||At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. [MH7-8; MH113]
||Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Bushihr; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
- After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
- See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
|Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
- MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
- See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
- The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
|Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.
- See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
- Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
- See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre
||Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
- MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
|Mashhad; Badasht; Iran
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles
|1848. 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Black Standard
||Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad.
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
|1861. c. 1861
||‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]
Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]
Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]
|Baghdad; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Bahaullah, Life of
||Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí is executed in Mashhad. [BW18:383]
|1890 In the year
||Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]
Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]
In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání, but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]
|Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran
||Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1898. 9 Feb
||Hájí Muhammad-i-Turk is shot, beaten and then burned to death in a main street in Mashhad by four religious students. [BBRXXX, 406; BW18:384]For Western accounts of the episode see BBR406–17.
|1902 12 Oct
||Birth of `Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Bahá'í scholar, author and translator, in Mashhad.
||Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Bahai scholars
|1914 27 Aug
||Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní is killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1915 14 Mar
||Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání is shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1924 21-28 Mar
||Daily attacks on Bahá'ís and their shops in Mashhad culminate in the expulsion from the town of áqá Gulkání and other Bahá'ís. [BW13:388]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1. His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19]
While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a
martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of
martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .” He is the first of the Hands of the
Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class”
the Faith. He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
For details of his life see EB171–6.
||Tihran; Mashhad; Iran
||In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
||The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
- Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
- Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
- Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
- Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
- Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
- Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
|Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Abadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
||Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
- Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
- Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
|Iran; Tihran; Kirmanshah; Zahidan; Mashhad
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1938 5 Feb
||Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union are persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
- Five hundred Bahá'í men are imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
- Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union are arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
- Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, go to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
- The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
- The Bahá'í schools are ordered closed. [BW8p89]
- Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus are ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
|Soviet Union; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Soviet Union; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
||Throughout Iran, the government introduces repressive measures against Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
- Bahá’ís are dismissed from government positions. [BW18:390]
- Fifty Bahá’í employees of the public hospital in Mashhad are dismissed. [BW18:390]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1998 21 Jul
||Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
- In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
- Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
- The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998.
[One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2,
One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
||Ruhullah Rawhani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|2008 5 Mar
||Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran – was arrested having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report]
||Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Evin prison; BWNS