran religious persecution
    1979 Bahá’í cemeteries across Iran are confiscated, including the cemetery in Tihrán, which contains the graves of several Hands of the Cause and other distinguished Bahá’ís and several thousand other graves of Bahá’ís.
    • Many graves are desecrated and the gravestones smashed.
    Iran religious persecution
    1979 The Síyáh-Chál in Tihrán and the houses of Quddús and Hujjat are seized and occupied by members of the revolutionary committees. [BW17:79–80] Iran religious persecution
    1979 Five Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, two by execution. [BW18:291]
    • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337–9.
    Iran religious persecution
    1979 12 Jan Bahá’í members of the Sádát-Mahmúdí clan of the Buyr-Ahmad tribe of central Iran are driven from their homes by other clan members. [BW18:271]
    • For the report of this incident and its aftermath see BW18:271–4.
    • For a picture see BW18:272.
    Iran religious persecution
    1979 Feb In Iran, Bahá’í representatives meet with high-ranking clergy in Shíráz, Qum and Mashhad to combat the widespread accusation that the Bahá’ís of Iran had supported the regime of the Sháh. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
    1979 Feb A mob of some 5,000 armed with hatchets, spades and pickaxes converge on Hisár, Iran, intent on harming the Bahá’ís; the mob is prevented from doing so. [BW18:275]
    • Shortly afterwards the home of Mr Ma’naví is looted and he is carried off; it appears he was beaten to death. [BW18:275]
    Hisár, Iran religious persecution, Mr Ma’navi
    1979 Feb Revolutionary Guards raid the offices of Nawnahálán, a Bahá’í investment company, and the Umaná’ Corporation, a foundation for the purchase and maintenance of Bahá’í properties, and impound the keys. [BW18:252]
    • In the weeks following, the offices are occupied by the Revolutionary Guards and the staff are dismissed. [BW18:252]
    Iran religious persecution
    1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran is seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
    • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, are confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
    Iran religious persecution, Hazíratu’l-Quds, NSA
    1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, is imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran Yusif Subhani, religious persecution
    1979 spring The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, is confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Tákur, Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh, religious persecution
    1979 Apr Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupy the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it is a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79] Shíráz, Iran House of the Bab, religious persecution
    1979 summer In Iran, the offices of Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation are taken over by Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
    1979 Sep Bahár Vujdání is executed in Mahábád, Iran. [BW18:255] Mahábád, Iran Bahar Vujdani, religious persecution
    1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, order the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
    • Among those arrested are members of local spiritual assemblies.
    • [BW18:255]
    • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz are raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
    Iran religious persecution
    1979 8 – 10 Sep The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253] Shíráz, Iran House of the Bab, religious persecution
    1979 Oct In Iran, Bahá’ís in the ministries of education, health and social administration are dismissed from their jobs. [BW18:255] Iran religious persecution
    1979 Nov Bahá’í meetings are prohibited in Shasavár, Iran. [BW18:255] Shasavár, Iran religious persecution
    1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihrán, Iran religious persecution, Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, NSA
    1979 Dec Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz is resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255] Shíráz, Iran religious persecution, House of the Bab
    1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh is executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihrán, Iran ‘Azamatu’llah Fahandizh, religious persecution
    1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which does not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, is adopted by referendum. [BI11] Iran religious persecution
    1979 End of the year In Iran, Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation are stripped of their assets and non-Bahá’í directors, inimical to the aims of the companies, are appointed. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
    1980 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Twenty–four Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
    • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
    • Twelve Bahá’ís disappear and are presumed dead. [BW19:235]
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
    Iran martyr, religious persecution, United Nations, BIC
    1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran enters a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
    • Prominent Bahá’ís are abducted. [BW18:256]
    • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly are raided. [BW18:256]
    Iran NSA, religious persecution
    1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are arrested; they disappear without trace and are presumed dead. [BW19:43, 235] Iran NSA Iran
    1980 Sep The European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities adopt resolutions on the plight of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW19:38] Iran European Parliament, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ religious persecution
    1981 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Forty–six Bahá’ís are executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
    • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
    Iran martyr, religious persecution, United Nations, BIC
    1981 10 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces that the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Núr, Iran, confiscated by the Revolutionary Government in the spring of 1979, has been totally demolished and the site offered for sale by auction. [BW18:289; BW19:42] Tákur, Núr, Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh
    1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are executed. [BI13; BW19:43] Iran martyr, NSA, religious persecution
    1982 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Thirty–two Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
    • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
    Iran religious persecution, martyr, United Nations BIC
    1983 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
    • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
    Iran religious persecution, martyr, United Nations, BIC
    1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
    • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
    • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
    • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
    Shiraz, Iran Baha'i, martyr, Mona Mahmudnizhad, Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, Ruya Ishraqi, Shahin Dalvand, Izzat Janami Ishraqi, Mahshid Nirumand, Simin Sabiri, Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, Akhtar Thabit, Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i
    1983 23 Aug Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi, the Attorney General of Iran, declared all Bahá'í administrative activities illegal, thus requiring the dissolution of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, along with some 400 Local Assemblies which operated under its jurisdiction. [Iran Press Watch] Iran Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi, Attorney General
    1983 29 Aug The Bahá’í Faith is banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. [BW19:43]
    • The National Spiritual Assembly dissolves all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
    Iran religious persecution
    1983 3 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sends an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government. [BW19:43]
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran is dissolved. [BW19:62]
    Iran NSA religious persecution
    1984 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
    • Thirty Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
    Iran religious persecution, martyr, United Nations
    1985 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
    • Seven Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
    Iran religious persecution, martyr
    1986 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
    • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, is killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
    • For his picture see BW19:246.
    • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
    Iran religious persecution, martyr, BIC
    1986 13 Mar The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopts a resolution asking its chairman to appoint a new special representative to report to the General Assembly in November 1986 on the human rights situation in Iran, including the situation of the Bahá’ís. [BINS153:12] Iran United Nations Commission on Human Rights
    1987 The establishment of the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) to meet the educational needs of young people who had been systematically denied access to higher education by the Iranian government. [Closed Doors, Chapter IV] Iran Baha'i Institute for Higher Education, BIHE
    1988 8 Dec The plenary session of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopts a resolution concerning human rights in Iran which specifically mentions the suffering of the Bahá’ís. [BINS189:2] Iran United Nations, religious persecution
    1989 9 Mar The Commission on Human Rights adopts a resolution expressing grave concern at human rights violations in Iran, mentioning the Bahá’ís three times. [BINS195:1] Iran Commission on Human Rights, religious persecution
    1989 Apr The Universal House of Justice announced a vast majority of prisoners that had been held by authorities in Irán had been released. [AWH62] Irán UHJ
    1989 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announces the release of the vast majority of the Bahá’í prisoners held in Iran. [AWH62] Iran religious persecution
    1990 For the first time a representative of the United Nations officially meets with a representative of the Bahá'í community in Iran. [AWH76] Iran United Nations
    1990 For the first time a representative of the United Nations was able to officially meet with a representative of the proscribed Bahá'í community in Irán. The report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resulted in a resolution being adapted on Irán in a session held in Geneva. [AWH76] Irán; Geneva United Nations Commission on Human Rights
    1991 25 Feb In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
    • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
    • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
    • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
    [One Country, Iran Press Watch]
    Irán Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council, United Nations' Special Representative, human rights, Ali Khamenei, Iranian persecution
    1991 16 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Albania is formed at Tirana. Tirana, Albania Find ref
    1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Iran martyrdom, Mr. Bahman Samandari
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania is formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana, Albania NSA
    1993 Jan Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the United Nations' special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, reveals a secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council providing evidence that the Iranian Government has formulated a plan to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Iran and abroad. [BW92–3:139; BW93–4:154] Iran Reynaldo Galindo Pohl
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government has established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran, Geneva, President Hashemi Rafsanjani, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, Galindo Pohl, human rights in Iran
    1993 8 Dec In Iran, death sentences are pronounced against two Bahá'ís on the grounds of their membership in the Bahá'í community. [BW93–4:141–2] Iran capital punishment
    1995 May 30 – Jun 1 The first International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana is held under the auspices of Health for Humanity and the University of Tirana, attended by more than 400 Albanian physicians. [BINS343:2–3] Tirana, Albania International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana
    1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Irán Baha’i Open University, Iranian persecution
    1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
    • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
    • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
    • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
    • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998] [http://www.onecountry.org/e103/e10301as.htm]
    Irán Baha’i Institute for Higher Education, Iranian persecution, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, UN General Assembly
    2000 17 Feb Iran’s Supreme Court rejected death sentences imposed upon Sirus Zabihi-Moghadam, Hadayet Kashefi-Majafabadi and Manucher Khulsi.
    • They had been arrested in 1997 in Khorasan province accused of unspecified anti-security acts. (Chapter one, Article 498 of the Islamic Penal Code.)
    • A flood of protest followed from Western leaders. [HRW]
    Iran Sirus Zabihi-Moghadam, Hadayet Kashefi-Majafabadi, Manucher Khulsi
    2003 Autumn The publication of History of Bahá'ísm in Iran by Abdullah Shahbazi, the then head of the Political Studies and Research Institute, part of the Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies. In his book he advanced the theory of the alliance between Bahá'ísm and Zionism. [Iran Press Watch1407] Iran History of Baha'ism in Iran, Abdullah Shahbazi
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
    • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
    • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
    • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Haifa, Sabzivar, Iran, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, Baku, Moscow, Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furutan, In Memoriam, Appointment Hand - First Contingent
    2003 16 Dec Shirin Ebadi, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first Muslim woman to win the coveted distinction.
    • For a long time she has fought for the rights of women and children in Iran and it is most fitting that she, a woman lawyer who dared to speak out against the sexist Iranian regime, be praised and recognised by the world.
    • She is an author and also the founder of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. [Nobel Peace Prize 2003]
    • In 2002 she founded the Defender of Human Rights Center and in 2009 she was forced to flee into exile.
    Iran Shirin Ebadi, Nobel Peace Prize, Association for Support of Children's Rights, Defender of Human Rights Center
    2004 Feb In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
    • This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
    Babul, Iran Quddus, Iranian persecution
    2004 7 Feb The release of Mr. Bihnam Mithaqi and Mr. Kayvan Khalajabadi who had been imprisoned on April 29, 1989, for "association with Baha'i institutions."
    • They were both originally sentenced to eight years' imprisonment, but upon appeal, their sentences were commuted to three years' imprisonment plus 50 lashes. Both prisoners appealed this decision, and on April 30, 1991, the Islamic Revolutionary Court sentenced them to death. On February 18, 1996, the Supreme Court of Iran rejected numerous appeals and confirmed the death sentences. In February 2001, after further judicial reviews, the chief of the judicial branch reduced their sentences to 15 years in prison and set February 2004 for their release. [Referenced web site has ceased operation. Human Rights Watch (some dates differ from this source)]
    Irán Bihnam Mithaqi, Kayvan Khalajabadi, Iranian persecution
    2004 Apr The destruction of the gravesite of Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, known as Quddus (The Most Holy). Quddus was the foremost disciple of the Báb, the Prophet-Herald of the Bahá'í Faith. [BWNS293] Iran, Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, Quddus, gravesite
    2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver, BC, Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi, Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa, International Teaching Centre
    2004 20 Dec United Nations General Assembly has passed a resolution expressing "serious concern" over the human rights situation in Iran, making specific mention of the ongoing persecution of the Baha'i community there.
    • It called on Iran to "eliminate all forms of discrimination based on religious grounds" and took note of the recent upsurge of human rights violations against the Baha'is of Iran.
    • Specifically, the resolution noted the "continuing discrimination against persons belonging to minorities, including Christians, Jews, and Sunnis, and the increased discrimination against the Baha'is, including cases of arbitrary arrest and detention, the denial of free worship or of publicly carrying out communal affairs, the disregard of property rights, the destruction of sites of religious importance, the suspension of social, educational, and community-related activities, and the denial of access to higher education, employment, pensions, and other benefits." [BWNS341]
    New York; Irán UN General Assembly, human rights
    2005 29 Oct Letter from the Iranian military headquarters to various Revolutionary Guard and police forces instructing them to identify and monitor Bahá'ís around the country. [BWNS473] Iran Systemic persecution
    2005 15 Dec The death of Mr. Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, 59, who had been held in a government prison in Yazd under harsh physical conditions at the time of his death.

    First arrested in 1995, Mr. Mahrami served in the civil service but at the time of his arrest was making a living installing venetian blinds, having been summarily fired from his job like thousands of other Baha'is in the years following the 1979 Iranian revolution. Although Iranian officials have asserted that Mr. Mahrami was guilty of spying for Israel, court records clearly indicate that he was tried and sentenced solely on charge of being an "apostate," a crime which is punishable by death under traditional Islamic law. While Mr. Mahrami had been a lifelong Baha'i, the apostasy charge apparently came about because a civil service colleague, in an effort to prevent Mr. Mahrami from losing his job, submitted to a newspaper an article stating that he had converted to Islam. When it later became clear to Iranian authorities that Mr. Mahrami remained a member of the Baha'i community, they arrested him and charged him with apostasy for allegedly converting from Islam to the Baha'i Faith. On 2 January 1996, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court, a conviction that was later upheld by the Iranian Supreme Court.

    The death sentence against Mr. Mahrami stirred an international outcry. The European Parliament, for example, passed a resolution on human rights abuses in Iran, making reference to Mr. Mahrami's case. The governments of Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also registered objections. [BWNS415]

    Yazd, Iran Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, persecution
    2006 In the year A confidential letter sent from Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology instructing Iranian universities to expel any student who is discovered to be a Bahá'í. The letter refutes recent statements by Iranian officials, who said Bahá'í students in Iran face no discrimination - despite the fact that more than half of the Bahá'í university students enrolled last autumn were gradually expelled over the course of the 2006-2007 academic year. [BWNS575] Iran, persecution
    2006 2 May Letter, from the Trades, Production, and Technical Services Society of Kermanshah to the Iranian Union of Battery Manufacturers, asked the Union to provide a list of members of the Bahá'í sect in their membership. [BWNS488] Kermanshah, Iran persecution
    2006 19 May Iranian security officials arrested 54 Bahá'ís in the city of Shiraz who were involved in a community service project, many of them in their teens and early 20's. They were not charged and all but three were released within six days. It was the largest mass arrest of Bahá'ís since the 1980's. [New York Times 1 June, 2006] Shiraz, Iran, persecution
    2006 19 Aug Iran's Ministry of Interior orders officials throughout the country to step up the surveillance of Iranian Baha'is focusing in particular on their community activities. In a letter the Ministry requests provincial officials to complete a detailed questionnaire about the circumstances and activities of local Baha'is, including their "financial status," "social interactions," and "association with foreign assemblies," among other things. [BWNS488] Iran Systemic persecution
    2006 21 Dec The Education Department Management Security Office in Shiraz circulated a form to be completed for all students who belong to religious minorities and the perverse Bahaist sect. The form requires not only detailed information about the student and his or her parents, but also detailed information on all the student's siblings. [Provisional Translation of the text of the letter] Shiraz, Iran, persecution
    2007 9 – 10 Sep A Bahá'í cemetery near Najafabad, Iran was destroyed using heavy equipment. More than 100 graves were desecrated. [BWNS578] Najafabad, Iran Persecution
    2007 2 Oct An event was organized by the Defenders of Human Rights Centre in Iran to publicize the plight of all those who are deprived of access to education. The Bahá'ís were only one of many groups whose situations the event highlighted. The Bahá'í representative made a 5-10 minute presentation describing the difficult circumstances faced by Bahá'í students, who have persistently been denied access to post-secondary education. Journalists from within the country and abroad covered the proceedings. [The reference website is no longer in existence.] Iran persecution
    2007 21 Nov The Universal House of Justice responded to a communications from the Bahá'ís attending the event of the 2nd of October advising the Friends in Iran to explore contacts with other Iranian individuals and organizations sympathetic to the plight of the Bahá'ís and to continue the effort to secure legal representation for the Bahá'í students. It also encouraged them to convey the gratitude of the Iranian Bahá'ís to the Defenders of Human Rights Centre. [The referenced website is no longer in existence.] Iran, Universal House of Justice, persecution
    2008 5 Mar Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran – was arrested having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report] Mashhad, Iran, Yaran, Mahvash Sabet
    2008 14 May The six men and women, Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm. and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, all members of the national-level group that helped see to the minimum needs of Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested in their homes in Tehran. Mrs. Kamalabadi, Mr. Khanjani, and Mr. Tavakkoli have been previously arrested and then released after periods ranging from five days to four months. [BWNS632, Report] Tehran, Iran Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm, Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, Yaran
    2008 14 May Iranian Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri issued a fatwa stating that, since [ Bahá'ís] are the citizens of this country, they have the rights of a citizen and to live in this country. Furthermore, they must benefit from the Islamic compassion which is stressed in Quran and by the religious authorities. [The National (UAE)]

    Statement: English Translation

    Iran
    2008 3 Jun Mrs. Mahvash Sabet and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi are permitted to make short phone calls to their families. Later it was confirmed that Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Mr. Vahid Tizfahm also have made brief phone calls to their families. [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2008 27 Jul The results of the nationwide university entrance examination were made available on the National Organization for Educational Assessment in Iran. Most of the Bahá'í applicants found that they were rejected and received an incomplete file message. For the 2007-2008 academic year some 800 of 1000 Bahá'í students were rejected in the same manner. [Iranian, BWNS657] Iran, Persecution
    2008 27 Sep The destruction of some 2,500 trees and an irrigation system in the Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid (Eternal Garden). Damage was also done to a building on the site and traffic and other directional signs were pulled up. [Iran Press Watch] Isfahan, Iran Persecution
    2009 3 Feb The publication of "We are Ashamed," an open letter from a group of academics, writers, artists, journalists and Iranian activists throughout the world to the Bahá'í community. This letter has been signed by a large number of the most prominent Iranian intellectuals. [Iran Press Watch 998, Text of Letter in pdf] Iran We Are Ashamed
    2009 11 May After a year in jail without formal charges the Bahá'í leaders face an additional accusation, 'the spreading of corruption on earth,' which goes by the term 'Mofsede fel-Arz' in Persian and carries the threat of death under the penal code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Prior to this new charge they had been accused of 'espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.' [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2009 10 Jul Iranian officials tell the families of the seven Baha'i leaders currently held in Evin prison in Tehran that their trial has been delayed. No new trial date was given. [BWNS723] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2009 17 Aug The trial of seven Baha'i leaders imprisoned in Iran is further postponed until 18 October. [BWNS727] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2009 18 Oct Attorneys and families of the seven arrive at court in Tehran for the trial to be told that it would not take place. No new date is set. [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2010 12 Jan – 14 Jun The trial of Iran's seven Bahá'í leaders, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Mahvash Sabet, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm begins in Tehran. The seven are charged with espionage, propaganda activities against the Islamic order, the establishment of an illegal administration, cooperation with Israel, sending secret documents outside the country, acting against the security of the country, and corruption on earth. [BWNS748, BWNS778]

    • The profiles of the accused: Profiles.
    • The trail is closed to the public. A film crew and known interrogators are permitted entry. [Video "The Story of the Baha'i Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC]
    Tehran, Iran Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Mahvash Sabet, Behrouz Tavakkoli, Vahid Tizfahm, Yaran
    2010 7 Feb Seven imprisoned Baha'i leaders appear in court for a second session of their trial. The session is once again closed and family members are not permitted in the courtroom. The hearing lasts just over one hour but does not go beyond procedural issues. No date is given for any future sessions. [BWNS756] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2010 12 Apr The seven imprisoned Iranian Baha'i leaders arrive at the court for their third appearance and their families are not allowed to enter, signalling a closed hearing. Inside the courtroom, however, the prisoners see numerous officials and interrogators from the Ministry of Intelligence – along with a film crew which had already set up its cameras. Concerned over the presence of non-judicial personnel in a supposedly closed hearing, the Baha'is – with the agreement of their attorneys – decline to be party to the proceedings. The judge adjournes the session and did not announce a date for continuing the trial. [BWNS767] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2010 12 Jun The seven Baha'i leaders imprisoned for more than two years in Iran make their fourth court appearance. [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2010 24 Jul The imprisonment of seven Baha'i leaders in Iran has been extended for a further two months after the lawyers made a request for bail. They have now been held for more than two years under a series of successive orders for their 'temporary' detention, which by law, must not exceed two months. The trial of the seven consisted of six brief court appearances and began on 12 January after they had been imprisoned without charge for 20 months. During this period they were allowed barely one hour's access to their legal counsel. The trial concluded on 14 June and no verdict has since been rendered. [BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison is announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" by Judge Moqayesseh. The charge is "espionage" and "forming a group". The seven Bahá'í leaders are sent to Gohardasht prison, about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2010 15 Sep In the face of the chorus of condemnation for the 20-year sentence for the seven Bahá'í leaders from governments and human rights organizations around the world, the Appeals court reduces their sentences are reduced from 20 to 10 years by removing charges such as “Espionage and Collaboration with Israel”. This was verbally released to Ms. Sabet’s lawyer. [BWNS793, BIC Report] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2010 7 Dec In an open letter to Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani, the Head of the Judiciary the Bahá'í International Community today contrasted the country's persecution of Bahá'ís with Iran's own call for Muslim minorities to be treated fairly in other countries. [BWNS801] Iran Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani, the Head of the Judiciary in Iran
    2011 30 Mar Six months after Iran's appeal court reduced to 10 years the jail terms handed down to seven Baha'i leaders, the Appeals Court sentence is recognized as in contrast with the Law and the prisoners have been told that their original 20-year sentences have been reinstated. [BWNS814] Tehran, Iran Yaran
    2011 3 May Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi and Mrs. Mahvash Sabet were transported to Qarchak prison, some 45 kilometres from Tehran. [BWNS821] Qarchak prison, Qarchak, Iran, Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, Mrs. Mahvash Sabet, Qarchak prison
    2011 20 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet are returned to Evin Prison in Tehran. They had spent a brief spell in appalling conditions at Qarchak prison, (from 3 May) some 45 kilometers from Tehran. [BIC Evin]
    • The five men are still being held under close scrutiny in a wing of Gohardasht prison, reserved for political prisoners. [BIC Report]
    Tehran, Iran, Gohardasht Yaran, Fariba Kamalabadi, Mahvash Sabet, Evin, Gohardasht
    2011 25 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet were transferred from appalling conditions at Qarchak prison to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS826] Qarchak prison, Qarchak, Iran, Tehran, Fariba Kamalabadi, Mahvash Sabet, Qarchak prison
    2011 24 Sep The arrest of Abdolfattah Soltani, a senior member of the legal team representing a number of Bahá'ís in Iran await trial for providing higher education to youth barred from university. [BWNS849] Iran, Abdolfattah Soltani
    2012 11 May The Universal House of Justice sends a message to the Bahá'ís of Iran near the four-year anniversary of the illegal arrest and imprisonment of the former members of the Yárán and the more recent injustice meted out against the co-workers of the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE). [BWNS823, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 11 May, 2012, In Farsi] Iran Yaran
    2013 7 Apr Mr. Ataollah Rezvani, a well-known Bahá'í in the city of Bandar Abbas was shot and killed in his car. It is of note that a few years before his murder, the Friday prayer Imam had incited the local population against the Bahá'ís, referring to them as un-Islamic. He further called on the people of the city to rise up against the Bahá'í community. [BWNS987, BWNS1031] Bandar Abbas, Iran, Ataollah Rezvani, murder
    2013 14 May The Bahá'í International Community launches the Five Years Too Many campaign to protest the 20-year prison sentences given to the Bahá'í leaders in Iran, the longest sentence given to prisoners of conscience under the current regime. The harshness of the sentences reflect the Government’s resolve to oppress completely the Iranian Baha'i community, which faces a systematic, “cradle-to-grave” persecution that is among the most serious examples of state-sponsored religious persecution in the world today. [Five Years Too Many, BWNS954] Tehran, Iran Yaran, Five Years Too Many
    2013 15 Jul Iranian filmmaker and blogger Mohammad Nourizad, kissed the feet of 4 year old Artin whose parents had been arrested for participation in the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. [Wikipedia entry ] Iran Mohammad Nourizad, BIHE
    2014 Apr In Shiraz, the Revolutionary Guard began excavation of some 200 square meters of the Bahá'í cemetery. The site, which had been in use since the 1920s, had been confiscated by the government in 1983 and the Revolutionary Guard had taken ownership of the site some three years earlier with plans to build a cultural and sports centre. It is the site of the remains of the ten Bahá'í of Shiraz who were hanged in 1983 for the crimes of being Zionists and teaching children's classes. [BWNS993, BWNS994] Shiraz, Iran cemetery, destruction of cemetery
    2014 8 May Despite a worldwide outcry, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards is continuing to destroy an historic Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz. Between 2005 and 2012 some 42 Bahá'í-owned cemeteries were desecrated in a similar fashion. [BWNS993, BWNS1016] Shiraz, Iran cemetery, destruction of cemetery
    2014 Nov Fariba Kamalabadi, after having her fourth request to join her daughter Taraneh for her wedding denied, writes her a letter from Evin Prison. [Iran Press Watch] Tehran, Iran Yaran, Evin Prison, Fariba Kamalabadi
    2015 14 May A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Baha'i leaders is launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, is dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm. [7 Days] Tehran, Iran Yaran, Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders
    2015 21 Dec Ayatollah Abdol-Hamid Masoumi-Tehrani, a senior Muslim cleric in Iran, has courageously called on his nation's people to uphold a higher standard of justice and dignity for all of their countrymen and women. In an article on his website, he dedicated a new piece of calligraphy—a passage from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh—to the Bahá'ís who were arrested on baseless charges in November 2015. [BWNS1089, BWNS987] Iran
    2016 29 Apr In observance of the eighth anniversary of the arrest and incarceration of seven Iranian Baha’i leaders, the Baha’i International Community is launching a global campaign calling for their immediate release. Taking the theme “Enough! Release the Baha’i Seven,” the campaign will emphasize the fact that, under Iran’s own national penal code, the seven are now overdue for conditional release. [Enough!]
    • A special campaign page has been established with information about their current legal situation and other resources. [Enough! Release the Bahá'í Seven].
    • The campaign includes an account on FaceBook.
    • and a Twitter handle. The hashtag for the campaign is: #ReleaseBahai7Now.
    Tehran, Iran Yaran, Enough! Release the Baha’i Seven
    2016 13 May Fariba Kamalabadi, while on a five-day furlough from Evin Prison, meets with former Tehran MP Faezeh Hashemi. It is the first temporary leave she has been granted during her eight years of imprisonment.

    Faezeh Hashemi is the activist daughter of former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and she previously shared a prison cell with Kamalabadi in Evin Prison. Hashemi is strongly condemned by politicians and religious leaders. A high-ranking member of the Iranian Judiciary vows that action will be taken against her. Despite the widespread criticism she has received from powerful quarters in Iran, Faezeh Hashemi publicly defends her decision to meet with Kamalabadi. [Iran Press Watch, from NY Times, BWNS1108]

    Tehran, Iran Yaran, Fariba Kamalabadi, Faezeh Hashemi
    2016 26 Sep The murder of Farhang Amiri in Yazd. BWNS1133
    • See also Iran Wire4167.
    • In a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís in Iran dated the 19th of October, 2016, it states
      And at the age of sixty-three, that pure soul, that radiant and magnanimous soul, offered up his life in absolute meekness, hoisted the ensign of martyrdom and attained his Beloved's presence in the realms above, and in the Abha Kingdom joined the company of the other martyrs of this Faith--among whom number his own noble father and six other relatives who, sixty-one years ago in Hurmuzak, near Yazd, sacrificed their lives in the path of the Blessed Beauty.
    • A group of extremists murdered Amiri’s father, Hedayatollah Daftari, and six others in the village of Hormozak in Yazd province more than 60 years ago. At the time, Farhang was 13 months old. See entry for July 28th, 1955 for The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
    • See a paper by Kamyar Behrang entitled "Extrajudicial killings supported by law and Islamic jurisprudence" for an explanation of how a Bahá'í might be murdered with near impunity in Iran.
    Hurmuzak, Yazd, Iran Martyrdom, Farhang Amiri
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
    • The full report can be read on-line here.
    • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
    • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
    • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
    Iran, Persecution, BIC, The Baha'i Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran
    2016 24 Nov From her cell in Evin prison, In a open letter to her six-month old granddaughter, Bajar, Fariba Kamalabadi one of the members of the imprisoned Yaran of Iran, writes about the suffering of the Bahá'í citizens and of her dreams for humanity. [Iran Press Watch 16140] Evin Prison, Tehran, Iran persecution, Yaran
    2017 15 Feb The Bahá'í International Community (BIC) announces the launch of a website for the Bahá'ís of Iran at Bahaisofiran.org. "Although the official website of the worldwide Baha'i community has recently been made available in Persian and a number of other languages, the new "Baha'is of Iran" website is the first website of the Baha'i community of Iran. This development is especially important at a time when a large volume of anti-Baha'i propaganda has proliferated in that country. Since 2013 alone, more than 20,000 such pieces have been disseminated in Iran's media." [BWNS1152, The Baha'i Question Revisited] Iran, Geneva,
    2017 12 May The Baha'i International Community launches a global campaign calling for the immediate release of the seven Iranian Baha'i leaders, unjustly imprisoned for nine years as of the 14th of May. The theme of the campaign, “Not Another Year,” is intended to raise awareness about the seven women and men unjustly arrested in 2008 and sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment for their religious beliefs. This sentence was reduced to 10 years in 2015 after the overdue application of a new Iranian Penal Code. [BWNS1167]
    • The official video of the Bahá'í International Community to commemorate the 9th anniversary of the arrest and imprisonment of seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders - Not Another Year.
    Iran, Yaran, persecution, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Mahvash Sabet, Behrouz Tavakkoli, Vahid Tizfahm
    2017 Jul The men who admitted to stabbing and killing Farhang Amiri, a 63-year-old father of four children, in September 2016 in Yazd on the street outside his home in public view were sentenced by a court in Yazd. The two brothers immediately admitted to have been motivated by religious hatred. The older brother was sentenced to just 11 years in prison and two years away from home. The court justified the sentence by stating that according to the Islamic penal code, the accused and the victim are not equal for the general purpose of retributive justice. This astonishing provision clearly and deliberately deprives non-Muslims of the legal right to seek justice on equal-footing with the country's Muslim majority.

    The younger man was sentenced to half of his brother’s sentence for aiding in the murder. [BWNS1182]

    Yazd, Iran Farhang Amiri, martyr
     
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