||`Abdu'lláh Páshá becomes the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians take `Akká he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverts to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt
||Abdullah Pasha; Governors
|1831 – 40
||Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
- 'Abdu'lláh Páshá is the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrenders and is taken to Egypt. He is freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
|Akka; Israel; Egypt; Turkey
||History (general); Abdullah Pasha
||The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202]
||Akka; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom
||Edict of Toleration The relaxation of the order for the exclusion of the Jews from the Holy Land. GPB iv Luke 21:24
||Edict of Toleration; Jews; Judaism; Bible; History (general)
|1868. 29 Aug
||In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268]
||Port Said; Jaffa; Israel
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
|1868. 30 Aug
||The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168]
||Jaffa; Haifa; Israel
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
|1868. 31 Aug
||The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
- Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
- One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
- See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
- See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
- See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
- See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
- DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
- See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
- See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
- See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
- See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
- The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
- Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
- Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
- Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
- See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
- See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
- At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
- The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
- After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
|Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Petro. Dr; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other
|1868. 3 Sep
||The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
- See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowerw of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
- See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
- See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
- The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
- From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
||Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but fails to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116]
||Jerusalem; Israel; Hungary
||Franz Josef; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers
|1914 1 Nov
||Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.
- Palestine is blockaded and Haifa is bombarded. [GPB304]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá sends the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304]
- For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
- See CH209–10 for other villages inhabited by Bahá'ís.
|Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa
||World War I; Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; British; Charity and relief work; History (General)
||The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká return to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147]
||Haifa; Akka; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel
||Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Charity and relief work
|1917. 2 Nov
||The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.
Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.
The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’.
In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust.
||Balfour Declaration; Jews; Judaism; History (general); United Kingdom
|1918 Sep 23
||The 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army which took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day.
"During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Baha faced repeated threats against His life by authorities that were antagonistic toward Him and the Baha’is. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Baha if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of this threat and through her contacts in Cabinet the British Army were instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]
|Mount Carmel; Israel
||Wars; Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS
|1920 (in the year)
||The British Mandate for Palestine begins. [BBR488]
- For `Abdu'l-Bahá's attitude to the administration see BBR339.
- For British accounts of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'ís in this period see BBR339-43 and CH225-8.
- For details see SA140-3.
||Britain; History (general); Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1920 27 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá is invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
- For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
- The knighthood is in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
- He accepts the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
- He does not use the title. [AB443]
- For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
|Haifa; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel
||Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Abdul-Baha, Life of; World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Lady Blomfield
|1930 7 Oct
||Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157]
||Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
|1948 20 Mar
||The marriage of Gladys Andersen to Ben Weeden takes place in Jerusalem under the auspices of the Spiritual Assembly of Amman. They make efforts to have their marriage recognized at the American Consulate and at the offices of the British Mandate but are unable to do so considering the shifting situation. After the end of the British Mandate they take the matter up with the new state of Israel and it is handled expeditiously thus obtaining full recognition of the Faith and its right to perform marriages. [SETPE1p341]
|1948 14 May
||The British Mandate in Palestine ends and the state of Israel is proclaimed.
||Britain; History (general)
|1949 21 Jan
||Shoghi Effendi has a private interview with Prime Minister Ben Gurion of Israel. [GBF136; PP174–5, 289]
||Shoghi Effendi; Ben Gurion
|1950 15 Dec
||The Guardian appeals directly to Israel’s Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to recognize the interest of the Bahá’í community in the property known as Mazra‘ih as a holy place. After a protracted struggle to obtain ownership of the property, then a Moslem religious endowment, he leases the site from the Department of Moslem and Druze affairs in the Ministry of Religions. [DH93, GBF137, PP290, CB331, MBW7, Bahá'í News, no. 244, June 1951, p. 4]
||Mazraih; Akka; Israel
||House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); David Ben-Gurion
|1952 12 Nov
||The government of Israel exchanges 145,000 square metres of land surrounding Bahjí for property at Ein Gev on the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee belonging to the descendants of Bahá’u’lláh’s brother Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and given to the Faith for this purpose. [DH118, 208; PP233, SETPE1p134-125, MBW454-46]
- Bahá’í holdings at Bahjí up to now amount to only 4,000 square metres.
||Bahji; Mirza Muhammad-Quli
|1953 20 Nov
||The formation of the Israel Branch of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
||Israel Branch of the Bahais of Canada
|1953 13 Dec
||A separate department for the Bahá’í Faith is established by the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs. [GBF137; PP 291; PP320]
||laws of personal status
|1954 26 May
||Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Leroy Ioas return the visit of President Ben Zvi by visiting him in Jerusalem. [GBF140; PP293–4]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; ; Leroy Ioas; Ben Zvi; Presidents
|1954 1 Oct
||The title of the a parcel of land on Mount Carmel is transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, Israel Branch. The title deed is for Parcel No. 304, Block 10811 Mount Carmel, Haifa.
||Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel; BWC
|1963 23 Apr
||Two Hands of the Cause and two members of the Universal House of Justice attend, on behalf of the House of Justice, the State funeral of Izhak Ben Zvi, second President of Israel. [BW14:92–3]
- This is the first official act of the Universal House of Justice. [BW14:92–3]
||Izhak Ben Zvi
|1968 26 – 31 Aug
||The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land is commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
- For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
|Haifa; BWC; Israel
||Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
|1984 21 Oct
||His Excellency Chaim Herzog, President of the State of Israel, pays an official visit to the Bahá’í World Centre at the invitation of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:377; VV88]
- This is the first visit by a head of state to the Seat of the House of Justice. [VV88]
|Haifa; BWC; Israel
||Chaim Herzog; Presidents; Prominent visitors
|1985 18 Oct
||The remains of Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and 11 members of his family are re-interred in a new Bahá’í cemetery near the original grave site. The cemetery is located on a hillside looking across Lake Kinneret and the hills of Galilee towards the Qiblih of the Faith. [BW19:56]
|1987 22 Apr
||A ceremony is held to sign a ‘status agreement’ between the Bahá’í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá’í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
- Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represents the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signs the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá’í International Community. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
|Israel; Haifa; BWC;
||status agreement; BIC; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
||The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approves the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76]
||Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel; BWC
|1990 23 May
||The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102]
||World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC
||Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of
|1992 28 May
||Ibsen Valls Pinheiro, President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies, opens a special session of the Chamber called to observe the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh, attended by 45 federal deputies. [BINS271:2; BW92–3:121]
Note: VV133 says this was 29 May.
- For picture see BW92–3:122.
||Ibsen Valls Pinheiro; President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies
|1993 16 Feb
||A stamp featuring the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is issued by the Philatelic Service of the Israel Postal Authority. [BW92–3:142]
- For picture see BW92–3:143.
||Stamps; Universal House of Justice, Seat of
|1994 Jun 13
||The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, visits the Bahá'í World Centre to view the Terraces Project. [BW94–5:77]
||Israel; Haifa; BWC
||Yitzzhak Rabin; Prime Ministers; Prominent visitors
|1994 Aug 4
||Shimon Peres, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs, makes an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77]
||Israel; Haifa; BWC;
||The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84]
||Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations; BWNS
|2000 17 - 21 Dec
||The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84]
||Conferences, Interfaith; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other; BWNS
|2004 19 Apr
||The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239]
||Vancouver; Canada; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel
||Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
|2008 12 May
||After negotiations over several years, agreement has been reached with the Israeli government for the acquisition of a rectangular plot of land 90,000 square metres in area, located between Bahjí and the main road, which is currently being used by the government opening the way to further beautification of the environs of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, the Qiblih of the people of Bahá, described by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “luminous Shrine” and “the place around which circumambulate the Concourse on high”.
The property in the possession of the Faith has been further augmented by the conclusion, after negotiations which extended over some twenty years, of a land exchange with the Israel Land Administration, by which a portion of the land bequeathed to the Faith in the Ein Sara neighbourhood of Nahariya, north of ‘Akká, has been exchanged for an additional 100,000 square metres to the east of the Mansion of Bahjí, an area of about 32,000 square metres adjoining the island at the Riḍván Garden and the caravanserai adjacent to the Mansion of Mazra‘ih. They reported that discussions were continuing with the authorities for a further exchange, using more of the Ein Sara land to acquire additional property in close proximity to the Bahá’í Holy Places in the ‘Akká area required to protect the sanctity and tranquillity of these places in the face of the rapid urbanization of the region.
Work has also been completed on the restoration of the Junayn Gardens, a small farmhouse and orchard north of Bahjí visited occasionally by Bahá’u’lláh, which was subsequently donated to the Faith. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 May, 2008]
|BWC; Ein Sara; Nahariya; Akka; Mazraih; Bahji; Israel
||Junayn Gardens; Bahaullah Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Ridvan Garden; Land purchases; Caravanserai; Restoration; Holy place
|2008 8 Jul
||The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643]
||Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC
||UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS
|2011 29 May
||The official opening of UNESCO for Tolerance and Peace Square, situated at the point where Haifa's historic German Templer colony meets the terraced gardens of the Shrine of the Báb. [BWNS828]
||UNESCO for Tolerance and Peace Square; UNESCO; Tolerance; Peace; BWNS
|2012 21 Apr
||Plans are announced that the Universal House of Justice is entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu.
[Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World]
||Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; Tanna; Vanuatu
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local