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Search Chronology for entries about "turkey"

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1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructe them to spread out and heach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46] .
Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid
1845. 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Tehran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russian
1861. 25 Jun Death of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz to the Ottoman throne. He ruled until 1876. [BBR485]
  • Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
Istanbul; Turkey Sultan Abdul-Majid; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Ottoman Empire
1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha
1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
    1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá flees Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
    • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
    • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
    • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople. [ESW167–8; RB1:255]
    • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
    Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey; Iran Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Constantinople at noon. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
    • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and new numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
    • See The Baha’i Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha’i History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge
    Istanbul; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

    • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
    • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]

    News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]

    Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]

    Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]

    • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.

      On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]

    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnavi-i-Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers
    1863. c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body is buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Istanbul; Turkey Sadhijiyyih; Bahallah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Edirne Gate
    1863. 19 Oct Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Bell (Subhánika-Yá-Hú). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
    • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
    Istanbul; Turkey; Egypt Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Declaration of the Bab
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

    • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih
      Buyúk-Chakmachih
      Salvarí
      Birkás
      Bábás
      Bábá-Iskí
      
    • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter
    1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Adrianople. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

    • This is the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reaches and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
    • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lives in during this period.
    • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey; Europe Bahá'u'lláh; Europe
    1864 Mírzá Yahyá makes an attempt on Bahá'u'lláh's life in the public bath see Ch60, BKG227–30, CB82–3, GPB166 and RB2:158–61. Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Attempts on; Public baths
    1864 Apr Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeds Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both are admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH59, BBR487; BKG254] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey; Sulayman Pasha; Sufi; Muhammad Pashay-i-Qibrisi; Governor
    1864. 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] Edirne; Turkey Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum)
    1864. Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He is succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who is not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Pasha; Life of Bahaullah
    1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá invites Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shares a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh is ill for 21 days following this attempt and is left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life. [CH60, BKG225; GPB165]
    • Bahá'u'lláh is attended by a foreign doctor named Shíshmán who dies shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him. [BKG225; GPB166]
    Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Attempts on; Poison; Sacrifice
    1864. c. During time in Adrianople At some point near the end of His life The Báb consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and HIs last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In HIs last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Aií Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these article remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these article Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey
    1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaint to the authorities. They complained that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria with the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
    • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Aqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani
    1864 c. At some point during this period After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name is mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

    Baghdad; Iraq; Edirne; Turkey House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders
    1865. c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
    • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
    • See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
    • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
    • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
    • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
    Edirne; Turkey; Yazd; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic))
    1866. c. Mar 1866 The Most Great Separation. Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166]
    • This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • Bahá'u'lláh directs his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. He becomes very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
    • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
    • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Tahirih; Rida Big; People of Baha; people of the Bayan; Most Great Separation; Firsts, other
    1866 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
    • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
    • This is the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
    Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Tahirih; Rida Big
    1866. Mar Khurshíd Páshá takes up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233] Adrianople; Edirne; Turkey Khurshid Pasha; governor
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]

    • He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
    • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.

    Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]

    • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
    • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1866 10 Mar - c. Mar 1867 Bahá'u'lláh reveals numerous Tablets in the months that follow.

    • See GBP170–1 for a description of the number of verses revealed every day.
    • See BKG245 and GPB171 for list of Tablets revealed before Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in the house of ‘Izzat Áqá.
    • In addressing the Tablets to the Kings and the Queens of the earth Baha'u'lláh addressed them as "Servants of the Most High God and Guardians under Him of the people entrusted to their guidance" and called on them to join with Him in establishing an International Arbitration Council so that humanity should never again suffer the misery of war. His approach was now more direct, He claimed Divine authority and that He was the Chosen One, Whom, under various names, all the religions of the world were awaiting. [CH63]
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; House of Izzat Aqa; Tablets to Kings and rulers; International Arbitration Council
    1867 Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Edirne; Turkey Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1867. c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moves back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
    • He stays for about three months. [GPB168]
    • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Amrullah
    1867. c. Jun Bahá'u'lláh rents the house of ‘Izzat Áqá. [BKG239; GPB168]

    • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; House of Izzat Aqa; Houses
    1867. c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]

    • Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
    • Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]

    • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.

    Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]

    • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III) ; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais; Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 In this period the extent of the Faith is enlarged, with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]

    The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá' supersedes the Islamic salutation and is simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176]

    The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, is discarded and is supplanted by the term ‘the people of Bahá'. [BKG250; GBP176]

    Caucasus; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); People of the Bayan; People of Baha; Allah-u-Abha; Greatest Name
    1967 Sep Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenges Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím, thinking that He will not accept. In the end, it is Mírzá Yahyá who does not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]

    • The incident gains Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
    • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
    Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mir Muhammad; Bahaullah, Life of; Confrontation; Mosques; Challenges
    1868. 26 Jul Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]
    • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
    • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
    • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
    Edirne; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
    • En route they pass through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
    Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrive in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 16 Aug They arrive in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
    • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
    • They remain there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
    • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
    Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
    • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
    • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
    • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touches on Madellí and stops for a few hours. It continues on to Smyrna the same night. [BKG264]
    • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, are sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
    Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles
    1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
    • It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
    • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá can return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá makes arrangements with the local funeral director. They hold a simple funeral and burial takes place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
    • This young and vibrant man arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
    Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868. 23 Aug The steamer leaves Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gains on a morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1876. 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either commits suicide or is assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
    • Bahá'u'lláh predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. RB3:87]
    • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
    • Bahá'u'lláh addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
    • See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
    Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
    Istanbul; Turkey Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad; Suriy-i-Muluk (Tablet to the Kings)
    1876. 31 Aug Deposition of Murád V followed by the accession of `Abdu'l-Hamíd II to the Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire, upon which the banishment decree of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Aziz for Bahá'u'lláh is relaxed. Istanbul; Turkey Murad V; Abdul-Hamid II; Sultan
    1905 A second Commission of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of `Árif Bey, arrives in `Akká further to investigate the charges laid against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB117–25; BBR320 3; CB234–7; GPB269–71]
    • See BBR322 for difficulties in dating this event. All Bahá'í sources indicate that this took place in 1907 but documents in the Ottoman State Archives indicate that it took place in 1905.
    • The Commission returns to Turkey amid political upheavals and its report is put to one side. [AB122–3 ; CB237; GPB271]
    Istanbul; Turkey Commission of Inquiry
    1908 23 Jul The Young Turks issue a declaration demanding the restoration of the old constitution of Midhat Páshá and threatening the overthrow of the government. [AB123] Istanbul; Turkey Young Turks; Midhat Pasha
    1909 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Hamid II is deposed. [BBR486]

    Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had earlier suspended, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.

    Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]

    The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk.

    Istanbul; Turkey Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Caliphate
    1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá’ís begins in Turkey. [BBR474]
    • Several Bahá’ís are arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá’í affairs in Turkey is made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
    Turkey religious persecution
    1928 13 Dec The case arising out of the newspaper persecution of the Bahá’ís of Turkey is brought before a criminal tribunal. [PP316]
    • The Bahá’ís are able to make known the history and tenets of the Faith. [PP316–17; UD78–9]
    Turkey religious persecution
    1932 Nov A number of Bahá’ís are arrested in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
    1932 2 Dec By now there are 15 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
    1933 6 Feb By this date there are about 50 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR475; PP317] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
    1933 End Mar The 50 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Adana are released. [BBR475] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
    1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, are arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
    • The incident receives wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís are eventually released from prison. [MC306]
    • A court case is subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claims that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation follows. [MC306–7]
    Ankara; Turkey religious persecution; LSA
    1959 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Turkey is formed.
    • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC148–51.
    Turkey NSA
    1961 17 Jan Following the arrest of Bahá’ís in Turkey in March 1959 and the subsequent court case, the Turkish court receives the findings of three outstanding religious scholars that the Bahá’í Faith is an independent religion. [MC308]
    • For details of the history of the case see MC306–8..
    Turkey religious persecution
    1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declares the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.
    • The Bahá’ís are ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MC308]
    • The National Spiritual Assembly decides to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies are asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MC308]
    turkey religious persecution; NSA
    1987 Ridván The National Convention of Turkey is held for the first time with the official permission of the Turkish government. Turkey National Convention
    1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors is held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey Women conferences; Bahai conferences; Counsellors
    1992 4 – 5 Apr The first Children's Festival and Family Conference of Turkey is held in Cankaya, Ankara. [BINS269:5–6] Cankaya; Ankara; Turkey Children's Festival and Family Conference
    1996 30 May - 14 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and 150 Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum in Istanbul. [BINS365:5] Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey BIC; UN; NGO
    2009 14 – 15 Feb Regional Conference held in Istanbul, Turkey. [BWNS698] Istanbul; Turkey Regional Conferences
     
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