Search for location "Cyprus"
|1868. 21 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
CH62 says it was a Turkish boat.
There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
See BKG270 for map of the journey.
Towards sunset the same day the steamer touched on Madellí and stoped for a few hours. It continued on to Smyrna the same night where they stayed for two days and left at night. [BKG264; N&N22]
Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
||Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1868. 31 Aug
||The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
Photo of the citadel.
See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
||Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1868. 5 Sep
||The ship that had delivered the exiles to 'Akká carried on and Mírzá Yahyá arrived in Cyprus with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
With their arrival Cyprus became the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
||Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; First Bahais by country or area; Islands
|1868. c. Oct
||Nabíl was released from prison in Egypt and departed for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
He visited Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
||Cairo; Egypt; Akka; Cyprus
|1870. 29 Sep
||Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effected his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306]
|1871. 4 Aug
||Shaykh `Alíy-i-Sayyáh, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, died, allegedly of poisoning. [BBR306, FOI,Forward]
Subsequently Mishkín-Qalam married the widow of Sayyáh. [BBR 306, FOIp24]
||Shaykh Aliy-i-Sayyah; Mishkin-Qalam
|1872. 22 Nov
||Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, died. [BBR306]
He had begun his service to Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and was a member of the entourage that accompanied Him to Constantinople in 1863 and further served in His household in Adrianople. See FOIp9-12 for a brief description of his service.
This left Mishkín-Qalam as the only Bahá'í in Cyprus. [BBR306]
||Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mishkin-Qalam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cyprus exiles
|1878. 12 Jul
||The British government took over the administration of Cyprus. [BBR306]
||History (general); British
|1879. 20 Jun
||Mishkín-Qalam was given permission to move from Famagusta to Nicosia. [BBR307]
||Famagusta; Nicosia; Cyprus
|1880. 15 Aug
||Mishkín-Qalam addressed a petition to the High Commissioner of Cyprus begging to be released from his confinement. [BBR307]
See BBR307–11 for consequences of this.
|1881 24 Mar
||Mírzá Yahyá was granted freedom by the British administration of Cyprus. [BBR311]
He asked for British citizenship or protection so that he might return to Iran or Turkey in safety but was denied so stayed on in Cyprus for the rest of his life with a pension of 1193 pias/month from the British government. [BBR311]
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
|1886. 14 Sep
||Mishkín-Qalam, who had been living in Larnica, left Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311, FOI24]
||Larnica; Cyprus; Akka
|1912 29 Apr
||Mírzá Yahyá died in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
In the late 1950s a meeting that was held in Famagusta at which representatives of all three main generations of Bahá'ís were present including: Jalal Azal representing the followers of Mirza Yahya (Bayanic), `Ismat and others represented the followers of Mirza Muhammad `Ali (Unitarian Baha'is), and Ahmad Sohrab represented those opposed to any form of administration. One of the aims of this conference was to build a mausoleum over the grave of Mirza Yahya. The project came to naught. [Bahá'í Awareness]
- He had been deserted by most of his followers and was given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
- Years later the sons of Mírzá Yahya and their relatives reconciled themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH237-238]
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Cyprus exiles; Births and deaths; Ahmad Sohrab
|1926 30 Nov
||Sir Ronald Storrs (b. 1881 - d. 1955) is appointed Governor of Cyprus (30 Nov 1926 - 29 Oct 1932)
||Ronald Storrs, Sir
||‘Abbás Vakíl arrives in Cyprus and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450]
||Knights of Bahaullah
||Hugh McKinley and his mother, Violet, arrive in Cyprus and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450]
||Knights of Bahaullah; Hugh McKinley
||Samíra Vakíl arrives in Cyprus and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450]
||Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
||The first Bahá’í Winter School in Cyprus was held in Nicosia.
||First summer and winter schools
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Cyprus was formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:190, 348]
|2003 27 Apr
||Bahá'ís from the north and south of Cyprus met when they were permitted to cross the demarcation line that had divided the island for three decades. The event followed the decision by the Turkish Cypriot authorities to lift the ban on travel across the cease-fire line. Some 60 Turkish and Greek Bahá'ís held a devotional meeting together at the Bahá'í center in Nicosia. [BWNS216]
||Nicosia; Cyprus; Turkey; Greece
||History (general); Unity; BWNS
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- Account of the Death of Mirza Yahya Subh-i-Azal, by Alili Ridvan, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. [about]
- Cyprus Exiles, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). History of Mirza Yahya's family and the four followers of Baha'u'llah exiled with them in Cyprus. Includes genealogies. [about]
- Personal Reminiscences of the Babi Insurrection at Zanjan in 1850, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
- References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Baha'i Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
- Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh (Acre, 1890), by Christopher Buck and Youli Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Details of E.G. Browne's handwritten notes about his meeting with Baha'u'llah, his stay in Akka in April 1890, and his correspondence with Russian academics. [about]
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