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Search Chronology for entries about "Iraq"

from the Chronology

date event locations tags see also
1830 Mullá Husayn leaves his home in Mashhad to pursue his religious studies in Karbalá. [MH113] Mashad, Iran, Karbala, Iraq Mulla Husayn
1837. c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Mirza Muhammad Mustafay-i-Baghdadi, Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1839 Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body is taken to Najaf, Iraq. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4; MBW175] Najaf, Iraq Mirza Buzurg
1841 Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
  • The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25]
  • BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Bab, Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykh Ahmad
1843 The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. [BBRSM55] Karbalá, Iraq Karbala, Turks
1843 Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and chosen successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6]
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing.
Karbalá, Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti, Shaykhi school, Siyyid `Ali Muhammad, Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani, Shaykh Ahmad, Islam
1844. 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–3]
Karbalá, Isfahán, Mashhad, Najaf, Búshihr, Shíráz, Iraq, Iran, Persia Mullá Husayn, Siyyid Kázim, mourning, fasting
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA]
Constantinople, Istanbul, Iraq, Baghdád, Najaf, Karbalá Báb, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, Shaykhí, Mullá `Alí, Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, Shí`í, Sunní, `ulamá, martyr, Bábí, Mullá Hasan Gawhar, Babism
1844 2 or 3 Oct The Báb departs on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121]
  • He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
  • He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
  • The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
  • He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
Karbalá, Iraq, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia Bab pilgrimage, Mulla Husayn, Futuh-ar-Ras`ul
1845. c. Jan Crowds gather in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them Táhirih. [BI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Karbalá, Iraq Bab, Tahirih
1845. 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád.A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdád, Iraq trial, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami
1945 c. 13 Jan A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. Baghdád, Iraq fatwa, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Bab
1845. c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí is removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he is sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul, Iraq, Bagdad, Iraq Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, prison
1845. Jul and months following The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
  • He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
  • The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
  • In Karbalá Táhirih revives the remnant of the Bábí community there. She is considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believes that the Shaykhí tradition has been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement causes the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18]
Shíráz, Isfahán, Khurásán, Yazd, Kirmán, Nayríz, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, Mosque Vakil, Hidden Imam, Mulla Husayn, uncle, Babi, Shah, Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi, Vahid, scholar, Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani, Hujjat, Qayyumu'l-Asma', Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi, learned, Tahirih, Shaykhi, Shi`ism, Karim Khan, Shaykhi, Ishaqu'l-Batil, Crushing Falsehood, Shaykhism
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihrán, Tehran, Shíráz, Iran, Baghdád, Karbalá, Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum, Greatest Holy Leaf, daughter Baha'u'llah, Navvab, sister `Abdu'l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi, Baha'i Dispensation, Babi, Bab, Tahirih, Shaykh Muhammad Shibl, Mufti Baghdad
1847. spring-summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kázimayn, Baghdád, Iraq, Persia, Iran, Hamadán, Kirmánsháh Tahirih, Babi, Siyyid `Ali Bishr, Bab, Mah-Ku, Hakim Masih, Jewish, doctor, Baha'i, Najib Pasha
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Máh-Kú, Iran, Persia, Najaf, Karbalá, Iraq Bab, `Ali Khan, Babi, commentary, commentaries, Qur'an, Persian Bayan, Arabic Bayan, Bayan, Dala'il-i-Sab'ih, Seven Proofs, Christian, Muhammad, Tablet Muhammad Shah
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí, Tehran, Tihrán, Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Quddus, arrest, Mirza Muhammad-Taqi, Tahirih, Mahmud Khan, Kalantar, Mulla Husayn, Shah, pilgrimage, Tablet, Bab, Black Standard, green turban, new name, Siyyid `Ali
1848. 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
Tabríz, Síyáh-Chál', Iran, Persia, Iraq Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Báb, Bahá'u'lláh', martyrs, Bábí, Bahá'í, prime minister, Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání
1850. Jul The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
Iran, Persia, Iraq Bab, Faith Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihrán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan, Baha'u'llah
1851. 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]

  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
Karbalá, Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, pilgrimage, Bábís
1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
Karbalá, Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi, Bab, amanuensis, Baha'u'llah, Imam Husayn, shrine
1852 Apr-May c. Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]

  • He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
Karbalá, Iraq, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Grand Vizier
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 companions. [BBIC:6]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100]

Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107]

Tihrán, Tehran, Tákur, Iran, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Baha'u'llah, Siyah-Chal, prison, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi, martyr, poison, chain, Mirza Yahya
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran, Persia, Iraq Baha'u'llah, release, Siyah-Chal, Russia, Minister, Prince Dolgorukov, Mirza Áqa Khan
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]

  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]

  • The revelation of this Tablet points up Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
Baghdád, Iraq Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, birth, son, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá, Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám, Tablet All Food, Mírzá Yahyá'
1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108] Írán, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, brother, wife, son, Mírzá Ridá-Qulí, Navváb, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahíyyih Khánum, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qul, Russia
1853. Notes CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.

  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Írán, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Báb, Muhammad, Moses, Abraham, exile
1853. Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105] Khániqayn, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Naw-Rúz
1853. 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrive in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gives birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Navváb, son
1853. summer Bahá'u'lláh reveals His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. [BKG109–11; GPB115–16] Karbalá, Iraq Baha'u'llah, Mirza Áqa Jan a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
1956 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returns from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán.

"He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
Baghdád, Iraq, Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán Baha'u'llah, Sulaymaniyyih
1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1856–8 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period are so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He reveals a vast number of works and then commands that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, writing
1856–63 It is in this period that Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh describes the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150]

  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA1507.
Baghdád, Iraq, Kurdistán Bahá'u'lláh, Seven Valleys, Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, Qádí Khániqayn,
1857. c. 1857 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Four Valleys, addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání and describing four stages of the spiritual life. [SA157–8] Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Four Valleys, Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání
1858 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40] Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Hidden Words, Kalimát-i-Maknúnih, Fátimih, Tigris
1860. c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia, Baghdád, Iraq Mírzá Mihdí, son, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdád, Iraq, Mashhad, Iran, Persia ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, commentary, Islam, Hidden Treasure, ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá, Hájí Ákhúnd, Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, Hand Cause, Bábí, Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání, Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq, Ibn Asdaq, Bahá'u'lláh
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.

Some Bábís are imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:382]

‘Abdu'l-‘Alí Khán-i-Marághi'í is killed in Tihrán on the order of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:382]

Baghdád, Iraq, Tihrán, Tehran, Iran, Persia Bahá'u'lláh, Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, Bábí, prison, death, ‘Abdu'l-‘Alí Khán-i-Marághi'í, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh
1862. c. Mar-Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdád, Iraq Sádhijíyyih, daughter, Bahá'u'lláh, wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offers Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offers Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]

  • Bahá'u'lláh declines the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
Baghdád, Iraq, India, Britain, Colonel, Arnold Burrowes Kemball, British, Consul-General, Bahá'u'lláh, Ottoman
1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdád, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, governor, Námiq Páshá, Grand Vizier, ‘Alí Páshá
1863. Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrates the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, Tigris, Baghdád, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, Naw-Rúz
1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, Tablet, Holy Mariner, Naw-Rúz, Mírzá Áqá Ján, Námiq Páshá,
1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House and is given the letter summoning Him to Constantinople. [BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. [BKG155; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
Baghdád, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey Bahá'u'lláh, deputy, governor, Námiq Páshá, Ottoman citizenship, removal
1863. See also BBD196; BBIC13, note 68. Baghdád, Iraq
1863. Apr Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]

  • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
  • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
  • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.

On learning that Bahá'u'lláh is to leave Baghdád, large numbers visit Him. The house is too small for the purpose. Najíb Páshá puts his garden-park, Najíbíyyih, at Bahá'u'lláh's disposal. [RB1:259]

Baghdád, Mosul, Iraq, Constantinople, Istanbul, Turkey, Iran, Persia Mírzá Yahyá, Báb, Najíb Páshá, garden, Najíbíyyih
1863. 22 Apr-3 May Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki]

Garden of Ridván, Najibiyyih Garden, Iraq Declaration Baha'u'llah
1863. 22 Apr Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year falls on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh leaves His house for the last time and walks to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).

  • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
  • For the first time, He wears a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]

    Bahá'u'lláh enters the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer is being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]

On this day Bahá'u'lláh declares His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]

  • ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
  • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
  • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
  • This initiates the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
  • This marks the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]

On the same day Bahá'u'lláh makes three important statements to His followers:

  1. He forbids the use of the sword.
  2. He states that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This is later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
  3. He states that, as from this moment, all the names and attributes of God are manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He reveals the Lawh-i-Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí. [SA239]

During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confides to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He is ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

  • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
Najíbíyyih Garden, Iraq Naw-Rúz, Bahá'u'lláh, Garden Ridván, táj, Báb, Bahá'í, Heroic Age, Apostolic Age, Kitáb-i-Badí‘, Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Lawh-i-Ayyúb, Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá
1863. 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joins Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]

  • This initiates the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
Najíbíyyih Garden, Iraq Bahá'u'lláh, family, Ridván, ninth day
1863. 3 May Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.

  • This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
  • His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
Najíbíyyih Garden, Firayját, Iraq, Shíráz, Iran, Persia Baha'u'llah, Ridvan, Twelfth Day, Tablet, Áqa Mirza Áqa, horse, donkey, taj, Tigris
1865. Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He is buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] Qum, Iran, Karbalá, Iraq Prime Minister, Mírzá Áqá Khán, death
1867. Sep-Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]

  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.

Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]

  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.

In this period the extent of the Faith is enlarged, with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]

The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá' supersedes the Islamic salutation and is simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176]

The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, is discarded and is supplanted by the term ‘the people of Bahá. [BKG250; GBP176]

Nabíl-i-A‘zam is despatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]

  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15.

Bahá'u'lláh addresses a Tablet to Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tihrán instructing them to transfer secretly the remains of the Báb from the Imám-Zádih Ma‘súm, where they were concealed, to some other place of safety. [GPB177]

The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]

Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178]

Adrianople, Egypt, Syria, Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr, Tehrán, Baghdad, Iraq, Iran, Persia, Turkey Baha'u'llah, Suriy-Muluk, Surih Kings, Shoghi Effendi, Tablet, Kitab-i-Badi‘, Munajathay-i-Siyam, Prayers for Fasting, Napoleon III, Lawh-i-Sultan, Nasiri'd-Din Shah, Suriy-i-Ra'is, Suriy-i-Ghusn, Tablet of the Branch, ‘Abdu'l-Baha, Caucasus, Allah-u-Abha', Bayan, Mirza Yahya, pilgrimage, Baha, Nabil-i-A‘zam, Babi, Nabil, Khadijih Khanum, Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi, Jamal-i-Burujirdi, shrine, Imam-Zadih Ma‘sum
1870 Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. He goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf is arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He is the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
`Údí Khammár completes the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH1067]
  • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
Iraq, Zanján, Bahjí Napoleon III, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf, Mír Jalíl, Hujjat, `Údí Khammár, `Abdu'lláh Páshá
1920 The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq begins. It will last until 1932. [Mandatory Iraq] Iraq House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 after Mandate After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorizes repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attract the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sue for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád is granted and the Bahá'is are evicted. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturns an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad is decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allows them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
  • Before the application goes before the Court the Shi'a group prevail upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and the return the keys to them. All this is against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
  • The case is passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decides in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq takes over the keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 The keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád are delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appeal to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 20 Dec The Peace Court rules in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, orders that the property not be returned until ownership can be established. [SETPE1p26]
  • The Guardian sends 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities were the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructs that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sends over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
  • The Iráqí government refuses to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reports in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is now before the court of the First Instance and has been postponed for some time. He states that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents are likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government is likely to delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá’u’lláh’s house in Baghdád are given to the Shí’ís. [UD45] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad, Shi’is
1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal rules against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sends a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq submits a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Baghdád, Iraq, Petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
    • The Shí’ís turn the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
    Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad, Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, Shi’is, Husayniyyih
    1928 Nov It is recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopts the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá’í community to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:50-55]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
    Baghdád, Iraq, Council of the League of Nations, Mandates Commissions, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
    • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
    Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad, Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, Montfort Mills
    1930 2 Jan Martha Roots meets with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad. The King says that a committee has been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad, Martha Root
    1931 1 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq is elected for the first time. [BBRSM:121] Iraq NSA
    1932 3 Oct The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq comes to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Molsems and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances, while there for a medical examination. [Wikipedia]

    • Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
    Baghdad, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad, Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi, King Faisal, The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration, Mandatory Iraq
    1932 3 Nov-6 Dec Meeting of the 22nd Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva at which the Bahá’ís plead their case for the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW5:351–4] Geneva, Baghdád, Iraq, Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1933 23 Oct-4 Nov The 24th session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations is held in Geneva at which the case of the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is again raised. [BW5:354–5] Geneva, Baghdád, Iraq, Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1947 The Iraqi teaching plan (1947–50), comprising internal goals only, is launched. [BBRSM158] Iraq teaching plan
    1950 The Court of the First Instance in Karkúk, Iraq, registers a Bahá’í marriage certificate. [MBW4; uD248]
    • This is the first time in the East, outside Israel, that a Bahá’í marriage is recognized as being legal, an important precedent for other Oriental countries. [MBW4; UD248]
    Iraq
    1959 19 Oct The Hands of the Cause announce that the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Buzurg, have been reinterred in the Bahá’í burial ground in the vicinity of the Most Great House in Baghdád. [MC165] Baghdád, Iraq Most Great House, Mirza Buzurg
    1970 May The Iraqi government issues a decree disbanding all Bahá’í institutions and banning all Bahá’í activities. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq religious persecution
    1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opens and the Bahá’ís are exonerated. [BW16:138]
    • The Revolutionary Council is dissatisfied with this result and the case is ordered to be reopened in a military court, with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
    Iraq religious persecution
    1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentences 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís are fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdád, Iraq religious persecution
    1974 20 May The Iraqi military court trying nearly 50 Bahá’ís hands down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá’ís, two of whom are deceased and a number of whom are of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq. [BW16:138]
    • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá’ís have their property confiscated, one Bahá’í is sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
    Iraq religious persecution
    1975 Jan A Bahá’í is arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq religious persecution
    1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá’ís imprisoned by 15 per cent is granted. [BW16:138] Iraq religious persecution
    1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í is detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specifies his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
    • When he refuses to recant his faith he is tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
    Iraq religious persecution
    1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá’ís are returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith are turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Iraq religious persecution
    2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver, BC, Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi, Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa, International Teaching Centre
    2013 24-26 Jun Contrary to the plans of the Department of Antiquities, the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is razed to make way for the construction of a mosque. [Message from the Universal House of Justice date 17 July 2013, SETPE1p170] Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    2013 27 Jun In a message from the Universal House of Justice to all National Spiritual Assemblies it advises of the news of the destruction of the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad. [Message of 27 Jun 2013]
    In truth, I declare, it shall be so abased in the days to come as to cause tears to flow from every discerning eye...And in the fulness of time, shall the Lord by the power of truth exalt it in the eyes of all the world, cause it to become the mighty standard of His domination, the shrine round which shall circle the concourse of the faithful. [BA99-100, BWNS961]
    Baghdád, Iraq, House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
     
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