||Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád.
||Mulla Zaynu'l-`Ábidin; Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin; Apostle
||Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body is taken to Najaf, Iraq. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4; MBW175]
||Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) goes to Najaf and Karbalá where He attends the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. He remains here for about a year. [B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
- The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
- BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
|Najaf; Karbalá; Iraq
||Siyyid `Ali Muhammad; Bab; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
- After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
- See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
|Karbalá; Isfahán; Mashhad; Najaf; Búshihr; Shíráz; Iraq; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim; mourning; fasting
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
- The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
|Constantinople; Istanbul; Iraq; Baghdád; Najaf; Karbalá
||Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Shaykhi; Mulla `Ali; Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafi; Shi`i; Sunni; `ulama; martyr; Babi; Mulla Hasan Gawhar; Babism
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
- It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
- He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
- He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
- The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
- He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
- In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
- The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Máh-Kú; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbalá; Iraq
||Bab; `Ali Khan; Babi; commentary; commentaries; Qur'an; Persian Bayan; Arabic Bayan; Bayan; Dala'il-i-Sab'ih; Seven Proofs; Christian; Muhammad; Tablet Muhammad Shah
||Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), a prominent mujtahid, becomes a Bábí, in Najafábád.
||Mulla Zaynu'l-'Abidin; Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin; mujtahid; Babi
||Upheaval at Najafábád
- Several hundred Bahá'ís are arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He is dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners are executed, 18 are sent to Tihrán and the remainder are sent back to Najafábád where they are severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán are put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these are beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
|Najafábád; Isfahán; Tehran;
||Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
||Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiates a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383]
|| Isfahán; Sidih; Najafábád
||Son of the Wolf
|1889. 17 Jul
||Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drives over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They take sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
- See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
|Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan
||Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help or protection, go to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383]
||Tihrán; Sidih; Najafábád
|1899. 9 Apr
||Upheaval at Najafábád. [BBRXXX, 426; BW18:384–5]
- Mírzá Báqir-i-Há'í is arrested, several Bahá'ís are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted in Najafábád. [BBR426; BW18:384–5]
- Some 300 Bahá'ís occupy the British telegraph office hoping that the Sháh will intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [BBR427–8]
- For Western accounts of the episode see BBR426–30.
||Ghulám-Ridá is killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385]
||Ghulam-Ri?a; Iranian persecution
||The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of The Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276]
||Mosul; Najafábád; Rajab;
|1905 c. 30 Mar
||Hájí Kalb-`Alí is shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386]
||Haji Kalb-`Ali; Iranian persecution
|1910 20 Sep
||Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh is martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387]
||Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbagh; Iranian persecution
|1917 17 Feb
||A mob in Najafábád disinters the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís follows. The Bahá'ís are boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387]
||The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
- Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
- Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
- Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
- Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
- Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
- Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
|Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán
||religious persecution; Tarbiyat School
||Muhammad Kayvani is murdered in Najafabad. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
||Bahá’ís and their homes are attacked in Najafábád, Iran, and several houses are set on fire. [BW18:390]
|2007 9 – 10 Sep
||A Bahá'í cemetery near Najafabad, Iran was destroyed using heavy equipment. More than 100 graves were desecrated. [BWNS578]