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1865 French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still know as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith. Between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation . He was the Ambassador from March 1862 until September, 1863. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512] France Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; E. G. Browne; Mirza Yahya; Z****
1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
Germany; France Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
Sedan; France; Germany Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles establishes the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
  • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the `first English believer', and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith', see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259.
Paris; France May Maxwell (Bolles); Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
1899. 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey becomes a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris; France Charles Mason Remey; May Maxwell (Bolles)
1900 26 Nov Agnes Alexander accepts the Faith in Rome after hearing the message from Mrs Dixon. She stays in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travels to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. She leaves Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. [BFA1p159] Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles)
1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learns of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he becomes a believer and immediately writes to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
1901 Hippolyte Dreyfus hears of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepts it. [AB81–2]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
  • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney he adopts the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; May Maxwell (Bolles); Laura Clifford Barney
1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell dies from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appears to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designates him one of three `luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam
1905 -1906 The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]

Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.

“To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]

In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]

The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications
1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb, His movement and His teachings. The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation. William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Baha’i Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.] Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; William Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications
1907 Lady Blomfield and her daughter Mary learn of the Faith at a reception in Paris. [CH1–2; ER95; SBR22; SEBW101, SCU17]
  • For accounts of Lady Blomfield's life see ER88–97 and SEBW101–10.
Paris; France Lady Blomfield; Mary Blomfield
1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departs from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol2 no.10 (8 September, 1911) p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Maqiof,. [AY11; ABF295note684]
Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1911 16 Aug After four and half days of travel over 2500 kilometres L'Orénoque arrived in Marseille, France's major port on the Mediterranean. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was met by Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney who had recently married (28 April). He and his wife would be 'Abdu'l-Bahá's constant companions in France and would later be in His company in England and the eastern United States. They had already met 'Abdu'l-Baha in Palestine and Laura stayed there between 1904 and 1906. [ABF8]
  • He stayed at the Hôtel Louvre de la Paix at 53, la Canebière (today a C&A department store). [ABF9]
Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Orenoque; Ships
1911 18 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá had an exchange of telegrams with Wellesley Tudor Pole from the Theosophical Summer School in Derbyshire, England where he had just presented a lecture on the Bahá'í Faith. [ABF9-10, SoW Vol 2 no10 p.7] Marseille; France; Derbyshire; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Theosophical Society
1911 19 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a telegram to Charles Mason Remey in America inviting him to join HIm in Europe. [SoW vol2 no.12 (16 October 1911) p9, ABF10] Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Charles Mason Remey
1911 20 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party left Marseille and traveled by train to Geneva, arriving late in the day and checking into the Hôtel de la Paix. Marseille; France; Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911. 21 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry from Geneva to Thonon-les-Bains and were met by Laura Dreyfus-Barney. They stayed at the Hôtel du Parc. He wrote to His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum. It was she that He had placed in charge of the affairs of the Faith in His absence. [ABF12-13, LTDT172-173]
  • About this time He also wrote to His wife, Munírih Khánum. [ABF14]
Geneva; Switzerland; Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum; Munirih Khanum
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1911 22 Aug The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him. [DJT157, ABF14-15] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Juliet Thompson
1911 23 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
  • Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17]
  • Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18]
Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19]
London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains, France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911. 25 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning with Juliet Thompson, part of the afternoon with Bahrám Mírzá and then visited the Gorges du Pont du Diable on the Dranse river at Le Jotty some 15km south of Thonon-les-Bains. He travelled by automobile and was accompanied by Juliet and the Dreyfus-Barneys. [ABF27-28, DJT174-178]
  • See Images of the Gorges du Pont du Diable.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Juliet discussed dreams. He instructed her to write down her dream and said dreams were of three types: (1) those caused by some bodily disorder, (2) symbolic dreams and (3) dreams in which future events are clearly foretold. [ABF32]
Thonon-les-Bains, Le Jotty; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Gorges du Pont du Diable; dreams
1911. 26 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to those gathered at the hotel on the theme of unity. Present was Annie Boylan, a New York believer who had made the journey to present her case against another New Yorker, Howard MacNutt whom she believed was unfit to serve the Cause. [ABF31-33, DJT180-184] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Howard MacNutt; Annie Boylan
1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14]
Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Harnill Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
1911 28 Aug In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
  • As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]

Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]

Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
1911 29 Aug Horace Holley and his wife Bertha arrived from Italy with their baby daughter Hertha. They stayed two days. He describes their experience in A Pilgrimage to Thonon published in 1911. [ABF49-51] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Horace Holley
1911 30 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning in Thonon-les-Bain and took the ferry to Geneva after dinner. He stayed at the Hôtel de la Paix located at 11, Quai du Mont-Blanc. [ABF5154, DJT208] Thonon-les-Bains; France; Geneva; Switzerland Horace Holley; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
  • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
  • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
  • He remains in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
  • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
1911 4 Oct It is quite probable that 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed with Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney at 15, rue Greuze for a couple of nights before moving to the apartment at 4, avenue de Camoēns which had been prepared for Him by them. The apartment was in a building that was relatively new having been built in 1910. It was one block away from the Trocadéro Gardens and the Eiffel Tower stood just across the River Seine. It had a drawing room that could easily accommodate 75-100 people and came with a French maid who performed the domestic functions and who answered the bell. The apartment was purchase by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of France in 1996. [ABF62, 65, 68-71, 85 Sur les pas de 'Abdu'l-Bahá à Paris by Paul Hakim, SoW Vol 2 No 14 p3-4]
  • Some members of His entourage stayed at the Grand Hötel de Passy (now Hötel Passy-Eiffel) some ten minutes walk away. [ABF84]
Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Avenue de Camoens
1911 5 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at 46, avenue de Malakoff (today avenue Raymond Poincaré) at the home of Edith Sanderson and her mother Margaret Sanderson. [ABF62] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Edith Sanderson
1911 6 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá invited a number of Persian students then in Paris to His apartment. [ABF63-65] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 14 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney. This was the first of His Parisian talks which were published. [ABF68] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Paris Talks (book)
1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation to the book. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46, ABF71-76]

In the afternoon all were invited to meet Him at #22 rue Ledru- Rollin pré-Saint-Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. The purpose was to visit a project run by Mons. V. Ponsonaille and his wife to provide some comfort to the poor children in an underprividged quarter of the city. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.[ABF76-79]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Kitab-i-Nuqtatul-Kaf; Criticism and apologetics; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih
1911 16 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk before a group of English Bahá'ís which was given the title "The Duty of Kindness and Sympathy towards Strangers and Foreigners". [PT15-17]

In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. [ABF79-82]

Paris, France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 17 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in HIs apartment about doing the will of God and not just speaking about it. [SoW Vol 2 no 16]

In the afternoon He met again with some students and others at the Hôtel de Passy. [ABF84-85]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 18 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk entitled, "The Power and Value of True Thought Depend upon Its Manifestation in Action". [PT17-19, ABF85-87, SoW Vol 2 no 16 p3-4] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 19 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of healing. "God is the Great Compassionate Physician Who Alone Gives True Healing". [PT19-21, ABF87-89] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 20 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of the relationship between East and West, "The Need for Union Between the Peoples of the East and West". [PT21-22,ABF89-90]

The evening talk was given at the Dreyfus-Barney home. "God Comprehends all: He Cannot be Comprehended". [PT23-27, ABF9295]

The talk, "The Sun of Truth", shown as being given on the 22nd of October, was perhaps delivered this day. [PT20-33, ABF100-102]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.

His talk, "The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace". [ABF96-100 PT28-30]

Paris; France; Benghazi; Lybia; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace
1911 23 Oct In the morning He gave a talk, "The Light of Truth is now Shining Upon the East and West". [PT33-35, ABF103-104] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 24 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk, "The Universal Love". [PT3539, ABF104-108] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 25 Oct In the morning He spoke of His imprisonment. "The Imprisonment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá". [PT39-41, ABF108-109] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 26 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment. "God's Greatest Gift to Man". [PT41-43]

A different version of the same talk was recorded by Mary Hanford Ford. [ABF111-112]

In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá was driven to 59, avenue de La Bourdonnais by Hippolyte Dreyfus where He spoke at the Société théosophique of Paris. This talk was reported in a number of French newspapers and was published in Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris p117-124. [ABF1113-118]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 27 Oct In the afternoon 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment on the relation between God and man entitled, "The Clouds that Obscure the Sun of Truth". [ABF1118-119, PT43-45]

A second talk was given at His apartment, "The Benefits of God to Man. [ABF120-121, PT49-51].

In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. He spoke about how religious leaders have mislead their congregations into denying the divinity of other Manifestations. "Religious Prejudices" [ABF121-124, PT45-49]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 28 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk at His apartment was on the theme that God was the creator of all existence and therefore all men are as brothers. It was named, "Beauty and Harmony in Diversity". [ABF125-126, PT51-54] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 29 Oct The title for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk was "Worldly riches do not help Spirit". [ABF133, SoW vol 2 no 16 p4-5]

'Abdu'l-Bahá was invited to dinner at 29, rue Brézin, the home of Madeleine Jenny Sacy, the widow of French Baha'i Gabriel Sacy (1858-1903). He had known Sacy in Egypt where he died unexpectedly. Sacy had been a Syrian Christian who, upon becoming a Baha'i had a remarkable faculty for interpreting the prophecies of the Old and New Testaments.

That same day He spoke at the the home of the sister of Hippolyte Dreyfus, Yvonne and Paul Mayer May at 21, boulevard Beauséjour. [ABF135]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 30 Oct His morning talk was titled "The True Meaning of the Prophecies Concerning the Coming of Christ". [ABF136-139, PT54-57] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 31 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at His apartment on the theme of The Holy Spirit, the Intermediary Power between God and Man". [ABF139-141, PT57-59] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 1 Nov His talk this day, the Feast of All Saints, was "The Two Natures in Man". [ABF143-144, PT60-62] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 2 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk in His apartment concerned "Material and Spiritual Progress". [ABF146-149, PT62-64] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 3 Nov The morning talk in His apartment was on "The Evolution of Matter and Development of the Soul". [ABF149-151, PT64-67]

The Persian students who had been frequent visitors paid one last visit before departing for their place of study.

In the evening He spoke at the Drefus-Barney home on the evolution of matter and the development of the soul. [ABF152]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 4 Nov In the morning at His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Spiritual Meetings in Paris. [PT67-68, ABF152-153] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 5 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivered an address entitled "The Two Kinds of Light". [ABF155-156, PT68-70] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 6 Nov This morning's talk at His apartment was "Spiritual Aspiration in the West". [ABF161-163, PT70-72]

In the evening He spoke at the studio of Edwin and Josephine Scott at 17, rue Boissonade, American artists living in Paris. The lecture has been called "Lecture Given at a Studio in Paris". [ABF163-165, PT72-74] Another version of the lecture, this time entitled, "Aims and Ambitions of Bahaies: Spoken by Abdul Baha in Paris, November 6th, 1911" was published in Star of the West. [SoW vol 2 no 19 p3]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 7 Nov His morning talk was on "Bahá’u’lláh". [ABF165-169, PT75-79] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 8 Nov His morning talk at His apartment was "Good Ideas Must Be Carried into Action". [ABF169-170, PT79-81] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 9 Nov The morning talk at 4, avenue de Camoëns was on "The True Meaning of Baptism by Water and Fire". [ABF171-172, PT81-83]

In the afternoon He was invited to speak to the Alliance Spiritualiste at Salle de l'Athénée, 21, rue du Vieux-Colombier. "The True Meaning of Baptism by Water and Fire" was the title given to His talk. The meeting was attended by about 40 people. Spiritualism was a religion found in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emmanuel Swedenborg (1699-1772). [PT83-88]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 10 Nov In the morning He gave a talk at His apartment on the search after truth. [ABF180-181, Sow Vol 3 no1 p3-4]

`Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk later entitled "The Evolution of the Spirit" at 15 Rue Greuze, Paris, the home of the Dreyfus-Barneys. [Paris Talks p88-94]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseille by train arriving late in the day. Little is known about His stay in that city save for one talk. [ABF246]
  • See ABF256-260 for some of the places that 'Abdu'l-Baha visited while in Paris for which the visits are undated. Included in the list is His visit to the the Senat of the French Republic [PUP72].
  • There are also a number of undated talks and fragments of talks the have been published in a variety of sources. [ABF261-264]
  • See ABF264-268 for a list of persons with whom 'Abdu'l-Bahá had undocumented visits.
Paris; Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Z****
1911 6 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on materialism at a meeting of theosophist, possible at 25, boulevard Baille. For the text of this talk see ABF247-254. Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Z****
1911 7 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed Marseille for Egypt on board Le Portugal. It travelled to Beirut via Alexandria and Port Said and reached Alexandria on the 12th of December. [ABF255-256; AB167; GPB280; SBR25] Marseille; France; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Z****
1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at which E. G. Browne is present. He visits `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]

Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrives in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]

London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB371]
  • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913. 23 Jan After His morning talk He visited had lunch with Natalie Clifford Barney, the sister of Laura Dreyfus Barney and the daughter of Alice Pike Barney, probably at her salon at 20, rue Jacob.

On this day, or perhaps the next, the famous French philosopher and writer, Henri Bergson. (Nobel prize for literature 1928). He was a professor at the College de France. 'Abdu'l-Bahá impressed him with His simple proof for the existence of God. [ABF302-304, Bahá'íes de France]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Natalie Clifford Barney; Henri Bergson; Z****
1913 6 Feb `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Versailles. [AB376] Paris; Versailles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in the Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Khazeh Fananapazir site.
  • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Henri Monnier, Pasteur
1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá travels from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
  • He tells His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
  • He does not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Stuttgart and returns to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 12 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]

In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.

3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days          
 21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days          
       1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days          
                      Total   171 days          
Paris; Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1913 13 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Marseilles on the S. S. Himalaya for Port Said. [AB395]
  • He sends a telegram to Haifa instructing the many pilgrims awaiting his return to come to Port Said. Because of the great numbers who come, there isn't sufficient hotel accommodations and a large tent is erected on the roof in which to hold meetings. SoW Vol 4 No 7 p121.
Marseille; France; Port Said; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; S. S. Himalaya; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrims; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1914 'Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to expel Tammaddun'ul-Mulk for corrupt behaviour. He was from Shiraz and had been living in Paris for several years. He had been part of His entourage in 1911. [ABF19] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran; Paris; France Tammaddunul-Mulk
1919 28 Jun The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169] Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:

"To ....President...Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]

Versailles; France Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general)
1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa to take up his studies at Balliol College in Oxford. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
  • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College
1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Paris. [UD84–5]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
1939 Feb A.L.M. Nicolas, the French consular official and Orientalist who made a study of the Bábí Faith, passes away in Paris.
  • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; Babi studies; Bahai studies
1939 28 Feb The passing of Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas, signing A.-L.-M. Nicolas, (b. March 27 , 1864 in Rasht, Iran) in Paris. He was an historian and French orientalist, official interpreter of the Legation French abroad, and France's consul general in Tabriz.
After reading Gobineau's Trois ans en Asie, 1855-1858 he checked all the information Gobineau had written in his book, corrected some of it, and then began to translate the writings of the Báb . Seduced by this young doctrine, he converted to Bábism and thus became the first Western Bábí. He wrote various works Seyyed Ali Mohamed dit le Báb (1905) and was the first to translate a work of the Báb into French: the Arabic Beyan and the Persian Beyan, an Essai sur le Chéikhisme (1911) and several articles in newspapers such that Review of the Muslim World. Nicolas became knight of the Legion of Honour in 1909.
  • Moojan Momen says of him, "No European scholar has contributed so much to our kowledge of the life and teachings of the Báb as Nicholas. His study of the life of the Báb and his translations of several of the most important books of the Báb remain of unsurpassed value." [BBR36]
Rasht; Iran; Paris; France Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas; A.-L.-M. Nicolas; In Memoriam
1939 3 Sep World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave St Malo, France, for England one day before the city is occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seems acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80] St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • She is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
Reunion; France Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrives on Réunion Island from the United States and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He is later declared a Covenant-breaker.
Reunion; France Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
1955 8–15 Feb The first people to become Bahá’ís in Réunion, Paul and Françoise Tayllamin (8 Feb) and Jean Donat and Julien Araye (15 Feb), enrol. Reunion; France First Bahais by country or area
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Réunion is formed. Reunion; France LSA
1958 26 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of France is formed.
  • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
France NSA
1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
BWC; Haifa; France NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
BWC; Haifa; France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1971 The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, to become Bahá’ís in France enrol at a campsite near Le Bourget airport. France First believers by background
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion is formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
St Pierre; Reunion; France NSA
1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296] Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Z****
1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference is held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique is formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
Fort-de-France NSA
1990 The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
Chamonix; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1993 In the year EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique is held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth

from the main catalogue

  1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
  2. 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Baha in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  3. Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937, An: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1958). [about]
  4. Divine Simplicity: Remembering the last Hand of the Cause of God, 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa, by Jack McLean (2008). Biography of Dr. Varqa, partly based on interviews with people who knew him in Iran. [about]
  5. Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
  6. Glimpse of Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Alice R. Beede, in Star of the West, 2:18 (1912). Short account of a brief meeting in Paris, and brief speech by Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  7. Inayat Khan's meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Inayat Khan (1913). One-paragraph recounting of Khan, the founder of "Universal Sufism," meeting with Abdu'l-Baha in 1913. [about]
  8. Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
  9. Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). A lengthy early account of Babi history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
  10. Mayflowers in the Ville Lumière: The Dawning of Bahá'í History in the European Continent, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). In intellectual and artistic Paris of the fin de siècle, a young American becomes the catalyst for the spiritual awakening of a group of early believers. The paper examines the mysterious ways through which they came to recognize the dawn of the new era. [about]
  11. Paris Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1972). [about]
  12. Questions and Answers 1950-51, by Mirra Alfassa (1951). The Mother's recollections of Abdu'l-Baha speaking to her about sacrifice and suffering. [about]
  13. Sabiduria de 'Abdu'l-Bahá, La, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1996). Spanish translation of Paris Talks. [about]
  14. Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
  15. Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
  16. Wisdom and Wit of Roger White, The: Two Reviews, by Marzieh Gail and Hilda Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). Reviews of White's books One Bird One Cage One Flight and A Sudden Music. [about]
  17. Words of Long Ago, by Mirra Alfassa (1912). Transcript of a talk The Mother delivered to some Baha'is in Paris in 1912 by request of Abdu'l-Baha; reflections inspired by the departure of Abdu'l-Baha from Paris in June 1913. [about]
 
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