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Notes:
This is an excerpt from the Leiden List.

Kitáb-i-Aqdas:
Bibliography

compiled by Sen McGlinn.
1998

General discussions and commentaries on the Kitab-i Aqdas

For the dating, process of composition and mss. history see Eqbal, 'Redating' in Pazhuheshnameh 1:2, and the sources cited there; for the dating see A Basic Bahá'í Chronology 99; 120, 138; 145; 166; 476; Hatcher and Martin 46-7, 153-6; Taherzadeh, 'Revelation', vol. 2 354, vol. 3 147.

      Textual and stylistic commentary in Bushrui, 'Style' (a lengthy meditation with occasional literary analysis); more analysis in Sen McGlinn's review of this book in BSR 6 (1996) also available at Bahá'í Library Online. Habibullah Riazati divides the verses according to Mazandarani's nine modes of revelation, Pazhuheshnameh 1:1. Discussion of the style of Writings on the Covenant, including the Aqdas, in Hatcher, 'Ocean' 153-64, and passing mentions in ibid. 11, 16, 71, 79, 99, 122, etc.

      For the distribution of Arabic mss. and early reception see Taherzadeh, vol.2 130 (to Khurasan), Taherzadeh 'Covenant' 212 (Jamal-i Burujirdi). See Stockman, 'America', vol. 1 160, vol. 2 11, 27, 363, 438n38 regarding the distribution of early English translations.

      General introduction in Anonymous, 'The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Its place in Bahá'í literature' in The Bahá'í World 1992-3, 103-18. Extensive discussions in Taherzadeh, 'Revelation' vol. 3 275-399 and passim vols 1 - 4; history in Hatcher & Martin 46-47, 153-56;

      Papers by John Walbridge online at bahai-library.com/walbridge_encyclopedia_kitab_aqdas; by William Hatcher on the philosophical framework in The Bahá'í World 1993-4 189-236; by Udo Schaefer on the possible impact of its publication upon its Western audience in BSR 3:1 (1993), online at bahai-library.com/schaefer_balance_appointed; by John Hatcher on the 'twin duties,' social action, and other topics in John S. Hatcher 'Unsealing the Choice Wine...' in JBS 6:3; by Martha Schweitz, 'Bahá'í Law, legitimacy and World Order' in JBS 6:1; by R. Stockman in 'Revelation, Interpretation and Elucidation', in BS 3; by Jackson Armstrong-Ingram 'the provisions for sexuality...' at the Bahá'í Library Online. In ABS Australia 1996 see JA Davidson, 'The Kitab-i Aqdas and the process of transformation'; MK Meshgin, 'The concept of divine law'; B Samali, 'The universality of the Laws of the Kitab-i Aqdas'; F. Naghdy, 'The future of mankind and the Most Holy Book'.

      Extensive discussion of political provisions and sections addressed to kings and rulers in Cole, 'Millenarianism' (see index). Discussion of Bahá'í law in the Aqdas in Afshin Khavari "Parallels Between Islamic and Bahá'í laws and Constitutional Principles" at the Bahá'í Library Online. Discussion of 'socio-cultural constructs' in R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram 'The Provisions for Sexuality in the Kitab-i-Aqdas in the Context of Late Nineteenth Century Eastern and Western Sexual Ideologies' online at bahai-library.com/armstrong-ingram_provisions_sexuality_aqdas-bsr; analysis of the treatment of homosexuality in the Kitab-i Aqdas and its background in Kamran Hakim 'Commentary on Kitab-i Aqdas verse 107' available online at bahai-library.com/essays/aqdas.107.html.

      For gender equality generally see the introduction to the 1992 edition p. 7; as well as the commentaries on paragraphs 20-29 (inheritance), K33, K48, K66 (dowry), K48 and Q105 (education) etc., as listed in the following appendix. More generally see Martha Leach Schweitz 'Of Webs and Ladders: Gender Equality in Bahá'í Law' in World Order 27:1 (1995) 22; Baharieh Ma'ani on philosophical and linguistic gender bias in JBS 8:1; Davidson in ABS Australia 1996 21-28; Samali in ibid 57-60.

      Progressive implimentation of the laws, see Taherzadeh, 'Covenant', 310-13; Meshgin, in ABS Australia 1996; Letter of the Universal House of Justice regarding currently applicable laws, dated...

      Mentions in Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 132-3; Balyuzi, 'King' 245, 319, 351-3, 382, 422, 425; Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' see index; 'Eminent Bahais' 189, 259; Balyuzi, '`Abdu'l-Bahá' 49, 51, 163, 492; Ruhe 'Door of Hope' 46-48, 51, 56; discussions by John Walbridge, 'Sacred' xiii, 3-4, 16-22, 248-252 and passim.


The Kitab-i Aqdas, partial translations and commentary by paragraph number

K1-5
Gleanings CLV.
K1
'the first duty'. K36 explains one aspect. Discussed Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' 266. Commentary by `Abdu'l-Bahá on verse 1 in SAQ 238. Jalil Mahmoudi "`Irfan" in World Order 7:4 (1973). Some philosophical meditations on the introductory verse of the Aqdas by Sen McGlinn at bahai-library.com/ articles/ aqdas.verse1.
K2
'the maintanance of order'. Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' 68 refers to a contextualization traditional in the Persian community. But hudud refers to prescribed punishments (such as amputation and stoning) rather than to laws. While the verse does address antinomianism, Taherzadeh's contextualisation may be overly precise.
K4
'From my laws', discussed Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' 24.

K6
obligatory prayers with nine rak'ahs. Regarding the dating and text of these prayers see TahRB4 299-300. Parallels in Arabic Bayan and in the Persian Bayan, Wahid V chapter 1.
K7
Gleanings CLV.
K8
the prayer for the dead. Parallel text in the Persian Bayan Wahid V, chapter 11.
K9
'Hair doth not invalidate'. Parallel in Persian Bayan (5:14).
K10
translated by Shoghi Effendi in NSA of the United States, The Bahá'í Community: a summarization...", 1963.
K13
'God hath exempted'. Parallel text in the Persian Bayan, 5:17. Regarding the number 95, see vahid vi chapter 10.
K16,17
translated by Shoghi Effendi in NSA of the United States, The Bahá'í Community: a summarization...", 1963
K16
(the fast): This law was included in the 1869 Second Tablet to Napoleon III (Taherzadeh, 'Revelation' vol. 3 115).
K20-29
(Inheritance). Commentary see Bahiyyih Nakhjavani "Exemption" in BSR 3.1 (1993), online at bahai-library.com/articles/exemption.html; Seena Fazel "Inheritance" BSR 4.1 (1994); Sen McGlinn "Some considerations relating to the inheritance laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas" BSR 5.1 (1995) and online at bahai-library.com/articles/inheritance.BSR.html and bahai-library.com/articles/inheritance.arjmand.html; Linda and John Walbridge "Bahá'í Laws on the Status of Men" in World Order 19:1-2 (1984); Various authors "A Question of Gender", thematic issue of Dialogue 1987; Martha Leach Schweitz "Of Webs and Ladders: Gender Equality in Bahá'í Law" in World Order 27:1 (1995).
K30
(the House of Justice) translated by Shoghi Effendi in Baha'' Administration 21 and in The Bahá'í World vol.1 42, vol.2 61-2, with significant differences. The K30 translation used in the 1992 edition follows that in GPB 326-327. Discussed Taherzadeh, 'Revelation', vol. 2 122. Instruction by Bab'u'llah regarding implementation see Lawh-i Mulla `Ali-Akbar dar bareh bayt al-`adl.
K32
pilgrimmage. See Suriy-i Hajj I and II.
K35
translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol XIV no. 4, July 1923, 112 and in The Bahá'í World vol.1 42, vol.2 61-2, with stylistic variation.
K37
Gleanings CLXVI (CLXV in earlier editions). Analogue in Iqtidarat 142.
K38-40
Gleanings LXXI
K42
'endowments dedicated to charity': there is an earlier (differing) translation by the Universal House of Justice in relation to the question of the ending of the Guardianship, in Messages 1968-73, reprinted and discussed in Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' 390 and 439-40.
K43
translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol XIV no. 4, July 1923, 112; also in The Bahá'í World vol.1 42, and finally vol.2 61-2. Remarkably, the 1992 authorized translation follows the earlier translations (with one change, and altered punctuation and capitalization).
K47
explanation by `Abdu'l-Bahá in SAQ 171-4.
K48
(education). Earlier translation by Shoghi Effendi where this verse is cited in the 8th Ishraqat, in Bahai World vol.1 p 41 (1925-6). Translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol XIV no. 4, July 1923, 112.
K52
'a third part of all fines'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol XIV no. 4, July 1923, 112. Mentioned Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' 402.
K53-55
Gleanings LXXII.
K53
'should differences arise', cited in GPB 371, but in an independent translation, the differences not affecting the sense.
K58-59
Gleanings LXXII
K62
(arson and murder). K73 modifies. Discussed Davidson, 'Transformation' ABS Australia 1996 18-19.
K63
translated by Shoghi Effendi in Unfolding Destiny 195.
K66
(dowry). Persian Bayan, 6:7.
K75
GPB 152.
K78-84
Gleanings CV; K78-79 = PDC 24 (identical).
K78
"O Kings"
K79
wealth.
K80
Sinai and Carmel.

K81-96:
Kings, nations and lands
K81-83
To the Kings: the Law, lordship, renounces earthly sovereinty. Summarized by Shoghi Effendi in GPB 204. Identical translation in PDC 85.
K83-84
is cited without variation in PDC 71-2.
K84
'the king who will arise'. Mentioned GPB 204, cited 390-1 in relation to Queen Marie (almost identical). Cited with one minor variation in PDC 25 ('is' in first sentence).
K85
'Emperor of Austria'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 35-6 and PDC 56 (identical), mentioned GPB 206.
K86
'King of Berlin'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 36 and PDC 56 (identical). Shoghi Effendi identifies 'the one whose power transcended thy power' as Napoleon III, GPB 206. Fate described GPB 224.
K87
'We have asked nothing'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 26 and partially in PDC 57-8 (identical).
K88
'O Rulers of America'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi in Citadel of Faith 18-19; summarized with minor translation differences in GPB 205. GPB 206 treats K85, 86 and 90 also, but without significant differences. GPB 250 and K88 cite, with one phrasing difference.
K89
'O People of Constantinople'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 39, 60-1, 97. The texts are identical except that Shoghi Effendi has 'stablished' in all citations, where the 1992 Aqdas edition uses 'established'.
K90
'O banks of the Rhine!'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 36, 56 (identical). Mention GPB 206.
K91-93
'Land of Ta'. Gleanings LVI. K91 is cited without variation in PDC 73.
K94
'Land of Kha'. Referred to, but with a slightly different reading of the Arabic, in GPB 213.
K95
'those who wield authority'. GPB 212 inteprets as 'strict obedience to one's government'.
K96
'Sprinkle upon the nations'.
K97
Huququllah. TahRB 4 248-56, citing an earlier translation from the compilation on the Huququllah, 10, with many minor changes and the significant variants 'be exposed' in place of 'meet with faithlessness himself' and 'Author of the Preserved tablet' in place of 'in whose possession is the Guarded Tablet'. Taherzadeh cites explanations of this verse from various tablets.
K98
on the composition of the Aqdas.

K99-104, 'O Leaders of Religion'. Gleanings XCVIII. Extracts from K99-101 are cited without variation in PDC 80-81, and K103-104 without variation in PDC 81. Cited and discussed in Taherzadeh, vol. 3 162-7.
K99
Mentioned GPB 207, which identifies 'the Book of God' in this verse as the Kitab-i Aqdas itself. Mentioned TahRB 3 240; vol. 4 212.
K100
Imagery discussed Lambden 'Sinaitic mysteries' SBBR 5 144.
K102
Purpose of learning.
K103
Imagery discussed Lambden 'Sinaitic mysteries' SBBR 5 144
K104
'we have not entered any school'.
K105
'whose interpreteth'. Translated by Shoghi Effendi where it is cited by Bahá'u'lláh in ESW 129-30.
K106
on hygiene.
K107
sexual morality. For the treatment of homosexuality see Kamran Hakim, 'commentary on K107' online at bahai-library.com/ essays/aqdas.107.html
K108
'to mutter sacred verses'.
K109
'to write a will'. Referred to by Taherzadeh, in 'Covenant' 378. Taherzadeh supposes that the law also relates to inheritance, without indicating a source in Bahá'í law for this.
K110-112
the great festivals.
K113
physicians.
K114
abolishing a law.
K115-116
the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, recitation.
K118
translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol XIV no. 4, July 1923, 113
K120
translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol XIV no. 4, July 1923, 113
K121
appointment of `Abdu'l-Bahá (see also K174), translated by Shoghi Effendi in The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh 134. The person referred to is identified by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Abdu'l-Bahá, see Kitab-i `Ahd. See also the Suriy-i Ghusn. For `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation see Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' 219. Mentioned GPB 175, 236-7. For the significance of the appointment see Taherzadeh, 'Covenant' especially chapters 6 10 and 12. On these verses see ibid 141, 176.
K122-25
Gleanings CLIX, and a previous translation of K125 by Shoghi Effendi in The Bahá'í World vol.2, 62.
K125
'liberty must ... lead to sedition', in The Bahai World vol.1 42; discussed by Schaefer in BSR 3:1 1993 47; Davidson in ABS Australia 1996 19-20. The topic of liberty is discussed by Ignaz Goldziher, 'Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law' 1981 251-2; who is refuted in Cole, 'Modernity' esp. pp 67--8.
K126
asking questions. Mentioned Taherzadeh, 'Revelation', vol. 1 301.
K144
translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol. XIV no. 4, July 1923, 114.
K161-163
Gleanings XXXVII.
K164
Kaf and Ra. Identified as Kirman in GPB 213. Discussed Taherzadeh, 'Revelation' vol. 4 399-400.
K165
sections translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 81 (identical).
K166
part is translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 81 (identical).
K167
last sentence is translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 81.
K169
part is translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 81 (identical).
K171
translated by Shoghi Effendi in PDC 81.
K173
translated by Shoghi Effendi in Star of the West vol. XIV no. 4, July 1923, 114.
K174
Appointment of `Abdu'l-Bahá (see also K121). Translated by Shoghi Effendi in WOB 134, mentioned GPB 175.
K181-183
Gleanings LXX.
K181
'the world's equilibrium'. Cited with one variant in GPB 320. Discussed briefly TahRB4 138-9.
K184
'source of perversion'. Identified as Mirza Yahya in GPB 213. Cited in GPB 168, with one phrase derived from some other source.
K189
'members of parliament' (common script and language). Mentioned GPB 209, 213; with paraphrase of relevant tablets in TahRB4 159-60.


Questions and Answers (in general):
Taherzadeh, 'Revelation' vol. 1 26.

Q23 see Persian Bayan 5:19.
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