ENTITLED, THE PREFACE, OR INTRODUCTION;a REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD
PRAISE be to GOD, the LORD of all creatures;b the most merciful, the king of the day of judgment. Thee do we worship, and of thee do we beg assistance. Direct us in the right way, in the way of those to whom thou hast been gracious; not of those against whom thou art incensed, nor of those who go astray.c
ENTITLED, THE COW;d REVEALED PARTLY AT MECCA, AND PARTLY AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
A. L. M.e There is no doubt in this book; it is a direction to the pious, who believe in the mysteriesf of faith, who observe the appointed times of prayer, and distribute alms out of what we have bestowed on them, and who believe in that revelation, which hath been sent down unto thee and that which hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee,g and have firm assurance of the life to come:h these are directed by their LORD, and they shall prosper. As for the unbelievers, it will be equal to them whether thou admonish them, or do not admonish them; they will not believe. GOD hath sealed up their hearts and their hearing; a dimness covereth their sight, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. There are some who say, We believe in GOD, and the last day; but are not really believers: they seek to deceive GOD, and those who do believe, but they deceive themselves only, and are not sensible thereof. There is an infirmity in their hearts, and GOD hath increased that infirmity;i and they shall suffer a most painful punishment, because they have disbelieved. When one saith unto them, Act not corruptlyk in the earth; they reply, Verily we are men of integrity.l Are not they themselves corrupt doers? but they are not sensible thereof. And when one saith unto them, Believe ye as othersm believe; they answer, Shall we believe as fools believe? Are not they themselves fools? but they know it not. When they meet those who believe, they say, We do believe: but when they retire privately to their devils,n they say, We
really hold with you, and only mock at those people: GOD shall mock at them, and continue them in their impiety; they shall wander in confusion. There are the the men who have purchased error at the price of true direction: but their traffic hath not been gainful, neither have they been rightly directed. They are like unto one who kindleth a fire,o and when it hath enlightened all around him,p GOD taketh away their lightq and leaveth them in darkness, they shall not see; they are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore will they not repent. Or like a stormy cloud from heaven, fraught with darkness, thunder, and lightning,r they put their fingers in their ears because of the noise of the thunder, for fear of death; GOD encompasseth the infidels: the lightning wanteth but little of taking away their sight; so often as it enlighteneth them, they walk therein, but when darkness cometh on them, they stand still; and if GOD so pleased, he would certainly deprive them of their hearing and their sight, for GOD is almighty. O men of Mecca, serve your LORD who hath created you, and those who have been before you: peradventure ye will fear him; who hath spread the earth as a bed for you, and the heaven as a covering, and hath caused water to descend from heaven, and thereby produced fruits for your sustenance. Set not up therefore any equals unto GOD, against your own knowledge. If ye be in doubt concerning that revelation which we have sent down unto our servant, produce a chapter like unto it, and call upon your witnesses besides GOD,s if ye say truth. But if ye do it not, nor shall ever be able to do it; justly fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the unbelievers. But bear good tidings unto those who believe, and do good works, that they shall have gardens watered by rivers; so often as they eat of the fruit thereof for sustenance, they shall say, this is what we have formerly eaten of; and they shall be supplied with several sorts of fruit having a mutual resemblance to one another.t There shall they enjoy wives subject to no impurity, and there shall they continue forever. Moreover, GOD will not be ashamed to propound in a
parable a gnat, or even a more despicable thing:u for they who believe will know it to be the truth from their LORD; but the unbelievers will say, What meaneth GOD by this parable? he will thereby mislead many, and will direct many thereby: but he will not mislead any thereby, except the transgressors, who make void the covenant of GOD after the establishing thereof, and cut in sunder that which GOD hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the earth; they shall perish. How is it that ye believe not in GOD? Since ye were dead, and he gave you life;x he will hereafter cause you to die, and will again restore you to life; then shall ye return unto him. It is he who hath created for you whatsoever is on earth, and then set his mind to the creation of heaven, and formed it into seven heavens; he knoweth all things. When thy LORD said unto the angels, I am going to place a substitute on earth;y they said, Wilt thou place there one who will do evil therein, and shed blood? but we celebrate thy praise, and sanctify thee. GOD answered, Verily I know that which ye know not; and he taught Adam the names of all things, and then proposed them to the angels, and said, Declare unto me the names of these things if ye say truth. They answered, Praise be unto thee; we have no knowledge but what thou teachest us, for thou art knowing and wise. GOD said, O Adam, tell them their names. And when he had told them their names, GOD said, Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and know that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal?z And when we said unto the angels, Worshipa Adam, they
all worshipped him, except Eblis, who refused, and was puffed up with pride, and became of the number of unbelievers.b And we said, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in the garden,c and eat of the fruit thereof plentifully wherever ye will; but approach not this tree,d lest ye become of the number of the transgressors. But Satan caused them to forfeit paradise,e and turned them out of the state of happiness wherein they had been; whereupon we said, Get ye down,f the one of you an enemy unto the other; and there shall be a dwelling-place for you on earth, and a provision for a season. And Adam learned words of prayer from his LORD, and GOD turned unto him, for he is easy to be reconciled and merciful. We said, Get ye all down from hence; hereafter shall there come unto you a direction from me,g and whoever shall follow my direction, on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved; but they who shall be unbelievers, and accuse our signsh of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell fire, therein shall they remain forever. O children of Israeli, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you; and perform your covenant with me,
and I will perform my covenant with you; and revere me: and believe in the revelation which I have sent down, confirming that which is with you, and be not the first who believe not therein, neither exchange my signs for a small price; and fear me. Clothe not the truth with vanity, neither conceal the truth against your own knowledge; observe the stated times of prayer, and pay your legal alms, and bow down yourselves with those who bow down. Will ye command men to do justice, and forget your own souls? yet ye read the book of the law: do ye not therefore understand? Ask help with perseverance and prayer; this indeed is grievous unless to the humble, who seriously think they shall meet their LORD and that to him they shall return. O children of Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have preferred you above all nations; dread the day wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any intercession be accepted from them, nor shall any compensation be received, neither shall they be helped. Remember when we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed you, they slew your male children, and let your females live: therein was a great trial from your LORD. And when we divided the sea for you and delivered you, and drowned Pharaoh's people while ye looked on.k And when we treated with Moses forty nights; then ye took the calfl for your God, and did evil; yet afterwards we forgave you, that peradventure ye might give thanks. And when we gave Moses the book of the law, and the distinction between good and evil, that peradventure ye might be directed. And when Moses said unto his people, O my people, verily ye have injured your own souls, by your taking the calf for your God; therefore be turned unto your Creator, and slay those among you who have been guilty of that crime;m this will be better for you in the sight of your Creator: and thereupon he turned unto you, for he is easy to be reconciled, and merciful. And when ye said, O Moses, we will not believe thee, until we see GOD manifestly; therefore a punishment came upon you, while ye looked on; then we raised you to life after ye had been dead, that peradventure ye might give thanks.n And
we caused clouds to overshadow you, and manna and quailso to descend upon you, saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food: and they injured not us, but injured their own souls. And when we said, Enter into this city,p and eat of the provisions thereof plentifully as ye will; and enter the gate worshipping, and say, Forgiveness!q we will pardon you your sins, and give increase unto the well-doers. But the ungodly changed the expression into another,r different from what had been spoken unto them; and we sent down upon the ungodly indignation from heaven,s because they had transgressed. And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, Strike the rockt with thy rod; and there gushed thereout twelve fountainsu according to the number of the tribes, and all men knew their respective drinking-place. Eat and drink of the bounty of GOD, and commit not evil on the earth, acting unjustly. And when ye said, O Moses, we will by no means be satisfied with one kind of food; pray unto thy LORD therefore for us, that he would produce for us of that which the earth bringeth forth, herbs and cucumbers, and garlic, and lentils, and onions;x Moses answered,
Will ye exchange that which is better, for that which is worse? Get ye down into Egypt, for there shall ye find what ye desire: and they were smitten with vileness and misery, and drew on themselves indignation from GOD. This they suffered, because they believed not in the signs of GOD, and killed the prophets unjustly; this, because they rebelled and transgressed. Surely those who believe, and those who Judaize, and Christians, and Sabians,y whoever believeth in GOD, and the last day, and doth that which is right, they shall have their reward with their LORD; there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. Call to mind also when we accepted your covenant, and lifted up the mountain of Sinai over you,z saying, Receive the law which we have given you, with a resolution to keep it, and remember that which is contained therein, that ye may beware. After this ye again turned back, so that if it had not been for GOD's indulgence and mercy towards you, ye had certainly been destroyed. Moreover ye know what befell those of your nation who transgressed on the sabbath day;a We said unto them, Be ye changed into apes, driven away from the society of men. And we made them an example unto those who were contemporary with them, and unto those who came after them, and a warning to the pious. And when Moses said unto his people, Verily GOD commandeth you to sacrifice a cow;b they answered, Dost thou make a jest
of us! Moses said, GOD forbid that I should be one of the foolish. They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would show us what cow it is. Moses answered, He saith, She is neither an old cow, nor a young heifer, but of a middle age between both: do ye therefore that which ye are commanded. They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would show us what colour she is of. Moses answered, He saith, She is a red cow,c intensely red, her colour rejoiceth the beholders. They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would further show us what cow it is, for several cows with us are like one another, and we, if GOD please, will be directed. Moses answered, He saith, She is a cow not broken to plough the earth, or water the field, a sound one, there is no blemish in her. They said, Now hast thou brought the truth. Then they sacrificed her; yet they wanted but little of leaving it undone.d And when ye slew a man, and contended among yourselves concerning him, GOD brought forth to light that which ye concealed. For we said, Strike the dead body with part of the sacrificed cow:e so GOD raiseth the dead to life, and showeth you his signs, that peradventure ye may understand. Then were your hearts hardened after this, even as stones, or exceeding them in hardness: for from some stones have rivers bursted forth, others have been rent in sunder, and water hath issued from them, and others have fallen down for fear of GOD. But GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. Do ye therefore desire that the Jews should believe you? yet a part of them heard the word of GOD, and then perverted it, after they had understood it, against their own conscience. And when they meet the true believers, they say, We believe: but when they are privately assembled together, they say, Will ye acquaint them with what GOD hath revealed unto you, that they may dispute with you concerning it in the presence of your LORD? Do ye not therefore understand? Do not they know that GOD knoweth that which they conceal as well as that which they publish? But there are illiterate
men among them, who know not the book of the law, but only lying stories, although they think otherwise. And woe unto them, who transcribe corruptly the book of the lawf with their hands, and then say, This is from GOD: that they may sell it for a small price. Therefore woe unto them because of that which their hands have written; and woe unto them for that which they have gained. They say, The fire of hell shall not touch us but for a certain number of days.g Answer, Have ye received any promise from GOD to that purpose? for GOD will not act contrary to his promise: or do ye speak concerning GOD that which ye know not? Verily whoso doth evil,h and is encompassed by his iniquity, they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever: but they who believe and do good works, they shall be the companions of paradise, they shall continue therein forever. Remember also, when we accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall not worship any other except GOD, and ye shall show kindness to your parents and kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and speak that which is good unto men, and be constant at prayer, and give alms. Afterwards ye turned back, except a few of you, and retired afar off. And when we accepted your covenant, saying, Ye shall not shed your brother's blood nor dispossess one another of your habitations; then ye confirmed it, and were witnesses thereto. Afterwards ye were they who slew one another,i and turned several of your brethren out of their houses, mutually assisting each other against them with injustice and enmity; but if they come captives unto you, ye redeem them: yet it is equally unlawful for you to dispossess them. Do ye therefore believe in part of the book of the law, and reject other part thereof? But whoso among you doth this, shall have no other reward than shame in this life, and on the day of resurrection they shall be sent to a most grievous punishment; for GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. These are they who have purchased this present life, at the price of that which is to come; wherefore their punishment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be helped. We formerly delivered the book of the law unto Moses, and caused apostles to succeed him, and gave evident miracles to Jesus the son of Mary, and strengthened him with the holy spirit.k Do ye therefore, whenever an apostle
cometh unto you with that which your souls desire not, proudly reject him, and accuse some of imposture, and slay others? The Jews say, Our hearts are uncircumcised: but GOD hath cursed them with their infidelity; therefore few shall believe. And when a book came unto them from GOD, confirming the scriptures which were with them, although they had before prayed for assistance against those who believed not,l yet when that came unto them which they knew to be from God, they would not believe therein: therefore the curse of GOD shall be on the infidels. For a vile price have they sold their souls, that they should not believe in that which GOD hath sent down;m out of envy, because GOD sendeth down his favors to such of his servants as he pleaseth: therefore they brought on themselves indignation on indignation; and the unbelievers shall suffer an ignominious punishment. When one saith unto them, Believe in that which GOD hath sent down; they answer, We believe in that which hath been sent down unto us:n and they reject what hath been revealed since, although it be the truth, confirming that which is with them. Say, Why therefore have ye slain the prophets of GOD in times past, if ye be true believers? Moses formerly came unto you with evident signs, but ye afterwards took the calf for your god and did wickedly. And when we accepted your covenant, and lifted the mountain of Sinai over you,o saying Receive the law which we have given you, with a resolution to perform it, and hear; they said, We have heard, and have rebelled: and they were made to drink down the calf into their heartsp for their unbelief. Say, A grievous thing hath your faith commanded you, if ye be true believers?q Say, if the future mansion with GOD be prepared peculariarly for you, exclusive of the rest of mankind, wish for death, if ye say truth; but they will never wish for it, because of that which their hands have sent before them;r GOD knoweth the wicked-doers; and thou shalt surely find them of all men the most covetous of life, even more than the idolaters: one of them would desire his life to be prolonged a thousand years, but none shall reprieve himself from punishment, that his life may be prolonged: GOD seeth that which they do. Say, Whoever is an enemy to Gabriels
(for he hath caused the Koran to descend on thy heart, by the permission of GOD, confirming that which was before revealed, a direction, and good tidings to the faithful); whosoever is an enemy to GOD, or his angels, or his apostles, or to Gabriel, or Michael, verily GOD is an enemy to the unbelievers. And now we have sent down unto thee evident signs,t and none will disbelieve them but the evil-doers. Whenever they make a covenant, will some of them reject it? yea, the greater part of them do not believe. And when there came unto them an apostle from GOD, confirming that scripture which was with them, some of those to whom the scriptures were given cast the book of GOD behind their backs, as if they knew it not: and they followed the device which the devils devised against the kingdom of Solomon;u and Solomon was not an unbeliever; but the devils believed not, they taught men sorcery, and that which was sent down to the two angels at Babel, Harût and Marût:v yet those two taught no man until they had said, Verily we are a temptation, therefore be not an unbeliever. So men learned from those two a charm by which they might cause division between a man and his wife; but they hurt none thereby, unless by GOD'S permission, and they learned that which would hurt them, and not profit them; and yet they knew that he who bought that art should have no part in the life to come, and woful is the price for which they have sold their souls, if they knew it. But if they had believed, and feared GOD, verily the reward they would have had from GOD would have been better, if they had known it. O true believers, say not to our
apostle, Raïna; but say Ondhorna;x and hearken: the infidels shall suffer a grievous punishment. It is not the desire of the unbelievers, either among those unto whom the scriptures have been given, or among the idolaters, that any good should be sent down unto you from your LORD: but GOD will appropriate his mercy unto whom he pleaseth; for GOD is exceeding beneficent. Whatever verse we shall abrogate, or cause thee to forget, we will bring a better than it, or one like unto it. Dost thou not know that God is almighty? Dost thou not know that unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth? neither have ye any protector or helper except GOD. Will ye require of your apostle according to that which was formerly required of Moses?y but he that hath exchanged faith for infidelity, hath already erred from the straight way. Many of those unto whom the scriptures have been given, desire to render you again unbelievers, after ye have believed; out of envy from their souls, even after the truth is become manifest unto them; but forgive them, and avoid them, till GOD shall send his command; for GOD is omnipotent. Be constant in prayer, and give alms; and what good ye have sent before for your souls, ye shall find it with GOD; surely GOD seeth that which ye do. They say, Verily none shall enter paradise, except they who are Jews or Christians:z this is their wish. Say, Produce your proof of this, if ye speak truth. Nay, but he who resigneth himselfa to GOD, and doth that which is right,b he shall have his reward with his LORD: there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. The Jews say, The Christians are grounded on nothing;c and the Christians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing; and the Christians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing; yet they both read the scriptures. So likewise say they who know not the scripture, according to their saying. But GOD shall judge between them on the day of the resurrection, concerning that about which they now disagree. Who is more unjust than he who prohibiteth the temples of GOD,d that his name should be remembered therein, and who hasteth to destroy them? Those men cannot enter therein, but with fear: they shall have shame in this world, and in the next a grievous punishment. To GOD belongeth the east and the west; therefore whithersoever ye turn yourselves to pray, there is the
face of GOD; for GOD is omnipresent and omniscient. They say, GOD hath begotten children:e GOD forbid! To him belongeth whatever is in heaven, and on earth; all is possessed by him, the Creator of heaven and earth; and when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is. And they who know not the scriptures say, Unless GOD speak unto us, or thou show us a sign, we will not believe. So said those before them, according to their saying: their hearts resemble each other. We have already shown manifest signs unto people who firmly believe; we have sent thee in truth, a bearer of good tidings and a preacher; and thou shalt not be questioned concerning the companions of hell. But the Jews will not be pleased with thee, neither the Christians, until thou follow their religion; say, The direction of GOD is the true direction. And verily if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, thou shalt find no patron or protector against GOD. They to whom we have given the book of the Koran, and who read it with its true reading, they believe therein; and whoever believeth not therein, they shall perish. O children of Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have preferred you before all nations; and dread the day wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any compensation be accepted from them, nor shall any intercession avail, neither shall they be helped. Remember when the LORD tried Abraham by certain words,f which he fulfilled: GOD said, Verily I will constitute thee a model of religiong unto mankind; he answered, And also of my posterity; GOD said, My covenant doth not comprehend the ungodly. And when we appointed the holy househ of Mecca to be a place of resort for mankind, and a place of security; and said, Take the station of Abrahami for a place of prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham for a place of prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham and Ismael, that they should cleanse my house for those who should compass it, and those who should be devoutly assiduous there, and those who should bow down and worship. And when Abraham said, LORD make this a territory of security, and bounteously bestow fruits on its inhabitants, such of them as believe in GOD and the last day; GOD answered, And whoever believeth not, I will bestow on him little; after wards I will drive him to the punishment of hell fire; an ill journey shall it be! And when Abraham and Ismael raised the foundations of the house, saying, LORD, accept it from us, for thou art he who heareth and knoweth: LORD, make us also resignedk unto thee, and of our
posterity a people resigned unto thee, and show us our holy ceremonies, and be turned unto us, for thou art easy to be reconciled, and merciful: LORD, send them likewise an apostle from among them, who may declare thy signs unto them, and teach them the book of the Koran and wisdom, and may purify them; for thou art mighty and wise. Who will be averse to the religion of Abraham, but he whose mind is infatuated? Surely we have chosen him in this world, and in that which is to come he shall be one of the righteous. When his LORD said unto him, Resign thyself unto me; he answered, I have resigned myself unto the LORD of all creatures. And Abraham bequeathed this religion to his children, and Jacob did the same, saying, My children, verily GOD hath chosen this religion for you, therefore die not, unless ye also be resigned. Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death? when he said to his sons, Whom will ye worship after me? They answered, We will worship thy GOD, and the GOD of thy fathers Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, one GOD, and to him will we be resigned. That people are now passed away, they have what they have gained,l and ye shall have what ye gain; and ye shall not be questioned concerning that which they have done. They say, Become Jews or Christians that ye may be directed. Say, Nay we follow the religion of Abraham the orthodox, who was no idolater. Say, We believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto us, and that which hath been sent down unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered unto Moses, and Jesus, and that which was delivered unto the prophets from their LORD: We make no distinction between any of them, and to GOD are we resigned. Now if they believe according to what ye believe, they are surely directed, but if they turn back, they are in schism. GOD shall support thee against them, for he is in the hearer, the wise. The baptism of GODm have we received, and who is better than GOD to baptize? him do we worship. Say, Will ye dispute with us concerning GOD,n who is our LORD, and your LORD? we have our works, and ye have your works, and unto him are we sincerely devoted. Will ye say, truly Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say, are ye wiser, or GOD? And who is more unjust than he who hideth the testimony which he hath received from GOD?o But GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. That people are passed away, they have what they have gained, and ye shall have what ye gain, nor shall ye be questioned concerning that which they have done. The foolish men will say, What hath turned them from their Keblah, towards which they formerly prayed?p Say unto GOD belongeth the
east and the west: he directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. Thus have we placed you, O Arabians, an intermediate nation,q that ye may be witness against the rest of mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness against you. We appointed the Keblah, towards which thou didst formerly pray, only that we might know him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth back on the heels;r though this change seem a great matter, unless unto those whom GOD hath directed. But GOD will not render your faith of none effect;s for GOD is gracious and merciful unto man. We have seen thee turn about thy face towards heaven with uncertainty, but we will cause thee to turn thyself towards a Keblah that will please thee. Turn, therefore, thy face towards the holy temple of Mecca; and wherever ye be, turn your faces towards that place. They to whom the scripture hath been given, know this to be truth from their LORD. GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. Verily although thou shouldest show unto those to whom the scripture hath been given all kinds of signs, yet they will not follow thy Keblah, neither shalt thou follow their Keblah; nor will one part of them follow the Keblah of the other. And if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, verily thou wilt become one of the ungodly. They to whom we have given the scripture know our apostle, even as they know their own children, but some of them hide the truth, against their own knowledge. Truth is from thy LORD, therefore thou shalt not doubt. Every sect hath a certain tract of heaven to which they turn themselves in prayer; but do ye strive to run after good things; wherever ye be, GOD will bring you all back at the resurrection, for GOD is almighty. And from what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple, for this is truth from thy LORD; neither is GOD regardless of that which ye do. From what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple; and wherever ye be, thitherward turn your faces, lest men have matter of dispute against you; but as for those among them who are unjust doers, fear them not, but fear me, that I may accomplish my grace upon you, and that ye may be directed. As we have sent unto you an apostle from among you,t to rehearse our signs unto you, and to purify you, and to teach you the book of the Koran and wisdom, and to teach you that which ye knew not: therefore remember me, and I will remember you, and give thanks unto me, and be not unbelievers. O true believers, beg assistance with patience and prayer, for GOD is with the patient. And say not of those
who are slain in fight for the religion of GOD,u that they are dead; yea, they are living:x but ye do not understand. We will surely prove you by afflicting you in some measure with fear, and hunger, and decrease of wealth, and loss of lives, and scarcity of fruits: but bear good tidings unto the patient, who, when a misfortune befalleth them, say, We are GOD'S and unto him shall we surely return.y Upon them shall be blessings from their LORD and mercy, and they are the rightly directed. Moreover Safa and Merwah are two of the monuments of God: whoever therefore goeth on pilgrimage to the temple of Mecca or visiteth it, it shall be no crime in him, if he compass them both.z And as for him who voluntarily performeth a good work; verily GOD is grateful and knowing. They who conceal any of the evident signs, or the direction which we have sent down, after what we have manifested unto men in the scripture, GOD shall curse them; and they who curse shall curse them.a But as for those who repent and amend, and make known what they concealed, I will be turned unto them, for I am easy to be reconciled and merciful. Surely they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, upon them shall be the curse of GOD, and of the angels, and of all men; they shall remain under it forever, their punishment shall not be alleviated, neither shall they be regarded.b Your GOD is one GOD; there is no GOD but He, the most merciful. Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, and in the ship which saileth in the sea, loaden with what is profitable for mankind, and in the rain water which GOD sendeth from heaven, quickening thereby the dead earth, and replenishing the same with all sorts of cattle, and in the change of winds, and the clouds that are compelled to do servicec between heaven and earth, are signs to people of understanding: yet some men take idols beside GOD, and love them as with the love due to GOD; but the true believers are more
fervent in love towards GOD. Oh that they who act unjustly did perceive,d when they behold their punishment, that all power belongeth unto GOD, and that he is severe in punishing! When those who have been followed shall separate themselves from their followers,e and shall see the punishment, and the cords of relation between them shall be cut in sunder; the followers shall say, If we could return to life, we would separate ourselves from them, as they have now separated themselves from us. So GOD will show them their works; they shall sigh grievously, and shall not come forth from the fire of hell. O men, eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth; and tread not in the steps of the devil, for he is your open enemy. Verily he commandeth you evil and wickedness, and that ye should say that of GOD which ye know not. And when it is said unto them who believe not, Follow that which GOD hath sent down; they answer, Nay, but we will follow that which we found our fathers practise. What? though their fathers knew nothing, and were not rightly directed? The unbelievers are like unto one who crieth aloud to that which heareth not so much as his calling, or the sound of his voice. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore do they not understand. O true believers, eat of the good things which we have bestowed on you for food, and return thanks unto GOD, if ye serve him. Verily he hath forbidden you to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood and swine's flesh, and that on which any other name but GOD'S hath been invocated.f But he who is forced by necessity, not lusting, nor returning to transgress, it shall be no crime in him if he eat of those things, for GOD is gracious and merciful. Moreover they who conceal any part of the scripture which GOD hath sent down unto them, and sell it for a small price, they shall swallow into their bellies nothing but fire; GOD shall not speak unto them on the day of resurrection, neither shall he purify them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. These are they who have sold direction for error, and pardon for punishment: but how great will their suffering be in the fire! This they shall endure, because GOD sent down the book of the Koran with truth, and they who disagree concerning that book are certainly in a wide mistake. It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces in prayer towards the east and the west, but righteousness is of him who believeth in GOD and the last day, and the angels, and the scriptures, and the prophets; who giveth money for GOD'S sake unto his kindred, and unto orphans, and the needy, and the stranger, and those who ask, and for redemption of captives; who is constant at prayer, and giveth alms; and of those who perform their covenant, when they have covenanted, and who behave themselves patiently in adversity, and hardships, and in time of violence; these are they who are true, and these are they who fear GOD. O true believers, the law of retaliation is ordained you for the slain: the free shall die for the
free, and the servant for the servant, and a woman for a woman:g but he whom his brother shall forgive may be prosecuted, and obliged to make satisfaction according to what is just, and a fine shall be set on himh with humanity. This is indulgence from your LORD, and mercy. And he who shall transgress after this, by killing the murderer, shall suffer a grievous punishment. And in this law or retaliation ye have life, O ye of understanding, that peradventure ye may fear. It is ordained you, when any of you is at the point of death, if he leave any goods, that he bequeath a legacy to his parents, and kindred, according to what shall be reasonable.i This is a duty incumbent on those who fear GOD. But he who shall change the legacy, after he hath heard it bequeathed by the dying person, surely the sin thereof shall be on those who change it, for GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. Howbeit he who apprehendeth from the testator any mistake or injustice, and shall compose the matter between them, that shall be no crime in him, for GOD is gracious and merciful. O true believers, a fast is ordained you, as it was ordained unto those before you, that ye may fear GOD. A certain number of days shall ye fast: but he among you who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast an equal number of other days. And those who cank keep it, and do not, must redeem their neglect by maintaining of a poor man.l And he who voluntarily dealeth better with the poor man than he is obliged, this shall be better for him. But if ye fast, it will be better for you, if ye knew it. The month of Ramadan shall ye fast, in which the Koran was sent down from heaven,n a direction unto men, and declarations of direction, and the distinction between good and evil. Therefore, let him among you who shall be present in this month, fast the same month; but he who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast the like number of other days. GOD would make
this an ease unto you, and would not make it a difficulty unto you; that ye may fulfil the number of days, and glorify GOD, for that he hath directed you, and that ye may give thanks. When my servants ask thee concerning me, Verily I am near; I will hear the prayer of him that prayeth, when he prayeth unto me: but let them hearken unto me, and believe in me, that they may be rightly directed. It is lawful for you, on the night of the fast, to go in unto your wives;o they are a garmentp unto you, and ye are a garment unto them. GOD knoweth that ye defraud yourselves therein, wherefore he turneth unto you, and forgiveth you. Now, therefore, go in unto them; and earnestly desire that which GOD ordaineth you, and eat and drink, until ye can plainly distinguish a white thread from a black thread by the daybreak: then keep the fast until night, and go not in unto them, but be constantly present in the places of worship. These are the prescribed bounds of GOD, therefore draw not near them to transgress them. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto men, that ye may fear him. Consume not your wealth among yourselves in vain; nor present it unto judges, that ye may devour part of men's substance unjustly, against your own consciences. They will ask thee concerning the phases of the moon: Answer, They are times appointed unto men, and to show the season of the pilgrimage to Mecca. It is not righteousness that ye enter your houses by the back parts thereof,q but righteousness is of him who feareth GOD. Therefore enter your houses by their doors; and fear GOD, that ye may be happy. And fight for the religion of GOD against those who fight against you; but transgress not by attacking them first, for GOD loveth not the transgressors. And kill them wherever ye find them, and turn them out of that whereof they have dispossessed you; for temptation to idolatry is more grievous than slaughter; yet fight not against them in the holy temple, until they attack you therein; but if they attack you, slay them there. This shall be the reward of infidels. But if they desist, GOD is gracious and merciful. Fight therefore against them, until there be no temptation to idolatry, and the religion be GOD'S; but if they desist, then let there be no hostility, except against the ungodly. A sacred month for a sacred month,r and the holy limits of Mecca, if they attack you therein, do ye also attack them therein in retaliation; and whoever transgresseth against you by so doing, do ye transgress against him in like manner as he hath transgressed against you, and fear GOD, and know that GOD is with those who fear him. Contribute out of your substance toward the defence of the religion of GOD, and throw not yourselves with your own hands into perdition;s and do good, for GOD loveth those who do
good. Perform the pilgrimage of Mecca, and the visitation of GOD; and, if ye be besieged, send that offering which shall be the easiest; and shave not your heads,t until your offering reacheth the place of sacrifice. But, whoever among you is sick, or is troubled with any distemper of the head, must redeem the shaving his head, by fasting, or alms, or some offering.u When ye are secure from enemies, he who tarrieth in the visitation of the temple of Meccax until the pilgrimage, shall bring that offering which shall be the easiest. But he who findeth not anything to offer, shall fast three days in the pilgrimage, and seven when ye are returned: they shall be ten days complete. This is incumbent on him whose family shall not be present at the holy temple. And fear GOD, and know that GOD is severe in punishing. The pilgrimage must be performed in the known months:y whosoever therefore purposeth to go on pilgrimage therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress, nor quarrel in the pilgrimage. The good which ye do, GOD knoweth it. Make provision for your journey; but the best provision is piety and fear me, O ye of understanding. It shall be no crime in you, if ye seek an increase from your LORD, by trading during the pilgrimage. And when ye go in processionz from Arafat,a remember GOD near the holy monument;b and remember him for that he hath directed you, although ye were before this of the number of those who go astray. Therefore go in procession from whence the people go in procession, and ask pardon of GOD, for GOD is gracious and merciful. And when ye have finished your holy ceremonies, remember GOD, according as ye remember your fathers, or with a more reverent commemoration. There are some men who say, O LORD, give us our portion in this world; but such shall have no portion in the next life: and there are others who say, O LORD, give us good in this world and also good in the next world, and deliver us from the torment of hell fire. They shall have a portion of that which they have gained: GOD is swift in taking an account.c Remember GOD the appointed number of days:d but if any haste to depart from the valley of Mina in two days, it shall be no crime in him. And if any tarry longer, it shall be no crime in him, in him who feareth GOD. Therefore fear GOD, and
know that unto him ye shall be gathered. There is a man who causeth thee to marvele by his speech concerning this present life, and calleth God to witness that which is in his heart, yet he is most intent in opposing thee; and when he turneth away from thee, he hasteth to act corruptly in the earth, and to destroy that which is sown, and springeth up:f but GOD loveth not corrupt doing. And if one say unto him, Fear GOD; pride seizeth him, together with wickedness; but hell shall be his reward, and an unhappy couch shall it be. There is also a man who selleth his soul for the sake of those things which are pleasing unto GOD;g and GOD is gracious unto his servants. O true believers, enter into the true religion wholly, and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your open enemy. If ye have slipped after the declarations of our will have come unto you, know that GOD is mighty and wise. Do the infidels expect less than that GOD should come down to them overshadowed with clouds, and the angels also? but the thing is decreed, and to GOD shall all things return. Ask the children of Israel how many evident signs we have showed them; and whoever shall change the grace of GOD after it shall have come unto him, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him. The present life was ordained for those who believe not, and they laugh the faithful to scorn; but they who fear GOD shall be above them, on the day of the resurrection: for GOD is bountiful unto whom he pleaseth without measure. Mankind was of one faith, and GOD sent prophets bearing good tidings, and denouncing threats and sent down with them the scripture in truth, that it might judge between men of that concerning which they disagreed: and none disagreed concerning it, except those to whom the same scriptures were delivered, after the declarations of GOD'S will had come unto them, out of envy among themselves. And GOD directed those who believed, to that truth concerning which they disagreed, by his will: for GOD directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. Did ye think ye should enter paradise, when as yet no such thing had happened unto you, as hath happened unto those who have been before you? They suffered calamity, and tribulation, and were afflicted; so that the apostle, and they who believed with him, said: When will the help of GOD come? Is not the help of GOD nigh? They will ask thee what they shall bestow in alms: Answer, The good which ye bestow, let it be given to parents, and kindred, and orphans, and the poor and the stranger. Whatsoever good ye do, GOD knoweth it. War is enjoined you against the Infidels; but this is hateful unto you: yet perchance ye hate a thing which is better for you, and perchance ye love a thing which is worse for you: but GOD knoweth and ye know not. They will ask thee concerning the sacred month, whether they may war therein: Answer, To war therein is grievous; but to obstruct the way of GOD, and infidelity towards him, and to keep
men from the holy temple, and to drive out his people from thence, is more grievous in the sight of GOD, and the temptation to idolatry is more grievous than to kill in the sacred months. They will not cease to war against you, until they turn you from your religion, if they be able: but whoever among you shall turn back from his religion, and die an infidel, their works shall be vain in this world, and the next; they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever. But they who believe, and who fly for the sake of religion, and fight in GOD's cause, they shall hope for the mercy of GOD; for GOD is gracious and merciful. They will ask thee concerning wineh and lots:i Answer, In both there is great sin, and also some things of use unto men;k but their sinfulness is greater than their use. They will ask thee also what they shall bestow in alms: Answer, What ye have to spare. Thus GOD showeth his signs unto you, that peradventure ye might seriously think of this present world, and of the next. They will also ask thee concerning orphans: Answer, To deal righteously with them is best; and if ye intermeddle with the management of what belongs to them, do them no wrong; they are your brethren: GOD knoweth the corrupt dealer from the righteous; and if GOD please, he will surely distress you,l for GOD is mighty and wise. Marry not women who are idolaters, until they believe: verily a maid-servant who believeth, is better than an idolatress, although she please you more. And give not women who believe in marriage to the idolaters, until they believe: for verily a servant who is a true believer, is better than an idolater, though he please you more. They invite unto hell fire, but GOD inviteth unto paradise and pardon through his will, and declareth his signs unto men, that they may remember. They will ask thee also concerning the courses of women: Answer, They are a pollution: therefore separate yourselves from women in their courses, and go not near them, until they be cleansed. But when they are cleansed, go in unto them as GOD hath commanded you,m for GOD loveth those who repent, and loveth those who are clean. Your wives are your tillage, go in therefore unto your tillage in what manner soever ye will:n and do first some act that may be profitable unto your souls;o and fear GOD, and know that ye must meet him; and bear good
tidings unto the faithful. Make not GOD the object of your oaths,p that ye will deal justly, and be devout, and make peace among men;q for God is he who heareth and knoweth. GOD will not punish you for an inconsiderate wordr in your oaths; but he will punish you for that which your hearts have assented unto: GOD is merciful and gracious. They who vow to abstain from their wives, are allowed to wait four months:s but if they go back from their vow, verily GOD is gracious and merciful;t and if they resolve on a divorce, GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. The women who are divorced shall wait concerning themselves until they have their courses thrice,u and it shall not be lawful for them to conceal that which GOD hath created in their wombs,x if they believe in GOD and the last day; and their husbands will act more justly to bring them back at this time, if they desire a reconciliation. The women ought also to behave towards their husbands in like manner as their husbands should behave towards them, according to what is just: but the men ought to have a superiority over them. GOD is mighty and wise. Ye may divorce your wives twice; and then either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness. But it is not lawful for you to take away anything of what ye have given them, unless both fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of GOD.y And if ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinance of GOD, it shall be no crime in either of them on account of that for which the wife shall redeem herself.z These are the ordinances of GOD; therefore transgress them not; for whoever transgresseth the ordinances of GOD, they are unjust doers. But if the husband divorce her a third time, she shall not be lawful for him again, until she marry another husband. But if he also divorce her, it shall be no crime in them if they return to each other, if they think they can observe the ordinances of GOD, and these are the ordinances of GOD, he declareth them to people of understanding. But when ye divorce women, and they have fulfilled their pre-
scribed time, either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness; and retain them not by violence, so that ye transgress;a for he who doth this surely injureth his own soul. And make not the signs of GOD a jest: but remember GOD'S favor towards you, and that he hath sent down unto you the book of the Koran, and wisdom admonishing you thereby; and fear GOD, and know that GOD is omniscient. But when ye have divorced your wives, and they have fulfilled their prescribed time, hinder them not from marrying their husbands, when they have agreed among themselves according to what is honourable. This is given in admonition unto him among you who believeth in GOD, and the last day. This is most righteous for you, and most pure. GOD knoweth, but ye know not. Mothers after they are divorced shall give suck unto their children two full years, to him who desireth the time of giving suck to be completed; and the father shall be obliged to maintain them and clothe them in the mean time, according to that which shall be reasonable. No person shall be obliged beyond his ability. A mother shall not be compelled to what is unreasonable on account of her child nor a father on account of his child. And the heir of the father shall be obliged to do in like manner. But if they choose to wean the child before the end of two years, by common consent, and on mutual consideration, it shall be no crime in them. And if ye have a mind to provide a nurse for your children, it shall be no crime in you, in case ye fully pay what ye offer her, according to that which is just. And fear GOD, and know that GOD seeth whatsoever ye do. Such of you as die, and leave wives, their wives must wait concerning themselves four months and ten days,b and when they shall have fulfilled their term, it shall be no crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves,c according to what is reasonable. GOD well knoweth that which ye do. And it shall be no crime in you, whether ye make public overtures of marriage unto such women, within the said four months and ten days, or whether ye conceal such your designs in your minds: GOD knoweth that ye will remember them. But make no promises unto them privately, unless ye speak honourable words; and resolve not on the knot of marriage until the prescribed time be accomplished; and know that GOD knoweth that which is in your minds, therefore beware of him and know that GOD is gracious and merciful. It shall be no crime in you, if ye divorce your wives, so long as ye have not touched them, nor settled any dowry on them. And provide for them (he who is at his ease must provide according to his circumstances) necessaries, according to what shall be reasonable. This is a duty incumbent on the righteous. But if ye divorce them before ye have touched them, and have already settled a dowry on them, ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless they release any part, or he release part in whose hand the knot of marriage is;d and if ye release
the whole, it will approach nearer unto piety. And not forget liberality among you, for GOD seeth that which ye do. Carefully observe the appointed prayers, and the middle prayer,e and be assiduous therein, with devotion towards GOD. But if ye fear any danger, pray on foot or on horseback; and when ye are safe remember GOD, how he hath taught you what as yet ye knew not. And such of you as shall die and leave wives ought to bequeath their wives a year's maintenance, without putting them out of their houses: but if they go out voluntarily, it shall be no crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves, according to what shall be reasonable; GOD is mighty and wise. And unto those who are divorced, a reasonable provision is also due; this is a duty incumbent on those who fear GOD. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may understand. Hast thou not considered those, who left their habitations, (and they were thousands,) for fear of death?f And GOD said unto them, Die; then he restored them to life, for GOD is gracious towards mankind; but the greater part of men do not give thanks. Fight for the religion of GOD, and know that GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. Who is he that will lend unto GOD on good usury?g verily he will double it unto him manifold; for GOD contracteth and extendeth his hand as he pleaseth, and to him shall ye return. Hast thou not considered the assembly of the children of Israel, after the time of Moses; when they said unto their prophet Samuel, Set a king over us, that we may fight for the religion of GOD. The prophet answered, If ye are enjoined to go to war, will ye be near refusing to fight? They answered, And what should ail us that we should not fight for the religion of GOD, seeing we are dispossessed of our habitations, and deprived of our children? But when they were enjoined to go to war, they turned back, except a few of them: and GOD knew the ungodly. And their prophet said unto them, Verily GOD hath set Talût,h king over you: they answered, How shall he reign over us, seeing we are more worthy of the kingdom than he, neither is he possessed of great riches? Samuel said, Verily GOD hath chosen him before you, and hath caused him to increase in knowledge and stature, for GOD
giveth his kingdom unto whom he pleaseth; GOD is bounteous and wise. And their prophet said unto them, Verily the sign of his kingdom shall be, that the ark shall come unto you:i therein shall be tranquility from your LORD,k and the relicsl which have been left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron; the angels shall bring it. Verily this shall be a sign unto you, if ye believe. And when Talut departed with his soldiers he said, Verily GOD will prove you by the river: for he who drinketh thereof, shall not be on my side (but he who shall not taste thereof he shall be on my side), except he who drinketh a draught out of his hand. And they drank thereof, except a few of them.m And when they had passed the river, he and those who believed with him, they said, We have no strength to-day, against Jalutn and his forces. But they who considered that they should meet GOD at the resurrection, said, How often hath a small army discomfited a great one, by the will of GOD! and GOD is with those who patiently persevere. And when they went forth to battle against Jalut and his forces, they said, O LORD, pour on us patience, and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving people. Therefore they discomfited them, by the will of GOD, and David slew Jalut. And GOD gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him his will;o and if GOD had not prevented men, the one by the other, verily the earth had been corrupted: but GOD is beneficent towards his creatures. These are the signs of GOD: we rehearse them unto thee with truth, and thou art surely one of those who have been sent by GOD. These are the apostles; we have preferred some of them before others; some of them hath GOD spoken unto, and hath exalted the degree of others of them. And we gave unto Jesus the son of Mary manifest signs, and strengthened him with the holy spirit.p And if GOD had pleased, they who came after those apostles would not have contended among themselves, after manifest signs had been shown unto them. But they fell to variance; therefore some of them believed, and some of them believed not; and if GOD had so pleased, they would not have con-
tended among themselves; but GOD doth what he will. O true believers, give alms of that which we have bestowed unto you, before the day cometh wherein there shall be no merchandizing, nor friendship, nor intercession. The infidels are unjust doers. GOD! there is no GOD but he;q the living, the self-subsisting: neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him; to him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven, and on earth. Who is he than can intercede with him, but through his good pleasure? He knoweth that which is past, and that which is to come unto them, and they shall not comprehend anything of his knowledge, but so far as he pleaseth. His throne is extended over heaven and earth,r and the preservation of both is no burden unto him. He is the high, the mighty. Let there be no violence in religion.s Now is right direction manifestly distinguished from deceit: whoever therefore shall deny Tagut,t and believe in GOD, he shall surely take hold on a strong handle, which shall not be broken; GOD is he who heareth and seeth. GOD is the patron of those who believe; he shall lead them out of darkness into light: but as to those who believe not, their patrons are Tagut; they shall lead them from the light into darkness; they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever. Hast thou not considered him who disputed with Abraham concerning his LORD,u because GOD had given him the kingdom? When Abraham said, My LORD is he who giveth life, and killeth: he answered, I give life, and I kill. Abraham said, Verily GOD bringeth the sun from the east, now do thou bring it from the west. Whereupon the infidel was confounded; for GOD directeth not the ungodly people. Or hast thou not considered how he behaved who passed by a city which had been destroyed, even to her foundations?x He said, How shall GOD quicken this city, after she hath been dead? And GOD caused him to die for an hundred years, and after-
wards raised him to life. And GOD said, how long hast thou tarried here? He answered, A day, or part of a day. GOD said, Nay, thou hast tarried here a hundred years. Now look on thy food and thy drink, they are not yet corrupted; and look on thine ass: and this have we done that we might make thee a sign unto men. And look on the bones of thine ass, how we raise them, and afterwards clothe them with flesh. And when this was shown unto him, he said, I know that GOD is able to do all things. And when Abraham said, O LORD, show me how thou wilt raise the dead;y God said, Dost thou not yet believe? He answered, Yea, but I ask this that my heart may rest at ease. GOD said, take therefore four birds, and divide them;z then lay a part of them on every mountain; then call them, and they shall come swiftly unto thee: and know that GOD is mighty and wise. The similitude of those who lay out their substance, for advancing the religion of GOD, is as a grain of corn which produceth seven ears, and in every ear an hundred grains; for GOD giveth twofold unto whom he pleaseth: GOD is bounteous and wise. They who lay out their substance for the religion of GOD, and afterwards follow not what they have so laid out by reproaches or mischief,a they shall have their reward with their LORD; upon them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved. A fair speech and to forgive, is better than alms followed by mischief. GOD is rich and merciful. O true believers, make not your alms of none effect by reproaching, or mischief, as he who layeth out what he hath to appear unto men to give alms, and believeth not in GOD and the last day. The likeness of such a one is as a flint covered with earth, on which a violent rain falleth, and leaveth it hard. They cannot prosper in anything which they have gained, for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. And the likeness of those who lay out their substance from a desire to please GOD, and for an establishment for their souls, is as a garden on a hill, on which a violent rain falleth, and it bringeth forth its fruits twofold; and if a violent rain falleth not on it, yet the dew falleth thereon: and GOD seeth that which ye do. Doth any of you desire to have a garden of palm-trees and vines,b through which rivers flow, wherein ye may have all kinds of fruits, and that he may attain to old age, and have a weak offspring? then a violent fiery wind shall strike it, so that it shall be burned. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may consider. O true believers, bestow alms of the good things
which ye have gained, and of that which we have produced for you out of the earth, and choose not the bad thereof, to give it in alms, such as ye would not accept yourselves, otherwise than by connivance:c and know that GOD is rich and worthy to be praised. The devil threateneth you with poverty, and commandeth you filthy covetousness; but GOD promiseth you pardon from himself and abundance: GOD is bounteous and wise. He giveth wisdom unto whom he pleaseth; and he unto whom wisdom is given hath received much good: but none will consider, except the wise of heart. And whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow, verily GOD knoweth it; but the ungodly shall have none to help them. If ye make your alms to appear, it is well; but if ye conceal them, and give them unto the poor, this will be better for you, and will atone for your sins; and GOD is well informed of that which ye do. The direction of them belongeth not unto thee; but GOD directeth whom he pleaseth. The good that ye shall give in alms shall redound unto yourselves; and ye shall not give unless out of desire of seeing the face of GOD.d And what good thing ye shall give in alms, it shall be repaid you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly; unto the poor who are wholly employed in fighting for the religion of GOD, and cannot go to and fro on the earth; whom the ignorant man thinketh rich, because of their modesty: thou shalt know them by this mark, they ask not men with importunity; and what good ye shall give in alms, verily GOD knoweth it. They who distribute alms of their substance night and day, in private and in public, shall have their reward with the LORD; on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved. They who devour usury shall not arise from the dead, but as he ariseth whom Satan hath infected by a touch:e this shall happen to them because they say, Truly selling is but as usury: and yet GOD hath permitted selling and forbidden usury. He therefore who when there cometh unto him an admonition from his LORD abstaineth from usury for the future, shall have what is past forgiven him, and his affair belongeth unto GOD. But whoever returneth to usury, they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall continue therein forever. GOD shall take his blessing from usury, and shall increase alms: for GOD loveth no infidel, or ungodly person. But they who believe and do that which is right, and observe the stated times of prayer, and pay their legal alms, they shall have their reward with their LORD: there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. O true believers, fear GOD, and remit that which remaineth of usury,f if ye really believe; but if ye do it not, hearken unto war, which is declared against you from GOD and his apostle: yet if ye repent, ye shall have the capital of your money. Deal not unjustly with others, and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly. If there be any debtor under a difficulty of paying his debt, let his creditor wait till it be easy for him to do it; but if ye remit it as alms, it will be
better for you, if ye knew it. And fear the day wherein ye shall return unto GOD; then shall every soul be paid what it hath gained, and they shall not be treated unjustly. O true believers, when ye bind yourselves one to the other in a debt for a certain time, write it down; and let a writer write between you according to justice, and let not the writer refuse writing according to what GOD hath taught him; but let him write, and let him who oweth the debt dictate, and let him fear GOD his LORD, and not diminish aught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt be foolish, or weak, or be not able to dictate himself, let his agentg dictate according to equity; and call to witness two witnesses of your neighboring men; but if there be not two men, let there be a man and two women of those whom ye shall choose for witnesses: if one of those women should mistake, the other of them will cause her to recollect. And the witnesses shall not refuse, whensoever they shall be called. And disdain not to write it down, be it a large debt, or be it a small one, until its time of payment: this will be more just in the sight of GOD, and more right for bearing witness, and more easy, that ye may not doubt. But if it be a present bargain which ye transact between yourselves, it shall be no crime in you, if ye write it not down. And take witnesses when ye sell one to the other, and let no harm be done to the writer, nor to the witness; which if ye do, it will surely be injustice in you: and fear GOD, and GOD will instruct you, for GOD knoweth all things. And if ye be on a journey, and find no writer, let pledges be taken: but if one of you trust the other, let him who is trusted return what he is trusted with, and fear GOD his LORD. And conceal not the testimony, for he who concealeth it hath surely a wicked heart: GOD knoweth that which ye do. Whatever is in heaven and on earth is GOD'S: and whether ye manifest that which is in your minds, or conceal it, GOD will call you to account for it, and will forgive whom he pleaseth, and will punish whom he pleaseth, for GOD is almighty. The apostle believeth in that which hath been sent down unto him from his LORD, and the faithful also. Every one of them believeth in GOD, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his apostles: we make no distinction at all between his apostles.h And they say, We have heard, and do obey: we implore thy mercy, O LORD, for unto thee must we return. GOD will not force any one beyond its capacity: it shall have the good which it gaineth, and it shall suffer the evil which it gaineth. O LORD, punish us not, if we forget, or act sinfully: O LORD, lay not on us a burden like that which thou hast laid on those who have been before us;i neither make us, O LORD, to bear what we have not strength to bear, but be favorable unto us, and spare us, and be merciful unto us. Thou art our patron, help us therefore against the unbelieving nations.
ENTITLED, THE FAMILY OF IMRAN;k REVEALED AT MEDINA
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
AL. M.l There is no GOD but GOD, the living, the self-subsisting: he hath sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that which was revealed before it; for he had formerly sent down the law, and the gospel a direction unto men; and he had also sent down the distinction between good and evil. Verily those who believe not the signs of GOD shall suffer a grievous punishment; for GOD is mighty, able to revenge. Surely nothing is hidden from GOD, of that which is on earth, or in heaven: it is he who formeth you in the wombs, as he pleaseth; there is no GOD but he, the mighty, the wise. It is he who hath sent down unto thee the book, wherein are some verses clear to be understood, they are the foundation of the book; and others are parabolical.m But they whose hearts are perverse will follow that which is parabolical therein, out of love of schism, and a desire of the interpretation thereof; yet none knoweth the interpretation thereof, except God. But they who are well grounded in the knowledge say, We believe therein, the whole is from our LORD; and none will consider except the prudent. O LORD, cause not our hearts to swerve from truth, after thou hast directed us: and give us from thee mercy, for thou art he who giveth. O LORD, thou shalt surely gather mankind together, unto a day of resurrection: there is no doubt of it, for GOD will not be contrary to the promise. As for the infidels, their wealth shall not profit them anything, nor their children, against GOD: they shall be the fuel of hell fire. According to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those who went before them, they charged our signs with a lie; but GOD caught them in their wickedness, and GOD is severe in punishing. Say unto those who believe not, Ye shall be overcome, and thrown together into hell; and an unhappy couch shall it be. Ye have already had a miracle shown you in two armies, which attacked each other:n one army fought for GOD'S true religion, but the other
were infidels; they saw the faithful twice as many as themselves in their eyesight; for GOD strengthened with his help whom he pleaseth. Surely herein was an example unto men of understanding. The love and eager desire of wives, and children, and sums heaped up of gold and silver, and excellent horses, and cattle, and land, is prepared for men: this is the provision of the present life; but unto GOD shall be the most excellent return. Say, Shall I declare unto you better things than this? For those who are devout are prepared with their LORD gardens through which rivers flow; therein shall they continue forever: and they shall enjoy wives free from impurity, and the favor of GOD; for GOD regardeth his servants who say, O LORD, we do sincerely believe; forgive us therefore our sins, and deliver us from the pain of hell fire: the patient, and the lovers of truth, and the devout, and the almsgivers, and those who ask pardon early in the morning. GOD hath borne witness that there is no GOD but he; and the angels, and those who are endowed with wisdom, profess the same; who executeth righteousness; there is no GOD but he; the mighty, the wise. Verily the true religion in the sight of GOD is Islâm;o and they who had received the scriptures dissented not therefrom, until after the knowledge of God's unity had come unto them, out of envy among themselves; but whosoever believeth not in the signs of GOD, verily GOD will be swift in bringing him to account. If they dispute with thee, say, I have resigned myself unto GOD, and he who followeth me doth the same; and say unto them who have received the scriptures, and to the ignorant,p Do ye profess the religion of Islam? now if they embrace Islam, they are surely directed; but if they turn their backs, verily unto thee belongeth preaching only; for GOD regardeth his servants. And unto those who believe not in the signs of GOD, and slay the prophets without a cause, and put those men to death who teach justice; denounce unto them a painful punishment. These are they whose works perish in this world, and in that which is to come; and they shall have none to help them. Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the scripture was given?q They were called unto the book of GOD, that it might judge between them;r then some of them
turned their backs, and retired afar off. This they did because they said, the fire of hell shall by no means touch us, but for a certain number of days;s and that which they had falsely devised hath deceived them in their religion. How then will it be with them, when we shall gather them together at the day of judgment,t of which there is no doubt; and every soul shall be paid that which it hath gained, neither shall they be treated unjustly? Say, O GOD, who possessest the kingdom; thou givest the kingdom unto whom thou wilt, and thou takest away the kingdom from whom thou wilt: thou exaltest whom thou wilt, and thou humblest whom thou wilt: in thy hand is good, for thou art almighty. Thou makest the night to succeed the day: thou bringest forth the living out of the dead, and thou bringest forth the dead out of the living;u and providest food for whom thou wilt without measure. Let not the faithful take the infidels for their protectors, rather than the faithful: he who doth this shall not be protected of GOD at all; unless ye fear any danger from them: but GOD warneth you to beware of himself; for unto GOD must ye return. Say, Whether ye conceal that which is in your breasts, or whether ye declare it, GOD knoweth it; for he knoweth whatever is in heaven, and whatever is on earth: GOD is almighty. On the last day every soul shall find the good which it hath wrought, present; and the evil which it hath wrought, it shall wish that between itself and that were a wide distance: but GOD warneth you to beware of himself; for GOD is gracious unto his servants. Say, If ye love GOD, follow me: then GOD shall love you, and forgive you your sins; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Say, Obey GOD, and his apostle; but if ye go back, verily GOD loveth not the unbelievers. GOD hath surely chosen Adam, and Noah, and the family of Abraham, and the family of Imrânx above the
rest of the world; a race descending the one from the other: GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. Remember when the wife of Imrâny said, LORD, verily I have vowed unto thee that which is in my womb, to be dedicated to thy service;z accept it therefore of me; for thou art he who heareth and knoweth. And when she was delivered of it, she said, LORD, verily I have brought forth a female (and GOD well knew what she had brought forth), and a male is not as a female.a I have called her MARY; and I commend her to thy protection, and also her issue, against Satan driven away with stones.b Therefore the LORD accepted her with a gracious acceptance,c and caused her to bear an excellent off-
spring. And Zacharias took care of the child; whenever Zacharias went into the chamber to her, he found provisions with her:d and he said, O Mary, whence hadst thou this? she answered, This is from GOD, for GOD provideth for whom he pleaseth without measure.e There Zacharias called on his LORD, and said, LORD, give me from thee a good offspring, for thou art the hearer of prayer. And the angelsf called to him, while he stood praying in the chamber, saying, Verily GOD promiseth thee a son named John, who shall bear witness to the Wordg which cometh from GOD; and honourable person, chaste,h and one of the righteous prophets. He answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, when old age hath overtaken me,i and my wife is barren? The angel said, So GOD doth that which he pleaseth. Zacharias answered, LORD, give me a sign. The angel said, Thy sign shall be, that thou shalt speak unto no mank for three days, otherwise than by gesture: remember thy LORD often, and praise him evening and morning. And when the angels said, O Mary, verily GOD hath chosen thee, and hath purified thee and hath chosen thee above all the women of the world: O Mary, be devout towards thy LORD, and worship, and bow down with those who bow down. This is a secret history: we reveal it unto thee, although thou wast not present with them when they threw in their rods to cast lots which of them should have the education of Mary;l neither wast thou with them, when they strove among themselves. When the angels said; O Mary, verily GOD sendeth thee good tidings, that thou shalt bear the Word proceeding from himself; his name shall be CHRIST JESUS the son of Mary, honourable in this world and in the world to come, and one of those who approach near to the presence of GOD; and
he shall speak unto men in the cradle,m and when he is grown up;n and he shall be one of the righteous: she answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, since a man hath not touched me? the angel said, So GOD createth that which he pleaseth: when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is: GOD shall teach him the scripture, and wisdom, and the law, and the gospel; and shall appoint him his apostle to the children of Israel; and he shall say, Verily I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; for I will make before you, of clay, as it were the figure of a bird;o then I will breathe thereon, and it shall become a bird, by the permission of GOD;p and I will heal him that hath been blind from his birth; and the leper: and I will raise the deadq by the permission of GOD: and I will prophesy unto you what ye eat, and what ye lay up for store in your houses. Verily herein will be a sign unto you, if ye believe. And I come to confirm the law which was revealed before me and to allow unto you as lawful part of that which hath been forbidden you:r and I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; therefore fear GOD, and obey me. Verily GOD is my LORD, and your LORD; therefore serve him. This is the right way. But when Jesus perceived their unbelief, he said, Who will be my helpers towards GOD?
The apostles answered,s We will be the helpers of GOD; we believe in GOD, and do thou bear witness that we are true believers. O LORD, we believe in that which thou hast sent down, and we have followed thy apostle; write us down therefore with those who bear witness of him. And the Jews devised a stratagem against him;t but GOD devised a stratagem against them;u and GOD is the best deviser of stratagems. When GOD said, O Jesus, verily I will cause thee to die,x and I will
take thee up unto me,y and I will deliver thee from the unbelievers; and I will place those who follow thee above the unbelievers, until the day of resurrection:z then unto me shall ye return, and I will judge between you of that concerning which ye disagree. Moreover, as for the infidels, I will punish them with a grievous punishment in this world, and in that which is to come; and there shall be none to help them. But they who believe, and do that which is right, he shall give them their reward: for GOD loveth not the wicked doers. These signs and this prudent admonition do we rehearse unto thee. Verily the likeness of Jesus in the sight of GOD is as the likeness of Adam; he created him out of the dust, and then said unto him, Be; and he was.a This is the truth from thy LORD; be not therefore one of those who doubt; and whoever shall dispute with thee, concerning him,b after the knowledge which hath been given thee, say unto them, Come, let us call together our sons and your sons, and our wives and your wives, and ourselves and yourselves; then let us make imprecations, and lay the curse of GOD on those who lie.c Verily this is a true history: and there is no GOD, but GOD; and GOD is most mighty and wise. If they turn back, GOD well knoweth the evil doers. Say, O ye who have received the scripture, come to a just determination between us and you;d that we worship not any except GOD, and associate no creature with him; and that the one of us take not the other for lords,e beside GOD. But if they turn back, say, Bear witness that we are true
believers. O ye to whom the scriptures have been given, why do ye dispute concerning Abraham,f since the Law and the Gospel were not sent down until after him? Do ye not therefore understand? Behold ye are they who dispute concerning that which ye have some knowledge in; why therefore do you dispute concerning that which ye have no knowledge of?g GOD knoweth, but ye know not. Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian; but he was of the true religion, one resigned unto God, and was not of the number of the idolaters. Verily the men who are the nearest of kin unto Abraham are they who follow him; and this prophet, and they who believed on him: GOD is the patron of the faithful. Some of those who have received the scriptures desire to seduce you;h but they seduce themselves only, and they perceive it not. O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of GOD, since ye are witnesses of them? O ye who have received the scriptures, why do you clothe truth with vanity, and knowingly hide the truth?i And some of those to whom the scriptures were given say, Believe in that which hath been sent down unto those who believe, in the beginning of the day, and deny it in the end thereof; that they may go back from their faith;k and believe him only who followeth your religion. Say, Verily the true direction is the direction of GOD, that there may be given unto some other a revelation like unto what hath been given unto you. Will they dispute with you before your Lord? Say, Surely excellence is in the hand of GOD, he giveth it unto whom he pleaseth; GOD is bounteous and wise: he will confer peculiar mercy on whom he pleaseth; for GOD is endued with great beneficence. There is of those who have received the scriptures, unto whom if thou trust a talent he will restore it unto thee;l and there is also of them, unto whom if thou trust a dinâr, he will not restore it unto thee, unless thou stand over him continually with great urgency.m This they do because
they say, We are not obliged to observe justice with the heathen: but they utter a lie against GOD, knowingly. Yea, whoso keepeth his covenant, and feareth God, GOD surely loveth those who fear him. But they who make merchandise of GOD'S covenant, and of their oaths, for a small price, shall have no portion in the next life, neither shall GOD speak to them or regard them on the day of resurrection, nor shall he cleanse them; but they shall suffer a grievous punishment. And there are certainly some of them who read the scriptures perversely, that ye may think what they read to be really in the scriptures, yet it is not in the scripture; and they say, This is from GOD; but it is not from GOD: and they speak that which is false concerning GOD, against their own knowledge. It is not fit for a man, that GOD should give him a book of revelations, and wisdom, and prophecy; and then he should say unto men, Be ye worshippers of me, besides GOD; but he ought to say, Be ye perfect in knowledge and in works, since ye know the scriptures, and exercise yourselves therein.n GOD hath not commanded you to take the angels and the prophets for your lords: Will he command you to become infidels, after ye have been true believers? And remember when GOD accepted the covenant of the prophets,o saying, This verily is the scripture and the wisdom which I have given you: hereafter shall an apostle come unto you, confirming the truth of that scripture which is with you; ye shall surely believe in him, and ye shall assist him. GOD said, Are ye firmly resolved, and do ye accept my covenant on this condition? They answered, We are firmly resolved: God said, Be ye therefore witnesses; and I also bear witness with you: and whosoever turneth back after this, they are surely the transgressors. Do they therefore seek any other religion but GOD'S? since to him is resigned whosoever is in heaven or on earth, voluntarily or of force: and to him shall they return. Say, We believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto us, and that which was sent down unto Abraham,
and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered to Moses, and Jesus, and the prophets from their LORD; we make no distinction between any of them; and to him are we resigned. Whoever followeth any other religion than Islam, it shall not be accepted of him: and in the next life he shall be of those who perish.p How shall GOD direct men who have become infidels after they had believed, and borne witness that the apostle was true, and manifest declarations of the divine will had come unto them? for GOD directeth not the ungodly people. Their reward shall be, that on them shall fall the curse of GOD and of angels, and of all mankind: they shall remain under the same forever; their torment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be regarded; except those who repent after this, and amend; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Moreover they who become infidels after they have believed, and yet increase in infidelity, their repentance shall in no wise be accepted, and they are those who go astray. Verily they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, the world full of gold shall in nowise be accepted from any of them, even though he should give it for his ransom; they shall suffer a grievous punishment, and they shall have none to help them. Ye will never attain unto righteousness until ye give in alms of that which ye love: and whatever ye give, GOD knoweth it. All food was permitted unto the children of Israel, except what Israel forbade unto himself,q before the Pentateuch was sent down.r Say unto the Jews, Bring hither the Pentateuch and read it, if ye speak truth. Whoever therefore contriveth a lie against GOD after this, they will be evil doers. Say, GOD is true: follow ye therefore the religion of Abraham the orthodox; for he was no idolater. Verily the first house appointed unto men to worship in was that which was in Becca;s blessed, and a direction to all creatures.t Therein are manifest signs:u the place where Abraham stood; and whoever entereth therein, shall be safe. And it is a duty towards GOD, incumbent
on those who are able to go thither,x to visit this house; but whosoever disbelieveth, verily GOD needeth not the service of any creature. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of GOD? Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye keep back from the way of GOD, him who believeth? Ye seek to make it crooked, and yet are witnesses that it is the right: but GOD will not be unmindful of what ye do. O true believers, if ye obey some of those who have received the scripture, they will render you infidels, after ye have believed:y and how can ye be infidels, when the signs of GOD are read unto you, and his apostle is among you? But he who cleaveth firmly unto GOD, is already directed in the right way. O believers, fear GOD with his true fear, and die not unless ye also be true believers. And cleave all of you unto the covenantz of GOD, and depart not from it, and remember the favor of GOD towards you: since ye were enemies, and he reconciled your hearts, and ye became companions and brethren by his favor: and ye were on the brink of a pit of fire, and he delivered you thence. Thus GOD declareth unto you his signs, that ye may be directed. Let there be people among you who invite to the best religion; and command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil; and they shall be happy. And be not as they who are divided, and disagree in matters of religion,a after manifest proofs have been brought unto them: they shall suffer a great torment. On the day of resurrection some faces shall become white, and other faces shall become black.b And unto them whose faces shall become black, GOD will say, Have ye returned unto your unbelief, after ye had believed? therefore taste the punishment, for that ye have been unbelievers: but they whose faces shall become white shall be in the mercy of GOD, therein shall they remain for ever.
These are the signs of GOD: we recite them unto thee with truth. GOD will not deal unjustly with his creatures. And to GOD belongeth whatever is in heaven and on earth; and to GOD shall all things return. Ye are the best nation that hath been raised up unto mankind: ye command that which is just, and ye forbid that which is unjust, and ye believe in GOD. And if they who have received the scriptures had believed, it had surely been the better for them: there are believers among them,c but the greater part of them are transgressors. They shall not hurt you, unless with a slight hurt; and if they fight against you, they shall turn their backs to you; and they shall not be helped.d They are smitten with vileness wheresoever they are found; unless they obtain security by entering into a treaty with GOD, and a treaty with men:f and they draw on themselves indignation from GOD, and they are afflicted with poverty. This they suffer, because they disbelieved the signs of GOD,g and slew the prophets unjustly; this, because they were rebellious, and transgressed. Yet they are not all alike: there are of those who have received the scriptures, upright people; they meditate on the signs of GOD in the night season, and worship; they believe in GOD, and the last day; and command that which is just, and forbid that which is unjust, and zealously strive to excel in good works; these are of the righteous. And ye shall not be denied the reward of the good which ye do;h for GOD knoweth the pious. As for the unbelievers, their wealth shall not profit them at all, neither their children, against GOD: they shall be the companions of hell fire; they shall continue therein forever. The likeness of that which they lay out in this present life, is as a wind wherein there is a scorching cold: it falleth on the standing corn of those men who have injured their own souls, and destroyeth it. And GOD dealeth not unjustly with them; but they injure their own souls. O true believers, contract not an intimate friendship with any besides yourselves;i they will not fail to corrupt you. They wish for that which may cause you to perish: their hatred hath already appeared from out of their mouths; but what their breasts conceal is yet more inveterate. We have already shown you signs of their ill will towards you, if ye understand. Behold, ye love them, and they do not love you: ye believe in all the scriptures, and when they meet you, they say, We believe; but when they assemble privately together, they bite their fingers' ends out of wrath against you. Say unto them, Die in your wrath: verily GOD knoweth the innermost part of your breasts. If good happen unto you, it grieveth them; and if evil befall you, they rejoice at it. But if ye be patient, and fear God, their subtlety shall not hurt you at all; for GOD comprehendeth whatever they do. Call to mind when thou wentest
forth early from thy family, that thou mightest prepare the faithful a camp for war;k and GOD hear and knew it; when two companies of you were anxiously thoughtful, so that ye became faint-hearted;l but GOD was the supporter of them both; and in GOD let the faithful trust. And GOD had already given you the victory at Bedr,m when ye were inferior in number; therefore fear GOD, that ye may be thankful. When thou saidst unto the faithful, Is it not enough for you, that your LORD should assist you with three thousand angels sent down from heaven? Verily if ye persevere, and fear God, and your enemies come upon you suddenly, your LORD will assist you with five thousand angels, distinguished by their horses and attire.n And this GOD designed only as good tidings for youo that your hearts might rest secure; for victory is from GOD alone, the mighty, the wise. That he should cut off the uttermost part of the unbelievers, or cast them down, or that they should be overthrown and unsuccessful is nothing to thee. It is no business of thine; whether God be turned unto them, or whether he punish them; they are surely unjust doers.p To GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: he spareth whom he pleaseth, and he punisheth whom he pleaseth; for GOD is merciful. O true believers, devour nor usury, doubling it twofold; but fear GOD, that ye may prosper: and fear the fire which is prepared for the unbelievers; and obey GOD, and his apostle that ye may obtain mercy. And run with emulation to obtain remission from your LORD, and paradise, whose breath equalleth the heavens and the earth, which is prepared for the godly; who give alms in prosperity and adversity; who bridle
their anger, and forgive men; for GOD loveth the beneficent.q And who, after they have committed a crime, or dealt unjustly with their own souls, remember GOD, and ask pardon for their sins, (for who forgiveth sins except GOD?) and persevere not in what they have done knowingly; their reward shall be pardon from their LORD, and gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever: and how excellent is the reward of those who labor! There have already been before you examples of punishment of infidels, therefore go through the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those who accuse God's apostles of imposture. This book is a declaration unto men, and a direction and an admonition to the pious. And be not dismayed, neither be ye grieved; for ye shall be superior to the unbelievers if ye believe. If a wound hath happened unto you in war,r a like wound hath already happened unto the unbelieving people:s and we cause these days of different success interchangeably to succeed each other among men; that GOD may know those who believe, and may have martyrs from among you: (GOD loveth not the workers of iniquity;) and that GOD might prove those who believe, and destroy the infidels. Did ye imagine that ye should enter paradise, when as yet GOD knew not those among you who fought strenuously in his cause; nor knew those who persevered with patience? Moreover ye did sometimes wish for death before that ye met it;t but ye have now seen it, and ye looked on, but retreated from it. Mohammed is no more than an apostle; the other apostles have already deceased before him: if he die, therefore, or be slain, will ye turn back on your heels?u but he who turneth back on his heels will not hurt God at all; and GOD will surely reward the thankful. No soul can die unless by the permission of GOD, according to what is written in the book containing the determination of things.x And whoso chooseth the reward of this world, we will give
him thereof: but whoso chooseth the reward of the world to come, we will give him thereof: and we will surely reward the thankful. How many prophets have encountered those who had many myriads of troops: and yet they desponded not in their mind for what had befallen them in fighting for the religion of GOD; and were not weakened, neither behaved themselves in an abject manner? GOD loveth those who persevere patiently. And their speech was no other than what they said, Our LORD forgive us our offences, and our transgressions in our business; and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving people. And GOD gave them the reward of this world, and a glorious reward in the life to come; for GOD loveth the well-doers. O ye who believe, if you obey the infidels, they will cause you to turn back on your heels, and ye will be turned back and perish:y but GOD is your LORD; and he is the best helper. We will surely cast a dread into the hearts of the unbelievers,z because they have associated with GOD that concerning which he sent them down no power: their dwelling shall be the fire of hell; and the receptacle of the wicked shall be miserable. GOD had already made good unto you his promise, when ye destroyed them by his permission,a until ye became faint-hearted, and disputed concerning the command of the apostle, and were rebellious;b after God had shown you what ye desired. Some of you chose this present world, and others of you chose the world to come.c Then he turned you to flight from before them, that he might make trial of you: (but he hath now pardoned you: for GOD is endued with beneficence towards the faithful;) when ye went up as ye fled, and looked not back on any: while the apostle called you, in the uttermost part of you.d Therefore God rewarded you with affliction on affliction, that ye be not grieved hereafter for the spoils which ye fail of, nor for that which befalleth you,e for GOD is well acquainted
with whatever ye do. Then he sent down upon you after affliction security; a soft sleep which fell on some part of you; but other part were troubled by their own souls;f falsely thinking of GOD, a foolish imagination saying, Will anything of the matter happen unto us?g Say, Verily, the matter belongeth wholly unto GOD. They concealed in their minds what they declared not unto thee; saying,h If anything of the matter had happened unto us,i we had not been slain here. Answer, If ye had been in your houses, verily they would have gone forth to fight, whose slaughter was decreed, to the places where they died, and this came to pass that GOD might try what was in your breasts, and might discern what was in your hearts; for GOD knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. Verily they among you who turned their backs on the day whereon the two armies met each other at Ohod, Satan caused them to slip for some crime which they had committed:k but now hath GOD forgiven them; for GOD is gracious and merciful. O true believers, be not as they who believed not, and said of their brethren when they had journeyed in the land or had been at war, If they had been with us, those had not died, nor had these been slain: whereas what befell them was so ordained that GOD might take it matter of sighing in their hearts. GOD giveth life, and causeth to die: and GOD seeth that which ye do. Moreover if ye be slain, or die in defence of the religion of GOD, verily pardon from GOD, and mercy, is better than what they heap together of worldly riches. And if ye die, or be slain, verily unto GOD shall ye be gathered. And as to the mercy granted unto the disobedient from GOD, thou O Mohammed, hast been mild towards them; but if thou hadst been severe, and hard-hearted, they had surely separated themselves from about thee. Therefore forgive them, and ask pardon for them: and consult them in the affair of war; and after thou hast deliberated, trust in GOD; for GOD loveth those who trust in him. If GOD help you, none shall conquer you; but if he desert you, who is it that will help you after him? Therefore in GOD let the faithful trust. It is not the part of a prophet to defraud,l for he who defraudeth shall bring with him what he hath defrauded any one of, on the day of the resurrection.m Then shall every
soul be paid what he hath gained; and they shall not be treated unjustly. Shall he therefore who followeth that which is well-pleasing unto GOD be as he who bringeth on himself wrath from GOD, and whose receptacle is hell? an evil journey shall it be thither. There shall be degrees of rewards and punishments with GOD, for GOD seeth what they do. Now hath GOD been gracious unto the believers when he raised up among them an apostle of their own nation,n who should recite his signs unto them, and purify them, and teach them the book of the Koran and wisdom:o whereas they were before in manifest error. After a misfortune had befallen you at Ohod, (ye had already obtained two equal advantages)p do ye say, Whence cometh this? Answer, This is from yourselves:q for GOD is almighty. And what happened unto you, on the day whereon the two armies met, was certainly by the permission of GOD; and that he might know the ungodly. It was said unto them, Come, fight for the religion of GOD, or drive back the enemy: they answered, if we had known ye went out to fight, we had certainly followed you.r They were on that day nearer unto unbelief, than they were to faith; they spake with their mouths, what was not in their hearts: but GOD perfectly knew what they concealed; who said of their brethren, while themselves stayed at home, if they had obeyed us, they had not been slain. Say, Then keep back death from yourselves, if ye say truth. Thou shalt in nowise reckon those who have been slain at Ohod, in the cause of GOD, dead; nay, they are sustained alive with their LORD,s rejoicing for what GOD of his favor hath granted them; and being glad for those who, coming after them, have not as yet overtaken them;t because there shall no fear come on them, neither shall they be grieved. They are filled with joy for the favor which they have received from GOD and his bounty; and for that GOD suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish. They who hearkened unto GOD and his apostle, after a wound had befallen them at Ohod,u
such of them as do good works, and fear God, shall have a great reward; unto whom certain men said, Verily the men of Mecca have already gathered forces against you, be ye therefore afraid of them:x but this increased their faith, and they said, GOD is our support, and the most excellent patron. Wherefore they returned with favor from GOD, and advantage:y no evil befell them: and they followed what was well pleasing unto GOD: for GOD is endowed with great liberality. Verily that devilz would cause you to fear his friends: but be ye not afraid of them: but fear me, if ye be true believers. They shall not grieve thee, who emulously hasten unto infidelity; for they shall never hurt GOD at all. GOD will not give them a part in the next life, and they shall suffer a great punishment. Surely those who purchase infidelity with faith shall by no means hurt GOD at all, but they shall suffer a grievous punishment. And let not the unbelievers think, because we grant them lives long and prosperous, that it is better for their souls: we grant them long and prosperous lives only that their iniquity may be increased; and they shall suffer an ignominious punishment. GOD is not disposed to leave the faithful in the condition which ye are now in,a until he sever the wicked from the good; nor is GOD disposed to make you acquainted with what is a hidden secret, but GOD chooseth such of his apostles as he pleaseth, to reveal his mind unto:b believe therefore in GOD, and his apostles; and if ye believe, and fear God, ye shall receive a great reward. And let not those who are covetous of what GOD of his bounty hath granted them imagine that their avarice is better for them: nay, rather it is worse for them. That which they have covetously reserved shall be bound as a collar about their neck,c on the day of the resurrection: unto GOD belongeth the inheritance of heaven and earth; and GOD is well acquainted with what ye do. GOD hath already heard the saying of those who said, Verily GOD is
poor, and we are rich:d we will surely write down what they have said, and the slaughter which they have made of the prophets without a cause; and we will say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning. This shall they suffer for the evil which their hands have sent before them, and because GOD is not unjust towards mankind; who also say, Surely GOD hath commanded us, that we should not give credit to any apostle, until one should come unto us with a sacrifice, which should be consumed by fire.e Say, Apostles have already come unto you before me,f with plain proofs, and with the miracle which ye mention: why therefore have ye slain them, if ye speak truth? If they accuse thee of imposture, the apostles before thee have also been accounted impostors, who brought evident demonstrations, and the scriptures, and the book which enlighteneth the understanding. Every soul shall taste of death, and ye shall have your reward on the day of resurrection; and he who shall be far removed from hell fire, and shall be admitted into paradise, shall be happy: but the present life is only a deceitful provision. Ye shall surely be proved in your possessions, and in your persons; and ye shall bear from those unto whom the scripture was delivered before you, and from the idolaters, much hurt: but if ye be patient and fear God, this is a matter that is absolutely determined. And when GOD accepted the covenant of those to whom the book of the law was given, saying, Ye shall surely publish it unto mankind, ye shall not hide it: yet they threw it behind their backs, and sold it for a small price: but woful is the price for which they have sold it.g Think not that they who rejoice at what they have done, and expect to be praised for what they have not done;h think not, O prophet, that they shall escape from
punishment, for they shall suffer a painful punishment; and unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth: GOD is almighty. Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, are signs unto those who are endued with understanding; who remember GOD standing, and sitting, and lying on their sides;i and meditate on the creation of heaven and earth, saying, O LORD, thou hast not created this in vain; far be it from thee: therefore deliver us from the torment of hell fire: O LORD, surely whom thou shalt throw into the fire, thou wilt also cover with shame: nor shall the ungodly have any to help them. O LORD, we have heard a preacherk inviting us to the faith and saying, Believe in your LORD: and we believed. O LORD, forgive us therefore our sins, and expiate our evil deeds from us, and make us to die with the righteous. O LORD, give us also the reward which thou hast promised by thy apostles; and cover us not with shame on the day of resurrection; for thou art not contrary to the promise. Their LORD therefore answered them, saying, I will not suffer the work of him among you who worketh to be lost, whether he be male, or female:l the one of you is from the other. They therefore who have left their country, and have been turned out of their houses, and have suffered for my sake, and have been slain in battle; verily I will expiate their evil deeds from them, and I will surely bring them into gardens watered by rivers; a reward from GOD; and with GOD is the most excellent reward. Let not the prosperous dealing of the unbelievers in the land deceive thee;m it is but a slender provision;n and then their receptacle shall be hell; an unhappy couch shall it be. But they who fear the LORD shall have gardens through which rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever: this is the gift of GOD for what is with GOD shall be better for the righteous than short-lived worldly prosperity. There are some of those who have received the scriptures, who believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto you, and that which hath been sent down to them, submitting themselves unto GOD;o they tell not the signs of GOD for a
small price: these shall have their reward with their LORD; for GOD is swift in taking an account.p O true believers, be patient and strive to excel in patience, and be constant-minded, and fear GOD, that ye may be happy.
ENTITLED, WOMEN;q REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD
O MEN, fear your LORD, who hath created you out of one man, and out of him created his wife, and from them two hath multiplied many men, and women: and fear GOD by whom ye beseech one another;r and respect womens who have borne you, for GOD is watching over you. And give the orphans when they come to age their substance; and render them not in exchange bad for good:t and devour not their substance, by adding it to your own substance; for this is a great sin. And if ye fear that ye shall not act with equity towards orphans of the female sex, take in marriage of such other women as please you, two, or three, or four, and not more.u But if ye fear that ye cannot act equitably towards so many, marry one only, or the slaves which ye shall have acquired.x This will be easier, that ye swerve not from righteousness. And give women their dowry freely; but if they voluntarily remit unto you any part of it, enjoy it with satisfaction and advantage. And give not unto those who are weak of understanding the substance which GOD hath appointed you to preserve for them; but maintain them thereout, and clothe them, and speak kindly unto them. And
examine the orphansy until they attain the age of marriage:z but if ye perceive they are able to manage their affairs well, deliver their substance unto them; and waste it not extravagantly, or hastily, because they grow up.a Let him who is rich abstain entirely from the orphans' estates; and let him who is poor take thereof according to what shall be reasonable.b And when ye deliver their substance unto them, call witnesses thereof in their presence: GOD taketh sufficient account of your actions. Men ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leavec behind them when they die: and women also ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leave, whether it be little, or whether it be much; a determinate part is due to them. And when they who are of kin are present at the dividing of what is left, and also the orphans, and the poor; distribute unto them some part thereof; and if the estate be too small, at least speak comfortably unto them. And let those fear to abuse orphans, who if they leave behind them a weak offspring, are solicitous for them; let them therefore fear GOD, and speak that which is convenient.d Surely they who devour the possessions of orphans unjustly shall swallow down nothing but fire into their bellies, and shall broil in raging flames. GOD hath thus commanded you concerning your children. A male shall have as much as the share of two females:e but if they be females only, and above two in number, they shall have two third parts of what the deceased shall leave;f and if there be but one, she shall have the half.g And the parents of the deceased shall have each of them a sixth part of what he shall leave, if he have a child; but if he have no child, and his parents be his heirs, then his mother shall have the third part.h And if he have brethren, his mother shall have a sixth part, after the legaciesi which he shall bequeath, and his debts be paid. Ye know not whether your parents or your children be of greater use unto you. This is an
ordinance from GOD, and GOD is knowing and wise. Moreover ye may claim half of what your wives shall leave, if they have no issue; but if they have issue, then ye shall have the fourth part of what they shall leave, after the legacies which they shall bequeath, and the debts be paid. They also shall have the fourth part of what ye shall leave, in case ye have no issue; but if ye have issue, then they shall have the eighth part of what ye shall leave, after the legacies which ye shall bequeath, and your debts be paid. And if a man or woman's substance be inherited by a distant relation,k and he or she have a brother or sister; each of them two shall have a sixth part of the estate.l But if there be more than this number, they shall be equal sharers in a third part, after payment of the legacies which shall be bequeathed, and the debts, without prejudice to the heirs. This is an ordinance from GOD: and GOD is knowing and gracious. These are the statutes of GOD. And whoso obeyeth GOD and his apostle, God shall lead him into gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever; and this shall be great happiness. But whoso disobeyeth GOD, and his apostle, and transgresseth his statutes, God shall cast him into hell fire; he shall remain therein forever, and he shall suffer a shameful punishment. If any of your women be guilty of whoredom,m produce four witnesses from among you against them, and if they bear witness against them, imprison them in separate apartments until death release them, or GOD affordeth them a way to escape.n And if two of you commit the like wickedness,o punish them both:p but if they repent and amend, let them both alone; for GOD is easy to be reconciled and merciful. Verily repentance will be accepted with GOD, from those who do evil ignorantly, and then repent speedily; unto them will GOD be turned: for GOD is knowing and wise. But no repentance shall be accepted from those who do evil until the time when death presenteth itself unto one of them, and he saith, Verily I repent now; nor unto those who die unbelievers; for them have we prepared a grievous punishment. O true believers, it is
not lawful for you to be heirs of women against their will,q nor to hinder them from marrying others,r that ye may take away part of what ye have given them in dowry; unless they have been guilty of a manifest crime:s but converse kindly with them. And if ye hate them, it may happen that ye may hate a thing wherein GOD hath placed much good. If ye be desirous to exchange a wife for another wife,t and ye have already given one of them a talent,u take not away anything therefrom:x will ye take it by slandering her, and doing her manifest injustice? And how can ye take it, since the one of you hath gone in unto the other, and they have received from you a firm covenant? Marry not women whom your fathers have had to wife; (except what is already past:) for this is uncleanness, and an abomination, and an evil way. Ye are forbidden to marry your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts both on the father's and on the mother's side, and your brothers' daughters, and your sisters' daughters, and your mothers who have given you suck, and your foster-sisters, and your wives' mothers, and your daughters-in-law which are under your tuition, born of your wives unto whom ye have gone in, (but if ye have not gone in unto them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them, ) and the wives of your sons who proceed out of your loins; and ye are also forbidden to take to wife two sisters,y except what is already past: for GOD is gracious and merciful. Ye are also forbidden to take to wife free women who are married, except those women whom your right hands shall possess as slaves.z This is ordained you from GOD. Whatever is beside this is allowed you; that ye may with your substance provide wives for yourselves, acting that which is right, and avoiding whoredom. And for the advantage which ye receive from them, give them their reward,a according to what is ordained: but it shall be no crime in you to make any other agreement among yourselves,b after the ordinance shall be complied with; for GOD is knowing and wise. Whoso among you hath not means sufficient that he may marry free women, who are believers, let him marry with such of your maid-servants whom your right hands possess, as are true believers; for GOD well knoweth
your faith. Ye are the one from the other:c therefore marry them with the consent of their masters; and give them their dower according to justice; such as are modest, not guilty of whoredom, nor entertaining lovers. And when they are married, if they be guilty of adultery, they shall suffer half the punishment which is appointed for the free women.d This is allowed unto him among you, who feareth to sin by marrying free women; but if ye abstain from marrying slaves, it will be better for you; GOD is gracious and merciful. GOD is willing to declare these things unto you, and to direct you according to the ordinances of those who have gone before you,e and to be merciful unto you. GOD is knowing and wise. GOD desireth to be gracious unto you; but they who follow their lusts,f desire that ye should turn aside from the truth with great deviation. GOD is minded to make his religion light unto you: for man was created weak.g O true believers, consume not your wealth among yourselves in vanity;h unless there be merchandising among you by mutual consent: neither slay yourselves;i for GOD is merciful towards you: and whoever doth this maliciouslyk and wickedly, he will surely cast him to be broiled in hell fire; and this is easy with GOD. If ye turn aside from the grievous sins,l of those which ye are forbidden to commit, we will cleanse you from your smaller faults; and will introduce you into paradise with an honourable entry. Covet not that which GOD hath bestowed on some of you preferably to others.m Unto the men shall be given a portion of what they shall have gained, and unto the women shall be given a portion of what they shall have gained:n therefore ask GOD of his bounty; for
GOD is omniscient. We have appointed unto every one kindred, to inherit part of what their parents and relations shall leave at their deaths. And unto those with whom your right hands have made an alliance, give their part of the inheritance;o for GOD is witness of all things. Men shall have the preëminence above women, because of those advantages wherein GOD hath caused the one of them to excel the other,p and for that which they expend of their substance in maintaining their wives. The honest women are obedient. careful in the absence of their husbands,q for that GOD preserveth them, by committing them to the care and protection of the men. But those, whose perverseness ye shall be apprehensive of, rebuke; and remove them into separate apartments,r and chastise them.s But if they shall be obedient unto you, seek not an occasion of quarrel against them: for GOD is high and great. And if ye fear a breach between the husband and wife, send a judget out of his family, and a judge out of her family: if they shall desire a reconciliation, GOD will cause them to agree; for GOD is knowing and wise. Serve GOD, and associate no creature with him; and show kindness unto parents, and relations, and orphans, and the poor, and your neighbor who is of kin to you,u and also your neighbor who is a stranger, and to your familiar companion, and the traveller, and the captives whom your right hands shall possess; for GOD loveth not the proud or vain-glorious, who are covetous, and recommend covetousness unto men, and conceal that which GOD of his bounty hath given themx (we have prepared a shameful punishment for the unbelievers;) and who bestow their wealth in charity to be observed of men, and believe not in GOD, nor in the last day; and whoever hath Satan for a companion, an evil companion hath he! And what harm would befall them if they should believe in GOD, and the last day, and give alms out of that which GOD hath bestowed on them? since GOD knoweth them who do this. Verily GOD will not wrong any one even the weight of an ant:y and if it be a good action, he will double it, and will recompense it in his sight with a great reward. How will it be with the unbelievers when we shall
bring a witness out of each nation against itself,z and shall bring thee, O Mohammed, a witness against these people?a In that day they who have not believed, and have rebelled against the apostle of God, shall wish the earth was levelled with them; and they shall not be able to hide any matter from GOD. O true believers, come not to prayers when ye are drunk,b until ye understand what ye say; nor when ye are polluted by emission of seed, unless ye be travelling on the road, until ye wash yourselves. But if ye be sick or on a journey, or any of you come from easing nature, or have touched women, and find no water; take fine clean sand and rub your faces and your hands therewith;c for GOD is merciful and inclined to forgive. Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the scriptured was delivered? they sell error, and desire that ye may wander from the right way; but GOD well knoweth your enemies. GOD is a sufficient patron; and GOD is a sufficient helper. Of the Jews there are some who pervert words from their places;e and say, We have heard, and have disobeyed; and do thou hear without understanding our meaning,f and look upon us:g perplexing with their tongues, and reviling the true religion. But if they had said, We have heard, and do obey; and do thou hear, and regard us:h certainly it were better for them, and more right. But GOD hath cursed them by reason of their infidelity; therefore a few of them only shall believe. O ye to whom the scriptures have been given, believe in the revelation which we have sent down, confirming that which is with you; before we deface your countenances, and render them as the back parts thereof;i or curse them, as we cursed those who transgressed on the sabbath day;k and the command of GOD was fulfilled. Surely GOD will not pardon the giving him an equal;l but will pardon any other sin except that, to whom he pleasethm and whoso giveth a companion
unto GOD, hath devised a great wickedness. Hast thou not observed those who justify themselves?n But GOD justifieth whomsoever he pleaseth, nor shall they be wronged a hair.o Behold, how they imagine a lie against GOD; and therein is iniquity sufficiently manifest. Hast thou not considered those to whom part of the scripture hath been given? They believe in false gods and idols,p and say of those who believe not, These are more rightly directed in the way of truth, than they who believe on Mohammed. Those are the men whom God hath cursed and unto him whom GOD shall curse, thou shalt surely find no helper. Shall they have a part of the kingdom,q since even then they would not bestow the smallest matterr on men? Do they envy other men that which GOD of his bounty hath given them?s We formerly gave unto the family of Abraham a book of revelations and wisdom; and we gave them a great kingdom.t There is of them who believeth on him;u and there is of them who turneth aside from him: but the raging fire of hell is a sufficient punishment. Verily those who disbelieve our signs, we will surely cast to be broiled in hell fire; so often as their skins shall be well burned, we will give them other skins in exchange, that they may taste the sharper torment; for GOD is mighty and wise. But those who believe and do that which is right, we will bring into gardens watered by rivers, therein shall they remain forever, and there shall they enjoy wives free from all impurity; and we will lead them into perpetual shades. Moreover GOD commandeth you to restore what ye are trusted with, to the owners;x and when ye judge between
men, that ye judge according to equity: and surely an excellent virtue it is to which GOD exhorteth you; for GOD both heareth and seeth. O true believers, obey GOD, and obey the apostle; and those who are in authority among you: and if ye differ, in anything, refer it unto GODy and the apostle, if ye believe in GOD, and the last day: this is better, and a fairer method of determination. Hast thou not observed those who pretend they believe in what hath been revealed unto thee, and what hath been revealed before thee? They desire to go to judgment before Taghût,z although they have been commanded not to believe in him; and Satan desireth to seduce them into a wide error. And when it is said unto them, Come unto the book which GOD hath sent down, and to the apostle; thou seest the ungodly turn aside from thee, with great aversion. But how will they behave when a misfortune shall befall them, for that which their hands have sent before them? Then will they come unto thee, and swear by GOD, saying, If we intended any other than to do good, and to reconcile the parties.a GOD knoweth what is in the hearts of these men; therefore let them alone, and admonish them, and speak unto them a word which may affect their souls. We have not sent any apostle, but that he might be obeyed by the permission of GOD: but if they, after they have injured their own souls,b come unto thee, and ask pardon of GOD, and the apostle ask pardon for them, they shall surely find GOD easy to be reconciled and merciful. And by thy LORD they will not perfectly believe, until they make thee judge of their controversies; and shall not afterwards find in their own minds any hardship in what thou shalt determine, but shall acquiesce therein with entire submission. And if we had commanded them, saying, Slay yourselves, or depart from your houses;c they would not have done it except a few of them. And if they had done what they were admonished, it would certainly have been better for them, and more efficacious for confirming their faith; and we should then have surely given them in our sight an exceeding great reward, and we should have directed them in the right way. Whoever obeyeth GOD and the apostle, they shall be with those unto whom GOD hath been gracious, of the prophets, and the sincere, and the martyrs, and the righteous;
and these are the most excellent company. This is bounty from GOD; and GOD is sufficiently knowing. O true believers, take your necessary precautiond against your enemies, and either go forth to war in separate parties, or go forth all together in a body. There is of you who tarrieth behind;e and if a misfortune befall you, he saith, Verily GOD hath been gracious unto me, that I was not present with them: but if success attend you from GOD, he will say (as if there was no friendship between you and him),f Would to GOD I had been with them, for I should have acquired great merit. Let them therefore fight for the religion of GOD, who part with the present life in exchange for that which is to come;g for whosoever fighteth for the religion of GOD, whether he be slain, or be victorious,h we will surely give him a great reward. And what ails you, that ye fight not for GOD'S true religion, and in defence of the weak among men, women, and children,i who say, O LORD, bring us forth from this city, whose inhabitants are wicked; grant us from before thee a protector, and grant us from before thee a defender.k They who believe fight for the religion of GOD; but they who believe not fight for the religion of Taghût.l Fight therefore against the friends of Satan, for the stratagem of Satan is weak. Hast thou not observed those unto whom it was said, Withhold your hands from war, and be constant at prayers, and pay the legal alms?m But when war is commanded them, behold a part of them fear men as they should fear GOD, or with a great fear, and say, O LORD, wherefore hast thou commanded us to go to war, and hast not suffered us to wait our approaching end?n Say unto them, The provision of this life is but small; but the future shall be better for him who feareth God; and ye shall not be in the least injured at the day of judgment. Wheresoever ye be, death will overtake you, although ye be in lofty towers. If good befall them, they say, This is from GOD; but if evil befall them, they say, This is from thee, O Mohammed:o say, All is from GOD; and what aileth these people, that they are so far from understanding what is said unto them? Whatever
good befalleth thee, O man, it is from GOD; and whatever evil befalleth thee, it is from thyself.p We have sent thee an apostle unto men, and GOD is a sufficient witness thereof. Whoever obeyeth the apostle, obeyeth GOD; and whoever turneth back, we have not sent thee to be a keeper over them.q They say, Obedience: yet when they go forth from thee, part of them meditate by night a matter different from what thou speakest; but GOD shall write down what they meditate by night: therefore let them alone, and trust in GOD, for GOD is a sufficient protector. Do they not attentively consider the Koran? if it had been from any besides GOD, they would certainly have found therein many contradictions. When any news cometh unto them, either of security or fear, they immediately divulge it; but if they told it to the apostle and to those who are in authority among them, such of them would understand the truth of the matter, as inform themselves thereof from the apostle and his chiefs. And if the favor of GOD and his mercy had not been upon you, ye had followed the devil, except a few of you.r Fight therefore for the religion of GOD, and oblige not any to what is difficult,s except thyself; however excite the faithful to war, perhaps GOD will restrain the courage of the unbelievers; for GOD is stronger than they, and more able to punish. He who intercedeth between men with a good intercessiont shall have a portion thereof; and he who intercedeth with an evil intercession shall have a portion thereof; for GOD overlooketh all things. When ye are saluted with a salutation, salute the person with a better salutation,u or at least return the same; for GOD taketh an account of all things. GOD! there is no GOD but he; he will surely gather you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt of it: and who is more true than GOD in what he saith? Why are ye divided concerning the ungodly into two parties;x since GOD hath overturned them for what they have committed? Will ye direct him whom GOD hath led astray; since for him whom GOD shall lead astray, thou shalt find no true path? They desire that ye should become
infidels, as they are infidels, and that ye should be equally wicked with themselves. Therefore take not friends from among them, until they fly their country for the religion of GOD; and if they turn back from the faith, take them, and kill them wherever ye find them; and take no friend from among them, nor any helper, except those who go unto a people who are in alliance with you,y or those who come unto you, their hearts forbidding them either to fight against you, or to fight against their own people.z And if GOD pleased he would have permitted them to have prevailed against you, and they would have fought against you. But if they depart from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, GOD doth not allow you to take or kill them. Ye shall find others who are desirous to enter into confidence with you, and at the same time to preserve a confidence with their own people:a so often as they return to sedition, they shall be subverted therein; and if they depart not from you, and offer you peace, and restrain their hands from warring against you, take them and kill them wheresoever ye find them; over these have we granted you a manifest power. It is not lawful for a believer to kill a believer, unless it happen by mistake;b and whoso killeth a believer by mistake, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer from slavery, and a fine to be paid to the family of the deceased,c unless they remit it as alms: and if the slain person be of a people at enmity with you, and be a true believer, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer;d but if he be of a people in confederacy with you, a fine to be paid to his family, and the freeing of a believer. And he who findeth not wherewith to do this shall fast two months consecutively as a penance enjoined from GOD; and GOD is knowing and wise. But whoso killeth a believer designedly, his reward shall be hell; he shall remain therein for ever;e and GOD shall be angry with him, and shall curse him, and shall prepare for him a great punishment. O true believers, when ye are on a march in defence of the true religion, justly discern such as ye shall happen to meet, and say not unto him who saluteth you, thou art not a true believer;f seeking
the accidental goods of the present life;g for with GOD is much spoil. Such have ye formerly been; but GOD hath been gracious unto you;h therefore make a just discernment, for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. Those believers who sit still at home, not having any hurt,i and those who employ their fortunes and their persons for the religion of GOD, shall not be held equal. GOD hath preferred those who employ their fortunes and their persons in that cause to a degree of honour above those who sit at home; GOD hath indeed promised every one paradise, but GOD hath preferred those who fight for the faith before those who sit still, by adding unto them a great reward, by degrees of honour conferred on them from him, and by granting them forgiveness and mercy; for GOD is indulgent and merciful. Moreover unto those whom the angels put to death, having injured their own souls,k the angels said, Of what religion were ye? they answered, We were weak in the earth.l The angels replied, Was not GOD'S earth wide enough, that ye might fly therein to a place of refuge?m Therefore their habitation shall be hell; and an evil journey shall it be thither: except the weak among men, and women, and children, who were not able to find means, and were not directed in the way; these peradventure GOD will pardon, for GOD is ready to forgive, and gracious. Whosoever flieth from his country for the sake of GOD'S true religion, shall find in the earth many forced to do the same, and plenty of provisions. And whoever departeth from his house, and flieth unto GOD and his apostle, if death overtake him in the way,n GOD will be obliged to reward him, for GOD is gracious and merciful. When ye march to war in the earth, it shall be no crime in you if ye shorten your prayers, in case ye fear the infidels may attack you; for the infidels are your open enemy. But when thou, O prophet, shalt be among them, and shalt pray with them, let a party of them arise to prayer with thee, and let them take their arms; and when they shall have worshipped, let them stand behind you,o and let another party come that hath not prayed, and let them pray with thee, and let them be cautious and take their arms. The unbelievers would that ye should neglect your arms and your baggage while ye pray, that they might turn upon you at once. It shall be no crime in you, if ye be incommoded by rain, or
be sick, that ye lay down your arms; but take your necessary precaution:p GOD hath prepared for the unbelievers an ignominious punishment. And when ye shall have ended your prayer, remember GOD, standing, and sitting, and lying on your sides.q But when ye are secure from danger, complete your prayers: for prayer is commanded the faithful, and appointed to be said at the stated times. Be not negligent in seeking out the unbelieving people, though ye suffer some inconvenience; for they also shall suffer as ye suffer, and ye hope for a reward from GOD which they cannot hope for; and GOD is knowing and wise.r We have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, that thou mayest judge between men through that wisdom which GOD showeth thee therein; and be not an advocate for the fraudulent;s but ask pardon of GOD for thy wrong intention, since GOD is indulgent and merciful. Dispute not for those who deceive one another, for GOD loveth not him who is a deceiver or unjust.t Such conceal themselves from men, but they conceal not themselves from GOD; for he is with them when they imagine by night a saying which pleaseth him not,u and GOD comprehendeth what they do. Behold, ye are they who have disputed for them in this present life; but who shall dispute with GOD for them on the day of resurrection, or who will become their patron? yet he who doth evil, or injureth his own soul, and afterwards asketh pardon of God, shall find God gracious and merciful. Whoso committeth wickedness, committeth it against his own soul: GOD is knowing and wise. And whoso committeth a sin or iniquity, and afterwards layeth it on the innocent, he shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and manifest injustice. If the indulgence and mercy of GOD had not been upon thee, surely a part of them had studied to seduce thee;x but they shall seduce themselves only, and shall not hurt thee at all. GOD hath sent down unto thee the book of the Koran and wisdom, and hath taught thee that which thou knewest not;y for the favor of GOD hath been great towards thee. There is no good in the multitude of their private discourses, unless in the discourse of him who recommendeth alms, or that which is right, or agreement amongst men: whoever doth this out of a desire to please GOD,
we will surely give him a great reward. But whoso separateth himself from the apostle, after true direction hath been manifested unto him, and followeth any other way than than of the true believers, we will cause him to obtain that to which he is inclined,z and will cast him to be burned in hell; and an unhappy journey shall it be thither. Verily GOD will not pardon the giving him a companion, but he will pardon any crime besides that, unto whom he pleaseth: and he who giveth a companion unto GOD is surely led aside into a wide mistake; the infidels invoke beside him only female deities;a and only invoke rebellious Satan. GOD cursed him; and he said, Verily I will take of thy servants a part cut off from the rest,b and I will seduce them, and will insinuate vain desires into them, and I will command them and they shall cut off the ears of cattle;c and I will command them and they shall change GOD'S creature.d But whoever taketh Satan for his patron, besides GOD,e shall surely perish with a manifest destruction. He maketh them promises, and insinuateth into them vain desires; yet Satan maketh them only deceitful promises. The receptacle of these shall be hell, they shall find no refuge from it. But they who believe, and do good works, we will surely lead them into gardens, through which rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever, according to the true promise of GOD; and who is more true than GOD in what he saith? It shall not be according to your desires, nor according to the desires of those who have received the scriptures.f Whoso doth evil shall be rewarded for it; and shall not find any patron or helper, beside GOD; but whoso doth good works, whether he be male or female, and is a true believer, they shall be admitted into paradise, and shall not in the least be unjustly dealt with. Who is better in point of religion than he who resigneth himself unto GOD, and is a worker of righteousness, and followeth the law of Abraham the orthodox? since GOD took Abraham for his friend:g and to God belongeth whatsoever is in
heaven and on earth; GOD comprehendeth all things. They will consult thee concerning women;h Answer, GOD instructeth you concerning them,i and that which is read unto you in the book of the Koran concerning female orphans, to whom ye give not that which is ordained them, neither will ye marry them,k and concerning weak infants,l and that ye observe justice towards orphans: whatever good ye do, GOD knoweth it. If a woman fear ill usage, or aversion from her husband, it shall be no crime in them if they agree the matter amicably between themselves;m for a reconciliation is better than a separation. Men's souls are naturally inclined to covetousness:n but if ye be kind towards women, and fear to wrong them, GOD is well acquainted with what ye do. Ye can by no means carry yourselves equally between women in all respects, although ye study to do it; therefore turn not from a wife with all manner of aversion,o nor leave her like one in suspense:p if ye agree, and fear to abuse your wives, GOD is gracious and merciful; but if they separate, GOD will satisfy them both of his abundance;q for GOD is extensive and wise, and unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth. We have already commanded those unto whom the scriptures were given before you, and we command you also, saying, Fear GOD; but if ye disbelieve, unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is self-sufficient,r and to be praised; for unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and GOD is a sufficient protector. If he pleaseth he will take you away, O men, and will produce others in your stead;s for GOD is able to do this. Whoso desireth the reward of this world, verily with GOD is the reward
of this world, and also of that which is to come; GOD both heareth and seeth. O true believers, observe justice when ye bear witness before GOD, although it be against yourselves, or your parents, or relations; whether the party be rich, or whether he be poor; for GOD is more worthy than them both: therefore follow not your own lust in bearing testimony so that ye swerve from justice. And whether ye wrest your evidence, or decline giving it, GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. O true believers, believe in GOD and his apostle, and the book which he hath caused to descend unto his apostle, and the book which he hath formerly sent down.t And whosoever believeth not in GOD, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his apostles, and the last day, he surely erreth in a wide mistake. Moreover they who believed, and afterwards became infidels, and then believed again, and after that disbelieved, and increased in infidelity,u GOD will by no means forgive them, nor direct them into the right way. Declare unto the ungodlyx that they shall suffer a painful punishment. They who take the unbelievers for their protectors, besides the faithful, do they seek for power with them? since all power belongeth unto GOD. And he hath already revealed unto you, in the book of the Korân,y the following passageWhen ye shall hear the signs of GOD, they shall not be believed, but they shall be laughed to scorn. Therefore sit not with them who believe not, until they engage in different discourse; for if ye do ye will certainly become like unto them. GOD will surely gather the ungodly and the unbelievers together in hell. They who wait to observe what befalleth you, if victory be granted you from GOD, say, Were we not with you?z But if any advantage happen to the infidels, they say unto them, Were we not superior to you,a and have we not defended you against the believers? GOD shall judge between you on the day of resurrection: and GOD will not grant the unbelievers means to prevail over the faithful. The hypocrites act deceitfully with GOD, but he will deceive them; and when they stand up to pray, they stand carelessly, affecting to be seen of men, and remember not GOD, unless a little,b wavering between faith and infidelity, and adhering neither unto these nor unto those:c and for him whom GOD shall lead astray thou shalt find no true path. O true believers, take not the unbelievers for your protectors besides the faithful. Will ye furnish GOD with an evident argument of impiety against you? Moreover the hypocrites
shall be in the lowest bottom of hell fire,d and thou shalt not find any to help them thence. But they who repent and amend, and adhere firmly unto GOD, and approve the sincerity of their religion to GOD, they shall be numbered with the faithful; and GOD will surely give the faithful a great reward. And how should GOD go about to punish you, if ye be thankful and believe? for GOD is grateful and wise. (VI.) GOD loveth not the speaking ill of any one in public, unless he who is injured call for assistance; and GOD heareth and knoweth: whether ye publish a good action, or conceal it, or forgive evil, verily GOD is gracious and powerful. They who believe not in GOD, and his apostles, and would make a distinction between GOD and his apostles,e and say, We believe in some of the prophets and reject others of them, and seek to take a middle way in this matter; these are really unbelievers: and we have prepared for the unbelievers an ignominious punishment. But they who believe in GOD and his apostles, and make no distinction between any of them, unto those will we surely give their reward; and GOD is gracious and merciful. They who have received the scripturesf will demand of thee, that thou cause a book to descend unto them from heaven: they formerly asked of Moses a greater thing than this: for they said, Show us GOD visibly.g Wherefore a storm of fire from heaven destroyed them, because of their iniquity. Then they took the calf for their God,h after that evident proofs of the divine unity had come unto them: but we forgave them that, and gave Moses a manifest power to punish them.i And we lifted the mountain of Sinai over them,k when we exacted from them their covenant; and said unto them, Enter the gate of the city worshipping.l We also said unto them, Transgress not on the Sabbath-day. And we received from them a firm covenant, that they would observe these things. Therefore for thatm they have made void their covenant, and have not believed in the signs of GOD, and have slain the prophets unjustly, and have said, Our hearts are circumcised; (but GOD hath sealed them up, because of their unbelief; therefore they shall not believe, except a few of them:) and for that they have not believed in Jesus, and have spoken against Mary a grievous calumny;n and have said, Verily we have slain Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the apostle of GOD; yet they slew him not, neither crucified him, but he was represented by one in his likeness;o and verily they
who disagreed concerning himp were in a doubt as to this matter, and had no sure knowledge thereof, but followed only an uncertain opinion. They did not really kill him; but GOD took him up unto himself: and GOD is mighty and wise. And there shall not be one of those who have received the scriptures, who shall not believe in him, before his death;q and on the day of resurrection he shall be a witness against them.r Because of the iniquity of those who Judaize, we have forbidden them good things, which had been formerly allowed them;s and because they shut out many from the way of GOD, and have taken usury, which was forbidden them by the law, and devoured men's substance vainly: we have prepared for such of them as are unbelievers a painful punishment. But those among them who are well grounded in knowledge,t and the faithful, who believe in that which hath been sent down unto thee, and that which hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee, and who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, and believe in GOD and the last day unto these will we give a great reward. Verily we have revealed our will unto thee, as we have revealed it unto Noah and the prophets who succeeded him; and as we revealed it unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and unto Jesus, and Job, and Jonas, and Aaron, and Solomon; and we have given thee the Koran, as we gave the psalms unto David: some apostles have we sent, whom we have formerly mentioned unto thee; and other apostles have we sent, whom we have not mentioned unto thee; and GOD spake unto Moses, discoursing with him; apostles declaring good tidings, and denouncing threats, lest men should have an argument of excuse against GOD, after the apostles had been sent unto them; GOD is mighty and wise. GOD is witness of that revelation which he hath sent down unto thee; he sent it down with his special knowledge: the angels also are witnesses thereof; but GOD is a sufficient witness. They who believe not,
and turn aside others from the way of GOD, have erred in a wide mistake. Verily those who believe not, and act unjustly, GOD will by no means forgive, neither will he direct them into any other way, than the way of hell; they shall remain therein forever: and this is easy with GOD. O men, now is the apostle come unto you, with truth from your LORD; believe therefore, it will be better for you. But if ye disbelieve, verily unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is knowing and wise. O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,u neither say of GOD any other than the truth. Verily Christ Jesus the son of Mary is the apostle of GOD, and his Word, which he conveyed into Mary, and a spirit proceeding from him. Believe therefore in GOD, and his apostles, and say not, There are three Gods;x forbear this; it will be better for you. GOD is but one GOD. Far be it from him that he should have a son! unto him belongeth whatever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is a sufficient protector. Christ doth not proudly disdain to be a servant unto GOD; neither the angels who approach near to his presence: and whoso disdaineth his service, and is puffed up with pride, God will gather them all to himself, on the last day. Unto those who believe, and do that which is right, he shall give their rewards, and shall superabundantly add unto them of his liberality: but those who are disdainful and proud, he will punish with a grievous punishment; and they shall not find any to protect or to help them, besides GOD. O men, now is an evident proof come unto you from your LORD, and we have sent down unto you manifest light.y They who believe in GOD and firmly adhere to him, he will lead them into mercy from him, and abundance; and he will direct them in the right way to himself.z They will consult thee for thy decision in certain cases; say unto them, GOD giveth you these determinations, concerning the more remote degrees of kindred.a If a man die without issue, and have a sister, she shall have the half of what he shall leave:b and he shall be heir to her,c in case she have no issue. But if there be two sisters they shall have between them two third parts of what he shall leave; and if there be several, both brothers and sisters, a male shall have as much as the portion of two females. GOD declareth unto you these precepts, lest ye err: and GOD knoweth all things.
ENTITLED, THE TABLE;d REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O TRUE believers, perform your contracts. Ye are allowed to eat the brute cattle,e other than what ye are commanded to abstain from; except the game which ye are allowed at other times, but not while ye are on pilgrimage to Mecca; GOD ordaineth that which he pleaseth. O true believers, violate not the holy rites of GOD,f nor the sacred month,g nor the offering, nor the ornaments hung thereon,h nor those who are travelling to the holy house, seeking favor from their LORD, and to please him. But when ye shall have finished your pilgrimage; then hunt. And let not the malice of some, in that they hindered you from entering the sacred temple,i provoke you to transgress, by taking revenge on them in the sacred months. Assist one another according to justice and piety, but assist not one another in injustice and malice: therefore fear GOD; for GOD is severe in punishing. Ye are forbidden to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that on which the name of any besides GOD hath been invocated;k and that which hath been strangled, or killed by a blow, or by a fall, or by the horns of another beast, and that which hath been eaten by a wild beast,l except what ye shall kill yourselves;m and that which hath been sacrificed unto idols.n It is likewise unlawful for you to make division by casting lots with arrows.o This is an impiety. On this day,p woe be unto those who have apostatized from their religion; therefore fear not them, but fear me. This day have I perfected your religion for you,q and have completed my mercy upon
you;r and I have chosen for you Islam, to be your religion. But whosoever shall be driven by necessity through hunger, to eat of what we have forbidden, not designing to sin, surely GOD will be indulgent and merciful unto him. They will ask thee what is allowed them as lawful to eat? Answer, Such things as are goods are allowed you; and what ye shall teach animals of prey to catch,t training them up for hunting after the manner of dogs, and teaching them according to the skill which GOD hath taught you. Eat therefore of that which they shall catch for you; and commemorate the name of GOD thereon;u and fear GOD, for GOD is swift in taking an account. This day are ye allowed to eat such things as are good, and the food of those to whom the scriptures were givenx is also allowed as lawful unto you; and your food is allowed as lawful unto them. And ye are also allowed to marry free women that are believers, and also free women of those who have received the scriptures before you, when ye shall have assigned them their dower; living chastely with them, neither committing fornication, nor taking them for concubines. Whoever shall renounce the faith, his work shall be vain, and in the next life he shall be of those who perish. O true believers, when ye prepare yourselves to pray, wash your faces, and your hands unto the elbows; and rub your heads, and your feet unto the ankles; and if ye be polluted by having lain with a woman, wash yourselves all over. But if ye be sick, or on a journey, or any of you cometh from the privy, or if ye have touched women, and ye find no water, take fine clean sand, and rub your faces and your hands therewith; GOD would not put a difficulty upon you; but he desireth to purify you, and to complete his favor upon you, that ye may give thanks. Remember the favor of GOD towards you, and his covenant which he hath made with you, when ye said, We have heard, and will obey.y Therefore fear God, for God knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. O true believers, observe justice when ye appear as witnesses before GOD, and let not hatred towards any induce you to do wrong: but act justly; this will approach nearer unto piety; and fear GOD, for GOD is fully acquainted with what ye do. GOD hath promised unto those who believe, and do that which is right, that they shall receive pardon and a great reward. But they who believe not, and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell. O true believers, remember God's favor towards you, when certain men designed to stretch forth their hands against you, but he restrained their hands from hurting you;z therefore fear GOD and in
GOD let the faithful trust. GOD formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and we appointed out of them twelve leaders: and GOD said, Verily I am with you:a if ye observe prayer, and give alms, and believe in my apostles, and assist them, and lend unto GOD on good usury,b I will surely expiate your evil deeds from you, and I will lead you into gardens, wherein rivers flow: but he among you who disbelieveth after this, erreth from the straight path. Wherefore because they have broken their covenant, we have cursed them, and hardened their hearts; they dislocate the words of the Pentateuch from their places, and have forgotten part of what they were admonished; and thou wilt not cease to discover deceitful practices among them, except a few of them. But forgive them,c and pardon them, for GOD loveth the beneficent. And from those who say, We are Christians, we have received their covenant; but they have forgotten part of what they were admonished; wherefore we have raised up enmity and hatred among them, till the day of resurrection; and GOD will then surely declare unto them what they have been doing. O ye who have received the scriptures, now is our apostle come unto you, to make manifest unto you many things which ye concealed in the scriptures;d and to pass overe many things. Now is light and a perspicuous book of revelations come unto you from God. Thereby will GOD direct him who shall follow his good pleasure, into the paths of peace; and shall lead them out of darkness into light, by his will, and shall direct them in the right way. They are infidels, who say, Verily GOD is Christ the son of Mary. Say unto them, And who could obtain anything from GOD to the contrary, if he pleased to destroy Christ the son of Mary, and his mother, and all those who are on the earth? For unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and whatsoever is con-
tained between them; he createth what he pleaseth, and GOD is almighty. The Jews and the Christians say, We are the children of GOD and his beloved. Answer, Why therefore doth he punish you for your sins? Nay, but ye are men, of those whom he hath created. He forgiveth whom he pleaseth, and punisheth whom he pleaseth; and unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and of what is contained between them both; and unto him shall all things return. O ye who have received the scriptures, now is our apostle come unto you, declaring unto you the true religion, during the cessation of apostles,f lest ye should say, There came unto us no bearer of good tidings, nor any warner: but now is a bearer of good tidings, and a warner come unto you; for GOD is almighty. Call to mind when Moses said unto his people, O my people, remember the favor of GOD towards you, since he hath appointed prophets among you, and constituted you kings,g and bestowed on you what he hath given to no other nation in the world.h O my people, enter the holy land, which GOD hath decreed you, and turn not your backs, lest ye be subverted and perish. They answered, O Moses, verily there are a gigantic people in the land;i and we will by no means enter it, until they depart thence; but if they depart thence, then will we enter therein. And two menk of those who feared GOD, unto whom GOD had been gracious, said, Enter ye upon them suddenly by the gate of the city; and when ye shall have entered the same, ye shall surely be victorious: therefore trust in GOD, if ye are true believers. They replied, O Moses, we will never enter the land, while they remain therein: go therefore thou, and thy LORD, and fight; for we will sit here. Moses said, O LORD, surely I am not master of any except myself, and my brother; therefore make a distinction between us and the ungodly people. GOD answered, Verily the land shall be forbidden them forty years; during which time they shall wander like men astonished on the earth;l therefore be not thou solicitous for the ungodly people. Relate unto them also the history of the two sons of Adam,m with truth. When they offeredn their
offering, and it was accepted from one of them,o and was not accepted from the other, Cain said to his brother, I will certainly kill thee. Abel answered, GOD only accepteth the offering of the pious; if thou stretchest forth thy hand against me, to slay me, I will not stretch forth my hand against thee, to slay thee; for I fear GOD, the LORD of all creatures.p I choose that thou shouldest bear my iniquity and thine own iniquity; and that thou become a companion of hell fire; for that is the reward of the unjust.q But his soul suffered him to slay his brother, and he slew him;r wherefore he became of the number of those who perish. And GOD sent a raven, which scratched the earth, to show him how he should hide the shame of his brother,s and he said, Woe is me! am I unable to be like this raven, that I may hide my brother's shame? and he became one of those who repent. Wherefore we commanded the children of Israel, that he who slayeth a soul, without having slain a soul, or committed wickedness in the earth,t shall be as if he had slain all mankind:u but he who saveth a soul alive, shall be as if he had saved the lives of all mankind. Our apostles formerly came unto them, with evident miracles; then were many of them after this, transgressors on the earth. But the recompense of those who fight against GOD and his apostle, and study to act corruptly in the earth, shall be, that they shall be slain, or crucified, or have their hands and their feet cut off on the opposite sides, or be banished the land.x This shall be their disgrace in this world, and in the next world they shall suffer a grievous punishment; except those who shall repent, before ye prevail against them; for know that GOD is inclined to forgive, and
merciful. O true believers, fear GOD, and earnestly desire a near conjunction with him, and fight for his religion, that ye may be happy. Moreover they who believe not, although they had whatever is in the earth, and as much more withal, that they might therewith redeem themselves from punishment on the day of resurrection; it shall not be accepted from them, but they shall suffer a painful punishment. They shall desire to go forth from the fire, but they shall not go forth from it, and their punishment shall be permanent. If a man or a woman steal, cut off their hands,y in retribution for that which they have committed; this is an exemplary punishment appointed by GOD; and GOD is mighty and wise. But whoever shall repent after his iniquity, and amend, verily GOD will be turned unto him,z for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. Dost thou not know that the kingdom of heaven and earth is GOD'S? He punisheth whom he pleaseth, and he pardoneth whom he pleaseth; for GOD is almighty. O apostle, let not them grieve thee, who hasten to infidelity,a either of those who say, We believe, with their mouths, but whose hearts believe not;b or of the Jews, who hearken to a lie, and hearken to other people;c who come unto thee: they pervert the words of the law from their true places,d and say, If this be brought unto you, receive it; but if it be not brought unto you, beware of receiving aught else;e and in behalf of him whom GOD shall resolve to seduce, thou shalt not prevail with GOD at all. They whose hearts GOD shall not please to cleanse shall suffer shame in this world, and a grievous punishment in the next: who hearken to a lie, and eat that which is forbidden.f But if they come unto thee for judgment, either judge between them, or leave them;g and if thou leave them, they shall not hurt thee at all. But
if thou undertake to judge, judge between them with equity; for GOD loveth those who observe justice. And how will they submit to thy decision, since they have the law, containing the judgment of GOD?h Then will they turn their backs, after this;i but those are not true believers.k We have surely sent down the law, containing direction, and light: thereby did the prophets, who professed the true religion, judge those who judaized; and the doctors and priests also judged by the book of GOD, which had been committed to their custody; and they were witnesses thereof.l Therefore fear not men, but fear me; neither sell my signs for a small price. And whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are infidels. We have therein commanded them, that they should give life for life,m and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth; and that wounds should also be punished by retaliation:n but whoever should remit it as alms, it should be accepted as an atonement for him. And whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are unjust. We also caused Jesus the son of Mary to follow the footsteps of the prophets, confirming the law which was sent down before him; and we gave him the gospel, containing direction and light; confirming also the law which was given before it, and a direction and admonition unto those who fear God: that they who have received the gospel might judge according to what GOD hath revealed therein: and whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are transgressors. We have also sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that scripture which was revealed before it; and preserving the same safe from corruption. Judge therefore between them according to that which GOD hath revealed; and follow not their desires, by swerving from the truth which hath come unto thee. Unto every of you have we given a law, and an open path; and if GOD had pleased, he had surely made you one people;o but he hath thought fit to give you different laws, that he might try you in that which he hath given you respectively. Therefore strive to excel each other in good works: unto GOD shall ye all return, and then will he declare unto you that concerning which ye have disagreed. Wherefore do thou, O pro-
phet, judge between them according to that which GOD hath revealed, and follow not their desires; but beware of them, lest they cause thee to errp from part of those precepts which GOD hath sent down unto thee; and if they turn back,q know that GOD is pleased to punish them for some of their crimes; for a great number of men are transgressors. Do they therefore desire the judgment of the time of ignorance?r but who is better than GOD, to judge between people who reason aright? O true believers, take not the Jews or Christians for your friends; they are friends the one to the other; but whoso among you taketh them for his friends, he is surely one of them: verily GOD directeth not unjust people. Thou shalt see those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, to hasten unto them, saying, We fear lest some adversity befall us;s but it is easy for GOD to give victory, or a command from him,t that they may repent of that which they concealed in their minds. And they who believe will say, Are these the men who have sworn by GOD, with a most firm oath, that they surely held with you?u their works are become vain, and they are of those who perish. O true believers, whoever of you apostatizeth from his religion, GOD will certainly bring other people to supply his place,x whom he will love, and who will love him; who shall be
humble towards the believers; but severe to the unbelievers: they shall fight for the religion of GOD, and shall not fear the obloquy of the detractor. This is the bounty of GOD, he bestoweth it on whom he pleaseth: GOD is extensive and wise. Verily your protector is GOD, and his apostle, and those who believe, who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, and who bow down to worship. And whoso taketh GOD, and his apostle, and the believers for his friends, they are the party of GOD, and they shall be victorious. O true believers, take not such of those to whom the scriptures were delivered before you, or of the infidels, for your friends, who make a laughing-stock, and a jest of your religion;y but fear GOD, if ye be true believers; nor those who when ye call to prayer, make a laughing-stock and a jest of it;z this they do, because they are people who do not understand. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, do ye reject us for any other reason than because we believe in GOD, and that revelation which hath been sent down unto us, and that which was formerly sent down, and for that the greater part of you are transgressors? Say, Shall I denounce unto you a worse thing than this, as to the reward which ye are to expect with GOD? He whom GOD hath cursed, and with whom he hath been angry, having changed some of them into apes and swine,a and who worship Taghût,b they are in the worse condition, and err more widely from the straightness of the path. When they came unto you, they said, We believe: yet they entered into your company with infidelity, and went forth from you with the same; but GOD well knew what they concealed. Thou shalt see many of them hastening unto iniquity and malice, and to eat things forbidden;c and woe unto them for what they have done. Unless their doctors and priests forbid them uttering wickedness, and eating things forbidden; woe unto them for what they shall have committed. The Jews say, The hand of GOD is tied up.d Their hands shall be tied up,e and they shall be cursed for that which they have said. Nay his hands are both stretched forth;
he bestoweth as he pleaseth: that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORDf shall increase the transgression and infidelity of many of them; and we have put enmity and hatred between them, until the day of resurrection. So often as they shall kindle a fire for war GOD shall extinguish it;g and they shall set their minds to act corruptly in the earth, but GOD loveth not the corrupt doers. Moreover if they who have received the scriptures believe, and fear God, we will surely expiate their sins from them, and we will lead them into gardens of pleasure; and if they observe the law, and the gospel, and the other scriptures which have been sent down unto them from their LORD, they shall surely eat of good things both from above them, and from under their feet.h Among them there are people who act uprightly; but how evil is that which many of them do work! O apostle, publish the whole of that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD: for if thou do not, thou dost not in effect publish any part thereof;i and GOD will defend thee against wicked men;k for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, ye are not grounded on anything, until ye observe the law and the gospel and that which hath been sent down unto you from your LORD. That which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD will surely increase the transgression and infidelity of many of them: but be not thou solicitous for the unbelieving people. Verily they who believe, and those who Judaize, and the Sabians, and the Christians, whoever of them believeth in GOD and the last day, and doth that which is right, there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved.l We formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and sent apostles unto them. So often as an apostle came unto them with that which their souls desired not, they accused some of them of imposture, and some of them they killed: and they imagined that there should be no punishment for those crimes, and they became blind, and deaf.m Then was GOD turned unto them;n afterwards many of them again became blind and deaf; but GOD saw what they did. They are surely infidels, who say, Verily GOD is Christ the son of Mary; since Christ said, O children of Israel, serve GOD, my LORD and your LORD; whoever shall give a companion unto GOD, GOD shall exclude him from paradise, and his habitation shall be hell fire; and the ungodly shall have none to help them. They are certainly infidels, who say, GOD is
the third of three:o for there is no GOD, besides one GOD; and if they refrain not from what they say, a painful torment shall surely be inflicted on such of them as are unbelievers. Will they not therefore be turned unto GOD, and ask pardon of him? since GOD is gracious and merciful. Christ the son of Mary is no more than an apostle; other apostles have preceded him; and his mother was a woman of veracity:p they both ate food.q Behold, how we declare unto them the signs of God's unity; and then behold how they turn aside from the truth. Say unto them, Will ye worship, besides GOD, that which can cause you neither harm nor profit? GOD is he who heareth and seeth. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,r by speaking beside the truth; neither follow the desires of people who have heretofore erred, and who have seduced many, and have gone astray from the straight path.s Those among the children of Israel who believe not were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus the son of Mary.t This befell them because they were rebellious and transgressed: they forbade not one another the wickedness which they committed; and woe unto them for what they committed. Thou shalt see many of them take for their friends those who believe not. Woe unto them for what their souls have sent before them,u for that GOD is incensed against them, and they shall remain in torment forever. But, if they had believed in GOD, and the prophet, and that which hath been revealed unto him, they had not taken them for their friends; but many of them are evil-doers. Thou shalt surely find the most violent of all men in enmity against the true believers to be the Jews, and the idolaters: and thou shalt surely find those among them to be the most inclinable to entertain friendship for the true believers, who say, We are Christians. This cometh to pass, because there are priests and monks among them; and because they are not elated with pride:x (VII.) And when they hear that which hath been sent down to the apostle read unto them, thou shalt see their eyes overflow with tears, because of the truth which they perceive therein,y saying,
O LORD, we believe; write us down therefore with those who bear witness to the truth, and what should hinder us from believing in GOD, and the truth which hath come unto us, and from earnestly desiring that our LORD would introduce us into paradise with the righteous people? Therefore hath GOD rewarded them, for what they have said, with gardens through which rivers flow; they shall continue therein forever; and this is the reward of the righteous. But they who believe not, and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell. O true believers, forbid not the good things which GOD hath allowed you;z but transgress not, for GOD loveth not the transgressors. And eat of what GOD hath given you for food that which is lawful and good: and fear GOD, in whom ye believe. GOD will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths;a but he will punish you for what ye solemnly swear with deliberation. And the expiation of such an oath shall be the feeding of ten poor men with such moderate food as ye feed your own families withal; or to clothe them;b or to free the neck of a true believer from captivity: but he who shall not find wherewith to perform one of these three things shall fast three days.c This is the expiation of your oaths, when ye swear inadvertently. Therefore keep your oaths. Thus GOD declareth unto you his signs, that ye may give thanks. O true believers, surely wine, and lots,d and images,e and divining arrows,f are an abomination of the work of Satan; therefore avoid them that ye may prosper. Satan seeketh to sow dissension and hatred among you, by means of wine and lots, and to divert you from remembering GOD, and from prayer: will ye not therefore abstain from them? Obey GOD, and obey the apostle, and take heed to yourselves: but if ye turn back, know that the duty of our apostle is only to preach publicly.g In those who believe and do good works, it is no sin that they have tasted wine or gaming before they were forbidden; if they fear God, and believe, and do good works, and shall for the future fear God, and believe, and shall persevere to fear him, and to do good;h for GOD loveth those who do good. O true believers, GOD will surely prove you in offering you plenty of game, which ye may take with your hands or
your lances,i that GOD may know who feareth him in secret; but whoever transgresseth after this shall suffer a grievous punishment. O true believers, kill no game while ye are on pilgrimage;k whosoever among you shall kill any designedly shall restore the like of what he shall have killed, in domestic animals,l according to the determination of two just persons among you, to be brought as an offering to the Caaba; or in atonement thereof shall feed the poor; or instead thereof shall fast, that he may taste the heinousness of his deed. GOD hath forgiven what is past, but whoever returneth to transgress, GOD will take vengeance on him; for GOD is mighty and able to avenge. It is lawful for you to fish in the sea,m and to eat what ye shall catch, as a provision for you and for those who travel; but it is unlawful for you to hunt by land, while ye are performing the rights of pilgrimage;n therefore fear GOD, before whom ye shall be assembled at the last day. GOD hath appointed the Caaba, the holy house, an establishment for mankind; and hath ordained the sacred month,q and the offering, and the ornaments hung thereon.q This hath he done that ye might know that GOD knoweth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and that GOD is omniscient. Know that GOD is severe in punishing, and that GOD is also ready to forgive, and merciful. The duty of our apostle is to preach only;r and GOD knoweth that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal. Say, Evil and good shall not be equally esteemed of, though the abundance of evil pleaseth thee;s therefore fear GOD, O ye of understanding, that ye may be happy. O true believers, inquire not concerning things, which, if they be declared unto you, may give you pain;t but if ye ask concerning them when the Koran is sent down,
they will be declared unto you: GOD pardoneth you as to these matters; for GOD is ready to forgive, and gracious. People who have been before you formerly inquired concerning them; and afterwards disbelieved therein. God hath not ordained anything concerning Bahîra, nor Sâïba, nor Wasîla, nor Hâmi,u but the unbelievers have invented a lie against GOD: and the greater part of them do not understand. And when it was said unto them, Come unto that which GOD hath revealed, and to the apostle; they answered, That religion which we found our fathers to follow is sufficient for us. What, though their fathers knew nothing and were not rightly directed? O true believers, take care of your souls! He who erreth shall not hurt you, while ye are rightly directed:x unto GOD shall ye all return, and he will tell you that which ye have done. O true believers, let witnesses be taken between you, when death approaches any of you, at the time of making the testament; let there be two witnesses, just men, from among you;y or two others of a different tribe or faith from yourselves,z if ye be journeying in the earth, and the accident of death befall you. Ye shall shut them both up, after the afternoon prayer,a and they shall swear by GOD, if ye doubt them, and they shall say, We will not sell our evidence for a bribe, although the person concerned be one who is related to us, neither will we conceal the testimony of GOD, for then should we certainly be of the number of the wicked. But if it appear that both have been guilty of iniquity, two others shall stand up in their place, of those who have convicted them of falsehood, the two nearest in blood, and they shall swear by GOD, saying, Verily our testimony is more true than the testimony of these two, neither have we prevaricated; for then should we become of the number of the unjust. This will be easier, that men may give testimony according to the plain intention thereof, or fear lest a different oath be given, after their oath. Therefore fear GOD, and hearken; for GOD directeth not the unjust people.b
On a certain dayc shall GOD assemble the apostles, and shall say unto them, What answer was returned you, when ye preached unto the people to whom ye were sent? They shall answer, We have no knowledge, but thou art the knower of secrets.d When GOD shall say, O Jesus son of Mary, remember my favor towards thee, and towards thy mother; when I strengthened thee with the holy spirit,e that thou shouldest speak unto men in the cradle, and when thou wast grown up;f and when I taught thee the scripture, and wisdom and the law, and the gospel: and when thou didst create of clay as it were the figure of a bird, by my permission, and didst breathe thereon, and it became a bird, by my permission, and thou didst heal one blind from his birth, and the leper, by my permission;g and when thou didst bring forth the dead from their graves by my permission; and when I withheld the children of Israel from killing thee,h when thou hadst come unto them with evident miracles, and such of them as believed not said, This is nothing but manifest sorcery. And when I commanded the apostles of Jesus saying, Believe in me, and in my messenger; they answered, We do believe; and do thou bear witness that we are resigned unto thee. Remember when the apostles said, O Jesus son of Mary, is thy LORD able to cause a table to descend unto us from heaven?i He
answered, Fear GOD, if ye be true believers. They said, We desire to eat thereof, and that our hearts may rest at ease, and that we may know that thou hast told us the truth, and that we may be witnesses thereof. Jesus the son of Mary said, O GOD our LORD, cause a table to descend unto us from heaven, that the day of its descent may become a festival dayk unto us, unto the first of us, and unto the last of us, and a sign from thee; and do thou provide food for us, for thou art the best provider. GOD said, Verily I will cause it to descend unto you; but whoever among you shall disbelieve hereafter, I will surely punish him with a punishment, wherewith I will not punish any other creature. And when GOD shall say unto Jesus, at the last day, O Jesus son of Mary, hast thou said unto men, Take me and my mother for two gods, beside GOD? He shall answer, Praise be unto thee! it is not for me to say that which I ought not; if I had said so, thou wouldest surely have known it: thou knowest what is in me, but I know not what is in thee; for thou art the knower of secrets. I have not spoken to them any other than what thou didst command me; namely, Worship GOD, my LORD and your LORD: and I was a witness of their actions while I staid among them; but since thou hast taken me to thyself,l thou hast been the watcher over them; for thou art witness of all things. If thou punish them, they are surely thy servants; and if thou forgive them, thou art mighty and wise. GOD will say, This day shall their veracity be of advantage unto those who speak truth; they shall have gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever: GOD hath been well pleased in them, and they have been well pleased in him. This shall be great felicity. Unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth, and of whatever therein is; and he is almighty.
ENTITLED, CATTLE;m REVEALED AT MECCA.n
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
PRAISE be unto GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and hath ordained the darkness and the light; nevertheless they who believe not in the LORD equalize other gods with him. It is he who hath created you of clay; and then decreed the term of your lives; and the prefixed term is with him:o yet do ye doubt thereof. He is GOD in heaven and in earth; he knoweth what ye keep secret, and what ye publish, and knoweth what ye deserve. There came not unto them any sign, of the signs of their LORD, but they retired from the same; and they have gainsaid the truth, after that it hath come unto them: but a message shall come unto them, concerning that which they have mocked at.p Do they not consider how many generations we have destroyed before them? We had established them in the earth in a manner wherein we have not established you;q we sent the heaven to rain abundantly upon them, and we gave them rivers which flowed under their feet: yet we destroyed them in their sins, and raised up other generations after them. Although we had caused to descend unto thee a book written on paper, and they had handled it with their hands, the unbelievers had surely said, This is no other than manifest sorcery. They said, Unless an angel be sent down unto him, we will not believe. But if we had sent down an angel, verily the matter had ben decreed,r and they should not have been borne with, by having time granted them to repent. And if we had appointed an angel for our messenger, we should have sent him in the form of a man,s and have clothed him before them, as they are clothed. Other apostles have been laughed to scorn before thee, but the judgment which they made a jest of encompassed those who laughed them to scorn. Say, Go through the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those, who accused our prophets of imposture. Say, Unto whom belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and earth? Say, Unto GOD, He hath prescribed unto himself mercy. He will surely gather you together on the
day of resurrection; there is no doubt of it. They who destroy their own souls are those who will not believe. Unto him is owing whatsoever happeneth by night or by day; it is he who heareth and knoweth. Say, Shall I take any other protector than GOD, the creator of heaven and earth, who feedeth all and is not fed by any? Say, Verily I am commanded to be the first who professeth Islâm,t and it was said unto me, Thou shalt by no means be one of the idolaters. Say, Verily I fear, if I should rebel against my LORD, the punishment of the great day: from whomsoever it shall be averted on that day, God will have been merciful unto him; this will be manifest salvation. If GOD afflict thee with any hurt, there is none who can take it off from thee, except himself; but if he cause good to befall thee, he is almighty; he is the supreme Lord over his servants, and he is wise and knowing. Say, What thing is the strongest in bearing testimony?u Say, GOD; he is witness between me and you. And this Koran was revealed unto me, that I should admonish you thereby, and also those unto whom it shall reach. Do ye really profess that there are other gods together with GOD? Say, I do not profess this. Say, Verily he is one GOD; and I am guiltless of what ye associate with him. They unto whom we have given the scripture know our apostle, even as they know their own children;x but they who destroy their own souls will not believe. Who is more unjust than he who inventeth a lie against GOD,y or chargeth his signs with imposture? Surely, the unjust shall not prosper. And on the day of resurrection we will assemble them all; then will we say unto those who associated others with God, Where are your companions,z whom ye imagined to be those of God? But they shall have no other excuse, than that they shall say, by GOD our LORD, we have not been idolaters. Behold, how they lie against themselves, and what they have blasphemously imagined to be the companion of God flieth from them.a There is of them who hearkeneth unto thee when thou readest the Korân;b but we have cast veils over their hearts, that they should not understand it, and a deafness in their ears: and though they should see all kinds of signs, they will not believe therein; and their infidelity will arrive to that height that they will even come unto thee, to dispute with thee. The unbelievers will say, This is nothing but silly fables of ancient times. And they will
forbid others from believing therein, and will retire afar off from it; but they will destroy their own souls only, and they are not sensible thereof. If thou didst see when they shall be set over the fire of hell! and they shall say, Would to GOD we might be sent back into the world; we would not charge the signs of our LORD with imposture, and we would become true believers: nay, but that is become manifest unto them, which they formerly concealed;c and though they should be sent back into the world, they would surely return to that which was forbidden them; and they are surely liars. And they said, There is no other life than our present life; neither shall we be raised again. But if thou couldest see, when they shall be set before their LORD!d He shall say unto them, Is not this in truth come to pass? They shall answer, Yea, by our LORD. God shall say, Taste therefore the punishment due unto you, for that ye have disbelieved. They are lost who reject as a falsehood the meeting of GOD in the next life, until the houre cometh suddenly upon them. Then will they say, Alas! for that we have behaved ourselves negligently in our lifetime; and they shall carry their burdens on their backs;f will it not be evil which they shall be loaden with? This present life is no other than a play and a vain amusement; but surely the future mansion shall be better for those who fear God: will they not therefore understand? Now we know that what they speak grieveth thee: yet they do not accuse thee of falsehood; but the ungodly contradict the signs of GOD.g And apostles before thee have been accounted liars: but they patiently bore their being accounted liars, and their being vexed, until our help came unto them; for there is none who can change the words of GOD: and thou hast received some information concerning those who have been formerly sent from him.h If their aversion to thy admonitions be grievous unto thee, if thou canst seek out a den whereby thou mayest venetrate into the inward parts of the earth, or a ladder by which thou mayest ascend into heaven, that thou mayest show them a sign, do so, but thy search will be fruitless; for if GOD pleased he would bring them
all to the true direction: be not therefore one of the ignorant. He will give a favorable answer unto those only who shall hearken with attention: and GOD will raise the dead; then unto him shall they return. The infidels say, Unless some sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe: answer, Verily GOD is able to send down a sign: but the greater part of them know it not.k There is no kind of beast on earth, nor fowl which flieth with its wings, but the same is a people like unto you;l we have not omitted anything in the book of our decrees: then unto their LORD shall they return.n They who accuse our signs of falsehood are deaf and dumb, walking in darkness: GOD will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and whom he pleaseth he will put in the right way. Say, What think ye? if the punishment of GOD come upon you, or the hour of the resurrection come upon you, will ye call upon any other than GOD, if ye speak truth? yea, him shall ye call upon, and he shall free you from that which ye shall ask him to deliver you from, if he pleaseth; and ye shall forget that which ye associated with him.o We have already sent messengers unto sundry nations before thee, and we afflicted them with trouble and adversity that they might humble themselves: yet when the affliction which we sent came upon them, they did not humble themselves; but their hearts became hardened, and Satan prepared for them that which they committed. And when they had forgotten that concerning which they had been admonished, we opened unto them the gates of all things;p until, while they were rejoicing for that which had been given them, we suddenly laid hold on them, and behold, they were seized with despair; and the utmost part of the people which had acted wickedly was cut off: praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures! Say, what think ye? if GOD should take away your hearing and your sight, and should seal up your hearts; what god besides GOD will restore them unto you? See how variously we show forth the signs of God's unity;q yet do they turn aside from them. Say unto them, What think ye? if the punishment of GOD come upon you suddenly, or in open view;r will any perish, except the ungodly people? We send not our messengers otherwise than bearing good tidings and denouncing threats. Whoso
therefore shall believe and amend, on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved: but whoso shall accuse our signs of falsehood, a punishment shall fall on them, because they have done wickedly. Say, I say not unto you, The treasures of GOD are in my power: neither do I say, I know the secrets of God: neither do I say unto you, Verily I am an angel: I follow only that which is revealed unto me. Say, Shall the blind and the seeing be held equal? do ye not therefore consider? Preach it unto those who fear that they shall be assembled before their LORD: they shall have no patron nor intercessor, except him; that peradventure they may take heed to themselves. Drive not away those who call upon their LORD morning and evening, desiring to see his face;s it belongeth not unto thee to pass any judgment on them,t nor doth it belong unto them to pass any judgment on thee: therefore if thou drive them away, thou wilt become one of the unjust. Thus have we proved some part of them by other part, that they may say, Are these the people among us unto whom GOD hath been gracious?u Doth not GOD most truly know those who are thankful? And when they who believe in our signs shall come unto thee, say, Peace be upon you. Your LORD hath prescribed unto himself mercy; so whoever among you worketh evil through ignorance, and afterwards repenteth and amendeth; unto him will he surely be gracious and merciful. Thus have we distinctly propounded our signs, that the path of the wicked might be made known. Say, Verily I am forbidden to worship the false deities which ye invoke, besides GOD. Say, I will not follow your desires; for then should I err, neither should I be one of those who are rightly directed. Say, I behave according to the plain declaration, which I have received from my LORD; but ye have forged lies concerning him. That which ye desire should be hastened, is not in my power;x judgment belongeth only unto GOD; he will determine the truth; and he is the best discerner. Say, If what ye desire should be hastened were in my power, the matter had been determined between me and you:y but GOD well knoweth the unjust. With him are the keys of the secret things; none knoweth them besides himself: he knoweth that which is on the dry land and in the sea; there falleth no leaf, but he knoweth it; neither is there a single grain in the dark parts of the earth, neither a green thing, nor a dry thing, but it is
written in the perspicuous book.z It is he who causeth you to sleep by night, and knoweth what ye merit by day; he also awaketh you therein, that the prefixed term of your lives may be fulfilled; then unto him shall ye return, and he shall declare unto you that which ye have wrought. He is supreme over his servants, and sendeth the guardian angels to watch over you,a until, when death overtaketh one of you, our messengersb cause him to die: and they will not neglect our commands. Afterwards shall they return unto GOD, their true LORD: doth not judgment belong unto him? he is the most quick in taking an account.c Say, Who delivereth you from the darknessd of the land, and of the sea, when ye call upon him humbly and in private, saying, Verily if thou deliver use from these dangers, we will surely be thankful? Say, GOD delivereth you from them, and from every grief of mind; yet afterwards ye give him companions.f Say, He is able to send on you a punishment from above you,g or from under your feet,h or to engage you in dissension, and to make some of you taste the violence of others. Observe how variously we show forth our signs, that peradventure they may understand. This people hath accused the revelation which thou hast brought of falsehood, although it be the truth. Say, I am not a guardian over you: every prophecy hath its fixed time of accomplishment; and he will hereafter know it. When thou seest those who are engaged in cavilling at, or ridiculing our signs, depart from them, until they be engaged in some other discourse: and if Satan cause thee to forget this precept, do not sit with the ungodly people after recollection. They who fear God are not at all accountable for them, but their duty is to remember that they may take heed to themselves.i Abandon those who make their religion a sport and a jest; and whom the present life hath deceived: and admonish them by the Koran, that a soul becometh liable to destruction for that which it committeth: it shall have no patron nor intercessor besides GOD: and if it could pay the utmost price of redemption, it would not be accepted from it. They who are delivered over to perdition for that which they have committed shall have boiling water to drink, and shall suffer a grievous punishment, because they have disbelieved. Say, Shall we call upon that, besides GOD, which can neither profit us, nor hurt us? and shall we turn back on our heels, after that GOD hath directed us; like him whom the devils have infatuated,
wandering amazedly in the earth, and yet having companions who call him into the true direction, saying, Come unto us? Say, the direction of GOD is the true direction; we are commanded to resign ourselves unto the LORD of all creatures; and it is also commanded us, saying, Observe the stated times of prayer, and fear him; for it is he before whom ye shall be assembled. It is he who hath created the heavens and the earth in truth; and whenever he saith unto a thing, Be, it is. His word is the truth; and his will be the kingdom on the day whereon the trumpet shall be sounded:k he knoweth whatever is secret, and whatever is public; he is the wise, the knowing. Call to mind when Abraham said unto his father Azer,l Dost thou take images for gods?m Verily I perceive that thou and thy people are in a manifest error. And thus did we show unto Abraham the kingdom of heaven and earth, that he might become one of those who firmly believe.n And when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star, and he said, This is my LORD;o but when it set, he said, I like not gods which set. And when he saw the moon rising, he said, This is my LORD; but when he saw it set, he
said, Verily if my LORD direct me not, I shall become one of the people who go astray. And when he saw the sun rising, he said, This is my LORD, this is the greatest; but when it set, he said, O my people, verily I am clear of that which ye associate with God: I direct my face unto him who hath created the heavens and the earth; I am orthodox, and am not one of the idolaters. And his people disputed with him: and he said, Will ye dispute with me concerning GOD? since he hath now directed me, and I fear not that which ye associate with him, unless that my LORD willeth a thing; for my LORD comprehendeth all things by his knowledge:p will ye not therefore consider? And how should I fear that which ye associate with God, since ye fear not to have associated with GOD that concerning which he hath sent down unto you no authority? which therefore of the two parties is the more safe, if ye understand aright? They who believe, and clothe not their faith with injustice,q they shall enjoy security, and they are rightly directed. And this is our argument wherewith we furnished Abraham that he might make use of it against his people: we exalt unto degrees of wisdom and knowledge whom we please; for thy LORD is wise and knowing. And we gave unto them Isaac and Jacob; we directed them both: and Noah had we before directed, and of his posterityr David and Solomon; and Job,s and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron: thus do we reward the righteous: and Zacharias, and John, and Jesus, and Elias;t all of them were upright men: and Ismael, and Elisha,u and Jonas,u and Lot;y all these have we favored above the rest of the world; and also divers of their fathers, and their issue, and their brethren; and we chose them, and directed them into the right way.
This is the direction of GOD, he directeth thereby such of his servants as he pleaseth; but if they had been guilty of idolatry, that which they wrought would have become utterly fruitless unto them. Those were the persons unto whom we gave the scripture, and wisdom, and prophecy; but if thesez believe not therein, we will commit the care of them to a people who shall not disbelieve the same. Those were the persons whom GOD hath directed, therefore follow their direction. Say unto the inhabitants of Mecca, I ask of you no recompense for preaching the Koran; it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures. They make not a due estimation of GOD,a when they say, GOD hath not sent down unto man anything at all:b Say, Who sent down the book which Moses brought, a light and a direction unto men; which ye transcribe on papers, whereof ye publish some part, and great part whereof ye conceal? and ye have been taught by Mohammed what ye knew not, neither your fathers. Say, GOD sent it down: then leave them to amuse themselves with their vain discourse. This book which we have sent down is blessed; confirming that which was revealed before it; and is delivered unto thee that thou mayest preach it unto the metropolis of Mecca and to those who are round about it. And they who believe in the next life will believe therein, and they will diligently observe their times of prayer. Who is more wicked than he who forgeth a lie concerning GOD?c or saith This was revealed unto me; when nothing hath been revealed unto him?d and who saith, I will produce a revelation like unto that which GOD hath sent down?e If thou didst see when the ungodly are in the pangs of death, and the angelsf reach out their hands saying, Cast forth your souls; this day shall ye receive an ignominious punishment for that which ye have falsely spoken concerning GOD; and because ye have proudly rejected his signs. And now are ye come unto us alone,g as we created you at first,h and ye have
left that which we had bestowed on you, behind your backs; neither do we see with you your intercessors,i whom ye thought to have been partners with God among you: now is the relation between you cut off, and what ye imagined hath deceived you.k GOD causeth the grain and the date-stone to put forth: he bringeth forth the living from the dead, and he bringeth forth the dead from the living.l This is GOD. Why therefore are ye turned away from him? He causeth the morning to appear; and hath ordained the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for the computing of time. This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God. It is he who hath ordained the stars for you, that ye may be directed thereby in the darkness of the land and of the sea. We have clearly shown forth our signs, unto people who understand. It is he who hath produced you from one soul; and hath provided for you a sure receptacle and a repository.m We have clearly shown forth our signs, unto people who are wise. It is he who sendeth down water from heaven, and we have thereby produced the springing buds of all things, and have thereout produced the green thing, from which we produce the grain growing in rows, and palm-trees from whose branches proceed clusters of dates hanging close together; and gardens of grapes, and olives, and pomegranates, both like and unlike to one another. Look on their fruits, when they bear fruit, and their growing to maturity. Verily herein are signs, unto people who believe. Yet they have set up the geniin as partners with GOD, although he created them: and they have falsely attributed unto him sons and daughters,o without knowledge. Praise be unto him; and far be that from him which they attribute unto him! He is the maker of heaven and earth: how should he have issue since he hath no consort? he hath created all things, and he is omniscient. This is GOD your LORD; there is no GOD but he, the creator of all things; therefore serve him: for he taketh care of all things. The sight comprehendeth him not, but he comprehendeth the sight; he is the gracious,p the wise. Now have evident demonstrations come unto you from your LORD; whoso seeth them, the advantage thereof will redound to his own soul: and whoso is wilfully blind, the consequence will be to himself. I am not a keeper over you. Thus do we variously explain our signs; that they may say, Thou hast studied diligently;q and that we may declare them unto people of understanding. Follow that which hath
been revealed unto thee from thy LORD; there is no GOD but he: retire therefore from the idolaters. If GOD had so pleased, they had not been guilty of idolatry. We have not appointed thee a keeper over them; neither art thou a guardian over them. Revile not the idols which they invoke besides GOD, lest they maliciously revile GOD, without knowledge. Thus have we prepared for every nation their works: hereafter unto GOD shall they return, and he shall declare unto them that which they have done. They have sworn by GOD, by the most solemn oath, that if a sign came unto them, they would certainly believe therein: Say, Verily signs are in the power of GOD alone; and he permitteth you not to understand, that when they come, they will not believe.r And we will turn aside their hearts and their sight from the truth, as they believed not thereins the first time; and we will leave them to wander in their error. (VIII.) And though we had sent down angels unto them, and the dead had spoken unto them, and we had gathered together before them all things in one view;t they would not have believed, unless GOD had so pleased: but the greater part of them know it not. Thus have we appointed unto every prophet an enemy; the devils of men, and of genii: who privately suggest the one to the other specious discourses to deceive; but if thy LORD pleased, they would not have done it. Therefore leave them, and that which they have falsely imagined; and let the hearts of those be inclined thereto, who believe not in the life to come; and let them please themselves therein, and let them gain that which they are gaining. Shall I seek after any other judge besides GOD to judge between us? It is he who hath sent down unto you the book of the Koran distinguishing between good and evil; and they to whom we gave the scripture know that it is sent down from thy LORD, with truth. Be not therefore one of those who doubt thereof. The words of thy LORD are perfect, in truth and justice; there is none who can change his words:u he both heareth and knoweth. But if thou obey the greater part of them who are in the earth, they will lead thee aside from the path of GOD: they follow an uncertain opinion only,x and speak nothing but lies; verily thy LORD well knoweth those who go astray from his path, and well knoweth those who are rightly directed. Eat of that whereon the name of GOD hath been commemorated,y if ye believe in his signs: and why do ye not eat of that whereon the name of GOD hath been commemorated? since he hath plainly declared unto you what he hath forbidden you; except that which ye be compelled to eat of by neces-
sity; many lead others into error, because of their appetites, being void of knowledge; but thy LORD well knoweth who are the transgressors. Leave both the outside of iniquity and inside thereof:z for they who commit iniquity shall receive the reward of that which they shall have gained. Eat not therefore of that whereon the name of GOD hath not been commemorated; for this is certainly wickedness: but the devils will suggest unto their friends, they they dispute with you concerning this precept; but if ye obey them, ye are surely idolaters. Shall he who hath been dead, and whom we have restored unto life, and unto whom we have ordained a light, whereby he may walk among men, be as he whose similitude is in darkness, from whence he shall not come forth?a Thus was that which the infidels are doing prepared for them. And thus have we placed in every city chief leaders of the wicked men thereof,b that they may act deceitfully therein; but they shall act deceitfully against their own souls only; and they know it not. And when a signc cometh unto them, they say, We will by no means believe until a revelation be brought unto us, like unto that which hath been delivered unto the messengers of GOD.d GOD best knoweth whom he will appoint for his messenger.e Vileness in the sight of GOD shall fall upon those who deal wickedly, and a grievous punishment, for that they have dealt deceitfully. And whomsoever GOD shall please to direct, he will open his breast to receive the faith of Islam: but whomsoever he shall please to lead into error, he will render his breast straight and narrow, as though he were climbing up to heaven.f Thus doth GOD inflict a terrible punishment on those who believe not. This is the right way of thy LORD. Now have we plainly declared our signs unto those people who will consider. They shall have a dwelling of peace with their LORD, and he shall be their patron, because of that which they have wrought. Think on the day whereon God shall gather them all together, and shall say, O company of genii,g ye have been much concerned with mankind;h and their friends from among mankind shall say, O LORD, the one of us hath received advantage from the other,i and we are arrived at our limited termk which thou hast appointed us. God will say, Hell fire shall be your habitation, therein shall ye remain forever; unless as GOD shall please
to mitigate your pains,l for thy LORD is wise and knowing. Thus do we set some of the unjust over others of them, because of that which they have deserved. O company of genii and men, did not messengers from among yourselves come unto you,m rehearsing my signs unto you, and forewarning you of the meeting of this your day? They shall answer, We bear witness against ourselves: the present life deceived them: and they shall bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. This hath been the method of God's dealing with his creatures, because thy LORD would not destroy the cities in their iniquity, while their inhabitants were careless.n Every one shall have degrees of recompense of that which they shall do; for thy LORD is not regardless of that which they do, and thy LORD is self-sufficient and endued with mercy. If he pleaseth he can destroy you, and cause such as he pleaseth to succeed you, in like manner as he produced you from the posterity of other people. Verily that which is threatened you, shall surely come to pass; neither shall ye cause it to fail. Say unto those of Mecca, O my people, act according to your power; verily I will act according to my duty:o and hereafter shall ye know whose will be the reward of paradise. The ungodly shall not prosper. Those of Mecca set apart unto GOD a portion of that which he hath produced of the fruits of the earth, and of cattle; and say, This belongeth unto GOD (according to their imagination), and this unto our companions.p And that which is destined for their companions cometh not unto GOD; yet that which is set apart unto GOD cometh unto their companions.q How ill do they judge! In like manner have their companions induced many of the idolaters to slay their children,r that they might bring them to perdition, and that they might render their religion obscure and confused unto them.s But if GOD had pleased, they had not done this: therefore leave them and that which they falsely imagine. They also say, These cattle and fruits of the earth are sacred;
none shall eat thereof but who we pleaset (according to their imagination); and there are cattle whose backs are forbidden to be rode on, or laden with burdens;u and there are cattle on which they commemorate not the name of GOD when they slay them;x devising a lie against him; God shall reward them for that which they falsely devise. And they say, That which is in the bellies of these cattley is allowed to our males to eat, and is forbidden to our wives: but if it prove abortive, they they are both partakers thereof.z God shall give them the reward of their attributing these things to him: he is knowing and wise. They are utterly lost who have slain their children foolishly,a without knowledge;b and have forbidden that which GOD hath given them for food, devising a lie against GOD. They have erred, and were not rightly directed. He it is who produceth gardens of vines, both those which are supported on trails of wood, and those which are not supported,c and palm-trees, and the corn affording various food, and olives, and pomegranates, alike and unlike unto one another. Eat of their fruit, when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof on the day whereon ye shall gather it;d but be not profuse,e for GOD loveth not those who are too profuse. And God hath given you some cattle fit for bearing of burdens, and some fit for slaughter only. Eat of what GOD hath given you for food; and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy. Four pairf of cattle hath God given you; of sheep one pair, and of goats one pair. Say unto them, Hath God forbidden the two males, of sheep and of goats, or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females contain? Tell me with certainty, if ye speak truth. And of camels hath God given you one pair, and of oxen one pair. Say, Hath he forbidden the two males of these, or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females contain?g Were ye present when GOD commanded you this? And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD,h that he may seduce
men without understanding? Verily GOD directed not unjust people. Say, I find not in that which hath been revealed unto me anything forbidden unto the eater, that he eat it not, except it be that which dieth of itself, or blood poured forth,i or swine's flesh: for this is an abomination: or that which is profane, having been slain in the name of some other than of GOD. But whoso shall be compelled by necessity to eat of these things, not lusting, nor wilfully transgressing, verily thy LORD will be gracious unto him and merciful. Unto the Jews did we forbid every beast having an undivided hoof; and of bullocks and sheep, we forbade them the fat of both; except that which should be on their backs, or their inwards,k or which should be intermixed with the bone.l This have we rewarded them with, because of their iniquity; and we are surely speakers of truth. If they accuse thee of imposture, say, Your LORD is endued with extensive mercy; but his severity shall not be averted from wicked people. The idolaters will say, If GOD had pleased, we had not been guilty of idolatry, neither our fathers; and pretend that we have not forbidden them anything. Thus did they who were before them accuse the prophets of imposture, until they tasted our severe punishment. Say, Is there with you any certain knowledge of what ye allege, that ye may produce it unto us? Ye follow only a false imagination; and ye utter only lies. Say, therefore, Unto GOD belongeth the most evident demonstration; for if he had pleased, he had directed you all. Say, Produce your witnesses, who can bear testimony that GOD hath forbidden this. But if they bear testimony of this, do not thou bear testimony with them, nor do thou follow the desires of those who accuse our signs of falsehood, and who believe not in the life to come, and equalize idols with their LORD. Say, Come;m I will rehearse that which your LORD hath forbidden you; that is to say, that ye be not guilty of idolatry, and that ye show kindness to your parents, and that ye murder not your children for fear lest ye be reduced to poverty; we will provide for you and them; and draw not near unto heinous crimes,n neither openly nor in secret; and slay not the soul which God hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause.o This hath he enjoined you that ye may understand. And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, otherwise than for the improving thereof, until he attain his age of strength: and use a full measure, and a just balance. We will not impose a task on any soul beyond its ability. And when ye pronounce judgment observe justice, although it be for or against one who is near of kin, and fulfil the covenant of GOD. This hath God commanded you, that ye may be admonished; and that ye may know that this is my right way: therefore follow it, and follow not the path of others, lest ye be scattered from the path of God. This hath he com-
manded you that ye may take heed. We gave also unto Moses the book of the law; a perfect rule unto him who should do right, and a determination concerning all things needful, and a direction, and mercy; that the children of Israel might believe the meeting of their LORD. And this book which we have now sent down is blessed; therefore follow it, and fear God that ye may obtain mercy: lest ye should say, The scriptures were only sent down unto two peoplep before us; and we neglected to peruse them with attention:q or lest ye should say, If a book of divine revelations had been sent down unto us, we would surely have been better directed than they.r And now hath a manifest declaration come unto you from your LORD, and a direction and mercy: and who is more unjust than he who deviseth lies against the signs of GOD, and turneth aside from them? We will reward those who turn aside from our signs with a grievous punishment, because they have turned aside. Do they wait for any other than that the angels should come unto them, to part their souls from their bodies; or that thy LORD should come to punish them; or that some of the signs of thy LORD should come to pass, showing the day of judgment to be at hand?s On the day whereon some of thy LORD'S signs shall come to pass, its faith shall not profit a soul which believed not before, or wrought not good in its faith.t Say, Wait ye for this day; we surely do wait for it. They who make a division in their religion,u and become sectaries, have thou nothing to do with them; their affair belongeth only unto GOD. Hereafter shall he declare unto them that which they have done. He who shall appear with good works, shall receive a tenfold recompense for the same; but he who shall appear with evil works, shall receive only an equal punishment for the same; and they shall not be treated unjustly. Say, Verily my LORD hath directed me into a right way, a true religion, the sect of Abraham the orthodox; and he was no idolater. Say, Verily my prayers, and my worship, and my life, and my death are dedicated unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures: he hath no companion. This have I been commanded: I am the first Moslem.x Say, shall I desire any other LORD besides GOD? since he is the LORD of all things; and no soul shall acquire any merits or demerits but for itself; and no burdened soul shall bear the
burden of another.y Moreover unto your LORD shall ye return; and he shall declare unto you that concerning which ye now dispute. It is he who hath appointed you to succeed your predecessors in the earth, and hath raised some of you above others by various degrees of worldly advantages, that he might prove you by that which he hath bestowed on you. Thy LORD is swift in punishing; and he is also gracious and merciful.
ENTITLED, AL ARAF;z REVEALED AT MECCA.a
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
AL. M. S.b A book hath been sent down unto thee: and therefore let there be no doubt in thy breast concerning it; that thou mayest preach the same, and that it may be an admonition unto the faithful. Follow that which hath been sent down unto you from your LORD; and follow no guides besides him: how little will ye be warned! How many cities have we destroyed; which our vengeance overtook by night,c or while they were reposing themselves at noon-day!d And their supplication, when our punishment came upon them, was no other than that they said, Verily we have been unjust. We will surely call those to an account, unto whom a prophet hath been sent; and we will also call those to account who have been sent unto them. And we will declare their actions unto them with knowledge; for we are not absent from them. The weighing of men's actions on that day shall be just;e and they whose balances laden with their good works shall be heavy, are those who shall be happy; but they whose balances shall be light, are those who have lost their souls, because they injured our signs. And now have we placed you on the earth, and have provided you food therein: but how little are ye thankful! We created you, and afterwards formed you; and then said unto the angels, Worship Adam; and they all worshipped him, except Eblis, who was not one of those who worshipped.f God said unto him, What hindered thee from worshipping Adam, since I had commanded thee? He answered,
I am more excellent than he: thou hast created me of fire, and hast created him of clay. God said, Get thee down therefore from paradise; for it is not fit that thou behave thyself proudly therein: get thee hence; thou shalt be one of the contemptible. He answered, Give me respite until the day of resurrection. God said, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited.g The devil said, Because thou hast depraved me, I will lay wait for men in thy strait way; then will I come upon them from before, and from behind, and from their right hands, and from their left;h and thou shalt not find the greater part of them thankful. God said unto him, Get thee hence, despised, and driven far away: verily whoever of them shall follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you all: but as for thee, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in paradise; and eat of the fruit thereof wherever ye will; but approach not this tree, lest ye become of the number of the unjust. And Satan suggested to them both, that he would discover unto them their nakedness, which was hidden from them; and he said, Your LORD hath not forbidden you this tree, for any other reason but lest ye should become angels, or lest ye become immortal. And he sware unto them, saying, Verily I am one of those who counsel you aright. And he caused them to fall through deceit.i And when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared unto them;k and they began to join together the leaves of paradise,l to cover themselves. And their LORD called to them, saying, Did I not forbid you this tree: and did I not say unto you, Verily Satan is your declared enemy? They answered, O LORD, we have dealt unjustly with our own souls; and if thou forgive us not, and be not merciful unto us, we shall surely be of those who perish. God said, Get ye down, the one of you an enemy unto the other; and ye shall have a dwelling-place upon the earth, and a provision for a season. He said, Therein shall ye live, and therein shall ye die, and from thence shall ye be taken forth at the resurrection. O children of Adam, we have sent down unto you apparel,m to conceal your naked-
ness, and fair garments; but the clothing of piety is better. This is one of the signs of God; that peradventure ye may consider. O children of Adam, let not Satan seduce you, as he expelled your parents out of paradise, by stripping them of their clothing, that he might show them their nakedness: verily he seeth you, both he and his companions, whereas ye see not them.n We have appointed the devils to be patrons of those who believe not: and when they commit a filthy action, they say, We found our fathers practising the same; and GOD hath commanded us to do it. Say, Verily GOD commandeth not filthy actions. Do ye speak concerning GOD that which ye know not? Say, My LORD hath commanded me to observe justice; therefore set your faces to pray at every place of worship, and call upon him, approving unto him the sincerity of your religion. As he produced you at first, so unto him shall ye return. A part of mankind hath he directed; and a part hath been justly led into error, because they have taken the devils for their patrons besides GOD, and imagine they are rightly directed. O children of Adam, take your decent apparel at every place of worship,o and eat and drink,p but be not guilty of excess; for he loveth not those who are guilty of excess. Say, Who hath forbidden the decent apparel of GOD, which he hath produced for his servants, and the good things which he hath provided for food? Say, these things are for those who believe, in this present life, but peculiarly on the day of resurrection.q Thus do we distinctly explain our signs unto people who understand. Say, Verily my LORD hath forbidden filthy actions, both that which is discovered thereof, and that which is concealed, and also iniquity, and unjust violence; and hath forbidden you to associate with GOD that concerning which he hath sent you down no authority, or to speak of GOD that which ye know not. Unto every nation there is a prefixed term; therefore when their term is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, neither shall they be anticipated. O children of Adam, verily apostles from among you shall come unto you, who shall expound my signs unto you: whosoever therefore shall fear God and amend, there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. But they who shall accuse our signs of falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, they shall be the companions of hell fire; they shall remain therein forever. And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning GOD, or accuseth his signs of imposture? Unto these shall be given their portion of worldly happiness, according
to what is written in the book of God's decrees, until our messengersr come unto them, and shall cause them to die; saying, Where are the idols which ye called upon, besides GOD? They shall answer, They have disappeared from us. And they shall bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. God shall say unto them at the resurrection, Enter ye with the nations which have preceded you, of genii and of men, into hell fire; so often as one nation shall enter, it shall curse its sister,s until they shall all have successively entered therein. The latter of them shall say of the former of them: O LORD, these have seduced us; therefore inflict on them a double punishment of the fire of hell. God shall answer, It shall be doubled unto all:t but ye know it not: and the former of them shall say unto the latter of them, Ye have not therefore any favor above us; taste the punishment for that which ye have gained. Verily they who shall charge our signs with falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, the gates of heaven shall not be opened unto them,u neither shall they enter into paradise, until a camel pass through the eye of a needle,x and thus will we reward the wicked doers. Their couch shall be in hell, and over them shall be coverings of fire; and thus will we reward the unjust. But they who believe, and do that which is right (we will not load any soul but according to its ability,) they shall be the companions of paradise; they shall remain therein forever. And we will remove all grudges from their minds;y rivers shall run at their feet, and they shall say, Praised be GOD, who hath directed us unto this felicity, for we should not have been rightly directed, if GOD had not directed us; now are we convinced by demonstration that the Apostles of our LORD came unto us with truth. And it shall be proclaimed unto them, This is paradise, whereof ye are made heirs, as a reward for that which ye have wrought. And the inhabitantsz of paradise shall call out to the inhabitants of hell fire, saying, Now have we found that which our LORD promised us to be true: have ye also found that which your LORD promised you to be true? They shall answer, Yea. And a criera shall proclaim between them, The curse of GOD shall be on the wicked; who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who deny the life to come. And between the blessed and the damned there shall be a veil; and men shall stand on Al Arâfb who shall know
every one of them by their marks;c and shall call unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying, Peace be upon you: yet they shall not enter therein, although they earnestly desire it.d And when they shall turn their eyes towards the companions of hell fire, they say, O LORD, place us not with the ungodly people! And those who stand on Al Arâf shall call unto certain men,e whom they shall know by their marks, and shall say, What hath your gathering of riches availed you, and that ye were puffed up with pride? Are these the men on whom ye sware that GOD would not bestow mercy?f Enter ye into paradise; there shall come no fear on you, neither shall ye be grieved.g And the inhabitants of hell fire shall call unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying, Pour upon us some water, or of those refreshments which GOD hath bestowed on you.h They shall answer, Verily GOD hath forbidden them unto the unbelievers; who made a laughing-stock and a sport of their religion, and whom the life of the world hath deceived: therefore this day will we forget them, as they did forget the meeting of this day, and for that they denied our signs to be from God. And now have we brought unto those of Mecca a book of divine revelations: we have explained it with knowledge; a direction and mercy unto people who shall believe. Do they wait for any other than the interpretation thereof?i On the day whereon the interpretation thereof shall come, they who had forgotten the same before shall say, Now are we convinced by demonstration that the messengers of our LORD came unto us with truth: shall we therefore have any intercessors, who will intercede for us? or shall we be sent back into the world, that we may do other works than what we did in our life-time? But now have they lost their souls; and that which they impiously imagined hath fled from them.k Verily, your LORD is GOD, who created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended his throne: he causeth the night to cover the day; it succeedeth the same swiftly: he also created the sun and the moon, and the stars, which are absolutely subject unto his command. Is not the whole creation, and the empire thereof, his? Blessed be GOD, the LORD of all creatures! Call upon your LORD
humbly and in secret; for he loveth not those who transgress.l And act not corruptly in the earth, after its reformation;m and call upon him with fear and desire: for the mercy of GOD is near unto the righteous. It is he who sendeth the winds, spread abroadn before his mercy,o until they bring a cloud heavy with rain, which we drive into a dead country;p and we cause water to descend thereon, by which we cause all sorts of fruits to spring forth. Thus will we bring forth the dead from their graves;q that peradventure ye may consider. From a good country shall its fruit spring forth abundantly, by the permission of its LORD; but from the land which is bad, it shall not spring forth otherwise than scarcely. Thus do we explain the signs of divine providence unto people who are thankful. We formerly sent Noahr unto his people: and he said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no other GOD than him.s Verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day.t The chiefs of his people answered him, We surely perceive thee to be in a manifest error. He replied, O my people, there is no error in me; but I am a messenger from the LORD of all creatures. I bring unto you the messages of my LORD; and I counsel you aright: for I know from GOD, that which ye know not. Do ye wonder that an admonition hath come unto you from your LORD by a manu from among you, to warn you, that ye may take heed to yourselves, and that peradventure ye may obtain mercy? And they accused him of imposture: but we delivered him and those who were with him in
the ark,x and we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood; for they were a blind people. And unto the tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hûd.z He said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no other GOD than him; will ye not fear him? The chiefs of those among his people who believed not,a answered, Verily we perceive that thou art guided by folly; and we certainly esteem thee to be one of the liars. He replied, O my people, I am not guided by folly; but I am a messenger unto you from the LORD of all creatures: I bring unto you the messages of my LORD; and I am a faithful counsellor unto you. Do ye wonder that an admonition hath come unto you from your LORD, by a man from among you, that he may warn you? Call to mind how he hath appointed you successors unto the people of Noah,b and hath added unto you in stature largely.c Remember the benefits of GOD, that ye may prosper. They said, Art thou come unto us, that we should worship GOD alone, and leave the deities which our fathers worshipped? Now bring down that judgment upon us, with which thou threatenest us, if thou speakest truth. Hud answered, Now shall there suddenly fall upon you from your LORD vengeance and indignation. Will ye dispute with me concerning the names which ye have named,d and your fathers; as to which GOD hath not revealed unto you any authority? Do ye wait therefore, and I will be one of those who wait with you. And we delivered him, and them who believed with him by our mercy; and we cut off the uttermost part of those who charged our signs with falsehood, and were not believers.e And unto the tribe of Thamûd we
sentf their brother Sâleh.g He said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no GOD besides him. Now hath a manifest proof come unto you from your LORD. This she-camel of GOD is a sign unto you:h therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in GOD's earth; and do her no hurt, lest a painful punishment seize you. And call to mind how he hath appointed you successors unto the tribe of Ad, and hath given you a habitation on earth; ye build yourselves castles on the plains thereof, and cut out the mountains into houses.i Remember therefore the benefits of GOD, and commit not violence in the earth, acting corruptly. The chiefs among his people who were puffed up with pride, said unto those who were esteemed weak, namely unto those who believed among them, Do ye know that Sâleh hath been sent from his LORD? They answered, We do surely believe in that wherewith he hath been sent. Those who were elated with pride replied, Verily we believe not in that wherein ye believe. And they cut off the feet of the camel,k and inso-
lently transgressed the command of their LORD,l and said, O Sâleh, cause that to come upon us which thou hast threatened us, if thou art one of those who have been sent by God. Whereupon a terrible noise from heavenm assailed them; and in the morning they were found in their dwellings prostrate on their breasts and dead.n And Sâleh departed from them, and said,o O my people, now have I delivered unto you the message of my LORD and I advised you well, but ye love not those who advise you well. And remember Lot,p when he said unto his people, Do ye commit a wickedness, wherein no creature hath set you an example? Do ye approach lustfully unto men, leaving the women? Certainly ye are people who transgress all modesty. But the answer of his people was no other than that they said the one to the other, Expel themq your city; for they are men who preserve themselves pure from the crimes which ye commit. Therefore we delivered him and his family, except his wife; she was one of those who stayed behind:r and we rained a shower of stones upon them.s Behold therefore what was the end of the wicked. And unto Madiant we sent their brother Shoaib.u He said unto them, O my people, worship GOD; ye
have no GOD besides him. Now hath an evident demonstrationx come unto you from your LORD. Therefore give full measure and just weight, and diminish not unto men aught of their matters:y neither act corruptly in the earth, after its reformation.z This will be better for you, if ye believe. And beset not every way, threatening the passenger;a and turning aside from the path of GOD him who believeth in him, and seeking to make it crooked. And remember, when ye were few, and God multiplied you: and behold, what hath been the end of those who acted corruptly. And if part of you believe in that wherewith I am sent, and part believe not, wait patiently until GOD judge between us; for he is the best judge. (IX.) The chiefs of his people, who were elated with pride, answered, We will surely cast thee, O Shoaib, and those who believe with thee, out of our city: or else thou shalt certainly return unto our religion. He said, What, though we be averse thereto? We shall surely imagine a lie against GOD, if we return unto your religion, after that GOD hath delivered us from the same: and we have no reason to return unto it, unless GOD our LORD shall please to abandon us. Our LORD comprehendeth every thing by his knowledge. In GOD do we put our trust. O LORD do thou judge between us and our nation with truth; for thou art the best judge. And the chiefs of his people who believed not said, If ye follow Shoaib, ye shall surely perish. Therefore a storm from heavenb assailed them, and in the morning they were found in their dwellings dead and prostrate. They who accused Shoaib of imposture became as though they had never dwelt therein; they who accused Shoaib of imposture perished themselves. And he departed from them, and said, O my people, now have I performed unto you the messages of my LORD; and I advised you aright: but why should I be grieved for an unbelieving people. We have never sent any prophet unto a city, but we afflicted the inhabitants thereof with calamity and adversity, that they might humble themselves. Then we gave them in exchange good in lieu of evil, until they abounded, and said, Adversity and prosperity formerly happened unto our fathers, as unto us. Therefore we took
vengeance on them suddenly, and they perceived it not beforehand. But if the inhabitants of those cities had believed and feared God, we would surely have opened to them blessings both from heaven and earth. But they charged our apostles with falsehood, wherefore we took vengeance on them, for that which they had been guilty of. Were the inhabitants therefore of those cities secure that our punishment should not fall on them by night, while they slept? Or were the inhabitants of those cities secure that our punishment should not fall on them by day, while they sported? Were they therefore secure from the stratagem of GOD?c But none will think himself secure from the stratagem of GOD, except the people who perish. And hath it not manifestly appeared unto those who have inherited the earth after the former inhabitants thereof, that if we please, we can afflict them for their sins? But we will seal up their hearts; and they shall not hearken. We will relate unto thee some stories of these cities. Their apostles had come unto them with evident miracles, but they were not disposed to believe in that which they had before gainsaid. Thus will GOD seal up the hearts of the unbelievers. And we found not in the greater part of them any observance of their covenant; but we found the greater part of them wicked doers. Then we sent after the above named apostles, Moses with our signs unto Pharaohd and his princes; who treated them unjustly:e but behold what was the end of the corrupt doers. And Moses said, O Pharaoh, verily I am an apostle sent from the LORD of all creatures. It is just that I should not speak of GOD other than the truth. Now am I come unto you with an evident sign from your LORD: send therefore the children of Israel away with me. Pharaoh answered, If thou comest with a sign, produce it, if thou speakest truth. Wherefore he cast down his rod; and behold, it became a visible serpent.f And he drew forth his
hand out of his bosom; and behold, it appeared white unto the spectators.g The chiefs of the people of Pharaoh said, This man is certainly an expert magician: he seeketh to dispossess you of your land; what therefore do ye direct? They answered, Put off him and his brother by fair promises for some time, and in the mean while send unto the cities persons who may assemble and bring unto thee every expert magician. So the magiciansh came unto Pharaoh; and they said, Shall we surely receive a reward, if we do overcome? He answered, Yea; and ye shall certainly be of those who approach near unto my throne. They said, O Moses, either do thou cast down thy rod first, or we will cast down ours. Moses answered, Do ye cast down your rods first. And when they had cast them down, they enchanted the eyes of the men who were present, and terrified them: and they performed a great enchantment.i And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying, Throw down thy rod. And behold, it swallowed up the rods which they had caused falsely to appear changed into serpents.k Wherefore the truth was confirmed, and that which they had wrought vanished. And Pharaoh and his magicians were overcome there, and were rendered contemptible. And the magicians prostrated themselves, worshipping; and they said, We believe in the LORD of all creatures, the LORD of Moses and Aaron.l Pharaoh said, Have ye believed on him, before I have given you permission? Verily this is a plot which ye have contrived in the city, that ye might cast forth from thence
the inhabitants thereof.m But ye shall surely know that I am your master; for I will cause your hands and your feet to be cut off on the opposite sides,n then will I cause you all to be crucified.o The magicians answered, We shall certainly return unto our LORD, in the next life; for thou takest vengeance on us only because we have believed in the signs of our LORD, when they have come unto us. O LORD, pour on us patience; and cause us to die Moslems.p And the chiefs of Pharaoh's people said, Wilt thou let Moses and his people go, that they may act corruptly in the earth, and leave thee and thy gods?q Pharaoh answered, We will cause their male children to be slain, and we will suffer their females to live;r and by that means we shall prevail over them. Moses said unto his people, Ask assistance of GOD, and suffer patiently: for the earth is God's, he giveth it for an inheritance unto such of his servants as he pleaseth; and the prosperous end shall be unto those who fear him. They answered, We have been afflicted by having our male children slain, before thou camest unto us, and also since thou hast come unto us. Moses said, Peradventure it may happen that our LORD will destroy your enemy, and will cause you to succeed him in the earth, that he may see how ye will act therein. And we formerly punished the people of Pharaoh with dearth and scarcity of fruits, that they might be warned. Yet when good happened unto them, they said, This is owing unto us: but if evil befell them, they attributed the same to the ill luck of Moses, and those who were with him.s Was not their ill luck with GOD?t But most of them knew it not. And they said unto Moses, Whatever sign thou show unto us, to enchant us therewith, we will not believe on thee. Wherefore we sent upon them a floodu and locusts, and lice,x and frogs, and blood; dis-
tinct miracles: but they behaved proudly, and became a wicked people. And when the plaguey fell on them, they said, O Moses, entreat thy LORD for us, according to that which he hath covenanted with thee; verily if thou take the plague from off us, we will surely believe thee, and we will let the children of Israel go with thee. But when we had taken the plague from off them until the term which God had granted them was expired, behold they broke their promise. Wherefore we took vengeance on them, and drowned them in the Red Sea;z because they charged our signs with falsehood, and neglected them. And we caused the people who had been rendered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the earth and the western parts thereof,a which we blessed with fertility; and the gracious word of thy LORD was fulfilled on the children of Israel, for that they had endured with patience: and we destroyed the structures which Pharaoh and his people had made, and that which they had erected.b And we caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea, and they came unto a people who gave themselves up to the worship of their idols,c and they said, O Moses, make us a god, in like manner as these people have gods. Moses answered, Verily ye are an ignorant people: for the religion which these follow will be destroyed, and that which they do is vain. He said, Shall I seek for you any other god than GOD; since he hath preferred you to the rest of the world? And remember when we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed you; they slew your male children, and let your females live: therein was a great trial from your LORD. And we appointed unto Moses a fast of thirty nights before we gave him the law,d and we completed them by adding of ten more; and the stated time of his LORD was fulfilled in forty nights. And Moses said unto his brother Aaron, Be thou my deputy among my people during my absence; and behave uprightly, and follow not the way of the corrupt doers. And when Moses came at our appointed time, and his LORD spake unto him,e he said, O LORD, show me thy glory, that I may behold thee. God answereth, Thou shalt in no wise behold me;
but look towards the mountain,f and if it stand firm in its place, then thou shalt see me. But when his LORD appeared with glory in the mount,g he reduced it to dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. And when he came to himself, he said, Praise be unto thee! I turn unto thee with repentence, and I am the first of true believers.h God said unto him, O Moses, I have chosen thee above all men, by honouring thee with my commissions, and by my speaking unto thee: receive therefore that which I have brought thee, and be one of those who give thanks.i And we wrote for him on the tablesk an admonition concerning every matter, and a decision in every case,l and said, Receive this with reverence; and command thy people that they live according to the most excellent precepts thereof. I will show you the dwelling of the wicked.m I will turn aside from my signs those who behave themselves proudly in the earth, without justice: and although they see every sign, yet they shall not believe therein; and although they see the way of righteousness, yet they shall not take that way; but if they see the way of error, they shall take that way. This shall come to pass because they accuse our signs of imposture, and neglect the same. But as for them who deny the truth of our signs and the meeting of the life to come, their works shall be vain: shall they be rewarded otherwise than according to what they shall have wrought? And the people of Moses, after his departure, took a corporeal calf,n made of their ornaments,o which lowed.p Did they not see that it spake not unto them, neither directed them in the way? yet they took it for their god, and acted wickedly. But when they repented with sorrow,q and saw that they had gone astray, they said, Verily if our LORD have not mercy upon us, and forgive us not, we shall certainly become of the number of those who perish. And when Moses returned unto his people, full of wrath and indignation, he said, An evil thing is it that ye have committed after my departure; have ye hastened the command
of your LORD?r And he threw down the tables,s and took his brother by the hair of the head, and dragged him unto him. And Aaron said unto him, Son of my mother, verily the people prevailed against me,t and it wanted little but they had slain me: make not my enemies therefore to rejoice over me, neither place me with the wicked people. Moses said, O LORD, forgive me and my brother, and receive us into thy mercy; for thou art the most merciful of those who exercise mercy. Verily as for them who took the calf for their god, indignation shall overtake them from their LORD,u and ignominy in this life: thus will we reward those who imagine falsehood. But unto them who do evil, and afterwards repent, and believe in God, verily thy LORD will thereafter be clement and merciful. And when the anger of Moses was appeased, he took the tables;x and in what was written thereon was a direction and mercy, unto those who feared their LORD. And Moses chose out of his people seventy men, to go up with him to the mountain at the time appointed by us: and when a storm of thunder and lightning had taken them away,y he said, O LORD, if thou hadst pleased, thou hadst destroyed them before, and me also; wilt thou destroy us for that which the foolish men among us have committed? This is only thy trial; thou wilt thereby lead into error whom thou pleasest, and thou wilt direct whom thou pleasest. Thou art our protector, therefore forgive us, and be merciful unto us; for thou art the best of those who forgive. And write down for us good in this world, and in the life to come; for unto thee are we directed. God answered, I will inflict my punishment on whom I please; and my mercy extendeth over all things; and I will write down good unto those who shall fear me, and give alms, and who shall believe in our signs; who shall follow the apostle, the illiterate prophet,z whom they shall find written downa with them in the law and the gospel: he will command them that which is just, and will forbid them that which is evil; and will allow them as lawful the good things which were before forbidden,b and will prohibit those which are bad;c and he will ease them of their heavy burden, and of the yokes which were upon them.d And those who believe in him, and honour him, and assist him, and follow the light, which hath been sent down with him, shall be happy. Say, O men, Verily I am the messenger of GOD unto you all:e unto him belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth; there is no GOD but he: he giveth life, and he causeth to die. Believe therefore in GOD and his apostle, the illiterate prophet, who believeth in GOD and his word; and follow him, that ye may be rightly
directed. Of the people of Moses there is a partyf who direct others with truth, and act justly according to the same. And we divided them into twelve tribes, as into so many nations. And we spake by revelation unto Moses, when his people asked drink of him, and we said, Strike the rock with thy rod; and there gushed thereout twelve fountains,g and men knew their respective drinking-place. And we caused clouds to overshadow them, and manna and quailsh to descend upon them, saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food: and they injured not us, but they injured their own souls. And call to mind when it was said unto them, Dwell in this city,i and eat of the provisions thereof wherever ye will, and say, Forgiveness; and enter the gate worshipping: we will pardon you your sins, and will give increase unto the well-doers. But they who were ungodly among them changed the expression into another,k which had not been spoken unto them. Wherefore we went down upon them indignation from heaven, because they transgressed. And ask them concerning the city,l which was situate on the sea, when they transgressed on the Sabbath-day: when their fish came unto them on their Sabbath-day, appearing openly on the water: but on the day whereon they celebrated no Sabbath, they came not unto them. Thus did we prove them, because they were wicked-doers. And when a party of themm said unto the others, Why do ye warn a people whom GOD will destroy, or will punish with a grievous punishment? They answered, This is an excuse for us unto your LORD,n and peradventure they will beware. But when they had forgotten the admonitions which had been given them, we delivered those who forbade them to do evil; and we inflicted on those who had transgressed a severe punishment, because they had acted wickedly. And when they proudly refused to desist from what had been forbidden them, we said unto them, Be ye transformed into apes, driven away from the society of men. And remember when thy LORD declared that he would surely send against the Jews until the day of resurrection,
some nation who should afflict them with a grievous oppression:o for thy LORD is swift in punishing, and he is also ready to forgive, and merciful: and we dispersed them among the nations in the earth. Some of them are upright persons, and some of them are otherwise. And we proved them with prosperity and with adversity, that they might return from their disobedience; and a succession of their posterity hath succeeded after them, who have inherited the book of the law, who receive the temporal goods of this world,p and say, It will surely be forgiven us: and if a temporal advantage like the former be offered them, they accept it also. Is it not the covenant of the book of the law established with them, that they should not speak of GOD aught but the truth?q Yet they diligently read that which is therein. But the enjoyment of the next life will be better for those who fear God than the wicked gains of these people: (Do ye not therefore understand?) and for those who hold fast the book of the law, and are constant at prayer: for we will by no means suffer the reward of the righteous to perish. And when we shook the mountain of Sinai over them,r as though it had been a covering, and they imagined, that it was falling upon them; and we said, Receive the law which we have brought you with reverence; and remember that which is contained therein, that ye may take heed. And when thy LORD drew forth their posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam,s and took them to witness against themselves, saying, Am not I your LORD? They answered, Yea: we do bear witness. This was done lest ye should say, at the day of resurrection, Verily we were negligent as to this matter, because we were not apprised thereof: or lest ye should say, Verily our fathers were formerly guilty of idolatry, and we are their posterity who have succeeded them; wilt thou therefore destroy us for that which vain men have committed? Thus do we explain our signs, that they may return from their vanities. And relate unto the Jews the history of him unto whom we brought our signs,t and the departed from them; wherefore Satan followed him,
and he became one of those who were seduced. And if we had pleased, we had surely raised him thereby unto wisdom; but he inclined unto the earth, and followed his own desire.u Wherefore his likeness as the likeness of a dog, which, if thou drive him away, putteth forth his tongue, or, if thou let him alone, putteth forth his tongue also. This is the likeness of the people, who accuse our signs of falsehood. Rehearse therefore this history unto them, that they may consider. Evil is the similitude of those people who accuse our signs of falsehood, and injure their own souls. Whomsoever GOD shall direct, he will be rightly directed; and whomsoever he shall lead astray, they shall perish. Moreover we have created for hell many of the genii and of men; they have hearts by which they understand not, and they have eyes by which they see not: and they have ears by which they hear not. These are like the brute beasts; yea they go more astray: these are the negligent. GOD hath most excellent names;x therefore call on him by the same; and withdraw from those who use his name perversely:y they shall be rewarded for that which they shall have wrought. And of those whom we have created there are a people who direct others with truth, and act justly according thereto.z But those who devise lies against our signs, we will suffer them to fall gradually into ruin, by a method which they knew not:a and I will grant them to enjoy a long and prosperous life; for my stratagem is effectual. Do they not consider that there is no devil in their companion?b He is no other than a public preacher. Or do they not contemplate the kingdom of heaven and earth, and the things which GOD hath created; and consider that peradventure it may be that their end draweth nigh? And in what new declaration will they believe, after this?c He whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have no director; and he shall leave them in their impiety, wandering in confusion. They will ask thee concerning the last hour; at what time its coming is fixed? Answer, Verily the knowledge thereof is with my LORD; none shall declare the fixed time thereof, except he. The expectation thereof is grievous in heaven and on earth:d it shall come upon you no otherwise than suddenly. They will ask thee, as though thou wast well acquainted therewith. Answer, Verily the knowledge
thereof is with GOD alone: but the greater part of men know it not. Say, I am able neither to procure advantage unto myself, nor to avert mischief from me, but as GOD pleaseth. If I knew the secrets of God, I should surely enjoy abundance of good, neither should evil befall me. Verily I am no other than a denouncer of threats, and a messenger of good tidings unto people who believe. It is he who hath created you from one person, and out of him produced his wife, that he might dwell with her: and when he had known her, she carried a light burden for a time, wherefore she walked easily therewith. But when it became more heavy,e she called upon GOD their LORD, saying, If thou give us a child rightly shaped, we will surely be thankful. Yet when he had given them a child rightly shaped, they attributed companions unto him, for that which he had given them.f But far be that from GOD, which they associated with him! Will they associate with him false gods which create nothing but are themselves created: and can neither give them assistance, nor help themselves? And if ye invite them to the true direction, they will not follow you: it will be equal unto you, whether ye invite them, or whether ye hold your peace. Verily the false deities whom ye invoke besides GOD are servants like unto you.g Call therefore upon them, and let them give you an answer, if ye speak truth. Have they feet, to walk with? Or have they hands, to lay hold with? Or have they eyes, to see with? Or have they ears, to hear with? Say, Call upon your companions, and then lay a snare for me, and defer it not; for GOD is my protector, who sent down the book of the Koran; and he protecteth the righteous. But they whom ye invoke besides him cannot assist you, neither do they help themselves; and if ye call on them to direct you, they will not hear. Thou seest them look towards thee, but they see not. Use indulgence,h and
command that which is just, and withdraw far from the ignorant. And if an evil suggestion from Satan be suggested unto thee, to divert thee from thy duty, have recourse unto GOD: for he heareth and knoweth. Verily they who fear God, when a temptation from Satan assaileth them, remember the divine commands, and behold, they clearly see the danger of sin and the wiles of the devil. But as for the brethren of the devils, they shall continue them in error; and afterwards they shall not preserve themselves therefrom. And when thou bringest not a verse of the Koran unto them, they say, Hast thou not put it together?i Answer, I follow that only which is revealed unto me from my LORD. This book containeth evident proofs from your LORD, and is a direction and mercy unto people who believe. And when the Koran is read, attend thereto, and keep silence; that ye may obtain mercy. And meditate on thy LORD in thine own mind, with humility and fear, and without loud speaking, evening and morning; and be not one of the negligent. Moreover the angels who are with my LORD do not proudly disdain his service, but they celebrate his praise and worship him.
ENTITLED, THE SPOILS;k REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THEY will ask thee concerning the spoils: Answer, The division of the spoils belongeth unto GOD and the apostle.m Therefore fear GOD, and compose the matter amicably among you: and obey GOD and his apostle, if ye are true believers. Verily the true believers are those whose hearts fear when GOD is mentioned, and whose faith increaseth when his signs are rehearsed unto them, and who trust in
their LORD; who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms out of that which we have bestowed on them. These are really believers: they shall have superior degrees of felicity with their LORD, and forgiveness, and an honourable provision. As thy LORD brought thee forth from thy house,n with truth; and part of the believers were averse to thy directions:o they disputed with thee concerning the truth, after it had been made known unto them;p no otherwise than as if they had been led forth to death, and had seen it with their eyes.q And call to mind when GOD promised you one of the two parties, that it should be delivered unto you,r and ye desired that the party which was not furnished with armss should be delivered unto you: but GOD purposed to make known the truth in his words, and to cut off the uttermost part of the unbelievers;t that he might verify the truth, and destroy falsehood, although the wicked were averse thereto. When ye asked assistance of your LORD,u and he answered you, Verily I will assist
you with a thousandx angels, following one another in order. And this GOD designed only as good tidingsy for you, and that your hearts might thereby rest secure: for victory is from GOD alone; and GOD is mighty and wise. When a sleep fell on you as a security from him, and he sent down upon you water from heaven, that he might thereby purify you, and take from you the abomination of Satan,z and that he might confirm your hearts, and establish your feet thereby. Also when thy LORD spake unto the angels, saying, Verily I am with you; wherefore confirm those who believe. I will cast a dread into the hearts of the unbelievers. Therefore strike off their heads, and strike off all the ends of their fingers.a This shall they suffer, because they have resisted GOD and his apostle: and whosoever shall oppose GOD and his apostle, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him. This shall be your punishment; taste it therefore: and the infidels shall also suffer the torment of hell fire. O true believers, when ye meet the unbelievers marching in great numbers against you, turn not your backs unto them: for whoso shall turn his back unto them in that day, unless he turneth aside to fight, or retreateth to another party of the faithful,b shall draw on himself the indignation of GOD, and his abode shall be in hell; an ill journey shall it be thither! And ye slew not those who were slain at Bedr yourselves, but GOD slew them.c Neither didst thou, O Mohammed cast the gravel into their eyes, when thou didst seem to cast it; but GOD cast it,d that he might prove the true believers by a gracious trial from himself, for GOD heareth and knoweth. This was done that GOD might also weaken the crafty devices of the unbelievers. If ye desire a decision of the matter between us, now hath a decision come unto you:e and if ye desist from opposing the apostle, it will be better for you. But if ye return to attack him, we will also return to his assistance; and your forces shall not be of advantage unto
you at all, although they be numerous; for GOD is with the faithful. O true believers, obey GOD and his apostle, and turn not back from him, since ye hear the admonitions of the Korân. And be not as those who say, We hear, when they do not hear. Verily the worst sort of beasts in the sight of GOD are the deaf and the dumb, who understand not. If GOD had known any good in them, he would certainly have caused them to hear:f and if he had caused them to hear, they would surely have turned back, and have retired afar off. O true believers, answer GOD and his apostle, when he inviteth you unto that which giveth you life; and know that GOD goeth between a man and his heart,g and that before him ye shall be assembled. Beware of sedition;h it will not affect those who are ungodly among you particularly, but all of you in general; and know that GOD is severe in punishing. And remember when ye were few, and reputed weak in the land;i ye feared lest men should snatch you away: but God provided you a place of refuge, and he strengthened you with his assistance, and bestowed on you good things, that ye might give thanks. O true believers, deceive not GOD and his apostle;k neither violate your faith against your own knowledge. And know that your wealth and your children are a temptation unto you;l and that with GOD is a great reward. O true believers, if ye fear GOD, he will grant you a distinction,m and will expiate your sins from you, and will forgive you; for GOD is endued with great liberality. And call to mind when the unbelievers plotted against thee, that they might either detain thee in bonds, or put to death, or expel thee the city;n and they plotted
against thee: but GOD laid a plot against them;o and GOD is the best layer of plots. And when our signs are repeated unto them, they say, We have heard; if we pleased we would certainly pronounce a composition like unto this: this is nothing but fables of the ancients.p And when they said, O GOD, if this be the truth from thee, rain down stones upon us from heaven, or inflict on us some other grievous punishment.r But GOD was not disposed to punish them, while thou wast with them: nor was GOD disposed to punish them when they asked pardon.s But they have nothing to offer in excuse why GOD should not punish them, since they hindered the believers from visiting the holy temple,t although they are not the guardians thereof.u The guardians thereof are those only who fear God; but the greater part of them know it not. And their prayer at the house of God is no other than whistling and clapping of the hands.x Taste therefore the punishment, for that ye have been unbelievers. They who believe not expend their wealth to obstruct the way of GOD:y they shall expend it, but afterwards it shall become matter of sighing and regret unto them, and at length they shall be overcome; and the unbelievers shall be gathered together into hell; that GOD may distinguish the wicked from the good, and may throw the wicked one upon the other, and may gather them all in a heap, and cast them into hell. These are they who shall perish. Say unto the unbelievers, that if they desist from opposing thee, what is already past shall be forgiven them; but if they return to attack thee, the exemplary punishment of the former opposers of the prophets is already past, and the like shall be inflicted on them. Therefore fight against them until there be no opposition in favor of idolatry, and the religion be wholly GOD'S. If they desist, verily GOD seeth that which they do: but if
they turn back, know that GOD is your patron; he is the best patron, and the best helper. (X.) And know that whenever ye gain any spoils, a fifth part thereof belongeth unto GOD, and to the apostle, and his kindred, and the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller;z if ye believe in GOD, and that which we have sent down unto our servant on the day of distinction,a on the day whereon the two armies met: and GOD is almighty. When ye were encamped on the hithermost side of the valley,b and they were encamped on the farther side, and the caravan was below you;c and if ye had mutually appointed to come to a battle ye would certainly have declined the appointment;d but ye were brought to an engagement without any previous appointment, that GOD might accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done;e that he who perisheth hereafter may perish after demonstrative evidence, and that he who liveth may live by the same evidence; GOD both heareth and knoweth. When thy LORD caused the enemy to appear unto thee in thy sleep few in number;f and if he had caused them to appear numerous unto thee, ye would have been disheartened, and would have disputed concerning the matter:g but GOD preserved you from this; for he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. And when he caused them to appear unto you when ye met, to be few in your eyes;h and diminished your numbers in their eyes;i that GOD might accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done; and unto GOD shall all things return. O true believers, when ye meet a party of the infidels, stand firm, and remember GOD frequently, that ye may prosper: and obey GOD and his apostle, and be not refractory, lest ye be discouraged, and your success depart from you; but persevere with patience, for GOD is with those who persevere. And be not as those who went out of their houses in an insolent manner, and to appear with ostentation unto men,k and
turned aside from the way of GOD; for GOD comprehendeth that which they do. And remember when Satan prepared their works for them,l and said, No man shall prevail against you to-day; and I will surely be near to assist you. But when the two armies appeared in sight of each other, he turned back on his heels, and said, Verily I am clear of you: I certainly see that which ye see not; I fear GOD, for GOD is severe in punishing.m When the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts there was an infirmity, said, Their religion hath deceived these men:n but whosoever confideth in GOD cannot be deceived; for GOD is mighty and wise. And if thou didst behold when the angels caused the unbelievers to die: they strike their faces and their backs,o and say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning: this shall ye suffer for that which your hands have sent before you;p and because GOD is not unjust towards his servants. These have acted according to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who disbelieved in the signs of GOD: therefore GOD took them away in their iniquity; for GOD is mighty and severe in punishing. This hath come to pass because GOD changeth not his grace, wherewith he hath favored any people, until they change that which is in their souls; and for that GOD both heareth and seeth. According to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who charged the signs of their LORD with imposture, have they acted: wherefore we destroyed them in their sins, and we drowned the people of Pharaoh; for they were all unjust persons. Verily the worst cattle in the sight of GOD are those who are obstinate infidels, and will not believe. As to those who enter into a league with thee, and afterwards violate their league at every
convenient opportunity,q and fear not God; if thou take them in war, disperse, by making them an example, those who shall come after them, that they may be warned; or if thou apprehend treachery from any people, throw back their league unto them with like treatment; for GOD loveth not the treacherous. And think notr that the unbelievers have escaped God's vengeance,s for they shall not weaken the power of God. Therefore prepare against them what force ye are able, and troops of horse, whereby ye may strike a terror into the enemy of GOD, and your enemy, and into other infidels besides them, whom ye know not, but GOD knoweth them. And whatsoever ye shall expend in the defence of the religion of GOD, it shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly. And if they incline unto peace, do thou also incline thereto; and put thy confidence in GOD, for it is he who heareth and knoweth. But if they seek to deceive thee, verily GOD will be thy support. It is he who hath strengthened thee with his help, and with that of the faithful; and hath united their hearts. If thou hadst expended whatever riches are in the earth, thou couldst not have united their hearts,t but GOD united them; for he is mighty and wise. O prophet, GOD is thy support, and such of the true believers who followeth thee.u O prophet stir up the faithful to war: if twenty of you persevere with constancy, they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be one hundred of you, they shall overcome a thousand of those who believe not; because they are a people which do not understand. Now hath GOD eased you, for he knew that ye were weak. If there be an hundred of you who persevere with constancy, they shall overcome two hundred; and if there be a thousand of you, they shall overcome two thousand,x by the permission of GOD; for GOD is with those who persevere. It hath not been granted unto any prophet, that he should possess captives, until he hath made a great slaughter of the infidels in the earth.y Ye seek the accidental goods of this world, but GOD regardeth the life to come; and GOD is mighty and wise. Unless a revelation had been previously delivered from GOD, verily a severe punishment had been inflicted on you, for the ransom which ye took from the captives at Bedr.z Eat therefore of what ye have acquir-
ed,a that which is lawful and good; for GOD is gracious and merciful. O prophet, say unto the captives who are in your hands. If GOD shall know any good to be in your hearts, he will give you better than what hath been taken from you;b and he will forgive you, for GOD is gracious and merciful. But if they seek to deceive thee,c verily they have deceived GOD; wherefore he hath given thee power over them: and GOD is knowing and wise. Moreover, they who have believed, and have fled their country, and employed their substance and their persons in fighting for the religion of GOD, and they who have given the prophet a refuge among them, and have assisted him, these shall be deemed the one nearest of kin to the other.d But they who have believed, but have not fled their country, shall have no right of kindred at all with you, until they also fly. Yet if they ask assistance of you on account of religion, it belongeth unto you to give them assistance; except against a people between whom and yourselves there shall be a league subsisting: and GOD seeth that which ye do. And as to the infidels let them be deemed of kin the one to the other. Unless ye do this, there will be a sedition in the earth, and grievous corruption. But as for them who have believed, and left their country, and have fought for GOD's true religion, and who have allowed the prophet a retreat among them, and have assisted him, these are really believers; they shall receive mercy, and an honourable provision. And they who
have believe since, and have fled their country, and have fought with you, these also are of you. And those who are related by consanguinity shall be deemed the nearest of kin to each other preferably to strangers according to the book of GOD; GOD knoweth all things.
ENTITLED, THE DECLARATION OF IMMUNITY;e REVEALED AT MEDINA.
A DECLARATION of immunity from GOD and his apostle, unto the idolaters, with whom ye have entered into league.f Go to and fro in the earth securely four months;g and know that ye shall not weaken GOD, and that GOD will disgrace the unbelievers. And a declaration from GOD and his apostle unto the people, on the day of the greater pilgrimage,h that GOD is clear of the idolaters, and his
apostle also. Wherefore if ye repent, this will be better for you; but if ye turn back, know that ye shall not weaken GOD: and denounce unto those who believe not, a painful punishment. Except such of the idolaters with whom ye shall have entered into a league, and who afterwards shall not fail you in any instance, nor assist any other against you.i Wherefore perform the covenant which ye shall have made with them, until their time shall be elapsed; for GOD loveth those who fear him. And when the months wherein ye are not allowed to attack them shall be past, kill the idolaters wheresoever ye shall find them,k and take them prisoners, and besiege them, and lay wait for them in every convenient place. But if they shall repent, and observe the appointed times of prayer, and pay the legal alms, dismiss them freely: for GOD is gracious and merciful. And if any of the idolaters shall demand protection of thee, grant him protection, that he may hear the word of GOD: and afterwards let him reach the place of his security.l This shalt thou do, because they are people which know not the excellency of the religion thou preachest. How shall the idolaters be admitted into a league with GOD and with his apostle; except those with whom ye entered into a league at the holy temple?m So long as they behave with fidelity towards you, do ye also behave with fidelity towards them; for GOD loveth those who fear him. How can they be admitted into a league with you, since, if they prevail against you, they will not regard in you either consanguinity or faith? They will please you with their mouths, but their hearts will be averse from you; for the greater part of them are wicked doers. They sell the signs of GOD for a small price, and obstruct his way; it is certainly evil which they do. They regard not in a believer either consanguinity or faith; and these are the transgressors. Yet if they repent, and observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms, they shall be deemed your brethren in religion. We distinctly propound our signs unto people who understand. But if they violate their oaths, after their league, and revile your religion, oppose the leaders of infidelity (for there is no trust in them), that they may desist from their treachery. Will ye not fight against people who have violated their oaths, and conspired to expel the apostle of God; and who of their own accord assaulted you the first time?n Will ye fear them? But it is more just that ye should fear GOD, if ye are true believers. Attack them therefore; GOD shall punish them by your
hands, and will cover them with shame, and will give you the victory over them; and he will heal the breasts of the people who believe,o and will take away the indignation of their hearts: for GOD will be turned unto whom he pleaseth; and GOD is knowing and wise. Did ye imagine that ye should be abandoned, whereas GOD did not yet know those among you who fought for his religion, and took not any besides GOD, and his apostle, and the faithful for their friends? GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. It is not fitting that the idolaters should visit the temples of GOD, being witnesses against their own souls of their infidelity. The works of these men are vain: and they shall remain in hell fire forever. But he only shall visit the temples of GOD, who believeth in GOD and the last day, and is constant at prayer, and payeth the legal alms, and feareth GOD alone. These perhaps may become of the number of those who are rightly directed.p Do ye reckon the giving drink to the pilgrims, and the visiting of the holy temple, to be actions as meritorious as those performed by him who believeth in GOD and the last day, and fighteth for the religion of GOD?q They shall not be held equal with GOD: for GOD directeth not the unrighteous people. They who have believed, and fled their country and employed their substance and their persons in the defence of GOD'S true religion, shall be in the highest degree of honour with GOD; and these are they who shall be happy. Their LORD sendeth them good tidings of mercy from him, and good will, and of gardens wherein they shall enjoy lasting pleasure: they shall continue therein forever; for with GOD is a great reward. O true believers, take not your fathers or your brethren for friends, if they love infidelity above faith; and whosoever among you shall take them for his friends, they will be unjust doers. Say, if your fathers, and your sons, and your brethren, and your wives, and your relations, and your substance which ye have acquired, and your merchandise which ye apprehend may not be sold off, and your dwellings wherein ye delight, be more dear unto you than GOD, and his apostle, and the advancement of his religion; wait until GOD shall send his command:r for GOD directeth not the ungodly people. Now hath GOD assisted you in many engagements, and particularly at the battle of Honein,s when ye pleased yourselves in
your multitude, but it was no manner of advantage unto you, and the earth became too strait for you,t notwithstanding it was spacious; then did ye retreat, and turn your backs. Afterwards GOD sent down his securityu upon his apostle and upon the faithful, and sent down troops of angels,x which ye saw not; and he punished those who disbelieved; and this was the reward of the unbelievers. Nevertheless GOD will hereafter be turned unto whom he pleaseth;y for GOD is gracious and merciful. O true believers, verily the idolaters are unclean; let them not therefore come near unto the holy temple after this year.z And if ye fear want, by the cutting off trade and communication with them, GOD will enrich you of his abundance,a if he pleaseth; for GOD is knowing and wise. Fight against them who believe not in GOD, nor the last day,b and forbid not that which GOD and his apostle have forbidden, and profess not the true religion, of those unto whom the scriptures have been delivered, until they pay tribute by right of subjection,c and they be reduced low. The Jews say, Ezra is the son of
GOD:d and the Christians say, Christ is the Son of GOD. This is their saying in their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who were unbelievers in former times. May GOD resist them. How are they infatuated! They take their priests and their monks for their lords, besides GOD,e and Christ the son of Mary; although they are commanded to worship one GOD only: there is no GOD but he; far be that from him which they associate with him! They seek to extinguish the light of GOD with their mouths; but GOD willeth no other than to perfect his light, although the infidels be averse thereto. It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and true religion: that he may cause it to appear superior to every other religion; although the idolaters be averse thereto. O true believers, verily many of the priests and monks devour the substance of men in vanity,f and obstruct the way of GOD. But unto those who treasure up gold and silver, and employ it not for the advancement of GOD'S true religion, denounce a grievous punishment. On the day of judgment their treasures shall be intensely heated in the fire of hell, and their foreheads, and their sides, and their backs shall be stigmatized therewith; and their tormentors shall say, This is what ye have treasured up for your souls; taste therefore that which ye have treasured up. Moreover, the complete number
of months with GOD, is twelve months,g which were ordained in the book of GOD,h on the day whereon he created the heavens and the earth: of these, four are sacred.i This is the right religion: therefore deal not unjustly with yourselves therein. But attack the idolaters in all the months, as they attack you in all;k and know that GOD is with those who fear him. Verily the transferring of a sacred month to another month, is an additional infidelity.l The unbelievers are led into an error thereby: they allow a month to be violated one year, and declare it sacred another year,m that they may agree in the number of months which GOD hath commanded to be kept sacred; and they allow that which GOD hath forbidden. The evil of their actions hath been prepared for them: for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. O true believers, what ailed you, that when it was said unto you, Go forth to fight for the religion of GOD, ye inclined heavily towards the earth?n Do ye prefer the present life to that which is to come? But the provision of this life, in respect of that which is to come, is but slender. Unless ye go forth when ye are summoned to war, God will punish you with a grievous punishment; and he will place another people in your stead,o and ye shall not hurt him at all; for GOD is almighty. If ye assist not the prophet, verily GOD will assist him, as he assisted him formerly, when the unbelievers drove him out of Mecca, the second of two:p when they were both in the cave: when he said unto his companion, Be not grieved, for GOD is with us.q And GOD sent down his securityr upon him, and strengthened him with armies of angels, whom ye saw not.s And he made the word of those who believed not to be
abased, and the word of GOD was exalted: for GOD is mighty and wise. Go forth to battle, both light and heavy,t and employ your substance and your persons for the advancement of GOD's religion. This will be better for you, if ye know it. If it had been a near advantage, and a moderate journey, they had surely followed thee;u but the way seemed tedious unto them: and yet they will swear by GOD, saying, If we had been able, we had surely gone forth with you. They destroy their own souls; for GOD knoweth that they are liars. GOD forgive thee! why didst thou give them leave to stay at home,x until they who speak the truth, when they excuse themselves, had become manifested unto thee, and thou hadst known the liars. They who believe in GOD and the last day, will not ask leave of thee to be excused from employing their substance and their persons for the advancement of GOD's true religion; and GOD knoweth those who fear him. Verily they only will ask leave of thee to stay behind, who believe not in GOD and the last day, and whose hearts doubt concerning the faith: wherefore they are tossed to and fro in their doubting. If they had been willing to go forth with thee, they had certainly prepared for that purpose a provision of arms and necessaries: but GOD was averse to their going forth; wherefore he rendered them slothful, and it was said unto them, Sit ye still with those who sit still.y If they had gone forth with you, they had only been a burden unto you, and had run to and fro between you, stirring you up to sedition; and there would have been some among you, who would have given ear unto them: and GOD knoweth the wicked. They formerly sought to raise a sedition,z and they disturbed thy affairs, until the truth came, and the decree of GOD was made manifest; although they were adverse thereto. There is of them who saith unto thee, Give me leave to stay behind, and expose me not to temptation.a Have they not fallen into temptation at home?b But hell will surely encompass the unbelievers. If good happen unto thee, it grieveth them: but if a misfortune befall thee, they say, We ordered our business before;c and they turn their backs, and rejoice at thy mishap. Say, Nothing shall befall us, but what GOD hath decreed for us; he is our patron; and on GOD let the faithful trust. Say, Do ye expect any other should befall us, than one of the two most excellent things; either
victory or martyrdom? But we expect concerning you, that GOD inflict a punishment on you, either from himself, or by our hands.d Wait, therefore, to see what will be the end of both; for we will wait for you. Say, Expend your money in pious uses, either voluntarily, or by constraint, it shall not be accepted of you; because ye are wicked people. And nothing hindereth their contributions from being accepted of them, but that they believe not in GOD and his apostle, and perform not the duty of prayer, otherwise than sluggishly; and expend not their money for God's service, otherwise than unwillingly. Let not therefore their riches, or their children cause thee to marvel. Verily GOD intendeth only to punish them by these things in this world; and that their souls may depart while they are unbelievers. They swear by GOD that they are of you;e yet they are not of you, but are people who stand in fear.f If they find a place of refuge, or caves, or a retreating hole, they surely turn towards the same, and in a headstrong manner, haste thereto. There is of them also who spreadeth ill reports of thee, in relation to thy distribution of the alms: yet if they receive part thereof, they are well pleased; but if they receive not a part thereof, behold, they are angry.g But if they had been pleased with that which GOD and his apostle had given them, and had said, GOD is our support; GOD will give unto us of his abundance, and his prophet also; verily unto GOD do we make our supplications: it would have been more decent. Alms are to be distributedh only unto the poor, and the needy,i and those who are employed in collecting and distributing the same, and unto those whose hearts are reconciled,k and for the redemption of captives, and unto those who are in debt and insolvent, and for the advancement of GOD'S religion, and unto the traveller. This is an ordinance from GOD: and GOD is knowing and wise. There are some of them who injure the prophet, and say, He is an ear.l Answer, He is an ear of good unto you:m he believeth in GOD, and giveth credit to the faithful, and is a mercy unto such of you who believe. But they
who injure the apostle of GOD, shall suffer a painful punishment. They swear unto you by GOD, that they may please you; but it is more just that they should please GOD and his apostle, if they are true believers. Do they not know that he who opposeth GOD and his apostle, shall without doubt be punished with the fire of hell; and shall remain therein forever? This will be great ignominy. The hypocrites are apprehensive lest a Suran should be revealed concerning them, to declare unto them that which is in their hearts. Say unto them, Scoff ye; but GOD will surely bring to light that which ye fear should be discovered. And if thou ask them the reason of this scoffing, they say, Verily we were only engaged in discourse; and jesting among ourselves.o Say, Do ye scoff at GOD and his signs, and at his apostle? offer not an excuse: now are ye become infidels, after your faith. If we forgive a part of you, we will punish a part, for that they have been wicked doers. Hypocritical men and women are the one of them of the other: they command that which is evil, and forbid that which is just, and shut their hands from giving alms. They have forgotten GOD; wherefore he hath forgotten them: verily the hypocrites are those who act wickedly. GOD denounceth unto the hypocrites, both men and women, and to the unbelievers, the fire of hell; they shall remain therein forever: this will be their sufficient reward; GOD hath cursed them, and they shall endure a lasting torment. As they who have been before you, so are ye. They were superior to you in strength, and had more abundance of wealth and of children; and they enjoyed their portion in this world; and ye also enjoy your portion here, as they who have preceded you enjoyed their portion. And ye engage yourselves in vain discourses, like unto those wherein they engaged themselves. The works of these are vain both in this world and in that which is to come; and these are they who perish. Have they not been acquainted with the history of those who have been before them? of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of Thamud, and of the people of Abraham, and of the inhabitants of Madian, and of the cities which were overthrown?p Their apostles came unto them with evident demonstrations: and GOD was not disposed to treat them unjustly; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls. And the faithful men, and the faithful women, are friends one to another: they command that which is just, and they forbid that which is evil; and they are constant at prayer, and pay their appointed alms; and they obey GOD and his apostle: unto these will GOD be merciful; for he is mighty and wise. GOD promiseth unto the true believers, both men and women, gardens through which rivers flow, wherein they shall remain forever; and delicious dwellings in gardens
of perpetual abode:q but good-will from GOD shall be their most excellent reward. This will be great felicity. O prophet, wage war against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be severe unto them: for their dwelling shall be hell; an unhappy journey shall it be thither! They swear by GOD that they said not what they are charged with: yet they spake the word of infidelity, and became unbelievers after they had embraced Islâm.r And they designed that which they could not effect;s and they did not disapprove the design for any other reason than because GOD and his apostle had enriched them of his bounty.t If they repent, it will be better for them; but if they relapse, GOD will punish them with a grievous torment, in this world and in the next; and they shall have no portion on earth, nor any protector. There are some of them who made a covenant with GOD, saying, Verily if he give us of his abundance, we will give alms, and become righteous people.u Yet when they had given unto him of his abundance, they became covetous thereof, and turned back, and retired afar off. Wherefore he hath caused hypocrisy to succeed in their hearts, until the day whereon they shall meet him; for that they failed to perform unto GOD that which they had promised him, and for that they prevaricated. Do they not know that GOD knoweth whatever they conceal, and their private discourses; and that GOD is the knower of secrets? They who traduce such of the believers as are liberal in giving alms beyond what they are obliged, and those who find nothing to give, but what they gain by their industry;x and therefore scoff at them: GOD
shall scoff at them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. Ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them; it will be equal. If thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times, GOD will by no means forgive them.y This is the divine pleasure, for that they believe not in GOD, and his apostle; and GOD directeth not the ungodly people. They who were left at home in the expedition of Tabûc, were glad of their staying behind the apostle of GOD, and were unwilling to employ their substance and their persons for the advancement of GOD's true religion; and they said, Go not forth in the heat.z Say, the fire of hell will be hotter; if they understood this. Wherefore let them laugh little, and weep much, as a reward for that which they have done. If GOD bring thee back unto some of them,a and they ask thee leave to go forth to war with thee, say, Ye shall not go forth with me for the future, neither shall ye fight an enemy with me; ye were pleased with sitting at home the first time; sit ye at home therefore with those who stay behind. Neither do thou ever pray over any of them who shall die,b neither stand at his gravec for that they believed not in GOD and his apostle, and die in their wickedness. Let not their riches or their children cause thee to marvel: for GOD intendeth only to punish them therewith in this world, and that their souls may depart, while they are infidels. When a Surad is sent down, wherein it is said, Believe in GOD, and go forth to war with his apostle; those who are in plentiful circumstances among them ask leave of thee to stay behind, and say, Suffer us to be of the number of those who sit at home. They are well pleased to be with those who stay behind, and their hearts are sealed up; wherefore they do not understand. But the apostle, and
those who have believed with him, expose their fortunes and their lives for God's service; they shall enjoy the good things of either life, and they shall be happy. GOD hath prepared for them gardens through which rivers flow; they shall remain therein forever. This will be great felicity. And certain Arabs of the desert came to excuse themselves,e praying that they might be permitted to stay behind; and they sat at home who had renounced GOD and his apostle. But a painful punishment shall be inflicted on such of them as believe not. In those who are weak, or are afflicted with sickness, or in those who find not wherewith to contribute to the war,f it shall be no crime if they stay at home; provided they behave themselves faithfully towards GOD and his apostle. There is no room to lay blame on the righteous; for GOD is gracious and merciful: nor on those, unto whom, when they came unto thee, requesting that thou wouldest supply them with necessaries for travelling, thou didst answer, I find not wherewith to supply you, returned, their eyes shedding tears for grief, that they found not wherewith to contribute to the expedition.g But there is reason to blame those who ask leave of thee to sit at home, when they are rich. They are pleased to be with those who stay behind, and GOD hath sealed up their hearts; wherefore they do not understand. (XI.) They will excuse themselves unto you, when ye are returned unto them. Say, Excuse not yourselves; we will by no means believe you: GOD hath acquainted us with your behavior; and GOD will observe his actions, and his apostle also: and hereafter shall ye be brought before him who knoweth that which is hidden, and that which is manifest; and he will declare unto you that which ye have done. They will swear unto you by GOD, which ye have done. They will swear unto you by GOD, when ye are returned unto them, that ye may let them alone.h Let them alone, therefore, for they are an abomination, and their dwelling shall be hell, a reward for that which they have deserved. They will swear unto you, that ye may be well pleased with them; but if ye be well pleased with them, verily GOD will not be well pleased with people who prevaricate. The Arabs of the desert are more obstinate in their unbelief and hypocrisy; and it is easier for them to be ignorant of the ordinances of that which GOD hath sent down unto his apostle;i and GOD is knowing and wise. Of the Arabs of the desert there is who reckoneth that which he expendeth for the service of God, to be as tribute,k and waiteth that some change of fortunel may befall you.
A change for evil shall happen unto them; for GOD both heareth and knoweth. And of the Arabs of the desert there is who believeth in GOD, and in the last day; and esteemeth that which he layeth out for the service of God to be the means of bringing him near unto GOD, and the prayers of the apostle. Is it not unto them the means of a near approach? GOD shall lead them into his mercy; for GOD is gracious and merciful.m As for the leaders and the first of the Mohâjerîn, and the Ansârs,n and those who have followed them in well doing; GOD is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased in him: and he hath prepared for them gardens watered by rivers; they shall remain therein forever. This shall be great felicity. And of the Arabs of the desert who dwell round about you, there are hypocritical persons:o and of the inhabitants of Medina there are some who are obstinate in hypocrisy. Thou knowest them not, O prophet, but we know them: we will surely punish them twice:p afterwards shall they be sent to a grievous torment. And others have acknowledged their crimes.q They have mixed a good action with another which is bad:r peradventure GOD will be turned unto them; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Take alms of their substance, that thou mayest cleanse them, and purify them thereby;s and pray for them: for thy prayers shall be a security of mind unto them; and GOD both heareth and knoweth. Do they not know that GOD accepteth repentance from his servants, and accepteth alms; and that GOD is easy to be reconciled, and merciful? Say unto them, Work as ye will; but GOD will behold your work, and his apostle also, and the true believers: and ye shall be brought before him who knoweth that which is kept secret, and that which is made public: and he will declare unto you whatever ye have done. And there are others who wait with suspense the decree of GOD: whether he will punish them, or whether he will be turned unto
them:t but GOD is knowing and wise, There are some who have built a temple to hurt the faithful, and to propagate infidelity, and to foment division among the true believers,u and for a lurking place for him who hath fought against GOD and his apostle in time past;x and they swear, saying, Verily we intended no other than to do for the best: but GOD is witness that they do certainly lie. Stand not up to pray therein forever. There is a temple founded on piety,y from the first day of its building. It is more just that thou stand up to pray therein: therein are men who love to be purified;z for GOD loveth the clean. Whether therefore is he better, who hath founded his building on the fear of GOD and his good will; or he who hath founded his building on the brink of a bank of earth which is washed away by waters, so that it falleth with him into the fire of hell? God directeth not the ungodly people. Their building which they have built will not cease to be an occasion of doubting in their hearts, until their hearts be cut in pieces;a and GOD is knowing and wise. Verily GOD hath purchased of the true believers their souls, and their substance, promising them the enjoyment of paradise; on condition that they fight for the cause of GOD: whether they slay or be slain, the promise for
the same is assuredly due by the law, and the gospel, and the Koran. And who performeth his contract more faithfully than GOD? Rejoice therefore in the contract which ye have made. This shall be great happiness. The penitent, and those who serve God, and praise him, and who fast, and bow down, and worship; and who command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil, and keep the ordinances of GOD, shall likewise be rewarded with paradise: wherefore bear good tidings unto the faithful. It is not allowed unto the prophet, nor those who are true believers, that they pray for idolaters,b although they be of kin, after it is become known unto them, that they are inhabitants of hell.c Neither did Abraham ask forgiveness for his father, otherwise than in pursuance of a promise which he had promised unto him:d but when it became known unto him, that he was an enemy unto GOD, he declared himself clear of him.e Verily Abraham was pitiful and compassionate. Nor is GOD disposed to lead people into error,f after that he hath directed them, until that which they ought to avoid is become known unto them; for GOD knoweth all things. Verily unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth; he giveth life, and he causeth to die; and ye have no patron or helper besides GOD. GOD is reconciled unto the prophet, and unto the Mohâjerîn and the Ansârs,g who followed him in the hour of distress,h after that it had wanted little but that the hearts of a part of them had swerved from their duty: afterwards was he turned unto them: for he was compassionate and merciful towards them. And he is also reconciled unto the three who were left behind,i so that the
earth became too straight for them, notwithstanding its spaciousness, and their souls became straightened within them, and they considered that there was no refuge from GOD, otherwise than by having recourse unto him. Then was he turned unto them, that they might repent; for GOD is easy to be reconciled and merciful. O true believers, fear GOD and be with the sincere. There was no reason why the inhabitants of Medina, and the Arabs of the desert who dwell around them, should stay behind the apostle of GOD, or should prefer themselves before him.k This is unreasonable: because they are not distressed either by thirst, or labor, or hunger, for the defence of GOD'S true religion; neither do they stir a step, which may irritate the unbelievers; neither do they receive from the enemy any damage, but a good work is written down unto them for the same; for GOD suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. And they contribute not any sum either small or great, nor do they pass a valley; but it is written down unto them that GOD may reward them with a recompense exceeding that which they have wrought. The believers are not obliged to go forth to war altogether: if a part of every band of them go not forth, it is that they may diligently instruct themselves in their religion;l and may admonish their people, when they return unto them, that they may take heed to themselves. O true believers, wage war against such of the infidels as are near you;m and let them find severityn in you: and know that GOD is with those who fear him. Whenever a Sura is sent down, there are some of them who say, Which of you hath this caused to increase in faith? It will increase the faith of those who believe, and they shall rejoice: but unto those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, it will add further doubt unto their present doubt; and they shall die in their infidelity. Do they not see that they are tried every year once or twice?o yet they repent not, neither are they warned. And whenever a Sura is sent down, they look at one another, saying, Doth any one see you?p then do they turn aside. GOD shall
turn aside their hearts from the truth; because they are a people who do not understand. Now hath an apostle come unto you of our own nation,q an excellent person: it is grievous unto him that ye commit wickedness; he is careful over you, and compassionate and merciful towards the believers. If they turn back, say, GOD is my support: there is no GOD but he. On him do I trust; and he is the LORD of the magnificent throne.
ENTITLED, JONAS;r REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
AL. R.s These are the signs of the wise book. Is it a strange thing unto the men of Mecca, that we have revealed our will unto a man from among them,t saying, Denounce threats unto men if they believe not; and bear good tidings unto those who believe, that on the merit of their sincerity they have an interest with their LORD? The unbelievers say, This is manifest sorcery.u Verily your LORD is GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended his throne, to take on himself the government of all things. There is no intercessor, but by his permission.x This is GOD, your LORD; therefore serve him. Will ye not consider? Unto him shall ye all return according to the certain promise of GOD; for he produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return again; that he may reward those who believe and do that which is right, with equity. But as for the unbelievers, they shall drink boiling water, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment, for that they have disbelieved. It is he who hath ordained the sun to shine by day, and the moon for a light by night; and had appointed her stations, that ye might know the number of years, and the computation of time. GOD hath not created this, but with truth. He explaineth his signs unto people who understand. Moreover in the vicissitudes of night and day, and whatever GOD hath created in heaven and earth, are surely signs unto men who fear him.
Verily they who hope not to meet us at the last day, and delight in this present life, and rest securely in the same, and who are negligent of our signs; their dwelling shall be hell fire, for that which they have deserved. But as to those who believe, and work righteousness, their LORD will direct them because of their faith; they shall have rivers flowing through gardens of pleasure. Their prayer therein shall be Praise be unto thee O GOD! and their salutationy therein shall be Peace! and the end of their prayer shall be, Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures! If GOD should cause evil to hasten unto men, according to their desire of hastening good, verily their end had been decreed. Wherefore we suffer those who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, to wander amazedly in their error. When evil befalleth a man, he prayeth unto us lying on his side, or sitting, or standing:z but when we deliver him from his affliction, he continueth his former course of life, as though he had not called upon us to defend him against the evil which had befallen him. Thus was that which the transgressors committed prepared for them. We have formerly destroyed the generations who were before you, O men of Mecca, when they had acted unjustly, and our apostles had come unto them with evident miracles and they would not believe. Thus do we reward the wicked people. Afterwards did we cause you to succeed them in the earth; that we might see how ye would act. When our evident signs are recited unto them, they who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, say, Bring a different Koran from this; or make some change therein. Answer, It is not fit for me, that I should change it at my pleasure: I follow that only which is revealed unto me. Verily I fear if I should be disobedient unto my LORD, the punishment of the great day. Say, If GOD had so pleased, I had not read it unto you, neither had I taught you the same. I have already dwelt among you to the age of forty years,a before I received it. Do ye not therefore understand? And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD, or accuseth his signs of falsehood? Surely the wicked shall not prosper. They worship besides GOD, that which can neither hurt them or profit them, and they say, These are our intercessors with GOD.b Answer, Will ye tell GOD that which he knoweth not, neither in heaven nor in earth?c Praise be unto him! and far be that from him, which they associate with him! Men were professors of one religion only,d but they dis-
sented therefrom; and if a decree had not previously issued from thy LORD, deferring their punishment, verily the matter had been decided between them, concerning which they disagreed. They say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Verily that which is hidden is known only unto GOD: wait, therefore, the pleasure of God; and I also will wait with you. And when we caused the men of Mecca to taste mercy, after an affliction which had befallen them, behold, they devised a stratagem against our signs.e Say unto them, GOD is more swift in executing a stratagem, than ye. Verily our messengersf write down that which ye deceitfully devise. It is he who hath given you conveniences for travelling by land and by sea; so that ye be in ships, which sail with them, with a favorable wind, and they rejoice therein. And when a tempestuous wind overtaketh them, and waves come upon them from every side, and they think themselves encompassed with inevitable dangers; they call upon GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him,g and saying, Verily if thou deliver us from this peril, we will be of those who give thanks. But when he hath delivered them, behold, they behave themselves insolently in the earth, without justice. O men, verily the violence which ye commit against your own souls, is for the enjoyment of this present life only; afterwards unto us shall ye return, and we will declare unto you that which ye have done. Verily the likeness of this present life is no other than as water, which we send down from heaven, and wherewith the productions of the earth are mixed, of which men eat, and cattle also, until the earth receive its vesture, and be adorned with various plants: the inhabitants thereof imagine that they have power over the same; but our command cometh unto it by night, or by day, and we render it as though it had been mowen, as though it had not yesterday abounded with fruits. Thus do we explain our signs unto people who consider. GOD inviteth unto the dwelling of peace,h and directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. They who do right shall receive a most excellent reward, and a superabundant addition;i neither blacknessk nor shame shall cover their faces. These shall be the inhabitants of paradise; they shall continue therein forever. But they who commit evil shall receive the reward of evil, equal thereunto,l and they shall be covered with shame, (for they shall have no protector against GOD); as though their faces were covered with the profound darkness of the night. These shall be the inhabitants of hell fire: they shall remain therein forever. On the day of the resurrection we will gather them altogether; then will we say unto the idolaters, Get ye to your place,
ye and your companions:m and we will separate them from one another; and their companions will say unto them, Ye do not worship us;n and GOD is a sufficient witness between us and you; neither did we mind your worshipping of us. There shall every soul experienceo that which it shall have sent before it;p and they shall be brought before GOD their true LORD; and the false deities which they vainly imagined, shall disappear from before them. Say, Who provideth you food from heaven and earth? or who hath the absolute power over the hearing and the sight? and who bringeth forth the living from the dead, and bringeth forth the dead from the living? and who governeth all things? They will surely answer, GOD. Say, Will ye not therefore fear him? This is therefore GOD your true LORD: and what remaineth there after truth, except error? How therefore are ye turned aside from the truth? Thus is the word of thy LORD verified upon them who do wickedly; that they believe not. Say, Is there any of your companions who produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return unto himself? Say, GOD produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return unto himself. How therefore are ye turned aside from his worship? Say, Is there any of your companions who directeth unto the truth. Say, GOD directeth unto the truth. Whether is he, therefore, who directeth unto the truth, more worthy to be followed; or he who directeth not, unless he be directed? What aileth you therefore, that ye judge as ye do? And the greater part of them follow an uncertain opinion only; but a mere opinion attaineth not unto any truth. Verily GOD knoweth that which they do. This Koran could not have been composed by any except GOD; but it is a confirmation of that which was revealed before it, and an explanation of the scripture; there is no doubt thereof; sent down from the LORD of all creatures. Will they say, Mohammed hath forged it? Answer, Bring therefore a chapter like unto it; and call whom you may to your assistance, besides GOD, if ye speak truth. But they have charged that with falsehood, the knowledge whereof they do not comprehend, neither hath the interpretation thereof come unto them. In the same manner did those who were before them accuse their prophets of imposture; but behold, what was the end of the unjust! There are some of them who believe therein; and there are some of them who believe not therein:q and thy LORD well knoweth the corrupt doers. If they accuse thee of imposture, say, I have my work, and ye have your work; ye shall be clear of that which I do, and I will be clear of that which ye do. There are some of them who hearken unto thee; but wilt thou
make the deaf to hear, although they do not understand? And there are some of them who look at thee; but wilt thou direct the blind, although they see not?r Verily GOD will not deal unjustly with men in any respect: but men deal unjustly with their own souls.s On a certain day he will gather them together, as though they had not tarriedt above an hour of a day: they shall know one another.u Then shall they perish who have denied the meeting of GOD; and were not rightly directed. Whether we cause thee to see a part of the punishment wherewith we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before thou see it; unto us shall they return: then shall GOD be witness of that which they do. Unto every nation hath an apostle been sent; and when their apostle came, the matter was decided between them with equity;x and they were not treated unjustly. The unbelievers say, When will this threatening be made good, if ye speak truth? Answer, I am able neither to procure advantage unto myself, nor to avert mischief from me, but as GOD pleaseth. Unto every nation is a fixed term decreed; when their term therefore is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, neither shall their punishment be anticipated. Say, Tell me, if the punishment of GOD overtake you by night, or by day, what part thereof will the ungodly wish to be hastened? When it falleth on you, do ye then believe it? Now do ye believe, and wish it far from you, when as ye formerly desired it should be hastened? Then shall it be said unto the wicked, Taste the punishment of eternity; would ye receive other than the reward of that which ye have wrought? They will desire to know of thee, whether this be true. Answer, Yea, by my LORD, it is certainly true; neither shall ye weaken God's power so as to escape it. Verily, if every soul which hath acted wickedly had whatever is on the earth, it would willingly redeem itself therewith at the last day. Yet they will conceal their repentance,y after they shall have seen the punishment; and the matter shall be decided between them with equity, and they shall not be unjustly treated. Doth not whatsoever is in heaven and on earth belong unto GOD? Is not the promise of GOD true? But the greater part of them know it not. He giveth life, and he causeth to die: and unto him shall ye all return. O men, now hath an admonition come unto you from your LORD, and a remedy for the doubts which are in your breasts; and a direction, and mercy unto the true believers. Say, Through the grace of GOD, and his mercy; therein therefore let them rejoice; this will be better than
what they heap together of worldly riches. Say, Tell me; of that which GOD hath sent down unto you for food, have ye declared part to be lawful,z and other part to be unlawful? Say, Hath GOD permitted you to make this distinction? or do ye devise a lie concerning GOD? But what will be the opinion of those who devise a lie concerning GOD, on the day of the resurrection? Verily GOD is endued with beneficence towards mankind; but the greater part of them do not give thanks. Thou shalt be engaged in no business, neither shalt thou be employed in meditating on any passage of the Koran; nor shall ye do any action, but we will be witnesses over you, when ye are employed therein. Nor is so much as the weight of an anta hidden from thy LORD, in earth or in heaven: neither is there anything lesser than that, or greater, but it is written in the perspicuous book.b Are not the friends of GOD the persons on whom no fear shall come, and who shall not be grieved? They who believe and fear God shall receive good tidings in this life, and in that which is to come. There is no change in the words of GOD. This shall be great felicity. Let not their discoursec grieve thee; for all might belongeth unto GOD: he both heareth and knoweth. Is not whoever dwelleth in heaven and on earth subject unto GOD? What therefore do they follow, who invoke idols, besides GOD? They follow nothing but a vain opinion; and they only utter lies. It is he who hath ordained the night for you, that ye may take your rest therein, and the clear day for labor: verily herein are signs unto people who hearken. They say, GOD hath begotten children; GOD forbid! He is self-sufficient. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: ye have no demonstrative proof of this. Do ye speak of GOD that which ye know not? Say, Verily they who imagine a lie concerning GOD shall not prosper. They may enjoy a provision in this world; but afterwards unto us shall they return, and we will then cause them to taste a grievous punishment, for that they were unbelievers. Rehearse unto them the history of Noah:d when he said unto his people, O my people, if my standing forth among you, and my warning you of the signs of GOD, be grievous unto you; in GOD do I put my trust. Therefore lay your design against me, and assemble your false gods; but let not your design be carried on by you in the dark: then come forth against me, and delay not. And if ye turn aside from my admonitions, I ask not any reward of you for the same;e I expect my reward from GOD alone, and I am commanded to be one of those who are resigned unto him. But they accused him of imposture, wherefore we delivered him, and those who were with him in the ark, and we caused them to survive the flood, but we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood. Behold therefore, what was the end of those who were warned by Noah. Then did we send, after him, apostles unto their respective people,f and they came unto
them with evident demonstrations: yet they were not disposed to believe in that which they had before rejected as false. Thus do we seal up the hearts of the transgressors. Then did we send, after them, Moses and Aaron unto Pharaoh and his princes with our signs:g but they behaved proudly, and were a wicked people. And when the truth from us had come unto them, they said, Verily this is manifest sorcery. Moses said unto them, Do ye speak this of the truth, after it hath come unto you? Is this sorcery? but sorcerers shall not prosper. They said, Art thou come unto us to turn us aside from that religion, which we found our fathers practise; and that ye two may have the command in the land? But we do not believe you. And Pharaoh said, Bring unto me every expert magician. And when the magicians were come, Moses said unto them, Cast down that which ye are about to cast down. And when they had cast down their rods and cords, Moses said unto them, The enchantment which ye have performed shall GOD surely render vain; for GOD prospereth not the work of the wicked doers, and GOD will verify the truth of his words, although the wicked be adverse thereto. And there believed not any on Moses, except a generation of his people,h for fear of Pharaoh and of his princes, lest he should afflict them. And Pharaoh was lifted up with pride in the earth, and was surely one of the transgressors. And Moses said, O my people, if ye believe in GOD, put your trust in him, if ye be resigned to his will. They answered, We put our trust in GOD: O LORD, suffer us not to be afflicted by unjust people; but deliver us, through thy mercy, from the unbelieving people. And we spake by inspiration unto Moses and his brother, saying, Provide habitations for your people in Egypt, and make your houses a place of worship,i and be constant at prayer: and bear good news unto the true believers. And Moses said, O LORD, verily thou hast given unto Pharaoh and his people pompous ornaments,k and riches in this present life, O LORD, that they may be seduced from thy way: O LORD, bring their riches to nought, and harden their hearts; that they may not believe, until they see their grievous punishment. God said, Your petition is hear;l be ye upright therefore,m and follow not the way of those who are ignorant. And we caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea; and Pharaoh and his army followed them in
a violent and hostile manner; until, when he was drowning, he said, I believe that there is no GOD but he, on whom the children of Israel believe; and I am one of the resigned.n Now dost thou believe; when thou hast been hitherto rebellious, and one of the wicked doers? This day will we raise thy bodyo from the bottom of the sea, that thou mayest be a sign unto those who shall be after thee; and verily a great number of men are negligent of our signs. And we prepared for the children of Israel an established dwelling in the land of Canaan, and we provided good things for their sustenance; and they differed not in point of religion, until knowledge had come unto them;p verily thy LORD will judge between them on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein they disagreed. If thou art in a doubt concerning any part of that which we have sent down unto thee,q ask them who have read the book of the law before thee. Now hath the truth come unto thee from thy LORD; be not therefore one of those who doubt; neither be thou one of those who charge the signs of GOD with falsehood, lest thou become one of those who perish. Verily those against whom the word of thy LORD is decreed, shall not believe, although there come unto them every kind of miracle, until they see the grievous punishment prepared for them. And if it were not so, some city, among the many which have been destroyed, would have believed; and the faith of its inhabitants would have been of advantage unto them; but none of them believed, before the execution of their sentence, except the people of Jonas.r When they believed, we delivered them from the punishment of shame in this world, and suffered them to enjoy their lives and possessions for a time.s But if thy LORD had pleased, verily all who are in the earth would have believed in general. Wilt thou therefore forcibly compel men to be true believers? No soul can believe, but by the permission of GOD: and he shall pour out his indignation on those who will not understand. Say, Consider whatever is in heaven and on earth: but signs are of no avail, neither preachers, unto people who
will not believe. Do they therefore expect any other than some terrible judgment, like unto the judgments which have fallen on those who have gone before them? Say, Wait ye the issue; and I also will wait with you; then will we deliver our apostles and those who believe. Thus is it a justice due from us, that we should deliver the true believers. Say, O men of Mecca, if ye be in doubt concerning my religion, verily I worship not the idols which ye worship, besides GOD; but I worship GOD, who will cause you to die: and I am commanded to be one of the true believers. And it was said unto me, Set thy face towards the true religion, and be orthodox; and by no means be one of those who attribute companions unto God; neither invoke, besides GOD, that which can neither profit thee nor hurt thee: for if thou do, thou wilt then certainly become one of the unjust. If GOD afflict thee with hurt, there is none who can relieve thee from it, except he; and if he willeth thee any good, there is none who can keep back his bounty: he will confer it on such of his servants as he pleaseth; and he is gracious and merciful. Say, O men, now hath the truth come unto you from your LORD. He therefore who shall be directed, will be directed to the advantage of his own soul: but he who shall err, will err only against the same. I am no guardian over you. Do thou, O prophet, follow that which is revealed unto thee: and persevere with patience, until GOD shall judge; for he is the best judge.
ENTITLED, HUD;t REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
AL. R.u THIS book, the verses whereof are guarded against corruption, and are also distinctly explained,y is a revelation from the wise, the knowing God: that ye serve not any other GOD: (verily I am a denouncer of threats, and a bearer of good tidings unto you from
him;) and that ye ask pardon of your LORD, and then be turned unto him. He will cause you to enjoy a plentiful provision, until a prefixed time: and unto every one that hath merit by good works will he give his abundant reward. But if ye turn back, verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day: unto GOD shall ye return; and he is almighty. Do they not double the folds of their breasts,z that they may conceal their designs from him? When they cover themselves with their garments, doth not he know that which they conceal, and that which they discover? For he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men.a (XII.) There is no creature which creepeth on the earth, but GOD provideth its food; and he knoweth the place of its retreat, and where it is laid up.b The whole is written in the perspicuous book of his decrees. It is he who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days, (but his throne was above the waters before the creation thereof),c that he might prove you, and see which of you would excel in works. If thou say, Ye shall surely be raised again, after death; the unbelievers will say, This is nothing but manifest sorcery. And verily if we defer their punishment unto a determined season, they will say, What hindereth it from falling on us? Will it not come upon them on a day, wherein there shall be none to avert it from them; and that which they scoffed at shall encompass them? Verily, if we cause man to taste mercy from us, and afterwards take it away from him; he will surely become desperate,d and ungrateful. And if we cause him to taste favor, after an affliction hath befallen him, he will surely say, The evils which I suffered are passed from me, and he will become joyful and insolent: except those who persevere with patience, and do that which is right; they shall receive pardon, and a great reward. Peradventure thou wilt omit to publish part of that which hath been revealed unto thee, and thy breast will become straitened, lest they say, Unless a treasure be sent down unto him, or an angel come with him, to bear witness unto him, we will not believe. Verily thou art a preacher only; and GOD is the governor of all things. Will they say, He hath forged the Koran? Answer, Bring therefore ten chapterse like unto it, forged by
yourselves: and call on whomsoever ye may to assist you, except GOD, if ye speak truth. But if they whom ye call to your assistance hear you not; know that this book hath been revealed by the knowledge of GOD only,f and that there is no GOD but he. Will ye therefore become Moslems? Whoso chooseth the present life, and the pomp thereof, unto them will we give the recompense of their works therein, and the same shall not be diminished unto them. These are they for whom no other reward is prepared in the next life, except the fire of hell: that which they have done in this life shall perish; and that which they have wrought shall be vain. Shall he therefore be compared with them, who followeth the evident declaration of his LORD, and whom a witness from himg attendeth, preceded by the book of Moses,h which was revealed for a guide, and out of mercy to mankind? These believe in the Koran: but whosoever of the confederate infidels believeth not therein, is threatened the fire of hell, which threat shall certainly be executed: be not therefore in a doubt concerning it; for it is the truth from thy LORD: but the greater part of men will not believe. Who is more unjust than he who imagineth a lie concerning GOD? They shall be set before the LORD, at the day of judgment, and the witnessesi shall say, These are they who devised lies against their LORD. Shall not the curse of GOD fall on the unjust; who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come? These were not able to prevail against God on earth, so as to escape punishment; neither had they any protectors besides GOD: their punishment shall be doubled unto them.k They could not hear, neither did they see. These are they who have lost their souls; and the idols which they falsely imagined have abandoned them. There is no doubt but they shall be most miserable in the world to come. But as for those who believe and do good works, and humble themselves before their LORD, they shall be the inhabitants of paradise; they shall remain therein forever. The similitude of the two partiesl is as the blind and the deaf, and as he who seeth and heareth: shall they be compared as equal? Will ye not therefore consider? We formerly sent Noahm unto his people; and he said, Verily I am a public preacher unto you; that ye worship GOD alone; verily I fear for you the punishment of the terrible day. But the chiefs of the people, who believed not, answered, We see thee to be no other than a man, like unto us; and we do not see that any follow thee, except those who are the most abject among us, who have believed on thee by a rash judgment;n neither do we perceive any excellence in you above us: but we esteem you to be liars. Noah said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed
on me mercy from himself, which is hidden from you, do we compel you to receive the same, in case ye be averse thereto? O my people, I ask not of you riches, for my preaching unto you: my reward is with GOD alone. I will not drive away those who have believed:o verily they shall meet their LORD, at the resurrection; but I perceive that ye are ignorant men. O my people, who shall assist me against GOD, if I drive them away? Will ye not therefore consider? I say not unto you, The treasures of GOD are in my power; neither do I say, I know the secrets of God: neither do I say, Verily I am an angel;p neither do I say of those whom your eyes do contemn, GOD will by no means bestow good on them: (GOD best knoweth that which is in their souls;) for then should I certainly be one of the unjust. They answered, O Noah, thou hast already disputed with us, and hast multiplied disputes with us; now therefore do thou bring that punishment upon us wherewith thou hast threatened us, if thou speakest truth. Noah said, Verily GOD alone shall bring it upon you, if he pleaseth; and ye shall not prevail against him, so as to escape the same. Neither shall my counsel profit you, although I endeavor to counsel you aright, if GOD shall please to lead you into error. He is your LORD, and unto him shall ye return. Will the Meccans say, Mohammed hath forged the Koran? Answer, If I have forged it, on me be my guilt: and let me be clear of that which ye are guilty of. And it was revealed unto Noah, saying, Verily none of thy people shall believe, except he who hath already believed: be not therefore grieved, for that which they are doing. But make an ark in our presence, according to the form and dimensions which we have revealed unto thee: and speak not unto me in behalf of those who have acted unjustly; for they are doomed to be drowned. And he built the ark; and so often as a company of his people passed by him, they derided him:q but he said, Though ye scoff at us now, we will scoff at you hereafter, as ye scoff at us; and ye shall surely know on whom a punishment shall be inflicted, which shall cover him with shame, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall. Thus were they employed until our sentence was put in execution, and the oven poured forth water.r And we said unto Noah, Carry into the ark of every species
of animals one pair;s and thy family,t (except him on whom a previous sentence of destruction hath passed),u and those who believe.x But there believed not with him except a few.y And Noah said, Embark thereon, in the name of GOD; while it moveth forward, and while it standeth still;z for my LORD is gracious and merciful. And the ark swam with them between waves like mountains:a and Noah called unto his son,b who was separated from him, saying, Embark with us, my son, and stay not with the unbelievers. He answered, I will get on a mountain, which will secure me from the water. Noah replied, There is no security this day from the decree of GOD, except for him on whom he shall have mercy. And a wave passed between them, and he became one of those who were drowned. And it was said, O earth, swallow up thy waters, and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain. And immediately the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the ark rested on the mountain Al Judi;c and it was said, Away with
the ungodly people! And Noah called upon his LORD, and said, O LORD, verily my son is of my family, and thy promise is true;d for thou art the most just of those who exercise judgment. God answered, O Noah, verily he is not of thy family;e this intercession of thine for him is not a righteous work.f Ask not of me therefore that wherein thou hast no knowledge: I admonish thee that thou become not one of the ignorant. Noah said, O LORD, I have recourse unto thee for the assistance of thy grace, that I ask not of thee that wherein I have no knowledge; and unless thou forgive me, and be merciful unto me, I shall be one of those who perish. It was said unto him, O Noah, come down from the ark,g with peace from us, and blessings upon thee, and upon part of those who are with thee:h but as for a part of them,i we will suffer them to enjoy the provision of this world; and afterwards shall a grievous punishment from us be inflicted on them, in the life to come. This is a secret history, which we reveal unto thee: thou didst not know it, neither did thy people, before this. Wherefore persevere with patience: for the prosperous issue shall attend the pious. And unto the tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hud.k He said, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him: ye only imagine false-
hood, in setting up idols and intercessors of your own making. O my people, I ask not of you for this my preaching, any recompense: my recompense do I expect from him only who hath created me. Will ye not therefore understand? O my people, ask pardon of your LORD; and be turned unto him: he will send the heaven to pour forth rain plentifully upon you,l and he will increase your strength by giving unto you farther strength:m therefore turn not aside, to commit evil. They answered, O Hud, thou hast brought us no proof of what thou sayest; therefore we will not leave our gods for thy saying, neither do we believe thee. We say no other than that some of our gods have afflicted thee with evil.n He replied, Verily I call GOD to witness, and do ye also bear witness that I am clear of that which ye associate with God, besides him. Do ye all therefore join to devise a plot against me, and tarry not; for I put my confidence in GOD, my LORD and your LORD. There is no beast, but he holdeth it by its forelock:o verily my LORD proceedeth in the right way. But if ye turn back, I have already declared unto you that with which I was sent unto you: and my LORD shall substitute another nation in your stead; and ye shall not hurt him at all: for my LORD is guardian over all things. And when our sentence came to be put in execution, we delivered Hud, and those who had believed with him,p through our mercy; and we delivered them from a grievous punishment. And this tribe of Ad wittingly rejected the signs of their LORD, and were disobedient unto his messengers, and they followed the command of every rebellious perverse person. Wherefore they were followed in this world by a curse, and they shall be followed by the same on the day of resurrection. Did not Ad disbelieve in their LORD? Was it not said, Away with Ad, the people of Hud? And unto the tribe of Thamud we sent their brother Saleh.q He said unto them, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him. It is he who hath produced you out of the earth, and hath given you an habitation therein. Ask pardon of him therefore, and be turned unto him; for my LORD is near, and ready to answer. They answered, O Saleh, thou wast a person on whom we placed our hopes before this.r Dost thou forbid us to worship that which our fathers worshipped? But we are certainly in doubt concerning the religion to which thou dost invite us, as justly to be suspected. Saleh said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me mercy from himself; who will protect me from the vengeance of GOD, if I be disobedient unto him? For ye shall not add unto me, other than loss. And he said, O my people, this she-camel of GOD is a sign unto you;
therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in GOD'S earth, and do her no harm, lest a swift punishment seize you. Yet they killed her; and Saleh said, Enjoy yourselves in your dwellings for three days:s after which ye shall be destroyed. This is an infallible prediction. And when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Saleh and those who believed with him, through our mercy, from the disgrace of that day; for thy LORD is the strong, the mighty God. But a terrible noise from heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses, lying dead and prostrate: as though they had never dwelt therein. Did not Thamud disbelieve in their LORD? Was not Thamud cast far away? Our messengerst also came formerly unto Abraham, with good tidings: they said, Peace be upon thee. And he answered, and on you be Peace! And he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. And when he saw that their hands did not touch the meat, he misliked them, and entertained a fear of them.u But they said, Fear not: for we are sent unto the people of Lot.x And his wife Sarah was standing by,y and she laughed;z and we promised her Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob. She said, Alas! shall I bear a son, who am old; this my husband also being advanced in years?a Verily this would be a wonderful thing. The angels answered, Dost thou wonder at the effect of the command of GOD? The mercy of God and his blessings be upon you, the family of the house:b for he is praiseworthy, and to be glorified. And when his apprehension had departed from Abraham, and the good tidings of Isaac's birth had come unto him, he disputed with us concerning the people of Lot;c for Abraham was a pitiful, compassionate, and devout person. The angels said unto him, O Abraham, abstain from this; for now is the command of thy LORD come, to put their sentence in execution, and an inevitable punishment is ready to fall upon them. And when our messengers came
unto Lot, he was troubled for them,d and his arm was straightened concerning them;e and he said, This is a grievous day. And his people came unto him, rushing upon him, and they had formerly been guilty of wickedness. Lot said unto them, O my people, these my daughters are more lawful for you: therefore fear GOD, and put me not to shame by wronging my guests. Is there not a man of prudence among you? They answered, Thou knowest that we have no need of thy daughters; and thou well knowest what we would have. He said, If I had strength sufficient to oppose you, or I could have recourse unto a powerful support, I would certainly do it. The angels said, O Lot, verily we are the messengers of thy LORD; they shall by no means come in unto thee.f Go forth, therefore, with thy family, in some part of the night, and let not any of you turn back: but as for thy wife,g that shall happen unto her, which shall happen unto them. Verily the prediction of their punishment shall be fulfilled in the morning: is not the morning near? And when our command came, we turned those cities upside down,h and we rained upon them stones of baked clay,i one following another, and being markedk from thy LORD; and they are not far distant from those who act unjustly.l And unto Madian we sent their brother Shoaib:m he said, O people, worship GOD: ye have no GOD but him: and diminish not measure and weight. Verily I see you to be in a happy condition:n but I fear for you the punishment of the day which will encompass the ungodly. O my people, give full measure and just weight; and diminish not unto men aught of their matters; neither commit injustice in the earth, acting corruptly. The residue which shall remain unto you as the gift of GOD, after ye shall have done justice to others, will be better for you, than wealth gotten by fraud, if ye be true believers. I am no guardian over you. They answered, O
Shoaib, do thy prayers enjoin thee, that we should leave the gods which our fathers worshipped; or that we should not do what we please with our substance?o Thou only, it seems, art the wise person, and fit to direct. He said, O my people, tell me: if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me an excellent provision, and I will not consent unto you in that which I forbid you; do I seek any other than your reformation, to the utmost of my power? My support is from GOD alone: on him do I trust, and unto him do I turn me. O my people, let not your opposing of me draw on you a vengeance like unto that which fell on the people of Noah, or the people of Hud, or the people of Saleh: neither was the people of Lot far distant from you.p Ask pardon, therefore, of your LORD; and be turned unto him: for my LORD is merciful and loving. They answered, O Shoaib, we understand not much of what thou sayest; and we see thee to be a man of no powerq among us: if it had not been for the sake of thy family,r we had surely stoned thee, neither couldst thou have prevailed against us. Shoaib said, O my people, is my family more worthy in your opinion than GOD? and do ye cast him behind you with neglect? Verily my LORD comprehendeth that which ye do. O my people, do ye work according to your condition; I will surely work according to my duty.s And ye shall certainly know on whom will be inflicted a punishment which shall cover him with shame, and who is a liar. Wait, therefore, the event; for I also will wait it with you. Wherefore, when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Shoaib and those who believed with him, through our mercy: and a terrible noise from Heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses lying dead and prostrate, as though they had never dwelt therein. Was not Madian removed from off the earth, as Thamud had been removed? And we formerly sent Moses with our signs, and manifest power unto Pharaoh and his princes;t but they followed the command of Pharaoh; although the command of Pharaoh did not direct them aright. Pharaoh shall precede his on the day of resurrection, and he shall lead them into hell fire; an unhappy way shall it be which they shall be led. They were followed in this life by a curse, and on the day of resurrection miserable shall be the gift which shall be given them. This is a part of the histories of the cities, which we rehearse unto thee. Of them there are some standing; and others which are utterly demolished.u And we treated them not unjustly,
but they dealt unjustly with their own souls: and their gods which they invoked, besides GOD, were of no advantage unto them at all, when the decree of thy LORD came to be executed on them, neither were they any other than a detriment unto them. And thus was the punishment of thy LORD inflicted, when he punished the cities which were unjust; for his punishment is grievous and severe. Verily herein is a sign unto him who feareth the punishment of the last day: that shall be a day, whereon all men shall be assembled, and that shall be a day whereon witness shall be borne; we defer it not, but to a determined time. When that day shall come, no soul shall speak to excuse itself, or to intercede for another, but by the permission of God. Of them, one shall be miserable, and another shall be happy. And they who shall be miserable, shall be thrown into hell fire; there shall they wail and bemoan themselves:x they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth shall endure;y except what thy LORD shall please to remit of their sentence;z for thy LORD effecteth that which he pleaseth. But they who shall be happy, shall be admitted into paradise; they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth endure: besides what thy LORD shall please to add unto their bliss; a bounty which shall not be interrupted. Be not therefore in doubt concerning that which these men worship: they worship no other than what their fathers worshipped before them; and we will surely give them their full portion, not in the least diminished. We formerly gave unto Moses the book of the law; and disputes arose among his people concerning it: and unless a previous decree had proceeded from thy LORD, to bear with them during this life, the matter had been surely decided between them. And thy people are also jealous and in doubt concerning the Koran. But unto every one of them will thy LORD render the reward of their works; for he well knoweth that which they do. Be thou steadfast, therefore, as thou hast been commanded; and let him also be steadfast who shall be converted with thee; and transgress not; for he seeth that which ye do. And incline not unto those who act unjustly, lest the fire of hell touch you: for ye have no protectors, except GOD; neither shall ye be assisted against him. Pray regularly morning and evening;a and in the former part of the night,b for good works drive away evils. This is an admonition unto those who consider: wherefore persevere with patience; for GOD suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. Were such of the generations before you, endued with understanding and virtue, who forbade the acting corruptly in the earth, any more than a few only of those whom we delivered; but they who were un-
just followed the delights which they enjoyed in this world,c and were wicked doers:d and thy LORD was not of such a disposition as to destroy the cities unjustly,e while their inhabitants behaved themselves uprightly. And if thy LORD pleased, he would have made all men of one religion: but they shall not cease to differ among themselves, unless those on whom thy LORD shall have mercy: and unto this hath he created them; for the word of thy LORD shall be fulfilled, when he said, Verily I will fill hell altogether with genii and men. The whole which we have related of the histories of our apostles do we relate unto thee, that we may confirm thy heart thereby; and herein is the truth come unto thee, and an admonition, and a warning unto the true believers. Say unto those who believe not, Act ye according to your condition; we surely will act according to our duty:f and wait the issue; for we certainly wait it also. Unto GOD is known that which is secret in heaven and earth; and unto him shall the whole matter be referred. Therefore worship him, and put thy trust in him; for thy LORD is not regardless of that which ye do.
ENTITLED, JOSEPH;g REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
AL. R.h These are the signs of the perspicuous book; which we have sent down in the Arabic tongue, that, peradventure, ye might understand. We relate unto thee a most excellent history, by revealing unto thee this Korân,i whereas thou wast before one of thek negli-
gent. When Joseph said unto his father,l O my father, verily I saw in my dream eleven stars,m and the sun and the moon; I saw them make obeisance unto me: Jacob said, O my child, tell not thy vision to thy brethren, lest they devise some plot against thee;n for the devil is a professed enemy unto man; and thus, according to thy dream, shall thy LORD choose thee, and teach thee the interpretation of dark sayings,o and he shall accomplish his favor upon thee and upon the family of Jacob, as he hath formerly accomplished it upon thy fathers Abraham and Isaac; for thy LORD is knowing and wise. Surely in the history of Joseph and his brethren there are signs of God's providence to the inquisitive; when they said to one another, Joseph and his brotherp are dearer to our father than we, who are the greater number: our father certainly maketh a wrong judgment. Wherefore slay Joseph, or drive him into some distant or desert part of the earth, and the face of your father shall be cleared towards you;q and ye shall afterwards be people of integrity. One of themr spoke and said; Slay not Joseph, but throw him to the bottom of the well; and some travellers will take him up, if ye do this. They said unto Jacob, O father, why dost thou not intrust Joseph with us, since we are sincere well-wishers unto him? Send him with us to-morrow, into the field, that he may divert himself, and sport,s and we will be his guardians. Jacob answered, It grieveth me that ye take him away; and I fear lest the wolf devour him,t while ye are negligent of him. They said, Surely if the wolf devour him, when there are so many of us, we shall be weak indeed.u And when they had carried him with them, and agreed to set him at the bottom of the well,x they executed their design: and we sent a revelation unto
him,y saying, Thou shalt hereafter declare this their action unto them; and they shall not perceive thee to be Joseph. And they came to their father at even, weeping, and said, Father, we went and ran races with one another,z and we left Joseph with our baggage, and the wolf hath devoured him; but thou wilt not believe us, although we speak the truth. And they produced his inner garment stained with false blood. Jacob answered, Nay, but ye yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes:a however patience is most becoming, and GOD'S assistance is to be implored to enable me to support the misfortune which ye relate. And certain travellersb came, and sent onec to draw water for them; and he let down his bucket,d and said, Good news!e this is a youth. And they concealed him,f that they might sell him as a piece of merchandise: but GOD knew that which they did. And they sold him for a mean price, for a few pence,g and valued him lightly. And the Egyptian who bought himh said to his wife,i Use him
honourably; peradventure he may be serviceable to us, or we may adopt him for our son.k Thus did we prepare an establishment for Joseph in the earth, and we taught him the interpretation of dark sayings: for GOD is well able to effect his purpose; but the greater part of men do not understand. And when he had attained his age of strength, we bestowed on him wisdom, and knowledge; for thus do we recompense the righteous. And she, in whose house he was, desired him to lie with her; and she shut the doors and said, Come hither. He answered, GOD forbid! verily my lordl hath made my dwelling with him easy; and the ungrateful shall not prosper. But she resolved within herself to enjoy him, and he would have resolved to enjoy her, had he not seen the evident demonstration of his LORD.m So we turned away evil and filthiness from him, because he was one of our sincere servants. And they ran to get one before the other to the door;n and she rent his inner garment behind. And they met her lord at the door. She said, What shall be the reward of him who seeketh to commit evil in thy family, but imprisonment, and a painful punishment? And Joseph said, She asked me to lie with her. And a witness of her familyo bore witness, saying, If his garment be rent before, she speaketh truth, and he is a liar: but if his garment be rent behind, she lieth, and he is a speaker of truth. And when her husband saw that his garment was torn behind, he said, This is a cunning contrivance of your sex; for surely your cunning is great. O Joseph, take no farther notice of this affair: and thou, O woman, ask pardon for thy crime; for thou art a guilty person. And certain women said publiclyp in the city, The nobleman's wife asked her servant to lie with her; he hath inflamed her breast with his love; and we perceive her to be in manifest error. And when she heard of their subtle behaviour, she sent unto them,q and prepared a banquet for them, and she gave to each of them a
knife; and she said unto Joseph, Come forth unto them. And when they saw him, they praised him greatly;r and they cut their own hands,s and said, O GOD! this is not a mortal; he is no other than an angel, deserving the highest respect. And his mistress said, This is he, for whose sake ye blamed me: I asked him to lie with me, but he constantly refused. But if he do not perform that which I command him, he shall surely be cast into prison, and he shall be made one of the contemptible. Joseph said, O LORD, a prison is more eligible unto me than the crime to which they invite me; but unless thou turn aside their snares from me, I shall youthfully incline unto them, and I shall become one of the foolish. Wherefore his LORD heard him, and turned aside their snare from him; for he both heareth and knoweth. And it seemed good unto themt even after they had seen the signs of innocency, to imprison him for a time. And there entered into the prison with him two of the king's servants.u One of themx said, it seemed to me in my dream that I pressed wine out of grapes. And the other said, It seemed unto me in my dream that I carried bread on my head, whereof the birds did eat. Declare unto us the interpretation of our dreams, for we perceive that thou art a beneficent person. Joseph answered, No food, wherewith ye may be nourished, shall come unto you, but I will declare unto you the interpretation thereof, before it come unto you.y This knowledge is a part of that which my LORD hath taught me: for I have left the religion of people who believe not in GOD, and who deny the life to come; and I follow the religion of my fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. It is not lawful for us to associate anything with GOD. This knowledge of the divine unity hath been given us of the bounty of GOD towards us, and towards mankind; but the greater part of men are not thankful. O my fellow-prisoners, are sundry lords better, or the only true and mighty GOD? Ye worship not, besides him other than the names which ye have named,z ye and your fathers, concerning which GOD
hath sent down no authoritative proof: yet judgment belongeth unto GOD alone; who hath commanded that ye worship none besides him. This is the right religion; but the greater part of men know it not. O my fellow-prisoners, verily the one of you shall serve wine unto his lord, as formerly; but the other shall be crucified, and the birds shall eat from off his head. The matter is decreed, concerning which ye seek to be informed. And Joseph said unto him whom he judged to be the person who should escape of the two, Remember me in the presence of thy lord. But the devil caused him to forget to make mention of Joseph unto his lord;a wherefore he remained in the prison some years.b And the king of Egyptc said, Verily, I saw in my dream seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured, and seven green ears of corn, and other seven withered ears. O nobles, expound my vision unto me, if ye be able to interpret a vision. They answered, They are confused dreams, neither are we skilled in the interpretation of such kind of dreams. And Joseph's fellow-prisoner who had been delivered, said, (for he remembered Joseph after a certain space of time,) I will declare unto you the interpretation thereof; wherefore let me go unto the person who will interpret it unto me. And he went to the prison, and said, O Joseph, thou man of veracity, teach us the interpretation of seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured; and of seven green ears of corn, and other seven withered ears, which the king saw in his dream; that I may return unto the men who have sent me, that peradventure they may understand the same. Joseph answered, Ye shall sow seven years as usual: and the corn which ye shall reap, do ye leave in its ear,d except a little whereof ye may eat. Then shall there come, after this, seven grievous years of famine, which shall consume what ye shall have laid up as a provision for the same, except a little which ye shall have kept. Then shall there come, after this, a year wherein men shall have plenty of rain,e and wherein they shall press wine and oil. And when the chief butler had reported this, the king said, Bring him unto me. And when the messenger came unto Joseph, he said, Return unto thy lord, and ask
of him, what was the intent of the women who cut their hands;f for my LORD well knoweth the snare which they laid for me.g And when the women were assembled before the king, he said unto them, What was your design, when ye solicited Joseph to unlawful love? They answered, GOD be praised! we know not any ill of him. The nobleman's wife said, Now is the truth become manifest: I solicited him to lie with me; and he is one of those who speak truth. And when Joseph was acquainted therewith, he said, This discovery hath been made, that my lord might know that I was not unfaithful unto him in his absence, and that God directeth not the plot of the deceivers. (XIII.) Neither do I absolutely justify myself:h since every soul is prone unto evil, except those on whom my LORD shall show mercy; for my LORD is gracious and merciful. And the king said, Bring him unto me: I will take him into my own peculiar service. And when Joseph was brought unto the king, and he had discoursed with him, he said, Thou art this day firmly established with us, and shalt be intrusted with our affairs.i Joseph answered, Set me over the storehouses of the land; for I will be a skilful keeper thereof. Thus did we establish Joseph in the land, that he might provide himself a dwelling therein, where he pleased. We bestow our mercy on whom we please, and we suffer not the reward of the righteous to perish: and certainly the reward of the next life is better, for those who believe, and fear God. Moreover, Joseph's brethren came,k and
went in unto him; and he knew them, but they knew not him. And when he had furnished them with their provisions, he said, Bring unto me your brother, the son of your father; do ye not see that I give full measure, and that I am the most hospitable receiver of guests? But if ye bring him not unto me, there shall be no corn measured unto you from me, neither shall ye approach my presence. They answered, We will endeavor to obtain him of his father, and we will certainly perform what thou requirest. And Joseph said to his servants, Put their money,l which they have paid for their corn; into their sacks, that they may perceive it, when they shall be returned to their family: peradventure they will come back unto us. And when they were returned unto their father, they said, O father, it is forbidden to measure out corn unto us any more, unless we carry our brother Benjamin with us: wherefore send our brother with us, and we shall have corn measured unto us; and we will certainly guard him from any mischance. Jacob answered, Shall I trust him with you with any better success than I trusted your brother Joseph with you heretofore? But GOD is the best guardian; and he is the most merciful of those that show mercy. And when they opened their provision, they found their money had been returned unto them; and they said, O father, what do we desire farther? this our money hath been returned unto us; we will therefore return, and provide corn for our family: we will take care of our brother; and we shall receive a camel's burden more than we did the last time. This is a small quantity.m Jacob said, I will by no means send him with you, until ye give me a solemn promise, and swear by GOD that ye will certainly bring him back unto me, unless ye be encompassed by some inevitable impediment. And when they had given him their solemn promise, he said, GOD is witness of what we say. And he said, My sons, enter not into the city by one and the same gate; but enter by different gates. But this precaution will be of no advantage
unto you against the decree of GOD; for judgment belongeth unto GOD alone: in him do I put my trust, and in him let those confide who seek in whom to put their trust. And when they entered the city, as their father had commanded them, it was of no advantage unto them against the decree of GOD; and the same served only to satisfy the desire of Jacob's soul, which he had charged them to perform: for he was endued with knowledge of that which we had taught him; but the greater part of men do not understand. And when they entered into the presence of Joseph, he received his brother Benjamin as his guest, and said, Verily I am thy brother,n be not therefore afflicted for that which they have committed against us. And when he had furnished them with their provisions, he put his cupo in his brother Benjamin's sack. Then a crier cried after them, saying, O company of travellers, ye are surely thieves. They said, (and turned back unto them,) What is it that ye miss? They answered, We miss the prince's cup: and unto him who shall produce it, shall be given a camel's load of corn, and I will be surety for the same. Joseph's brethren replied, By GOD, ye do well know, that we come not to act corruptly in the land,p neither are we thieves. The Egyptians said, What shall be the reward of him, who shall appear to have stolen the cup, if ye be found liars? Joseph's brethren answered, As to the reward of him, in whose sack it shall be found, let him become a bondman in satisfaction of the same: thus do we reward the unjust, who are guilty of theft.q Then he began by their sacks, before he searched the sack of his brother;r and he drew out the cup from his brother's sack. Thus did we furnish Joseph with a stratagem. It was not lawful for him to take his brother for a bondman, by the law of the king of Egypt,s had not GOD pleased to allow it, according to the offer of his brethren. We exalt to degrees of knowledge and honour whom we please: and there is one who is knowing above all those who are endued with knowledge. His brethren said, If Benjamin be guilty of theft, his brother Joseph hath been also guilty of theft heretofore.t But Joseph concealed these things in his mind,
and did not discover them unto them: and he said within himself, Ye are in a worse condition than us two; and GOD best knoweth what ye discourse about. They said unto Joseph, Noble lord, verily this lad hath an aged father; wherefore take one of us in his stead; for we perceive that thou art a beneficent person. Joseph answered, GOD forbid that we should take any other than him with whom we found our goods; for then should we certainly be unjust. And when they despaired of obtaining Benjamin, they retired to confer privately together. And the elder of themu said, Do ye not know that your father hath received a solemn promise from you, in the name of GOD, and how perfidiously ye behaved heretofore towards Joseph? Wherefore I will by no means depart the land of Egypt, until my father give me leave to return unto him, or GOD maketh known his will to me; for he is the best judge. Return ye to your father, and say, O father, verily thy son hath committed theft; we bear witness of no more than what we know, and we could not guard against what we did not foresee: and do thou inquire in the city, where we have been, and of the company of merchants, with whom we are arrived, and thou wilt find that we speak the truth. And when they were returned, and had spoken thus to their father, he said, Nay, but rather ye yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes, but patience is most proper for me; peradventure GOD will restore them allx unto me; for he is knowing and wise. And he turned from them and said, Oh how I am grieved for Joseph! And his eyes became white with mourning,y he being oppressed with deep sorrow. His sons said, By GOD, thou wilt not cease to remember Joseph until thou be brought to death's door, or thou be actually destroyed by excessive affliction. He answered, I only represent my grief, which I am not able to contain, and my sorrow unto GOD, but I know by revelation from GOD that which ye know not.z O my sons, go and make inquiry after Joseph and his brother; and despair not of the mercy of GOD; for none despaireth of GOD's mercy, except the unbelieving people. Wherefore Joseph's brethren returned into Egypt: and when they came into his presence, they said, Noble lord, the famine is felt by us and our family, and we are come with a small sum of money:a yet give unto us full measure, and bestow
corn upon us as alms; for GOD rewardeth the almsgivers. Joseph said unto them, Do ye know what ye did unto Joseph and his brother, when ye were ignorant of the consequences thereof?b They answered, Art thou really Joseph?c He replied, I am Joseph; and this is my brother. Now hath GOD been gracious unto us. For whoso feareth God, and persevereth with patience, shall at length find relief; since GOD will not suffer the reward of the righteous to perish. They said, By GOD, now hath GOD chosen thee above us; and we have surely been sinners. Joseph answered, Let there be no reproach cast on you this day. GOD forgiveth you; for he is the most merciful of those who show mercy. Depart ye with this my inner garment,d and throw it on my father's face; and he shall recover his sight: and then come unto me with all your family. And when the company of travellers was departed from Egypt on their journey towards Canaan, their father said, unto those who were about him, Verily I perceive the smell of Joseph;e although ye think that I dote. They answered, By GOD, thou art in thy old mistake.f But when the messenger of good tidingsg was come with Joseph's inner garment, he threw it over his face; and he recovered his eyesight. And Jacob said, Did I not tell you that I knew from GOD, that which ye knew not? They answered, O father, ask pardon of our sins for us, for we have surely been sinners. He replied, I will surely ask pardon for you of my LORD;h for he is gracious and merciful. And when Jacob and his family arrived in Egypt, and were introduced unto Joseph, he received his parents unto him,i and said, Enter ye into Egypt, by GOD'S favor, in full security. And he raised his parents to the seat of state, and they, together with
his brethren, fell down and did obeisance unto him.k And he said, O my father, this is the interpretation of my vision, which I saw heretofore: now hath my LORD rendered it true. And he hath surely been gracious unto me, since he took me forth from the prison, and hath brought you hither from the desert; after that the devil had sown discord between me any my brethren: for my LORD is gracious unto whom he pleaseth; and he is the knowing, the wise God. O LORD, thou hast given me a part of the kingdom, and hast taught me the interpretation of dark sayings. The Creator of heaven and earth! thou art my protector in this world, and in that which is to come: make me to die a Moslem, and join me with the righteous.l This is a secret history which we reveal unto thee, O Mohammed, although thou wast not present with the brethren of Joseph, when they concerted their design, and contrived a plot against him. But the greater part of men, although they earnestly desire it, will not believe. Thou shalt not demand of them any reward for thy publishing the Koran; it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures. And how many signs soever there be of the being, unity, and providence of God, in the heavens and the earth; they will pass by them, and will retire afar off from them. And the greater part of them believe not in GOD, without being also guilty of idolatry.m Do they not believe that some overwhelming affliction shall fall on them, as a punishment from GOD; or that the hour of judgment shall overtake them suddenly, when they consider not its approach? Say unto those of Mecca, This is my way: I invite you unto GOD, by an evident demonstration; both I and he who followeth me; and, praise be unto GOD! I am not an idolater. We sent not any apostles before thee, except men, unto whom we revealed our will, and whom we chose out of those who dwelt in cities.n Will they not go through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who have preceded them? But the dwelling of the next life shall surely be better for those who fear God. Will they not therefore understand? Their predecessors were borne with for a time, until, when our apostles despaired of their conversion, and they thought that they were liars, our help came unto them, and we delivered whom we pleased; but our vengeance was not turned away from the wicked people. Verily in the histories of the prophets and their people, there is an instructive example unto those who are endued with understanding.
The Koran is not a new invented fiction: but a confirmation of those scriptures which have been revealed before it, and a distinct explication of everything necessary in respect either to faith or practice, and a direction and mercy unto people who believe.
ENTITLED, THUNDER;o REVEALED AT MECCA.p
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
AL. M. R.q These are the signs of the book of the Koran: and that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD is the truth; but the greater part of men will not believe. It is GOD who hath raised the heavens without visible pillars; and then ascended his throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to perform their services; every of the heavenly bodies runneth an appointed course. He ordereth all things. He showeth his signs distinctly, that ye may be assured ye must meet your LORD at the last day. It is he who hath stretched forth the earth, and placed therein steadfast mountains, and rivers; and hath ordained therein of every fruit two different kinds.r He causeth the night to cover the day. Herein are certain signs unto people who consider. And in the earth are tracts of land of different natures,s though bordering on each other; and also vineyards, and seeds, and palm-trees springing several from the same root, and singly from distinct roots. They are watered with the same water, yet we render some of them more excellent than others to eat. Herein are surely signs unto people who understand. If thou dost wonder at the infidels denying the resurrection, surely wonderful is their saying, After we shall have been reduced to dust, shall we be restored in a new creature? These are they who believe not in their LORD: these shall have collars on their necks,t and these shall be the inhabitants of hell fire: therein shall they
abide for ever. They will ask of thee to hasten evil rather than good:u although there have already been examples of the divine vengeance before them. Thy LORD is surely endued with indulgence towards men, notwithstanding their iniquity; but thy LORD is also severe in punishing. The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Thou art commissioned to be a preacher only, and not a worker of miracles: and unto every people hath a director been appointed. GOD knoweth what every female beareth in her womb; and what the wombs want or exceed of their due time, or number of young. With him is everything regulated according to a determined measure. He knoweth that which is hidden, and that which is revealed. He is the great, the most high. He among you who concealeth his words, and he who proclaimeth them in public; he also who seeketh to hide himself in the night, and he who goeth forth openly in the day, is equal in respect to the knowledge of God. Each of them hath angels mutually succeeding each other, before him, and behind him; they watch him by the command of GOD.x Verily GOD will not change his grace which is in men, until they change the disposition in their souls by sin. When GOD willeth evil on a people there shall be none to avert it; neither shall they have any protector beside him. It is he who causeth the lightning to appear unto you, to strike fear, and to raise hope,y and who formeth the pregnant clouds. The thunder celebrateth his praise,z and the angels also, for fear of him. He sendeth his thunderbolts, and striketh therewith whom he pleaseth, while they dispute concerning GOD;a for he is mighty in power. It is he who ought of right to be invoked; and the idols, which they invoke besides him, shall not hear them at all; otherwise than as he is heard, who stretcheth forth his hands to the water that it may ascend to his mouth, when it cannot ascend thither: the supplication of the unbelievers is utterly erroneous. Whatsoever is in heaven and on earth worshippeth GOD, voluntarily or of force;b and their shadows also, morning and evening.c Say, Who is the LORD of heaven and earth? Answer, GOD.
Say, Have ye, therefore, taken unto yourselves protectors beside him, who are unable either to help, or to defend themselves from hurt? Say, Shall the blind and the seeing be esteemed equal? or shall darkness and light be accounted the same? or have they attributed companions unto GOD who have created as he hath created, so that their creation bear any resemblance unto his? Say, GOD is the creator of all things; he is the one, the victorious God. He causeth water to descend from heaven, and the brooks flow according to their respective measure, and the floods bear the floating froth: and from the metals which they melt in the fire, seeking to cast ornaments or vessels for use, there ariseth a scum like unto it. Thus GOD setteth forth truth and vanity. But the scum is thrown off, and that which is useful to mankind remaineth on the earth. Thus doth GOD put forth parables. Unto those who obey their LORD shall be given the most excellent reward: but those who obey him not, although they were possessed of whatever is in the whole earth and as much more, they would give it all for their ransom. These will be brought to a terrible account: their abode shall be hell; an unhappy couch shall it be! Shall he, therefore, who knoweth that what hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD, is truth, be rewarded as he who is blind? The prudent only will consider; who fulfil the covenant of GOD, and break not their contract; and who join that which GOD hath commanded to be joined,d and who fear their LORD, and dread an ill account; and who persevere out of a sincere desire to please their LORD, and observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms out of what we have bestowed on them, in secret and openly, and who turn away evil with good: the reward of these shall be paradise, gardens of eternal abode,e which they shall enter, and also whoever shall have acted uprightly, of their fathers, and their wives, and their posterity: and the angels shall go in unto them by every gate, saying, Peace be upon you, because ye have endured with patience; how excellent a reward is paradise! But as for those who violate the covenant of GOD, after the establishment thereof, and who cut in sunder that which GOD hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the earth, on them shall a curse fall, and they shall have a miserable dwelling in hell. GOD giveth provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth. Those of Mecca rejoice in the present life; although the present life, in respect of the future, is but a precarious provision. The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Verily, GOD will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and will direct unto himself him who repenteth, and those who believe, and whose hearts rest securely in the meditation of GOD; shall not men's hearts rest securely in the meditation of GOD? They who believe and do that which is right shall enjoy blessedness, and partake of a happy resurrection. Thus have we sent thee to a nation which other nations
have preceded unto whom prophets have likewise been sent, that thou mayest rehearse unto them that which we have revealed unto thee, even while they believe not in the merciful God. Say unto them, He is my LORD; there is no GOD but he: in him do I trust, and unto him must I return. Though a Koran were revealed by which mountains should be removed, or the earth cleaved in sunder, or the dead be caused to speak,f it would be in vain. But the matter belongeth wholly unto GOD. Do not, therefore, the believers know, that if GOD pleased, he would certainly direct all men? Adversity shall not cease to afflict the unbelievers for that which they have committed, or to sit down near their habitations,g until GOD'S promise come;h for GOD is not contrary to the promise. Apostles before thee have been laughed to scorn; and I permitted the infidels to enjoy a long and happy life: but afterwards I punished them; and how severe was the punishment which I inflicted on them! Who is it, therefore, that standeth over every soul, to observe that which it committeth? They attribute companions unto GOD. Say, Name them: will ye declare unto him that which he knoweth not in the earth? or will ye name them in outward speech only?i But the deceitful procedure of the infidels was prepared for them; and they are turned aside from the right path: for he whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have no director. They shall suffer a punishment in this life; but the punishment of the next shall be more grievous: and there shall be none to protect them against GOD. This is the description of paradise, which is promised to the pious. It is watered by rivers; its food is perpetual, and its shade also: this shall be the reward of those who fear God. But the reward of the infidels shall be hell fire. Those to whom we have given the scriptures, rejoice at what hath been revealed unto thee.k Yet there are some of the confederates who deny part thereof.l Say unto them, Verily I am com-
manded to worship GOD alone; and to give him no companion: upon him do I call, and unto him shall I return. To this purpose have we sent down the Koran a rule of judgment, in the Arabic language. And verily, if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, there shall be none to defend or protect thee against GOD. We have formerly sent apostles before thee, and bestowed on them wives and children;m and no apostle had the power to come with a sign, unless by the permission of GOD. Every age hath its book of revelation: GOD shall abolish and shall confirm what he pleaseth. With him is the original of the book.n Moreover, whether we cause thee to see any part of that punishment wherewith we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before it be inflicted on them, verily unto thee belongeth preaching only, but unto us inquisition. Do they not see that we come into their land, and straighten the borders thereof, by the conquests of the true believers? When GOD judgeth, there is none to reverse his judgment: and he will be swift in taking an account. Their predecessors formerly devised subtle plots against their prophets; but GOD is master of every subtle device. He knoweth that which every soul deserveth: and the infidels shall surely know, whose will be the reward of paradise. The unbelieverso will say, Thou art not sent of God. Answer, GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you, and he who understandeth the scriptures.
ENTITLED, ABRAHAM;a REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
AL. R.b This book have we sent down unto thee, that thou mayest lead men forth from darkness into light, by the permission of their LORD, into the glorious and laudable way. GOD is he unto whom belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: and woe be to the infidels, because a grievous punishment waiteth them; who love the present life above that which is to come, and turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked: these are in an error far distant from the truth. We have sent no apostle but with the language of his people, that he might declare their duty plainly unto them;c for GOD causeth to err whom he pleaseth, and directeth whom he pleaseth; and he is the mighty, the wise. We formerly sent Moses with our signs, and commanded him saying, Lead forth thy people from darkness into light, and remind them of the favors of GOD:d verily therein are signs unto every patient and grateful person. And call to mind when Moses said unto his people, Remember the favor of GOD towards you, when he delivered you from the people of Pharaoh: they grievously oppressed you; and they slew your male children, but let your females live:e therein was a great trial from your LORD. And when your LORD declared by the mouth of Moses, saying, If ye be thankful, I will surely increase my favors towards you; but if ye be ungrateful, verily my punishment shall be severe. And Moses said, If ye be ungrateful, and all who are in the earth likewise; verily GOD needeth not your thanks, though he deserveth the highest praise. Hath not the history of the nations your predecessors reached you; namely, of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of Thamud,f and of those who succeeded them; whose number none knoweth except GOD? Their apostles came unto them with evident miracles; but they clapped their hands to their mouths out of indignation, and said, We do not believe the message with which ye pretend to be sent; and we are in a doubt concerning the religion to which ye invite us, as justly to be suspected. Their apostles answered, Is there any doubt concerning GOD, the creator of heaven and earth? He inviteth you to the true faith that
he may forgive you part of your sins,g and may respite your punishment, by granting you space to repent, until an appointed time. They answered, Ye are but men, like unto us: ye seek to turn us aside from the gods which our fathers worshipped: wherefore bring us an evident demonstration by some miracle, that ye speak truth. Their apostles replied unto them, We are no other than men like unto you; but GOD is bountiful unto such of his servants as he pleaseth: and it is not in our power to give you a miraculous demonstration of our mission, unless by the permission of GOD; in GOD therefore let the faithful trust. And what excuse have we to allege, that we should not put our trust in GOD; since he hath directed us our paths? Wherefore we will certainly suffer with patience the persecution wherewith ye shall afflict us: in GOD therefore let those put their confidence who seek in whom to put their trust. And those who believed not said unto their apostles, We will surely expel you out of our land; or ye shall return unto our religion. And their LORD spake unto them by revelation, saying, We will surely destroy the wicked doers; and we will cause you to dwell in the earth, after them. This shall be granted unto him who shall dread the appearance at my tribunal, and shall fear my threatening. And they asked assistance of God,h and every rebellious perverse person failed of success. Hell lieth unseen before him, and he shall have filthy wateri given him to drink: he shall sup it up by little and little, and he shall not easily let it pass his throat because of its nauseousness; death also shall come upon him from every quarter, yet he shall not die; and before him shall there stand prepared a grievous torment. This is the likeness of those who believe not in their LORD. Their works are as ashes, which the wind violently scattereth in a stormy day: they shall not be able to obtain any solid advantage from that which they have wrought. This is an error most distant from truth. Dost thou not see that GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in wisdom? If he please, he can destroy you, and produce a new creature in your stead: neither will this be difficult with GOD. And they shall all come forth into the presence of GOD at the last day: and the weak among them shall say unto those who behaved themselves arrogantly,j Verily we were your followers on earth; will ye not therefore avert from us some part of the divine vengeance? They shall answer, If GOD had directed us aright, we had certainly directed you.k It is equal unto
us whether we bear our torments impatiently, or whether we endure them with patience: for we have no way to escape. And Satan shall say, after judgment shall have been given, Verily GOD promised you a promise of truth: and I also made you a promise; but I deceived you. Yet I had not any power over you to compel you; but I called you only, and ye answered me: wherefore accuse not me, but accuse yourselves.l I cannot assist you; neither can ye assist me. Verily I do now renounce your having associated me with God heretofore.m A grievous punishment is prepared for the unjust. But they who shall have believed and wrought righteousness shall be introduced into gardens, wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever, by the permission of their LORD; and their salutation therein shall be, Peace!n Dost thou not see how GOD putteth forth a parable; representing a good word, as a good tree, whose root is firmly fixed in the earth, and whose branches reach unto heaven; which bringeth forth its fruit in all seasons, by the will of its LORD? GOD propoundeth parables unto men, that they may be instructed. And the likeness of an evil word is as an evil tree; which is torn up from the face of the earth, and hath no stability.o GOD shall confirm them who believe, by the steadfast word of faith, both in this life and in that which is to come:p but GOD shall lead the wicked into error; for GOD doth that which he pleaseth. Hast thou not considered those who have changed the grace of GOD to infidelity,q and cause their people to descend into the house of perdition, namely, into hell? They shall be thrown to burn therein; and an unhappy dwelling shall it be. They also set up idols as co-partners with GOD, that they might cause men to stray from his path. Say, unto them, Enjoy the pleasures of this life for a time; but your departure hence shall be into hell fire. Speak unto my servants who have believed, that they be assiduous at prayer, and give alms out of that which we have
bestowed on them, both privately and in public; before the day cometh, wherein there shall be no buying nor selling, neither any friendship. It is GOD who hath created the heavens and the earth; and causeth water to descend from heaven, and by means thereof produceth fruits for your sustenance: and by his command he obligethr the ships to sail in the sea for your service; and he also forceth the rivers to supply your uses: he likewise compelleth the sun and the moon, which diligently perform their courses, to serve you; and hath subjected the day and the night to your service. He giveth you of everything which ye ask him; and if ye attempt to reckon up the favors of GOD, ye shall not be able to compute the same. Surely man is unjust and ungrateful. Remember when Abraham said, O LORD, make this lands a place of security; and grant that I and my childrent may avoid the worship of idols; for they, O LORD, have seduced a great number of men. Whoever therefore shall follow me, he shall be of me; and whosoever shall disobey me, verily thou wilt be gracious and merciful.u O LORD, I have caused some of my offspringx to settle in an unfruitful valley, near the holy house, O LORD, that they may be constant at prayer. Grant, therefore, that the hearts of some meny may be affected with kindness toward them; and do thou bestow on them all sorts of fruits,z that they may give thanks. O LORD, thou knowest whatsoever we conceal, and whatsoever we publish; for nothing is hidden from GOD, either on earth or in heaven. Praise be unto GOD, who hath given me, in my old age, Israel and Isaac: for my LORD is the hearer of supplication. O LORD, grant that I may be an observer of prayer, and a part of my posterity also,a O LORD, and receive my supplication. O LORD, forgive me, and my parents,b and the faithful, on the day whereon an account shall be taken. Think not, O prophet,
that GOD is regardless of what the ungodly do. He only deferreth their punishment unto the day whereon men's eyes shall be fixed: they shall hasten forward, at the voice of the angel calling to judgment, and shall lift up their heads; they shall not be able to turn their sight from the object whereon it shall be fixed, and their hearts shall be void of sense, through excessive terror. Wherefore do thou threaten men with the day, whereon their punishment shall be inflicted on them, and whereon those who have acted unjustly shall say, O LORD, give us respite unto a term near at hand; and we will obey thy call, and we will follow thy apostles. But it shall be answered unto them, Did ye not swear heretofore, that no reverse should befall you?c yet ye dwelt in the dwellings of those who had treated their own souls unjustly;d and it appeared plainly unto you how we had dwelt with them;e and we propounded their destruction as examples unto you. They employ their utmost subtlety to oppose the truth; but their subtlety is apparent unto GOD, who is able to frustrate their designs; although their subtlety were so great, that the mountains might be moved thereby. Think not, therefore, O prophet, that GOD will be contrary to his promise of assistance, made unto his apostles; for GOD is mighty, able to avenge. The day will come, when the earth shall be changed into another earth, and the heavens into other heavens;f and men shall come forth from their graves to appear before the only, the mighty GOD. And thou shalt see the wicked on that day bound together in fetters: their inner garments shall be of pitch, and fire shall cover their faces; that GOD may reward every soul according to what it shall have deserved; for GOD is swift in taking an account. This is a sufficient admonition unto men, that they may be warned thereby, and that they may know that there is but one GOD; and that those who are endued with understanding may consider.
ENTITLED, AL HEJR;g REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
A. L. R.h These are the signs of the book, and of the perspicuous Koran. The time may come when the unbelievers shall wish that they had been Moslems.i Suffer them to eat, and to enjoy themselves in this world; and let hope entertain them, but they shall hereafter know their folly. We have not destroyed any city, but a fixed term of repentance was appointed them. No nation shall be punished before their time shall be come; neither shall they be respited after. The Meccans say, O thou to whom the admonitionj hath been sent down, thou art certainly possessed with a devil: wouldest thou not have come unto us with an attendance of angels, if thou hadst spoken truth? Answer, We send not down the angels, unless on a just occasion;k nor should they be then respited any longer. We have surely sent down the Koran; and we will certainly preserve the same from corruption.l We have heretofore sent apostles before thee among the ancient sects: and there came no apostle unto them, but they laughed him to scorn. In the same manner will we put it into the hearts of the wicked Meccans to scoff at their prophet: they shall not believe on him; and the sentence of the nations of old hath been executed heretofore. If we should open a gate in the heaven above them, and they should ascend theretom all the day long, they should rather say, Our eyes are only dazzled; or rather we are a people deluded by enchantments. We have placed the twelve signs in the heaven, and have set them out in various figures, for the observation of spectators: and we guard them from every deviln driven away with stones;o except him who listeneth by
stealth, at whom a visible flame is darted.p We have also spread forth the earth, and thrown thereon stable mountains, and we have caused every kind of vegetable to spring forth in the same, according to a determinate weight: and we have provided therein necessaries of life for you, and for him whom ye do not sustain.q There is no one thing but the storehouses thereof are in our hands; and we distribute not the same otherwise than in a determinate measure. We also send the winds driving the pregnant clouds, and we send down from heaven water, whereof we give you to drink, and which ye keep not in store. Verily we give life, and we put to death: and we are the heirs of all things.r We know those among you who go before; and we know those who stay behind.s And thy LORD shall gather them together at the last day: for he is knowing and wise. We created man of dried clay, of black mud, formed into shape:t and we had before created the devil of subtle fire. And remember when thy LORD said unto the angels, Verily I am about to create man of dried clay, of black mud, wrought into shape; when, therefore, I shall have completely formed him, and shall have breathed of my spirit into him; do ye fall down and worship him. And all the angels worshipped Adam together, except Eblis, who refused to be with those who worshipped him. And God said unto him, O Eblis, what hindered thee from being with those who worshipped Adam? He answered, It is not fit that I should worship man, whom thou hast created of dried clay, of black mud, wrought into shape. God said, Get thee therefore hence: for thou shalt be driven away with stones: and a curse shall be on thee, until the day of judgment. The devil said, O LORD, Give me respite until the day of resurrection. God answered, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited until the day of the appointed time.u The devil replied, O LORD, because thou hast seduced me, I will surely tempt them to disobedience in the earth; and I will seduce such of them as shall be thy chosen servants. God said, This is the right way with me.x Verily as to my servants, thou shalt have no power over them; but over those only who shall be seduced, and who shall follow thee. And hell is surely denounced unto them all: it hath seven gates; unto every gate a distinct company of them shall be
assigned.y But those who fear God shall dwell in gardens, amidst fountains. The angels shall say unto them, Enter ye therein in peace and security, and we will remove all grudges from their breasts;z they shall be as brethren, sitting over against one anothera on couches; weariness shall not affect them therein, neither shall they be cast out thence forever. Declare unto my servants that I am the gracious, the merciful God; and that my punishment is a grievous punishment. And relate unto them the history of Abraham's guests.b When they went in unto him, and said, Peace be unto thee, he answered, Verily we are afraid of you:c and they replied, Fear not; we bring thee the promise of a wise son. He said, Do ye bring me the promise of a son now old age hath overtaken me? what is it therefore that ye tell me? They said, We have told thee the truth; be not therefore one of those who despair. He answered, And who despaireth of the mercy of GOD, except those who err? And he said, What is your errand, therefore, O messengers of God? They answered, Verily we are sent to destroy a wicked people; but as for the family of Lot, we will save them all, except his wife; we have decreed that she shall be one of those who remain behind to be destroyed with the infidels. And when the messengers came to the family of Lot, he said unto them, Verily ye are a people who are unknown to me. They answered, But we are come unto thee to execute that sentence, concerning which your fellow-citizens doubted: we tell thee a certain truth; and we are messengers of veracity. Therefore lead forth thy family, in some time of the night; and do thou follow behind them, and let none of you turn back; but go whither ye are commanded.d And we gave him this command; because the utmost remnant of those people was to be cut off in the morning. And the inhabitants of the city came unto Lot, rejoicing at the news of the arrival of some strangers. And he said unto them, Verily these are my guests: wherefore do not disgrace me by abusing them; but fear GOD, and put me not to shame. They answered, Have we not forbidden thee from entertaining or protecting any man? Lot replied, These are my daughters: therefore rather make use of them, if ye be resolved to do what ye purpose. As thou livest they wander in their folly.e Wherefore a terrible storm from heaven assailed them at sunrise, and we turned the city upside down: and we rained on them stones of baked clay. Verily herein are signs unto men of sagacity: and those cities were punished, to point out a right way for men to walk in. Verily herein is a sign unto the true believers. The
inhabitants of the wood near Midianf were also ungodly. Wherefore we took vengeance on them.g And both of them were destroyed, to serve as a manifest rule for men to direct their actions by. And the inhabitants of Al Hejrh likewise heretofore accused the messengers of God of imposture: and we produced our signs unto them, but they retired afar off from the same. And they hewed houses out of the mountains, to secure themselves. But a terrible noise from heaven assailed them in the morning; neither was what they had wrought of any advantage unto them. We have not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is contained between them, otherwise than in justice: and the hour of judgment shall surely come. Wherefore O Mohammed, forgive thy people with a gracious forgiveness.i Verily thy LORD is the creator of thee and of them, and knoweth what is most expedient. We have already brought unto thee seven verses which are frequently to be repeated,j and the glorious Koran. Cast not thine eyes on the good things which we have bestowed on several of the unbelievers, so as to covet the same:k neither be thou grieved on their account. Behave thyself with meekness towards the true believers; and say, I am a public preacher. If they believe not, we will inflict a like punishment on them, as we have inflicted on the dividers,l who distinguished the Koran into different parts, for by thy LORD, we will demand an account from them all of that which they have wrought. Wherefore publish that which thou hast been commanded, and withdraw from the idolaters. We will surely take thy part against the scoffers,m who associate with
GOD another god; they shall surely know their folly. And now we well know that thou art deeply concerned on account of that which they say; but do thou celebrate the praise of thy LORD; and be one of those who worship; and serve thy LORD until deathn shall overtake thee.
ENTITLED, THE BEE;o REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE sentence of GOD will surely come to be executed; wherefore do not hasten it. Praise be unto him! and far be that from him which they associate with him! He shall cause the angels to descend with a revelation by his command, unto such of his servants as he pleaseth, saying, Preach that there is no GOD, except myself; therefore fear me. He hath created the heavens and the earth, to manifest his justice; far be that from him which they associate with him! He hath created man of seed; and yet behold he is a professed disputer against the resurrection.q He hath likewise created the cattle for you; from them ye have wherewith to keep yourselves warm,r and other advantages; and of them do ye also eat. And they are likewise a credit unto you,s when ye drive them home in the evening, and when ye lead them forth to feed in the morning: and they carry your burdens to a distant country, at which ye could not otherwise arrive, unless with great difficulty to yourselves; for your LORD is compassionate and merciful. and he hath also created horses, and mules, and asses, that ye may ride thereon, and for an ornament unto you; and he likewise created other things which ye know not. It appertaineth unto GOD to instruct men in the right way; and there is who turneth aside from the same: but if he had pleased, he would certainly have directed you all. It is he who sendeth down from heaven rain water, whereof ye have to drink, and from which plants, whereon ye feed your cattle, receive their nourishment. And by means thereof he causeth corn,
and olives, and palm-trees, and grapes, and all kinds of fruits, to spring forth for you. Surely herein is a sign of the divine power and wisdom unto people who consider. And he hath subjected the night and the day to your service; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, which are compelled to serve by his command. Verily herein are signs unto people of understanding. And he hath also given you dominion over whatever he hath created for you in the earth, distinguished by its different colour.t Surely herein is a sign unto people who reflect. It is he who hath subjected the sea unto you, that ye might eat fishu thereout, and take from thence ornamentsx for you to wear; and thou seest the ships ploughing the waves thereof, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance, by commerce; and that ye might give thanks. And he hath thrown upon the earth mountains firmly rooted, lest it should move with you,y and also rivers, and paths, that ye might be directed: and he hath likewise ordained marks whereby men may know their way; and they are directed by the stars.z Shall God therefore, who createth, be as he who createth not? Do ye not therefore consider? If ye attempt to reckon up the favors of GOD, ye shall not be able to compute their number; GOD is surely gracious and merciful; and GOD knoweth that which ye conceal, and that which ye publish. But the idols which ye invoke, besides GOD, create nothing, but are themselves created. They are dead, and not living; neither do they understand when they shall be raised.a Your GOD is one GOD. As to those who believe not in the life to come, their hearts deny the plainest evidence, and they proudly reject the truth. There is no doubt but GOD knoweth that which they conceal and that which they discover. Verily he loveth not the proud. And when it is said unto them, What hath your LORD sent down unto Mohammed? they answer, Fables of ancient times. Thus are they given up to error, that they may bear their own burdens without diminution on the day of resurrection, and also a part of the burdens of those whom they caused to err, without knowledge. Will it not be an evil burden which they shall bear? Their predecessors devised plots heretofore: but GOD came into their building, to overthrow it from the foundations; and the roof fell on them from above, and a punishment came upon them, from whence they did not expect.b Also on the day of
resurrection he will cover them with shame; and will say, Where are my companions, concerning whom ye disputed? Those unto whom knowledge shall have been given,c shall answer, This day shall shame and misery fall upon the unbelievers. They whom the angels shall cause to die, having dealt unjustly with their own souls, shall offer to make their peaced in the article of death, saying, We have done no evil. But the angels shall reply. Yea; verily GOD well knoweth that which ye have wrought: wherefore enter the gates of hell, therein to remain forever; and miserable shall be the abode of the proud. And it shall be said unto those who shall fear God, What hath your LORD sent down? They shall answer, Good; unto those who do right shall be given an excellent reward in this world; but the dwelling of the next life shall be better; and happy shall be the dwelling of the pious! namely gardens of eternal abode,e into which they shall enter; rivers shall flow beneath the same; therein shall they enjoy whatever they wish. Thus will GOD recompense the pious. Unto the righteous, whom the angels shall cause to die, they shall say, Peace be upon you; enter ye into paradise, as a reward for that which ye have wrought. Do the unbelievers expect any other than that the angels come unto them, to part their souls from their bodies; or that the sentence of thy LORD come to be executed on them? So did they act who were before them; and GOD was not unjust towards them in that he destroyed them; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls: the evils of that which they committed reached them; and the divine judgment which they scoffed at fell upon them. The idolaters say, If GOD had pleased, we had not worshipped anything besides him, neither had our fathers: neither had we forbidden anything, without him.f So did they who were before them. But is the duty of the apostles any other than public preaching? We have heretofore raised up in every nation an apostle to admonish them, saying, Worship GOD, and avoid TAGHUT.g And of them there were some whom GOD directed, and there were others of them who were decreed to go astray. Wherefore go through the earth, O tribe of Koreish, and see what hath been the end of those who accused their apostles of imposture. If thou, O prophet, dost earnestly wish for their direction; verily GOD will not direct him whom he hath resolved to lead into error; neither shall they have any helpers. And they swear most solemnly by GOD, saying, GOD will not raise the dead. Yea; the promise thereof is true: but the greater part of men know it not. He
will raise them that he may clearly show them the truth concerning which they now disagree, and that the unbelievers may know that they are liars. Verily our speech unto anything, when we will the same, is, that we only say unto it, Be; and it is. As for those who have fled their country for the sake of GOD, after they had been unjustly persecuted;h we will surely provide them an excellent habitation in this world, but the reward of the next life shall be greater; if they knew it.i They who persevere patiently, and put their trust in their LORD, shall not fail of happiness in this life and in that which is to come. We have not sent any before thee, as our apostles, other than men,j unto whom we spake by revelation. Inquire therefore of those who have the custody of the scriptures, if ye know not this to be truth. We sent them with evident miracles, and written revelations; and we have sent down unto thee this Korân,k that thou mayest declare unto mankind that which hath been sent down unto them, and that they may consider. Are they who have plotted evil against their prophet secure that GOD will not cause the earth to cleave under them, or that a punishment will not come upon them, from whence they do not expect; or that he will not chastise them while they are busied in travelling from one place to another, and in traffic? (for they shall not be able to elude the power of God,) or that he will not chastise them by a gradual destruction? But your LORD is truly gracious and merciful in granting you respite. Do they not consider the things which GOD hath created; whose shadows are cast on the right hand and on the left, worshipping God,l and become contracted? Whatever moveth both in heaven and on earth worshippeth GOD, and the angels also; and they are not elated with pride, so as to disdain his service: they fear their LORD, who is exalted above them, and perform that which they are commanded. GOD said, Take not unto yourselves two gods; for there is but one GOD: and revere me. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and unto him is obedience eternally due. Will ye therefore fear any besides GOD? Whatever favors ye have received are certainly from GOD; and when evil afflicteth you, unto him do ye make your supplication; yet when he taketh the evil from off you, behold, a part of you give a companion unto their LORD, to show their ingratitude for the favors we have bestowed on them. Delight yourselves in the enjoyments of this life: but hereafter shall ye know that ye cannot escape the divine vengeance. And they set apart unto idols which have no knowledge,m a part of
the food which we have provided for them. By GOD, ye shall surely be called to account for that which ye have falsely devised. They attribute daughters unto GODn (far be it from him!) but unto themselves children of the sex which they desire.o And when any of them is told the news of the birth of a female, his face becometh black,p and he is deeply afflicted: he hideth himself from the people, because of the ill tidings which have been told him; considering within himself whether he shall keep it with disgrace, or whether he shall bury it in the dust. Do they not make an ill judgment? Unto those who believe not in the next life, the similitude of evil ought to be applied, and unto GOD the most sublime similitude:q for he is mighty and wise. If GOD should punish men for their iniquity, he would not leave on the earth any moving thing: but he giveth them respite unto an appointed time; and when their time shall come, they shall not be respited an hour, neither shall their punishment be anticipated. They attribute unto GOD that which they dislike themselves,r and their tongues utter a lie; namely, that the reward of paradise is for them. There is no doubt but that the fire of hell is prepared for them, and that they shall be sent thither before the rest of the wicked. By GOD, we have heretofore sent messengers unto the nations before thee: but Satan prepared their works for them; he was their patron in this world,s and in that which is to come they shall suffer a grievous torment. We have not sent down the book of the Koran unto thee, for any other purpose, than that thou shouldest declare unto them that truth concerning which they disagree; and for a direction and mercy unto people who believe. GOD sendeth down water from heaven, and causeth the earth to revive after it hath been dead. Verily herein is a sign of the resurrection unto people who hearken. Ye have also in cattle an example of instruction: we give you to drink of that which is in their bellies; a liquor between digested dregs, and blood;t namely, pure milk,u which is swallowed with pleasure by those who drink it. And of the fruits of palm-trees, and of grapes, ye obtain an inebriating liquor, and also good nourish-
ment.x Verily herein is a sign unto people who understand. Thy LORD spake by inspiration unto the bee, saying, Provide thee housesy in the mountains, and in the trees, and of those materials wherewith men build hives for thee: then eat of every kind of fruit, and walk in the beaten paths of thy LORD.z There proceedeth from their bellies a liquor of various colours,a wherein is a medicine for men.b Verily herein is a sign unto people who consider. GOD hath created you, and he will hereafter cause you to die: and some of you shall have his life prolonged to a decrepit age, so that he shall forget whatever he knew; for GOD is wise and powerful. GOD causeth some of you to excel others in worldly possessions: yet they who are caused to excel do not give their wealth unto the slaves whom their right hands possess, that they may become equal sharers therein.c Do they therefore deny the beneficence of GOD? GOD hath ordained you wives from among yourselves,d and of your wives hath granted you children and grand-children; and hath bestowed on you good things for food. Will they therefore believe in that which is vain, and ungratefully deny the goodness of GOD? They worship, besides GOD, idols which possess nothing wherewith to sustain them, either in heaven, or on earth; and have no power. Wherefore liken not anything unto GOD:e for GOD knoweth, but ye know not. GOD propoundeth as a parable a possessed slave, who hath power over nothing, and him on whom we have bestowed a good provision from us, and who giveth alms thereout both secretly and openly:f shall these two be esteemed equal? GOD forbid! But the greater part of men know it not.
GOD also propoundeth as a parable two men; one of them born dumb, who is unable to do or understand anything, but is a burden unto his master; whithersoever he shall send him, he shall not return with any good success: shall this man, and he who hath his speech and understanding, and who commandeth that which is just, and followeth the right way, be esteemed equal?g Unto GOD alone is the secret of heaven and earth known. And the business of the last hourh shall be only as the twinkling of an eye, or even more quick: for GOD is almighty. GOD hath brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers; ye knew nothing, and he gave you the senses of hearing and seeing, and understandings, that ye might give thanks. Do they not behold the fowls which are enabled to fly in the open firmament of heaven? none supporteth them except GOD. Verily herein are signs unto people who believe. GOD hath also provided you houses for habitations for you; and hath also provided you tents of the skins of cattle, which ye find light to be removed on the day of your departure to new quarters, and easy to be pitched on the day of your sitting down therein: and of their wool, and their fur, and their hair, hath he supplied you with furniture and household-stuff for a season. And GOD hath provided for you, of that which he hath created, conveniences to shade you from the sun,i and he hath also provided you places of retreat in the mountains,j and he hath given you garments to defend you from the heat,k and coats of mail to defend you in your wars. Thus doth he accomplish his favor towards you, that ye may resign yourselves unto him. But if they turn back, verily thy duty is public preaching only. They acknowledge the goodness of GOD, and afterwards they deny the same;l but the greater part of them are unbelievers.m On a certain day we will raise a witness out of every nation:n then they who shall have been unbelievers shall not be suffered to excuse themselves, neither shall they be received into favor. And when they who shall have acted unjustly shall see the torment prepared for them; (it shall not be mitigated unto them, neither shall they be respited): and when those who shall have been guilty of idolatry shall see their false gods,o they shall say, O LORD, these are our idols which we invoked, besides thee. But they shall return an answer unto them, saying, Verily ye are liars.p And on that day shall the wicked offer submission unto
GOD; and the false deities which they imagined shall abandon them. As for those who shall have been infidels, and shall have turned aside others from the way of GOD, we will add unto them punishment upon punishment because they have corrupted others. On a certain day we will raise up in every nation a witness against them, from among themselves; and we will bring thee, O Mohammed, as a witness against these Arabians. We have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran, for an explication of everything necessary both as to faith and practice, and a direction, and mercy, and good tidings unto the Moslems. Verily GOD commandeth justice, and the doing of good, and the giving unto kindred what shall be necessary; and he forbiddeth wickedness, and iniquity, and oppression: he admonisheth you that ye may remember.q Perform your covenant with GOD,r when ye enter into covenant with him; and violate not your oaths, after the ratification thereof; since ye have made GOD a witness over you. Verily GOD knoweth that which ye do. And be not like unto her who undoeth that which she hath spun, untwisting it after she hath twisted it strongly;s taking your oaths between you deceitfully, because one party is more numerous than another party.t Verily GOD only tempteth you therein; and he will make that manifest unto you, on the day of resurrection, concerning which ye now disagree. If GOD had pleased, he would surely have made you one people:u but he will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and he will direct whom he pleaseth; and ye shall surely give an account of that which ye have done. Therefore take not your oaths between you deceitfully lest your foot slip, after it hath been steadfastly fixed, and ye taste evil in this life, for that ye have turned aside from the way of GOD; and ye suffer a grievous punishment in the life to come. And sell not the covenant of GOD for a small price;x for with GOD is a better recompense prepared for you, if ye be men of understanding. That which is with you will fail; but that which is with GOD is permanent: and we will surely reward those who shall persevere, according to the
utmost merit of their actions. Whoso worketh righteousness, whether he be male or female, and is a true believer, we will surely raise him to a happy life; and we will give them their reward, according to the utmost merit of their actions. When thou readest the Koran, have recourse unto GOD, that he may preserve thee from Satan driven away with stones;y he hath no power over those who believe, and who put confidence in their LORD; but his power is over those only who take him for their patron, and who give companions unto God. When we substitute in the Koran an abrogating verse in lieu of a verse abrogated (and GOD best knoweth the fitness of that which he revealeth), the infidels say, Thou art only a forger of these verses: but the greater part of them know not truth from falsehood. Say, The holy spiritz hath brought the same down from thy LORD with truth; that he may confirm those who believe, and for a direction and good tidings unto the Moslems. We also know that they say, Verily, a certain man teacheth him to compose the Koran. The tongue of the person unto whom they incline is a foreign tongue; but this, wherein the Koran is written, is the perspicuous Arabic tongue.a Moreover
as for those who believe not the signs of GOD, GOD will not direct them, and they shall suffer a painful torment: verily they imagine a falsehood who believe not in the signs of GOD, and they are really the liars. Whoever denieth GOD, after he hath believed, except him who shall be compelled against his will, and whose heart continueth steadfast in the faith, shall be severely chastised:b but whoever shall voluntarily profess infidelity, on those shall the indignation of GOD fall, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. This shall be their sentence, because they have loved the present life above that which is to come, and for that GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. These are they whose hearts, and hearing, and sight, GOD hath sealed up; and these are the negligent: there is no doubt but that in the next life they shall perish. Moreover thy LORD will be favorable unto those who have fled their country, after having suffered persecu-
tion,c and had been compelled to deny the faith by violence, and who have since fought in defence of the true religion, and have persevered with patience; verily unto these will thy LORD be gracious and merciful, after they shall have shown their sincerity. On a certain day shall every soul come to plead itself,d and every soul shall be repaid that which it shall have wrought; and they shall not be treated unjustly. GOD propoundeth as a parable a citye which was secure and quiet, unto which her provisions came in abundance from every side; but she ungratefully denied the favor of GOD: wherefore GOD caused her to taste the extreme famine, and fear, because of that which they had done. And now is an apostle come unto the inhabitants of Mecca from among themselves; and they accuse him of imposture: wherefore a punishment shall be inflicted on them, while they are acting unjustly. Eat of what GOD hath given you for food, that which is lawful and good; and be thankful for the favors of GOD, if ye serve him. He hath only forbidden you that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that which hath been slain in the name of any, besides GOD.f But unto him who shall be compelled by necessity to eat of these things, not lusting nor wilfully transgressing, GOD will surely be gracious and merciful. And say not that wherein your tongues utter a lie; This is lawful, and this is unlawful;g that ye may devise a lie concerning GOD: for they who devise concerning GOD shall not prosper. They shall have small enjoyment in this world, and in that which is to come they shall suffer a grievous torment. Unto the Jews did we forbid that which we have told thee formally:h and we did them no injury in that respect; but they injured their own souls.i Moreover thy LORD will be favorable unto those who do evil through ignorance, and afterwards repent and amend: verily unto these will thy LORD be gracious and merciful, after their repentance. Abraham was a model of true religion, obedient unto GOD, orthodox, and was not an idolater:j he was also grateful for his benefits: wherefore God chose him, and directed him into the right way. And we bestowed on him good in this world; and in the next he shall surely be one of the righteous. We have also spoken unto thee, O Mohammed, by revelation, saying, Follow the religion of Abraham, who was orthodox, and
was no idolater. The sabbath was only appointed unto those who differed with their prophet concerning it;k and thy LORD will surely judge between them, on the day of resurrection, as to that concerning which they differed. Invite men unto the way of thy LORD, by wisdom, and mild exhortation; and dispute with them in the most condescending manner: for thy LORD well knoweth him who strayeth from his path, and he well knoweth those who are rightly directed. If ye take vengeance on any, take a vengeance proportionable to the wrong which hath been done you;l but if ye suffer wrong patiently, verily this will be better for the patient.m Wherefore, do thou bear opposition with patience; but thy patience shall not be practicable, unless with GOD'S assistance. And be thou not grieved on account of the unbelievers; neither be thou troubled for that which they subtilely devise; for GOD is with those who fear him, and are upright.
ENTITLED, THE NIGHT JOURNEY;n REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
PRAISE be unto him who transported his servant by night, from the sacred temple of Mecca to the farther temple of Jerusalem,p the circuit of which we have blessed, that we might show some of our signs; for God is he who heareth, and seeth. And
we gave unto Moses the book of the law, and appointed the same to be a direction unto the children of Israel, commanding them, saying, Beware that ye take not any other patron besides me. O posterity of those whom we carried in the ark with Noah:q verily he was a grateful servant. And we expressly declared unto the children of Israel in the book of the law, saying, Ye will surely commit evil in the earth twice,r and ye will be elated with great insolence. And when the punishment threatened for the first of those transgressions came to be executed, we sent against you our servants,s endued with exceeding strength in war, and they searched the inner apartments of your houses; and the prediction became accomplished. Afterwards we gave you the victory over them,t in your turn, and we granted you increase of wealth and children, and we made you a more numerous people, saying, If ye do well, ye will do well to your own souls; and if ye do evil, ye will do it unto the same. And when the punishment threatened for your latter transgression came to be executed, we sent enemies against you to afflict you,u and to enter the temple, as they entered it the first time, and utterly to destroy that which they
had conquered. Peradventure your LORD will have mercy on you hereafter: but if ye return to transgress a third time, we also will return to chastise you;x and we have appointed hell to be the prison of the unbelievers. Verily this Koran directeth unto the way which is most right, and declareth unto the faithful, who do good works, that they shall receive a great reward; and that for those who believe not in the life to come, we have prepared a grievous punishment. Man prayeth for evil, as he prayeth for good;y for man is hasty.z We have ordained the night and the day for two signs of our power: afterwards we blot out the sign of the night, and we cause the sign of the day to shine forth, that ye may endeavor to obtain plenty from your LORD by doing your business therein, and that ye may know the number of years, and the computation of time; and everything necessary have we explained by a perspicuous explication. The fatea of every man have we bound about his neck;b and we will produce unto him, on the day of resurrection, a book wherein his actions shall be recorded: it shall be offered him open, and the angels shall say unto him, Read thy book; thine own soul will be a sufficient accountant against thee, this day.c He who shall be rightly directed, shall be directed to the advantage only of his own soul; and he who shall err shall err only against the same: neither shall any laden soul be charged with the burden of another. We did not punish any people, until we had first sent an apostle to warn them. And when we resolved to destroy a city, we commanded the inhabitants thereof, who lived in affluence, to obey our apostle; but they acted corruptly therein: wherefore the sentence was justly pronounced against that city; and we destroyed it with an utter destruction. And how many generations have we consumed since Noah? for thy LORD sufficiently knoweth and seeth the sins of his servants. Whosoever chooseth this transitory life, we will bestow on him therein beforehand that which we please; on him, namely, whom we please: afterwards will
we appoint him hell for his abode; he shall be thrown into the same to be scorched, covered with ignominy, and utterly rejected from mercy. But whosoever chooseth the life to come, and directeth his endeavor towards the same, being also a true believer; the endeavor of these shall be acceptable unto God. On all will we bestow the blessings of this life, both on these and on those, of the gift of thy LORD; for the gift of thy LORD shall not be denied unto any. Behold, how we have caused some of them to surpass others in wealth and dignity: but the next life shall be more considerable in degrees of honour, and greater in excellence. Set not up another god with the true GOD, lest thou sit down in disgrace, and destitute. Thy LORD hath commanded that ye worship none besides him; and that ye show kindness unto your parents, whether the one of them, or both of them attain to old age with thee.d Wherefore, say not unto them, Fie on you!e neither reproach them, but speak respectfully unto them and submit to behave humblye towards them, out of tender affection and say, O LORD, have mercy on them both, as they nursed me when I was little. Your LORD well knoweth that which is in your souls; whether ye be men of integrity: and he will be gracious unto those who sincerely return unto him. And give unto him who is of kin to you his due,f and also unto the poor, and the traveller. And waste not thy substance profusely: for the profuse are brethren of the devils:g and the devil was ungrateful unto his LORD. But if thou turn from them, in expectation of the mercy which thou hopest from thy LORD;h at least, speak kindly unto them. And let not thy hand be tied up to thy neck; neither open it with an unbounded expansion,i lest thou become worthy of reprehension, and be reduced to poverty. Verily thy LORD will enlarge the store of whom he pleaseth, and will be sparing unto whom he pleaseth; for he knoweth and regardeth his servants. Kill not your children for fear of being brought to want; we will provide for them and for you; verily the killing them is a great sin. Draw not near unto fornication; for it is wickedness, and an evil way. Neither slay the soul which GOD hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause;k and whosoever shall be slain unjustly, we have given his heir power to demand satisfaction;l but let him not exceed the bounds of moderation in putting to death the murderer
in too cruel a manner, or by revenging his friend's blood on any other than the person who killed him; since he is assisted by this law.m And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, unless it be to improve it, until he attain his age of strength:n and perform your covenant; for the performance of your covenant shall be inquired into hereafter. And give full measure, when you measure aught; and weigh with a just balance. This will be better, and more easy for determining every man's due.o And follow not that whereof thou hast no knowledge;p for the hearing, and the sight, and the heart, every of these shall be examined at the last day. Walk not proudly in the land, for thou canst not cleave the earth, neither shalt thou equal the mountains in stature. All this is evil, and abominable in the sight of thy LORD. These precepts are a part of the wisdom which they LORD hath revealed unto thee. Set not up any other god as equal unto GOD, lest thou be cast into hell, reproved and rejected. Hath your LORD preferably granted unto you sons, and taken for himself daughters from among the angels?q Verily in asserting this ye utter a grievous saying. And now have we used various arguments and repetitions in this Koran, that they may be warned: yet it only rendereth them more disposed to fly from the truth. Say unto the idolaters, If there were other gods with him, as ye say, they would surely seek an occasion of making some attempt against the possessor of the throne:r GOD forbid! and far, very far, be that from him which they utter! The seven heavens praise him, and the earth, and all who are therein: neither is there anything which doth not celebrate his praise; but ye understand not their celebration thereof: he is gracious and merciful. When thou readest the Koran, we place between thee and those who believe not in the life to come a dark veil; and we put coverings over their hearts, lest they should understand it, and in their ears thickness of hearing. And when thou makest mention, in repeating the Koran, of thy LORD only,s they turn their backs, flying the doctrine of his unity. We well know with what design they hearken, when they hearken unto thee, and when they privately discourse together: when the ungodly say, Ye follow no other than a madman. Behold! what epithets they bestow on thee. But they are deceived; neither can they find any just occasion to reproach thee. They also say, After we shall have become bones and dust, shall we surely be raised a new creature? Answer, Be ye
stones, or iron, or some creature more improbable in your opinions to be raised to life. But they will say, Who shall restore us to life? Answer, He who created you the first time: and they will wag their heads at thee, saying, When shall this be? Answer, Peradventure it is nigh. On that day shall GOD call you forth from your sepulchres, and ye shall obey, with celebration of his praise;t and ye shall think that ye tarriedu but a little while. Speak unto my servants, that they speak mildly unto the unbelievers, lest ye exasperate them; for Satan soweth discord among them, and Satan is a declared enemy unto man. your LORD well knoweth you; if he pleaseth, he will have mercy on you, or, if he pleaseth, he will punish you:x and we have not sent thee to be a steward over them. Thy LORD well knoweth all persons in heaven and on earth.y We have bestowed peculiar favors on some of the prophets, preferably to others; and we gave unto David the psalms.z Say, Call upon those whom ye imagine to be gods besides him; yet they will not be able to free you from harm, or to turn it on others. Those whom ye invoke,a do themselves desire to be admitted to a near conjunction with their LORD; striving which of them shall approach nearest unto him: they also hope for his mercy, and dread his punishment; for the punishment of thy LORD is terrible. There is no city but we will destroy the same before the day of resurrection, or we will punish it with a grievous punishment. This is written in the book of our eternal decrees. Nothing hindered us from sending thee with miracles, except that the former nations have charged them with imposture. We gave unto the tribe of Thamud, at their demand, the she-camel visible to their sight: yet they dealt unjustly with her:b and we send not a prophet with miracles, but to strike terror. Remember when we said unto thee, Verily thy LORD encompasseth men by his knowledge and power. We have appointed the vision which we showed thee,c and
also the treed cursed in the Koran, only for an occasion of dispute unto men, and to strike them with terror; but it shall cause them to transgress only the more enormously. And remember when we said unto the angels, Worship Adam; and they all worshipped him except Eblis, who said, Shall I worship him whom thou hast created of clay? And he said, What thinkest thou, as to this man whom thou hast honoured above me? verily, if thou grant me respite until the day of resurrection, I will extirpate his offspring, except a few. God answered, Begone, I grant thee respite: but whosoever of them shall follow thee, hell shall surely be your reward; an ample reward for your demerits!e And entice to vanity such of them as thou canst, by thy voice; and assault them on all sides with thy horsemen and thy footmen;f and partake with them in their riches, and their children;g and make them promises; (but the devil shall make them no other than deceitful promises:) as to my servants, thou shalt have no power over them; for thy LORD is a sufficient protector of those who trust in him. It is your LORD who driveth forward the ships for you in the sea, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance by commerce; for he is merciful towards you. When a misfortune befalleth you at sea, the false deities whom ye invoke are forgotten by you, except him alone: yet when he bringeth you safe to dry land, ye retire afar off from him, and return to your idols; for man is ungrateful.h Are ye therefore secure that he will not cause the dry land to swallow you up, or that he will not send against you a whirlwind driving the sands to overwhelm you? Then shall ye find none to protect you. Or are ye secure that he will not cause you again to commit yourselves to the sea another time, and send against you a tempestuous wind, and drown you; for that ye have been ungrateful? then shall ye find none to defend you against us, in that distress. And now have we honoured the children of Adam by sundry peculiar privileges and endowments; and we have given them conveniences of carriage by land and by sea, and have provided food for them of good things; and we have preferred them before many of our creatures which we have created, by granting them great prerogatives. On a certain day we will call all men to judgment with their respective leader:i and whosoever shall have his book given him into his right hand, they shall read their book with joy and satisfaction;j and they shall not be wronged a hair.k And whoever hath been blind in this life shall
be also blind in the next, and shall wander more widely from the path of salvation. It wanted little but the unbelievers had tempted thee to swerve from the instructions which we had revealed unto thee, that thou shouldest devise concerning us a different thing;l and then would they have taken thee for their friend: and unless we had confirmed thee, thou hadst certainly been very near inclining unto them a little. Then would we surely have caused thee to taste the punishment of life, and the punishment of death;m and thou shouldest not have found any to protect thee against us. The unbelievers had likewise almost caused thee to depart the land, that they might have expelled thee thence:n but then should they not have tarried therein after thee, except a little while.o This is the method of dealing which we have prescribed ourselves in respect to our apostles, whom we have already sent before thee: and thou shalt not find any change in our prescribed method. Regularly perform thy prayer at the declension of the sun, at the first darkness of the night,q and the prayer of daybreak;r for the prayer of daybreak is borne witness unto by the angels.s And watch some part of the night in the same exercise, as a work of supererogation for thee: peradventure thy LORD will
raise thee to an honourable station.t And say, O LORD, cause me to enter with a favorable entry, and cause me to come forthu with a favorable coming forth; and grant me from thee an assisting power. And say, Truth is come, and falsehood is vanished: for falsehood is of short continuance.x We send down of the Koran that which is a medicine and mercy unto the true believers; but it shall only increase the perdition of the unjust. When we bestow favors on man, he retireth and withdraweth himself ungratefully from us: but when evil toucheth him, he despaireth of our mercy. Say, Every one acteth after his own manner:y but your LORD best knoweth who is most truly directed in his way. They will ask thee concerning the spirit:z answer, The spirit was created at the command of my LORD:a but ye have no knowledge given unto you, except a little.b If we pleased, we should certainly take away that which we have revealed unto thee;c in such case thou couldst not find any to assist thee therein against us, unless through mercy from thy LORD; for his favor towards thee hath been great. Say, Verily if men and genii were purposely assembled, that they might produce a book like this Koran, they could not produce one like unto it, although the one of them assisted the other. And we have variously propounded unto men in this Koran every kind of figurative argument; but the greater part of men refuse to receive it, merely out of infidelity. And they say, We will by no means believe on thee, until thou cause
a spring of water to gush forth for us out of the earth;d or thou have a garden of palm-trees and vines, and thou cause rivers to spring forth from the midst thereof in abundance; or thou cause the heaven to fall down upon us, as thou hast given out, in pieces; or thou bring down GOD and the angels to vouch for thee; or thou have a house of gold; or thou ascend by a ladder to heaven: neither will we believe thy ascending thither alone,e until thou cause a book to descend unto us, bearing witness of thee, which we may read. Answer My LORD be praised! Am I other than a man, sent as an apostle? And nothing hindereth men from believing, when a direction is come unto them, except that they say, Hath GOD sent a man for his apostle? Answer, If the angels had walked on earth as familiar inhabitants thereof, we had surely sent down unto them from heaven an angel for our apostle. Say, GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you: for he knoweth and regardeth his servants. Whom GOD shall direct, he shall be the rightly directed; and whom he shall cause to err, thou shalt find none to assist, besides him. And we will gather them together on the day of resurrection, creeping on their faces, blind, and dumb, and deaf:f their abode shall be hell; so often as the fire thereof shall be extinguished, we will rekindle a burning flame to torment them.g This shall be their reward, because they disbelieve in our signs, and say, When we shall have been reduced to bones and dust, shall we surely be raised new creatures? Do they not perceive that GOD, who created the heavens and the earth, is able to create other bodies, like their present? And he hath appointed them a limited term;h there is no doubt thereof: but the ungodly reject the truth, merely out of unbelief. Say, If ye possessed the treasures of the mercy of my LORD, ye would surely refrain from using them, for fear of spending them;i for man is covetous. We heretofore gave unto Moses the power of working nine evident signs.j And do thou ask the children of Israel, as to the story of Moses;k when he came unto
them, and Pharaoh said unto him, Verily I esteemed thee, O Moses, to be deluded by sorcery. Moses answered, Thou well knowest that none hath sent down these evident signs except the LORD of heaven and earth; and I surely esteem thee, O Pharaoh, a lost man. Wherefore Pharaoh sought to drive them out of the land; but we drowned him and all those who were with him. And we said unto the children of Israel, after his destruction, Dwell ye in the land: and when the promise of the next life shall come to be fulfilled, we will bring you both promiscuously to judgment. We have sent down the Koran with truth, and it hath descended with truth: and we have not sent thee otherwise than to be a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats. And we have divided the Koran, revealing it by parcels, that thou mightest read it unto men with deliberation: and we have sent it down, causing it to descend as occasion required.l Say, Whether ye believe therein, or do not believe, verily those who have been favored with the knowledge of the scriptures which were revealed before it, when the same is rehearsed unto them, fall down on their faces,m worshipping, and say, Our LORD be praised, for that the promise of our LORD is surely fulfilled! and they fall down on their faces, weeping; and the hearing thereof increaseth their humility. Say, call upon GOD, or call on the Merciful: by whichsoever of the two names ye invoke him, it is equal; for he hath most excellent names.n Pronounce not thy prayer aloud, neither pronounce it with too low a voice,o but follow a middle way between these: and say, Praise be unto GOD, who hath not begotten any child; who hath no partner in the kingdom, nor hath any to protect him from contempt: and magnify him by proclaiming his greatness.
ENTITLED, THE CAVE;p REVEALED AT MECCA.q
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
PRAISE be unto GOD, who hath sent down unto his servant the book of the Korân, and hath not inserted therein any crookedness, but hath made it a straight rule: that he should threaten a
grievous punishment unto the unbelievers, from his presence; and should bear good tidings unto the faithful, who work righteousness, that they should receive an excellent reward, namely, paradise, wherein they shall remain forever: and that he should warn those who say, GOD hath begotten issue; of which matter they have no knowledge, neither had their fathers. A grievous saying it is, which proceedeth from their mouths: they speak no other than a lie. Peradventure thou wilt kill thyself with grief after them, out of thy earnest zeal for their conversion, if they believe not in this new revelation of the Koran. Verily we have ordained whatsoever is on the earth for the ornament thereof, that we might make trial of men, and see which of them excelleth in works: and we will surely reduce whatever is thereon to dry dust. Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave,r and Al Rakim,s were one of our signs, and a great miracle? When the young men took refuge in the cave, they said, O LORD, grant us mercy from before thee, and dispose our business for us to a right issue. Wherefore we struck their ears with deafness, so that they slept without disturbance in the cave for a great number of years: then we awaked them, that we might know which of the two partiest was more exact in computing the space which they had remained there. We will relate unto thee their history with truth. Verily they were young men who had believed in their LORD: and we had abundantly directed them: and we fortified their hearts with constancy when they stood before the tyrant; and they said, Our LORD is the LORD of heaven and earth: we will by no means call on any god besides him; for then should we surely utter an extravagance. These our fellow people have taken other gods, besides him; although they bring no demonstrative argument for them: and who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning GOD? And they said the one to the other, When ye shall separate yourselves from them, and from the deities which they worship, except GOD,u fly into
the cave: your LORD will pour his mercy on you abundantly, and will dispose your business for you to advantage. And thou mightest have seen the sun, when it had risen, to decline from their cave towards the right hand, and when it went down, to leave them on the left hand:x and they were in the spacious part of the cave.y This was one of the signs of GOD. Whomsoever GOD shall direct, he shall be rightly directed: and whomsoever he shall cause to err, thou shalt not find any to defend, or to direct. And thou wouldest have judged them to have been awake,z while they were sleeping; and we caused them to turn themselves to the right hand, and to the left.a And their dogb stretched forth his forelegs in the mouth of the cave: if thou hadst come suddenly upon them, verily thou wouldest have turned thy back and fled from them, and thou wouldest have been filled with fear at the sight of them.c And so we awaked them from their sleep, that they might ask questions of one another. One of them spake and said, How long have ye tarried here? They answered, We have tarried a day, or part of a day. The others said, Your LORD best knoweth the time ye have tarried:d and now send one of you with this your money into the city;e and let him see which of its inhabitants hath the best and cheapest food, and let him bring you provision from him; and let him behave circumspectly, and not discover you to any one. Verily if they come up against you, they will stone you, or force you to return to their religion; and then shall ye not prosper forever. And so we made their people acquainted with what had happened to them; that they might know that the
promise of GOD is true, and that there is no doubt of the last hour;f when they disputed among themselves concerning their matter.g And they said, Erect a building over them: their LORD best knoweth their condition. Those who prevailed in their affair answered, We will surely build a chapel over them.h Some say, The sleepers were three; and their dog was the fourth;i and others say, They were five; and their dog was the sixth;j guessing at a secret matter: and others say, They were seven; and their dog was the eighth.k Say, My LORD best knoweth their number: none shall know them, except a few. Wherefore dispute not concerning them, except with a clear disputation, according to what hath been revealed unto thee: and ask not any of the Christians concerning them. Say not of any matter, I will surely do this to-morrow; unless thou add, If GOD please.l And remember thy LORD, when thou forgettest,m and say, My LORD is able to direct me with ease, that I may draw near unto the truth of this matter rightly. And they remained in their cave three hundred years, and nine years over.n Say, GOD best knoweth how long they continued there: unto him are the secrets of heaven and earth known; do thou make him to see and to hear.o The inhabitants thereof have no protector besides him; neither doth he suffer any one to have a share in the establishment or knowledge of his decree. Read that which hath been revealed unto thee, of the book of thy
LORD, without presuming to make any change therein:p there is none who hath power to change his words; and thou shalt not find any to fly to, besides him, if thou attempt it. Behave thyself with constancy towards those who call upon their LORD morning and evening, and who seek his favor; and let not thine eyes be turned away from them, seeking the pomp of this life;q neither obey him whose heart we have caused to neglect the remembrance of us,r and who followeth his lusts, and leaveth the truth behind him. And say, The truth is from your LORD; wherefore let him who will, believe, and let him who will, be incredulous. We have surely prepared for the unjust hell fire, the flame and smoke whereof shall surround him like a pavilion: and if they beg relief, they shall be relieved with water like molten brass, which shall scald their faces: O how miserable a potion, and how unhappy a couch! As to those who believe, and do good works, we will not suffer the reward of him who shall work righteousness to perish; for them are prepared gardens of eternal abode,s which shall be watered by rivers; they shall be adorned therein with bracelets of gold, and they shall be clothed in green garments of fine silk and brocades, reposing themselves therein on thrones. O how happy a reward, and how easy a couch! And propound unto them as a parable two men:t on the one of whom we had bestowed two vineyards, and had surrounded them with palm-trees, and had caused corn to grow between them. Each of the gardens brought forth its fruit every season, and failed not at all; and we caused a river to flow in the midst thereof: and he had great abundance. And he said unto his companion by way of debate, I am superior to thee in wealth, and have a more powerful family. And he went into his garden,u being guilty of injustice against his own soul, and said, I do not think that this garden will decay forever; neither do I think that the last hour will come: and although I should return unto my LORD, verily I shall find a better garden than this in exchange.u And his companion said unto him, by way of debate, Dost thou not believe in him who created thee of the dust, and afterwards of seed; and then fashioned thee into a perfect man? But as for me, GOD is
my LORD; and I will not associate any other deity with my LORD. And when thou enterest thy garden, wilt thou not say, What GOD pleaseth shall come to pass; there is no power but in GOD alone? Although thou seest me to be inferior to thee in wealth and number of children, my LORD is well able to bestow on me a better gift than thy garden, and to shoot his arrows against the same from heaven, so that it shall become barren dust; or its water may sink deep into the earth, that thou canst not draw thereof. And his possessions were encompassed with destruction, as his companion had forewarned him; wherefore he began to turn down the palms of his hands out of sorrow and regret for that which he had expended thereon; for the vines thereof were fallen down on their trails: and he said, Would to GOD that I had not associated any other deity with my LORD! And he had no party to assist him besides GOD, neither was he able to defend himself against his vengeance. In such case protection belongeth of right unto GOD alone; he is the best rewarder, and the best giver of success. And propound to them a similitude of the present life. It is like water which we send down from heaven; and the herb of the earth is mixed therewith, and after it hath been green and flourishing, in the morning it becometh dry stubble, which the winds scatter abroad: and GOD is able to do all things. Wealth and children are the ornament of this present life: but good works, which are permanent, are better in the sight of thy LORD, with respect to the reward, and better with respect to hope. On a certain day we will cause the mountains to pass away,y and thou shalt see the earth appearing plain and even; and we will gather mankind together, and we will not leave any one of them behind. And they shall be set before thy LORD in distinct order, and he shall say unto them, Now are ye come unto us naked, as we created you the first time: but ye thought that we should not perform our promise unto you. And the book wherein every one's actions are recorded shall be put into his hand; and thou shalt see the wicked in great terror, because of that which is written therein, and they shall say, Alas for us! what meaneth this book? it omitteth neither a small action nor a great one, but it compriseth the same; and they shall find that which they have wrought, present before their eyes: and thy LORD will not deal unjustly with any one. Remember when we said unto the angels, Worship ye Adam: and they all worshipped him, except Eblis,z who was one of the genii,a and departed from the command of his LORD. Will ye therefore take him and his offspring for your patrons besides me, notwithstanding they are your enemies? Miserable shall such a change be to the ungodly! I called not them to be present at the creation of the heavens and of the earth, nor at the creation of themselves, neither
did I take those seducers for my assistants. On a certain day, God shall say unto the idolaters, Call those whom ye imagined to be my companions, to protect you: and they shall call them, but they shall not answer them; and we will place a valley of destruction between them:b and the wicked shall see hell fire: and they shall know that they shall be thrown into the same, and they shall find no way to avoid it. And now have we variously propounded unto men, in this Koran, a parable of every kind; but man cavilleth at most things therein. Yet nothing hindereth men from believing, now a direction is come unto them, and from asking pardon of their LORD, excepting that they wait until the punishment of their predecessors come to be inflicted on them, or that the chastisement of the next life come upon them publicly. We send not our messengers, but to bear good tidings, and to denounce threats. Those who believe not dispute with vain arguments, that they may thereby render the truth of no effect; and they hold my signs, and the admonitions which have been made them, in derision. And who is more unjust than he who hath been acquainted with the signs of his LORD, and retireth afar off from the same, and forgetteth that which his hands have formerly committed? Verily we have cast veils over their hearts, lest they should understand the Koran, and into their ears thickness of hearing: if thou invite them to the true direction, yet will they not therefore be directed forever. Thy LORD is gracious, endued with mercy; if he would have punished them for that which they have committed, he would doubtless have hastened their punishment: but a threat hath been denounced against them,c and they shall find no refuge, besides him. And those former citiesd did we destroy, when they acted unjustly; and we gave them previous warning of their destruction. And remember when Moses said unto his servant Joshua the son of Nun, I will not cease to go forward, until I come to the place where the two seas meet; or I will travel for a long space of time.e But when they were arrived at the meeting of the two seas,f they forgot their fish, which they had taken with them;g
and the fish took its way freely in the sea.h And when they had passed beyond that place, Moses said unto his servant, Bring us our dinner; for now are we fatigued with this our journey. His servant answered, Dost thou know what has befallen me? When we took up our lodging at the rock, verily I forgot the fish: and none made me to forget it, except Satan, that I should not remind thee of it. And the fish took its way into the sea, in a wonderful manner. Moses said, This is what we sought after. And they both went back, returning by the way they came. And coming to the rock they found one of our servants,i unto whom we had granted mercy from us, and whom we had taught wisdom from before us. And Moses said unto him, Shall I follow thee, that thou mayest teach me part of that which thou hast been taught, for a direction unto me? He answered, Verily thou canst not bear with me: for how canst thou patiently suffer those things, the knowledge whereof thou dost not comprehend? Moses replied, Thou shalt find me patient, if GOD please; neither will I be disobedient unto thee in anything. He said, If thou follow me, therefore, ask me not concerning anything, until I shall declare the meaning thereof unto thee. So they both went on by the sea-shore, until they went up into a ship; and he made a hole therein.j And Moses said unto him, Hast thou made a hole therein, that thou mightest drown those who are on board? now hast thou done a strange thing. He answered, Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not bear with me? Moses said, Rebuke me not, because I did forget; and impose not on me a difficulty in what I am commanded. Wherefore they left the ship and proceeded, until they met with a youth; and he slew him.k Moses said, Hast thou slain an innocent person, without his having killed another? now hast thou committed an unjust action. (XVI.) He answered, Did I not tell thee that thou couldest not bear with me? Moses said, If I ask thee concerning anything hereafter, suffer me not to accompany thee: now hast thou received an excuse from me. They went forwards, therefore, until they came to the inhabitants of a certain
city:l and they asked food of the inhabitants thereof; but they refused to receive them. And they found therein a wall, which was ready to fall down; and he set it upright.m Whereupon Moses said unto him, If thou wouldest thou mightest doubtless have received a reward for it. He answered, This shall be a separation between me and thee; but I will first declare unto thee the signification of that which thou couldest not bear with patience. The vessel belonged to certain poor men,n who did their business in the sea: and I was minded to render it unserviceable, because there was a kingo behind them, who took every sound ship by force. As to the youth, his parents were true believers; and we feared, lest he, being an unbeliever, should oblige them to suffer his perverseness and ingratitude: wherefore we desired that their LORD might give them a more righteous child in exchange for him, and one more affectionate towards them.p And the wall belonged to two orphan youthsq in the city, and under it was a treasure hidden which belonged to them; and their father was a righteous man: and thy LORD was pleased that they should attain their full age, and take forth their treasure, through the mercy of thy LORD, and I did not what thou hast seen of mine own will, but by God's direction. This is the interpretation of that which thou couldest not bear with patience. The Jews will ask thee concerning Dhu'lkarnein.r Answer I will rehearse unto you an account of him. We made him powerful in the earth, and we gave him means to accomplish everything he pleased. And he followed his way, until he came to the place where the sun setteth; and he found it to set in a
spring of black mud;s and he found near the same a certain people.t And we said, O Dhu'lkarnein, either punish this people, or use gentleness towards them.u He answered, Whosoever of them shall commit injustice, we will surely punish him in this world; afterwards shall he return unto his LORD, and he shall punish him with a severe punishment. But whosoever believeth, and doth that which is right, shall receive the most excellent reward, and we will give him in command that which is easy. Then he continued his way, until he came to the place where the sun riseth;x and he found it to rise on certain people, unto whom we had not given anything wherewith to shelter themselves therefrom.y Thus it was; and we comprehended with our knowledge the forces which were with him. And he prosecuted his journey from south to north, until he came between the two mountains;z beneath which he found certain people, who could scarce understand what was said.a And they said, O Dhu'lkarnein, verily, Gog and Magog waste the land;b shall we therefore pay thee tribute, on condition that thou build a rampart between us and them? He answered, The power wherewith my LORD has strengthened me is better than your tribute: but assist me strenuously, and I will set a strong wall between you and them. Bring me iron in large pieces, until it fill up the space between the two sides of these mountains. And he said to the workmen, Blow with your bellows, until it make the iron red hot as fire. And he said further, Bring me molten brass, that I may pour upon it. Wherefore, when this wall was finished, Gog and Magog could not scale it, neither could they dig through it.c And Dhu'lkarnein said,
This is a mercy from my LORD: but when the prediction of my LORD shall come to be fulfilled,d he shall reduce the wall to dust; and the prediction of my LORD is true. On that day we will suffer some of them to press tumultuously like waves on others:e and the trumpet shall be sounded, and we will gather them in a body together. And we will set hell on that day before the unbelievers; whose eyes have been veiled from my remembrance, and who could not hear my words. Do the unbelievers think that I will not punish them, for that they take my servants for their protectors besides me? Verily we have prepared hell for the abode of the infidels. Say, Shall we declare unto you those whose works are vain, whose endeavor in the present life hath been wrongly directed, and who think they do the work which is right? These are they who believe not in the signs of their LORD, or that they shall be assembled before him; wherefore their works are vain, and we will not allow them any weight on the day of resurrection. This shall be their reward, namely, hell; for that they have disbelieved, and have held my signs and apostles in derision. But as for those who believe and do good works, they shall have the gardens of paradise for their abode: they shall remain therein forever; they shall wish for no change therein. Say, If the sea were ink to write the words of my LORD, verily the sea would fail, before the words of my LORD would fail; although we added another sea like unto it as a further supply. Say, Verily I am only a man as ye are. It is revealed unto me that your GOD is one only GOD: let him therefore who hopeth to meet his LORD work a righteous work; and let him not make any other to partake in the worship of his LORD.
ENTITLED, MARY;g REVEALED AT MECCA.g
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
C. H. Y. A. S.h A COMMEMORATION of the mercy of thy LORD towards his servant Zacharias.i When he called upon his LORD, invoking him in secret, and said, O LORD, verily my bones are weakened, and my head is become white with hoariness, and I have never been unsuccessful in my prayers to thee, O LORD. But now I fear my nephews, who are to succeed after me, for my wife is barren: wherefore, give me a successor of my own body from before thee; who may be my heir, and may be an heir of the family of Jacob;k and grant, O LORD, that he may be acceptable unto thee. And the angel answered him, O Zacharias, verily we bring thee tidings of a son, whose name shall be John; we have not caused any to bear the same name before him.l Zacharias said, LORD, how shall I have a son, seeing my wife is barren, and I am now arrived at a great age,m and am decrepit? The angel said, So shall it be: thy LORD saith, This is easy with me; since I created thee heretofore, when thou wast nothing. Zacharias answered, O LORD, give me a sign. The angel replied, Thy sign shall be that thou shalt not speak to men for three nights, although thou be in perfect health. And he went forth unto his people, from the chamber, and he made signs unto them,n as if he should say, Praise ye God in the morning and in the evening. And we said unto his son, O John, receive the book of the law, with a resolution to study and observe it. And we bestowed on him wisdom, when he was yet a child, and mercy from us, and purity of
life;o and he was a devout person, and dutiful towards his parents, and was not proud or rebellious. Peace be on him the day whereon he was born, and the day whereon he shall die, and the day whereon he shall be raised to life. And remember in the book of the Koran the story of Mary; when she retired from her family to a place towards the east,p and took a veil to conceal herself from them; and we sent our spirit Gabriel unto her, and he appeared unto her in the shape of a perfect man.q She said, I fly for refuge unto the merciful God, that he may defend me from thee: if thou fearest him, thou wilt not approach me. He answered, Verily I am the messenger of thy LORD, and am sent to give thee a holy son. She said, How shall I have a son, seeing a man hath not touched me, and I am no harlot? Gabriel replied, So shall it be: thy LORD saith, This is easy with me; and we will perform it, that we may ordain him for a sign unto men, and a mercy from us: for it is a thing which is decreed. Wherefore she conceived him;r and she retired aside with him in her womb to a distant place;s and the pains of child-birth came upon her near the trunk of a palm-tree.t She said, Would to GOD I had died before this, and had become a thing forgotten, and lost in oblivion. And he who was beneath her called to her,u saying, be not grieved; now hath GOD provided a rivulet under thee; and do thou shake the body of the palm-tree, and it shall let fall ripe dates upon thee ready
gathered.x And eat, and drink, and calm thy mind.y Moreover, if thou see any man, and he question thee, say, Verily I have vowed a fast unto the Merciful: wherefore I will by no means speak to a man this day.z So she brought the child to her people, carrying him in her arms. And they said unto her, O Mary, now hast thou done a strange thing: O sister of Aaron,a thy father was not a bad man, neither was thy mother a harlot. But she made signs unto the child to answer them; and they said, How shall we speak to him, who is an infant in the cradle? Whereupon the child said, Verily I am the servant of GOD;b he hath given me the book of the gospel, and hath appointed me a prophet. And he hath made me blessed, wheresoever I shall be; and hath commanded me to observe prayer, and to give alms, so long as I shall live; and he hath made me dutiful towards my mother, and hath not made me proud or unhappy. And peace be on me the day whereon I was born, and the day whereon I shall die, and the day whereon I shall be raised to life. This was JESUS, the son of Mary; the Word of truth,c concerning whom they doubt. It is not meet for GOD, that he should have any son; GOD forbid! When he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be; and it is. And verily GOD is my LORD and your LORD; wherefore, serve him: this is the right way. Yet the sectaries differ among themselves concerning Jesus; but woe be unto those who are unbelievers, because of their appearance at the great day. Do thou cause them to hear, and do thou cause them to see,d on the day whereon they shall come unto us to be judged: but the ungodly are this day in a manifest error. And do thou forewarn them of the day of sighing, when the matter shall be determined, while they are now sunk in negligence, and do not believe. Verily we will inherit the earth, and whatever creatures are therein;e and unto us shall they all return. And re-
member Abraham in the book of the Koran; for he was one of great veracity, and a prophet. When he said unto his father, O my father,f why dost thou worship that which heareth not, neither seeth, nor profiteth thee at all? O my father, verily a degree of knowledge hath been bestowed on me, which hath not been bestowed on thee: wherefore follow me; I will lead thee into an even way. O my father, serve not Satan; for Satan was rebellious unto the Merciful. O my father, verily I fear lest a punishment be inflicted on thee from the Merciful, and thou become a companion of Satan. His father answered, Dost thou reject my gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear not, I will surely stone thee: wherefore leave me for a long time. Abraham replied, Peace be on thee: I will ask pardon for thee of my LORD; for he is gracious unto me. And I will separate myself from you, and from the idols which ye invoke besides GOD; and I will call upon my LORD; it may be that I shall not be unsuccessful in calling on my LORD, as ye are in calling upon them. And when he had separated himself from them, and from the idols which they worshipped besides GOD,g we gave him Isaac and jacob; and we made each of them a prophet, and we bestowed on them, through our mercy, the gift of prophecy, and children and wealth; and we caused them to deserve the highest commendations.h And remember Moses in the book of the Koran: for he was sincerely upright, and was an apostle and a prophet. And we called unto him from the right side of Mount Sinai, and caused him to draw near, and to discourse privately with us.i And we gave him, through our mercy, his brother Aaron a prophet, for his assistant. Remember also Ismael in the same book; for he was true to his promise,j and was an apostle, and a prophet. And he commanded his family to observe prayer, and to give alms; and he was acceptable unto his LORD. And remember Edrisk in the same book; for he was a just person, and a prophet: and we exalted him to a high place.l These are they unto whom GOD hath been bounteous, of the prophets of the posterity of Adam, and of those whom we carried in the ark with Noah; and of the