||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
||Manúchihr Khán is appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167]
||Manuchihr Khan; Governors
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
- After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
- See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
|Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructs them to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
|Iran; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
|1846. c. Feb - Mar 1846
||The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of
||The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Prayer; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali
|1846 23 – 24 Sep
||The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
- TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
- B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
|Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia
|1846 Sep - Oct
||On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
- See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
- It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
|Isfahan; Iran; Persia
||Bab; Manuchihr Khan; governor-generals; Siyyid Muhammad; Imam-Jumih
|1847. Feb - Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
- Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
|1847. c. May
||Birth of Fátimih (Munírih) Khánum, wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Isfahán.
- See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
- See CH84 for her account of a dream she had as a young child.
- She was first cousin to the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. [CH86]
||Munirih Khanum; Abdul-Baha, Family of
||Upheaval at Najafábád
- Several hundred Bahá'ís are arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He is dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners are executed, 18 are sent to Tihrán and the remainder are sent back to Najafábád where they are severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán are put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these are beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
|Najafabad; Isfahan; Tihran; Iran
||Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
|1872. c. 1872
||Bahá'u'lláh tasks Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She travels from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stays with the wife of the Báb then to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she travels to `Akká. [MKBM]
- DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872.
- BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
- See CH75–79 (Visit to Shíráz) and CH80-90 (Her journey and subsequent marriage) for Munírih Khánum's own account.
|Isfahan; Iran; Shiraz; Mecca; Akka
||Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the Wolf, has 20 or more Bahá'ís arrested in Isfahán. [BW18:383]
||Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
|1874. 8 May
||The arrival of the eldest son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, Zillu's-Sultán, arrives in Isfahán as governor. [BBR269]
Within a few days of the arrival of Zillu's-Sultán in Isfahán, a general persecution of Bahá'ís begins. [BBRXXXIX, 269–70]
- This can be traced to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the `Wolf'. [BBR270]
- See SDH104 for comment by Bahá'u'lláh on a challenge made by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir.
- For Western reports of this outburst see BBR270–3.
||Sultan-Masud Mirza; Governors; Zillus-Sultan; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
||The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís are imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383]
||Mullá Kázim-i-Tálkhunchi'í is executed in Isfahán. [BBR273–4; BW18:383]
|1879. 17 Mar
||The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
- Their martyrdom is instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owes the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
- Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
- The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
- For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
- See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
- See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs ; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan
|1882 In the year
||Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá is arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he is imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383]
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
||Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]
Four Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
|Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1888. 23 Oct
||The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He is hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body is buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201]
||Mirza Ashraf of Abadih
||Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiates a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383]
||Isfahan; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran
||Son of the Wolf
|1889. 17 Jul
||Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drives over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They take sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
- See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
|Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan
|1889. 18 Jul
||The Bahá'ís are persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they will receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383]
||Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
- See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
- See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
- The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
- For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–85.
|Rasht; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Rasht upheaval; Isfahan upheaval; Upheavals; Russian consulate
|1903 28 May
||A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Russian consulate; Persecution, Mobs
||At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí writes Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD.
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
||The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD
by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and
translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917.
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Publications
|1909 8 Nov
||Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, is shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
- BRXXX and BW18:387 say this occurred on 5 November.
- For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
||The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
- For Western responses see BBR437-9.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
|1933 23 Oct
||Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
- For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
- She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
- For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
- Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
- Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
- For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
- See also PP306–7.
- See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
||Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
|1955 16 May
||The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:390]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
|1997 4 Jul
||Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1999 19 Apr
||The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
- It is reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
||Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human Rights; Education
|2008 27 Sep
||The destruction of some 2,500 trees and an irrigation system in the Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid (Eternal Garden). Damage was also done to a building on the site and traffic and other directional signs were pulled up. [Iran Press Watch]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves