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1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
  • Germany; France Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
    1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
  • Sedan; France; Germany; England Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
    1877. 26 Sep Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Furth; Bavaria; Germany Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1883. 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1905 (In the year) A Bahá'í group was established in Germany soon after the arrival of the first Bahá'í in the country, Dr. Edwin Fischer, in Stuttgart. He was dentist and a returned emigrant to the United States. German-born Alma Knobloch also became a Bahá'í in the United States 1903, before Fischer, but arrived in Germany in 1907. [BBRSM:107, 219; BWNS390] Stuttgart; Germany Edwin Fischer; Alma Knobloch; First Bahais by country or area
    1909 (In the year) Karl Kruttner, a professor in Bohemia, became a Bahá'í, the first person to do so in the Austro-Hungarian empire. Bohemia; Germany Karl Kruttner; find reference find reference
    1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
    • He told His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
    • He did not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
    • The party arrived on the 1st of April and took rooms in Hotel Marquardt, near the train station. Then He asked His attendant to telephone the Bahá'ís to announce His arrival and invite them to the hotel. [AB379-380]
    Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 3 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a large audience in the City Museum. The talk was translated into English by Ahmad Sohrab and then rendered into German by Herr Eckstein. [AB380-382] Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour;
    1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
    • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
    Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
    1913 8 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to Stuttgart, then left in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there were no resident believers. [ABM316]
    • The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'i Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá was accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
    Stuttgart; Germany; Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Wilhelm Herrigel
    1913 24 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Vienna and returns to Stuttgart, where He arrives in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389] Vienna; Austria; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Stuttgart and returns to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1914 4 Aug England declares war on Germany. United Kingdom; Germany; Europe World War I; War (general); History (general)
    1919 22 Feb The "Self-Publishing of the Bahá'í Association" was replaced by the establishment of the "Publishing House of the German Bahá'í Federation GmbH". This publishing house was founded by eighteen Bahá'ís with a share capital of 25,000 marks. [German Bahá'í website archive] Germany Publishing Trusts
    1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accepted the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
    • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
    • Dr Grossman heard of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
    Leipzig; Germany Herman Grossmann; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahais by country or area
    1921 Mar Two Bahá'í publications began, Sonne der Wahrheit, meaning Sun of Truth, and Wirklichkeit, meaning Reality. [BWNS1289; German Bahá'í website archive] Germany Sonne der Wahrheit (Sun of Truth); Wirklichkeit (Reality); - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

    To the United States and Canada he sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

    Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
    1923 Apr National Spiritual Assemblies are elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
    • The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly is by postal ballot. [ER228]
    • For membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
    • See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
    British Isles; United Kingdom; India; Germany NSA
    1925 Of the 38 localities where Bahá'ís reside in Europe, 26 are in Germany. [BBRSM182] Europe; Germany Statistics
    1931 The first German Bahá’í summer school is held, at Esslingen. [BBRSM182; BW5:44]
    • UD98 and BW5p30 put this date as 1932.
    Esslingen; Germany Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

    He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

    Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University at Beirut; Varqa
    1939 3 Sep World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1944 2 May The German government held a public trial of some of the jailed Bahá'í leaders in Darmstadt. Dr. Hermann Grossmann was allowed to testify as a witness for the defense about the non-political nature of the Bahá'í Faith and the attitude of the trial had been pre-ordained. The government found the Bahá'ís guilty, levied large fines and banned all Bahá'í institutions ordering that they be immediately disbanded. [Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Darmstadt; Germany Persecution, Germany; Hermann Grossmann; Z****
    1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtain permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
    A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Baha'is sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
    Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer; Z****
    1946 21 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria is re-established. [BBRSM185]
    • It is elected for the first time since 1937.
    • Three American soldiers are members. [BBRSM185]
    Germany; Austria; NSA Germany and Austria
    1948 The Germano-Austrian teaching plan (1948–53), comprising internal goals only, is launched. [BBRSM158] Germany; Austria Teaching Plans
    1948 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Germany and Austria launch a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] Germany; Austria Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1953 19 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]
    • For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
    Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passes away in Stuttgart.
    • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Stuttgart; Germany Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi calls for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125] BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 25–29 Jul The fourth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
    • Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
    Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1960 20 Nov The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship is laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
    • See also MC14–15, 236.
    Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amelia Collins
    1962 16 Nov The superstructure of the European House of Worship near Frankfurt is completed and the Temple is turned over to the Bahá’ís by the contractor. [BW13:737; MC15] Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain
    1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, is dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
    • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
    • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
    • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
    Quick Facts
    Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
    Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
    Construction Period: 1960-1964
    Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
    Architect Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
    Seating: 450 – 600
    Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
    Cost:
    Dependencies: A home for the aged.
    Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
    References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
    Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1967 5 – 10 Oct Six Intercontinental Conferences are held simultaneously in Panama City, Wilmette, Sydney, Kampala, Frankfurt and New Delhi to celebrate the centenary of the proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh to the kings and rulers of the world in September/October of 1867. [BW 14:221]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice to the conferences see BW14:221–2.
    • For descriptions of each conference see BW14:223–58.
    • The six Hands of the Cause representing the Universal House of Justice at the conferences travelled to Adrianople to visit the House of Bahá’u’lláh before dispersing to the conferences. [BW14:236, 458; VV2]
    Panama; Wilmette; US; Sydney; Australia; Kampala; Uganda; Frankfurt; Germany; New Delhi; India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Intercontinental; Tablets to Kings and rulers; Centenaries
    1968 7 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent of Hands of the Cause on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
    • For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
    Neckargemund; Germany In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
    1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences are held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
    1981 1 Jan The publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ism-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany. This book was distributed by the Protestant Church and became the most widespread book on the Bahá'í Faith in German, and as such was widely accepted as a critical academic publication. At the time of its distribution a decision was taken to not dignify the publication with a rebuttal. This proved to be an error. Making the Crooked Straight was published in 1995 in German and translated/published by George Ronald Publishers in 2000. The purpose of the book, as the name suggests, was to address the distorted views presented in Ficicchia's publication. [MCSintroduction] Germany Opposition; Criticism and apologetics; Making the Crooked Straight (book); Bahai Scholarship; A.L.M. Nicolas; E. G. Browne; Baron Viktor Rosen; Aleksandr Tumanski; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani; Alfred von Kremer
    1984 28 Feb The passing of Renée Szanto-Felbermann (b 21 June, 1900, d. 28 February, 1984) in Freiburg, Germany. She is considered the first to declare her faith in Hungary. [BW19p633] Freiburg; Germany; Hungary First Bahais by country or area; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1987 Nov Representatives of 17 national spiritual assemblies in Europe and North America, together with senior representatives of the Offices of the Bahá’í International Community, meet in Germany to discuss their external affairs. [AWH56; VV105] Germany external affairs
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gather for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2] Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan West Berlin Bahá’í communities are joined by 26 Bahá’ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
    • More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá’í materials are distributed at four major border check-points in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
    Berlin; Germany Promise of World Peace (statement); Teaching
    1990 The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
    • ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
    Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws
    1990 With the approval of the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'í administrative institutions of the eastern and western parts of Germany are re-united. [BINS230:2] Germany East; West; united
    1991 The Constitution Court of the Federal Republic of Germany decided "that the nature of the Bahá’í Faith as a religion and the religious nature of the Bahá’í community is unequivocal from the point of view of cultural traditions and general and religious studies interpretation alike”. [[www.bahai.hu]] Germany Recognition
    1991 Ridván The Bahá'ís of East and West Germany were united at their 61st convention for the first time after the war. [VV113] Germany Conventions, National
    1992 7 Mar The first local spiritual assembly in Eastern Germany was formed in Erfurt. [BINS267:3] Erfurt; Germany LSA
    1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Leipzig, Germany, is re-formed 56 years after its dissolution during the time the Faith was banned. [BW93–4:82] Leipzig; Germany LSA; Re-form
    1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    2007 7 Apr A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 has been restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Baha'i community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524] Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Monuments; Opposition; BWNS
    2009 7 – 8 Feb Regional Conferences held in Frankfurt, Germany and Padua, Italy. [Padua, Frankfurt] Frankfurt; Germany; Padua; Italy Regional Conferences
    2010 27 Apr The passing of Dr Nossrat Peseschkian (b. 18 June, 1933 in Iran d. 27 April, 2010 in Wiesbaden, Germany). He came to Germany in 1954 for his studies in medicine at the universities of Freiburg, Frankfurt am Main and Mainz. After his medical specialization and his dissertation, he had his postgraduate training in psychotherapy in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the United States. Prof. Peseschkian was the founder and leading figure in the growth and development of Positive Psychotherapy for almost 40 years. As an international lecturer, he had traveled to 67 countries worldwide. A global network of over 100 local, regional and national centers of Positive Psychotherapy has been established in 33 countries to date. Among his works is the book "Oriental Stories as Tools in Psychotherapy: The Merchant and the Parrot", which includes short stories from Persia and other countries that can be used in psychotherapy. [Wikipedia] Wiesbaden; Germany Nossrat Peseschkian; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Psychology; Stories; Persian literature
    2012 20 Feb The passing of Anneliese Bopp, former Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre at Bad Bruckenau, Northern Bavaria, Germany. [BWNS892] Bad Bruckenau; Germany Anneliese Bopp; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; International Teaching Centre; BWNS
    2017. 17 Dec The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the passing of former House member Mr. Hartmut Grossmann.

    "...he poured out his life in uninterrupted service to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, as a teacher, pioneer, and member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Germany (1963-1969) and Finland (1977-1980), the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe, (1980-1988) the International Teaching Centre (1988-2003) and, ultimately, of the Universal House of Justice (2003-2008)." [BWNS1228]

    He was the son of Hand of the Cause of God Hermann Grossmann (1899-1968). He was predeceased by his wife Ursula. [BWNS622; Bahá'í Chronicles]

    Germany Hartmut Grossmann; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS

    from the main catalogue

    1. Alleged Pro-German activities: Edward C. Getsinger, Case #317323, by Federal Bureau of Investigation (1918). Forty pages of FBI files investigating Edward C. Getsinger and possible Baha'i opposition to the war, or alleged pro-German sentiment. Includes Edward and Lua Getsinger's passport applications. [about]
    2. Bahá'í Faith in England and Germany, 1900-1913, by Robert Stockman, in World Order (1996). Historical overview of the early years of the Faith in the British Isles and Germany. [about]
    3. Baha'i House of Worship in Europe, The, by Massrouri M. and et al. (2005). Brochure about the history and architectural design, with photos, of the Baha'i Temple in Hofheim am Taunus, Germany. [about]
    4. English Translation of German Letters Published in The Light of Divine Guidance, by Shoghi Effendi (2013). Two letters originally written in German with brief mentions of cremation and Esperanto, and a personal letter to Baha'is in Esslingen. [about]
    5. Europe, Eastern, and the Soviet Union, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.1 (1993). [about]
    6. European Bahá'í Archives Workshop (2001). Essays and handouts from a workshop on preservation of source material. Includes forms for archivists, historians, local and national assemblies, archiving methods, oral history guidelines, organizational schemes, and compilations from the Writings. [about]
    7. Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
    8. Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
    9. Light of Divine Guidance: Volume 1, by Shoghi Effendi (1982). [about]
    10. Light of Divine Guidance: Volume 2, by Shoghi Effendi (1985). [about]
    11. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    12. Schopflocher, Siegfried, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). Short biography of a prominent Baha''i from a German-Jewish background who served as a Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
    13. Schopflocher, Siegfried, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the Canadian Bahá’í of German-Jewish background named by Shoghi Effendi a Hand of the Cause of God in 1952. [about]
     
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