A Chronology of Political and Religious Events
in Shi'i History
Dates for dynasties are the dates of the start of the
dynasty; dates of religious personages are dates of death.
Place-names in parentheses after dynasties are capitals or
areas of rule, and after persons are places of principal
Political Events Religious Personalities and Events
622 Hegira of Muhammad
632 death of Muhammad
656 Beginning of Caliphate of 'Ali
661 Assassination of 'Ali
661 Umayyad Dynasty
669 Imam Hasan (Medina)
680 Martyrdom of Imam Husayn at
684 Revolt of Tawwabun
686 Revolt of Mukhtar
c. 713 Imam Zaynu'l-'Abidin
c. 735 Imam Muhammad al-Baqir
740 Revolt of Zayd
750 'Abbasid Dynasty
758 Revolt of Muhammad
765 Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (Medina)
799 Imam Musa al-Kazim (Medina)
816 'Ali ar-Rida
proclaimed 'Abbasid heir
818 Imam 'Ali ar-Rida (Medina)
835 Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (Medina,
868 Imam 'Ali al-Hadi (Samarra)
Political Events Religious Personalities and Events
873 Imam Hasan al-'Askari (Samarra)
874 Occultation of Twelfth Imam
905 Hamdanid Dynasty (Mosul)
934 Buyid Dynasty (Iran, Iraq)
940 Muhammad al-Kulayni (Baghdad)
941 Beginning of Greater
944 Hamdanid Dynasty (Aleppo)
945 Buyids capture Baghdad
990 'Uqaylid Dynasty (Mosul)
991 Ibn Babuya (Qumm)
1012 Mazyadid Dynasty (S. Iraq)
1022 Shaykh al-Mufid (Baghdad)
1023 Mirdasid Dynasty (Aleppo)
1044 'Alamu'l-Huda (Baghdad)
1055 Seljuqs capture Baghdad
1067 Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa (Baghdad,
1079 'Uqaylid Dynasty (Aleppo)
1101 Foundation of Hilla
1128 'Imadu'd-Din Zangi
1145 Shaykh Muhammad, grandson of
1189 Ibn Zuhra Halabi (Aleppo)
1192 Ibn Shahrashub (Aleppo)
1201 Ibn Idris (Hilla)
1225 Death of Caliph an-Nasir
1238 Ibn Nima (Hilla)
1258 Mongols capture Baghdad
1265 Ibn Tawus (Hilla)
1274 Khwaja Nasiru'd-Din Tusi
1277 Muhaqqiq al-Hilli (Hilla)
1309 Oljeitu (Khudabanda)
1325 'Allama al-Hilli (Hilla)
1336 Jalayir Dynasty (Iraq)
1337 Sarbadarid Rule (Sabzivar)
1359 Mar'ashi Sayyid Dynasty
1370 Fakhru'l-Muhaqqiqin (Hilla)
1380 Timurid Dynasty (Iran, Iraq)
1384 Shahid al-Awwal (Jabal 'Amil)
1403 Execution of Fadlu'llah al-
1409 Qara-Quyunlu Dynasty
Political Events Religious Personalities and Events
1422 Al-Miqdad al-Hilli (Hilla)
1423 Revolt of Muhammad
1437 Ibn Fahd (Hilla)
1489 'Adil Shah Dynasty
1490 Nizam Shah Dynasty
1501 Safavid Dynasty (Iran)
1512 Qutb Shah Dynasty
1533 Muhaqqiq al-Karaki (Jabal
1558 Shahid ath-Thani (Jabal 'Amil)
1597 Shah 'Abbas moves capital
1602 Safavid force 1602 Sahibu'l-Ma'alim (Jabal 'Amil)
1621 Shaykh Bahá'í (Isfahan)
1623 Mulla Muhammad Amin
founder of Akhbari school
1640 Mulla Sadra of the Hikmat-i
Ilahi School of Isfahan
1659 Mulla Muhammad Taqi Majlis
1699 Mulla Muhammad Baqir Majlis
1722 Afghans capture Isfahan
1722 Nawwabs and Kings of
1724 Fadil-i Hindi (Isfahan)
1747 Nadir Shah (Iran)
1750 Zand Dynasty (S. Iran)
1760 Mulla Isma'il Khaju'i
1793 Vahid Bihbahani (Karbala)
1794 Qajar Dynasty (Iran)
1797 Bahru'l-'Ulum (Najaf)
1801 Wahhabis sack Karbala
1812 Shaykh Ja'far Kashifu'l-Ghita
1815 Sayyid 'Ali Tabataba'i
1816 Mirza-yi Qummi (Qumm)
1826 Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i,
founder of the Shaykhi School
1828 Mulla Ahmad Naraqi (Naraq,
1843 Najib Pasha sacks Karbala
Political Events Religious Personalities and Events
1850 Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi
1850 The Bab, founder of the Bab
1856 British end line of Nawwabs
1864 Shaykh Murtada Ansari (Najaf)
1892 Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the
1895 Mirza-yi Shirazi (Samarra)
1906 Constitutional Revolution
1907 All-India Shi'a Conference
1911 Akhund Khurasani (Najaf)
1913 Wahhabis occupy al-Ahsa
1918 Overthrow of 1918 Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi
Ottoman Empire (Najaf)
ending Turkish rule
over Lebanon, Syria
1920 Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shiraz
1920 Shaykhu'sh-Shari'a Isfahani
1932 Iraq Independence
1933 Shaykh 'Abdu'llah Mamaqani
1936 Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Na'ini
1937 Shaykh 'Abdu'l Karim Ha'iri-
1942 Shaykh Diya'u'd-Din Iraqi
1944 Lebanon Independence
1946 Sayyid Abu'l-Hasan Isfahani
1947 Ayatu'llah Qummi (Karbala)
1956 Suez crisis causes
upheavals in Lebanon
1961 Ayatu'llah Burujirdi (Qumm)
1963 Uprising against
Shah; Iraqi Revolution
1970 Ayatu'llah Muhsin al-Hakim
1978 Disappearance of Imam Musa as-
1979 Iranian Revolution topples Shah
1980 Execution of Muhammad Baqir
as- Sadr (Iraq)
1983 Lebanon upheaval
Dates are for the start of the reign of each king or ruler.
Where the name of a dynasty is preceded by an asterisk, this
indicates a dynasty that was probably Shi'i but where it is
not clear that they were orthodox Twelver Shi'i. Sources for
this material include: Lane-Pole, Muhammadan Dynasties;
Zambaur, Manuel de Genealogie; Bosworth, Islamic Dynasties;
Shushtari, Majalis al-Mu'minin; and Encyclopaedia of Islam,
articles under name of each dynasty.
* Buyids Iran and Iraq, an Iranian tribe from Daylam
320/923 'Imadu'd-Din 'Ali ibn Buya captured Shiraz 322/934
338/949 'Adudu'd-Dawla Fana-Khusraw ibn Ruknu'd-Dawla
(nephew of above)
372/983 Sharafu'd-Dawla Shirdil (Shirzil) ibn 'Adudu'd-
380/990 Samsamu'd-Dawla Marzuban ibn 'Adudu'd-Dawla
388/998 Baha'u'd-Dawla Firuz ibn 'Adudu'd-Dawla
403/1012 Sultanu'd-Dawla Abu Shuja' ibn Baha'u'd-Dawla
412/1021 Musharrafu'd-Dawla Hasan ibn Baha'u'd-Dawla
415/1024 'Imadu'd-Dawla Marzuban ibn Sultanu'd-Dawla
440/1048 Al-Malik ar-Rahim Khusraw Firuz ibn 'Imadu'd-Dawla
447/1055 Fulad-Sutun Abu Mansur ibn 'Imadu'd-Dawla
--454/1062 power in Shiraz taken by Kurdish chief
334/945 Mu'izzu'd-Dawla Ahmad ibn Buya captured Baghdad
from 'Abbasids in 334/945
356/967 'Izzu'd-Dawla Bakhtiyar ibn Mu'izzu'd-Dawla
367/978 'Adudu'd-Dawla, see above
372/983 Samsamu'd-Dawla, see above
376/987 Sharafu'd-Dawla, see above
379/989 Baha'u'd-Dawla, see above
403/1012 Sultanu'd-Dawla, see above
412/1021 Musharrafu'd-Dawla, see above
416/1025 Jalalu'd-Dawla Abu Tahir ibn Baha'u'd-Dawla
435/1044 'Imadu'd-Din Marzuban, see above
440/1048 Al-Malik ar-Rahim, see above
--447/1055 Seljuqs capture Baghdad
Other branches of the family ruled in Kirman, Hamadan, Rayy
* Hamdanids North Iraq and North Syria, of the Taghlib tribe
North Iraq (Mosul)
292/904 Abu'l-Sajjad 'Abdu'llah ibn Hamdan made Governor
of Mosul by 'Abbasids; deposed 303/915
318/930 Nasiru'd-Dawla Hasan ibn 'Abdu'llah
358/968 'Uddatu'd-Dawla Abu Taghlib al-Ghadanfar
369/979 Buyids conquer Mosul
Abu Tahir and Husayn, brothers of Abu Taghlib, briefly
reconquered Mosul 371/981--380/991
North Syria (Aleppo)
333/944 Sayfu'd-Dawla 'Ali ibn 'Abdu'llah captured Aleppo
356/967 Sa'du'd-Dawla Abu'l-Ma'ali Sharif ibn Sayfu'd-
381/991 Sa'idu'd-Dawla Abu'l-Fada'il ibn Sa'du'd-Dawla
died in 392/1001 leaving two small children who
were dispossessed by their Mamluk guardian Lu'lu';
Aleppo eventually fell into Fatimid control in
* 'Uqaylids North Iraq (Mosul) and North Syria (Aleppo), of
Banu Ka'b Arab tribe
380/991 Abu Dhawwad Muhammad occupied Mosul for one year
then Mosul recaptured by Buyids
386/996 Hisamu'd-Dawla al-Muqallad ibn Musayyib captured
Mosul and remained ruler as vassal of Buyids
391/1000 Mu'tamadu'd-Dawla Qirwash ibn Muqallad
442/1050 Za'imu'd-Dawla Baraka ibn Muqallad
443/1051 'Alamu'd-Din Quraysh ibn Badran (nephew of
453/1061 Sharafu'd-Dawla Muslim ibn Quraysh captured Aleppo
from Mirdasids 472/1079
--478/1085 Aleppo captured by Seljuqs
478/1085 Ibrahim ibn Quraysh
486/1093 'Ali ibn Muslim
--489/1096 Mosul captured by Seljuqs
Mazyadids South Iraq (Hilla), an Arab tribe of the Bani Asad
403/1012 Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali ibn Mazyad al-Asad created Amir
408/1017 Nuru'd-Dawla Dubays ibn 'Ali
474/1080 Baha'u'd-Dawla Mansur ibn Dubays
479/1086 Sayfu'd-Dawla Sadaqa ibn Mansur built Hilla
501/1107 Nuru'd-Dawla Dubays II ibn Sadaqa
529/1134 Sadaqa II ibn Dubays
532/1137 Muhammad ibn Dubays
540/1145 'Ali II ibn Dubays
--545/1150 Hilla captured by Seljuqs
* Mirdasids North Syria (Aleppo), of Arab tribe of Kilab
414/1023 Salih ibn Mirdas captured Aleppo from Fatimids
420/1029 Shiblu'd-Dawla Abu Kamil Nasr
--Fatimid reoccupation of Aleppo 429/1037-434/1042
434/1042 Mu'izzu'd-Dawla Thamal
--Fatimid reoccupation of Aleppo 449/1057-452/1060
452/1060 Rashidu'd-Din Mahmud
453/1061 Mu'izzu'd-Dawla, second reign
457/1065 Rashidu'd-Din, second reign
466/1074 Jalalu'd-Dawla Nasr
--472/1079 surrendered Aleppo to 'Uqaylids
* Banu 'Ammar Tripoli, Arabs
462/1070 Aminu'd-Dawla Hasan ibn 'Ammar took control of
Tripoli from Fatimids
464/1072 Jalalu'l-Mulk 'Ali (nephew of above)
494/1100 Fakhru'l-Mulk 'Ammar (brother of 'Ali)
--501/1107 Tripoli captured by crusaders
* Chupanids Adharbayjan (Tabriz), a Mongol tribe
721/1321 Timurtash ibn Chupan
728/1328 Shaykh Hasan Kuchik ibn Timurtash
744/1343 Malik al-Ashraf ibn Timurtash
--756/1355 overcome by Qipchaq Turks
* Jalayirids Iraq and Adharbayjan (Baghdad), a Mongol tribe
736/1336 Taju'd-Din, Hasan Buzurg
757/1356 Uways ibn Hasan
776/1374 Jalalu'd-Din Husayn ibn Uways
784/1382 Ghiyathu'd-Din Ahmad ibn Uways
813/1410 Shah Walad ibn 'Ali (nephew of Ahmad)
--814/1411-815/1412 Qara-Quyunlu ended Jalayir control of
all but south Iraq where Jalayir Amirs continued until
* Sarbadarids Khurasan (Sabzivar), Iranians
737/1337 'Abdu'r-Razzaq ibn Amir Fadlu'llah Bashtini
738/1338 Amir Vajihu'd-Din Mas'ud ibn Fadlu'llah
745/1344 Muhammad Aytimur
747/1346 Kulu Isfandiyar
748/1347 Amir Shamsu'd-Din ibn Fadlu'llah
749/1349 Khwaja 'Ali Shamsu'd-Din
753/1352 Khwaja Yahya Karawi
759/1357 Khwaja Zahiru'd-Din (brother of Yahya)
760/1359 Haydar Qassab
761/1360 Amir Lutfu'llah ibn Vajihu'd-Din
762/1361 Pahlavan Hasan Damghani
763/1361 'Ali Mu'ayyad
submitted to Timur 782/1380 but continued to rule
as Timur's Governor until death in 788/1386
* Mar'ashi Sayyids Mazandaran (Amul), Arab-Iranian
760/1359 Qavvamu'd-Din, Mir Buzurg Mar'ashi
781/1379 Kamalu'd-Din ibn Qavvamu'd-Din
--794/1391 conquered by Timur
809/1406 Sayyid 'Ali ibn Kamalu'd-Din made Governor of
Amul, captured Sari
820/1417 Sayyid Murtada ibn 'Ali
830/1426 Sayyid Muhammad ibn Murtada
856/1452 Sayyid 'Abdu'l-Karim ibn Muhammad
865/1460 Sayyid 'Abdu'llah ibn 'Abdu'l-Karim
872/1467 Amir Zaynu'l-'Abidin (cousin of 'Abdu'llah)
880/1475 Mir 'Abdu'l-Karim ibn 'Abdu'llah submitted to
Safavids and governed as their vassals
933/1526 Mir Shahi ibn 'Abdu'l-Karim
939/1532 Mir 'Abdu'llah grandson of 'Abdu'l-Karim
969/1561 Mir 'Abdu'l-Karim ibn 'Abdu'llah
* Qara-Quyunlu Adharbayjan and Iraq (Tabriz), a Turkoman
782/1380 Qara Muhammad Turmush
791/1389 Qara Yusuf ibn Qara Muhammad
823/1420 Jahan Shah
872/1467 Hasan 'Ali
--873/1469 defeated by Aq-Quyunlu
* 'Adil Shahs Deccan, India (Bijapur), of Iranian or
895/1489 Yusuf 'Adil Shah proclaimed independence from
915/1510 Isma'il ibn Yusuf
941/1534 Mallu ibn Isma'il
941/1535 Ibrahim ibn Isma'il
965/1577 'Ali ibn Ibrahim
987/1579 Ibrahim II, grandson of Ibrahim I
1035/1626 Muhammad ibn Ibrahim I
1070/1660 'Ali II ibn Muhammad
1083/1672 Sikandar ibn 'Ali II
--1097/1686 overrun by Moguls
Nizam Shahs Deccan, India (Ahmadnagar), Indian
896/1490 Ahmad Nizam Shah proclaimed independence from
914/1508 Burhan I ibn Ahmad
961/1553 Husayn ibn Burhan
972/1565 Murtada I ibn Husayn
996/1588 Miran Husayn ibn Murtada
997/1589 Isma'il ibn Burhan II
999/1590 Burhan II ibn Husayn
1003/1594 Ibrahim ibn Burhan II
1004/1595 Ahmad II
1004/1595 Bahadur ibn Ibrahim
--1008/1599 overrun by Moguls
Qutb Shahs Deccan, India (Golconda), of Iranian ancestry
917/1512 Sultan Quli proclaimed independence from Bahmanids
950/1543 Jamshid ibn Sultan-Quli
957/1550 Suhan Quli ibn Jamshid
957/1550 Ibrahim ibn Sultan Quli
989/1581 Muhammad Quli ibn Ibrahim
1020/1611 'Abdu'llah, grandson of Ibrahim
1083/1672 Abu'l-Hasan ibn 'Abdu'llah
--1098/1687 overrun by Moguls
Chak Kashmir (Srinagar)
969/1561 Ghazi Khan Chak, son of Qadi Chak
971/1563 Nasru'd-Din Husayn Shah, brother of Ghazi
978/1570 Zahiru'd-Din 'Ali,brother of Husayn
987/1579 Nasru'd-Din Yusuf ibn 'Ali
993/1585 Ya'qub ibn Yusuf
--994/1586 conquered by Moguls
Safavids Iran (Tabriz, Qazvin then Isfahan), probably of
Kurdish or Turkoman ancestry
907/1501 Isma'il I, son of Haydar overcame Aq-Quyunlu
930/1524 Tahmasp I, son of Isma'il
984/1576 Isma'il II, son of Tahmasp
985/1578 Sultan-Muhammad Khudabanda
996/1588 'Abbas I, son of Muhammad
1038/1629 Safi I, grandson of 'Abbas
1052/1642 'Abbas II, son of Safi
1077/1666 Sulayman 1105/1694 Sultan-Husayn
--1135/1722 Afghans capture Isfahan ending effective
Safavid rule although various Safavid princes
continued to hold limited power.
Nawwabs and Kings of Oudh Oudh, India (Lucknow), of Iranian-
1133/1720 Burhanu'l-Mulk Muhammad Amm Musawi Sa'adat Khan
1152/1739 Safdar Jang Abu Mansur Khan (nephew of above)
1167/1754 Shuja'u'd-Dawla, son of Safdar Jang
1189/1776 Asafu'd-Dawla, son of Safdar Jang
1212/1797 Wazir 'Ali, adopted son of Asafu'd-Dawla
1213/1798 Sa'adat 'Ali son of Asafu'd-Dawla
1229/1814 Ghaziyu'd-Din Haydar son of Sa'adat 'Ali
proclaimed independence from Moguls 1234/1819
1243/1827 Nasiru'd-Din Haydar son of Ghaziyu'd-Din
1253/1837 Mu'inu'd-Din Muhammad 'Ali son of Sa'adat'
1258/1842 Amjad 'Ali son of Mu'inu'd-Din
1264/1847 Wajid 'Ali son of Amjad 'Ali
--1272/1856 deposed by British
Zand South Iran (Shiraz), an Iranian tribe
1163/1750 Muhammad Karim Khan
1193/1779 Abu'l-Fath and Muhammad 'Ali
1193/1779 Sadiq (Shiraz) and 'Ali Murad (Isfahan)
1203/1789 Lutf 'Ali
--1209/1794 defeated by Qajars
Qajars Iran (Tehran), a Turkoman tribe
1209/1794 Agha Muhammad Shah defeated Zand dynasty; crowned
1212/1797 Fath 'Ali (nephew of above)
1250/1834 Muhammad grandson of Fath 'Ali
1264/1848 Nasiru'd-Din son of Fath 'Ali
1313/1896 Muzaffaru'd-Din son of Nasiru'd-Din
13 24/1907 Muhammad 'Ali son of Muzaffaru'd-Din
13 26/1909 Ahmad son of Muhammad 'Ali
--dynasty terminated 1344/1925
Pahlavis Iran (Tehran), Iranian
1344/1925 Rida Shah
1360/1941 Muhammad Rida, son of Rida
--dynasty overthrown 1399/1979
Biographies of Prominent Ulama
Look up ulama under commonest designation. Where this
designation indicates place of origin, look up under this,
e.g. for Muhaqqiq al-Hilli look up under Hilli. Most of
those listed here studied under many ulama, had numerous
students and may have written up to 200 books, therefore
only the most prominent in each category have been listed.
Al Kashifu'l-Ghita.The descendants of Shaykh Ja'far
Kashifu'l-Ghita (see below under Kashifu'l-Ghita) have
produced mujtahids of the first rank in almost every
generation from his time. The most notable of these were:
1. Shaykh Musa ibn Ja'far (1180/1766-1243/1827); eldest
son of Kashifu'l-Ghita and took over his father's
leadership after his death. Mediated between Turkey and
Iran in 1821.
2. Shaykh 'Ali ibn Ja'far (d. 1253/1837); took over his
brother's leadership at his death and shared religious
leadership in Najaf with Shaykh Muhammad Hasan an-
Najafi. Was a teacher of Ansari.
3. Shaykh Hasan ibn Ja'far (1201/1786-1262/1846); was at
first religious leader in Hilla but came to Najaf on
his brother 'Ali's death and took over his religious
leadership; shared religious leadership in Najaf with
Shaykh Muhammad Hasan an-Najafi. Negotiated with Najib
Pasha in 1843 and saved Najaf from being occupied and
plundered as Karbala had been. Was a teacher of Ansari.
4. Shaykh Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Ja'far (d. 1268/1851);
after the death of Shaykh Muhammad Hasan an-Najafi,
became marja' for Iraq.
5. Shaykh Mahdi ibn 'Ali ibn Ja'far (1226/1811--
1289/1872); one of the leading maraji' especially for
Caucasus, Tehran, Isfahan, Tabriz and the Sawad of Iraq
during and particularly after the time of Ansari.
6. Shaykh Ja'far ibn 'Ali, known as Shaykh Ja'far as-
Saghir (d. 1290/1873); succeeded to his brother's
leadership but died a year later.
7. Shaykh Hadi ibn 'Abbas ibn 'Ali ibn Ja'far (1289/1872-
1361/1942); was a marja' but only of limited
8. Shaykh Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn Muhammad Rida ibn Musa ibn
Ja'far (1292/875-1344/1926); after the death of Sayyid
Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, became marja' for some Iraqi
tribes and parts of Iran and Afghanistan.
9. Shaykh Muhammad Husayn, brother of (8) (1294/1877-
1373/1954); was marja' for many of the Shi'is of Iraq
and the other Arab countries as well as having some
followers in India, Tibet, Afghanistan and Iran.
'Alamu'l-Huda (Banner of Guidance), Abu'l-Qasim 'Ali ibn
Husayn al-Musawi, also known as Sharif al-Murtada or Sayyid
al-Murtada. b. Rajab 355/966, Baghdad. Studied in Baghdad
under Shaykh al-Mufid. Was Naqib al-Ashraf (head of the
'Alids) in Baghdad and Amir of the Hajj. Much respected and
very wealthy resident of Baghdad. Author of many books
especially on kalam and also much poetry. Teacher of
Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa and Muhammad ibn 'Ali al-Karachaki. d.
Rabi' 1436/1044, Baghdad; buried Karbala. His brother was
Abu'l-Hasan Muhammad, Sharif ar-Radi or Sayyid ar-Radi, the
compiler of the Nahj al-Balagha.
Ansari, Shaykh Murtada ibn Muhammad Amin Ansari Tustari
Najafi. b. 1224/1799, Dizful. Studied under Sayyid Muhammad
Tabataba'i and Sharifu'l-'Ulama Mazandarani in Karbala,
Mulla Ahmad Naraqi in Kashan and Shaykh Musa Al Kashifu'l-
Ghita, Shaykh 'Ali Al Kashifu'l-Ghita and Shaykh Muhammad
Hasan Najafi in Najaf. Took up permanent residence in Najaf
in 1249/1833. Became sole marja' at-taqlid after death of
Muhammad Hasan Najafi in 1266/1850. Was famed for his
memory, his speedy resolution of intellectual problems, his
innovative teaching methods and his upright character. His
life-style was that of the poor and, at his death, he left
only 70 Qiran( 3.00 approx.). Author of al-Makasib and
Fard'id al-Usul (known as Rasa'il). Students include Mirza-
yi Shirazi, Sayyid Husayn-i Turk (Kuhkamari), Shaykh
Muhammad Hasan Mamaqani, and Mulla Muhammad Sharabiyani. d.
18 Jamadi II 1281 18 November 1864, Najaf and buried there.
Ardibili, Muqaddas (Holy One), Ahmad ibn Muhammad, also
known as Muhaqqiq-i Ardibili. b. Ardibil. Resident of Najaf.
Became leading Shi'i scholar after death of Shahid ath-Thani
in 966/1558. Was in communication with the Safavid monarchs
Shah Tahmasp and 'Abbas 1. Books include Tafsir Ayat al-
Ahkam and Hadiqat ash-Shi'a. Teacher of Shaykh Hasan
Sahibu'l-Ma'alim, Sayyid Muhammad Sahibu'l-Madarik, and
Shaykh 'Abdu'llah Shushtari. d. Safar 993/1585, Najaf and
Bahá'í, Shaykh, Baha'u'd-Din Muhammad ibn Husayn al-Harithi
al-Hamdani al-'Amili al-Juba'i. b. 17 Dhu'l-Hijja 953/1547,
Ba'albakk. When he was still young, his father moved to
Khurasan where he lived mainly in Herat. Shaykh Bahá'í
studied under his father who was himself a student of Shahid
ath-Thani. Shaykh Bahá'í became Shaykh al-Islam of Isfahan
under Shah 'Abbas, a position that was at that time the
foremost clerical office in Iran. After a few years, during
which Shaykh Bahá'í assisted greatly in the building and
development of Isfahan, he left everything for the life of a
wandering darvish, a life which he led for thirty years. He
was a great scholar in several fields such as mathematics,
astronomy and jurisprudence as well as being an eminent poet
philosopher and mystic. His many books include Jami' al-
'Abbasi, on fiqh; Kitab az-Zubda on usul al-fiqh; and the
Kashkul, a pot-pourri of prose and poetry on various
subjects. Among his students was Muhammad Taqi Majlisi. d.
Shawwal 1031/1622 or 1032/1623, Isfahan and buried Mashhad.
Bahru'l-'Ulum (Ocean of the Sciences), Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi
ibn Murtada Tabataba'i Burujirdi. b. Shawwal 1155/1742,
Karbala. Studied at
Karbala under Shaykh Yusuf Bahrani and Vahid Bihbahani.
Resident of Najaf. Became leading Shi'i mujtahid on death of
Vahid Bihbahani. Many miracles related of him, including
being in contact with the Hidden Imam. Teacher of Kashifu'l-
Ghita, Mulla Ahmad Naraqi, Hajj Mulla Ibrahim Kalbasi,
Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i. d. 1212/1797, Najaf and buried
there. The Bahru'l-'Ulum family has produced many important
ulama down to the present day.
Bihbahani, Vahid (Unique One), Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad
Akmal, also known as Murawwij and Ustad-i Akbar, b.
1118/1706, Isfahan. Was descended from Shaykh al-Mufid.
Studied at Karbala under his father Shaykh Muhammad Akmal,
Mulla Sadru'd-Din Tuni and Shaykh Yusuf Bahrani. After
completing his studies, he returned to Bihbahan, near
Isfahan. He remained there for thirty years before returning
to Karbala in 1159/1746. Was responsible for the Usuli
victory over the Akhbari position and for defining the Usuli
system of jurisprudence and the role of the mujtahid. His
works include Risalat al ijtihad wa'l-akhbar and Sharh
Mafitih. His most important students include Bahru'l-'Ulum,
Kashifu'l-Ghita, Mirza-yi Qummi, Mulla Ahmad Naraqi, Hajj
Muhammad Ibrahim Kalbasi, Sayyid 'Ali Tabataba'i and his own
son Aqa Muhammad 'Ali Bihbahani. d. c. 1207/1792.
Burujirdi, Ayatu'llah Husayn ibn 'Ali Tabataba'i Burujirdi.
b. 1292/1875, Burujird. Studied at Isfahan and Najaf, at the
latter place under Akhund Khurasani and Sayyid Muhammad
Kazim Yazdi. Returned to Burujird in 1328/1910. Moved to
Qumm in Muharram 1364/December 1944-January 1945. Became
sole marja' in 1947 on death of Ayatu'llah Qummi. Books
include Hashiyya al-Kifaya and Hashiyya al-Nihaya. Students
include most of the leading ulama in the Revolutionary
Islamic Government of Iran. d. 13 Shawwal 1381/19 March
Fakhru'l-Muhaqqiqin (Pride of the Investigators), Muhammad,
son of 'Allama al-Hilli, also known as Fakhru'd-Din. b. 22
Jamadi I 682/1283, Hilla. Studied at Hilla under his father
and uncle and is said to have achieved the rank of mujtahid
at ten years of age. Resident of Hilla. Accompanied his
father to the court of Sultan Khudabanda. Writings: is said
to have been responsible for the completion of several of
the works of his father; also wrote Sharh al-Qawa'id and
Hashiyya al-Irshad. Most of the important ulama of the next
generation studied under him, including Shahid al-Awwal, ibn
Ma'uya al-Hilli (d. 766/1364) and Sayyid Haydar Amuli. d. 25
Jamadi II 771/1370, Hilla.
Gulpaygani, Ayatu'llah Sayyid Muhammad Rida ibn Muhammad
Baqir. b. 8 Dhu'l-Qi'da 1316/1899, in a village near
Gulpaygan. From 1336/1917 studied at Arak under Ayatu'llah
Ha'iri-Yazdi and moved with him to Qumm in 1922. Began
teaching Dars al-Kharij at Qumm in 1937 after death of
Ha'iri-Yazdi. After death of Ayatu'llah Burujirdi became
administrator of the Madrasa Faydiyya as well as building
the modern Madrasa Gulpaygani. Books include Hashiyyas on
the Wasa'il and 'Urwa al-Wuthqa. At present resident in
Ha'iri-Yazdi, Ayatu'llah 'Abdu'l-Karim ibn Muhammad Ja'far.
b. 1276/1859, in a village near Ardikan. Studied at Yazd,
then at Samarra under Mirza-yi
Shirazi and Najaf under Akhund Khurasani and Sayyid Muhammad
Kazim Yazdi. Taught for a while at Karbala until in
1332/1914 he was invited to teach at Arak (Sultanabad). In
Rajab 1340/March 1922 he travelled to Qumm intending only to
stay there over Naw-Ruz but he was persuaded to remain there
to teach. From this time on he devoted his energies to the
building up of Qumm as a centre of studies. Books include
Durar al-Fawa'id. Students include many of the present
leading ulama including Ayatu'llahs Khwansari, Mar'ashi-
Najafi, Shari'atmadari, Gulpaygani and Khumayni. d. 17
Dhu'l-Qi'da 1355/28 February 1937, Qumm and buried there.
al-Hakim, Ayatu'llah Sayyid Muhsin ibn Mahdi at-Tabataba'i
al-Hakim an-Najafi. b. Shawwal 1306/1889, Najaf. Studied at
Najaf under Akhund Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi,
Na'ini and 'Iraqi. Taught at Najaf and after death of
Ayatu'llah Burujirdi was the most widely-followed marja' of
the Shi'i world. Was particularly active in opposing
socialism and communism. Books include Mustamsak al-'Urwa.
d. 27 Rabi' 1 1390/2 June 1970, Najaf and buried there.
al-Hilli, 'Allama (Very learned one), Jamalu'd-Din Abu
Mansur Hasan ibn Yusuf, also known as ibn al-Mutahhar. b. 29
Ramadan 648/1250, Hilla. Nephew of Muhaqqiq al-Hilli.
Studied under Khwaja Nasiru'd-Din Tusi, Muhaqqiq al-Hilli
ibn Tawus, ibn Nima (Shaykh Ja'far) and ibn Maytham al-
Bahram, as well as under a number of Sunni ulama. Resident
of Hilla. Was responsible for conversion of Sultan
Khudabanda to Shi'ism after debating with Qadi Nizamu'd-Din
Shafi'i in 709/1309. Was the author of numerous books
particularly on usul al-fiqh and is specially noted for his
development of the role of the mujtahid. Students include
Fakhru'l-Muhaqqiqin and ibn Ma'uya. d. Muharram 726/1325,
Hilla and buried in Najaf.
al-Hilli, Al-Miqdad ibn 'Abdu'llah as-Sayyuri al-Hilli al-
Asadi. Studied under Shahid al-Awwal. Resident of Hilla and
Najaf. Books include Kanz al-'Irfan. Students include ibn
Fahd. d. 826/1423, buried in Baghdad.
al-Hilli, Muhaqqiq Najmu'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim Ja'far ibn Hasan,
also known as Muhaqqiq al-Awwal. b. 602/1205, Kufa. Studied
under Shaykh Muhammad, ibn Nima. Resident of Hilla. Most
important book is Shara'i' al-Islam on fiqh. Students
include his nephew 'Allama al-Hilli. d. 13 Rabi' II
676/1277, Hilla and buried there.
Hindi, Fadil-i (Distinguished one), Baha'u'd-Din Muhammad
ibn Hasan Isfahani. b. 1062/1652, Isfahan. While young,
lived for a time in India and hence acquired the designation
'Hindi'. Studied under Muhammad Baqir Majlisi. Is said to
have achieved the position of mujtahid while still a child,
and, because of being learned while still a child, taught in
the Royal Harem. Resident of Isfahan. Although some accounts
state that he died before the fall of Isfahan to the Afghans
in 1 722, most agree that he witnessed this event. d. 25
Ramadan 1137/1725, Isfahan and buried there.
Ibn Babuya Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali al-Qummi, known as
ibn Babuya (Babawayh) and Shakyh as-Saduq. b. about 306/918,
Qumm. Teachers include
his father 'Ali ibn Husayn. Resident of Qumm but travelled
extensively collecting traditions. Between 352/963 and
368/978 travelled thus: Qumm, Rayy, Mashhad, Nishapur, Rayy,
Baghdad, Kufa, Mecca, Hamadan, Baghdad, Mashhad, Rayy,
Mashhad, Balkh, Samarqand Approximately 300 works of his are
listed. Among the most well-known are: Man la yahduruhu'l-
faqih, 'Ilal ash-Shari'a, Kamal ad-Din wa Tamam an-Ni'ma and
'Uyun al-Akhbar ar-Rida. His students include Shaykh al-
Mufid. d. 381/991, Rayy and buried there His father, 'Ali
ibn Husayn, is also often called ibn Babuya and the two
together are sometimes referred to as as-Saduqayn.
Ibn Fahd, Jamalu'd-Din Abu'l-'Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-
Asadi al-Hilli. b. 757/1356, Hilla. Studied under al-Miqdad
al-Hilli. Resident of Hilla. Students included Shaykh 'Ali
ibn Halal al-Jaza'iri (a teacher of Muhaqqiq al-Karaki) and
Muhammad ibn Falah, the founder of the Musha'sha'. Ibn Fahd
tried to oppose ibn Falah's activities once it had become
clear that he was deviating from orthodoxy, but was not
successful. Books include Al-Muhadhdhib. d. 841/1437, Hilla,
Ibn Idris, Abu 'Abdu'llah Muhammad (ibn Ahmad) ibn Idris al-
'Ijli al-Hilli. b. about 543/1148, Hilla. Studied under ibn
Zuhra at Aleppo. Resident of Hilla. In his book As-Sara'ir,
he strongly attacks Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa on many points. Teacher
of ibn Nima. d. 18 Shawwal 598/1202.
Ibn Nima, Shaykh Muhammad, Najibu'd-Din Abu Ibrahim Muhammad
ibn Ja'far al-Hilli. Student of ibn Idris. Resident of
Hilla. Teacher of Muhaqqiq al-Hilli and ibn Tawus. d. 4
Dhu'l-Hijja 636/1239 or 645/1248, Hilla, buried at Karbala.
His son, Najmu'd-Din Ja'far (d. 680/1281), author of the
Muthir al-Ahzan, was also a prominent scholar and teacher of
Ibn Shahrashub, Rashidu'd-Din Abu 'Abdu'llah Muhammad ibn
'Ali ibn Shahrashub Sarawi Mazandarani. b. about 489/1096,
San, Mazandaran. Teachers include Diya'u'd-Din Rawandi and
Fadl ibn Hasan Tabarsi Travelled to Baghdad and preached
there in the time of the Caliph al-Muqtafi who is reported
to have enjoyed his preaching. Then travelled to Aleppo and
took up residence there. Was an important jurist but is
chiefly remembered for his books on biography, Ma'alim al-
'ulama and also the Manaiqib Al Abi Talib. d. Sha'ban
588/1192, Aleppo and buried there.
Ibn Tawus, Sayyid Radiyu'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim 'Ali ibn Musa al-
Hasani al-Hilli. b. Muharram 589/1193, Hilla. Studied in
Hilla under Shaykh Muhammad, ibn Nima. Lived for 25 years in
Baghdad and for short periods in Najaf, Karbala and Kazimayn
before returning to Hilla. Was Naqib al-Ashraf (head of the
'Alids) for Iraq for a time. Was famed as a poet and
ascetic. Is said to have met the Hidden Imam in Samarra.
Books include At-Tara'if and Kashf al-Yaqin. Teacher of
'Allama al-Hilli. d. 5 Dhu'l-Hijja 664/1266, buried at
Ibn Zuhra, Sayyid 'Izzu'd-Din Abu'l Makarim Hamza ibn 'Ali
al-Husayni al-Halabi. b. Ramadan 521/1127, Aleppo. Was said
to have been in contact with the Hidden Imam and his
frequent recourse to ijma' as the source of authority in
his book on fiqh, Ghaniyat an-Nuzu', is reported to be on
account of the fact that it is material that he heard from
the Hidden Imam but did not dare to attribute to him. Tried
to rouse the population of Aleppo against Salahu'd-Din
Ayyubi. d. 585/1189, Aleppo.
'Iraqi, Aqa Diya'u'd-Din ibn Muhammad al-'Iraqi an-Najafi.
b. 1278/1861. Studied at Najaf under Akhund Khurasani and
others. Was famed in teaching usul al-fiqh but was
considered poor in fiqh. Books include Sharh al-Tabsira and
Kitab al-Qada. Was teacher of Ayatu'llahs Khu'i, Khwansari,
Shari'atmadari, Mar'ashi-Najafi and Milani. d. 28 Dhu'l-
Qid'a 1361/1942, Najaf and buried there.
Isfahani, Sayyid Abu'l-Hasan ibn Muhammad Musawi Isfahani
Najafi. b. 1284/1867 in a village near Isfahan. Studied in
Isfahan, Karbala and finally in Najaf under Mirza
Habibu'llah Rashti (d. 1312/1894) and Akhund Khurasani.
After political agitations, left Iraq for Qumm, 1923-4.
After deaths of Na'ini and 'Iraqi became sole marja' of the
whole Shi'i world. Author of Risala al-Ilmiyya and Hashiyya
'ala al-'Urwa. Students include Ayatu'llahs Shari'atmadari
and Mar'ashi-Najafi. d. 9 Dhu'l-Hijja 1365/1946.
al-Karaki, Muhaqqiq (Investigator), Nuru'd-Din 'Ali ibn
'Abdu'l-'Ali al-'Amili al-Karaki, also known as Muhaqqiq
ath-Thani and Khatim al-Mujtahidin. b. about 870/1465,
Karak-Nuh in the Jabal 'Amil. Studied under Shaykh 'Ali ibn
Halal Jaza'iri (a student of ibn Fahd). Was invited to Iran
by Shah Tahmasp and travelled to all parts of Iran, imposing
Shi'ism on the population. Author of Sharh al-Qawa'id.
Students include Shahid ath-Thani and Shaykh 'Ali al-Maysi.
d. about 940/1533.
Kashifu'l-Ghita (Uncoverer of Error), Shaykh Ja'far ibn
Khidr an-Najafi, from Janaja near Hilla. b. 1156/1743,
Najaf. Studied at Karbala under Vahid Bihbahani and at Najaf
under Bahru'l-'Ulum. Became leading Shi'i scholar after
death of Bahru'l-'Ulum. Was highly thought of by Fath 'Ali
Shah. Intervened in hostilities between Iran and Turkey in
1806 in order to bring about the release of Sulayman Pasha
who had been captured. Was involved in defence of Najaf
against the Wahhabis in 1803 and 1806. Travelled extensively
in Iran. His most famous book, after which he is titled, is
the Kashf al-Ghita on fiqh. He also wrote a refutation of
Mirza Muhammad Akhbari. His students include his sons (see
Al Kashifu'l-Ghita above), Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi,
Hajj Muhammad Ibrahim Kalbasi and Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i. d.
22 Rajab 1227/1812.
Khu'i, Ayatu'llah Hajj Sayyid Abu'l-Qasim ibn 'Ali Akbar al-
Musawi al-Khu'i an-Najafi. b. Rajab 1317/1899, Khuy. Came to
Najaf in 1912 and studied under Na'ini, 'Iraqi, and
Shaykhu'sh-Shari'a. After death of Ayatu'llah al-Hakim
became leading marja' of Iraq and has religious leadership
of most of the Shi'is of India, Pakistan and East Africa.
Indeed, of the contemporary maraji', Khu'i probably has the
greatest following outside Iran. Is now under virtual house-
arrest. Is considered to be one of the leading exponents of
kalam, rijal as well as fiqh. Books include Ajwad at-
Taqrirat and At-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an.
Khumayni, Ayatu'llah Ruhu'llah ibn Mustafa Musawi Khumayni.
b. September 1902, Khumayn near Isfahan. His grandfather had
traded for a time in India and therefore the family was
sometimes called by the name Hindi. Studied under Ha'iri-
Yazdi at Sultanabad from 1919 and at Qumm from 1922. After
the death of Ha'iri-Yazdi in 1937, he began to teach. He
specialised in kalam, akhlaq (ethics), philosophy and 'irfan
(mysticism, gnosis). In 1944 he published a book entitled
Kashf al-Asrar (Discovery of Secrets) in which he condemned
the government of Rida Shah, stated that a monarchy should
be limited by the provisions of the Shari'a as interpreted
by mujtahids and hinted that government by mujtahids was
preferable. During the period of the leadership of
Ayatu'llah Burujirdi, Khumayni remained quiet politically in
keeping with Burujirdi's leadership. But from about 1960
onwards when Burujirdi himself took a more politically
active line, and particularly after Burujirdi's death, his
lectures at Qumm on ethics began to be openly critical of
the government. Arrested 25 January 1963, 5 June 1963, 5
November 1963; arrested and exiled to Bursa, Turkey, in
November 1964. Moved to Najaf, October 1965. In 1970, in the
course of lectures delivered in Najaf, he developed the
concept of vilayat-i faqih. Was the leading figure in the
Iranian Revolution of 1978-9. In the Constitution
inaugurated in December 1979, he became the Rahbar (Leader)
of the Revolution. After living for a while in Qumm after
his return to Iran, he moved to Jamaran, near Tehran.
Khurasani, Akhund Muhammad Kazim ibn Husayn Harawi Khurasani
Najafi. b. 1255/1839, Mashhad. Came to Najaf in 1279/1862
and studied under Ansari and Mirza-yi Shirazi. When Shirazi
moved to Samarra, Khurasani remained in Najaf and began to
teach. He was the most prominent of Shirazi's successors and
was particularly known for his innovative style in teaching
usul al-fiqh. His major book is the Kifayat al-
Usul,completed in 1291/1874. Students include Isfahani,
'Iraqi, Na'ini, Husayn Qummi, Burujirdi and Khwansari. d. 20
Khwansari, Ayatu'llah Hajj Sayyid Ahmad ibn Yusuf Musawi
Khwansari. b. 1309/1891, Khwansar. Studied at Khwansar,
Isfahan, and came to Najaf in about 1911, where he studied
under Khurasani, Yazdi and 'Iraqi. In 1336/1917 he moved to
Sultanabad and studied under Ha'iri-Yazdi, moving with him
to Qumm in 1922. He began to teach in Qumm shortly
afterwards. In 1369/1950 he was persuaded to move to Tehran
and teach there. After Burujirdi's death he became the main
marja' for Tehran and other parts of Iran. Moved back to
Qumm after the 1979 Revolution. d. 19 January 1985, Tehran,
al-Kulayni, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub, Abu Ja'far, al-Kulayni
(Kulini) ar-Razi al-Salsali. Came from a village near Rayy
called Kulayn. Lived in Baghdad near the Bab as-Salsala
(Kufa Gate) and hence is sometimes called Salsali. Wrote al-
Kafi in twenty years. Students include ibn Quluya. d.
328/939 or 329/940, Baghdad and buried there.
Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi; b. 1038/1628,
Isfahan. Studied under his father Muhammad Taqi Majlisi,
Mulla Muhsin-i Fayd Kashani and al-Hurr al-'Amili. Became
Shaykh al-Islam of Isfahan and
foremost Shi'i scholar of his time. Was held in great
respect by the Safavid king Shah Sultan-Husayn. Initiated
campaign against Sunnis, Sufis and mystical philosophers. He
wrote over 60 books, the most famous of which are the Bihar
al-Anwar, which consists of Traditions which are for the
most part taken from books other than the four early
canonical works; Jala al-'Uyun; Hayat al-Qulub; Haqq al-
Yaqin. Students include Fadil-i Hindi, Mir Muhammad Salih
Khatunabadi and Muhammad Akmal Bihbahani (father of Vahid
Bihbahani). d. 27 Ramadan 1110/1699 or 27 Ramadan
1111/1700, Isfahan and buried there. His father Muhammad
Taqi ibn Maqsud 'Ali Majlisi (circa 1003/1594--1070/1659) was
also a prominent scholar having studied under Mulla
'Abdu'llah Shushtari, Shaykh Bahá'í and Mir Damad.
Mar'ashi-Najafi, Ayatu'llah Abu'l-Ma'ali Sayyid Shihabu'd-
Din Muhammad Husayni ibn Mahmud Husayni Mar'ashi-Najafi;
descended from Mar'ashi Sayyid dynasty of Tabaristan. b.
1318/1900, Najaf. Studied at Najaf under many teachers
including 'Iraqi, Shaykhu'sh-Shari'a, Isfahani, Na'ini and
Qummi, and also at Kazimayn and Tehran. In about 1924 he
came to Qumm and began to study under Ha'iri-Yazdi and
shortly afterwards began teaching there. Is at present the
administrator of the Madrasas Mu'miniyya, Mar'ashi-Najafi,
and Mahdiyya. Is considered the leading exponent of usul al-
fiqh at Qumm as well as teaching fiqh, kalam and rijal. His
books include Ta'liqat Ihqaqu'l-Haqq, Ghayat al-Quswa and on
the subject of genealogy Mushajarat Al ar-Rasul as well as
many biographical monographs.
Milani, Ayatu'llah Hajj Sayyid Muhammad Hadi ibn Ja'far
Husayni Milani. b. 1313/1895, Najaf. Studied at Najaf under
'Iraqi, Shaykhu'sh-Shari'a, and Na'ini. Taught at Najaf
where his students included Agha Buzurg Tihrani. Came to
Mashhad on a pilgrimage in 1954 and was persuaded to stay to
teach. Built up Mashhad as a centre of studies. His own
school there, however, was pulled down as part of road
improvements around the Shrine of Imam Rida. His books
include Sharh Istidlali and Hashiyya 'ala al-'Urwa. d. 29
Rajab 1395/1975, Mashhad and buried there.
al-Mufid, Shaykh (the beneficial Shaykh), Abu 'Abdu'llah
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Nu'man al-'Ukbari al-Baghdadi al-
Karkhi, also known as ibn al-Mu'allim. b. Dhu'l-Qa'da
336/948 or 3381950, 'Ukbara in Iraq. Came to Baghdad at an
early age and studied there under ibn Babuya and ibn Quluya
as well as a number of Mu'tazili shaykhs. Became recognised
by Sunnis and Shi'is alike as the leading Shi'i scholar of
his time, but because of this, following Sunni-Shi'i clashes
in Baghdad, he was expelled from the city for a time.
Particularly important for his development of Shi'i kalam.
His most important works include al-Ikhtisas, al-Irshad, al-
Amali and al-Fusul. His most important students include
'Alamu'l-Huda, Sharif ar-Radi, Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa, an-Najashi,
and al-Karachaki. d. Ramadan 413/1022, Baghdad and buried
Muhaqqiq (Investigator) Ardibili see Artibili, Muqaddas; al-
Awwal see al-Hilli, Muhaqqiq; Ath-Thani see al-Karaki,
Muhaqqiq; Tusi see Tusi, Khwaja Nasiru'd-Din.
Na'ini, Shaykh Muhammad Husayn ibn 'Abdu'r-Rahim Na'mi
Najafi. b. 1277/1860, Na'in. Studied at Na'in, then Isfahan,
then at Najaf under Mirza Habibu'llah Rashti and Akhund
Khurasani and at Samarra under Mirza-yi Shirazi. He lived
for a time in Samarra after the death-of Shirazi and then in
Karbala before coming to Najaf. Was much involved in the
Iranian Constitutional Movement and wrote a tract Tanbih al-
Umma supporting it. After the death of Khurasani, he became
one of several maraji' in Najaf. Was involved in Shi'i
agitations of 1922-3 and left for Qumm for eight months in
1923. His students include Ayatu'llahs Milani,
Shari'atmadari, Khu'i and Mar'ashi-Najafi. The most well-
known of his writings are Taqrirat fi'l-Usul and Hashiyya
al-'Urwa al-Wuthqa. d. 26 Jamadi I 1355/1936, Najaf and
an-Najafi, Shaykh Muhammad Hasan ibn Baqir. b. c. 1202/1787,
Najaf. Studied under Kashiful-Ghita and his son Musa, Sayyid
'Ali Tabataba'i and Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i. Became leading
Shi'i scholar during his lifetime and taught most of the
next generation of leading ulama such as Shaykh Radi an-
Najafi, Shaykh Muhammad Husayn al-Kazimi, Mirza-yi Shirazi,
Mirza Habibu'llah Rashti, Shaykh Murtada Ansari and Shaykh
Mahdi Al Kashifu'l-Ghita. His most famous book is the
Jawahir al-Kalam on fiqh. d. I Sha'ban 1266/1850, Najaf and
buried there. His descendants are called Al al-Jawahir and
al-Jawahiri and have included a number of prominent ulama.
Naraqi, Mulla Ahmad ibn Muhammad Mahdi Naraqi Kashan. Born
in Naraq, resident of Kashan. Studied under Vahid Bihbahani
in Karbala and later under Bahru'l-'Ulum and Sayyid 'Ali
Tabataba'i. Made Kashan a centre for teaching, attracting
such students as Shaykh Murtada Ansari. Was held in great
respect by Fath 'Ali Shah. Was the author of a number of
important books including Mi'raj as-Sa'ada on ethics, Miftah
al-Usul and the Sayf al-Umma written in refutation of Rev.
Henry Martyn. d. c 1245/1829, Naraq.
Qummi, Ayatu'llah Hasan ibn Husayn Tabataba'i. b. 1329/1911,
Najaf, the son of Ayatu'llah Sayyid Aqa Husayn Qummi.
Studied at Mashhad and from 1348/1929 at Isfahan and from
1350/1931 at Najaf under the major teachers there such as
Na'ini. He then returned to Mashhad until 1354/1935 when he
left Iran with his father in protest at Rida Shah's actions.
He studied further at Karbala and Najaf and soon began to
teach as well. In 1368/1948 he returned to Mashhad and began
to teach there. From 1383/1963 for a few years he lived at
Karaj near Tehran but then he returned to Mashhad where,
after the death of Milani, he became the senior Ayatu'llah
Qummi, Sayyid Aqa Husayn ibn Muhammad Tabataba'i Qummi
Ha'iri. b. 1282/1865, Qumm. Studied in Tehran under Mirza
Hasan Ashtiyani and Shaykh Fadlu'llah Nuri; at Najaf under
Akhund Khurasani and Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi; and at
Karbala under Muhammad Taqi Shirazi. In 1331/1913, he
settled in Mashhad and began teaching there. He became
increasingly unhappy about the reforms initiated by Rida
Shah and in 193 5 came to Tehran seeking an interview with
the Shah over the abolition of the veil and the mixing of
the sexes in schools. However, the Shah refused to meet him
invited him to leave the country. He left for Karbala where
he remained until his death except for a brief visit to
Mashhad and Qumm in 1362/1943. Students include Mar'ashi-
Najafi. His influence increased to such an extent that when
Abu'l-Hasan Isfahani died, he became the sole marja' at-
taqlid for the Shi'i world. But he survived Isfahani by only
three months and died on 14 Rabi' I 1366/1947, Karbala, and
was buried at Najaf.
Qummi, Mirza-yi Mirza Abu'l-Qasim ibn Hasan Jilani Qummi. b.
Japulaq, a village near Qumm. His father had moved to Qumm
from Rasht. Studied at Khwansar and under Vahid Bihbahani at
Karbala and under Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Fatuni and Aqa
Muhammad Baqir Hizarjaribi at Najaf. He then returned to the
Qumm area and lived in one or other of the villages of that
area for a time. He then moved to Isfahan where he taught at
the Madrasa Kasihgaran, but after a disagreement with the
ulama there he moved to Shiraz where Karim Khan Zand held
court. He remained there for a few years and then returned
to Isfahan and eventually to the village of Qal'a-Babu near
Qumm. Later he moved into the town of Qumm itself and there
set up a teaching circle that soon attracted a large number
of students such as Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Shafti and Hajj
Muhammad Ibrahim Kalbasi. He became one of the leading
mujtahids and maraji' of Iran and was held in great respect
by Fath 'Ali Shah. His most famous book is the Qawanin al-
Usul on the subject of usul al-fiqh. d. 1231/1816, Qumm and
as-Saduq, Shaykh see ibn Babuya
Sahibu'l-Ma'alim (Author of the Ma'alim), Shaykh Hasan ibn
Zaynu'd-Din al-'Amili al-Juba'i, Abu Mansur Jamalu'd-Din,
also known as ibn Shahid ath-Thani and Khatib al-Usuliyyin.
b. 959/1552, Juba'in Jabal 'Amil, he was seven years old
when his father, Shahid ath-Thani was martyred. He was a
close and life-long friend of Sayyid Muhammad Sahibu'l-
Madarik with whom he studied under Muqaddas Ardibili at
Najaf. He also studied in the Jabal 'Amil under Shaykh
Husayn, the father of Shaykh Bahá'í, and Sayyid 'Ali ibn
Husayn as-Sa'igh, a student of Shahid ath-Thani. Author of
the Ma'alim fi'l-Din from the introduction of which is taken
the Ma'alim fi'l-Usul, one of the standard works for
teaching usul al-fiqh. Became the foremost Shi'i scholar of
the Jabal 'Amil and teacher of such persons as Shaykh
'Abdu's-Salam, the father of Shaykh Muhammad al-Hurr al-
'Amili. d. Muharram 1011/1602.
Shahid al-Awwal (the First Martyr), Shamsu'd-Din Abu
'Abdu'llah Muhammad ibn Makki al-'Amili al-Jizzini. b.
734/1333, Jizzin in the Jabal 'Amil. Studied at Hilla under
Fakhru'l-Muhaqqiqin and Ibn Ma'uya and also under numerous
Sunni teachers. Returned to Damascus and, through use of
taqiyya, established himself as a leading scholar of that
town, giving judgements on points of law for all four Sunni
schools while at the same time being the head of the Shi'i
community, and promoting Shi'ism. But eventually he was
arrested, according to some accounts because of betrayal by
a Shi'i and according to other accounts because of the
jealousy of the Shafi'i qadi, Ibn Jama'a. He made important
contributions to fiqh and usul al-fiqh and was the
teacher of many Shi'i ulama, for example al-Miqdad al-Hilli.
His most important book is the al-Luma'a ad-Dimashqiyya,
which he wrote for Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad Awl, the emissary
of 'Ali Mu'ayyad, the Sarbadarid ruler of Khurasan.
According to some accounts it was written in seven days
during the year that he spent in prison prior to his
execution but other accounts state that he completed it four
years before his execution. He remained in prison one year
and was then executed on the orders of the Governor of
Damascus, Baydar, and the Mamluk Sultan, Barquq, and on the
fatwas of the Maliki and Shafi'i qadis. According to most
accounts, he was kept in prison for one year and then
executed by blows of the sword followed by crucifixion,
stoning and then being burned. His death occurred on 9
Jamadi I 786/1384.
Shahid ath-Thani (the Second Martyr), Shaykh Zaynu'd-Din ibn
'Ali al-'Amili al-Juba'i. b. Shawwal 911/1506, Juba' in the
Jabal 'Amil. He studied in Juba' under his father arid at
Mays in the Jabal 'Amil under Shaykh 'Ali al-Maysi; he may
also have studied under Muhaqqiq al-Karaki; then in about
937/1530 he went to Damascus, in 942/1535 to Egypt,and in
951/1544 to Istanbul, studying in each place under Sunni
ulama. In 951/1544 he became a teacher at the Sunni Madrasa
Nuriyya in Ba'albakk in the Biqa' Valley. Here he taught the
four Sunni schools of law under taqiyya as well as Shi'i
students. His major contribution was to standardise the
subject of Dirayat al-Hadith, the study and classification
of the hadith, using largely his knowledge of Sunni
scholarship on this subject. His major book is Rawdat al-
Bahiyya which is a commentary on Shahid al-Awwal's al-Luma'a
ad-Dimashqiyya. Among his students were Shaykh Husayn, the
father of Shaykh Bahá'í, and Sayyid 'Ali ibn Husayn as
Sa'igh, a teacher of both Muqaddas Ardibili and Shaykh Hasan
Sahibu'l-Ma'alim. A man whom he had given judgement against
complained to the Wali of Sidon and, as a result, Shahid
ath-Thani was summoned to Istanbul. He was killed in
966/1558 either in or on his way to Istanbul.
Shari'atmadari, Ayatu'llah Hajj Sayyid Kazim ibn Hasan
Husayni Burujirdi Tabrizi Qummi b. 1322/1904, Tabriz.
Studied at Tabriz, then in 1343/1924 he came to Qumm and
studied under Ha'iri-Yazdi before going on to Najaf where he
studied under Na'ini, Isfahani and 'Iraqi. He returned to
Tabriz and taught fiqh there. Then in 1369/1949, he came
once more to Qumm and began to teach there. After
Burujirdi's death he became one of the leading maraji' with
followers in Iran, especially Adharbayjan, Pakistan, India,
Lebanon, Kuwait and the Gulf. He was the founder of the Dar
at-Tabligh Islami (House of Islamic Propagation) which
specialises in teaching students, and especially foreign
students, at Qumm using modern educational methods, as well
as distributing Shi'i literature throughout the world. He
was also the administrator of the Madrasa Fatima in Qumm. He
specialises in the teaching of akhlaq as well as fiqh. He
was formally stripped of his rank of Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma
after the discovery in April 1982 of a plot against Khumayni
which was said to have had his support.
Sharif al-Murtada see 'Alamu'l-Huda
Shaykhu'sh-Shari'a (Shaykh of the Shari'a), Shaykh
Fathu'llah ibn Muhammad Jawad Namazi Shirazi, also known as
Shari'at Isfahani. b. 1266/1849, Isfahan. Studied at Isfahan
and, in 1295/1878, moved to Najaf where he studied under
Mirza Habibu'llah Rashti and Shaykh Muhammad Husayn al-
Kazimi. He participated in the Shi'i revolt against the
British in 1920-23. His students include Ayatu'llahs Milani,
Mar'ashi-Najafi and Khu'i and Agha Buzurg Tihrani. He became
sole marja' for the Shi'i world in August 1920 after the
death of Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi but only survived the
latter by four months and died on 9 Rabi' II 1339/20
December 1920, Najaf and was buried there.
Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa (Shaykh of the Sect), Abu Ja'far Muhammad
ibn Hasan at-Tusi, also known simply as ash-Shaykh. b.
Ramadan 385/955 Tus in Khurasan. Studied at Tus and then in
408/1017 moved to Baghdad where he studied under Shaykh al-
Mufid and 'Alamu'l-Huda. After the death of the latter,
Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa became the leading Shi'i scholar and taught
in Baghdad where he had as many as 300 students. His most
important works are the two collections of hadith entitled
al-Tahdhib and al-Istibsar, an-Nihaya on fiqh, al-Ghayba on
the Occultation, and the bio-bibliographical works, ar-Rijal
and al-Fihrist. His students include his son, Shaykh Hasan.
In 448/1056 his house was attacked and his library burned
during Sunni-Shi'i riots in Baghdad and as a result of this
he moved to Najaf. d. 22 Muharram 460/1067, Najaf and buried
Shirazi, Ayatu'llah Sayyid 'Abdu'llah ibn Muhammad Tahir
Tahiri Shirazi. b. 1309/1891, Shiraz. Studied at Najaf and
then became a teacher at Mashhad. After opposing the Shah,
he was jailed and later left for Najaf. He was one of the
leading maraji' in Najaf after the death of Ayatu'llah al-
Hakim and built three madrasas there. In 1975 he returned to
Mashhad where he was one of the maraji'. d. 27 September
Shirazi, Mirza-yi Hajji Mirza Sayyid Muhammad Hasan ibn
Mahmud Shirazi, Hujjatu'l-Islam. b. Jamadi I 1230/1815,
Shiraz. Studied in Isfahan and then in Najaf under Shaykh
Murtada Ansari as well as Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi and
Shaykh Hasan Al Kashifu'l-Ghita. After the death of Ansari,
he became the leading Shi'i scholar and eventually sole
marja' at-Taqlid. In 1292/1875 he moved to Samarra and began
teaching there. He is perhaps best known for his opposition
to the Tobacco Regie in 1891. But he is also important for
having reorganised and consolidated the teaching off fiqh
along the lines that it has continued to be taught to the
present day. However, he wrote no books of note. He was the
teacher of the most prominent ulama of the next generation
including Akhund Khurasani, Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, Muhammad
Taqi Shirazi, Na'ini and Ha'iri-Yazdi. d. 24 Sha'ban
1312/1895, Samarra and buried in Najaf.
Shirazi, Mirza Muhammad Taqi ibn Muhibb 'Ali Shirazi Ha'iri.
b. Ramadan 1269/1853, Shiraz. Grew up in Karbala where he
began his studies then moved to Samarra where he studied
under Mirza-yi Shirazi. After the death of Mirza-yi Shirazi,
he remained in Samarra for a while teaching but then
moved to Karbala. Became sole marja' after the death of
Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi in 1919. He led the start of the
Shi'i revolt against the British Mandate in Iraq in 1920 but
died in its early stages. His writings include Hashiyya 'ala
al-Makasib. He was the teacher of many students including
Aqa Husayn Qummi. d. 13 Dhu'l-Hijja 1338/28 August 1920,
Karbala and buried there.
Shushtari, Mulla 'Abdu'llah ibn Husayn Shushtari (at-
Tustari). Born in Shushtar in south-west Iran. Studied under
Shaykh Ni'matu'llah ibn Khatun 'Amili, a student of Muhaqqiq
Karaki, and Muqaddas Ardibili in Najaf from about 977/1569.
After the death of Ardibili remained in Najaf teaching for
about fourteen years until he moved to Isfahan in about
1007/1598. He was the leading teacher in Isfahan and was
responsible for building up Isfahan as a centre of Shi'i
scholarship. His books include Sharh al-Qawa'id. He was the
teacher of Muhammad Taqi Majlisi. d. 26 Muharram 1021/1612,
Isfahan, and buried Karbala.
Tabataba'i, Sayyid 'Ali ibn Muhammad 'Ali Isfahani. b. 12
Rabi' I 1161/1748, Kazimayn. Nephew of Vahid Bihbahani.
Studied under Bihbahani whose daughter he married. After the
death of Bihbahani, maintained the importance of Karbala as
a centre of teaching. Held a famous debate with Mirza
Muhammad Akhbari. His best-known book is Riyad al-Masa'il,
known as al-Sharh al-Kabir. Teacher of Mulla Ahmad Naraqi
and Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i. d. Muharram 1231/Dec. 1815,
at-Tusi, Shaykh Muhammad see Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa
Tusi, Khwaja Nasiru'd-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad, also known
as Muhaqqiq Tusi. b. II Jamadi I 597/1201, Tus in Khurasan.
Studied in Tus under Shi'i ulama such as his father who was
a student of Diya'u'd-Din Rawandi and also under teachers of
philosophy such as Faridu'd-Din Damad who traced his
teachers back to Abu 'Ali, ibn Sina (Avicenna). However, he
left home while still in his youth, possibly as a result of
the Mongol advance towards Khurasan, and then lived for over
thirty years among the Isma'ilis at first in Quhistan in
east Iran and later at Alamut. During this time Khwaja
Nasiru'd-Din wrote several important books in accordance
with Isma'ili doctrines, and therefore he is also claimed by
the Isma'ilis as one of their foremost exponents. After the
fall of the Isma'ili strongholds to the Mongol leader Hulagu
Khan, in 1256, Khwaja Nasiru'd-Din became Hulagu Khan's
astrologer and was able to save many of the valuable
manuscripts in the libraries of Alamut and Baghdad from
destruction at the hands of the Mongols. After the fall of
Baghdad in 656/1258, Khwaja Nasiru'd-Din devoted his
attention to the building of an astronomical observatory at
Maragha. He wrote on astronomy, mathematics, ethics,
medicine, geography and history but his most important
contribution to Twelver Shi'ism was his development of Shi'i
kalam so as to incorporate philosophical concepts. His books
include Tajrid al-I'tiqadat on kalam and al-Akhlaq an-
Nasiriyya on ethics. He was the teacher of 'Allama al-Hilli.
d. 18 Dhu'l-Hijja 672/1274, buried at Kazimayn.
Yazdi Sayyid Muhammad Kazim ibn 'Abdu'l-'Azim Tabataba'i
Yazdi Najafi. b. c. 1247/1831, Kasnu near Yazd. He travelled
to Isfahan and then to Najaf in 1281/1864 where he studied
under Mirza-yi Shirazi. He began to teach at Najaf after the
death of Shirazi and became sole marja' after the death of
Akhund Khurasani in 1911. Unlike most of the other Iraqi
ulama he was opposed to the Constitutional Movement in Iran.
He lived in the village of Huwaysh near Najaf. His most
famous book is 'Urwa al-Wuthqa on fiqh. He was the teacher
of Ayatu'llahs Burujirdi, Khwansari and Husayn Qummi. d. 28
Rajab 1337/1919, Huwaysh, and buried in Najaf.
I. AN OUTLINE OF THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD AND THE EARLY
HISTORY OF ISLAM
There are numerous biographical accounts of Muhammad and
histories of Islam. For someone who wants a detailed
biography of Muhammad, Alfred Guillaume's translation of ibn
Hisham's Sira entitled The Life of Muhammad can be
recommended, as well as Montgomery Watt's two volumes,
Muhammad at Mecca and Muhammad at Medina, and Martin Lings'
Muhammad. Surveys of the course of Islamic history include
Carl Brockelmann, History of the Islamic Peoples; M. G. S.
Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, 3 vols.; and Cambridge
History of Islam, 2 vols. A useful book that includes a
fairly detailed biography of Muhammad and a survey of
Islamic history is H. M. Balyuzi, Muhammad and the Course of
Islam. More general works on Islam including doctrine and
practice include: Kenneth Cragg, The Call of the Minaret;
Frithjof Schuon, Understanding Islam; and for surveys of
Islam written by Muslims see Syed Ameer Ali, The Spirit of
Islam; K. Morgan (ed. ), Islam, the Straight Path. Of the
numerous translations of the Qur'an that have been
attempted, probably the best is that of A. J. Arberry. For
specific subjects a very useful source of information is the
Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1st edition, 1913-34; new edition
1960--proceeding; although this source is relatively poor on
Shi'i subjects. More information on Shi'i subjects will be
provided in forthcoming issues of the Encyclopaedia Iranica.
2. THE QUESTION OF THE SUCCESSION TO MUHAMMAD
Arabic: A useful compilation of many of the Traditions cited
in this chapter can be found in ibn Tawus, al-Yaqin, and in
a modern work, az-Zanjani, 'Aqa'id al-Imamiyya, pp. 88-99.
The Sunni Traditions relating to 'Ali can be found in most
compilations of Traditions in the chapter on 'Ali in the
section 'Fada'il or Manaqib as-Sahaba' (The Virtues of the
Companions). Concerning the events of the Saqifa, Baladhuri,
Ansab al-Ashraf, has a good cross-section of Sunni and Shi'i
accounts of this episode.
European languages: A useful and detailed review of this
subject can be found in Jafri, Origins and Early Development
of Shi'a Islam. Some of the Traditions given here are also
to be found in Tabataba'i, Shi'ite Islam (Chap. 6).
Or according to some sources, eleven years of age; see ibn
Athir, al-Ka-mil, Vol. 2, p. 42.
NOTES FOR PAGES 11 TO 17
2 Some Sunni sources state that Abu Bakr was the first to
believe in Muhammad. But even the most respected
collections of Sunni Traditions contain examples giving
'Ali the credit for being first. See, for example,
Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, pp. 300, 301; Ibn Hanbal,
Musnad, Vol. I, pp. 209-210. The discrepancy can be
accounted for by allowing that 'Ali preceded Abu Bakr,
but that Abu Bakr was the first male adult to accept
Muhammad, 'Ali being then only a child (see Tirmidhi,
Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 301).
3 Qur'an 26: 214.
4 at-Tabari, Ta'rikh, Vol 1, pp. 1172-3.
5 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 299,
6 Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 2, p. 324.
7 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, contains more than 10 separate
Traditions in which this sentence occurs with respect
to 'Ali: Vol.. I, pp. 170, 173, 174-5, 179, 182-3, 184,
331; Vol.3, pp. 32, 338; Vol.6, pp. 369, 438. See also
Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 301 (2 Traditions); Muslim,
Sahih, Vol. 2, pp. 323-4 (4 Traditions); ibn Maja,
Sunan, Vol. I, Bab II, pp. 42-3, No. 115; p. 45, No.
8 ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I, p. 151; similar Tradition in
Vol. I, p. 3.
9 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 299.
10 Ibn Maja, Sunan, Vol. I, Bab II, p. 42, No. 114.
11 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 299; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Vol. I,
Bab II, p. 44, No. 119.
12 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 298.
13 al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3, pp. 126-7.
14 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 299.
15 ibid. pp.300, 319, 320.
16 ibid. p. 300.
17 ibid. p.301.
18 ibid. p. 306.
19 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 4, p. 281; similar Traditions
can be found in the same work: Vol. 1, pp. 84, 118,
119, 152, 331; Vol. 4, pp. 367, 370, 372; Vol. 5, pp.
347, 366, 419 and in many other works such as ibn Maja,
Sunan, Vol. I, Bab II, p.43, No. 116.
20 al-Bukhari, Sahih, Kitab al-'Ilm, Bab 40, Vol. 1, p. 41.
21 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I, p. 175.
22 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 3, p. 59. Similar hadith in
Vol. 3, pp. 3, 17, 26; Vol. 4, pp. 366-7; Vol. 5, pp.
151-2; also Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 308; Muslim,
Sahih, Vol. 2, pp. 325-6.
23 Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 2, pp. 323-4; Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol.
2, p. 300.
24 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, pp. 308, 320.
25 Ibn Hajar, as-Sawa'iq, pp. 150, 184; al-Hakim, al-
Mustadrak, Vol. 3, pp. 150-51.
26 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 298.
27 ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 1, p. 331.
28 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 299; Ibn Maja, Sunan, Vol. 1,
Bab II, p. 44, No. 118.
29 Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 320.
NOTES FOR PAGES 17 TO 26
30 al-Mufid, al-Ikhtisas quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar,
Vol. 26, p. 30, Nos. 38--41.
31 Majlis,., Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 26, p. 6.
32 ibid. pp. 4-5; similar Tradition in ibn Babuya, 'Uyun al-
Akhbar ar-Rida, quoted in Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 39, p. 36,
33 Qur'an 13:7.
34 Suyuti, ad-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. 4, p. 45.
35 Qur'an 5:55.
36 Razi, at-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. 12, p. 26.
37 For a review of these see Jafri, Origins, pp. 27-57.
38 Baladhuri, Ansab al-Ashraf, Vol. 1, p. 580.
39 al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, Vol. 2, p. 137.
40 at-Tabari, Ta'rikh, Vol. I, pp. 2769-70; this phrase
occurs several times.
41 Baladhuri, Ansab al-Ashraf, Vol. 1, pp-581, 583
42 ibid. p. 588 (2 Traditions).
43 But see, for example, at-Tabari, Ta'rikh, Vol. 1, pp.
2769-70 where even in this source which is accepted by
Sunnis, the mutual dislike of 'Umar and the house of Hashim
is clearly seen.
44 'Ali, for example, disagreed with 'Umar on the question
of the distribution of money from the Central Treasury. The
Sunni collections have numerous Traditions showing how 'Ali
saved 'Umar from making erroneous legal decisions on several
occasions. 'Umar is reported to have said: ''Ali is the best
judge among us.
3. THE LIVES OF THE IMAMS AND EARLY DIVISIONS AMONG THE
Arabic and Persian: Important sources on the lives of the
Imams include Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad; Ibn
Shahrashub, Manaiqib Al Abi Talib; al-Irbili, Kashf al-
Ghumma; and Majlisi, Jala' al-'Uyun.
On the Shi'i sects the most important non-Shi'i sources
are: ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi, Kitab al-Farq bayn al-Firaq
(First part translated by Seelye and second
by Halkin); ash-Shahristani, al-Milal wa'n-Nihal (Tr. Kazi
and Flynn); ibn Hazm, al-Fasl fi'l-Milal (Tr. Friedlander);
al-Khayyat, al-Intisar (Tr. Nader); al-Ash'ari, Maqalat al-
Islamiyyin. Shi'i sources include: an-Nawbakhti, Firaq ash-
Shi'a (Tr. Mashkur) and al-Qummi, al-Maqalat.
European languages: One of the most important Arabic sources
on the lives of the Imams, al-Mufid, al-Irshad, has been
translated into English by Howard. Jafri, Origins and Early
Development of Shi'a Islam, has given a detailed and
review of the traditional accounts for the period of the
first six Imams. Hussain, Occultation of the Twelfth Imam,
has useful information from the period of the last six
On the Shi'i sects several of the important sources have
been translated as indicated above. See also Ivanow, 'Early
Shi'ite Movements', for some additional information from
1 For example al-Mufid, al-Irshad; see notes 13 and
2 ibn Maja, Sunan, Vol. 1, p. 44, No. 118.
NOTES FOR PAGES 26 TO 59
3 ibid. p. 51, No. 143.
4 `Ashura (10 Muharram) had been a Holy Day of
atonement and fasting in pre-Islamic and Jewish
custom, long before the martyrdom of Husayn on
that day. Muhammad had ordained it as a day of
5 The al-Hurr family of Lebanon which has produced
many prominent Shi'i ulama claims descent from
6 al-Mufid, al-Irshad, pp. 227-8 (Tr. pp. 364-5).
Also quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 45,
p. 116. Some of the Shi'i histories have a similar
episode occurring when the head of Husayn reaches
Damascus and is hit by Yazid.
7 al-Mufid, al-Irshad, pp. 228-9 (Tr. p. 366). Also
quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 45, pp. 117-18.
8 Jafri, Origins, pp. 200-204.
9 The years AH 36, 37 and 38 are all mentioned by
different sources. For the different versions of
the dates of the births and deaths of the Imams,
see the relevant sections in Majlisi, Jala'al-
10 al-Mas'udi, Muruj adh-Dhahab Vol. 5, pp 467-8.
11 Jafri, Origins, pp. 290-3.
12 Hussain, Occultation, pp. 46-7.
13 al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 308 (Tr. p. 495).
14 ibid. p. 314 (Tr. p. 506).
15 al-Kashshi, Rijal, p. 48.
16 ibid. p. 70.
17 ibn Hazm, see Friedlander, 'Heterodoxies' 1, p.
45; Shahristani, see Kazi, 'Shahristani', p. 76.
18 ibn Hazm, see Friedlander, 'Heterodoxies' 1, p. 45
19 ibid.; Maqrizi, Kitab al-Mawa'iz, Vol. 2, pp. 356-
20 ibn Hazm, see Friedlander, 'Heterodoxies' 1, p.
21 Shahristani, see Kazi, 'Shahristani', pp. 56-7.
22 al-Mas'udi, Muruj, Vol. 6, p. 186.
23 ibn Tahir, al-Farq, pp. 242-3 (Tr. pp. 74-5)
24 ibid. p. 243 (Tr. pp. 75-8).
25 ibn Hazm, see Friedlander, 'Heterodoxies' I, pp.
26 ibid. p. 56.
27 al-Kashshi, Rijal, p. 206.
28 Ivanow (ed.), 'Ummu'l-kitab', p. 11 of text, p. 97
29 The Murji'ites were a group who took some of the
important early steps towards what was to become
the final Sunni position on matters of theology
and politics. See Watt, Islamic Philosophy, pp.
30 al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 268 (Tr. pp. 432-3); also
quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 47, p.
31 It is said that in the course of argument, 'Ali
al-Maythami, one of the followers of Imam Ja'far
as-Sadiq, said to them: 'You are nothing but rain-
drenched dogs' - it being considered that the
smell of rain-drenched dogs was worse than that of
32 al-Mas'udi, Muruj, Vol. 8, p. 40.
33 al-Qummi, al-Maqalat, pp. 102-16.
34 an-Nawbakhti, Firaq, p. 79.
NOTES FOR PAGES 61 TO 78
4. EARLY HISTORY OF SHI'I ISLAM, AD 632--1000
Arabic and Persian: The heresiographers are an important
source, see note on sources for the previous chapter. Of the
Muslim historians, at-Tabari, Ta'rikh; al-Ya'qubi, Ta'rikh;
and al-Mas'udi, Muruj adh-Dhahab give the most information
European languages: No western scholar has produced an
adequate survey of Shi'ism in this period. The articles by
Hodgson, 'How did the early Shi'a . . . '; Kohlberg, 'From
Imamiyya to Ithna-'Ashariyya'; Madelung, 'Imamism and
Mu'tazilite Theology'; and Watt, 'The Rafidites' and
'Shi'ism and the Umayyads' provide valuable insights. See
also note for previous chapter.
1 See, for example, Hodgson, 'How did the early
Shi'a . . . ', p. 1.
2 Watt, 'The Rafidites', p. 111; idem, Islamic
Philosophy, p. 50.
3 Tabari, Ta'rikh, Vol. 2, pp. 131-2.
4 Jafri, Origins, pp. 200-205 quoted on pp. 31-2 of
the present book.
5 Even the Zaydis generally accept Hasan in spite of
his resignation. They do not count the quietist
Zaynu'l-'Abidin as an Imam.
6 This is confirmed in Kashshi, Rijal, pp. 81-2,
where it is stated that Muhammad al-Baqir said
that after the death of Husayn all but three of
the people apostasised (i.e. withdrew their
allegiance from Zaynu'l-'Abidin) and only later
did others join these three.
7 Hodgson, 'How did the early Shi'a . . . ', p. 5.
8 See, for example, ibn Hazm in Friedlander,
'Heterodoxies' I, p. 55.
9 Hodgson, 'How did the early Shi'a . . . ', p. 6.
10 al-Khayyat, al-Intisar, pp. 5ff., and al-Ash'ari,
Maqalat al-Islamiyyin, quoted in Madelung,
'Imamism . . . ', pp. 13-14.
11 al-Nu'mani, Kitab al-Ghayba (Tehran 1318/1900),
pp. 4ff., quoted in Kohlberg, 'From Imamiyya . . .
', p. 524.
12 ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, Vol. I, p. 2.
13 This point has been fully argued by Kohlberg,
'From Imamiyya . . .', pp. 522-3, based on
evidence from al-Barqi (d. 274/887 or 280/893),
Kitab al-Mahasin, and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-
Qummi (d. 290/903), Basa'ir ad-Darajat.
14 See Kohlberg, 'From Imamiyya . . . ', p. 523, who
quotes as evidence 'Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Qummi (d.
307/919), Tafsir, and Muhammad al-Kulayni (d.
329/940), Usul al-Kafi.
15 al-Nu'mani, Kitab al-Ghayba, cited in Majlisi,
Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p. 142.
16 On al-Khayyat and al-Ash'ari, see p. 74 and note
10 supra. On the differing agents of the Hidden
Imam see Massignon, Passion of al-Hallaj, Vol. I,
17 See Sahl ibn Ziyad al-Adami (Najashi, Rijal, p.
132) and Muhammad ibn 'Ali al-Qurashi (Najashi,
Rijal, p. 134). Another resident of Qumm who was
opposed for his ghulat views was Muhammad ibn
'Urama al-Qumm (Najashi, Rijal, p. 231).
18 Especially his Kitab at-Tawhid; see MacDermott,
Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufid,
19 MacDermott, Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufid, pp.
341-6, quoting from ibn Babuya, Kitab al-Hidaya
and Risalat al-I'tiqadat.
20 MacDermott, Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufid, pp.
347-9, quoting from ibn Babuya, Kitab at-Tawhid.
21 For a consideration of the relationships between
the theologies of ibn Babuya, Shaykh al-Mufid,
'Alamu'l-Huda and the Mu'tazilites see MacDermott,
Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufid.
22 Kulayni, al-Kafi, Vol. I, pp. 228-9.
23 In fact the table is derived from Shaykhu't-
Ta'ifa's Fihrist together with Muhammad ibn
Muhammad Muhsin 'Alamu'l-Huda's supplement to this
work, Nadad al-Idah, as published in the edition
by A. Sprenger (ed. Mahmud Ramyar).
24 Tihrani, Tabaqat A'lam ash-Shi'a (5th century).
5. SHI'I ISLAM IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD, AD 1000--1500
Sources Arabic and Persian: Of contemporary sources,
Qazwini, Kitab an-Naqd, is one of the most useful. The great
universal histories of ibn al-Jawzi, ibn al-Athir, Abu'l-
Fida and ibn Kathir contain some useful information although
each author tends merely to copy the previous author and
only adds new material for the period following the previous
author's death. Juwayni, Ta'rikh-i Jihan-gusha and
Hamdu'llah Mustawfi Qazwini, Ta'rikh-i Guzida, are also of
importance. Of modern works on this period, ash-Shaybi, Fikr
ash-Shi'i, is very useful for the connections between
Shi'ism and Sufism throughout this period.
European languages: There has been very little research on
Shi'ism during this period. The most useful sources are the
two articles by Bausani in the fifth volume of the Cambridge
History of Iran. Mazzaoui, Origin of the Safawids; Spuler,
Die Mongolen in Iran; and Smith, History of the Sarbadar
Dynasty also contain much useful information.
1 Ibn Athir, Kamil, Vol. 9, p. 11; regarding the
2 Ibn Kathir, Bidaya wa Nihaya Vol. 12, p. 152.
3 Nasir Khusraw, who travelled through the area in
439/1047, states that all of the inhabitants of
Tripoli and most of those of Tyre and Tiberius
were Shi'i (Safarnama, pp. 18, 20-21, 25); Yaqut
quotes a letter from ibn Butlan from about
440/1048 which states that the fuqaha of Aleppo
gave their fatwas according to the Imami school
(Mu'jam al-Buldan Vol. 3, p. 313).
4 Ibn Jubayr writes in the course of his description
of Damascus (which he visited in 580/1184): 'The
Shi'a in these lands have strange manifestations.
They are more numerous than the Sunnis there and
have spread their doctrines throughout the lands.'
Rihla, p. 280.
5 Derived from Agha Buzurg Tihrani, Tabaqat (6th
century), Vol. 3, p. 313.
6 Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 1, pp. 209-10.
7 ash-Shaybi, Fikr ash-Shi'i, pp. 82-4.
8 Ibn Hajar, ad-Durar al-Kamina, Vol. 2, p. 72, n.
9 Derived from Tihrani, Tabaqat (7th Century) and
Tabaqat (8th Century).
10 See Minorsky, 'Shah-Jihan'.
6. SHI'I ISLAM IN MODERN TIMES, AD 1500--1900
Arabic and Persian: The most important primary source for
the Safavid period is Iskandar Beg Munshi, Ta'rikh-i 'Alam-
ara-yi 'Abbasi. For the period of Nadir Shah, see Mirza
Mahdi Khan, Ta'rikh-i Nadiri. For the Qajar period, the
court histories Sipihr, Nasikh at-Tawarikh, and Hidayat,
Rawdat as-Safa, are important sources. See also the
biographical dictionaries of the ulama such as Tunukabuni,
Qisas al-'Ulama, Kashmiri, Nujum as-Sama, and Khwansari,
European languages: There are several books that cover the
Safavid period and the 18th century but none of them make
much mention of religious issues: Savory, Iran under the
Safavids; Lockhart, The Fall of the Safavi Dynasty and Nadir
Shah. Much more useful for religious issues are the papers
by Lambton, 'Quis Custodiet Custodes', and Arjomand,
'Religion, Political Action . . . ' and 'Religious Extremism
. . . '. On the religious policy of Nadir Shah, see Gursoy,
'Nadir Shah's religious policy', and Algar, 'Shi'ism and
Iran'. For the Qajar period there is a great deal of
information on religious issues in Algar, Religion and
State, and in Browne, Literary History, Vol. 4. For Shi'ism
in India see Hollister, Shi'a of India, and Cole, Ph.D.,
'Imami Shi'ism from Iran to North India'.
1 al-Ghazzi, al-Kawakib as-Sa'ira quoted in ash-
Shaybi, Fikr ash-Shi'a, p. 409.
2 This threat was clearly perceived by those in
neighbouring countries. See, for example, the
reference by ibn Tulun of Damascus to Isma'il as
'seeking to be a new Timurlane'; Hartmann, Das
Tubinger Fragment, p. 61, and p. 24 of text.
3 See Arjomand, 'Religious Extremism', p. 31.
4 Khwansar,., Rawdat al-Jannat, p. 404.
5 However, it should be noted that according to a
twelfth-century source, some Shi'i madrasas
existed in Iran at that time particularly at Rayy.
See Qazwini, Kitab an-Naqd, quoted in Bausani,
'Religion in Saljuq Period', p. 295. However,
religious studies in the Shi'i field had virtually
ceased in Iran by the start of the Safavid period.
6 Chardin, Voyages, Vol. 5, p. 208; Vol. 6, pp. 249-
50. Du Mans, Estat de la Perse, p. 162.
7 Browne, Literary History of Persia, Vol. 4, p.
404; 'Risalat li-Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi', quoted
in Lockhart, Fall of the Safavi Dynasty, p. 70.
8 Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, pp. 336-7; Kashmiri,
Nujum, pp. 64-5.
9 ibid. p. 185.
10 There is indeed a passing reference to Akhbaris in
the twelfth-century work, Qazwini, Kitab an-Naqd
(see Madelung, 'Imamism and Mu'tazilite Theology',
pp. 20-21). The dispute between Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa
and ibn Idris in the 5th/11th and 6th/12th
centuries (see p. 89) was probably in part a
prodrome of the Usuli-Akhbari dispute in that
Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa is considered to have taken an
Akhbari line in his book Kitab an-Nihaya while ibn
Idris is described as a 'pure mujtahid' (Bahrani,
Lu'lu,'at Bahrayn, pp. 276, 297).
11 Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, p. 405; ash-Shaybi,
Fikr ash-Shi'i, p. 416; ash-Shaybi, 'Sufism and
Shi'ism', Ph.D., p. 382. Al-Karaki was even called
the 'inventor of Shi'ism' by Sunni writers perhaps
on account of this innovative use of ijtihad, see
Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, p. 404.
12 Quoted in Kashmiri, Nujum as-Sama, p. 42. Among
Majlisi's teachers were at least five Akhbaris: a
pupil and son-in-law of Muhammad Amin Astarabadi,
Muhammad Mu'min Astarabadi; the latter's son,
Muhammad Muhsin; Muhammad Tahir Shirazi Qummi;
Shaykh Muhammad al-Hurr al-'Amili and Mulla
Muhsin-i Fayd (See Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol.
105, pp. 79, 82; Vol. 110, pp. 103--6, 124, 129--
31); that is, if Majlisi's father who was probably
an Akhbari is not counted. In some recent works
(see Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, p. 47 and note;
Corbin, En Islam iranien, Vol. 4, p. 250) it has
been implied that the Akhbari viewpoint favoured
mysticism and philosophical speculation and this
would obviously militate against the possibility
of Muhammad Baqir Majlisi being in favour of the
Akhbari school. But in fact, the Akhbaris included
among their number some prominent antagonists of
Sufism and mysticism such as Muhammad Tahir
Shirazi and al-Hurr al-'Amili. Thus it would
appear that the Akhbari-Usuli dispute was purely
about legal issues and did not affect this area.
It is probably also of relevance to note that 'Ali
Davvani, in giving a list of the most important
Shi'i mujtahids from earliest times to the time of
Vahid Bihbahani, omits both Muhammad Baqir Majlisi
and his father (Vahid Bihbahani, pp. 64-9).
13 Shaykh Yusuf eventually abandoned his support for
the Akhbaris and adopted a neutral stance in face
of the strong Usuli advance in his time.
14 Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, p. 39.
15 Muhammad Taqi Majlisi quoted in Khwansari, op.
cit., pp. 38-9.
16 Lockhart, Nadir Shah, p. 60.
17 Kashmiri, Nujum as-Sama-, pp. 316-17.
18 There is some uncertainty as to whether Shaykh
Muhammad Hasan Najafi, who held an ijaza from
Shaykh Ahmad, participated in the Takfir or not.
He did, however, come out against the Shaykhis at
a later date
are indications that th re were other maraji'
during most of Shirazi's lifetime. Sayyid Husayn
Turk (Kuhkamari) of Najaf was marja' for much of
the Caucasus and Adharbayjan and he died in
1299/1882 although he was paralysed from 1291/1874
onwards. After the death of Sayyid Husayn Turk,
most of those who followed him turned to Shaykh
Muhammad Iravani (d. 1306/1888) of Najaf. Shaykh
Zaynu'l-'Abidin Mazandarani, a resident of
Karbala, appears to have been regarded by Indian
Shi'is as their marja' as well as being marja' for
the Karbala area. He died in 1309/1892 only two
years before the death of Mirza-yi Shirazi. Shaykh
Muhammad Hasan Ya Sin (d. 1308/1891), resident of
Kazimayn, was marja' for the Kazimayn area.
Another important figure was Shaykh Habibu'llah
Rashti (d. Jamadi II 1312/1894) who, although he
does not appear to have claimed the rank of
marja', was considered the leading scholar and
teacher of Najaf. See Hirzu'd-Din, Ma'arif ar-
Rijal Vol. 1, pp. 204-5, and entries under each of
these names in Hirzu'd-Din, Ma'arif ar-Rijal and
Tihrani, Tabaqat (13th and 14th cent.).
23 Algar, Religion and Slate, p. 208.
7. THE IMAMATE
Arabic and Persian: For this chapter I have taken as the
basis the section on the Imamate in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar
and Kulayni, al-Kaft. European languages: There is no full
account of the Imamate in any European language. Donaldson
has a survey of some of the main points in the relevant
chapter in his book The Shi'ite Religion (Chap. 29).
For these notes: Majlisi. Bihar al-Anwar is abbreviated BA
Kulayni, al-Kafi is abbreviated KK
1 Ibn Babuya, 'Ilal ash Shari'a, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 22, No. 25. See also KK, Vol. 1, pp. 178.
2 Ibn Babuya, 'Ilal ash-Shari'a, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 22, No. 24. See also KK, Vol. 1, pp. 178-9.
3 Ibn Babuya, 'Ilal ash-Shari'a, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 19, No. 14.
4 Ibn Babuya, Amali, quoted in BA, Vol. 23, pp. 57-
8, No. I.
5 al-Bursi, Mashariq al Anwar, quoted in BA, Vol.
25, p. 24, No. 42. See also BA, Vol. 26, p. 3.
6 Hasan ibn Sulayman al-Hilli, Muntakhab al-Basa'ir,
quoted in BA, Vol. 53, p. 46, No. 20; and al-
Bursi, Mashariq al-Anwar, quoted in BA, Vol. 25,
p. 23, No. 39. See also BA, Vol. 25, pp. 15-25,
Nos. 28-45, and Kirmani, Kitab al-Mubin, Vol. 1,
7 BA, Vol. 25, p. 17, No. 31.
8 Quoted in Kirmani, Kitab al-Mubin, Vol. 1, p. 241.
9 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
25, pp. 10-13, Nos. 14, 16, 23-6.
10 BA, Vol. 25, p. 10.
11 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
25, p. 56, No. 22. See also BA, Vol. 25, pp. 56-7.
12 'Abdu'llah al-Bahram, al-'Awalim, quoted in
Kirmani, Kitab al-Mubin, Vol. I, p. 281. See also
BA, Vol. 26, pp. 83-4. Indeed, in some Traditions
the 'Bee' is interpreted as being the Imam; BA,
Vol. 24, pp. 110-13.
13 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in Kirmani,
Kitab al-Mubin, Vol. I, p. 283.
14 According to three Traditions quoted in BA, Vol.
26, p. 67, No. 5; pp. 6970, No. 10; p. 74, No. 26,
the phrase 'or a speaker (muhaddith, meaning the
Imam)' has dropped from and should be added on to
the sentence 'And whenever we sent an apostle or a
prophet . . . ' (Qur'an 22: 52).
15 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
26, pp. 75-6, No. 29. See also pp. 74-8, Nos. 27-
16 al-Qummi, Tafsir, quoted in BA, Vol. 23, p. 206.
17. KK, Vol. 1, p. 187, No. 11.
18 Imam 'Ali in the Tradition known as the hadith an-
Nuraniyya; BA, Vol. 26, p-23, 2-33. KK, Vol. 1,
pp. 214-15, Nos. 1-4.
NOTES FOR PAGES 152 TO 156
35 al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, quoted in BA, Vol. 23, pp.
189-90, No. 6.
36 at-Tabarsi, Majma' al-Bayan, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, pp. 284-5. Ibn Babuya, 'Uyun al-Akhbar-Rida,
and other sources quoted in BA, Vol. 23, pp. 285-
91, Nos. 2, 3, 13, 16-18, 26-32, 37-43, 47, 49-53.
37 at-Tabarsi, Majma' al-Bayan, and other sources
quoted in BA, Vol. 24, pp. 31, 33, Nos. 3-5, 8-
10. KK, Vol. 1, p. 208, Nos. 1, 2. ibn Shahrashub,
Manaqib, Vol. 2, p. 288; Vol. 3, p. 314.
38 al-Qummi, Tafsir, and other sources quoted in BA,
Vol. 23, pp. 167-71, Nos. 1-12.
39 al-Qummi, Tafsir, quoted in BA, Vol. 23, pp. 172-
4, Nos. 1-4. KK, Vol. 1, pp. 210-12, Nos. 1-9.
40 at-Tabarsi, Majma' al-Bayan, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 212. al' Ayyashi, Tafsir, quoted in BA,
Vol. 23, p. 225, Nos. 44-5.
41 at-Tabarsi, Majma' al-Bayan, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, pp. 229-32. Furat, Tafsir; al-Qummi, Tafsir,
and other sources quoted in BA, Vol. 23, pp. 236-
52, Nos. 2-31. al-Mufid, Ikhtisas, p. 63.
42 Baydawi, Anwar at-Tanzil, Vol. 5, p. 53. Razi,
Mafatih-Ghayb, Vol. 7, pp. 273-5.
43 'Alam ibn Sayf al-Hilli, Kanz Jaimi' al-Fawa'id,
quoted in BA, Vol. 23, pp. 257-8, No. 3.
44 'Alam ibn Sayf al-Hilli Kanz Jaimi' al-Fawa'id,
and other sources quoted in BA, Vol. 24, pp. 1-2,
4, 7-9, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 11, 13, 19, 22, 25. ibn
Shahrashub, Manaqib, Vol. 3, p. 403.
45 al-Qummi, Tafsir, and other sources quoted in BA,
Vol. 24, pp. 70-80, Nos. 4-10, 14-20. Some of the
Traditions quoted here give slightly different
interpretations to these verses.
46 Ibn Babuya, Al-Khisal, and other sources quoted in
BA, Vol. 24, pp. 97-9, Nos. 1-7.
47 at-Tabarsi, al-Ihtijaj, quoted in BA, Vol. 24, p.
213, Nos. 6-7.
48 al-Qummi, Tafsir, Furat, Tafsir, and other sources
quoted in BA, Vol. 24, pp. 247-52, Nos. 1-20.
50 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 73, No. 19.
51 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 71, No. (). Several other similar
Traditions quoted on pp. 70-72. See also KK, Vol.
I, pp. 227-9, Nos. 2, 4.
52 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 73, No. 17.
53 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 53, No. 113. See also BA, Vol. 25, pp.
105-110, Nos. 1-8.
54 Muhammad Javiri, Qisas al-Anbiya, quoted in BA,
Vol. 23, p. 33.
55 Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, quoted in Kirmani, Kitab
al-Mubin, Vol. 1, p. 264.
56 Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, quoted in Kirmani, Kitab
al-Mubin, Vol. 1, p. 265. Quotation from Qur'an
57 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, p. 196, No. 26.
58 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, pp. 198-9, No. 31 Similar Tradition from al-
Qummi, Tafsir, quoted in BA, Vol. 23, p. 191, No.
59 as-Saffar, Basa'ir ad-Darajat, quoted in BA, Vol.
25, p. 62, No. 40. Similar Traditions from various
sources in BA, Vol. 25, p. 59, Nos. 27-45.
60 KK, Vol. 1, p. 255, No. 1.
61 MacDermott, Theology, pp. 107-9. See also KK, Vol.
1, pp.256-7, Nos. 1-4.
62 KK, Vol. 1, pp. 274-5, Nos. 1-3.
63 'Abdu'llah al-Bahram, al-'Awalim, quoted in
Kirmani, Kitab al-Mubin, Vol. 1, p. 308.
64 BA, Vol. 23, pp. 79-955, gives this Tradition in
26 forms from nine different sources.
65 Commentary of Majlisi, BA, Vol. 23, p. 76.
66 'Alam ibn Sayfal-Hilli, Kanz Jami' al-Fawa'id,
quoted in BA, Vol. 23, p. 93.
67 Ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, quoted in BA, Vol. 23,
p. 88, No. 31.
68 Al-Nu'mani, al-Ghayba, quoted in BA, Vol. 23, p.
89, No. 34.
69 Ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, quoted in BA, Vol. 23,
p. 96, No. 2.
71 Ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, quoted in BA, Vol. 23,
p. 97, No. 4.
72 Ibn Babuya, Ma'ani al-Akhbar, quoted in BA, Vol.
23, pp. 100-101, No. 4.
8. THE TWELFTH IMAM, HIS OCCULTATION AND RETURN
Arabic and Persian: There are a large number of sources for
the doctrine of the Twelfth Imam. Some of the most important
are the early works that sought to establish the legitimacy
of the doctrine: al-Nu'mani, al-Ghayba, ibn Babuya, Kamal
ad-Din, and Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa, al-Ghayba. I have also used
the section on the Twelfth Imam in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar.
For a more recent view on the subject see Zanjani, 'Aqa'id
European languages: There have recently appeared two good
reviews of the doctrine of the Twelfth Imam and its place in
Shi'ism. Hussain, Occultation of the Twelfth Imam, presents
a review of the traditional historical accounts surrounding
the Occultation. Sachedina, Islamic Messianism, concentrates
on the doctrine itself and its significance for Shi'is. An
important source for an understanding of events during the
Lesser Occultation is Massignon, Passion of al-Hallaj.
1 ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, p. 516.
2 Sachedina, Islamic Messianism, pp. 86-7. Massignon
suggests that the first Bab, 'Uthman al-'Amri,
died in 258/871 (i.e. during the lifetime of the
Eleventh Imam and before the Occultation occurred)
and that there were several agents until about
280/893 when the second Bab, Muhammad ibn 'Uthman
al-'Amiri, succeeded in consolidating his
authority. Passion of al-Hallaj, Vol. 1, pp. 307-
3 See sources quoted by Kohlberg, 'From Imamiyya. .
.', p. 524. Also Hussain, Occultation, p. 143.
4 See, for example, the risala by Husayn ibn
Muhammad Taqi Nuri entitled
NOTES FOR PAGES 166 TO 169
Jannat al-Ma'wa (appended to Majlisi, Bihar al-
Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13) listing 59 such stories.
5 al-Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar
al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p. 210.
6 For Sunni sources see ibn Maja, Sunan, Bab Khuruj
al-Mahdi, pp. 1366, No. 4082; Abu Dawud, Sunan,
Kitab al-Mahdi, Vol. 2, p. 422. Shi'i sources for
this are numerous; see, for example, al-Mufid, al-
Irshad, p. 341 (Tr. 548).
7 az-Zanjani, 'Aqa'id, p. 255.
8 ibid. pp. 253-4.
9 ibid. p. 261, quoting Kulayni, al-Kafi (Rawda).
Zanjani concludes this Tradition by stating that
most of these signs are without doubt occurring
10 az-Zanjani, 'Aqa'id, pp. 258-9.
11 Ibn Babuya, Thawab al-A'mal, quoted in Majlisi,
Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p. 152.
12 For Sunni sources see ibn Maja, Sunan, p. 1367,
No. 4085; at-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 36; Abu
Dawud, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 422. For Shi'is the Mahdi
is the Twelfth Imam who was of course, a
descendant of Muhammad.
13 For Sunni sources see at-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2,
p. 36; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 420. For
Shi'is the Mahdi is, of course, Muhammad ibn Hasan
al-'Askari. However, interestingly, there are also
numerous Traditions that state that no name should
be attributed to the Hidden Imam prior to his
advent; see ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, p. 648.
14 For Sunni sources see at-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2,
p. 36; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Vol. 2, pp. 422-3. For
Shi'i sources see, for example, al-Irbili, Kashf
al-Ghumma, Vol. 3, pp. 257, 269; al-Nu'mani, al-
Ghayba quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.
), Vol. 13, p. 178.
15 For Sunni sources see ibn Maja, Sunan, p. 1367,
No. 4084; see also p. 1366, No. 4082. For Shi'i
sources see al-Irbili, Kashf al-Ghumma, Vol. 3,
pp. 262-3; Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa, al-Ghayba, quoted in
Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed. ), Vol. 13, p.
16 For Sunni sources see at-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2,
pp. 37. For Shi'i sources see ibn Babuya, Kamal
ad-Din, pp. 525-32.
17 Taken from Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol.
13; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad; al-Irbili,
Kashf al-Ghumma; and ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din. 8
ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, p. 655; Shaykhu't-
Ta'ifa, al-Ghayba, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-
Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, pp. 156-7; al-Mufid, al-
Irshad, p. 338 (Tr. 544).
19 al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 336 (Tr. 541).
20 ibid. p. 336 (Tr. 541).
21 Ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, pp. 650, 652; al-
'Ayyashi, Tafsir, and other sources quoted in
Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, pp.
22 al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 338 (Tr. 544).
23 ibid. p. 337 (Tr. 542, 548).
24 ibid. p. 341 (Tr. 548).
25 ibid. p. 341 (Tr. 548).
26 ibid. p. 341 (Tr. 549)
27 ibid. p. 342 (Tr. 551); al-Irbili, Kashf al-
Ghumma, Vol. 3, p. 254. 28 al-Nu'mani, al-Ghayba,
quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol.
29 al-Nu'mani, al-Ghayba, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar
al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, pp. 192, 194) al-
Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 343 (Tr. 552); al-Irbili,
Kashf al-Ghumma, Vol. 3, p. 255
30 al-Nu'mani, al-Ghayba, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar
al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p. 192.
31 al-Nu'mani, al-Ghayba, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar
al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p. 193.
32 al-Mufid, al-Irshad, pp. 343-4 (Tr. 552-3).
33 Qutbu'd-Din Rawandi, al-Khara'ij, quoted in
Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p.
34 al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-
Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p. 222.
35 ibn Babuya, 'Uyun al-Akhbar ar-Rida, quoted in
Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p.
214. For Sunni traditions see, for example, at-
Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 36.
36 ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, p. 654; Hasan ibn
Sulayman al-Hilli, Muntakhab al-Basa'ir, quoted in
Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p.
37 al-Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar
al-Anwar (old ed.), Vol. 13, p. 210.
9. DOCTRINES, RITUAL PRACTICES AND SOCIAL TRANSACTIONS
Arabic and Persian: The manuals dealing with doctrine and
points of jurisprudence are too numerous to mention. For
this book reliance has been placed on Kulayni, al-Kaft, and
Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar. These two works are notable in that
they contain a section on the usul ad-din which most legal
works do not. Two relatively modern works are: Al Kashifu'l-
Ghita, Asl ash-Shi'a, which deals mainly with doctrine and,
in particular, the five usul ad-din, and al-Muzaffar, Aqa'id
al-Imamiyya, which deals with ritual and legal points.
European languages: With respect to Shi'i jurisprudence,
several of the manuals of Muslim law designed for use in
British India contain a good deal of information about
points of Shi'i law; see, for example, J. Baillie, Digest of
Mohummudan Law; N. B. E. Baillie, A Digest of Moohummadan
Law; and Querry, Droit Musulman, all three of which are
based mainly on Muhaqqiq al-Hilli's Shara'i' al-Islam. Since
the 1979 Revolution a number of translations of Shi'i works
have appeared in Iran. The two works by Al Kashifu'l-Ghita
and al-Muzaffar mentioned above are among these.
1 al-Qummi, Tafsir, al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, and other
sources quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol.
23, pp. 222-8, Nos. 25, 26, 48, 49.
2 'Alam ibn Sayf al-Hilli, Kanz Jami' al-Fawa'id,
quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 24, pp.
18--19, No. 31.
NOTES FOR PAGES 173 TO 189
3 al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar al-
Anwar, Vol. 24, p. 153, Nos. 1, 2.
4 at-Tabarsi, al-Ihtijaj, quoted in Majlisi, Bihar
al-Anwar, Vol. 24, pp. 195-6, No. 19.
5 See W. St. Clair Tisdall, 'Shi'ah additions to the
Koran', and Eliash, 'The Shi'ite Qur'an'. For
another example of material said to have been
omitted from the Qur'an see the assertion that
the names of six pseudo-prophets have been omitted
from the Qur'an, al-Kashshi, Rijal, pp. 187, 195.
See also Chap. 7, note 14 supra.
6 See, for example, al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 1, p.
146; Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 1, pp. 264-5.
7 See Muslim, Sahih,, Vol. I, pp. 534-8. Several of
the Traditions quoted in this section state that
temporary marriage was prohibited during the
Prophet's lifetime but others confirm the Shi'i
10. SHI'I JURISPRUDENCE AND THE RELIGIOUS HIERARCHY
Arabic and Persian: Much information can be obtained from
selective use of primary sources such as the biographies of
the ulama (see Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, Tunukabuni,
Qisas al-'ulama, etc.) and comparisons of works on
jurisprudence and the principles of jurisprudence from
different periods (e.g. Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa, Nihaya, Shahid
ath-Thani, Rawda, etc., see pp. 188-9). European languages:
The history of the development of Shi'i jurisprudence is
poorly served in Western languages. The best work on the
subject is the Ph. D. thesis, Calder, 'Structure of
Authority. . . ', but see also Bellefonds, 'Droit imamite'.
Concerning the ulama themselves see Fischer, Iran, and
Arjomand, 'Shi'ite Hieroeracy'. Concerning the programme of
studies at the theological colleges see Fischer, Iran;
Vahdati, 'Academies shiites'; Jamali, 'Theological
Colleges'; Mesopotamien, 'Programme des etudes'
1 The old view of Shi'i jurisprudence was first put
forward by Schacht, Origins; see also Bellefonds,
'Droit imamite', p. 185. The new view has been
advanced by Coulson (see Coulson, History of
Islamic Law, pp. 105ff.; Conflicts and Tension,
pp.31-3; succession in the Muslim Family, pp. 108-
34). Nevertheless, it can still be said that in
the field of ritual observances ('ibadat) there
is little significant difference between the Sunni
schools and Shi'ism, whereas in the field of
social transactions (mu'amalat) there are
significant differences especially in three
areas: marriage (with respect to temporary
marriage), divorce (with respect to innovated
divorce) and inheritance.
2 al-Hurr al-'Amili, Amal al-'Amil, Vol. 2, pp. 81-
5; Vol. 1, pp. 85-91 respectively.
3 al-Bahrani, Lu'lu' at Bahrayn, p. 14.
4 For example, using this Sunni-based terminology,
9,485 of the 16,199 Traditions in Kulayni's al-
Kafi were found to be 'weak' (da'if) by one
author; Tunukabuni, Qisas al-'ulama, p. 397.
5 Gibb, 'Government and Islam', p. 118.
6 Shaykhu't-Ta'ifa, Nihaya, cited in Calder, Ph. D.,
'Structure of Authority', pp. 73-4, 110, 132--3,
7 al-Hilli, Shara'i' al-Islam, cited in Calder,
Ph.D., 'Structure of Authority', pp. 77--8, 123.
8 al-Karaki, Jami' al-Maqasid, cited in Calder, Ph.
D., 'Structure of Authority', pp. 163-5.
9 Shahid ath-Thani, Rawda al-Bahiyya, sections:
Kitab az-Zakat (3rd Chap.), Kitab al-Jihad
(Introduction), Kitab al-Qada. See also Calder,
Ph.D., Structure of Authority, pp. 84-5, 112, 125-
10 Kitab al-Jihadiyya (Tabriz, 1818), pp. 46-50,
quoted in Arjomand, 'Shi'ite Hierocracy', pp. 57-
11 Tunukabuni, Qisas al-'ulama, p. 145.
12 Sayyid Ja'far Kashfi, Tuhfat al-Muluk (Tehran,
1857), p. 123a, cited in Arjomand, 'Shi'ite
Hieroeracy', pp. 53-5. On Mirza Abu'l-Qasim
Qummi's political theory see Lambton, 'Some new
trends. . . ', pp. 114-18.
13 Al-Hurr al-'Amili, Wasa'il ash-Shi'a, quoted in
Khumayni, Hukumat-i Islami, pp. 100-101.
14 Ibn Babuya, Ma'ani al-Akhbar, pp. 374-5, quoted in
Khumayni, Hukumat-i Islami, p. 64.
15 Khumayni, Hukumat-i Islami, pp. 64-7.
16 Kulayni, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, p. 38, quoted in
Khumayni, Hukumat-i Islami, pp. 70-71.
17 Kulayni, al-Kafi, Vol. 1, p. 46, quoted in
Khumayni, Hukumat-i Islami, p. 75
18 Al-Hurr al-'Amili, Wasa'il ash-Shi'a, quoted in
Khumayni, Hukumat-i Islami, p. 86.
19 ibn Babuya, Kamal ad-Din, pp. 283-5. Al-Hurr al-
'Amili, Wasa'il ash-Shi'a, quoted in Khumayni,
Hukumat-i Islami, p. 88.
20 Kulayni, al-Kafi, Vol. I, pp. 24, 32, quoted in
Khumayni, Hukumat-i Islami, pp. 111-12.
21 The following is a description of the relationship
between the Bazaar and the ulama in the late Qajar
period. Much of it remains true to the present day
although the legal function of the ulama was much
reduced in Pahlavi times: 'The relationship
between the people of the bazaar (merchants,
banker-changers, ambulatory changers, wholesale or
retail merchants, bank messengers, intermediaries,
bureaucratic functionaries, accountants, artisans,
etc.) and the religious class was longstanding,
close, and mutually beneficial. The people of the
bazaars needed the services of the ulama to
authenticate written contracts, to administer
justice, to give reassurance of the orthodoxy of
their actions, and to give clarification on
casuistical and religious problems. They also
sought the protection of the ulama, and, though
the central government was making attempts to
limit the practice, the bazaaris often turned to
the men of religion for asylum. The merchants both
Muslim and non-Muslim, were dependent upon the
services that the ulama provided, and could not do
'But the ulama were dependent upon the merchants
too, not least of all for
NOTES FOR PAGES 202 TO 207
financial support. Though merchants generally
lived modestly, religious or secular feasts and
ceremonies were occasions for generosity and
display, especially on the part of the rich. But
every merchant, whatever his economic situation,
had to give alms during his life, or, through
testamentary disposition, to make provision for
donations after his death. Thus, a strong
community of spirit and outlook was established
between these two social categories, although it
was never formally organized. This was so much the
case. that during the period that concerns us, any
action on the part of one group was often followed
sympathetically by the other.' (Mahdavi,
'Significance of private archives', p. 259.)
22 See Fischer, Iran, p. 163.
23 See pathetic accounts of hardships endured by
religious students in Browne, Literary History,
Vol. 4, pp. 361-7; and Najafi-Quchani, 'Zindigi-yi
24 Arjomand, 'Shi'ite Hieroeracy', p. 69.
25 The role of a mujtahid as defined by such scholars
as 'Allama al-Hilli involved the forming of
judgements on all legal points independently and
indeed the following (taqlid) by one mujtahid of
another was, in some works, considered not
permissible. But this position has undergone
modification. In the 18th and early 19th centuries
there were only a handful of people who were
considered mujtahids. But as the number of
mujtahids grew during the late 19th century and
the 20th century, this independence and the
ability to give judgements on all points was
effectively passed upwards by most mujtahids and
today only applies to the top-ranking maraji'.
Lower-ranking mujtahids in effect practise taqlid
towards the judgements of these maraji'.
26 See, for example, Fischer, Iran, Appendix 2, pp.
252-4; and Hairi, Shi'ism, pp. 62-3. Although it
has been stated that the concept of marja' at-
taqlid evolved during the 18th and 19th centuries,
there is a hint of an earlier stage in the
evolution of this concept in the designation of
Shaykh 'Ali Muhaqqiq al-Karaki as mujtahid az-
zamani (mujtahid of the age) in the Safavid
history Ahsan at-Tawarikh (quoted in Savory,
'Principal Offices of the Safawid State', pp. 81-
27 Although it is not uncommon to find the phrase
Ayat Allah fi'l-'alamin among other similar
phrases as part of an encomium extolling a
prominent scholar in works dating from the 19th
century or even earlier, its use as a prefixed
designation denoting rank is a modern phenomenon.
Akhund Khurasani was sometimes referred to as
Ayatu'llah and there was sporadic use of the term
in the early decades of the 20th century. It
appears to have gained currency among Iranians in
the 1940s and 1950s but Arabic books of even quite
recent date do not use this designation.
28 Even these distinctions are not, however, clear-
cut. There are, for example some individuals such
as Ayatu'llah Amuli, the head of one of the
madrasas of Qumm, who obviously is in receipt of
funds since he distributes money to the tullab and
who is called Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma but is clearly
not considered of equal rank to such Ayatu'llahs
as Gulpaygani and Mar'ashi-Najafi.
NOTES FOR PAGES 208 TO 219
11. SUFISM, 'IRFAN AND HIKMA
Arabic and Persian: Sources for the history of the Shi'i
Sufi orders include Ma'sum 'Ali Shah, Tara'iq al-Haqa'iq;
Humayuni, Tarikh-i Silsila-ha-yi Tariqayi Ni'matu'llahi. For
the history of the early connections between Sufism and
Shi'ism see ash-Shaybi, Fikr ash-Shi'a. The writings of the
philosophers of the School of Isfahan are very difficult for
those not used to the vocabulary. European languages: On the
Sufi orders see Gramlich, Die Schiitischen Derwischorden.
The Ni'matu'llahi order has brought out a large number of
tracts by their present Shaykh, Dr Javad Nurbakhsh, in
English. On Hikmat-i Ilahi, the most important sources of
information are the writings of Henri Corbin, see En Islam
iranien, Vol. 4, and La Philosophie iranienne islamique. See
also Fazlur Rahman, The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra, and Nasr,
Sadr al-Din Shirazi and his Transcendent Theosophy. One of
Mulla Sadra's works, al-Masha'ir, has been translated into
French by Corbin and his al-Hikma al-'Arshiyya into English
by Morris (The Wisdom of the Throne). See also Dehbashi,
Ph.D., 'Mulla Sadra's Theory of Transubstantial Motion'.
1 See also comments on p. go.
2 See, for example, Nurbakhsh, Murad wa Murid, and
Miller, 'Shi'ah Mysticism'.
3 Gramlich, Schiitischen Derwischorden, Vol. 1, p.
4 Ma'sum 'Ali Shah, Tara'iq al-Haqa'iq, Vol. 3, p.
5 Sir John Malcolm (History of Persia, Vol. 2, pp.
382-426) gives a description of the revival of
Sufism brought about by Ma'sum 'Ali Shah and also
gives an account of Sufi doctrines and of the
opposition of the ulama.
6 Gramlich, Schiitischen Derwischorden, Vol. 1, pp.
7 ibid. p. 91.
8 This summary is condensed from Nasr, Sadr al-Din,
12. SCHOOLS WITHIN TWELVER SHI'ISM
Persian and Arabic: Original Akhbari works are difficult to
obtain. On Shaykhis the best source is Ibrahimi, Fihrist;
see also al-Ahsa'i, Hayat an-Nafs; and Rashti, Dalil al-
Mutahayyirin. No substantial work of the Bab has been
published in its original language. Many individual works
and compilations of the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-
Baha are available; for example, Bahá'u'lláh, Kitab-i Iqan
and Muntakhabati az athar.
European languages: Little work has been done on the
Akhbaris; see Scarcia, 'Interno alle controversie'. On
Shaykhis see Corbin, L'Ecole Shaykhie and En Islam iranien,
Vol. 4; Nicolas, Essai sur le Chelkisme; Bayat, Mysticism
and Dissent; and the following Ph. D. theses: Rafati,
'Development of Shaykhi Thought'; MacEoin, 'From Shaykhism';
and Jalali, 'Shaikhiyya'. On the Babis and Bahá'ís see
Balyuzi, The Bab, and Bahá'u'lláh; Smith, Babi and Bahá'í
Religions; and also the following Ph.D. theses: Amanat,
'Babi Movement'; Smith, 'Sociological Study of the Babi and
Bahai Religions'. For Babi and Bahá'í doctrine see
NOTES FOR PAGES 222 TO 236
Bausani, 'Bab' and 'Bahá'í' in Encyclopaedia of Islam, new
edition. General introductory works on the Bahá'í Faith
include Esslemont, Bahá'u'lláh and th New Era; Huddleston,
The Earth is but One Country;
1 See Khwansari, Rawdat al-Jannat, pp. 36-7, and
Davvani, Vahid Bihbahani, pp. 75-6.
2 Binder, 'Proofs of Islam', p. 125; Eliash,
'Misconceptions', p. 12.
3 I am grateful to Stephen Lambden of the University
of Newcastle for the suggestion that in view of
the intermediary position of Hurqalya, it may be a
corruption of the Hebrew Ha-Raqia' (or an
equivalent word in another language) which is the
word used in Genesis 1:6 for the firmament
standing between heaven and earth.
4 When E. G. Brown, was in Iran in 1887 he records
having been told by a Shaykh-i of Kirman that the
term Rukn-i Rabi' applied to a specific person:
Year among the Persians, pp. 519-20.
5 See Kirman-i, Hidayat al-Talibin, pp. 135-6.
6 See, for example, Qur'an 32:6.
7 Amanat, Ph.D., 'Babi Movement', pp. 75-90, surveys
messianic expectation at this time in Iran, Iraq
and the Caucasus. Mrs Meer Hasan Ali states that
the Shi'is with whom she was in contact in Oudh in
India in the 1820s were 'said to possess
prophecies that led them to expect the twelve
hundred and sixtieth year of the Hegirah [i.e.
1844] as the time for his [the Hidden Imam's]
coming'. Mrs Meer Hasan Ali, Observations, p. 76,
quoted in Cole, Ph. D., 'Imami Shi'ism from Iran
to North India', pp. 348-9.
13. THE POPULAR RELIGION
A number of anthropological and other studies of Shi'i
communities exist and the ones that have been of most use
for this chapter include:for Iran: Thaiss, Ph. D., '
Religious Symbolism. . . '; Braswell, Ph. D., 'Mosaic of
Mullahs. . . ';
Fischer, Iran; for Iraq: Fernea, E.W., Guests of the Sheik;
Fernea, A., Shaykh and Effendi; Thesiger, Marsh Arabs; for
Bahrain: Khuri, Tribe and State; for India: Mrs Meer Hasan
Ali, Observations on the Musulmans; for Lebanon: Adams,
Ph.D., 'Shi'ite Community in Northern Lebanon', Peters,
'Aspects of Rank and Status'. I am also indebted for oral
information to several persons including Prof. Emrys Peters
and Dr Juan R. Cole.
Regarding the significance of the martyrdom of Husayn in
the popular religion see Thaiss, Ph. D., 'Religious
Symbolism. . . ', and Ayoub, Redemptive Suffering. For
descriptions of the 'Ashura ceremonies see Gobineau,
Religions et Philosophies, pp. 320-408; Pelly, The Miracle
Play of Hasan and Husain; and Peters, 'A Muslim Passion
1 This paradox is closely linked to 'Ali Shari'ati's
concepts of Safavid Shi'ism and 'Alawi Shi'ism
(see pp. 258-9). The attitude of mazlumiyyat is
linked to an other-worldly intercessor role for
the Imams which has as its counterpart a
socially-passive role for the Shi'a (Shari'ati's
Safavid Shi'ism). The attitude of qiyam, on the
other hand, involves bringing about social change
NOTES FOR PAGES 237 TO 248
demands an active role for the Shi'a (Shari'ati's
'Alawi Shi'ism). It is clear, however, that these
two attitudes are not, as Shari'ati would have it,
two opposed alternatives but rather they are two
aspects of the same attitude (of love and
reverence for the Imams) either of which may be
manifested according to external (usually
2 Thaiss, Ph.D., 'Religious Symbolism. . . ', p.
3 Although the ta'ziya is generally thought of as
having evolved during the Qajar period, there is
evidence of early forms of it in the late Safavid
period (see Bruyn, Travels, Vol. I, pp. 215-18).
4 Tancoigne, Journey into Persia, pp. 196-201.
5 There was one woman, Banu Amin of Isfahan, who in
recent years claimed the rank of mujtahid and held
ijazas. However, her ranking was never fully
accepted by many of the ulama (see Fischer, Iran,
p. 163). A recent analysis of the position of Banu
Amin suggests that women can achieve the status of
being a mujtahid (in the sense of being able to
follow their own independent judgement and not
practise taqlid, see p. 175), but they cannot act
as marja' at-taqlid (i.e. become a point of
reference and imitation for others); see Mahjuba
magazine for women, Vol. 3, Nos. 4, 5, 6, Aug.-
Oct. 1983, pp. 60-64, and also Fischer, Iran, p.
279, n. 18. However, this is an area which is
obviously still controversial among the ulama. On
women under the present Revolutionary Government
see Tabari, Shadow of Islam, and Nashat, Women and
14. CONTEMPORARY SHI'ISM
On Iran see Akhavi, Religion and Polities; Hairi, Shi'ism
and Constitutionalism; Braswell, Ph.D., 'Mosaic of Mullahs
and Mosques'; Millward, 'Aspects of Modernism'. On Lebanon
see Sicking and Khairallah, 'Shi'a awakening in Lebanon'. On
Bahrain see Khuri, Tribe and State in Bahrain. On India and
Pakistan see Hollister, Shi'a of India. On East Africa see
Rizvi and King, 'Khoja Shia Ithna-Asheriya Community' and
'Some East African Ithna-Asheri Jamaats'. On the 1979
Revolution and after the most useful source of information
is the Iran Press Digest (Echo of Iran). See also Fischer,
Iran; Keddie, Roots of Revolution; Akhavi, Religion and
Polities; and Zabih, Iran since the Revolution.
1 On Burujirdi's role in the 1950s see Akhavi,
Religion and Politics, pp. 24, 779, 102.
2 There were also a number of slightly less
important figures who were nevertheless regarded
by some as maraji': Ayatu'llah Ahmad Kafa'i-
Khurasani (d. 1971) in Mashhad; Ayatu'llahs
'Abdu'l-Karim Zanjani (d. 1389/1969), Sayyid
Muhammad Javad 'Aynaki Tabataba'i Tabrizi (d.
1387/1967) and his son Sayyid 'Ali (d. 1394/1974)
and Hasan Bujnurdi (d. 1395/1975) in Najaf; and
Ayatu'llah Muhammad 'Ali Shahristani (d.
1385/1965) in Baghdad.
3 There are, however, a number of other cities with
religious colleges: Isfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz,
Karbala, Lakhnau (Lucknow), etc. One recent
+344 NOTES FOR PAGES 254 TO 297
source states that whereas in the late sixties
there had been 20,000 students at Najaf, as a
result of the Iraqi government's persecution of
the Shi'i tullab there are now only 300
(Siddiqui, Issues, p. 319).
4 Iran Press Digest, No 213, 22 Jan. 1978, pp. 5-6.
5 For a more detailed analysis of the Din-i Dawlat,
see Braswell, Ph.D., 'Mosaic of Mullahs and
6 For a further discussion of this book, see
Lambton, 'Reconsideration. . . '.
7 On Shari'ati's thought see Akhavi, Religion and
Politics, pp. 144-58. See also Shari'ati, On the
Sociology of Islam.
8 On Iraq's Shi'i opposition groups, see Batuta,
'Iraq's underground Shi'a movements'.
9 Chamie ('Religious Groups in Lebanon') has
produced figures showing that Shi'is are at the
bottom of the social scale in education, status of
occupation and income. In all these areas the
social scale runs: Christians, Druse, Sunnis,
Shi'is. Even within the same occupation group,
whether this be the professional/technical group
at the top of the social status league or
labouring occupations at the bottom, Shi'is tend
to be paid less than other groups for the same
kind of work.
10 See account of confrontation between as-Sadr and
Hamada in the Hirmal area in Adams, Ph.D., 'Social
Organisation of a Shi'ite Community'.
11 On Shi'i leadership in Lebanon see Deeb, 'Lebanon:
Prospects', pp. 268-73.
12 Quoted in Betts, Christians in the Arab East, pp.
13 McDowall, Lebanon, p. 9.
14 On Shi'i political activity in Bahrain see Khuri,
Tribe and State, passim but especially pp. 66-84,
15 Derived from entries in Barrett, World Christian
Encyclopaedia which are in turn based on United
Nations Statistical Bulletins.
16 Derived from entries in Barrett, World Christian
17 Author's estimates.
18 The edition of Khumayni's important work Hukumat-i
Islami printed in Tehran shortly after the
Revolution has the author's name as 'Na'ib al-Imam
Khumayni' on the front cover.
19 On the role of the Revolutionary Council see Iran
Press Digest, No. 268, 3 March 1980, pp. 2-10.
20 On Khumayni's vision of governing in the mould of
'Ali see Iran Press Digest, No. 285, 7 July 1980,
pp. 2-10; and Fischer, Iran, pp. 216-17.
21 On the decreasing cohesion of the IRP see. Iran
Press Digest, 15 March 1983, pp. 20-21.
In the course of this book, lists of the basic important
Shi'i works have been given. The following will assist the
reader to locate these lists, which can act as the basis for
the drawing up of a Shi'i bibliography (the most
comprehensive Shi'i bibliography is at-Tihrani, adh-Dhari'a,
Books on the succession of 'Ali, the Imamate, lives of the
Imams and the Occultation of the Twelfth Imam (mainly
polemical and Kalam works) 160
Tafsir (Commentary on the Qur'an) 173
Hadith (Traditions of the Prophet and the Imams) 174
Rijal (Biographical dictionaries of the transmitters of the
Hadith and the ulama) 175
Fiqh (Jurisprudence) 188-9
Usul al-Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence) 188-9
Standard textbooks used in studies at religious colleges 201
The rest of the Bibliography relates to books consulted by
the author in the course of research for this book as well
as a selection of other books on Shi'ism. As elsewhere in
this book, the Islamic (Hijri) dates precede the Gregorian.
'Sh' after a date indicates the Hijri solar (Shamsi)
calendar used in Iran. Otherwise Hijri dates are according
to the usual lunar calendar used in the rest of the Islamic
A. Arabic and Persian
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al-Ahsa'i, Shaykh 'Abdu'llah ibn Ahmad. Risala-yi Sharh
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al-Amin, Muhsin. Khitat Jabal 'Amil. Matba'at al-Insaf,
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proceeding. al-Ash'ari, 'Ali ibn Isma'il. Maqalat al-
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al-Bahram, Yusuf ibn Ahmad. Lu'lu'at Bahrayn. Ed. Muhammad
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Muhammad 'Ali 4 vols. Matba'at al-Adab, Najaf,
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