|1830 Jan c.
||Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
||Haji Mirza Muhammad Taqi Afnan; Afnan; Bab, Family of; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
|1889. 8 Sep
||Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
- Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
- Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
- Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
- Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
- The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
- For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
||Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Martyrs; Firsts, Other
||By 1890 about a thousand Bahá'ís have settled in `Ishqábád. [BBRSM91, SDOH99]
||Shanghai is re-opened to the Bahá'í Faith by the arrival of two Bahá'ís from`Ishqábád, Áqá Mírzá Mihdí Rashtí and Áqá Mírz `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí, who open a branch of the Ummi'd company, an import-export firm. [PH25]
||Shanghai; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan
||Aqa Mirza Mihdi Rashti; Aqa Mirza Abdul-Baqi Yazdi
|1902 28 Nov
||Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
- BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
- The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
- A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
- Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
- For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
- See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqi (Vakilud-Dawlih); Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds
|1903 7 Mar
||Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348]
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States
||House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
||The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád is completed and the dome is in place. [AB110, EB267]
- The outer decoration will not be completed until 1919.
- For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
||Mr Husayn Uskuli and two Bahá'ís friends arrive in Shanghai from 'Ishqábád. His family joins him. [PH28-29, BW13p871-872]
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China
||The Soviet authorities abrogate the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the assembly is dissolved. [BW3:37, BW8p88, SETPE1p154]
- Bahá’í schools and libraries are closed. [BBRSM173]
- Not long after, the government orders that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union are the property of the government and the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár is expropriated and leased back to the Bahá’ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
- For the history of the persecution of the Bahá’ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
- PP364–5 says it was 1929.
||Persecution, Soviet Union; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
|1938 5 Feb
||Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union are persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
- Five hundred Bahá'í men are imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
- Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union are arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
- Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, go to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
- The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
- The Bahá'í schools are ordered closed. [BW8p89]
- Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus are ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
|Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Soviet Union
||The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is damaged by an earthquake. [BBD 122; BW14:480]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes
|1956 25 Feb
||Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passes away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and is buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
- He heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
- He was survived by four daughters and a son.
|Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China
||Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1963 25 Aug
||The Universal House of Justice announces the demolition by the Soviet authorities of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
- For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes
||The re-creation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of 'Ishqábád. [AWH73; VV111]
||The Local Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is re-formed after a lapse of 61 years, the first local assembly to be formed in the Soviet Union. [AWH73; VV111]
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union
||The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
||Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad
||NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
|2003 26 Nov
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
- Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
- Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
- In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
- For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
|Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent