|1817. c. 1817
||Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd.
||Ardikán; Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Haji Amin; Hand of the Cause of God
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shíráz; Isfahán; Khurásán; Yazd; Kirmán; Nayríz; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq
||Bab; Mosque Vakil; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; uncle; Babi; Shah; Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi; Vahid; scholar; Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani; Hujjat; Qayyumu'l-Asma'; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; learned; Tahirih; Shaykhi; Shi`ism; Karim Khan; Shaykhi; Ishaqu'l-Batil; Crushing Falsehood; Shaykhism
|1850 early weeks
||Vahíd clashes with the authorities in Yazd. He escapes and makes a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
- B178 says this took place in the early weeks of 1850; B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
- See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
|Yazd; Fárs; Iran; Persia
||The house of Vahíd in Yazd is attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd is dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd leaves Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75]
||Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Vahid; house; attack; Mulla Muhammad-Rida
|1850. 27 May-
|First Nayríz upheaval.
Vahíd travels from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He goes to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascends the pulpit and proclaims the Cause of God. The Governor makes moves against him and Vahíd orders his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that follows lasts a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]
- See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
- See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
- See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
|Nayríz; Yazd; Shíráz;
||Vahid; Mosque; Jum‘ih; Governor; fort Khajih; siege
|1851. 30 Apr
||Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382]
||Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl; executed
|1851. 1 May
||Áqá Husayn is blown from a cannon in Yazd. [BW18:382]
||Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Áqá Husayn; cannon
|1851. 23 Jul
||Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382]
||Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání; death
|1865. c. 1865
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
- See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
- See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
- See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
- Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
|Adrianople; Edirne; Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Baha'u'llah; Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad
||Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh is poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383]
||Mulla Muhammad-Rida; Rida'r-Ruh
|1878 to 1881
||The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
- His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
- He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
- He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
- Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
- He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
|Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tehran
||Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Jinab-i-Shah Muhammad; Aminu'l-Bayan; Trustee of the Bayan; Remains of the Bab; Mosque of Imamzadih Zayd; Huququ’llah
|1882 In the year
||Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá is arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he is imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383]
||Mirza `Ali-Muhammad Varqa
||Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]
Four Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
|Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz
|1891 19 May
||The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]
Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih, at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]
- For their names see BW18:384.
- For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
- For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5, 357–8.
- See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
||Jalalu'd-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari
|1891. 3 Oct
||Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred in Yazd. [BW18:384]
|1891. See also
Bahá'u'lláh reveals Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; GPB219; RB4:368]
- It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. GPB220]
- It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
- For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
- For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
||Epistle to the Son of the Wolf; Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Tablet to the Times
|1893. 17 Jun
||Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
- He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
||Áqa Muhammad-Riday-i-Muhammadabadi; martyr; persecution
|1896 1 May
||The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son,
Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
- For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22.
- For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
- He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
- Also see World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
- See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
|Yazd; Tihrán; Iran;
||Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Varqa
|1897 In the year
||The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Muhammad-Ridá in a Tehran prison.
- born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He is provided a good education and he becomes a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
- Becomes a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognizes Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
- He became well-known for his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse. He was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, while a elderly man, withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. (A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing.)
[RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
|Muhammad-Ábád; Yazd; Tehran;
||Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. He was born in Muhammadábád, Yazd in 1814. [LoF21-27]He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other
Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
||Hand appointed by 'Abdu'l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause; Shaykh Muhammad-riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Rida
|1898. 1 Jun
||Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384]
||The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
- See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
- This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
- For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
- For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
||Iranian persecution; Haji Mirzay-i-Halabi-Saz
||At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí writes Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the year 1903 AD. It can be found in the Bahá'í-Library.
||Persecutions in Iran; Hiji Mirza Haydar 'Ali
|1917 2 May
||The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443]
||Mirza Muhammad-i-Bulur-Furush; Iranian persecution
||The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
- Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
- Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
- Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
- Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
- Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
- Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
|Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán
||religious persecution; Tarbiyat School
||Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
- They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
|Yazd; Tihrán; Iran;
||The Bahá’í centre in Yazd, Iran, is attacked by a mob incited by Shaykh Khalisízádih. [BW18:390]
||Shaykh Khalisizadih; religious persecution
||Ghulam Reza Akhzari and his son Nur Allah are killed near Yazd and Bahram Rawhani is murdered in Taft. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
||The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Baha'i. He was given a life sentence. [http://planetbahai.org/resources/news/news0304/renews031604z.html]
||Zabihullah Mahrami; Iranian persecution
|2005 15 Dec
||The death of Mr. Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, 59, who had been held in a government prison in Yazd under harsh physical conditions at the time of his death.
First arrested in 1995, Mr. Mahrami served in the civil service but at the time of his arrest was making a living installing venetian blinds, having been summarily fired from his job like thousands of other Baha'is in the years following the 1979 Iranian revolution. Although Iranian officials have asserted that Mr. Mahrami was guilty of spying for Israel, court records clearly indicate that he was tried and sentenced solely on charge of being an "apostate," a crime which is punishable by death under traditional Islamic law. While Mr. Mahrami had been a lifelong Baha'i, the apostasy charge apparently came about because a civil service colleague, in an effort to prevent Mr. Mahrami from losing his job, submitted to a newspaper an article stating that he had converted to Islam. When it later became clear to Iranian authorities that Mr. Mahrami remained a member of the Baha'i community, they arrested him and charged him with apostasy for allegedly converting from Islam to the Baha'i Faith. On 2 January 1996, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court, a conviction that was later upheld by the Iranian Supreme Court.
The death sentence against Mr. Mahrami stirred an international outcry. The European Parliament, for example, passed a resolution on human rights abuses in Iran, making reference to Mr. Mahrami's case. The governments of Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also registered objections.
||Dhabihu'llah Mahrami; persecution
|2016 26 Sep
||The murder of Farhang Amiri in Yazd. BWNS1133
- See also Iran Wire4167.
- In a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís in Iran dated the 19th of October, 2016, it states
And at the age of sixty-three, that pure soul, that radiant and magnanimous soul, offered up his life in absolute meekness, hoisted the
ensign of martyrdom and attained his Beloved's presence in the realms above, and in the Abha Kingdom joined the company of the other martyrs of this Faith--among whom number his own noble father and six other relatives who, sixty-one
years ago in Hurmuzak, near Yazd, sacrificed their lives in the path of the Blessed Beauty.
- A group of extremists murdered Amiri’s father, Hedayatollah Daftari, and six others in the village of Hormozak in Yazd province more than 60 years ago. At the time, Farhang was 13 months old. See entry for July 28th, 1955 for The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
- See a paper by Kamyar Behrang entitled "Extrajudicial killings supported by law and Islamic jurisprudence" for an explanation of how a Bahá'í might be murdered with near impunity in Iran.
|Hurmuzak; Yazd; Iran
||Martyrdom; Farhang Amiri
||The men who admitted to stabbing and killing Farhang Amiri, a 63-year-old father of four children, in September 2016 in Yazd on the street outside his home in public view were sentenced by a court in Yazd. The two brothers immediately admitted to have been motivated by religious hatred. The older brother was sentenced to just 11 years in prison and two years away from home. The court justified the sentence by stating that according to the Islamic penal code, the accused and the victim are not equal for the general purpose of retributive justice. This astonishing provision clearly and deliberately deprives non-Muslims of the legal right to seek justice on equal-footing with the country's Muslim majority.
The younger man was sentenced to half of his brother’s sentence for aiding in the murder.
||Farhang Amiri; martyr