|1844. 23 May
||The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
- He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
- Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
- Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
- He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Iran
||`Abdu'l-Baha; `Abbas Effendi; Baha'i; Baha'u'llah; Ghusn-i-A`zam; Most Great Branch; Sirru'llah; Mystery God; Áqa; Master; Sarkar-i-Áqa
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
- The Báb addresses the Letters of the Living, giving each a specific task. [DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
|Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum
||Bab; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; Tablet Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid; Tablet Bab
||The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]
- For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Baghdád; Karbalá; Iraq
||Bahiyyih Khanum; Greatest Holy Leaf; daughter Baha'u'llah; Navvab; sister `Abdu'l-Baha; Shoghi Effendi; Baha'i Dispensation; Babi; Bab; Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
|1846. c. Feb - Mar 1846
||The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Isfahán; Iran
||Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab; wife; Fatimih
||Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador.
||Tihrán; Tehran; Iran
||Prince Dolgorukov; Russian; Russia; ambassador
|1847. Feb - Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
- Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Isfahán; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen
|1847. 21 Mar
||En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Káshán; Iran; Persia
||Báb; Hájí Mírzá Jání; dream
|1847. 28 Mar
||The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Kulayn; Iran
||Báb; fortress Kinár-Gird; Muhammad Big; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; prime minister
|1847. 1 Apr
||The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Persia
||Bab; letter; gifts; Baha'u'llah
|1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr
||One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
|1847 c. Aug - Sep
||On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]
Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]
|Hamadán; Qazvín; Mashhad; Khurásán; Shíráz; Máh-Kú; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Persia
||Tahirih; Arab; Babis; Haji Mulla Taqi; Shaykhis; Mulla Husayn; pilgrimage; Baha'u'llah
|1847 c. Aug
||Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
- As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
|Khurásán; Máh-Kú; Qazvín; Tihrán
||Mulla Husayn; Tahirih
|1847. Oct - Nov
||Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Tahirih; assassination; uncle; Babis; arrested; Khusraw Khan
|1847. Nov - Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
- See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
- This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
- Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
- He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
- The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
- DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
|1848. early Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
- When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
- See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; Babis; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
||Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
- While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
- After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
- Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Khurásán; Iran; Persia
||Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; Vahid
|1848. 9 Apr
||The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
- Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
- The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
- The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
|Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Báb; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Russian; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sárí; Tehran; Tihrán; Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq
||Quddus; arrest; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shah; pilgrimage; Tablet; Bab; Black Standard; green turban; new name; Siyyid `Ali
|1848. 19 Oct
||Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
|1850. 19 or 20 Feb
||Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]
- See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
- Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
- Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
- See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
- The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
- See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
|1850. 19 May
||The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]
- See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia
||Governor; Hujjat; Mír Saláh; Zaynab; Bábí
|1850. Jun c.
||Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
- His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
- Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
- When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
|Chihríq; Tabríz; Urúmíyyih; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab; American; missionaries; Mulla Baqir; Letters Living; ‘Jinab-i-Baha'; Baha'u'llah; Tablet; ‘Baha'
|1851. 2 Mar
||Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia
|1851 Jun c.
||Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]
A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]
|Tihrán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Baha'u'llah
||Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599]
||Afchih; Lavásán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; Ja‘far-Quli Khan; Grand Vizier
|1852 days following
|For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]
He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]
- See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
- See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
|Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
|1852 16 – 22 Aug
||A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Babis; arrest; execute; execution; Siyah-Chal; martyrdom
||In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]
Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]
- See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
- See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
- See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
- The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
|Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
||Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
- See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
- No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
- Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
- See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
- ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
- See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
- Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
- See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
- See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
- Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
- An attempt was made to poison Him. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Tákur; Iran; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq
||Baha'u'llah; Siyah-Chal; prison; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; ‘Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; martyr; poison; chain; Mirza Yahya
|1853. 24 Nov
||The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382]
||Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia
|1860. c. 1860
||Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]
- He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia; Baghdád; Iraq
||Mirza Mihdi; son; Baha'u'llah; wife; Mahd-i-‘Ulya
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
- The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
- It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
- The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
- It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
- For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
|Baghdád; Iraq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; Kitab-i-Íqan; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Babi; prison; death; ‘Abdu'l-‘Ali Khan-i-Maraghi'i; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
|1862. c. 1862
||Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; ring; shawl; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Iraq
|1867. Jan or Feb
||Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]
Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]
||Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí; Bahá'í; physician; executed; Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání; Hujjat
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178]
|| Ádharbáyján; Zanján; Níshápúr; Tihrán.
||Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
- He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
||Haji Mulla `Ali-i-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Mulla `Ali Kani; Hand of the Cause of God
|1879. c. 1879
||Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Tihrán. She is buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50]
|1880 In the year
||Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
- Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
- Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
||Siyyid Muhammad-Baqir-i-Mujtahid; Sayyidih Khanum Bibi; Tuba Khanum
|1882 – 1883
||The Tihrán Upheaval.
- A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community are arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some are confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences are not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
- This is occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
||The Tihran Upheaval
||Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help or protection, go to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383]
||Tihrán; Sidih; Najafábád
|1889. 19 Nov
||Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán.
||Shu`a`u'llah `Ala'i; Hand of the Cause of God
|1890 In the year
||Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]
Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]
In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]
|`Akká; Haifa; Tihrán; Qazvín; Kalát-i-Nadírí; Mashhad;
||Haji Ákhund; Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; (Khayru'llah)
|1890. 25 Feb
||Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection secure a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they are killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383]
|1891 Apr c.
||Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf]
||Haji Amin; Ibn-i-Abhar; Hand of the Cause of God
||Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih is poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384]
||Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
|1896 1 May
||The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son,
Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
- For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22.
- For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
- He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
- Also see World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
- See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
|Yazd; Tihrán; Iran;
||Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Varqa
|1897 In the year
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]
The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]
- This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]
The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]
|China; Bombay; Tihrán; Saysán; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Nayríz; Hamadán
||Haji Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Áqa Najafi; Iranian persecution
|1897. 24 Feb
||Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán.
||Jalal Khazeh (Jalal Khadih); Hand of the Cause of God
||`Abdu'l-Bahá instructs that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]
||Remains of the Bab; Haji Muhammad
||The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3]
||Zikrullah Khadem; Hand of the Cause of God
||At this point there are separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
- See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
| Hamadán; Tihrán; iran
|1908 25 Apr
||Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
- For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
- In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
- They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
|New York; Tihran
||Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Ta`irih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham
|1909 25 Nov
||Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
- She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
- Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
||Dr Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Dr Sarah A. Clock; Miss Elizabeth Stewart
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
- Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
- He was appointed a
Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
|Tihrán; Tehran; Shahmírzád;
||Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Haji Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Haji Akhund; Hand of the Cause of God
|1910 4 Mar
||Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266]
||`Ali-Akhar-i-Shahmirzadi (Haji Ákhund); Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam
||By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets have been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4]
There are about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]
|Canada; Tihrán; Bárfurúsh; Mázandarán
||`Ali Muhammad Varqa; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza Muhammad-`Ali; Mu`inu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
||`Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
- The Tablet is carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It takes him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brings gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
- For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
||`Abdu'l-Baha; World War I; Haji Ramadan
|1919 13 Aug
||Adíb, Mírzá Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD98]
EB273 says he died on 2 September.
- For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
||Adib; Mirza Hasan Taliqani; Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam
|1919 2 Sep
|| The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889. Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in
||Tihrán; Tehran; Talaqán
||Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Adibu'l-'Ulama; Adib; Hand of the Cause of God
|1920 1 Dec
||Lillian Kappes dies of typhus fever in Tihrán. [BFA2:361; SW11, 19:324-5]
- She had gone to Tihrán nine years previously to help set up the Tarbíyat School for Girls. [SW11, 19:3 24]
||Lillian Kappes; Tarbiyat School for Girls; In Memoriam
||Dr Genevieve Coy is chosen as the director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán to replace Lillian Kappes. [SBR203]
||Dr Genevieve Coy; Tarbiyat School for Girls
|1922 24 Jan
||Dr Sarah A. Clock passes away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309]
||Dr Sarah A. Clock; Dr Moody; Tarbiyat School for Girls
|1924 18 Jul
||American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie is murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he is not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. [BBR462-5; BW18:388]
- For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
||Major Robert Imbrie
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1. His father was Mullá Sádiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19]
While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a
martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of
martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .” He is the first of the Hands of the
Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class”
the Faith. He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
For details of his life see EB171–6.
||Tihrán; Tehran; Mashhad;
||Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Mirza 'Ali-Muhammad; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni
|1928 27 May
||Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
- For his biography see EB263.
- He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
- See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
||Haji Amin; Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hand appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
||The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
- Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
- Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
- Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
- Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
- Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
- Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
|Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán
||religious persecution; Tarbiyat School
|1934 6 Dec
||The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán are closed by the authorities when they fail to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308]
- For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
||Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools; holy day; religious persecution
||The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
- Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
- A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
- The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
- Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
- A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
|Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán;
||religious persecution; LSA
||Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
- They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
|Yazd; Tihrán; Iran;
||Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
- Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
- Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
|Iran; Tihrán; Kirmánsháh; Záhidán; Mashhad
||A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identifies the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchases it.
||House of Bahá’u’lláh
||The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is completed.
||House of Baha’u’llah
||The Hazíratu’l-Quds of Tihrán is completed. [BW11:588]
||The Bahá’í centre in Tihrán is attacked by a mob incited by Áyatu’lláh Káshání. [BW18:390]
||Áyatu’llah Kashani; religious persecution
||The Síyáh-Chál is acquired by the Bahá’ís. [BW12:64–5; SE153; SS45]
- The purchase cost is $400,000. [BW12:65]
|1955 23 Apr
||Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
- This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
- Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
- The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
|Tihrán; Shíráz; Iran
||Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí; House of the Báb; Siyyid Núru’d-Dín; religious persecution
|1955 2 May
||The police lock the doors of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán thus preventing the holding of the final day of the National Bahá’í Convention. [BW18:390]
||religious persecution; National Bahá’í Convention
|1955 7 May
||The Iranian army occupies the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
|1955 22 May
||The dome of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán is demolished with the personal participation of several high-ranking army officers. The publication of the pictures of this episode encourages a widespread outburst of persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:391]
- After the coup in 1953 the Shah was indebted to the clergy for their support and so they were given a greater latitude to persecute the Bahá'ís. In an attempt to show his gratitude the Shah sent a high ranking officer to ask if they had any special requests and they called for the Bahá'í Centre in Tehran to be destroyed. The army occupied the Centre and high-ranking officers and clerics jointly demolished the dome. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
- For pictures see BW13:293–4.
||The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán undergoes major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts.
||House of Baha’u’llah in Tihran
||The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) are completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance.
||House of Baha’u’llah
||The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79]
||House of Baha’u’llah; religious persecution
|1979 24 May
||Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, is kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294]
||Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhi; religious persecution
|1979 11 Nov
||Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294]
||religious persecution; Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí; NSA
||‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh is executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255]
||‘Azamatu’llah Fahandizh; religious persecution
|1981 5 Dec
||The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court. Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510]
||The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery are exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153]
||A section of the Bahá'í cemetery in Tihrán is bulldozed to make way for the construction of an Islamic cultural centre. [BW93–4:140]
- It is first thought that about two thousand Bahá'í graves are desecrated but later revealed that 15,000 graves are destroyed. [BW93–4:140; BW94–5:133]