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Notes:
This publication is posted with the kind permission of the Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, IL. The tables of contents have been added and are not part of the original print document.

Note: This work has been referred to by Shoghi Effendi in "This Decisive Hour", letter no. 8:

"Will you kindly send me a few more copies of the Study Guide to Nabíl's narrative7...copies...of which I wish to distribute among those who are deeply interested."

7 A Study Guide to "The Dawn-Breakers," Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation (n.p. [New York]: National Teaching Committee, 1932).


Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of The Bahá'í Revelation:
Study Guide

by National Teaching Committee

New York: National Teaching Committee, 1932
Contents:

(Introductory Quotation)
Introduction and "Some General Suggestions for Use of Guide"

Part I. Synopsis (pp. 1-13)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Conclusion (p. 13)
Part II.
Questionnaire Contents by Section
Questionnaire Contents by Dawn-Breakers Chapter Covered
Part III. Proper Names in "The Dawn-Breakers"
32 33 34 35



Questionnaire Contents by Section

14 Nabíl (Preface, Introduction, 8, 21, 25, Glossary)
15 Shaykh Ahmad (1)
16 Siyyid Kázim (1, 2)
17 Mullá Husayn (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21)
19 The Báb (Genealogical chart, 1-3, 6-13, 17, 18, 21, 23, Epilogue)
Family (Genealogical chart, 1, 3, 9)
Birth and Youth (1, 3)
Marriage (Genealogical chart, 3, 9)
Description of the Báb (Introduction, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18, and 23)
Declaration (Introduction, 2, 3, 7, 13, 18, Epilogue)
Mission (3, 6-13, 17, 18, 21, 23)
Martyrdom (23)
General (Introduction, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 23)
23 Quddús (3, 6-9, 14, 16, 19, 20)
24 Vahíd (6, 9, and 22)
25 Hujjat (9 and 24)
26 Bahá'u'lláh (1, 2, 4-6, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, Epilogue)
28 Táhirih (3, 15, 16, 21, 26)
30 Questions for General Discussion (Introduction, 2, 3, 17, 20, 22, 24, 25)


Questionnaire Contents by Dawn-Breakers Chapter Covered

Genealogical chart: The Báb
Introduction: Nabíl, , The Báb, General Discussion
Preface: Nabíl
1: Nabíl, Shaykh Ahmad, Siyyid Kázim, The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh
2: Siyyid Kázim, Mullá Husayn, The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, General Discussion
3: The Báb, Mullá Husayn, Quddús, Táhirih, General Discussion
4: Mullá Husayn, Bahá'u'lláh
5: Bahá'u'lláh
6: The Báb, Mullá Husayn, Quddús, Vahíd, Bahá'u'lláh
7: The Báb, Quddús
8: The Báb, Nabíl, Mullá Husayn, Quddús
9: The Báb, Quddús, Mullá Husayn, Vahíd, Hujjat
10: The Báb
11: The Báb
12: The Báb
13: The Báb, Mullá Husayn
14: Mullá Husayn, Quddús
15: Bahá'u'lláh, Táhirih
16: Mullá Husayn, Quddús, Bahá'u'lláh, Táhirih
17: The Báb, General Discussion
18: The Báb
19: Mullá Husayn, Quddús, Bahá'u'lláh
20: Mullá Husayn, Quddús, General Discussion
21: The Báb, Nabíl, Mullá Husayn, Bahá'u'lláh, Táhirih
22: Vahíd, General Discussion
23: The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh
24: Hujjat, General Discussion
25: Nabíl, Bahá'u'lláh, General Discussion
26: Bahá'u'lláh, Táhirih
Epilogue: The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh
Glossary: Nabíl



A Study Guide to The Dawn-Breakers
Nabíl's Narrative of the early days of the Bahá'í Revelation


Feel impelled appeal entire body American believers to henceforth regard Nabíl's soul-stirring Narrative as essential adjunct to reconstructed Teaching program, as unchallengeable textbook in their Summer Schools, as source of inspiration in all literary and artistic pursuits, as an invaluable companion in times of leisure, as indispensable preliminary to future pilgrimage to Bahá'u'lláh's native land, and as unfailing instrument to allay distress and resist attacks of critical, disillusioned humanity.

--Shoghi Effendi
Cablegram dated June 22, 1932.



Sixth Printing 1973



Introduction

This Study Guide to The Dawn-Breakers has been prepared for two reasons: first, because Shoghi Effendi has laid emphasis on the need of the believers knowing the early history of the Bahá'í Faith thoroughly through this translation; and second, because the content, form and length of the Narrative demand some assistance on behalf of the average reader.

The Study Guide is in three parts: Part I comprises a synopsis of the Narrative, a kind of skeleton or framework upon which the details can be hung as one continues to study.

Part II is the Questionnaire which, in logical order and careful detail, brings out in bold relief each character and many events.

Part III provides a key for the pronuncation of the most important names.

The Study Guide is offered as one method which may be useful where study classes are conducted, with the hope that it will assist in bringing about that knowledge of the Faith which Shoghi Effendi so urgently desired.


Some General Suggestions for Use of Guide

1. Use the synopsis of the story as a preliminary to the close study of the text itself.

2. Read the embellishing stories and inspiring passages and use them for short talks in meetings.

3. Make a special study of the chief characters in the book and the stirring events in which they took part by use of the questionnaire. Practically every page in The Dawn-Breakers has been covered in the questionnaire.

4. Practice the correct pronunciation of the proper names transliterated in the Narrative. Guide to pronunciation is to be found on page 673.

5. Make freqent use of the Bahá'í Glossary, available as separate item. (There is a brief Glossary on page 674 also.)

6. In the references, pages of the Introduction are in Roman numerals; the other pages are in Arabic numerals.



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Part I. Synopsis of "The Dawn-Breakers"


Supplementary readings and referencesSynopsis
Condition of Persia previous to the appearance of the Báb, xxiv, xxix, xxxiii, xlviii.

Religious background of the claims of the Báb. xxix, xxxii, li, liv.

Shaykh Ahmad imparts the secret of His mission. 7-9
Stirred by the decadence of Islám, about thirty years before the appearance of the Báb, Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í had arisen to protest against the corruption and fanaticism into which the Muhammadan Faith had fallen. He appealed to all of the Muhammadan world to prepare the way for Him who would appear to dissipate the mists of prejudice and ignorance. When forty years of age he disposed of his possessions and, dedicating the remaining years of his life to his task, he set out on his journeys, first in 'Iráq, then in Persia. He attained great influence everywhere and began prophesying in veiled language, "the glory of a Day which the prophets of old have yearned to witness." In Yazd a secret was told to 'Abdu'l-Vahháb who, in turn, communicated it to Hájí Hasan-i-Náyiní. These disciples announced to every receptive soul the tidings of the near advent of the Promised One.
Shaykh Ahmad's Farewell to Kázim. 16.

Birth of Bahá'u'lláh. 12-13
Shortly before Shaykh Ahmad's departure for Yazd, Siyyid Kázim appeared and was welcomed by him as one eagerly awaited. Leaving his disciples in the care of Kázim, Shaykh Ahmad departed for Khurásán. In that city he became increasingly aware that the promised hour was fast approaching. He was drawn in the direction of Núr. While in Tihrán he was aware of the moment of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh but with his yearning unsatisfied, he departed with his disciples to Kirmánsháh where he confided to Siyyid Kázim, his chosen successor, the secret of his mission. In the year 1242 A.H., Shaykh Ahmad died at the age of eighty-one.
Mullá Husayn's First Mission. 20-24



Narrative of Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí. 25-33.
Siyyid Kázim, in Karbilá, carried on the task assumed by him with unswerving zeal. Attacked by a host of enemies, he sent Mullá Husayn to enlist the support of Hájí Muhammad of Isfáhán. The powers displayed by Mullá Husayn in the execution of his mission delighted the soul of Kázim. Siyyid Kázim became increasingly aware of the Hour of Revelation and strove to remove gradually the dense veils that would obstruct the view of the rising Sun. One day Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, a trusted disciple of Kázim, was awakened at dawn to accompany Kázim to the house of a visitor, "a highly esteemed and distinguished Person." Hasan witnessed the meeting of Siyyid Kázim and the Youth who he later recognized as the Báb. Kázim's persecutions increased but he persevered in his teachings throughout extreme

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Siyyid Kázim's parting words to his disciples. 40-42 trials. When his days drew to a close he exhorted his disciples to steadfastness in order that they might become the companions of the Qá'im. He died at the age of sixty, in the year 1259 A.H.
Story of Mullá Husayn's Recognition of the Báb. 52-65 Early in the "year 60," Mullá Husayn returned to karbilá. After attempting to rally his fellow disciples, who for the most part remained veiled, he withdrew to Najaf. In a period of forty days of fasting and prayer he prepared himself for the holy adventure on which he was about to embark. Then with two companions he began "his holy quest after the Beloved of his heart's desire." He was drawn, as if by a magnet, to Shíráz and to the presence of the Báb. To him, the Báb revealed Himself and appointed Mullá Husayn to be the Bábu'l-Báb--the gate of that Gate. He foretold the coming of His apostles, the remaining Letters of the Living, who would "spontaneously and of their own accord" accept Him and His Revelation.


The Báb's instructions to the Letters of the Living. 92-94
When the Letters of the Living had assembled and had attained to the presence of the Báb, to each He assigned his own native province for the field of his services. Mullá Husayn, He sent to Tihrán, to that city which enshrined "a Mystery"--there Mullá Husayn was to communicate with Bahá'u'lláh. Quddús, the last of the Letters, was chosen to accompany the Báb on his pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.


The story of the first martyr. 87-92
Mullá 'Alí, the first of the Letters to set forth, went in the direction of Najaf and Karbilá. At Najaf, Mullá 'Alí ammounced the Manifestation of the Báb. "His proof," he declared, "is His Word." He was expelled from the assembly of elders and delivered in chains to Baghdád. He was the first to lay down his life for the new Faith.
Mullá Husayn's communication with Bahá'u'lláh. 103-108

Bahá'u'lláh's journey to Mázindarán. 109
Mullá Husayn visited Isfáhán, Káshán, Tihrán, and Khurásán. In those cities he fearlessly raised the divine standard. In Tihrán Mullá Husayn sent a message to Bahá'u'lláh by a youth who lived in the province of Núr. Bahá'u'lláh sent Mullá Husayn a sealed letter and some gifts. Mullá Husayn was enraptured by the communication from Bahá'u'lláh and left a few days later for Khurásán feeling that the "hidden Mystery" alluded to by the Báb had been revealed. Shortly afterward Bahá'u'lláh, Himself, arose to spread the Revelation of the Báb throughout Mázindarán.

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Mullá Husayn, attracted many able supporters from among the 'ulamás of Khurásán. Here he wrote a report of his activities to the Báb, relating to Him his experience with Bahá'u'lláh. The Báb's reception of this supreme good tidings was the marvel of those who witnessed it, such was His joy. In the words of Nabíl, "He felt assured that if now He were to fall suddenly a victim to the tyranny of His foes and depart from this world, the Cause which He had revealed would live; would, under the direction of Bahá'u'lláh, continue to develop and flourish, and would yield eventually its choicest fruit."

Episode of the stealing of the Báb's saddlebag. 132

The Báb's meeting with Mírzá Muhit-i-Kirmání. 134-138

Epistle of the Báb to the Sherif of Mecca. 138-140
The letter decided the Báb to make His contemplated pilgrimage to Hijáz, and taking leave of His wife and mother He joined the company of pilgrims who were preparing to leave Shíráz for Mecca and Medina. Quddús was His only companion. At Mecca He punctiliously observed the customs of the religious festival. On the last day in Mecca He addressed a distinguished member of the Shaykhí community, Mírzá Muhit-i-Kirmání, as follows: "Verily I declare, none besides Me in this day, whether in the East or in the West, can claim to be the Gate that leads men to th knowledge of God." He challenged Mírzá Muhit-i-Kirmání either to submit himself unreservedly to His Cause or to openly repudiate it. Mírzá Muhit was filled with fear of the Báb. Apparently acquiescing, he withdrew. Later he furtively became an opposer of the Cause. At Mecca, the Báb addressed an epistle to the Sherif of that city in which He set forth the distinguishing features of His mission and called upon him to arise and embrace His Cause. The epistle was destined to lie unread until long after the Báb's departure and to be disregarded by the Sherif until after the martyrdom of the Báb.





Encounter of Quddús and Mullá Sádiq with Husayn Khán, the
The Báb arrived in Búshihr after a pilgrimage of nine months. Quddús, who had been His devoted servant during His journeys, He summoned to Him saying, "The days of your companionship with Me are drawing to a close....The hand of destiny will ere long plunge you into an ocean of tribulation for His sake." This was His last farewell to Quddús, who, with feelings of unshakeable resolution hastened to Shíráz. His first service was to remove the veils from the comprehension of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí, uncle of the Báb, who became His devoted follower until the time of his own martyrdom. Then Quddús won to the Cause Mullá Sádiq, a noted divine. From his pulpit Mullá Sádiq spoke the Báb's words, and in the commotion which ensued, Mullá

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governor of Fárs. 144-148 Sádiq and Quddús, charged with heresy and blasphemy, were dragged before Husayn Khán, the governor of the province of Fárs. In a passage in which the Báb addressed the kings and rulers of the world the Báb had said: "Divest yourselves of the robe of sovereignty, for He who is the King in truth, hath been made manifest!" Husayn Khán took political issue saying, "If this be true, it must necessarily apply to my sovereign, Muhammad Sháh." Mullá Sádiq's answer, to the effect that if these words proved to be the Word of God the abdication of the Sháh would matter but little, so enraged the ruler that he ordered the venerable man to be scourged with a thousand lashes. Quddús and Mullá Sádiq, with all manner of personal injury and disgrace, were expelled from the city.
The Báb's journey to Shíráz at the command of Husayn Khán. 148-155 Husayn Khán's savage anger now directed itself against the Báb. He dispatched a mounted escort to Búshihr with instructions to arrest Him and bring Him to Shíráz in chains. Arrived, the governor received Him with the utmost insolence and ordered his attendant to strike the Báb in the face. Shaykh Abú Turáb, the imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, present at this meeting, strongly disapproved of the actions of Husayn Khán, professed himself satisfied with the Báb's answers to his question and enabled Him to withdraw to the home of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. To satisfy the rising tide of adverse feeling the Imám-Jum'ih called upon the Báb to deny publicly the claim of being the representative of the promised Qá'im or the intermediary between Him and the faithful. When the Báb mounted the pulpit the excitement of the people became extreme. After making His defense He was assiste by Imám-Jum'ih to reitre to a place of safety. A number of notable people were attracted to the Cause by His words and bearing and became His disciples.





The meeting of the
At this time the Báb sent a message to His followers in Karbilá directing them to proceed to Isfahán to await His instructions. On the way Mullá Husayn joined them. News reached them at Isfahán that Shíráz was in a violent state of agitation and that a visit to that city would be fraught with great peril. With a few trusted companions Mullá Husayn disguised himself and attained to the presence of the Báb in Shíráz. With the utmost caution the other disciples slowly gathered but it soon became necessary for them to withdraw, as their numbers complicated the problem of the Báb's safety. The Báb instructed Mullá Husayn

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Báb and Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím. 162-168 to return to his native province of Khurásán. Relieved from the immediate danger of violence the Báb propagated His Cause with a fresh impetus, from Shíráz. His disciples had spread throughout the provinces and His fame came to the ears of those in high authority. Muhammad Sháh sent Siyyid Yahyá-i-Dárábí, the most learned, eloquent and influential of His subjects to interview the Báb. After three memorable meetings with the Báb, Siyyid Yahyá-i-Dárábí said, "Such was the state of certitude to which I had attained that if all the powers of the earth were to be leagued against me they would be powerless to shake my confidence in the greatness of His Cause." Husayn Khán complained to the Sháh that Siyyid Yahyá had become the victim of the Báb's magic. When the Sháh refused to withdraw his patronage, Husayn Khán became more incensed than ever.
Entrance of Hujjat 177-179 Another dignitary of the realm who dispassionately investigated the claims of the Báb was Hujjat-i-Zanjání. After reading a commentary of the Báb's he said, "I bear witness that these words which I have read proceed from the same Source as the Koran." He became a zealous advocate of the Faith as the later history shall reveal.
The Visit of the Báb to Shaykh Sultán 189-190 The second Naw-Rúz after the declaration of the Báb's Mission, He spent with his wife and mother. He settled His affairs, and, bidding farewell to His loved ones He transferred His residence to that of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. Nabíl says, "He knew that the afflictions which were in store for Him could no longer be delayed, that He was soon to be caught in a whirlwind of adversity which would carry Him swiftly to the field of martyrdom, the crowning object of His life."
The Báb's conquest of Manúchihr Khán. 202-204 In the summer of 1262 A.H. He left Shíráz for Isfahán where His disciples were awaiting Him. The Báb was welcomed by the governor, Manúchihr Khán and at his request was entertained in the house of the chief ecclesiastical authority of the province. The Báb's fame spread over Isfahán and an unceasing stream of visitors flowed to Him from every quarter. The Words which poured from His pen excited the enthusiasm of Manúchihr Khán, who said, "I solemnly testify to my belief in the reality of the superhuman power with which this Youth is endowed, a power which no amount of learning can ever impart." The clergy feared that their position would be undermined by the Báb's popularity and employed themselves in spreading the wildest

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reports about the character and claims of the Báb.
Conversations with Manúchihr Khán. 212-214 These reports reached Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the Grand Vazír of Muhammad Sháh. The overbearing and unscrupulous minister feared that day when the Báb might win the patronage of the Sháh. Therefore he sternly reproved the Imám-Jum'ih, the Báb's host, for his assistance to the Báb. While the Imám-Jum'ih's personal attitude towards the Báb was unchanged he did think it expedient to seek to limit His ever-increasing following. The 'ulamá, encouraged by Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, began openly to calumniate the Báb. The Báb became the guest of the governor, who through his protection, was instrumental in actually saving the life of the Báb after the counsel of the 'ulamá had decreed his death. Manúchihr Khán announced to the Báb his intention of consecrating himself and all his time and possessions to the Cause. The Báb replied, "So lofty a purpose is to Me even more precious than the act itself. Your days and Mine are numbered, however; they are too short to enable Me to witness, and allow you to achieve, the realisation of your hopes." The Báb then foretold the day of the governor's death. In three months and ine days Manúchihr Khán passed away from this earthly life. He bequeathed his property to the Báb, but his nephew, Gurgín Khán, who succeeded him, destroyed his will and disregarded his wishes.
The Báb entertained by Parpá. 217-222

His journey from Káshán to Tabríz. 223
The Báb, shortly before the death of His patron, directed His disciples once more to leave His side and scatter through the pronvinces. The Sháh issued an imperial mandate summoning the Báb to the capital. The Báb set out disguised as a merchant, under the escort of guards who "seemed to have abdicated all their rights and duties and to have resigned themselves to His will and pleasure." During the journey the Báb received a missive from Bahá'u'lláh. "That message, received at an hour of uncertainty and suspense, imparted solace and strength to the Báb. It dispelled the gloom that had settled upon His heart, and imbued His soul with the certainty of victory." The next communication received by the Báb was a letter form the Sháh in which he courteously postponed the time of meeting and stated his intentions of placing the Báb in the Castle of Máh-Kú until his return to the seat of government (Tihrán). This change of plan on the part of the Sháh is attributed to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, who because of his fears was determined to prevent this meeting. They proceeded under the same adoring escort to Tabríz.
The Báb's conquest Fifteen days later the Báb was removed to the Castle of

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of 'Alí Khán. 245-248

Dream of 'Alí Khán. 255-256

Vision of the Báb preceding His Revelation. 253

Mullá Husayn finds the hidden treasure. 261-263
Máh-Kú on one of the confines of the Russian and Ottoman Empires. The frontier officer in charge of the Castle was 'Alí Khán, noted for his severity. In the course of his association with the Báb, 'Alí Khán became his devoted subject and discipline was relaxed to the extent that the Báb's friends were allowed to surround Him in His exile. Mullá Husayn sought the Báb there on the eve of the fourth Naw-Rúz after the Declaration of His Mission. On the ninth day after Naw-Rúz Mullá Husayn set forth on his journey with these parting words of the Báb: "From Tihrán you should proceed to Mázindarán, where God's hidden treasure will be manifest to you." Mullá Husayn was to find that treasure in Quddús, whom he joined in Mázindarán. The signs which Mullá Husayn perceived in this youthful disciple were like a reflection of the glory of the Báb. With characteristic humility, Mullá Husayn resolved to devote himself to Quddús as he would to his Master.



The story of the Báb and the honey. 303

Story of Anís. 303-308
Reports of the freedom afforded the Báb in the Castle of Máh-Kú reached the ears of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí and caused him to issue an order for the Báb to be transferred to the Castle of Chihríq. The governor of the fortress was warned not to follow the example of 'Alí Khán, but to maintain the strictest isolation of the prisoner. Yahyá Khán found himself powerless to abide by these instructions. To no one would Yahyá Khán refuse entrance to the Báb's presence. The government became thoroughly alarmed at the Báb's ever-increasing influence, more especially since the people of the land had fallen into revolt against the corruption of the government.




The Báb rides the horse of the prince. 309-312

The arraignment of the Báb, at Tabríz. 314-319
The Báb was aware of the near approach of His hour of martyrdom. He dispersed His followers and awaited with calm resignation the order that would summon Him to Tabríz. Tales of the wonders performed by Him on His journey and the demonstration of His unnumbered admirers swept over the entire country. The ecclesiastical dignitaries of Tabríz were aroused to fresh exertions against Him as they saw that the movement, if allowed to run its course, would engulf the institutions on which their prestige depended. The 'ulamá and notables alone in Tabríz abstained from sharing in the joyful demonstrations with which His return was hailed. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí called an immediate convocation of the ecclesiastical leaders of Tabríz to arraign the Báb. They met at the home of the governor while a multitude of people beseiged the entrance to the hall that they might catch a glimpse of His face. When asked, "Whom do you claim to be?" the

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Báb replied, "I am, I am, I am, the promised One!" The antagonism of His hearers expressed itself in open insult. His answers and explanations met with the utmost scorn and discourtesy. Those who were the most powerful took counsel together as to the most effective measures to be taken to resist the progress of the Movement. They determined to inflict the punishment of the bastinado upon the Báb.
He was returned to Chihríq. It had been hoped that the threats and indignities of the elders would intimidate the Báb. Instead He had, in their presence, set forth boldly and emphatically all His claims. In Chihríq the Báb immediately wrote a denunciation of Mírzá Áqásí and instructed Hujjat to deliver it in person to the unscrupulous Vazír. While at Chihríq the Báb was to hear the devastating news of the massacre of His brave disciples at the Fort of Shaykh-Tabarsí.
During the incarceration of the Báb at Máh-Kú and Chihríq His Cause was spreading like a conflagration throughout the empire. Of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí the historian says: "How grave, how appalling the mistake of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí! The foolish minister had vainly imagined that by condemning the Báb to a life of hopeless exile in a remote and sequestered corner of Ádhirbáyján, he would succeed in concealing from the eyes of his countrymen that Flame of God's undying Fire."
Previous to His examination at Tabríz, the Báb had revealed a Tablet to all His faithful believers to congregate in the province of Khurásán. "In the eastern most province of Persia, the Almighty had, through the hand of Quddús, lit the fire that glowed with the hottest flame in the breasts of the people of Khurásán." Shortly after Mullá Husayn had joined Quddús, Quddús had instructed him to go to the town of Mashhad in the province of Khurásán and build a private residence. "Thtither," he said, "we will journey and in that house we shall dwell. To it you shall invite every receptive soul who we hope may be guided to the River of everlasting life." The house became a rallying center for a multitude of devoted servants of the Cause. Quddús had become the embodiment of the Light in the East, so had Táhirih illumined the land of 'Iráq in the West, with "a light that was destined to shed its radiance upon the whole of Persia." Now Táhirih started on the approximately eight-hundred mile journey from Karbilá, in 'Iráq, to Khurásán. In the perils that overtook her, Bahá'u'lláh rendered her assistance and she was able to complete her journey and join the stream of believers who poured

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into this province from every direction. Their numbers had swelled to such proportions that the authorities were greatly alarmed.
Conference at Badasht. 292-298

Return from Badasht. 298-300


Bahá'u'lláh's account of circumstances attending the gatherings at Badasht. 459-462
Quddús met Bahá'u'lláh in Sháh-Rúd, and accompanied Him to Badasht. There Bahá'u'lláh established Himself, Táhirih and Quddús. He entertained as His guests eight-one believers who had gathered in that city. "Each day of that memorable gathering," said Nabíl, "witnessed the abrogation of a new law and the repudiation of a long-established tradition. The veils that guarded the sanctity of the ordinances of Islám were sternly rent asunder, and the idols that had so long claimed the adoration of their blind worshipers were rudely demolished....Few, if any, dimly surmised that Bahá'u'lláh was the Author of the far-reaching changes which were being so fearlessly introduced." When the object of the Conference had been attained, leaving the way clear for the proclamation for the laws and precepts of the new dispensation, the disciples departed for Mázindarán. At the end of this period occurred the death of Muhammad Sháh.






Mullá Husayn's exploit. 328-334


Building of the Fort of Tabarsí. 347-349
Release of Quddús 349-352

Death of Mullá Husayn. 379-383

Betrayal of the Heroes at Shaykh-Tabarsí. 399-403
Mullá Husayn was in Mashhad preparing to depart for Karbilá when he received instructions from the Báb to unfurl the Black Standard and go to the assistance of Quddús, who, traveling westward with Bahá'u'lláh, Táhirih and some other disciples, had been separated from them during an attack and imprisoned in Sárí. With two-hundred-two companions Mullá Husayn set out, fearlessly proclaiming the Message of the New Day in every village and hamlet and adding recruits constantly to their number. At Bárfurúsh, the 'ulamá called the people together and commanded them to take arms against Mullá Husayn and his company. Near the town a large number of people, equipped with arms and ammunition, gathered and blocked their way. "Not yet," commanded Mullá Husayn, when his companions began to unsheath their swords, "not until the aggressor forces us to protect ourselves must our swords leave their scabbards." A volley of bullets unseated six horsemen. As a bullet pierced the heart of still another companion, Mullá Husayn declared that the number was now complete and put the enemy to rout with a single brilliant sally. The comrades then proceeded to the Shrine of Shaykh-Tabarsí where they erected a fort for their defense. At this time Quddús was released from his detention at Sárí and became the commander of the fort. The fort completed, the companions waited for an attack to come from their enemies. One hundred and sixteen days from the time when Mullá Husayn was first assailed, he fell martyr to the bullet of the enemy.

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Death of Quddús. 408-413 By that time the number of martyrs from among the valiant band who held the fort had reached a total of seventy-two. By the end of the engagement, three hundred and thirteen, including Quddús, had heroically relinquished their lives.
Such was the grief of the Báb at the tale of the siege, the untold sufferings, the shameless betrayal, the wholesale massacre of the companions of Shaykh-Tabarsí that for six months the Voice of Revelation was stilled.
Account of the Martyrs of Tihrán. 445-458 The fires of fanaticism fed by the excesses of the Fort of Shaykh-Tabarsí where both the clergy and the government had arisen to exterminate the followers of the Báb, now became a general conflagration. During the turmoil in Tihrán fourteen followers of the Báb were arrested and seven of them known as "The Seven Martyrs of Tihrán," including Hájí Mírzá 'Alí, the uncle of the Báb, were beheaded. Of the young successor of Muhammad Sháh, Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Nabíl says, "The sovereign in those days refrained from direct interference in matters pertaining to the affairs of the persecuted community....His Grand Vazír was invested with plenary powers to deal with them as he saw fit...." Of the martyrs Nabíl says, "Few as they were in number, yet when we recall the circumstances of their martyrdom, we are compelled to acknowledge the stupendous character of that force which could evoke so rare a spirit of self-sacrifice."
The Nayríz Upheaval. 465

The Zanján Upheaval. 527
The tragic events began to move swiftly towards a climax. At Nayríz occurred another of those defensive encounters between the followers of the Báb and their enemies. The Fort of Khájih became the last retreat of the renowned leader Siyyid Yahyá, called "Vahíd," and his valiant followers. The ghastly story repeated itsel--siege, bombardment, treachery, torture, the loss of great numbers of devoted followers, the martyrdom of Vahíd. "The siege of Zanján, following closely in the wake of the disaster that had befallen the Faith in Nayríz, and marked by the butcheries with which the name of that province will ever remain associated, depleted still further the ranks of the upholders of the Faith, and deprived them of the sustaining strength with which the presence of Hujjat inspired them," says the epilogue.
Story of the Báb's execution. 506-517 Ten days after the death of Vahíd and when the news of the happenings at Zanján were already foreshadowing their

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tragic end, the Báb was shot at the instigation of Mírzá Taqí Khán, Grand Vazír of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. To his counsellors he said, "Behold the storm which the Faith of the Siyyid-i-Báb has provoked in the hearts of my fellow-country-men! Nothing short of his public execution can...enable this distracted country to recover its tranquility and peace." The Báb was conducted once more from Chihríq to Tabríz. On the night before His execution, Siyyid Husayn, His amanuensis, testifies: "That night the face of the Báb was aglow with joy, a joy such as had never shone from His countenance. Indifferent to the storm that raged about Him, He conversed with us with gaiety and cheerfulness. The sorrows that had weighed so heavily upon Him seemed to have completely vanished.... 'To-morrow,' He said to us, 'will be the day of My martyrdom.'" He granted the youth Mírzá Muhammad 'Alí permission to share His Martyrdom. The next morning Mírzá Muhammad 'Alí was suspended in such a way that his head reposed upon the breast of his master. Three files of soldiers discharged seven hundred and fifty rifles, and the smoke turned the noonday sun into darkness. About ten thousand people witnessed the scene. The smoke cleared away. There standing before them unhurt was Muhammad 'Alí. The Báb vanished from sight. A frenzied search revealed the Báb, untouched, finishing His instructions to Siyyid Husayn in the room He had occupied the night before. The execution was not again to be interrupted. Again the Báb and His companion were suspended on the wall. Another regiment stepped forward, fired, and this time the bullets took effect. As the shots were fired a severe gale swept over the city, dust obscured the sun, and from noon till night darkness enveloped the city.


Incident in childhood of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. 616
With the passing of Hujjat at Zanján in the weeks that followed the execution of the Báb went the last of great leaders of the Faith who had been outstanding among their fellow disciples for authority, learning and force of character. Bahá'u'lláh alone had been preserved. He was at Tihrán when Mírzá Taqí Khán, who for three years had tried with the utmost cruelty to crush out the Cause of the Báb, pretending friendliness, sent Bahá'u'lláh to Karbilá, insinuating that on His return He would be honored with a high position in the state. Bahá'u'lláh vehemently refused the position and removing to Karbilá by way of Kirmánsháh, devoted Himself to organizing the forces and reviving the energies of the Báb's scattered companions.
Martyrdom of Hájí Sulaymán Khán. 616-621 In the spring after the eighth Naw-Rúz, Mírzá Taqí Khán ended his career, to be succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán, who at once endeavored to bring about a reconciliation between

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Martyrdom of Táhirih. 621-629

Description of the prison of Síyáh-Chál. 631-634

The testimony and death of 'Azím. 636-637

Release of Bahá'u'lláh. 646-650
the government and Bahá'u'lláh. At his invitation Bahá'u'lláh returned to Tihrán and for one month was the honored guest of the Grand Vazír. Bahá'u'lláh was still the guest of the Grand Vazír at the village of Afchih when news reached Him of the attempt on the life of the Sháh by two ill-advised and fanatical Bábís. This act was the signal for the outbreak of persecutions and massacres comparable to the terrible events that had passed. Bahá'u'lláh was thrown for four months into a filthy and fever-stricken dungeon in Tihrán, together with other prominent adherents of the Faith. Despite protestations of loyalty to the government the Bábís were represented as the foes of the government and Bahá'u'lláh's life was demanded by the mother of the Sháh. In the turmoil Táhirih was martyred and her body thrown into a well. A record of terrible martyrdoms unrolled. Through the instrumentality of the Russian minister, the Grand Vazír was persuaded to make an investigation of the case of Bahá'u'lláh. His innocence was confirmed by the confession of 'Azím, a follower of the Báb who declared himself the instigator of the plot against Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. The order for His release was obtained and Bahá'u'lláh was brought, in His prison dress, before the Grand Vazír. The Grand Vazír addressed his Captive thus: "Had you chosen to take my advice, and had you disassociated yourself from the faith of the Siyyid-i-Báb, you would never have suffered the pains and indignities that have been heaped upon you." Bahá'u'lláh replied, "Had you, in your turn, followed my counsels, the affairs of the government would not have reached so critical a stage." The Grand Vazír said, "What is it that you advise me now to do?" Bahá'u'lláh answered, "Command the governors of the realm to case shedding the blood of the innocent, to cease plundering their property, to cease dishonouring their women and injuring their children. Let them cease the persecution of the Faith of the Báb; let them abandon the idle hope of wiping out its followers."
That very day orders were given to all the governors of the realm which brought the years of horror to an end. When Bahá'u'lláh recovered His freedom He received a government order informing Him that within a month He, with His family, was to leave Tihrán for a place beyond the confines of Persia.

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Conclusion

By the pronouncement of the sentence of banishment of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was unconsciously assisting in the unfoldment of the divine destiny that had moved in these dramatic events. Bahá'u'lláh had chosen 'Iráq as His place of exile and the city of Baghdád was to be the scene of the first proclamation of the great Movement of which Bahá'u'lláh was the Author, the Bahá'í Movement. Upon this stage appeared for the first time the chief Actor in His true role--He Whom God shall manifest. The Sháh had imagined that the new Faith had been successfully demolished by the violence of the persecution; by the end of his reign he was to witness a triumphant revival of the shattered forces, resulting in the spread of the Cause far beyond the confines of persia. The divine power which centered in the personality of Bahá'u'lláh transcended all calculations of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. Under this inspired leadership the Cause of the Báb in its glorious new version "had risen phoenix-like from its ashes and was pressing forward along the road leading to undreamt-of achievements."

The writer of the Epilogue says in conclusion of this heart-awakening narrative: "Who knows but that triumphs, unsurpassed in splendour, are not in store for the mass of Bahá'u'lláh's toiling followers? Surely, we stand too near the colossal edifice His hand has reared to be able, at the present stage of the evolution of His Revelation, to claim to be able even to conceive the full measure of its promised glory. Its past history, stained by the blood of countless martyrs, may well inspire us with the thought that, whatever may yet befall this Cause, however formidable the forces that may still assail it, however numerous the reversed it will inevitably suffer, its onward march can never be stayed, and that it will continue to advance until the very last promise, enshrined within the words of Bahá'u'lláh, shall have been completely redeemed."


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Part II. Questionnaire

Nabíl

(Answers within chapters: preface, introduction, 8, 21, 25, glossary)


1. What was Nabíl's family name? Give full surname. See end of preface; 434
2. What was his family background? 434
3. Where was he born? (village and province) 434
4. Give date of birth. 434
5. What was his profession? 434
6. State the extent of his education. 434
7. Give his religious impressions as a child. 434-435
8. At what age and under what circumstances did he first hear of the Revelation of the Báb? 435
9. What effect did this sudden knowledge have upon him? 435
10. Give the names of the two Bábís who met Nabíl and confirmed him in the Bahá'í Faith. 168, 435-437
11. What were the points stressed by Siyyid Ismá'íl which led to the confirmation of Nabíl in the Bábí Faith? 437, 438
12. Was Nabíl able to fulfill his wish and join the defenders of the Fort of Tabarsí? 438, 439
13. Who were some of the Bábís that Nabíl met in Tihrán? xxxvii; 440-442
14. What was Nabíl's reaction to Mírzá Yahyá? (Surname Subh-i-Azal) 441
15. What was the cause of Nabíl's having to leave Tihrán suddenly for Zarand? 442-445
16. Read the account of the seven martyrs of Tihrán, then tell in your own words the tragic fate of those heroes. 445-458
17. After Nabíl was able to leave his home again, with whom did he spend many months, serving and working in the Cause of the Báb? 587, 588, 591, 592
18. In what city did Nabíl join Bahá'u'lláh in His exile? xxxvii
19. Where was he living when Bahá'u'lláh ascended? xxxvii
20. In what way did Nabíl meet his death? xxxvii
21. In what year did Nabíl begin his chronicle and who assisted him? xxxvii; see preface.
22. How long did it take him to write it? xxxvii
23. What two people reviewed and approved the manuscript? xxxvii
24. How far does the complete work carry us in Bahá'í history? xxxvii
25. Why has the chronicle of Nabíl a unique value? xxxvi, xxxvii
26. What does the name "Nabíl" mean? See glossary.






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Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í

(Answers all within chapter 1)

1. In what town and district was Shaykh Ahmad born? 1, footnote 2.
2. Give date of birth. 1, footnote 2.
3. Where was he living and at what age did he arise to dedicate his life to his religious convictions? 2.
4. State briefly what his religious convictions were. 1, 2.
5. To what two cities did he first proceed in his journey? 2.
6. State briefly the extent of his accommplishments and influence while in these cities. 2, 3.
7. To what country did he next proceed? 4.
8. Name two cities that Shaykh ahmad visited on his way to Mashhad–state at least one important circumstance connected with his visit to each city. 4-12.
9. Whom did Shaykh Ahmad choose as his successor and favored disciple? 10, 11, 16.
10. What was the essence of the last words of Shaykh Ahmad to Siyyid Kázim? 16.
11. What important event did Shaykh Ahmad foretell while in Mashhad? 12
12. Speak of the attentions showered upon Shaykh Ahmad by the Sháh and his eldest son. 12-15.
13. Where did the death of Shaykh Ahmad take place? 18.
14. At what age did he die? 18.
15. In what city was he buried? 18.





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Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí

(Answers within chapters: 1, 2)


1. Give date of birth. Reckon from date of death (age 60 at death). 44.
2. What was his native province? 9.
3. What was his family background? 9, footnote 3.
4. What qualities of character made him outstanding as a youth? 10.
5. What event lead him to Shaykh Ahmad? 9, 10, footnote 3.
6. At what age did he reach the presence of Shaykh Ahmad? 10.
7. What position did Siyyid Kázim hold among the disciples of Shaykh Ahmad? 10, 11.
8. After the death of Shaykh Ahmad what was the attitude of the people toward Siyyid Kázim? 19.
9. In what city did Siyyid Kázim continue to teach until his death? 17, 45.
10. State briefly the first mission that Siyyid Kázim sent one of his disciples on and give this disciple's name. 19-24.
11. Tell of the first time that Siyyid Kázim met the Báb. 26, 27.
12. Either write briefly or give orally the episode of the appearance of the Báb in the classroom of Siyyid Kázim. 27, 28.
13. Quote some of the allusions that Siyyid Kázim directed toward those of his disciples who were spiritually blind. 38.
14. Repeat the beautiful and touching words that Siyyid Kázim addressed to the Báb. 33, 34
15. What memorable event happened to Siyyid Kázim as a result of the respect in which he was held by the Ottoman Government? 34-37.
16. Quote from the words of Siyyid Kázim to his disciples and show how such instructions can apply to our lives in this day. 40, 41, 42.
17. In what way was Siyyid Kázim told of his approaching death? 42-45.
18. What was the date of his death? 44, footnote 1.
19. Where were his sacred remains interred? 45.
20. State the significance of the teachings of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim in relation to the Revelation of the Báb. 1, 2, 4, 5, 12, 16, 17, 24, 25, 40, 41, 42.




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Mullá Husayn

(Answers within chapters: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21)


1. What was Mullá Husayn's native town and province? 415.
2. At what age did he proceed to Karbilá and become a pupil of Siyyid Kázim? 383, 415
3. For how many years was he closely associated with Siyyid Kázim? 383, 415, 416.
4. What were some of the outstanding characteristics of Mullá Husayn? 22, 24, 255, 263, 265, 383.
5. What was the journey that he undertook as a disciple of Siyyid Kázim? 20-22.
6. What were the instructions of Siyyid Kázim to his disciples upon his death? 47, 48.
7. In what ways did Mullá Husayn arise to carry out these instructions? 47, 48, 50, 51, 52.
8. Who was the first person to acknowledge the Revelation of the Báb? Tell the story of that historic meeting. 52-65.
9. What was the effect of this upon Mullá Husayn? 65, 66.
10. What was the station of the Báb conferred upon Mullá Husayn? 63.
11. Quote the significant words of the Báb concerning the attitude we should have in seeking to draw near to God and His manifestations. 61.
12. State some of the ways in which the other Letters of the Living became conscious of the Reality of the Báb. 66-70, 81.
13. Give the words of the Báb and the explanation by Nabíl of the inner bonds of understanding that existed among the holy souls of that day. 70.
14. What were some of the instructions the Báb gave to Mullá Husayn as he prepared to go on his first journey? 85, 86, 87, 96.
15. Repeat the story of the Sifter of Wheat. 99.
16. As a result of prayer and meditation what bounty was bestowed upon Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq? 100.
17. Who was the first to embrace the Faith in Káshán? 101.
18. What was the crowning event of Mullá Husayn's visit to Tihrán? 104-107.
19. What was the success of Mullá Husayn's sojourn in Khurásán? 123-126.
20. When was the second time that Mullá Husayn attained to the presence of the Báb? 160, 161.
21. What circumstances made it necessary for Mullá Husayn to seek the protection of his native province? 170.
22. By what means did Mullá Husayn travel to Máh-Kú and attain to the presence of the Báb for the third time? 255.
23. Give briefly the dream 'Alí Khán had about Mullá Husayn. 256.
24. What were the words of the Báb concerning Poets? 258, 259.
25. What was the essence of the teaching which the Báb gave to Mullá Husayn during that visit in preparation for the mighty events ot follow? 260.
26. What proved to be the "Hidden Treasure" that the Báb told Mullá Husayn would be made manifest to him in Mázindarán? 261-263.
27. What lesson can we draw from the recognition of Quddús by Mullá Husayn as a demonstration of selflessness? 264, 265.

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(Mullá Husayn continued)

28. What was the name of the house Mullá Husayn was instructed by Quddús to build in Mashhad? 267.
29. With the arrival of Quddús and the zeal and energy of Mullá Husayn, what did this house soon become converted into? 267.
30. What happened to Mullá Husayn as a result of the tremendous influence he had in Mashhad? 288-291, 324.
31. Who instructed Mullá Husayn to unfurl the Black Standard and hasten to the assistance of Quddús? 324, 325.
32. What was the significance of the Black Standard? 351.
33. From what city and to what Shrine was it carried by the hand of Mullá Husayn? 351.
34. After reading the account of that heroic march, give the story of the battle of Bárfurúsh and the feat of Mullá Husayn. 326-344.
35. Under what circumstances only did Mullá Husayn and his companions fight? 330.
36. At the completion of the Fort who visited Mullá Husayn and his companions, giving them inspiration and advice? 347-349.
37. Was Mullá Husayn aware of the station of Bahá'u'lláh? 348, 349.
38. In how many battles did Mullá Husayn take part, arising to tremendous heights of courage and power in each one? 382, 383.
39. In what way did he finally become fatally wounded? 379, 380.
40. At whose feet did he die? 381.
41. In what year was this? 382.
42. Where was he buried? 381.
43. What glorious tribute did the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh pay to Mullá Husayn? 416, 431; 23, footnote 5.
44. Tell of the family of Mullá Husayn. 383, footnote 1.




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The Báb
(Answers below within chapters: genealogical chart, 1-3, 6-13, 17, 18, 21, 23, epilogue)

Family
(Answers within chapters: genealogical chart, 1, 3, 9)

1. What was the Báb's family name? 14, 72.
2. From whom did both His mother and father descend? 14; 72, 73.
3. Speak briefly concerning the character of both parents. 72, 73.
4. What was His father's name? 72.
5. What was His mother's name? Consult genealogical chart in front of book.
6. Through what means did the Báb's mother become awakened to the station of her Son? 191. How many years did she live after the death of the Báb? 192, footnote 1


Birth and Youth
(Answers within chapters: 1 and 3)

7. What is the date of the Báb's birth? 14, 72.
8. In what city and province was he born? 72.
9. At approximately what age was the Báb when His father died? 72, footnote 3.
10. After the death of the Báb's father, who reared Him? 75.
11. What did the Báb's schooling consist of; what did He learn and how long did He remain a student? 75, footnote 1.
12. Why was the Báb finally dismissed from school? 75, 76.
13. Into what occupation did the Báb enter after His school days and with whom? 30, 76, footnote 1; 77, footnote 1.
14. At what age did He leave Shíráz and to what city did he go? 77, footnote 1.


Marriage
(Answers within chapters: genealogical chart, 3, 9)

15. At what age was the Báb married? 76, footnote 2.
16. Whom did the Báb marry? Consult genealogical chart in the front of the book.
17. Give a short description of her character; when did she recognize the mission of her husband and how long did she live? 191, 192.
18. Give name of the Báb's child and the approximate length of His life. Read the beautiful words of the Báb consecrating his death. 76, 77.


Description of the Báb
(Answers within chapters: introduction, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18, and 23)

19. Portray as completely as possible the Báb's physical appearance. xxxiii, 25, 53, 57.
20. Describe some of the characteristics of the Báb. xxiv; 25, 27, 30, 38, 52, 53, 55, 59, 61, 62, 66, 75, 76, 79, 80, 149, 175, 191, 223, 237, 244, 245, 249, 315, 507, 508.


Declaration
(Answers within chapters: introduction, 2, 3, 7, 13, 18, epilogue)

21. State at least one of the prophecies concerning the advent of the Báb. liii; 25, 33, 41, 48, 49
22. Repeat the dream of the Báb which came to Him before His Declaration. 253.
23. Give the date of His Declaration. 56, 61.
24. In what city was He at this time? 52.




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(The Báb continued)


25. To whom did the Báb declare Himself on that memorable night? 52, 63. For further questions on event of Declaration see life of Mullá Husayn.
26. Speak definitely of the Station of the Báb. xxix, xxx, xxxi; 63, 134, 135; 315-319; 658, footnote 1.


Mission
(Answers within chapters: 3, 6-13, 17, 18, 21, 23)

27. What were the first disciples of the Báb called and how many were there? 63, 80, 81.
28. What is the significance of the work Kull-i-Shay'? 123
29. Study thoroughly the Báb's parting words to His disciples; memorize at least four or five lines, quote these from memory. 92-94.
30. What was the first time that the Báb received word of Bahá'u'lláh's immediate and active support of His Mission? 127, 128.
31. What was the first journey that the Báb undertook after His Declaration? 129.
32. Who was the Báb's companion on this journey? 129.
33. State one event of importance that happened on this journey. 130-132.
34. What two prominent people did the Báb declare His Mission to while in Mecca? 134, 135, 138.
35. For what reason was "The Epistle Between the Two Shrines" revealed by the Báb? 136; 137, footnote 2.
36. With what thoughts of mind and spirit did the Báb approach Medina? 140-141.
37. After the Báb's return from His pilgrimage in what city did He live for over a year? 150.
38. Give the account of the Báb's journey to Shíráz. What lesson can we learn from the words of the Báb to the guards? 148, 149, 150.
39. What was the outcome of the interview of the Báb with Husayn Khán? 153, 154.
40. Who first awakened the Báb's uncle to a realization of the Station of the Báb? 143.
41. In what way did Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'alí meet his death? 446-449.
42. Tell the story of Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím-i-Qazvíní. 162-169.
43. In what way was Siyyid Javád's relation with the Báb unique? 155-159, 188, 189. (170-177 are covered in life of Vahíd.)
44. What was the first Confinement the Báb suffered at the hands of His enemies? 194-198.
45. After the above episode, to what city did the Báb next proceed? 199.
46. What was the extent of the Báb's influence in that city? 200-204.
47. Speak of the Mu'tamid in that city and the extent of his devotion to the Báb. 204-215.
48. By whose command was the Báb ordered to Tihrán? 215, 216.
49. What circumstance led to a bountiful hospitality being prepared for the visit of the Báb to Káshán, and who was His host? 217-222.
50. Why did the Báb eventually go to Tabríz instead of Tihrán? 229-235.





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(The Báb continued)


51. What was the attitude of Muhammad Big towards the Báb? 223-228; 236, 237.
52. Tell the story of the healing of the sick child by the Báb. 236, footnotes 1 & 2.
53. What event on this journey brought profound joy to the heart of the Báb? 227.
54. What was the reception afforded the Báb in Tabríz? 237, 241.
55. Where did the Báb's second confinement take place? Give name of place and geographical location. 243, 244.
56. What was the effect of the presence of the Báb on the castle warden and surrounding inhabitants? 245, 251.
57. What important work did the Báb reveal at this time? 248.
58. By what means did the Báb continue to promulgate His Message after His captivity? 249, 250. (254-260 are covered in life of Mullá Husayn.)
59. Where was the Báb's third incarceration? 301.
60. What was the attitude of the castle warden and inhabitants of Chihríq towards the Báb? 302.
61. Relate some of the events that began to cause perturbation to the government at this time. 303-306
62. Write or give orally the story of Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Zunúzí. 306-308.
63. Underwhat circumstances did the Báb make His second visit to Tabríz? 309-312.
64. Account for the reaction to the statement of the Báb. 314-320.
65. What was the significance of that gathering? 322.
66. What unjust punishment was inflicted upon Him at this time? 320.
67. Tell the subsequent fate of the tyrant who perpetrated this deed. 321.
68. Where was the Báb taken from Tabríz? 322.
69. What effect did the fate of the heroes of Tabarsí have upon the Báb? 430-431
70. To whom did the Báb send His personal documents shortly before His martyrdom? 504, 505.


Martyrdom
(Answers within chapter 23)

71. Who gave the order for the execution of the Báb? 504, 526.
72. In what city did His martyrdom take place? 506
73. What was the name of the Bábí who died with the Báb? 507, 508.
74. Tell of the actual circumstances of the martyrdom. 509-514.
75. Quote from memory the last words of the Báb. 514.
76. What was the date of the martyrdom of the Báb? 517.
77. How old was the Báb at the time of His death? 517
78. Speak of the "signs and wonders" surrounding this momentous event. 515-517.


General
(Answers within chapters: introduction, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 23)

79. What became of the Báb's body immediately after death? 517-521.
80. What was the fate of the regiment that shot the Báb? 525, 526.
81. Speak of the tribulations that beset the masses of people who witnessed the martyrdom of the Báb. 523, 524.




+P 22

(The Báb continued)


82. How many years did the Báb's Mission last? Deduct the date of Declaration from the date of Martyrdom.
83. What does the word "Báb" signify? xxx, xxxi; 63.
84. State several of the ways in which the Báb made it clear that "Him Who will be made Manifest" was Bahá'u'lláh. xxxv, xxxvi; 31-33; 78. 86, 96; 126-128; 227, 228; 505, footnotes 3, 4; 190.
85. Tell something of the tribute that Bahá'u'lláh pays to the Báb and His chief disciples. xliv, l, li; 49, 50, 51.
86. Explain why, and give examples of the fact, that the Báb was ever the guide to His own life and fate.




+P 23

Quddús
(Answers within chapters: 3, 6-9, 14, 16, 19, 20)


1. What was the family name of Quddús? 71.
2. Through his mother, from whom did he descend? 71.
3. Where was he born? 71.
4. How long was he a student of Siyyid Kázim? 415.
5. At what age did Quddús embrace the Faith declared by the Báb? 72.
6. Repeat the story of the arrival of Quddús in Shíráz. 69, 70.
7. By what behavior was Quddús distinguished from the rest of his companions? 72, 183.
8. Was Quddús one of the Letters of the Living? 81.
9. In what way did Quddús serve the Báb on the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina? 132.
10. When did the Báb tell Quddús that the days of their companionship on earth were ended? 142.
11. What was the first persecution that Quddús suffered and who was tortured with him? 144-148.
12. Name at least two of the cities that Quddús visited on his journey to Tihrán. 179-182.
13. Whom did he meet in Tihrán? 183.
14. Was Quddús aware of the Mission of Bahá'u'lláh? 127, 128, 353.
15. Where did Quddús live for two years after his journey to Tihrán? 183.
16. What event revealed the true station of Quddús? 262-265.
17. What was the extent of the influence of Quddús in Mashhad? 288-291.
18. What was the part that Quddús played at the Conference at Badasht? 291-300.
19. What was the fate of Quddús after the episode in Níyálá? 300; 350-351.
20. Who instructed that Quddús should be one of the members of the Fort of Tabarsí? 349.
21. Describe his arrival at the Fort. 352.
22. How many Bábís took part in the heroic struggle of the Fort? 354.
23. Who was their leader? 356. 357.
24. In what marvelous way did the companions of the Fort prove to the world that the power of prayer and daily communion can sustain man through the greatest of trials? 355, 356, 389, 390, 392, 393.
25. After reading the story of Fort Tabarsí tell at least two of the thrilling episodes connected with that memorable event. 357, 368; 378-399.
26. Quote the words of Quddús concerning the extent to which the loved ones of God should be united. 382.
27. In what way was Quddús injured during one of the battles? 367, 368.
28. Did Quddús permit any offensive fighting on the part of the members of the Fort? 396.
29. By what means did the enemy finally overcome the occupants of the Fort? 399-407.
30. Under what circumstances did Quddús meet his death? 408-413.
31. In what city was he buried? 413, footnote 1.
32. What was the date of his death? 415.
33. What tradition did the life of Quddús gloriously exemplify? 72.
35. Who conferrred upon Quddús the appellation of "Quddús?" 293.




+P 24

Vahíd
(Answers within chapters: 6, 9, and 22)


1. What was the family name of Vahíd? 171.
2. Where was he born? 466.
3. Speak briefly of the character of his father. 171, footnote 2; 177, footnote 2.
4. For what qualities was Vahíd renowned throughout Persia? 172, 177; 177, footnote 2.
5. Who delegated Vahíd to investigate the claim of the Báb? 171.
6. Where was Vahíd living at this time. 172.
7. To what city did he proceed to meet the Báb? 172.
8. How many interviews did Vahíd have with the Báb? 173, 174.
9. Give the details of the last interview and the words of Vahíd concerning it. 174, 175, 176; 469.
10. What was the first journey that the Bab sent Vahíd upon? 177.
11. Where was Vahíd during the early days of the siege of the Fort of Tabarsí? 465.
12. Who prevented him from journeying at once to Mázindarán? 465.
13. In what city did Vahíd first fall a victim to the intrigues of his enemies? 466-474.
14. To what city did he next direct his steps? 475.
15. What was the extent of his devotion and service on this journey? 476.
16. Speak briefly of the reception given Vahíd upon his arrival at Nayríz. 477, 478.
17. What was the Vahíd's first act upon entering the city? Give the effect on the people. 478, 479, 480.
18. For what reason did the governor wish to stamp out the life of Vahíd and the Cause he proclaimed? 481.
19. Where did Vahíd and his companions valiantly resist the onslaught of the enemy? 481, 482.
20. Tell of the events that transpired while Vahíd and his companions were in the fort. 482-488.
21. Speak of the approximate ages of those companions who fought so heroically. 486, 491.
22. By what means were the Bábís finally overcome? 488-499.
23. What was the fate of Vahíd? 494, 495, footnote 3.
24. Was Vahíd aware of the fate that was to befall him? 465, footnote 1.
25. In what year did this take place? 499.
26. What were Bahá'u'lláh's words concerning this noble and heroic life? 495, footnote 2.
27. After a study of Vahíd's life explain why he was such a unique and noble character.
28. What is the meaning of the word "Vahíd?" Who gave Vahíd this title? 123, footnote 1; 188, footnote 1.




+P 25

Hujjat
(Answers within chapters: 9 and 24)


1. What was the family name of Hujjat? 529.
2. Who conferred the name of "Hujjat" upon him? 533.
3. In what year was he born? 529.
4. Where was he born? 529.
5. Speak of his character. 178, 179; 529, 530, 531.
6. What was the extent of Hujjat's influence at Zanján? 530, 531, 540.
7. What was the attitude of Hujjat when he heard the Call from Shíráz? 178, 530.
8. What event lead to the conversion of Hujjat? Give his attitude thereafter. 179, footnote 1; 533.
9. How many times was Hujjat called before the Sháh and ecclesiastical leaders and what was the outcome each time? 531-534; 537, 538.
10. With whom was Hujjat in close association while in Tihrán? 539.
11. What event lead to Hujjat's final return to Zanján? 539, 540.
12. What two events, unimportant in themselves but significant in the light of future events, brought about the Zanján upheaval? 540-544.
13. In what fort did Hujjat and his companions finally seek shelter? 545.
14. How many Bábís were there in the fort? 546.
15. What was Hujjat's repeated command to his companions concerning the extent to which they might fight? 546.
16. After reading an account of the fort repeat from memory the stories of Zaynab and Umm-i-Ashraf. 545-577.
17. In what way was Hujjat injured nineteen days before his death? 569.
18. Quote the wonderful words of Hujjat upon the death of his wife and child? 572.
19. What was the date of his death? 573.
20. Tell of the indignities heaped upon the body of Hujjat. 578.
21. Did Hujjat ever meet the Báb? 534.
22. Tell why Hujjat was one of the greatest heroes of the Bábí movement.




+P 26

Bahá'u'lláh
(Answers within chapters: 1, 2, 4-6, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, epilogue)


1. State one of the prophecies concerning the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. 8, 9, 12; 31-33; 41.
2. What was the name of the father of Bahá'u'lláh? 11, 12, 104.
3. Tell something of the family background of Bahá'u'lláh. 12, 104, 109.
4. Give the family name of Bahá'u'lláh. 12, footnote 3; 106.
5. What was the date of His birth? 12, 13.
6. Where was He born? 12; 109.
7. Tell of the characteristics of Bahá'u'lláh as a young man. 32, 105, 106; 111.
8. Repeat the dream that Bahá'u'lláh's father had concerning Bahá'u'lláh when He was still a child. 119.
9. When, as far as Nabíl's chronicle relates, was the first time that Bahá'u'lláh received an epistle from the Báb? 106-107.
10. What was the first journy Bahá'u'lláh undertook for the purpose of promoting the Revelation announced by the Báb? 106-107.
11. Tell the story of the Dervish. 117, 118.
12. At what age was Bahá'u'lláh when He arose to spread the teachings of the Báb? 376.
13. What were the results of His first journey? 111-119.
14. What was the first confinement to which Bahá'u'lláh was subjected? 279.
15. Why did Bahá'u'lláh next proceed to Khurásán? 269, 460.
16. Upon His arrival in Badasht what was His first act? 292.
17. What momentous events took place in Badasht in the days that followed? 293-298; 460, 461.
18. What do you consider was the significance of the leadership of Bahá'u'lláh at this conference? 293-297.
19. How long did Bahá'u'lláh remain in Badasht? 298.
20. Describe the incident that took place in the village of Níyálá as related by Bahá'u'lláh. 299
21. In what way did Bahá'u'lláh encourage and inspire the Bábís in the Fort of Tabarsí? 349.
22. What was His promise to them at that time? 349.
23. Relate the circumstances that made the fulfillment of this promise impossible. 369-371; 373-377; 461, 462; 584.
24. What was the first chastisement that Bahá'u'lláh was subjected to? Compare it with the first indignity inflicted upon the Báb. 372.
25. Quote as nearly as possible the beautiful words of Nabíl concerning the love of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh for one another. 373.
26. Did the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh ever meet "face to face?" 461.
27. State one of the circumstances that led to the exaggerated claims of Mírzá yahyá. 432, 433.
28. Why was Bahá'u'lláh commanded to leave for Karbilá and in what year was this? 587, 591.
29. What was the secret which He confided to Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí in Karbilá? 593.




+P 27

Bahá'u'lláh (continued)


30. What were the consequences following the death of Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám? 598.
31. In what way was Bahá'u'lláh received when He reached Tihrán? 598, 599.
32. What was the advice of Bahá'u'lláh to 'Azím when he confieded to Him the plan he had conceived? 599.
33. In what year was the attempt made to take the life of the Sháh? 599.
34. What was the motive for this act? 599.
35. By what means was the assassination attempted? 600.
36. What was the result of this unfortunate act throughout Persia? 601, 602, 604, 605, 611, 612, 642, 643, 644, 645.
37. In what way did this act affect the life of Bahá'u'lláh? 603, 604, 606, 607.
38. Describe the conditions inflicted upon those in the Síyáh-Chál. 631-633.
39. Repeat the story told by The Most Great Branch of one of his experiences at this time. 616.
40. State briefly the circumstances surrounding the martyrdom of Hájí Sulaymán Khán. 618-620.
41. What event led to the exoneration of the name of Bahá'u'lláh in connection with the attempt on the life of the Sháh? 634-637; 646.
42. What was the sight which the eyes of the emissary beheld when he went to the Síyáh-Chál to free Bahá'u'lláh? 647, 648.
43. As a result of Bahá'u'lláh's release what command was sent throughout Persia by order of the Grand Vazír? 648, 649.
44. At what point does this volume of Nabíl's history leave us in the life of Bahá'u'lláh? 650.
45. Of all the outstanding figures in the Faith of the Báb, Who alone remained, thus fulfilling an utterance of Muhammad? 654.
46. What was the unique position which Bahá'u'lláh occupied as the Prime Mover of the forces which were destined to reshape the face of His native land before the time of the Cause He Himself revealed? 128; 376, 377. (This question can best be answered after a careful study of that part of Bahá'u'lláh's life as portrayed all through Nabíl's history.)
47. Give illustrations to show that Bahá'u'lláh was aware of His Divine Calling before His declaration. 658, footnote 2.
48. Read the significant word of Mírzá Áqá Khán concerning Bahá'u'lláh. 523.




+P 28

Táhirih
(Answers within chapters: 3, 15, 16, 21, 26)


1. In what year was Táhirih born? 628.
2. Tell something of her family history. 81, footnote 2; 82, footnote 2.
3. Why was she sometimes called Qurrat-i-'Ayní and who first addressed her in this manner? 83; 629, footnote 1.
4. Who gave her the name of Táhirih and what does the name mean? 293.
5. What were the qualities that made her renowned, even as a child? 84, footnote 1; 628, 629, footnote 1; footnote 2.
6. In what way did Táhirih first hear of the teachings of Siyyid Kázim? 81, footnote 2.
7. Did she ever actually meet Siyyid Kázim? 81, footnote 2; 269.
8. What was the message she sent by her brother-in-law to the Promised One? 81, 82.
9. In what way was she led to perceive the Reality of the Báb and His Revelation? 81, footnote 2.
10. What was the Báb's reply to Táhirih? 82; 269.
11. Does Nabíl's history say whether she met the Báb or not? 269.
12. Upon her acceptance of the Báb's message, what did Táhirih arise to do? 81, footnote 2; 269-271.
13. In what city was shre residing at this time? 269; 81, footnote 2.
14. Name at least one person whom Táhirih was able to win to the Cause of the Báb during the early days of her discipleship. 270, 271.
15. Why did Táhirih decide to proceed to Khurásán? 271.
16. Speak of the receptions she received in Baghdád and other cities on her journey to Qazvín. 272, footnotes 1, 2, 3 and 4; 273.
17. Who influenced Táhirih to proceed to Qazvín? 273.
18. What was the name of her husband? 82.
19. Why did Táhirih eventually bring their relationship to a close? 274, 275.
20. How many children did Táhirih have? 81, footnote 2.
21. Did they accept the Revelation of the Báb? 81, footnote 2.
22. What events led to the confinement of Táhirih in the home of her father? 276-284.
23. Who signified His wish that Táhirih be released from her captivity, and brought it about? 284, 285, 460.
24. Did Táhirih recognize the station of Bahá'u'lláh? 285, 286.
25. Did Táhirih ever meet mullá Husayn or Vahíd? 285, footnotes 1 and 2.
26. Why was her acceptance of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh unique and wonderful? 269, 285, 286; 629, footnote 1.
27. Where did Táhirih go after leaving Qazvín? 284.
28. By what means did she finally reach Khurásán? 286, 287.
29. Relate, after careful study, the part that Táhirih played in the conference of Badasht? 294-298; 460, 461.
30. What was the significance of the conference in Badasht? 296-298.
31. With whom did Táhirih proceed to Núr after the conference? 299.
32. As a result of what event was Táhirih martyred? 621.




+P 29

Táhirih (continued)


33. What was the extent of the popularity of Táhirih in Tihrán at this time? 622.
34. Tell something of her eloquence and ability as a poetess. 286; 627, 628; 629, footnote 1.
35. Relate from memory the account of Táhirih's martyrdom as told by the wife of Kalantar. 622-628.
36. Was Táhirih aware of her approaching martyrdom? 623.
37. At what age was she when she died? 628.
38. Why was Táhirih's life and martyrdom almost a miracle in itself? 627, 628; 629, footnote 1.
39. In what way has Táhirih's life influenced the destiny of women the world over? 294, 295; 629, footnote 1. It is necessary to read the whole life before answering this question.
40. Speak of the portection and kindness with which Bahá'u'lláh ever surrounded Táhirih.




+P 30

Questions for General Discussion
(Answers explicitly mentioned below are within chapters: Introduction, 2, 3, 17, 20, 22, 24, 25)


1. Tell in your own words the value each individual received in knowing thoroughly the content of The Dawn-Breakers?
2. What Muhammadan prophecies were fulfilled by the coming of the Báb and the revealing of His Message?
3. How did the death of Muhammad Sháh affect the Cause of the Báb?
4. How does the study of The Dawn-Breakers make us more aware of the deep significance of the word "sacrifice"?
5. Give examples of several Bábís who lost opportunities for glorious services by their lack of severence from worldly ties.
6. Quote the stories found in the life of the Báb concerning justice and its application to business relations. 79, 80, 303.
7. What points of similarity are to be found between the early days of Christianity and the early days of the Bábí Movement?
8. Describe conditions in Persia during the nineteenth century. Introduction.
9. Give examples of how a lack of moderation and consultation on the part of some followers of the Báb brought about disastrous results to the Cause of the Báb.
10. What episode marked the first affliction which befell a disciple of the Báb, and who was this disciple? 87-91.
11. Give the geographical location of Persia and important cities mentioned in The Dawn-Breakers.
12. What was the relation of Bahá'u'lláh to the Báb's disciples as studied in the questionnaire?
13. Quote source of the vital methods of teaching and spreading the Cause as stressed in The Dawn-Breakers. 40-42, words of Siyyid Kázim; 85-87, 90-94, words of the Báb; 582-586, words of Bahá'u'lláh; 391-392, words of Quddús; 65, words of Mullá Husayn; 476, words and attitude of Vahíd; 572, words of Hujjat.
14. Give reasons why Nabíl's Narrative is an unchallengeable textbook.




+P 31

Questions for General Discussion (Continued)


15. Show how, in this wonderful record of the past, is to be found our guide for the present and future in resisting attack and allaying distress.
16. Give examples of the fact that the characters so vividly portrayed in The Dawn-Breakers show us a marvelous vision of what it means "to tread the mystical way with practical feet."



+P 32


Part III. Proper Names in "The Dawn-Breakers"
*Pronunciation


(Letters)pronounced as

s, s, ths in sit
z, z, d, dhz in zebra
h, hh in hit
t, tt in tin
yy in yet
zhz in azure, or s in measure, or French j
shsh in shut
chch in church
gg in get
jj in jump

khGerman ch; This sound does not occur in English. It may be described as a softened k pronounced back in the throat. If it cannot be properly produced, a hard k as in kitchen may be used instead.

gh, qThese are two gutterals whose sound does not occur in English. They are not given exactly the same sound in Persian, but there is little difference to the Occidental ear. They might be described as a slightly softened hard g pronounced at the back of the throat with the soft palate and the throat. A lateral opening of the lips helps to produce the sound. The gh is somewhat similar to the Parisian r, which is produced by practically the same movement of the soft palate as in gargling the throat. These gutturals can be acquired, if at all, only by imitation, and as a compromise pronunciation, hard g as in get in recommended.

aas a in cat
áas a in father
ias e in get N.B. Persian does not have the short sound of i as in hit or miss, so common in English.




+P 33


Pronunciation
(Continued)


ías ee in meet
uas o in or and shortThis is a shorter, more open sound than the o in go, but is distinctly an o sound and not a u. (It does, however, approach the sound of u in full.)
úas oo in moon
awas o in go
ayGenerally as a in gate, when there is no mark
over the a. If the a is marked, they are pronounced separately as a in father and y in yet.


The apostrophe and reversed apostrophe are used to indicate two Persian letters that cannot be satisfactorily described unless the reader already knows something of Persian or Arabic. The vowels that accompany these apostrophes in the transliteration take care of their sound, not entirely but sufficiently for the purpose, and the reader may disregard the apostrophes in pronouncing words in which they occur.

The bar underneath two letters means that the two together give a sound represented by a single letter in the Persian alphabet. There are two h's, two t's, three s's and four z's in Persian and in order to indicate the particular letter used in the original, different methods of indicating the same sound have been adopted: e.g., s, s and th all sound s.

H's are always pronounced, whether they come before a vowel or after. H at the end of a word, preceded by a long (accented) vowel, is pronounced strongly. H at the end of a word, preceded by a short (unaccented) vowel, is pronounced only slightly.

Double letters are given their full value.

The tendency is for the stress to fall on the final syllable, whether the vowel sound is long or short. As in French, there is not a strongly marked stress.

The -i- (pronounced as e in get) connecting two names, has the force of "the" or "the one." When the name ends in a vowel and is followed by the -i- connecting it with a following name, a y is added before the -i- for euphony, giving it the sound of -ye- as in yet: e.g., Mullá 'Alíy-i-Bastámí, which might be paraphrased as Mullá 'Alí, the one from Bastám. This connecting -i- should be pronounced with the preceding word. The i at the end of names derived from places means "of" or "coming from" or "belonging to" the place concerned.

* See also Bahá'í Glossary



+P 34


It is suggested that those using the foregoing key should make for themselves a list of at least the more important names occurring in The Dawn-Breakers, writing out in a column opposite the phonetic spelling of each name. This will make a convenient list for reference and will give practice in the use of the key that will be helpful in reading other names where the same system of transliteration is employed. It does not seem feasible to include such a list in this discussion, but the pronunciation of four names frequently used by Bahá'ís will be considered.

Báb is pronounced to rhyme with fob or knob, and is really like the nickname for Robert, Bob. When it is pronounced to rhyme with cab or tab, as it generally is in america, it is entirely unintelligible to Persian ears.
Bahá'u'lláh Bahaollah
'Abdu'l-Bahá Abdol-Baha
Shoghi Effendi This name is written according to an earlier system of transliteration. Under the system used in The Dawn-Breakers it would be written as follows: "Shawqí Affandí." The two words are pronounced together with no marked stress until the final i in Affandí.


Composition of Names

During the period covered by Nabíl each person had a given name but not generally a surname passed on in the family. (The use of family names is now becoming more general.) For instance, when the caption under the picture of Nabíl opposite page lxiii says "surnamed Nabíl-i-A'zam; "this means a name bestowed only upon Muhammad-i-Zarandí, not a surname such as Smith and Brown that is passed down the family line. In addition to the name conferred in childhood a person, through the usage of friends and acquaintances, might come to acquire a surname, descriptive, occupational or place, which would serve to distinguish him more fully from others of the same given name. This surname might come to supplant the original given name.

Examples of Descriptive Names

Quddús sacred
Táhirih pure
Turkamán belonging to the tribe of Turkamán
Kuchik little
Zarrín-Táj golden crown
A'zam greatest
Dhabih sacrifice






+P 35


Examples of Occupational Names

Rawdih-Khán a preacher or religious lecturer
Chápár-chí a carrier of mail between cities
Mudhahhib goldsmith
Baghban-Bashi head gardener
Haddad blacksmith


Examples of Place Names

Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í Mullá Husayn, the one from Bushrúyih
Mullá 'Alíy-i-Bastámí Bastám
Siyyid Husayn-i-Yazdí Yazd
Sa'íd-i-Hindí India
Mullá Báir-i-Tabrízí Tabríz
*Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í Ahsá
Siyyid Kázim-i-RashRasht


Titles Preceding Names



Mullá and Shaykh both generally indicate a Muhammadan learned man. Shaykh, in Arabia, may also mean the head of a tribe. There does not seem to be a hard and fast distinction between Mullá and Shaykh when used before names as titles. Shaykh also gives the idea of venerable, respected, learned, leader (usually religious).

Mullá and Shaykh were both used also as a title equivalent to our "Reverend" before the name of a clergyman.

Mír, used as a title before the name, is the same as Siyyid, a descendant of Muhammad.

The other titles used in The Dawn-Breakers are explained in the Glossary, pp. 674-676, or in the footnotes as they occur.

* The Shaykhís, referred to on pages 102-3 and elsewhere, were the followers of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, who came to form a kind of religious sect based on his teachings. When the Báb proclaimed Himself, not all of the Shaykhís accepted Him as the One foretold, Whose coming they were anticipating.
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