posterity of Abraham, and of Israel, and of those whom we have directed and chosen. When the signs of the Merciful were read unto them, they fell down, worshipping, and wept: but a succeeding generation have come after them, who neglect prayer, and follow their lusts; and they shall surely fall into evil: except him who repenteth, and believeth, and doth that which is right; these shall enter paradise, and they shall not in the least be wronged: gardens of perpetual abode shall be their reward, which the Merciful hath promised unto his servants, as an object of faith; for his promise will surely come to be fulfilled. Therein shall they hear no vain discourse, but peace;m and their provision shall be prepared for them therein morning and evening. This is paradise, which we will give for an inheritance unto such of our servants as shall be pious. We descend not from heaven, unless by the command of thy LORD: unto him belongeth whatsoever is before us, and whatsoever is behind us, and whatsoever is in the intermediate space; neither is thy LORD forgetful of thee.n He is the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatsoever is between them: wherefore worship him, and be constant in his worship. Dost thou know any named like him?o Man saith,p After I shall have been dead, shall I really be brought forth alive from the grave? Doth not man remember that we created him heretofore, when he was nothing? But by thy LORD we will surely assemble them and the devils to judgment;q then will we set them round about hell on their knees: afterwards we will draw forth from every sect such of them as shall have been a more obstinate rebel against the Merciful;r and we best know which of them are more worthy to be burned therein.s There shall be none of you but shall approach near the same:t this is an established decree with thy LORD. Afterwards we will deliver those who shall have been pious, but we will leave the ungodly therein on their knees. When our manifest signs are read unto them, the infidels say unto the true believers, Which of the two parties is in the more eligible condition,
and formeth the more excellent assembly?u But how many generations have we destroyed before them, which excelled them in wealth, and in outward appearance? Say, Whosoever is in error, the Merciful will grant him a long and prosperous life, until they see that with which they are threatened, whether it be the punishment of this life, or that of the last hour; and hereafter they shall know who is in the worse condition, and the weaker in forces. GOD shall more fully direct those who receive direction; and the good works which remain forever are better in the sight of thy LORD than worldly possessions, in respect to the reward, and more eligible in respect to the future recompense. Hast thou seen him who believeth not in our signs, and saith, I shall surely have riches and children bestowed on me?x Is he acquainted with the secrets of futurity; or hath he received a covenant from the Merciful that it shall be so? By no means. We will surely write down that which he saith; and increasing we will increase his punishment; and we will be his heir as to that which he speaketh of,y and on the last day he shall appear before us alone and naked. They have taken other gods, besides GOD, that they may be a glory unto them. By no means. Hereafter shall they deny their worship;z and they shall become adversariesa unto them. Dost thou not see that we send the devils against the infidels, to incite them to sin by their instigations? Wherefore be not in haste to call down destruction upon them; for we number unto them a determined number of days of respite. On a certain day we will assemble the pious before the Merciful in an honourable manner, as ambassadors come into the presence of a prince: but we will drive the wicked into hell, as cattle are driven to water: they shall obtain no intercession, except he only who hath received a covenant from the Merciful.b They say, The Merciful hath begotten issue. Now have ye uttered an impious thing: it wanteth little but that on occasion thereof the heavens be rent, and the earth cleave in sunder, and the mountains be overthrown and fall, for that they attribute children unto the Merciful; whereas it becometh not GOD to beget
children. Verily there is none in heaven or on earth but shall approach the Merciful as his servant. He encompasseth them by his knowledge and power, and numbereth them with an exact computation: and they shall all come unto him on the day of resurrection, destitute both of helpers and followers. But as for those who believe and do good works, the Merciful will bestow on them love.c Verily we have rendered the Koran easy for thy tongue, that thou mayest thereby declare our promises unto the pious, and mayest thereby denounce threats unto contentious people. And how many generations have we destroyed before them? Dost thou find one of them remaining? Or dost thou hear so much as a whisper concerning them?
ENTITLED, T. H.;d REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
T. H. WE have not sent down the Koran unto thee, that thou shouldest be unhappy;e but for an admonition unto him who feareth God: being sent down from him who created the earth, and the lofty heavens. The Merciful sitteth on his throne: unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and whatsoever is between them, and whatsoever is under the earth. If thou pronounce thy prayers with a loud voice, know that it is not necessary in respect to God; for he knoweth that which is secret, and what is yet more hidden. GOD! there is no GOD but he, he hath most excellent names.f Hast thou been informed of the history of Moses?g When
he saw fire, and said unto his family, Tarry ye here; for I perceive fire: peradventure I may bring you a brand thereout, or may find a direction in our way by the fire.h And when he was come near unto it, a voice called unto him, saying, O Moses, verily I am thy LORD: wherefore put off thy shoes;i for thou art in the sacred valley Towa. And I have chosen thee; therefore hearken with attention unto that which is revealed unto thee. Verily I am GOD; there is no god besides me; wherefore worship me, and perform thy prayer in remembrance of me. Verily the hour cometh: I will surely manifest the same, that every soul may receive its reward for that which it hath deliberately done. Let not him who believeth not therein, and who followeth his lust, prevent thee from believing in the same, lest thou perish. Now what is that in thy right hand, O Moses? He answered, It is my rod whereon I lean, and with which I beat down leaves for my flock; and I have other uses for it.j God said unto him, Cast it down, O Moses. And he cast it down, and behold, it became a serpent,k which ran about. God said, Take hold on it, and fear not:l we will reduce it to its former condition. And put thy right hand under thy left arm: it shall come forth white,m without any hurt. This shall be another sign: that we may show thee some of our greatest signs. Go unto Pharaoh: for he is exceedingly impious. Moses answered, LORD, enlarge my breast, and make what thou hast commanded me easy unto me: and loose the knot of my tongue, that they may understand my speech.n And give me a counselloro of my family, namely, Aaron my brother. Gird up my loins by him, and make him my colleague in the business: that we may praise thee greatly, and may remember thee often; for thou regardest us. God replied, Now hast thou obtained thy request, O Moses: and we have heretofore been gracious unto thee, another
time; when we revealed unto thy mother that which was revealed unto her,p saying, Put him into the ark, and cast him into the river and the river shall throw him on the shore; and my enemy and his enemy shall take him and bring him up;q and I bestowed on thee love from me,r that thou mightest be bred up under my eye. When thy sister went and said, Shall I bring you unto one who will nurse the child?s So we returned thee unto thy mother, that her mind might be set at ease, and that she might not be afflicted. And thou slewest a soul, and we delivered thee from trouble;t and we proved thee by several trials:u and afterwards thou didst dwell some yearsx among the inhabitants of Madian. Then thou camest hither according to our decree, O Moses; and I have chosen thee for myself; wherefore go thou and thy brothery with my signs; and be not negligent in remembering me. Go ye unto Pharaoh, for he is excessively impious: and speak mildly unto him; peradventure he will consider, or will fear our threats. They answered, O LORD, verily we fear lest he be precipitately violent against us, or lest he transgress more exorbitantly. God replied, Fear not; for I am with you: I will hear and will see. Go ye therefore unto him, and say, Verily we are the messengers of thy LORD: wherefore send the children of Israel with us, and do not afflict them. Now are we come unto thee with a sign from thy LORD: and peace be upon him who shall follow the true direction. Verily it hath been revealed unto us, that a punishment shall be inflicted on him who shall charge us with imposture, and shall turn back. And when they had delivered their message, Pharaoh said, Who is your LORD, O Moses? He answered, Our LORD is he who giveth all things: he hath created them, and directeth them by his providence. Pharaoh said, What therefore is the
condition of the former generations?z Moses answered, The knowledge thereof is with my LORD, in the book of his decrees: my LORD erreth not, neither doth he forget. It is he who hath spread the earth as a bed for you, and hath made you paths therein; and who sendeth down rain from heaven, whereby we cause various kinds of vegetables to spring forth: saying, Eat of part, and feed your cattle with other part thereof. Verily herein are signs unto those who are endued with understanding. Out of the ground have we created you; and to the same will we cause you to return, and we will bring you forth from thence another time. And we showed Pharaoh all our signs which we had empowered Moses to perform: but he accused him of imposture, and refused to believe; and he said, Art thou come unto us that thou mayest dispossess us of our land by the enchantments, O Moses? Verily we will meet thee with the like enchantments; wherefore fix an appointment between us and thee; we will not fail it, neither shalt thou, in an equal place. Moses answered, Let your appointment be on the day of your solemn feast;a and let the people be assembled in open day. And Pharaoh turned away from Moses, and gathered together the most expert magicians to execute his stratagem; and then came to the appointment. Moses said unto them, Woe be unto you! do not devise a lie against GOD,b lest he utterly destroy you by some judgment: for he shall not prosper who deviseth lies. And the magicians disputed concerning their affair among themselves, and discoursed in private: and they said, These two are certainly magicians: they seek to dispossess you of your land by their sorcery; and to lead away with them your chiefest and most considerable men. Wherefore collect all your cunning, and then come in order: for he shall prosper this day, who shall be superior. They said, O Moses, whether wilt thou cast down thy rod first, or shall we be the first who cast down our rods? He answered, Do ye cast down your rods first. And behold, their cords and their rods appeared unto him, by their enchantment, to run about like serpents;c wherefore Moses conceived fear in his heart. But we said unto him, Fear not; for thou shalt be superior: therefore cast down the rod which is in thy right hand; and it shall swallow up the seeming serpents which they have made: for what they have made is only the deceit of an enchanter; and an enchanter shall not prosper, withersoever he cometh. And the magicians, when they saw the miracle which Moses performed, fell down and worshipped, saying, We believe in the LORD of Aaron and of Moses. Pharaoh said unto them, Do ye believe in him before I give you permission? Verily this is your master, who hath taught you magic. But I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on the opposite sides; and I will crucify you on trunks of palm-trees:d and ye shall know which of us is more severe in punishing, and can longer protract your
pains. They answered, We will by no means have greater regard unto thee than unto those evident miracles which have been shown us, or than unto him who hath created us. Pronounce therefore that sentence against us which thou art about to pronounce: for thou canst only give sentence as to this present life. Verily we believe in our LORD, that he may forgive us our sins, and the sorcery which thou hast forced us to exercise: for GOD is better to reward, and more able to prolong punishment than thou. Verily whosoever shall appear before his LORD on the day of judgment, polluted with crimes, shall have hell for his reward; he shall not die therein, neither shall he live. But whoever shall appear before him, having been a true believer, and shall have worked righteousness, for these are prepared the highest degrees of happiness; namely, gardens of perpetual abode,e which shall be watered by rivers; they shall remain therein forever: and this shall be the reward of him who shall be pure. And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying, Go forth with my servants out of Egypt by night; and smite the waters with thy rod, and make them a dry path through the sea:f be not apprehensive of Pharaoh's overtaking thee; neither be thou afraid. And when Moses had done so, Pharaoh followed them with his forces; and the waters of the sea overwhelmed them. And Pharaoh caused his people to err, neither did he direct them aright. Thus, O children of Israel, we delivered you from your enemy; and we appointed you the right side of Mount Sinai to discourse with Moses and to give him the law; and we caused manna and quails to descend upon you,g saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food; and transgress not therein,h lest my indignation fall on you; and on whomsoever my indignation shall fall, he shall go down headlong into perdition. But I will be gracious unto him who shall repent and believe, and shall do that which is right; and who shall be rightly directed. What hath caused thee to hasten from thy people, O Moses, to receive the law?i He answered, These follow close on my footsteps; but I have hastened unto thee, O LORD, that thou mightest be well pleased with me. God said, We have already made a trial of thy people, since thy departure;j and al Sâmerik hath
seduced them to idolatry. Wherefore Moses returned unto his peoplel in great wrath, and exceedingly afflicted. And he said, O my people, had not your LORD promised you a most excellent promise?m Did the time of my absence seem long unto you? Or did ye desire that indignation from your LORD should fall on you, and therefore failed to keep the promise which ye made me? They answered, We have not failed in what we promised thee of our own authority; but we were made to carry in several loads of gold and silver, of the ornaments of the people,n and we cast them into the fire; and in like manner al Sâmeri also cast in what he had collected, and he produced unto them a corporeal calf,o which lowed. And al Sâmeri and his companions said, This is your god, and the god of Moses; but he hath forgotten him, and is gone to seek some other. Did they not therefore see that their idol returned them no answer, and was not able to cause them either hurt or profit? And Aaron had said unto them before, O my people, verily ye are only proved by this calf; for your LORD is the Merciful: wherefore, follow me, and obey my command. They answered, We will by no means cease to be devoted to its worship, until Moses return unto us. And when Moses was returned, he said, O Aaron, what hindered thee, when thou sawest that they went astray, that thou didst not follow me?p Hast thou, therefore, been disobedient to my command? Aaron answered, O son of my mother, drag me not by the beard, nor by the hair of my head. Verily I feared lest thou shouldest say, Thou hast made a division among the children of Israel, and thou hast not observed my saying.q Moses said unto al Sâmeri, What was thy design, O Sâmeri? He answered, I saw that which they saw not;r
wherefore I took a handful of dust from the footsteps of the messenger of God, and I cast it into the molten calf;s for so did my mind direct me. Moses said, Get thee gone; for thy punishment in this life shall be, that thou shalt say unto those who shall meet thee, Touch me not;t and a threat is denounced against thee of more terrible pains, in the life to come, which thou shalt by no means escape. And behold now thy god, to whose worship thou hast continued assiduously devoted; verily we will burn it;u and we will reduce it to powder, and scatter it in the sea. Your GOD is the true GOD, besides whom there is no other god: he comprehendeth all things by his knowledge. Thus do we recite unto thee, O Mohammed, relations of what hath passed heretofore; and we have given thee an admonition from us. He who shall turn aside from it shall surely carry a load of guilt on the day of resurrection: they shall continue thereunder forever; and a grievous burden shall it be unto them on the day of resurrection;x On that day the trumpet shall be sounded; and we will gather the wicked together on that day, having grey eyes.y They shall speak with a low voice to one another, saying, Ye have not tarriedz above ten days. We well know what they will say; when the most conspicuous among them for behavior shall say, Ye have not tarried above one day. They will ask thee concerning the mountains: Answer, My LORD will reduce them to dust, and scatter them abroad;a and he will leave them a plain equally extended: thou shalt see no part of them higher or lower than another. On that day mankind shall follow the angel who will call them to judgment,b none shall have power to turn aside from him; and their voices shall be low before the Merciful, neither shalt thou hear any more than the hollow sound of their feet. On that day, the intercession of none shall be of advantage unto another, except the intercession of him
to whom the Merciful shall grant permission,c and who shall be acceptable unto him in what he saith. God knoweth that which is before them, and that which is behind them; but they comprehend not the same by their knowledge: and their faces shall be humbledd before the living, the self-subsisting God; and he shall be wretched who shall bear his iniquity. But whosoever shall do good works, being a true believer, shall not fear any injustice, or any diminution of his reward from God. And thus have we sent down this book, being a Koran in the Arabic tongue; and we have inserted various threats and promises therein, that men may fear God, or that it may awaken some consideration in them: wherefore, let GOD be highly exalted, the King, the Truth! Be not over-hasty in receiving or repeating the Koran before the revelation thereof be completed unto thee;e and say, LORD, increase my knowledge. We heretofore gave a command unto Adam; but he forgot the same,f and ate of the forbidden fruit; and we found not in him a firm resolution. And remember when we said unto the angels, Worship ye Adam; and they worshipped him: but Eblis refused.g And we said, O Adam, verily this is an enemy unto thee, and thy wife: wherefore, beware lest he turn you out of paradise; for then shalt thou be miserable. Verily we have made a provision for thee, that thou shalt not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be naked: and there is also a provision made for thee, that thou shalt not thirst therein, neither shalt thou be incommoded by heat. But Satan whispered evil suggestions unto him, saying, O Adam, shall I guide thee to the tree of eternity, and a kingdom which faileth not? And they both ate thereof: and their nakedness appeared unto them; and they began to sew together the leaves of paradise, to cover themselves.h And thus Adam became disobedient unto his LORD, and was seduced. Afterwards his LORD accepted him, on his repentance, and was turned unto him, and directed him. And God said, Get ye down hence, all of you: the one of you shall be an enemy unto the other. But hereafter shall a direction come unto you from me:i and whosoever shall follow my direction shall not err, neither shall he be unhappy; but whosoever shall turn aside from my admonition, verily he shall lead a miserable life, and we will cause him to appear before us on the day of resurrection, blind.j And he shall say, O LORD, why hast thou brought me before thee blind, whereas before I saw clearly? God shall
answer, Thus have we done, because our signs came unto thee, and thou didst forget them; and in the same manner shalt thou be forgotten this day. And thus will we reward him who shall be negligent, and shall not believe in the signs of his LORD: and the punishment of the life to come shall be more severe, and more lasting, than the punishment of this life. Are not the Meccans, therefore, acquainted how many generations we have destroyed before them; in whose dwellings they walk?k Verily herein are signs unto those who are endued with understanding. And unless a decree had previously gone forth from thy LORD for their respite, verily their destruction had necessarily followed: but there is a certain time determined by God for their punishment. Wherefore, do thou, O Mohammed, patiently bear that which they say; and celebrate the praise of thy LORD before the rising of the sun, and before the setting thereof, and praise him in the hours of the night, and in the extremities of the day,l that thou mayest be well-pleased with the prospect of receiving favor from God. And cast not thine eyes on that which we have granted divers of the unbelievers to enjoy, namely, the splendor of this present life,m that we may prove them thereby; for the provision of thy LORDn is better, and more permanent. Command thy family to observe prayer; and do thou persevere therein. We require not of thee that thou labor to gain necessary provisions for thyself and family; we will provide for thee; for the prosperous issue shall attend on piety.o The unbelievers say, Unless he come unto us with a sign from his LORD, we will not believe on him. Hath not a plain declaration come unto them, of that which is contained in the former volumes of scripture, by the revelation of the Koran? if we had destroyed them by a judgment before the same had been revealed, they would have said, at the resurrection, O LORD, how could we believe since thou didst not send unto us an apostle, that we might follow thy signs, before we were humbled and covered with shame? Say, Each of us wait the issue: wait, therefore; for ye shall surely know hereafter who have been the followers of the even way, and who hath been rightly directed.
ENTITLED, THE PROPHETS;p REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
(XVII.) THE time of giving up their account draweth nigh unto the people of Mecca; while they are sunk in negligence, turning aside from the consideration thereof. No admonition cometh unto them from their LORD, being lately revealed in the Koran, but when they hear it, they turn it to sport: their hearts are taken up with delights. And they who act unjustly discourse privately together, saying, Is this Mohammed any more than a man like yourselves? Will ye therefore come to hear a piece of sorcery, when ye plainly perceive it to be so? Say, My LORD knoweth whatever is spoken in heaven and on earth: it is he who heareth and knoweth. But they say, The Koran is a confused heap of dreams: nay, he hath forged it; nay, he is a poet: let him come unto us therefore with some miracle, in like manner as the former prophets were sent. None of the cities which we have destroyed believed the miracles which they saw performed before them: will these therefore believe, if they see a miracle? We sent none as our apostles before them, other than men, unto whom we revealed our will. Ask those who are acquainted with the scripture, if ye know not this. We gave them not a body which could be supported without their eating food; neither were they immortal. But we made good our promise unto them: wherefore we delivered them, and those whom we pleased; but we destroyed the exorbitant transgressors. Now have we sent down unto you, O Koreish, the book of the Koran; wherein there is honourable mention of you: will ye not therefore understand? And how many cities have we overthrown, which were ungodly; and caused other nations to rise up after them? And when they felt our severe vengeance, behold, they fled swiftly from those cities. And the angels said scoffingly unto them, Do not fly; but return to that wherein ye delighted, and to your habitations; peradventure ye will be asked.q They answered, Alas for us! verily we have been unjust.r And this their lamentation ceased not, until we had rendered them like corn which is mown down and utterly extinct. We created not the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, by way of
sport.s If we had pleased to take diversion, verily we had taken it with that which beseemeth us;t if we had resolved to have done this. But we will oppose truth to vanity, and it shall confound the same; and behold, it shall vanish away. Woe be unto you, for that which ye impiously utter concerning God! since whoever is in heaven and on earth is subject unto him; and the angels who are in his presence do not insolently disdain his service, neither are they tired therewith. They praise him night and day; they faint not. Have they taken gods from the earth? Shall they raise the dead to life? If there were either in heaven or on earth gods besides GOD, verily both would be corrupted.u But far be that which they utter from GOD, the LORD of the throne! No account shall be demanded of him for what he shall do; but an account shall be demanded of them. Have they taken other gods besides him! Say, Produce your proof thereof. This is the admonition of those who are contemporary with me, and the admonition of those who have been before me:x but the greater part of them know not the truth, and turn aside from the same. We have sent no apostle before thee, but we revealed unto him that there is no god beside myself, wherefore serve me. They say, The Merciful hath begotten issue; and the angels are his daughters.y GOD forbid! They are his honoured servants, they prevent him not in anything which they say;z and they execute his command. He knoweth that which is before them, and that which is behind them; they shall not intercede for any, except for whom it shall please him; and they tremble for fear of him. Whoever of them shall say, I am a god besides him; that angel will we reward with hell: for so will we reward the unjust. Do not the unbelievers therefore know, that the heavens and the earth were solid, and we clave the same in sunder;a and made every living thing of water? Will they not therefore believe? And we placed stable mountains on the earth, lest it should move with them;b and we made broad passages between them for paths, that they might be directed in their journeys: and we made
the heaven a roof well supported. Yet they turn aside from the signs thereof, not considering that they are the workmanship of God. It is he who hath created the night, and the day, and the sun, and the moon; all the celestial bodies move swiftly, each in its respective orb. We have not granted unto any man before thee eternal permanency in this world; if thou die, therefore, will they be immortal?c Every soul shall taste of death: and we will prove you with evil, and with good, for a trial of you; and unto us shall ye return. When the unbelievers see thee, they receive thee only with scoffing, saying, Is this he who mentioneth your gods with contempt? Yet themselves believe not what is mentioned to them of the Merciful.d Man is created of precipitation.e Hereafter will I show you my signs, so that ye shall not wish them to be hastened. They say, When will this threat be accomplished, if ye speak truth? If they who believe not knew that the time will surely come, when they shall not be able to drive back the fire of hell from their faces, nor from their backs, neither shall they be helped, they would not hasten it. But the day of vengeance shall come upon them suddenly, and shall strike them with astonishment: they shall not be able to avert it, neither shall they be respited. Other apostles have been mocked before thee; but the punishment which they scoffed at fell upon such of them as mocked. Say unto the scoffers, Who shall save you by night and by day from the Merciful? Yet they utterly neglect the remembrance of their LORD. Have they gods who will defend them, besides us? They are not able to help themselves; neither shall they be assisted against us by their companions, But we have permitted these men and their fathers to enjoy worldly prosperity, so long as life was continued unto them. Do they not perceive that we come unto the land of the unbelievers, and straiten the borders thereof? Shall they therefore be the conquerors? Say, I only preach unto you the revelation of God: but the deaf will not hear thy call, whenever they are preached unto. Yet if the least breath of the punishment of thy LORD touch them, they will surely say, Alas for us! verily we have been unjust. We will appoint just balances for the day of resurrection; neither shall any soul be injured at all: although the merit or guilt of an action be of the weight of a grain of mustard-seed only, we will produce it publicly; and there will be sufficient accountants with us. We formerly gave unto Moses and Aaron the law, being a distinctionf between good and evil, and a light and admonition unto the pious; who fear their LORD in secret, and who dread the hour of judgment. And this book also is a blessed admonition, which we have sent down from heaven: will ye therefore deny it? And we
gave unto Abraham his directiong heretofore, and we knew him to be worthy of the revelations wherewith he was favored. Remember when he said unto his father, and his people, What are these images, to which ye are so entirely devoted?h They answered, We found our fathers worshipping them. He said, Verily both ye and your fathers have been in a manifest error. They said, Dost thou seriously tell us the truth, or art thou one who jestest with us? He replied, Verily your LORD is the LORD of the heavens and the earth; it is he who hath created them: and I am one of those who bear witness thereof. By GOD, I will surely devise a plot against your idols, after ye shall have retired from them, and shall have turned your backs. And in the people's absence he went into the temple where the idols stood, and he brake them all in pieces, except the biggest of them; that they might lay the blame upon that.i And when they were returned, and saw the havoc which had been made, they said, Who hath done this to our gods? He is certainly an impious person. And certain of them answered, We heard a young man speak reproachfully of them: he is named Abraham. They said, Bring him therefore before the people, that they may bear witness against him. And when he was brought before the assembly, they said unto him, Hast thou done this unto our gods, O Abraham? He answered, Nay, that biggest of them hath done it: but ask them, if they can speak. And they returned unto themselves,j and said the one to the other, Verily ye are the impious persons. Afterwards they relapsed into their former obstinacy,k and said, Verily thou knowest that these speak not. Abraham answered, Do ye therefore worship, besides GOD, that which cannot profit you at all, neither can it hurt you? Fie on you: and upon that which ye worship besides GOD! Do ye not understand? They said, Burn him, and avenge your gods: if ye do this it will be well.l And when Abraham was cast into the burning pile, we said, O fire, be thou cold, and a preservation unto
Abraham.m And they sought to lay a plot against him: but we caused them to be the sufferers.n And we delivered him, and Lot, by bringing them into the land wherein we have blessed all creatures.o And we bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, as an additional gift: and we made all of them righteous persons. We also made them models of religion,p that they might direct others by our command: and we inspired into them the doing of good works, and the observance of prayer, and the giving of alms; and they served us. And unto Lot we gave wisdom and knowledge, and we delivered him out of the city which committed filthy crimes; for they were a wicked and insolent people;q and we led him into our mercy; for he was an upright person. And remember Noah, when he called for destruction on his people,r before the prophets above mentioned: and we heard him, and
delivered him and his family from a great strait: and we protected him from the people who accused our signs of falsehood; for they were a wicked people, wherefore we drowned them all. And remember David and Solomon, when they pronounced judgment concerning a field, when the sheep of certain people had fed therein by night, having no shepherd; and we were witnesses of their judgment: and we gave the understanding thereof unto Solomon.s And on all of them we bestowed wisdom, and knowledge. And we compelled the mountains to praise us, with David; and the birds also:t and we did this. And we taught him the art of making coats of mail for you,u that they may defend you in your wars: will ye therefore be thankful? And unto Solomon we subjected a strong wind:x it ran at his command to the land whereon we had bestowed our blessing:y and we knew all things. And we also subjected unto his command divers of the devils, who might dive to get pearls for him, and perform other work besides this;z and we watched over them.a And remember Job;b when he cried unto his
LORD, saying, Verily evil hath afflicted me: but thou art the most merciful of those who show mercy. Wherefore we heard him, and relieved him from the evil which was upon him: and we restored unto him his family, and as many more with them, through our mercy, and for an admonition unto those who serve God. And remember Ismael, and Edris,c and Dhu'lkefl.d All these were patient persons; wherefore we led them into our mercy; for they were righteous doers. And remember Dhu'lnun,e when he departed in wrath,f and thought that we could not exercise our power over him. And he cried out in the darkness,g saying, There is no GOD, besides thee: praise be unto thee! Verily I have been one of the unjust. Wherefore we heard him, and delivered him from affliction;h for so do we deliver the true believers. And remember Zacharias, when he called upon his LORD, saying, O LORD, leave me not childless: yet thou art the best heir. Wherefore we heard him, and we gave him John; and we rendered his wife fit for bearing a child unto him. These strove to excel in good works, and called upon us with love, and with fear; and humbled themselves before us. And remember her who preserved her virginity,i and into whom we breathed of our spirit; ordaining her and her son for a sign unto all creatures. Verily this your religion is one religion,j and I am your LORD; wherefore serve me. But the Jews and Christians have made schisms in the affair of their religion among themselves; but all of them shall appear before us. Whosoever shall do good works, being a true believer, there shall be no denial of the reward due to his endeavors; and we will surely write it down unto him. An inviolable prohibition is laid on every city which we shall have destroyed; for that they shall not return any more into the
world, until Gog and Magog shall have a passage opened for them,k and they shall hasten from every high hill,l and the certain promise shall draw near to be fulfilled: and behold, the eyes of the infidels shall be fixed with astonishment, and they shall say, Alas for us! we were formerly regardless of this day; yea, we were wicked doers. Verily both ye, O men of Mecca, and the idols which ye worship besides GOD, shall be cast as fuel into hell fire: ye shall go down into the same. If these were really gods, they would not go down into the same: and all of them shall remain therein forever. In that place shall they groan for anguish; and they shall not hear ought therein.m As for those unto whom the most excellent reward of paradise hath been predestinated by us, they shall be transported far off from the same;n they shall not hear the least sound thereof: and they shall continue forever in the felicity which their souls desire. The greatest terror shall not trouble them; and the angels shall meet them to congratulate them, saying, This is your day which ye were promised. On that day we will roll up the heavens, as the angel al Sijilo rolleth up the book wherein every man's actions are recorded. As we made the first creature out of nothing, so we will also reproduce it at the resurrection. This is a promise which it lieth on us to fulfil: we will surely perform it. And now have we written in the psalms, after the promulgation of the law, that my servants the righteous shall inherit the earth.p Verily in this book are contained sufficient means of salvation, unto people who serve God. We have not sent thee, O Mohammed, but as a mercy unto all creatures. Say, No other hath been revealed unto me, than that your GOD is one GOD: will ye therefore be resigned unto him? But if they turn their backs to the confession of God's unity, say, I proclaim war against you all equally:q but I know not whether that which ye are threatened withr be nigh, or whether it be far distant. Verily God knoweth the discourse which is spoken in public; and he also knoweth that which ye hold in private. I know not but peradventure the respite granted you is for a trial of you; and that he may enjoy
the prosperity of this world for a time. Say, LORD, judge between me and my adversaries with truth. Our LORD is the Merciful; whose assistance is to be implored against the blasphemies and calumnies which ye utter.
ENTITLED, THE PILGRIMAGE;s REVEALED AT MECCA.t
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O MEN of Mecca, fear your LORD. Verily the shock of the last houru will be a terrible thing. On the day whereon ye shall see it, every woman who giveth suck shall forget the infant which she suckleth,x and every female that is with young shall cast her burden; and thou shalt see men seemingly drunk, yet they shall not be really drunk: but the punishment of GOD will be severe. There is a man who disputeth concerning GOD without knowledge,y and followeth every rebellious devil: against whom it is written, that whoever shall take him for his patron, he shall surely seduce him, and shall lead him into the torment of hell. O men, if ye be in doubt concerning the resurrection, consider that we first created you of the dust of the ground; afterwards, of seed; afterwards, of a little coagulated blood;z afterwards, of a piece of flesh, perfectly formed in part, and in part imperfectly formed; that we might make our power manifest unto you: and we caused that which we please to rest in the wombs, until the appointed time of delivery. Then we bring you forth infants; and afterwards we permit you to attain your age of full strength: and one of you dieth in his youth, and another of you is postponed to a decrepit age, so that he forgetteth whatever he knew. Thou seest the earth sometimes dried up and barren: but when we send down rain thereon, it is put in motion and swelleth, and produceth every kind of luxuriant vegetables. This showeth that GOD is the truth, and that he raiseth the dead to life, and that he is almighty; and that the hour of judgment will surely come (there is no doubt
thereof), and that GOD will raise again those who are in the graves. There is a man who disputeth concerning GOD without either knowledge, or a direction, or an enlightening book;a proudly turning his side, that he may seduce men from the way of GOD. Ignominy shall attend him in this world; and on the day of resurrection we will make him taste the torment of burning, when it shall be said unto him. This thou sufferest because of that which thy hands have formerly committed; for GOD is not unjust towards mankind. There are some men who serve GOD in a wavering manner, standing, as it were, on the vergeb of the true religion. If good befall one of them, he resteth satisfied therein; but if any tribulation befall him, he turneth himself round, with the loss both of this world, and of the life to come. This is manifest perdition. He will call upon that, besides GOD, which can neither hurt him, nor profit him. This is an error remote from truth. He will invoke him who will sooner be of hurt to his worshipper than of advantage. Such is surely a miserable patron, and a miserable companion. But GOD will introduce those who shall believe, and do righteous works, into gardens through which rivers flow; for GOD doth that which he pleaseth. Whoso thinketh that GOD will not assist his apostle in this world, and in the world to come, let him strain a rope towards heaven, then let him put an end to his life, and see whether his devices can render that ineffectual, for which he was angry.c Thus do we send down the Koran, being evident signs: for GOD directeth whom he pleaseth. As to the true believers, and those who Judaize, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Magians, and the idolaters; verily GOD shall judge between them on the day of resurrection; for GOD is witness of all things. Dost thou not perceive that all creatures both in heaven and on earth adore GOD;d and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the beasts, and many men? but many are worthy of chastisement: and whomsoever GOD shall render despicable, there shall be none to honour; for GOD doth that which he pleaseth. These are two
opposite parties, who dispute concerning their LORD.e And they who believe not shall have garments of fire fitted unto them: boiling water shall be poured on their heads; their bowels shall be dissolved thereby, and also their skins; and they shall be beaten with maces of iron. So often as they shall endeavor to get out of hell, because of the anguish of their torments, they shall be dragged back into the same; and their tormentors shall say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning. GOD will introduce those who shall believe, and act righteously, into gardens through which rivers flow: they shall be adorned therein with bracelets of gold, and pearls; and their vestures therein shall be silk. They are directed unto a good saying;f and are directed into the honourable way. But they who shall disbelieve, and obstruct the way of GOD, and hinder men from visiting the holy temple of Mecca, which we have appointed for a place of worship unto all men: the inhabitant thereof, and the stranger have an equal right to visit it: and whosoever shall seek impiously to profane it, we will cause him to taste a grievous torment. Call to mind when we gave the site of the house of the Caaba for an abode unto Abraham,g saying, Do not associate anything with me; and cleanse my house for those who compass it, and who stand up, and who bow down to worship. And proclaim unto the people a solemn pilgrimage;h let them come unto thee on foot, and on every lean camel, arriving from every distant road; that they may be witnesses of the advantages which accrue to them from the visiting this holy place,i and may commemorate the name of GOD on the appointed days,j in gratitude for the brute cattle which he hath bestowed on them. Wherefore eat thereof, and feed the needy, and the poor. Afterwards let them put an end to the neglect of their persons;k and let them pay their vows,l
and compass the ancient house.m This let them do. And whoever shall regard the sacred ordinances of GOD;n this will be better for him in the sight of his LORD. All sorts of cattle are allowed you to eat, except what hath been read unto you, in former passages of the Koran, to be forbidden. But depart from the abomination of idols, and avoid speaking that which is false:o being orthodox in respect to GOD, associating no other god with him; for whoever associateth, any other with GOD is like that which falleth from heaven, and which the birds snatch away, or the wind bloweth to a far distant place.p This is so. And whoso maketh valuable offerings unto GOD;q verily they proceed from the piety of men's hearts. Ye receive various advantages from the cattle designed for sacrifices, until a determined time for slaying them: then the place of sacrificing them is at the ancient house. Unto the professors of every religionr have we appointed certain rites, that they may commemorate the name of GOD on slaying the brute cattle which he hath provided for them. Your GOD is one GOD: wherefore resign yourselves wholly unto him. And do thou bear good tidings unto those who humble themselves; whose hearts, when mention is made of GOD, are struck with fear; and unto those who patiently endure that which befalleth them; and who duly perform their prayers, and give alms out of what we have bestowed on them. The camels slain for sacrifice have we appointed for you as symbols of your obedience unto GOD: ye also receive other advantages from them. Wherefore commemorate the name of GOD over them, when ye slay them, standing on their feet disposed in right order:s and when they are fallen down dead, eat of them; and give to eat thereof both unto him who is content with what is given him, without asking, and unto him who asketh.t Thus have we given you
dominion over them, that ye might return us thanks. Their flesh is not accepted of GOD, neither their blood; but your piety is accepted of him. Thus have we given you dominion over them, that ye might magnify GOD, for the revelations whereby he hath directed you. And bear good tidings unto the righteous, that GOD will repel the ill designs of the infidels from the true believers; for GOD loveth not every perfidious unbeliever. Permission is granted unto those who take arms against the unbelievers, for that they have been unjustly persecuted by them (and GOD is certainly able to assist them): who have been turned out of their habitations injuriously, and for no other reason than because they say, Our LORD is GOD.u And if GOD did not repel the violence of some men by others, verily monasteries, and churches, and synagogues, and the temples of the Moslems, wherein the name of GOD is frequently commemorated, would be utterly demolished.x And GOD will certainly assist him who shall be on his side: for GOD is strong and mighty. And he will assist those who, if we establish them in the earth, will observe prayer, and give alms, and command that which is just, and forbid that which is unjust. And unto GOD shall be the end of all things. If they accuse thee, O Mohammed, of imposture; consider that, before them, O Mohammed, of imposture; consider that, before them, the people of Noah, and the tribes of Ad and Thamud, and the people of Abraham, and the people of Lot, and the inhabitants of Madian, accused their prophets of imposture: and Moses was also charged with falsehood. And I granted a long respite unto the unbelievers: but afterwards I chastised them; and how different was the change I made in their condition! How many cities have we destroyed, which were ungodly, and which are now fallen to ruin on their roofs? And how many wells have been abandoned,y and lofty castles? Do they not therefore journey through the land? And have they not hearts to understand with, or ears to hear with? Surely as to these things their eyes are not blind, but the hearts are blind which are in their breasts. They will urge thee to hasten the threatened punishment; but GOD will not fail to perform what he hath threatened: and verily one day with thy LORD is as a thousand years, of those which ye compute.z Unto how many cities have I granted respite, though they were wicked? Yet afterwards I chastised them: and unto me shall they come to be judged at the last day. Say, O men, verily I am only a
public preacher unto you. And they who believe, and do good works, shall obtain forgiveness and an honourable provision. But those who endeavor to make our signs of none effect shall be the inhabitants of hell. We have sent no apostle, or prophet, before thee, but, when he read, Satan suggested some error in his reading.a But GOD shall make void that which Satan hath suggested: then shall GOD confirm his signs; for GOD is knowing and wise. But this he permitteth, that he may make that which Satan hath suggested, a temptation unto those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, and whose hearts are hardened (for the ungodly are certainly in a wide disagreement from the truth): and that they on whom knowledge hath been bestowed may know that this book is the truth from thy LORD, and may believe therein; and that their hearts may acquiesce in the same: for GOD is surely the director of those who believe, into the right way. But the infidels will not cease to doubt concerning it, until the hour of judgment cometh suddenly upon them; or until the punishment of a grievous dayb overtake them. On that day the kingdom shall be GOD'S: he shall judge between them. And they who shall have believed, and shall have wrought righteousness, shall be in gardens of pleasure; but they who shall have disbelieved, and shall have charged our signs with falsehood, those shall suffer a shameful punishment. And as to those who shall have fled their country for the sake of GOD'S true religion, and afterwards shall have been slain, or shall have died; on them will GOD bestow an excellent provision; and GOD is the best provider. He will surely introduce them with an introduction with which they shall be well pleased; for GOD is knowing and gracious. This is so. Whoever shall take a vengeance equal to the injury which hath been done him,c and shall afterwards be unjustly treated;d verily GOD will assist him: for GOD is merciful, and ready to forgive. This shall be done, for that GOD causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night; and for that GOD both heareth and seeth. This, because GOD is truth, and because what they invoke besides him is
vanity; and for that GOD is the high, the mighty. Dost thou not see that GOD sendeth down water from heaven, and the earth becometh green? for GOD is gracious and wise. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: and GOD is self-sufficient, worthy to be praised. Dost thou not see that GOD hath subjected whatever is in the earth to your service, and also the ships which sail in the sea, by his command? And he withholdeth the heaven that it fall not on the earth, unless by his permission:e for GOD is gracious unto mankind, and merciful. It is he who hath given you life, and will hereafter cause you to die; afterwards he will again raise you to life, at the resurrection: but man is surely ungrateful. Unto the professors of every religion have we appointed certain rites, which they observe. Let them not therefore dispute with thee concerning this matter: but invite them unto thy LORD: for thou followest the right direction. But if they enter into debate with thee, answer, GOD well knoweth that which ye do: GOD will judge between you on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein ye now disagree. Dost thou not know that GOD knoweth whatever is in heaven and on earth? Verily this is written in the book of his decrees: this is easy with GOD. They worship, besides GOD, that concerning which he hath sent down no convincing proof, and concerning which they have no knowledge: but the unjust doers shall have none to assist them. And when our evident signs are rehearsed unto them, thou mayest perceive, in the countenances of the unbelievers, a disdain thereof: it wanteth little but that they rush with violence on those who rehearse our signs unto them. Say, Shall I declare unto you a worse thing than this? The fire of hell, which GOD hath threatened unto those who believe not, is worse; and an unhappy journey shall it be thither. O men, a parable is propounded unto you; wherefore hearken unto it. Verily the idols which ye invoke, besides GOD, can never create a single fly, although they were all assembled for that purpose: and if the fly snatch anything from them, they cannot recover the same from it.f Weak is the petitioner, and the petitioned. They judge not of GOD according to his due estimation: for GOD is powerful and mighty. GOD chooseth messengers from among the angels,g and from among men: for GOD is he who heareth and seeth. He knoweth that which is before them, and that which is behind them: and unto GOD shall all things return. O true believers, bow down, and prostrate yourselves, and worship your LORD; and work righteousness, that ye may be happy: and fight in defence of GOD'S true religion, as it behooveth you to fight for the same. He hath chosen you, and hath not imposed on you any difficulty in the religion
which he hath given you, the religion of your father Abraham: he hath named you Moslems heretofore, and in this book; that our apostle may be a witness against you at the day of judgment, and that ye may be witnesses against the rest of mankind. Wherefore be ye constant at prayer; and give alms: and adhere firmly unto GOD. He is your master; and he is the best master, and the best protector.
ENTITLED, THE TRUE BELIEVERS; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
(XVIII.) NOW are the true believers happy: who humble themselves in their prayer, and who eschew all vain discourse, and who are doers of alms-deeds; and who keep themselves from carnal knowledge of any women except their wives, or the captives which their right hands possess (for as to them they shall be blameless: but whosoever coveteth any woman beyond these, they are transgressors): and who acquit themselves faithfully of their trust, and justly perform their covenant; and who observe their appointed times of prayer: these shall be the heirs, who shall inherit paradise; they shall continue therein forever. We formerly created man in a finer sort of clay; afterwards we placed him in the form of seed in a sure receptacle:h afterwards we made the seed coagulated blood; and we formed the coagulated blood into a piece of flesh: then we formed the piece of flesh into bones: and we clothed those bones with flesh: then we produced the same by another creation.i Wherefore blessed be GOD, the most excellent Creator!j After this shall ye die: and afterwards shall ye be restored to life, on the day of resurrection. And we have created over you seven heavens:k and we are not negligent of what we have created. And we send down rain from heaven, by measure; and we cause it to remain on the earth: we are also certainly able to deprive you of the same. And we cause gardens of palm-trees, and vineyards, to spring forth for you by means thereof; wherein ye have many fruits, and whereof ye eat. And we also raise for you a tree springing from Mount Sinai;l which produceth oil, and
a sauce for those who eat. Ye have likewise an instruction in the cattle; we give you to drink of the milk which is in their bellies, and ye receive many advantages from them; and of them do ye eat: and on them, and on ships, are ye carried.m We sent Noah heretofore unto his people, and he said, O my people, serve GOD: ye have no GOD besides him; will ye therefore not fear the consequence of your worshipping other gods? And the chiefs of his people, who believed not, said, This is no other than a man, as ye are: he seeketh to raise himself to a superiority over you. If GOD had pleased to have sent a messenger unto you, he would surely have sent angels: we have not heard this of our fore-fathers. Verily he is no other than a man disturbed with frenzy: wherefore wait concerning him for a time. Noah said, O LORD, do thou protect me; for that they accuse me of falsehood. And we revealed our orders unto him, saying, Make the ark in our sight; and according to our revelation. And when our decree cometh to be executed, and the oven shall boil and pour forth water, carry into it of every species of animals one pair; and also thy family, except such of them on whom a previous sentence of destruction hath passed:n and speak not unto me in behalf of those who have been unjust; for they shall be drowned. And when thou and they who shall be with thee shall go up into the ark, say Praise be unto GOD, who hath delivered us from the ungodly people! And say, O LORD, cause me to come down from this ark with a blessed descent; for thou art the best able to bring me down from the same with safety. Verily herein were signs of our omnipotence; and we proved mankind thereby. Afterwards we raised up another generationo after them; and we sent unto them an apostle from among them,p who said, Worship GOD: ye have no GOD besides him; will ye therefore not fear his vengeance? And the chiefs of his people, who believed not, and who denied the meeting of the life to come, and on whom we had bestowed affluence in this present life, said, This is no other than a man, as ye are; he eateth of that whereof ye eat, and he drinketh of that whereof ye drink: and if ye obey a man like unto yourselves, ye will surely be sufferers. Doth he threaten you that after ye shall be dead, and shall become dust and bones, ye shall be brought forth alive from your graves? Away, away with that ye are threatened with! There is no other life besides our present life: we die, and we live; and we shall not be raised again. This is no other than a man, who deviseth a lie concerning GOD: but we will not believe him. Their apostle said, O LORD, defend me; for that they have accused me of imposture. God answered, After a little while they shall surely repent their obstinacy. Wherefore a severe punishment was justly inflicted on them, and we rendered them like the refuse which is carried down by a stream. Away therefore with the ungodly people! Afterwards we raised up other generationsq after
them. No nation shall be punished before their determined time; neither shall they be respited after. Afterwards we sent our apostles, one after another. So often as their apostle came unto any nation, they charged him with imposture: and we caused them successively to follow one another to destruction; and we made them only subjects of traditional stories. Away therefore with the unbelieving nations! Afterwards we sent Moses, and Aaron his brother, with our signs and manifest power, unto Pharaoh and his princes: but they proudly refused to believe on him; for they were a haughty people. And they said, Shall we believe on two men like unto ourselves; whose people are our servants? And they accused them of imposture: wherefore they became of the number of those who were destroyed. And we heretofore gave the book of the law unto Moses, that the children of Israel might be directed thereby. And we appointed the son of Mary, and his mother, for a sign: and we prepared an abode for them in an elevated part of the earth,r being a place of quiet and security, and watered with running springs. O apostles, eat of those things which are good;s and work righteousness: for I well know that which ye do. This your religion is one religion;t and I am your LORD: wherefore fear me. But men have rent the affair of their religion into various sects: every party rejoiceth in that which they follow. Wherefore leave them in their confusion, until a certain time.u Do they think that we hasten unto them the wealth and children which we have abundantly bestowed on them, for their good? But they do not understand. Verily they who stand in awe, for fear of their LORD, and who believe in the signs of their LORD, and who attribute not companions unto their LORD; and who give that which they give in alms, their hearts being struck with dread, for that they must return unto their LORD: these hasten unto good, and are foremost to obtain the same. We will not impose any difficulty on a soul, except according to its ability; with us is a book, which speaketh the truth; and they shall not be injured. But their hearts are drowned in negligence, as to this matter: and they have works different from those we have mentioned; which they will continue to do, until when we chastise such of them as enjoy an affluence of fortune, by a severe punishment,x behold, they cry aloud for help: but it shall be
answered them, Cry not for help to-day: for ye shall not be assisted by us. My signs were read unto you, but ye turned back on your heels: proudly elating yourselves because of your possessing the holy temple; discoursing together by night, and talking foolishly. Do they not therefore attentively consider that which is spoken unto them; whether a revelation is come unto them which came not unto their fore-fathers? Or do they not know their apostle; and therefore reject him? Or do they say, He is a madman? Nay, he hath come unto them with the truth; but the greater part of them detest the truth. If the truth had followed their desires, verily the heavens and the earth, and whoever therein is, had been corrupted.y But we have brought them their admonition; and they turn aside from their admonition. Dost thou ask of them any maintenance for thy preaching? since the maintenance of thy LORD is better; for he is the most bounteous provider. Thou certainly invitest them to the right way: and they who believe not in the life to come, do surely deviate from that way. If we had had compassion on them, and taken off from them the calamity which had befallen them,z they would surely have more obstinately persisted in their error, wandering in confusion. We formerly chastised them with a punishment:a yet they did not humble themselves before their LORD, neither did they make supplications unto him; until, when we have opened upon them a door, from which a severe punishmentb hath issued, behold they are driven to despair thereat. It is God who hath created in you the senses of hearing and of sight, that ye may perceive our judgments, and hearts, that ye may seriously consider them: yet how few of you give thanks! It is he who hath produced you in the earth; and before him shall ye be assembled. It is he who giveth life, and putteth to death; and to him is to be attributed the vicissitude of night and day: do ye not therefore understand? But the unbelieving Meccans say as their predecessors said: they say, When we shall be dead, and shall have become dust and bones, shall we really be raised to life? We have already been threatened with this, and our fathers also heretofore: this is nothing but fables of the ancients. Say, Whose is the earth, and whoever therein is, if ye know? They will answer, GOD'S. Say, Will ye not therefore consider? Say, Who is the LORD of the seven heavens, and the LORD of the magnificent throne? They will answer, They are GOD'S. Say, Will ye not therefore fear him? Say, In whose hand is the kingdom of all things; who protecteth whom he pleaseth, but is himself protected of none; if ye know? They will answer, In GOD'S. Say, How therefore are ye bewitched? Yea,
we have brought them the truth; and they are certainly liars in denying the same. GOD hath not begotten issue; neither is there any other god with him: otherwise every god had surely taken away that which he had created;c and some of them had exalted themselves above the others.d Far be that from GOD, which they affirm of him! He knoweth that which is concealed, and that which is made public: wherefore far be it from him to have those sharers in his honour which they attribute to him! Say, O LORD, If thou wilt surely cause me to see the vengeance with which they have been threatened; O LORD, set me not among the ungodly people: for we are surely able to make thee see that with which we have threatened them. Turn aside evil with that which is better:e we well know the calumnies which they utter against thee. And say, O LORD I fly unto thee for refuge, against the suggestions of the devils and I have recourse unto thee, O LORD, to drive them away, that they be not present with me.f The gainsaying of the unbelievers ceaseth not until, when death overtaketh any of them, he saith, O LORD, suffer me to return to life, that I may do that which is right; in professing the true faith which I have neglected.g By no means. Verily these are the words which ye shall speak: but behind them there shall be a bar,h until the day of resurrection. When therefore the trumpet shall be sounded, there shall be no relation between them which shall be regarded on that day; neither shall they ask assistance of each other. They whose balances shall be heavy with good works shall be happy; but they whose balances shall be light are those who shall lose their souls, and shall remain in hell for ever.i The fire shall scorch their faces, and they shall writhe their mouths therein for anguish: and it shall be said unto them, Were not my signs rehearsed unto you; and did ye not charge them with falsehood? They shall answer, O LORD, our unhappiness prevailed over us, and we were people who sent astray. O LORD, take us forth from this fire: if we return to our
former wickedness, we shall surely be unjust. God will say unto them, Be ye driven away with ignominy thereinto: and speak not unto me to deliver you. Verily there were a party of my servants, who said, O LORD, we believe: wherefore forgive us, and be merciful unto us; for thou art the best of those who show mercy. But ye received them with scoffs, so that they suffered you to forget my admonition,j and ye laughed them to scorn. I have this day rewarded them, for that they suffered the injuries ye offered them with patience: verily they enjoy great felicity. God will say, What number of years have ye continued on earth? They will answer, We have continued there a day, or part of a day:k but ask those who keep account.l God will say, Ye have tarried but a while, if ye knew it. Did ye think that we had created you in sport, and that ye should not be brought again before us? Wherefore let GOD be exalted, the King, the Truth! There is no GOD besides him, the LORD of the honourable throne. Whoever together with the true GOD shall invoke another god, concerning whom he hath no demonstrative proof, shall surely be brought to an account for the same before his LORD. Verily the infidels shall not prosper. Say, O LORD, pardon, and show mercy; for thou art the best of those who show mercy.
ENTITLED, LIGHT;m REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THIS Sura have we sent down from heaven; and have ratified the same; and we have revealed evident signs, that ye may be warned. The whore, and the whoremonger, shall ye scourge with a hundred stripes.n And let not compassion towards them prevent you from executing the judgment of GOD;o if ye believe in GOD
and the last day: and let some of the true believers be witnesses of their punishment.p The whoremonger shall not marry any other than a harlot, or an idolatress. And a harlot shall no man take in marriage, except a whoremonger, or an idolater. And this kind of marriage is forbidden the true believers.q But as to those who accuse women of reputation of whoredom,r and produce not four witnesses of the fact,s scourge them with fourscore stripes, and receive not their testimony forever; for such are infamous prevaricators; excepting those who shall afterwards repent, and amend; for unto such will GOD be gracious and merciful. They who shall accuse their wives of adultery, and shall have no witnesses thereof, besides themselves; the testimony which shall be required of one of them shall be, that he swear four times by GOD that he speaketh the truth: and the fifth time that he imprecate the curse of GOD on him if he be a liar. And it shall avert the punishment from the wife, if she swear four times by GOD that he is a liar; and if the fifth time she imprecate the wrath of GOD on her, if he speaketh the truth.t If it were not for the indulgence of GOD towards you, and his mercy, and that GOD is easy to be reconciled, and wise, he would immediately discover your crimes. As to the party among you who have published the falsehood concerning Ayesha,u think it not to be an evil
unto you: on the contrary, it is better for you.x Every man of them shall be punished according to the injustice of which he hath been guilty;y and he among them who hath undertaken to aggravate the samez shall suffer a grievous punishment. Did not the faithful men, and the faithful women, when ye heard this, judge in their own minds for the best; and say, This is a manifest falsehood? Have they produced four witnesses thereof? wherefore since they have not produced the witnesses, they are surely liars in the sight of GOD. Had it not been for the indulgence of GOD towards you, and his mercy, in this world and in that which is to come, verily a grievous punishment had been inflicted on you, for the calumny which ye have spread: when ye published that with your tongues, and spoke that with your mouths, of which ye had no knowledge; and esteemed it to be light, whereas it was a matter of importance in the sight of GOD. When ye heard it, did ye say, It belongeth not unto us, that we should talk of this matter: GOD forbid! this is a grievous calumny. GOD warneth you, that ye return not to the like crime forever; if ye be true believers. And GOD declareth unto you his signs; for GOD is knowing and wise. Verily they who love that scandal be published of those who believe, shall receive a severe punishment both in this world and in the next. GOD knoweth, but ye know not. Had it not been for the indulgence of GOD towards you and his mercy, and that GOD is gracious and merciful, ye had felt his vengeance. O true believers, follow not the steps of the devil: for whosoever shall follow the steps of the devil, he will command them filthy crimes, and that which is unlawful. If it were not for the indulgence of GOD, and his mercy towards you, there had not been so much as one of you cleansed from his guilt forever: but GOD cleanseth whom he pleaseth; for GOD both heareth and knoweth. Let not those among you, who possess abundance of wealth and have ability, swear that
they will not give unto their kindred, and the poor, and those who have fled their country for the sake of GOD'S true religion: but let them forgive, and act with benevolence towards them. Do ye not desire that GOD should pardon you?a And GOD is gracious and merciful. Moreover they who falsely accuse modest women, who behave in a negligent manner,b and are true believers, shall be cursed in this world, and in the world to come; and they shall suffer a severe punishment.c One day their own tongues shall bear witness against them, and their hands, and their feet, concerning that which they have done. On that day shall GOD render unto them their just due; and they shall know that GOD is the evident truth. The wicked women should be joined to the wicked men, and the wicked men to the wicked women; but the good women should be married to the good men, and the good men to the good women. These shall be cleared from the calumnies which slanderers speak of them;d they shall obtain pardon, and an honourable provision. O true believers, enter not any houses, besides your own houses, until ye have asked leave, and have saluted the family thereof:e this is better for you; peradventure ye will be admonished. And if ye shall find no person in the houses, yet do not enter them, until leave be granted you: and if it be said unto you, Return back, do ye return back. This will be more decent for you:f and GOD knoweth that which ye do. It shall be no crime in you, that ye enter uninhabited houses,g wherein ye may meet with a convenience. GOD knoweth that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal. Speak unto the true believers, that they restrain their eyes, and keep themselves from immodest actions: this will be more pure for them; for GOD is well acquainted with that which they do. And speak unto the believing women, that they restrain their eyes, and preserve their modesty, and discover not their
ornaments,h except what necessarily appeareth thereof;i and let them throw their veils over their bosoms,j and not show their ornaments, unless to their husbands,k or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons,l or their women,m or the captives which their right hands shall possess,n or unto such men as attend them, and have no need of women,o or unto children, who distinguish not the nakedness of women. And let them not make a noise with their feet, that their ornaments which they hide may thereby be discovered.p And be ye all turned unto GOD, O true believers, that ye may be happy. Marry those who are singleq among you, and such as are honest of your men-servants and your maid-servants: if they be poor, GOD will enrich them of his abundance; for GOD is bounteous and wise. And let those who find not a match, keep themselves from fornication, until GOD shall enrich them of his abundance. And unto such of your slavesr as desire a written instrument allowing them to redeem themselves on paying a certain sum,s write one, if ye know good in
them;t and give them of the riches of GOD, which he hath given you.u And compel not your maid-servants to prostitute themselves, if they be willing to live chastely; that ye may seek the casual advantage of this present life;x but whoever shall compel them thereto, verily GOD will be gracious and merciful unto such women after their compulsion. And now have we revealed unto you evident signs, and a history like unto some of the histories of those who have gone before you,y and an admonition unto the pious. GOD is the light of heaven and earth: the similitude of his light is as a niche in a wall, wherein a lamp is placed, and the lamp enclosed in a case of glass; the glass appears as it were a shining star. It is lighted with the oil of a blessed tree, an olive neither of the east, nor of the west:z it wanteth little but that the oil thereof would give light, although no fire touched it. This is light added unto light:a GOD will direct unto his light whom he pleaseth. GOD propoundeth parables unto men; for GOD knoweth all things. In the houses which GOD hath permitted to be raised,b and that his name be commemorated therein! men celebrate his praise in the same, morning and evening, whom neither merchandising nor selling diverteth from the remembering of GOD, and the observance of prayer, and the giving of alms; fearing the day whereon men's hearts and eyes shall be troubled; that GOD may recompense them according to the utmost merit of what they shall have wrought, and may add unto them of his abundance a more excellent reward; for GOD bestoweth on whom he pleaseth without measure. But as to the unbelievers, their works are like the vapor in a plain,c which the thirsty traveller thinketh to be water, until,
when he cometh thereto, he findeth it to be nothing; but he findeth GOD with him,d and he will fully pay him his account; and GOD is swift in taking an account; or, as the darkness in a deep sea, covered by waves riding on waves, above which are clouds, being additions of darkness one over the other; when one stretcheth forth his hand, he is far from seeing it. And unto whomsoever GOD shall not grant his light, he shall enjoy no light at all. Dost thou not perceive that all creatures both in heaven and earth praise GOD: and the birds also, extending their wings? Every one knoweth his prayer, and his praise: and GOD knoweth that which they do. Unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth; and unto GOD shall be the return at the last day. Dost thou not see that GOD gently driveth forward the clouds, and gathereth them together, and then layeth them on heaps? Thou also seest the rain, which falleth from the midst thereof; and God sendeth down from heaven as it were mountains, wherein there is hail; he striketh therewith whom he pleaseth, and turneth the same away from whom he pleaseth: the brightness of his lightning wanteth but little of taking away the sight. GOD shifteth the night, and the day: verily herein is an instruction unto those who have sight. And GOD hath created every animal of water;e one of them goeth on his belly, and another of them walketh upon two feet, and another of them walketh upon four feet: GOD createth that which he pleaseth; for GOD is almighty. Now have we sent down evident signs: and GOD directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. The hypocrites say, We believe in GOD, and on his apostle; and we obey them: yet a part of them turneth back, after this; but these are not really believers. And when they are summoned before GOD and his apostle, that he may judge between them; behold, a part of them retire: but if the right had been on their side, they would have come and submitted themselves unto him. Is there an infirmity in their hearts? Do they doubt? Or do they fear lest GOD and his apostle act unjustly towards them? But themselves are the unjust doers.f The saying of the true believers, when they are summoned before GOD and his apostle, that he may judge between them, is no other than that they say, We have heard, and do obey: and these are they who shall prosper. Whoever shall obey GOD and his apostle, and shall fear GOD, and shall be devout towards him; these shall enjoy great felicity. They swear by GOD, with a most solemn oath, that if thou commandest them, they will go forth from their houses and possessions. Say, Swear not to a falsehood: obedience is
more requisite: and GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. Say, Obey GOD, and obey the apostle: but if ye turn back, verily it is expected of him that he perform his duty, and of you that ye perform your duty; and if ye obey him, ye shall be directed, but the duty of our apostle is only public preaching. GOD promiseth unto such of you as believe, and do good works, that he will cause them to succeed the unbelievers in the earth, as he caused those who were before you to succeed the infidels of their time;g and that he will establish for them their religion which pleaseth them, and will change their fear into security. They shall worship me; and shall not associate any other with me. But whoever shall disbelieve after this, they will be the wicked doers. Observe prayer, and give alms, and obey the apostle; that ye may obtain mercy. Think not that the unbelievers shall frustrate the designs of God on earth: and their abode hereafter shall be hell fire; a miserable journey shall it be thither! O true believers, let your slaves and those among you who shall not have attained the age of puberty, ask leave of you, before they come into your presence, three times in the day;h namely, before the morning prayer,i and when ye lay aside your garments at noon,j and after the evening prayer.k These are the three times for you to be private: it shall be no crime in you, or in them, if they go in to you without asking permission after these times, while ye are in frequent attendance, the one of you on the other. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you; for GOD is knowing and wise. And when your children attain the age of puberty, let them ask leave to come into your presence at all times, in the same manner as those who have attained that age before them, ask leave. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you; and GOD is knowing and wise. As to such women as are past child-bearing, who hope not to marry again, because of their advanced age; it shall be no crime in them, if they lay aside their outer garments, not showing their ornaments; but if they abstain from this, it will be better for them.l GOD both heareth and knoweth. It shall be no crime in the blind, nor shall it be any crime in the lame, neither shall it be any crime in the sick, or in yourselves, that ye eat in your houses,m or in
the houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers, or in the houses of your brothers, or the houses of your sisters, or the houses of your uncles on the father's side, or the houses of your aunts on the father's side, or the houses of your uncles on the mother's side, the houses of your aunts on the mother's side, or in those houses the keys whereof ye have in your possession, or in the house of your friend. It shall not be any crime in you whether ye eat together, or separately.n And when ye enter any houses, salute one anothero on the part of GOD, with a blessed and a welcome salutation. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may understand. Verily they only are true believers, who believe in GOD and his apostle, and when they are assembled with him on any affair,p depart not, until they have obtained leave of him. Verily they who ask leave of thee are those who believe in GOD and his apostle. When therefore they ask leave of thee to depart, on account of any business of their own, grant leave unto such of them as thou shalt think fit, and ask pardon for them of GOD;q for GOD is gracious and merciful. Let not the calling of the apostle be esteemed among you, as your calling the one to the other.r GOD knoweth such of you as privately withdraw themselves from the assembly, taking shelter behind one another. But let those who withstand his command take heed, lest some calamity befall them in this world, or a grievous punishment be inflicted on them in the life to come. Doth not whatever is in heaven and on earth belong unto GOD? He well knoweth what ye are about: and on a certain day they shall be assembled before him; and he shall declare unto them that which they have done; for GOD knoweth all things.
ENTITLED, AL FORKAN; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BLESSED be he who hath revealed the Forkans unto his servant, that he may be a preacher to all creatures: unto whom belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth: who hath begotten no issue; and hath no partner in his kingdom: who hath created all things, and disposed the same according to his determinate will. Yet have they taken other gods besides him; which have created nothing, but are themselves created:t and are able neither to avert evil from, nor to procure good unto themselves; and have not the power of death, or of life, or of raising the dead. And the unbelievers say, This Koran is no other than a forgery which he hath contrived; and other people have assisted him therein:u but they utter an unjust thing, and a falsehood. They also say, These are fables of the ancients, which he hath caused to be written down; and they are dictated unto him morning and evening. Say, He hath revealed it, who knoweth the secrets in heaven and earth: verily he is gracious and merciful. And they say, What kind of apostle is this? He eateth food, and walketh in the streets,x as we do: unless an angel be sent down unto him, and become a fellow preacher with him; or unless a treasure be cast down unto him; or he have a garden, of the fruit whereof he may eat; we will not believe. The ungodly also say, Ye follow no other than a man who is distracted. Behold what they liken thee unto. But they are deceived; neither can they find a just occasion to reproach thee. Blessed be he, who, if he pleaseth, will make for thee a better provision than this which they speak of; namely, gardens through which rivers flow: and he will provide thee palaces. But they reject the belief of the hour of judgment, as a falsehood: and we have prepared for him, who shall reject the belief of that hour, burning fire; when it shall see them from a distant place, they shall hear it furiously raging and roaring. And when they shall be cast, bound together, into a strait place thereof, they shall there call for death; but it shall be answered them, Call not this day for one death, but call for many deaths. Say, Is this better, or a garden of eternal duration, which is promised unto the pious? It
shall be given unto them for a reward, and a retreat: therein shall they have whatever they please, continuing in the same forever. This is a promise to be demanded at the hands of thy LORD. On a certain day he shall assemble them, and whatever they worship, besides GOD; and shall say unto the worshipped, Did ye seduce these my servants; or did they wander of themselves from the right way? They shall answer, GOD forbid! It was not fitting for us, that we should take any protectors besides thee: but thou didst permit them and their fathers to enjoy abundance; so that they forgot thy admonition, and became lost people. And God shall say unto their worshippers, Now have these convinced you of falsehood, in that which ye say: they can neither avert your punishment, nor give you any assistance. And whoever of you shall be guilty of injustice, him will we cause to taste a grievous torment. We have sent no messengers before thee, but they ate food, and walked through the streets: and we make some of you an occasion of trial unto others.y Will ye persevere with patience? since the LORD regardeth your perseverance. (XIX.) They who hope not to meet us at the resurrection say, Unless the angels be sent down unto us, or we see our LORD himself, we will not believe. Verily they behave themselves arrogantly; and have transgressed with an enormous transgression. The day whereon they shall see the angels,z there shall be no glad tidings on that day for the wicked; and they shall say, Be this removed far from us? and we will come unto the work which they shall have wrought, and we will make it as dust scattered abroad. On that day shall they who are destined to paradise be more happy in an abode, and have a preferable place of repose at noon.a On that day the heaven shall be cloven in sunder by the clouds, and the angels shall be sent down, descending visibly therein.b On that day the kingdom shall of right belong wholly unto the Merciful; and that day shall be grievous for the unbelievers. On that day the unjust personc shall bite his hand for anguish and despair, and shall
say, Oh that I had taken the way of truth with the apostle! Alas for me! Oh that I had not taken such a oned for my friend! He seduced me from the admonition of God, after it had come unto me: for the devil is the betrayer of man. And the apostle shall say, O LORD, verily my people esteemed this Korân to be a vain composition. In like manner did we ordain unto every prophet an enemy from among the wicked: but thy LORD is a sufficient director and defender. The unbelievers say, Unless the Koran be sent down unto him entire at once,e we will not believe. But in this manner have we revealed it, that we might confirm thy heart thereby,f and we have dictated it gradually, by distinct parcels. They shall not come unto thee with any strange question; but we will bring thee the truth in answer, and a most excellent interpretation. They who shall be dragged on their faces into hell shall be in the worst condition, and shall stray most widely from the way of salvation. We heretofore delivered unto Moses the book of the law; and we appointed him Aaron his brother for a counsellor. And we said unto them, Go ye to the people who charge our signs with falsehood. And we destroyed them with a signal destruction. And remember the people of Noah, when they accused our apostles of imposture: we drowned them, and made them a sign unto mankind. And we have prepared for the unjust a painful torment. Remember also Ad, and Thamud, and those who dwelt at al Rass;g and many other generations within this period. Unto each of them did we propound examples for their admonition; and each of them did we destroy with an utter destruction. The Koreish have passed frequently near the city which was rained on by a fatal rain;h have they not seen where it once
stood? Yet have they not dreaded the resurrection. When they see thee, they will receive thee only with scoffing, saying, Is this he whom GOD hath sent as his apostle? Verily he had almost drawn us aside from the worship of our gods, if we had not firmly persevered in our devotion towards them. But they shall know hereafter, when they shall see the punishment prepared for them, who hath strayed more widely from the right path. What thinkest thou? He who taketh his lust for his god; canst thou be his guardian?i Dost thou imagine that the greater part of them hear, or understand? They are no other than like the brute cattle; yea, they stray more widely from the true path. Dost thou not consider the works of thy LORD, how he stretcheth forth the shadow before sunrise? If he had pleased, he would have made it immovable forever. Then we cause the sun to rise, and to show the same; and afterwards we contract it by an easy and gradual contraction. It is he who hath ordained the night to cover you as a garment; and sleep to give you rest; and hath ordained the day for waking. It is he who sendeth the winds, driving abroad the pregnant clouds, as the forerunners of his mercy:j and we send down pure waterk from heaven, that we may thereby revive a dead country, and give to drink thereof unto what we have created, both of cattle and men, in great numbers;l and we distribute the same among them at various times, that they may consider: but the greater part of men refuse to consider, only out of ingratitude.m If we had pleased, we had sent a preacher unto every city:n wherefore, do not thou obey the unbelievers; but oppose them herewith, with a strong opposition. It is he who hath let loose the two seas; this fresh and sweet, and that salt and bitter; and hath placed between them a bar,o and a bound which cannot be passed. It is he who hath created man of water,p and hath made him to bear the double relation of consanguinity and affinity; for thy LORD is powerful. They worship, besides GOD, that which can neither profit them nor hurt them: and the unbeliever is an assistant of the devil against his LORD.q We have sent thee to be no other than a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats. Say, I ask not of you any
reward for this my preaching; besides the conversion of him who shall desire to take the way unto his LORD.a And do thou trust in him who liveth, and dieth not; and celebrate his praise: (he is sufficiently acquainted with the faults of his servants): who hath created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in six days; and then ascended his throne: the Merciful. Ask now the knowing concerning him. When it is said unto the unbelievers, Adore the Merciful; they reply, And who is the Merciful?b Shall we adore that which thou commandest us? And this precept causeth them to fly the faster from the faith. Blessed be he who hath placed the twelve signs in the heavens; and hath placed therein a lamp by day,c and the moon which shineth by night! It is he who hath ordained the night and the day to succeed each other, for the observation of him who will consider, or desireth to show his gratitude. The servants of the Merciful are those who walk meekly on the earth, and when the ignorant speak unto them, answer, Peace:d and who pass the night adoring their LORD, and standing up to pray unto him; and who say, O LORD, avert from us the torment of hell, for the torment thereof is perpetual; verily the same is a miserable abode and a wretched station: and who, when they bestow, are neither profuse nor niggardly; but observe a just medium between these;e and who invoke not another god together with the true GOD; neither slay the soul which GOD hath forbidden to be slain, unless for a just cause: and who are not guilty of fornication. But he who shall do this shall meet the reward of his wickedness: his punishment shall be doubled unto him on the day of resurrection; and he shall remain therein, covered with ignominy, forever: except him who shall repent and believe, and shall work a righteous work; unto them will GOD change their former evils into good;f for GOD is ready to forgive, and merciful. And whoever repenteth, and doth that which is right; verily he turneth unto GOD with an acceptable conversion. And they who do not bear false witness; and when they pass by vain discourse, pass by the same with decency; and who, when they are admonished by the signs of their LORD, fall not down as if they were deaf and blind, but stand up and are attentive thereto: and who say, O LORD, grant us of our wives and our offspring such as may be the satisfaction of our eyes; and make us patterns unto those who fear thee. These shall be rewarded with the highest apartments in paradise, because they have persevered with constancy; and they shall meet therein with greeting and salutation; they shall remain in the same forever: it shall be an excellent abode, and a delightful station. Say, My
LORD is not solicitous on your account, if ye do not invoke him: ye have already charged his apostle with imposture; but hereafter shall there be a lasting punishment inflicted on you.
ENTITLED, THE POETS;g REVEALED AT MECCA.h
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
T. S. M.i THESE are the signs of the perspicuous book. Peradventure thou afflictest thyself unto death, lest the Meccans become not believers. If we pleased, we could send down unto them a convincing sign from heaven, unto which their necks would humbly submit. But there cometh unto them no admonition from the Merciful, being newly revealed as occasions require, but they turn aside from the same; and they have charged it with falsehood: but a message shall come unto them, which they shall not laugh to scorn. Do they not behold the earth, how many vegetables we cause to spring up therein, of every noble species? Verily herein is a sign: but the greater part of them do not believe. Verily thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful God. Remember when thy LORD called Moses, saying, Go to the unjust people, the people of Pharaoh; will they not dread me? Moses answered, O LORD, verily I fear lest they accuse me of falsehood, and lest my breast become straitened, and my tongue be not ready in speaking:k send therefore unto Aaron, to be my assistant. Also they have a crime to object against me:l and I fear they will put me to death. God said, They shall by no means put thee to death: wherefore go ye with our signs; for we will be with you, and will hear what passes between you and them. Go ye therefore unto Pharaoh, and say, Verily we are the apostlem of the LORD of all creatures: send away with us the children of Israel. And when they had delivered their message, Pharaoh answered, Have we not brought thee up, among us, when a child; and hast thou not dwelt among us for several years of thy life?n Yet hast thou done thy
deed which thou hast done, and thou art an ungrateful person. Moses replied, I did it indeed, and I was one of those who erred;o wherefore I fled from you, because I feared you: but my LORD hath bestowed on me wisdom, and hath appointed me one of his apostles. And this is the favor which thou hast bestowed on me, that thou hast enslaved the children of Israel. Pharaoh said, And who is the LORD of all creatures? Moses answered, The LORD of heaven and earth, and whatever is between them: if ye are men of sagacity. Pharaoh said unto those who were about him, Do ye not hear? Moses said, Your LORD, and the LORD of your forefathers. Pharaoh said unto those who were present, Your apostle, who is sent unto you, is certainly distracted.p Moses said, The LORD of the east, and of the west, and of whatever is between them; if ye are men of understanding. Pharaoh said unto him, Verily if thou take any god besides me,q I will make thee one of those who are imprisoned.r Moses answered, What, although I come unto you with a convincing miracle? Pharaoh replied, Produce it therefore, if thou speakest truth. And he cast down his rod, and behold, it became a visible serpent: and he drew forth his hand out of his bosom; and behold, it appeared white unto the spectators. Pharaoh said unto the princes who were about him, Verily this man is a skilful magician: he seeketh to dispossess you of your land by his sorcery; what therefore do ye direct? They answered , Delay him and his brother by good words for a time; and send through the cities men to assemble and bring unto thee every skilful magician. So the magicians were assembled at an appointed time, on a solemn day. And it was said unto the people, Are ye assembled together? Perhaps we may follow the magicians, if they do get the victory. And when the magicians were come, they said unto Pharaoh, Shall we certainly receive a reward, if we do get the victory? He answered, Yea; and ye shall surely be of those who approach my person. Moses said unto them, Cast down what ye are about to cast down. Wherefore they cast down their ropes and their rods, and said, By the might of Pharaoh, verily we shall be the conquerors. And Moses cast down his rod, and behold, it swallowed up that which they had caused falsely to appear changed into serpents. Whereupon the magicians prostrated themselves, worshipping, and said, We believe in the LORD of all creatures, the LORD of Moses and of Aaron. Pharaoh said unto them, Have ye believed on him, before I have given you permission? Verily he is your chief who hath taught you magic:s but hereafter ye shall surely know my
power. I will cut off your hands and your feet, on the opposite sides, and I will crucify you all. They answered, It will be no harm unto us; for we shall return unto our LORD. We hope that our LORD will forgive us our sins, since we are the first who have believed.t And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying, March forth with my servants by night; for ye will be pursued. And Pharaoh sent officers through the cities to assemble forces, saying, Verily these are a small company; and they are enraged against us: but we are a multitude well provided. So we caused them to quit their gardens, and fountains, and treasures, and fair dwellings: thus did we do; and we made the children of Israel to inherit the same.u And they pursued them at sunrise. And when the two armies were come in sight of each other, the companions of Moses said, We shall surely be overtaken. Moses answered, By no means; for my LORD is with me, who will surely direct me. And we commanded Moses by revelation, saying, Smite the sea with thy rod. And when he had smitten it, it became divided into twelve parts, between which were as many paths, and every part was like a vast mountain. And we drew thither the others; and we delivered Moses and all those who were with him: then we drowned the others. Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe. Verily thy LORD is the mighty and the merciful. And rehearse unto them the story of Abraham: when he said unto his father, and his people, What do ye worship? They answered, We worship idols; and we constantly serve them all the day long. Abraham said, Do they hear you, when ye invoke them? Or do they either profit you, or hurt you? They answered, But we found our fathers do the same. He said, What think ye? The gods which ye worship, and your forefathers worshipped, are my enemy: except only the LORD of all creatures, who hath created me, and directeth me; and who giveth me to eat, and to drink, and when I am sick, healeth me; and who will cause me to die, and will afterwards restore me to life; and who, I hope, will forgive my sins on the day of judgment. O LORD, grant me wisdom; and join me with the righteous: and grant that I may be spoken of with honourx among the latest posterity; and make me an heir of the garden of delight: and forgive my father, for that he hath been one of those who go astray.y And cover me not with shame on the day of resurrection; on the day in which neither riches nor children shall avail, unless unto him who shall come unto GOD with a sincere heart: when paradise shall be brought near to the view of the pious, and hell shall appear
plainly to those who shall have erred: and it shall be said unto them, Where are your deities which ye served besides GOD? will they deliver you from punishment, or will they deliver themselves? And they shall be cast into the same, both they,z and those who have been seduced to their worship; and all the host of Eblis. The seduced shall dispute therein with their false gods, saying, By GOD, we were in a manifest error, when we equalled you with the LORD of all creatures: and none seduced us but the wicked. We have now no intercessors, nor any friend who careth for us. If we were allowed to return once more into the world, we would certainly become true believers. Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them believed not. The LORD is the mighty, the merciful. The people of Noah accused God's messengers of imposture: when their brother Noah said unto them, Will ye not fear God? Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you; wherefore fear GOD, and obey me. I ask no reward of you for my preaching unto you; I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures: wherefore fear GOD, and obey me. They answered, Shall we believe on thee, when only the most abject persons have followed thee? Noah said, I have no knowledge of that which they did;a it appertaineth unto my LORD alone to bring them to account, if ye understand; wherefore I will not drive away the believers:b I am no more than a public preacher. They replied, Assuredly, unless thou desist, O Noah, thou shalt be stoned. He said, O LORD, verily my people take me for a liar; wherefore judge publicly between me and them; and deliver me and the true believers who are with me. Wherefore we delivered him, and those who were with him, in the ark filled with men and animals; and afterwards we drowned the rest. Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them believed not. Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful. The tribe of Ad charged God's messengers with falsehood: when their brother Hud said unto them, Will ye not fear God? Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you; wherefore fear GOD, and obey me. I demand not of you any reward for my preaching unto you: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures. Do ye build a landmark on every high place, to divert yourselves?c And do ye erect magnificent works, hoping that ye may continue in their possession forever? And when ye exercise your power, do ye exercise it with cruelty and rigour?d Fear GOD, by leaving these things; and obey me. And fear him who hath bestowed on you that which ye know: he hath bestowed on you cattle, and children, and gardens, and springs of water. Verily I fear for you the punishment of a grievous day. They answered, It is equal unto us whether thou admonish us, or dost not admonish us: this which thou
preachest is only a device of the ancients; neither shall we be punished for what we have done. And they accused him of imposture: wherefore we destroyed them. Verily herein was a sign: but the greater part of them believed not. Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful. The tribe of Thamud also charged the messengers of God with falsehood. When their brother Saleh said unto them, Will ye not fear God? Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you: wherefore fear GOD, and obey me. I demand no reward of you for my preaching unto you: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures. Shall ye be left forever secure in the possession of the things which are here; among gardens, and fountains, and corn, and palm-trees, whose branches sheathe their flowers. And will ye continue to cut habitations for yourselves out of the mountains, behaving with insolence?e Fear GOD, and obey me; and obey not the command of the transgressors, who act corruptly in the earth, and reform not the same. They answered, Verily thou art distracted: thou art no other than a man like unto us: produce now some sign, if thou speakest truth. Saleh said, This she-camel shall be a sign unto you: she shall have her portion of water, and ye shall have your portion of water alternately, on a several day appointed for you;f and do her no hurt, lest the punishment of a terrible day be inflicted on you. But they slew her; and were made to repent of their impiety: for the punishment which had been threatened overtook them. Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe. Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful. The people of Lot likewise accused God's messengers of imposture. When their brother Lot said unto them, Will ye not fear God? Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you: wherefore fear GOD, and obey me. I demand no reward of you for my preaching: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures. Do ye approach unto the males among mankind, and leave your wives which your LORD hath created for you. Surely ye are people who transgress. They answered, Unless thou desist, O Lot, thou shalt certainly be expelled our city. He said, Verily I am one of those who abhor your doings: O LORD, deliver me, and my family, from that which they act. Wherefore we delivered him, and all his family, except an old woman, his wife, who perished among those who remained behind; then we destroyed the rest; and we rained on them a shower of stones; and terrible was the shower which fell on those who had been warned in vain. Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe. Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful. The inhabitants of the woodg also accused GOD'S messengers of imposture. When Shoaib said unto him, Will ye not fear God? Verily I am a faithful
messenger unto you: wherefore fear GOD, and obey me. I ask no reward of you for my preaching: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures. Give just measure, and be not defrauders; and weigh with an equal balance; and diminish not unto men aught of their matters; neither commit violence in the earth, acting corruptly. And fear him who hath created you, and also the former generations. They answered, Certainly thou art distracted; thou art no more than a man, like unto us; and we do surely esteem thee to be a liar. Cause now a part of the heaven to fall upon us, if thou speakest truth. Shoaib said, My LORD best knoweth that which ye do. And they charged him with falsehood: wherefore the punishment of the day of the shadowing cloudh overtook them; and this was the punishment of a grievous day. Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe. Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful. This book is certainly a revelation from the LORD of all creatures, which the faithful spiriti hath caused to descend upon thy heart, that thou mightest be a preacher to thy people, in the perspicuous Arabic tongue; and it is borne witness to in the scriptures of former ages. Was it not a sign unto them, that the wise men among the children of Israel knew it? Had we revealed it unto any of the foreigners, and he had read the same unto them, yet they would not have believed therein. Thus have we caused obstinate infidelity to enter the hearts of the wicked: they shall not believe therein, until they see a painful punishment. It shall come suddenly upon them, and they shall not foresee it: and they shall say, Shall we be respited? Do they therefore desire our punishment to be hastened?k What thinkest thou? If we suffer them to enjoy the advantage of this life for several years, and afterwards that with which they are threatened come upon them; what will that which they have enjoyed profit them? We have destroyed no city, but preachers were first sent unto it, to admonish the inhabitants thereof; neither did we treat them unjustly. The devils did not descend with the Koran, as the infidels give out: it is not for their purpose, neither are they able to produce such a book; for they are far removed from hearing the discourse of the angels in heaven.l Invoke no other god with the true GOD, lest thou become one of those who are doomed to punishment. And admonish thy more near relations.m And behave thyself with meeknessn towards the true
believers who follow thee: and if they be disobedient unto thee, say, Verily, I am clear of that which ye do. And trust in the most mighty, the merciful God; who seeth thee when thou risest up, and thy behavior among those who worship;o for he both heareth and knoweth. Shall I declare unto you upon whom the devils descend? They descend upon every lying and wicked person:p they learn what is heard;q but the greater part of them are liars. And those who err follow the steps of the poets: dost thou not see that they rove as bereft of their senses through every valley; and that they say that which they do not?r except those who believe, and do good works, and remember GOD frequently; and who defend themselves, after they have been unjustly treated.s And they who act unjustly shall know hereafter with what treatment they shall be treated.
ENTITLED, THE ANT;t REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
T. S. THESE are the signs of the Koran, and of the perspicuous book: a direction, and good tidings unto the true believers? who regularly perform their prayer, and give alms, and firmly believe in the life to come. As to those who believe not in the life to come, we have prepared their works for them;u and they shall be struck with astonishment at their disappointment, when they shall be raised again: these are they whom an evil punishment awaiteth in this life; and in that which is to come they shall be the greatest losers. Thou hast certainly received the Koran from the presence of a wise, a knowing God. Remember when Moses said unto his family, Verily I perceive fire; I will bring you tidings thereof, or I will bring you a lighted brand, that ye may be warmed.x And when he was come near unto it, a voice cried unto him, saying, Blessed be he who is in the fire, and whoever is about it;y and praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures! O Moses, verily I am GOD, the mighty, the wise: cast down now thy rod. And when he saw it, that it moved, as though it had been a serpent, he retreated, and fled, and returned not. And God said, O Moses, fear not; for my messengers are not disturbed with fear in my sight: except he who shall have done amiss, and shall have afterwards substituted good in lieu of evil; for I am gracious and merciful.z Moreover put thy hand into thy bosom; it shall come forth white, without hurt: this shall be one among the nine signsa unto Pharaoh and his people: for they are a wicked people. And when our visible signs had come unto them, they said, This is a manifest sorcery. And they denied them, although their souls certainly knew them to be from God, out of iniquity and pride: but behold what was the end of the corrupt doers. We heretofore bestowed knowledge on David and Solomon; and they said, Praise be unto GOD, who hath made us more excellent than many of his faithful servants! And Solomon was David's heir;b and he said, O men, we
have been taught the speech of birds,c and have had all things bestowed on us; this is manifest excellence. And his armies were gathered together unto Solomon, consisting of genii,d and men, and birds; and they were led in distinct bands, until they came unto the valley of ants.e And an ant, seeing the hosts approaching, said, O ants, enter ye into your habitations, lest Solomon and his army tread you under foot, and perceive it not. And Solomon smiled, laughing at her words, and said, O LORD, excite me that I may be thankful for thy favor, wherewith thou hast favored me, and my parents; and that I may do that which is right, and well-pleasing unto thee: and introduce me, through thy mercy, into paradise, among thy servants the righteous. And he viewed the birds, and said, What is the reason that I see not the lapwing?f Is she absent? Verily I will chastise her with a severe chastisement,g or I will put her to death; unless she bring me a just excuse. And she tarried not long before she presented herself unto Solomon, and said, I have viewed a country which thou hast not viewed; and I come unto thee from Saba, with a certain piece of news. I found a womanh to reign over them, who is provided with everything requisite for a prince, and hath a magnificent throne.i I found her and her people to worship the sun, besides GOD: and
Satan hath prepared their works for them, and hath turned them aside from the way of truth (wherefore they are not rightly directed), lest they should worship GOD, who bringeth to light that which is hidden in heaven and earth, and knoweth whatever they conceal, and whatever they discover. GOD! there is no GOD but he; the LORD of the magnificent throne. Solomon said, We shall see whether thou hast spoken the truth, or whether thou art a liar. Go with this my letter, and cast it down unto them; then turn aside from them, and wait to know what answer they will return. And when the Queen of Saba had received the letter,k she said, O nobles, verily an honourable letter hath been delivered unto me; it is from Solomon, and this is the tenor thereof: In the name of the most merciful GOD, Rise not up against me: but come and surrender yourselves unto me.l She said, O nobles, advise me in my business: I will not resolve on anything, until ye be witnesses and approve thereof. The nobles answered, We are endued with strength, and are endued with great prowess in war; but the command appertaineth unto thee: see therefore what thou wilt command.m She said, Verily kings, when they enter a city by force, waste the same, and abase the most powerful of the inhabitants hereof: and so will these do with us. But I will send gifts unto them; and will wait for what further information those who shall be sent shall bring back. And when the queen's ambassador came unto Solomon,n that prince said, Will ye present me with riches? Verily that which GOD hath given me is better than what he hath given you: but ye do glory in your gifts. Return unto the people of Saba. We will surely come unto them with forces, which they shall not be able to withstand; and we will drive them out from their city, humbled; and they shall become contemptible. And Solomon said, O nobles, which of you will bring unto me her throne, before they come and surrender themselves unto me? A terrible geniuso answered, I will bring it unto thee, before thou arise from thy place:q for I am able to
perform it, and may be trusted. And one with whom was the knowledge of the scripturesq said, I will bring it unto thee, in the twinkling of an eye.r And when Solomon saw the throne placed before him, he said, This is a favor of my LORD, that he may make trial of me, whether I will be grateful, or whether I will be ungrateful; and he who is grateful is grateful to his own advantage, but if any shall be ungrateful, verily my LORD is self-sufficient and munificent. And Solomon said unto his servants, Alter her throne, that she may not know it, to the end we may see whether she be rightly directed, or whether she be one of those who are not rightly directed. And when she was come unto Solomon,s it was said unto her, is thy throne like this? She answered, As though it were the same. And we have had knowledge bestowed on us before this, and have been resigned unto God.t But that which she worshipped, besides GOD, had turned her aside from the truth; for she was of an unbelieving people. It was said unto her, Enter the palace.u And when she saw it, she imagined it to be a great water; and she discovered her legs, by lifting up her robe to pass through it.x Whereupon Solomon said unto her, Verily this is a palace evenly floored with glass. Then said the queen, O LORD, verily I have dealt unjustly with my own soul; and I resign myself, together with Solomon, unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures.y Also we heretofore sent unto the tribe of Thamud their brother Saleh; who said unto them, Serve ye GOD. And behold, they were divided into two parties, who disputed among themselves.z Saleh said, O my people why do ye hasten evil rather than good?a Unless ye ask pardon of GOD, that ye may obtain mercy, ye are lost. They answered, We presage evil from thee, and from those who are with thee. Saleh
replied, The evil which ye presage is with GOD:b but ye are a people who are proved by a vicissitude of prosperity and adversity. And there were nine men in the city, who acted corruptly in the earth, and behaved not with integrity. And they said unto one another, Swear ye reciprocally by GOD, that we will fall upon Saleh and his family by night: and afterwards we will say unto him who hath right to avenge his blood, We were not so much as present at the destruction of his family; and we certainly speak the truth. And they devised a plot against him: but we devised a plot against them; and they perceived it not. And see what was the issue of their plot:c we utterly destroyed them and their whole people; and these their habitations remain empty, because of the injustice which they committed. Verily herein is a sign unto people who understand. And we delivered those who believed, and feared God. And remember Lot; when he said unto his people, Do ye commit a wickedness, though ye see the heinousness thereof? Do ye approach lustfully unto men, leaving the women? Ye are surely an ignorant people. (XX.) But the answer of his people was no other than that they said, Cast the family of Lot out of your city: for they are men who preserve themselves pure from the crimes of which ye are guilty. Wherefore we delivered him and his family, except his wife, whom we decreed to be one of those who remained behind to be destroyed. And we rained on them a shower of stones: and dreadful was the shower which fell on those who had been warned in vain.d Say, Praise be unto GOD; and peace be upon his servants whom he hath chosen! Is GOD more worthy, or the false gods which they associate with him? Is not he to be preferred, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and sendeth down rain for you from heaven, whereby we cause delicious groves to spring up? It is not in your power to cause the trees thereof to shoot forth. Is there any other god partner with the true GOD? Verily these are a people who deviate from the truth. Is not he more worthy to be adored, who hath established the earth, and hath caused rivers to flow through the midst thereof, and placed thereon immovable mountains, and set a bar between the two seas?e Is there any other god equal with the true GOD? Yet the greater part of them know it not. Is not he more worthy who heareth the afflicted,f when he calleth upon him, and taketh off the evil which distressed him: and who hath made you the successors of your forefathers in the earth? Is there any other god who can be equalled with the true GOD? How few consider
these things! Is not he more worthy who directeth you in the dark paths of the land and of the sea; and who sendeth the winds driving abroad the clouds, as the forerunners of his mercy!g Is there any other god who can be equalled with the true God? Far be GOD from having those partners in his power, which ye associate with him. Is not he more worthy, who produceth a creature, and after it hath been dead restoreth it to life; and who giveth you food from heaven and earth? Is there any other god with the true GOD, who doth this? Say, Produce your proof thereof, if ye speak truth. Say, None either in heaven or earth knoweth that which is hidden, besides GOD: neither do they understand when they shall be raised. However, their knowledge attaineth some notion of the life to come:h yet they are in an uncertainty concerning the same; yea, they are blind as to the real circumstances thereof. And the unbelievers say, When we and our fathers shall have been reduced to dust, shall we be taken forth from the grave? Verily we have been threatened with this, both we and our fathers, heretofore. This is no other than fables of the ancients. Say unto them, pass through the earth, and see what hath been the end of the wicked. And be not thou grieved for them; neither be thou in any concern on account of the plots which they are contriving against thee. And they say, When will this threat be accomplished, if ye speak true? Answer, Peradventure some part of that punishment, which ye desire to be hastened may follow close behind you: verily thy LORD is endued with indulgence towards mankind; but the greater part of them are not thankful. Verily thy LORD knoweth what their breasts conceal, and what they discover: and there is nothing hidden in heaven or on earth, but it is written in a clear book. Verily this Koran declareth unto the children of Israel most of those points concerning which they disagree:i and it is certainly a direction, and a mercy unto the true believers. Thy LORD will decide the controversy between them, by his definitive sentence: and he is the mighty, the wise. Therefore, put thy trust in GOD; for thou art in the manifest truth. Verily thou shalt not make the dead to hear, neither shalt thou make the deaf to hear thy call to the true faith, when they retire and turn their backs: neither shalt thou direct the blind to extricate themselves out of their error. Thou shalt make none to hear thee, except him who shall believe in our signs: and they are wholly resigned unto us. When the sentence shall be ready to fall upon them, we will cause a beastk to come forth unto them from out of the earth, which shall speak unto them:l verily men do not firmly believe in our signs. On the day of resurrection we will assemble, out
of every nation, a company of those who shall have charged our signs with falsehood; and they shall be prevented from mixing together, until they shall arrive at the place of judgment. And God shall say unto them, Have ye charged my signs with falsehood, although ye comprehended them not with your knowledge. Or what is it that ye were doing? And the sentence of damnation shall fall on them, for that they have acted unjustly: and they shall not speak in their own excuse. Do they not see that we have ordained the night, that they may rest therein, and the day giving open light? Verily herein are signs unto people who believe. On that day the trumpet shall be sounded; and whoever are in heaven and on earth shall be struck with terror, except those whom GOD shall please to exempt therefrom:m and all shall come before him in humble guise. And thou shalt see the mountains, and shalt think them firmly fixed; but they shall pass away, even as the clouds pass away. This will be the work of GOD, who hath rightly disposed all things: and he is well acquainted with that which ye do. Whoever shall have wrought righteousness, shall receive a reward beyond the desert thereof; and they shall be secure from the terror of that day;n but whoever shall have wrought evil, shall be thrown on their faces into hell fire. Shall ye receive the reward of any other than of that which ye shall have wrought? Verily I am commanded to worship the LORD of this territory of Mecca, who hath sanctified the same: unto him belong all things. And I am commanded to be a Moslem, and to rehearse the Koran: he who shall be directed thereby will be directed to his own advantage; and to him who shall go astray, say, Verily I am a warner only. And say, Praise be unto GOD! he will show you his signs,o and ye shall know them: and thy LORD is not regardless of that which they do.
ENTITLED, THE STORY;p REVEALED AT MECCA.q
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
T. S. M.r THESE are the signs of the perspicuous book. We will dictate unto thee, O Mohammed, some parts of the history of Moses and Pharaoh, with truth; for the sake of people who believe.
Now Pharaoh lifted himself up in the land of Egypt; and he caused his subjects to be divided into parties;s he weakened one party of them,t by slaying their male children, and preserving their females alive; for he was an oppressor. And we were minded to be gracious unto those who were weakened in the land, and to make them models of religion; and to make them the heirs of the wealth of Pharaoh and his people,u and to establish a place for them in the earth; and to show Pharaoh and Haman,x and their forces, that destruction of their kingdom and nation by them, which they sought to avoid.y And we directed the mother of Moses by revelation, saying, give him suck: and if thou fearest for him, cast him into the river; and fear not, neither be afflicted; for we will restore him unto thee, and will appoint him one of our apostles.z And when she had put the child in the ark, and had cast it into the river, the family of Pharaoh took him up; providence designing that he should become an enemy, and a sorrow unto them. Verily Pharaoh and Haman, and their forces were sinners. And the wife of Pharaoh said, This child is a delight of the eye to me, and to thee:a kill him not; peradventure it may happen that he may be serviceable unto us; or we may adopt him for our son. And they perceived not the consequence of what they were doing. And the heart of the mother of Moses became oppressed with fear; and she had almost discovered him, had we not armed her heart with constancy, that she might be one of those who believe the promises of God. And she said unto his sister, Follow him. And she watched him at a distance; and they perceived it not. And we suffered him not to take the breasts of the nurses who were provided before his sister came up;b and she said, Shall I direct you unto some of his nation, who may nurse him for you, and will be careful of him? And, at their desire, she brought his mother to them. So we restored him to his mother, that her mind might be set at ease, and that she might not be afflicted; and that she might know that the promise of GOD was true:
but the greater part of mankind know not the truth. And when Moses had attained his age of full strength, and was become a perfect man, we bestowed on him wisdom and knowledge: and thus do we reward the upright. And he went into the city, at a time when the inhabitants thereof observed not what passed in the streets:c and he found therein two men fighting; the one being of his own party, and the other of his enemies.d And he who was of his party begged his assistance against him who was of the contrary party; and Moses struck him with his fist, and slew him: but being sorry for what had happened, he said, This is of the work of the devil;e for he is a seducing and an open enemy. And he said, O LORD, verily I have injured my own soul: wherefore forgive me. So God forgave him; for he is ready to forgive, and merciful. He said, O LORD, by the favors with which thou hast favored me, I will not be an assistant to the wicked for the future. And the next morning he was afraid in the city, and looked about him, as one apprehensive of danger: and behold, he whom he had assisted the day before cried out unto him for help a second time. But Moses said unto him, Thou art plainly a quarrelsome fellow. And when he sought to lay hold on him who was an enemy unto them both, he said, O Moses, dost thou intend to kill me, as thou killedst a man yesterday?f Thou seekest only to be an oppressor in the earth, and seekest not to be a reconciler of quarrels. And a certain mang came from the farther part of the city, running hastily, and said, O Moses, verily the magistrates are deliberating concerning thee, to put thee to death: depart therefore; I certainly advise thee well. Wherefore he departed out of the city in great fear, looking this way and that, lest he should be pursued. And he said, O LORD, deliver me from the unjust people. And when he was journeying towards Madian, he said, Peradventure my LORD will direct me in the right way.h And when he arrived at the water of Madian, he found about the well a company of men, who were watering their flocks. And he found, besides them, two women, who kept off their sheep at a distance. And he said unto them, What is the matter with you? They answered, We shall not water our flock, until the shepherds shall have driven away theirs; for our father is an old man, stricken in years. So Moses watered their sheep for them;i and afterwards retired to the
shade, saying, O LORD, verily I stand in need of the good which thou shalt send down unto me. And one of the damselsk came unto him, walking bashfully, and said, My father calleth thee, that he may recompense thee for the trouble which thou hast taken in watering our sheep for us. And when he was come unto Shoaib, and had told him the story of his adventures, he said unto him, Fear not: thou hast escaped from unjust people. And one of the damsels said, My father, hire him for certain wages: the best servant thou canst hire is an able and trusty person.l And Shoaib said unto Moses, Verily I will give thee one of these my two daughters in marriage, on condition that thou serve me for hire eight years; and if thou fulfil ten years, it is in thine own breast; for I seek not to impose a hardship on thee: and thou shalt find me, if GOD please, a man of probity. Moses answered, Let this be the covenant between me and thee: whichsoever of the two terms I shall fulfil let it be no crime in me if I then quit thy service; and GOD is witness of that which we say. And when Moses had fulfilled the term,m and was journeying with his family towards Egypt, he saw fire on the side of Mount Sinai. And he said unto his family, Tarry ye here; for I see fire: peradventure I may bring you thence some tidings of the way,n or at least a brand out of the fire, that ye may be warmed. And when he was come thereto, a voice cried unto him from the right side of the valley, in the sacred bottom, from the tree, saying, O Moses, verily I am GOD, the LORD of all creatures: cast down now thy rod. And when he saw it that it moved, as though it had been a serpent, he retreated and fled, and returned not. And God said unto him, O Moses, draw near, and fear not; for thou art safe. Put thy hand into thy bosom, and it shall come forth white, without any hurt: and draw back thy hando unto thee which thou stretchest forth for fear. These shall be two evident signs from thy LORD, unto Pharaoh and his princes; for they are a wicked people. Moses said, O LORD, verily I have slain one of them; and I fear they will put me to death: but my brother Aaron is of a more eloquent tongue than I am; wherefore send him with me for an assistant, that he may gain me credit; for I fear lest they accuse me of imposture. God said, We will strengthen thine arm by thy brother, and we will give each of you extraordinary power,
so that they shall not come up to you, in our signs. Ye two, and whoever shall follow you, shall be the conquerors. And when Moses came unto them with our evident signs, they said, This is no other than a deceitful piece of sorcery: neither have we heard of anything like this among our forefathers. And Moses said, My LORD best knoweth who cometh with a direction from him; and who shall have success in this life, as well as the next: but the unjust shall not prosper. And Pharaoh said, O princes, I did not know that ye had any other god besides me.p Wherefore do thou, O Haman, burn me clay into bricks; and build me a high tower,q that I may ascend unto the GOD of Moses: for I verily believe him to be a liar. And both he and his forces behaved themselves insolently and unjustly in the earth; and imagined that they should not be brought before us to be judged. Wherefore we took him and his forces, and cast them into the sea. Behold, therefore, what was the end of the unjust. And we made them deceitful guides, inviting their followers to hell fire; and on the day of resurrection they shall not be screened from punishment. We pursued them with a curse in this life; and on the day of resurrection they shall be shamefully rejected. And we gave the book of the law unto Moses, after he had destroyed the former generations, to enlighten the minds of men, and for a direction, and a mercy; that peradventure they might consider. Thou, O prophet, wast not on the west side of Mount Sinai, when we delivered Moses his commission: neither wast thou one of those who were present at his receiving it: but we raised up several generations after Moses; and life was prolonged unto them. Neither didst thou dwell among the inhabitants of Madian, rehearsing unto them our signs; but we have sent thee fully instructed in every particular. Nor wast thou present on the side of the mount, when we called unto Moses; but thou art sent as a mercy from thy LORD; that thou mightest preach unto a people to whom no preacher hath come before thee,r that peradventure they may be warned; and lest, if a calamity had befallen them, for that which their hands had previously committed, they should have said, O LORD, since thou hast not sent an apostle unto us, that we might follow thy signs, and become true believers, are we not excusable? Yet when the truth is come unto them from before us, they say, Unless he receive the same power to work miracles as Moses received, we will not believe. Have they not likewise rejected the revelation which was heretofore given unto Moses? They say, Two cunning imposturess have mutually assisted one another: and they say, Verily we reject them both. Say, Produce therefore a book from GOD, which is more right than these two, that I may follow it; if ye
speak truth. But if they return thee no answer, know that they only follow their own desires: and who erreth more widely from the truth than he who followeth his own desire, without a direction from GOD? Verily GOD directeth not the unjust people. And now have we caused our word to come unto them, that they may be admonished. They unto whom we have given the scriptures which were revealed before it, believe in the same; and when it is read unto them, say, We believe therein; it is certainly the truth from our LORD: verily we were Moslems before this.t These shall receive their reward twice,u because they have persevered, and repel evil by good, and distribute alms out of that which we have bestowed on them; and when they hear vain discourse, avoid the same, saying, We have our works, and ye have your works; peace be on you;x we covet not the acquaintance of the ignorant. Verily thou canst not direct whom thou wilt: but GOD directeth whom he pleaseth; and he best knoweth those who will submit to be directed. The Meccans say, If we follow the same direction with thee, we shall be forcibly expelled our land.y Have we not established for them a secure asylum,z to which fruits of every sort are brought, as a provision for our bounty? but the greater part of them do not understand. How many cities have we destroyed, whose inhabitants lived in ease and plenty? and these their dwellings are not inhabited after them, unless for a little while;a and we were the inheritors of their wealth.b But thy LORD did not destroy those cities, until he had sent unto their capital an apostle, to rehearse our signs unto them: neither did we destroy those cities, unless their inhabitants were injurious to their apostle. The things which are given you are the provisions of this present life, and the pomp thereof; but that which is with GOD is better and more durable: will ye not therefore understand? Shall he then, unto whom we have promised an excellent promise of future happiness, and who shall attain the same, be as he on whom we have bestowed the provision of this present life, and who, on the day of resurrection, shall be one of those who are delivered up to eternal punishment? On that day God shall call unto them, and shall say, Where are my partners, which ye imagined to be so? And they upon whom the sentence of damnation shall be justly pronounced shall answer, These, O LORD, are those whom we seduced: but now we clearly quit them, and
turn unto thee. They did not worship us, but their own lusts.c And it shall be said unto the idolaters, Call now upon those whom ye associated with God: and they shall call upon them, but they shall not answer them; and they shall see the punishment prepared for them, and shall wish that they had submitted to be directed. On that day, God shall call unto them, and shall say, What answer did ye return to our messengers? But they shall not be able to give an account thereof on that day;d neither shall they ask one another for information. Howbeit whoso shall repent and believe, and shall do that which is right, may expect to be happy. Thy LORD createth what he pleaseth; and chooseth freely: but they have no free choice. Praise be unto GOD; and far be he removed from the idols which they associate with him! Thy LORD knoweth both the secret malice which their breasts conceal, and the open hatred which they discover. He is GOD; there is no GOD but he. Unto him is the praise due, both in this life and in that which is to come: unto him doth judgment belong; and before him shall ye be assembled at the last day. Say, What think ye? If GOD should cover you with perpetual night, until the day of resurrection; what god, besides GOD, would bring you light? Will ye not therefore hearken? Say, What think ye? If GOD should give you continual day, until the day of resurrection; what god, besides GOD, would bring you night, that ye might rest therein? Will ye not therefore consider? Of his mercy he hath made for you the night and the day, that ye may rest in the one, and may seek to obtain provision for yourselves of his abundance, by your industry, in the other; and that ye may give thanks. On a certain day God shall call unto them, and shall say, Where are my partners, which ye imagined to share the divine power with me? And we will produce a witness out of every nation,e and will say, Bring hither your proof of what ye have asserted. And they shall know that the right is GOD'S alone; and the deities which they have devised shall abandon them. Karûn was of the people of Moses;f but he behaved insolently towards them: for we
had given him so much treasure, that his keys would have loaded several strong men.g When his people said unto him, Rejoice not immoderately; for GOD loveth not those who rejoice in their riches immoderately: but seek to attain by means of the wealth which GOD hath given thee, the future mansion of paradise.h And forget not thy portion in this world; but be thou bounteous unto others, as GOD hath been bounteous unto thee; and seek not to act corruptly in the earth; for GOD loveth not the corrupt doers. He answered, I have received these riches, only because of the knowledge which is with me.i Did he not know that GOD had already destroyed, before him, several generations, who were mightier than he in strength, and had amassed more abundance of riches? And the wicked shall not be asked to discover their crimes. And Karûn went forth unto his people, in his pomp.k And they who loved this present life said, Oh that we had the like wealth, as hath been given unto Karûn? verily he is master of a great fortune. But those on whom knowledge had been bestowed answered, Alas for you! the reward of GOD in the next life will be better unto him who shall believe and do good works; but none shall attain the same, except those who persevere with constancy. And we caused the ground to cleave in sunder, and to swallow up him and his palace: and he had no forces to defend him, besides GOD; neither was he rescued from punishment. And the next morning, those who had coveted his condition the day before said, Aha! verily GOD bestoweth abundant provision on such of his servants as he pleaseth; and he is sparing unto whom he pleaseth. Unless GOD had been gracious unto us, certainly the earth had swallowed us up also. Aha! the unbelievers shall not prosper. As to this future mansion of paradise, we will give it unto them who seek not to exalt themselves in the earth, or to do wrong; for the happy issue shall attend the pious. Whoso doth good shall receive a reward which shall exceed the merit thereof: but as to him who doth evil, they who work evil shall be rewarded according to the merit only of that which they shall have wrought. Verily he who hath given thee the Koran for a rule of faith and practice will certainly bring thee back home unto Mecca.l Say,
My LORD best knoweth who cometh with a true direction, and who is in a manifest error. Thou didst not expect that the book of the Koran should be delivered unto thee: but thou hast received it through the mercy of thy LORD. Be not therefore assisting to the unbelievers; neither let them turn thee aside from the signs of GOD, after they have been sent down unto thee: and invite men unto thy LORD. And be not thou an idolater; neither invoke any other god, together with the true GOD: there is no god but he. Everything shall perish, except himself: unto him belongeth judgment: and before him shall ye be assembled at the last day.
ENTITLED, THE SPIDER;m REVEALED AT MECCA.n
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
A. L. M.o Do men imagine that it shall be sufficient for themp to say, We believe; will they not be proved?q We heretofore proved those who were before them; for GOD will surely know them who are sincere, and he will surely know the liars. Do they who work evil think that they shall prevent us from taking vengeance on them? An ill judgment do they make. Whoso hopeth to meet GOD, verily GOD'S appointed time will certainly come; and he both heareth and knoweth. Whoever striveth to promote the true religion, striveth for the advantage of his own soul; for GOD needeth not any of his creatures: and as to those who believe and work righteousness, we will expiate their evil deeds from them; and we will give them a reward according to the utmost merit of their actions. We have commanded man to show kindness towards his parents: but if they endeavor to prevail with thee to associate with me that concerning which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not.r Unto me shall ye return; and I will declare unto you what ye have done. Those who shall believe, and
shall work righteousness, we will surely introduce into paradise, among the upright. There are some men who say, We believe in GOD: but when such a one is afflicted for GOD'S sake, he esteemeth the persecution of men to be as grievous as the punishment of GOD. Yet if success cometh from thy LORD, they say, Verily we are with you. Doth not GOD well know that which is in the breasts of his creatures? Verily GOD well knoweth the true believers, and he well knoweth the hypocrites. The unbelievers say unto those who believe, Follow our way, and we will bear your sins. Howbeit they shall not bear any part of their sins; for they are liars: but they shall surely bear their own burdens, and other burdens besides their own burdens;s and they shall be examined, on the day of resurrection, concerning that which they have falsely devised. We heretofore sent Noah unto his people; and he tarried among them one thousand years, save fifty years:t and the deluge took them away, while they were acting unjustly; but we delivered him and those who were in the ark, and we made the sameu a sign unto all creatures. We also sent Abraham; when he said unto his people, Serve GOD, and fear him; this will be better for you; if ye understand. Ye only worship idols besides GOD, and forge a lie. Verily those which ye worship, besides GOD, are not able to make any provision for you: seek therefore your provision from GOD; and serve him, and give thanks unto him; unto him shall ye return. If he charge me with imposture,x verily sundry nations before you likewise charged their prophets with imposture: but public preaching only is incumbent on an apostle. Do they not see how GOD produceth creatures, and afterwards restoreth them?y Verily this is easy with GOD. Say, go through the earth, and see how he originally produceth creatures: afterwards will GOD reproduce another production; for GOD is almighty. He will punish whom he pleaseth, and he will have mercy on whom he pleaseth. Before him shall ye be brought at the day of judgment: and ye shall not escape his reach, either in earth, or in heaven:z neither shall ye have any patron or defender besides GOD. As for those who believe not in the signs of GOD, or that they shall meet him at the resurrection,
they shall despair of my mercy, and for them is a painful punishment prepared. And the answer of his people was no other than that they said, Slay him, or burn him. But GOD saved him from the fire.a Verily herein were signs unto people who believed. And Abraham said, Ye have taken idols, besides GOD, to cement affection between you in this life: but on the day of resurrection, the one of you shall deny the other, and the one of you shall curse the other; and your abode shall be hell fire, and there shall be none to deliver you. And Lot believed on him. And Abraham said, Verily I fly from my people, unto the place which my LORD hath commanded me; or he is the mighty, the wise. And we gave him Isaac and Jacob; and we placed among his descendants the gift of prophecy and the scriptures: and we gave him his reward in this world; and in the next he shall be one of the righteous. We also sent Lot; when he said unto his people, Do ye commit filthiness which no creature hath committed before you? Do ye approach lustfully unto men, and lay wait in the highways,b and commit wickedness in your assembly?c And the answer of his people was no other than that they said, Bring down the vengeance of GOD upon us, if thou speakest truth. Lot said, O LORD, defend me against the corrupt people. And when our messengers came unto Abraham with good tidings,d they said, We will surely destroy the inhabitants of this city: for the inhabitants thereof are unjust doers. Abraham answered, Verily Lot dwelleth there. They replied, We well know who dwelleth therein: we will surely deliver him and his family, except his wife; she shall be one of those who remain behind. And when our messengers came unto Lot, he was troubled for them, and his arm was straitened concerning them.e But they said, Fear not, neither be grieved; for we will deliver thee and thy family, except thy wife; for she shall be one of those who remain behind. We will surely bring down upon the inhabitants of this city vengeance from heaven, for that they have been wicked doers; and we have left thereof a manifest signf unto people who understand. And unto the inhabitants of Madian we sent their brother Shoaib; and he said unto them, O my people, serve GOD, and expect the last day; and transgress not, acting corruptly in the earth. But they accused him of imposture; wherefore a storm from heaveng assailed them, and in the morning they were found in their dwellings dead and prostrate. And we also destroyed the tribes of Ad, and Thamud; and this is well known unto you from what yet remains of their dwellings. And Satan prepared their works for them, and turned them aside from the way of truth, although they were sagacious people. And we likewise destroyed Karûn, and Pharaoh, and Haman. Moses came unto them with evident miracles, and they behaved them-
selves insolently in the earth: but they could not escape our vengeance. Every of them did we destroy in his sin. Against some of them we sent a violent wind:h some of them did a terrible noise from heaven destroy:i some of them did we cause the earth to swallow up:k and some of them we drowned.l Neither was GOD disposed to treat them unjustly; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls. The likeness of those who take other patrons besides GOD is as the likeness of the spider, which maketh herself a house: but the weakest of all houses surely is the house of the spider; if they knew this. Moreover GOD knoweth what things they invoke, besides him; and he is the mighty, the wise. These similitudes do we propound unto men: but none understand them, except the wise. GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in truth; verily herein is a sign unto the true believers. Rehearse that which hath been revealed unto thee of the book of the Koran: and be constant at prayer; for prayer preserveth a man from filthy crimes, and from that which is blamable; and the remembering of GOD is surely a most important duty. GOD knoweth that which ye do. Dispute not against those who have received the scriptures, unless in the mildest manner;m except against such of them as behave injuriously towards you: and say, We believe in the revelation which hath been sent down unto us, and also in that which hath been sent down unto you; our GOD and your GOD is one, and unto him are we resigned. Thus have we sent down the book of the Koran unto thee: and they unto whom we have given the former scriptures believe therein; and of these Arabians also there is who believeth therein: and none reject our signs, except the obstinate infidels. Thou couldest not read any book before this; neither couldest thou write it with thy right hand: then had the gainsayers justly doubted of the divine original thereof. But the same is evident signs in the breasts of those who have received understanding: for none reject our signs except the unjust. They say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Signs are in the power of GOD alone; and I am no more than a public preacher. Is it not sufficient for them that we have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran, to be read unto them? Verily herein is a mercy, and an admonition unto people who believe. Say GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you: he knoweth whatever is in heaven and earth; and those who believe in vain idols, and deny GOD, they shall perish. They will urge thee to hasten the punishment which they defy thee to bring down upon them:n if there had not been a determined time for their respite, the punishment had come upon them before this; but it shall surely overtake them suddenly, and they shall not foresee it. They urge thee to bring down vengeance swiftly upon them: but hell shall surely encompass
the unbelievers. On a certain day their punishment shall suddenly assail them, both from above them, and from under their feet; and God shall say, Taste ye the reward of that which ye have wrought. O my servants who have believed, verily my earth is spacious: wherefore serve me.o Every soul shall taste death: afterwards shall ye return unto us; and as for those who shall have believed, and wrought righteousness, we will surely lodge them in the higher apartments of paradise; rivers shall flow beneath them, and they shall continue therein forever. How excellent will be the reward of the workers of righteousness; who persevere with patience, and put their trust in their LORD! How many beasts are there, which provide not their food? It is GOD who provideth for them, and for you; and he both heareth and knoweth. Verily, if thou ask the Meccans, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and hath obliged the sun and the moon to serve in their courses? they will answer, GOD. How therefore do they lie, in acknowledging of other gods? GOD maketh abundant provision for such of his servants as he pleaseth; and is sparing unto him, if he pleaseth: for GOD knoweth all things.p Verily if thou ask them, who sendeth rain from heaven, and thereby quickeneth the earth, after it hath been dead? they will answer, GOD. Say, GOD be praised! But the greater part of them do not understand. This present life is no other than a toy, and a plaything; but the future mansion of paradise is life indeed: if they knew this they would not prefer the former to the latter. When they sail in a ship, they call upon GOD, sincerely exhibiting unto him the true religion: but when he bringeth them safe to land, behold, they return to their idolatry; to show themselves ungrateful for that which we have bestowed on them, and that they may enjoy the delights of this life; but they shall hereafter know the issue. Do they not see that we have made the territory of Mecca an inviolable and secure asylum, when men are spoiled in the countries round about them? Do they therefore believe in that which is vain, and acknowledge not the goodness of GOD? But who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD, or denieth the truth, when it hath come unto him? Is there not in hell an abode for the unbelievers? Whoever do their utmost endeavor to promote our true religion, we will direct them into our ways; for GOD is with the righteous.
ENTITLED, THE GREEKS;q REVEALED AT MECCA.r
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
A. L. M.s THE Greeks have been overcome by the Persians,t in the
nearest part of the land;u but after their defeat, they shall overcome the others in their turn, within a few years. Unto GOD belongeth the disposal of this matter, both for what is past, and for what is to come: and on that day shall the believers rejoice in the success granted by GOD; for he granteth success unto whom he pleaseth, and he is the mighty, the merciful. This is the promise of GOD: GOD will not act contrary to his promise: but the greater part of men know not the veracity of God. They know the outward appearance of this present life; but they are careless as to the life to come. Do they not consider within themselves that GOD hath not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, otherwise than in truth, and hath set them a determined period? Verily a great number of men reject the belief of their future meeting their LORD at the resurrection. Do they not pass through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who were before them? They excelled the Meccans in strength, and broke up the earth,x and inhabited it in greater affluence and prosperity than they inhabit the same: and their apostles came unto them with evident miracles; and GOD was not disposed to treat them unjustly, but they injured their own souls by their obstinate infidelity; and the end of those who had done evil was evil, because they charged the signs of God with falsehood, and laughed the same to scorn. God produceth creatures, and will hereafter restore them to life: then shall ye return unto him. And on the day whereon the hour shall come, the wicked shall be struck dumb for despair; and they shall have no intercessors from among the idols which they associated with God. And they shall deny the false gods which they associated with him. On the day whereon the hour shall come, on that day shall the true believers and the infidels be separated: and they who shall have believed, and wrought righteousness, shall take their pleasure in a delightful meadow; but as for those who shall have disbelieved, and rejected our signs, and the meeting of the next life, they shall be delivered up to punishment. Wherefore glorify GOD, when the evening overtaketh you, and when ye rise in the morning: and unto him be praise in heaven and earth; and at sunset, and when ye rest at noon.y He bringeth forth the living out of the dead, and he bringeth forth the dead out of the living;z and he quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead: and in like manner shall ye be brought forth from your graves. Of his signs one is, that he hath created you of dust; and behold, ye are become men, spread over the face of the earth. And of his signs another is, that he hath created you, out of yourselves, wives, that ye may cohabit with them; and hath
put love and compassion between you: verily herein are signs unto people who consider. And of his signs are also the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variety of your languages, and of your complexions:z verily herein are signs unto men of understanding. And of his signs are your sleeping by night and by day, and your seeking to provide for yourselves of his abundance: verily herein are signs unto people who hearken. Of his signs others are, that he showeth you the lightning, to strike terror, and to give hope of rain, and that he sendeth down water from heaven, and quickeneth thereby the earth, after it hath been dead; verily herein are signs unto people who understand. And of his signs this also is one, namely, that the heaven and the earth stand firm at command: hereafter, when he shall call you out of the earth at one summons, behold, ye shall come forth. Unto him are subject whosoever are in the heavens and on earth: all are obedient unto him. It is he who originally produceth a creature, and afterwards restoreth the same to life: and this is most easy with him. He justly challengeth the most exalted comparison, in heaven and earth;a and he is the mighty, the wise. He propoundeth unto a comparison taken from yourselves. Have ye, among the slaves whom your right hands possess, any partner in the substance which we have bestowed on you, so that ye become equal sharers therein with them, or that ye fear them as ye fear one another?b Thus we distinctly explain our signs, unto people who understand. But those who act unjustly, by attributing companions unto God, follow their own lusts, without knowledge: and who shall direct him whom GOD shall cause to err? They shall have none to help them. Wherefore be thou orthodox, and set thy face towards the true religion, the institution of GOD, to which he hath created mankind disposed: there is no change in what GOD hath created.c This is the right religion; but the greater part of men know it not. And be ye turned unto him, and fear him, and be constant at prayer, and be not idolaters. Of those who have made a schism in their religion, and are divided into various sects, every sect rejoice in their own opinion. When adversity befalleth men, they call upon their LORD, turning unto him: afterwards, when he hath caused them to taste of his mercy, behold, a part of them associate other deities with their LORD: to show themselves ungrateful for the favors which we have bestowed on them. Enjoy therefore the vain pleasures of this life; but hereafter shall ye know the consequence. Have we sent down unto them any authority, which speaketh of the false gods which they associate with him?d When we cause men to taste mercy, they rejoice
therein; but if evil befalleth them, for that which their hands have before committed, behold, they despair.e Do they not see that GOD bestoweth provision abundantly on whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth? Verily herein are signs unto people who believe. Give unto him who is of kin to thee his reasonable due; and also to the poor, and the stranger: this is better for those who seek the face of GOD; and they shall prosper. Whatever ye shall give in usury,f to be an increase of men's substance, shall not be increased by the blessing of GOD: but whatever ye shall give in alms, for GOD'S sake, they shall receive a twofold reward. It is GOD who hath created you, and hath provided food for you: hereafter will he cause you to die; and after that will he raise you again to life. Is there any of your false gods, who is able to do the least of these things? Praise be unto him; and far be he removed from what they associate with him! Corruptiong hath appeared by land and by sea, for the crimes which men's hands have committed; that it might make them to tasteh a part of the fruits of that which they have wrought, that peradventure they might turn from their evil ways. Say, Go through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who have been before you: the greater part of them were idolaters. Set thy face therefore towards the right religion, before the day cometh, which none can put back from GOD. On that day shall they be separated into two companies: whoever shall have been an unbeliever, on him shall his unbelief be charged; and whoever shall have done that which is right, shall spread themselves couches of repose in paradise; that he may reward those who shall believe, and work righteousness, of his abundant liberality; for he loveth not the unbelievers. Of his signs one is, that he sendeth the winds, bearing welcome tidings of rain, that he may cause you to taste of his mercy; and that ships may sail at his command, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance by commerce; and that ye may give thanks. We sent apostles, before thee, unto their respective people, and they came unto them with evident proofs: and we took vengeance on those who did wickedly; and it was incumbent on us to assist the true believers. It is GOD who sendeth the winds, and raiseth the clouds, and spreadeth the same in the heaven, as he pleaseth; and afterwards disperseth the same: and thou mayest see the rain issuing from the midst thereof; and when he poureth the same down on such of his servants as he pleaseth, behold, they are filled with joy; although before it was sent down unto them, before such relief, they were despairing. Consider therefore the traces of GOD'S mercy; how he quickeneth the earth, after its state of death: verily the same will raise the dead; for he is almighty. Yet if we should send a blasting wind, and they should see their corn yellow and burnt up, they would surely become ungrateful, after our former favors. Thou canst not make the dead to hear, neither canst thou make the deaf to hear thy call, when they retire and turn their backs; neither canst thou direct the blind
out of their error: thou shalt make none to hear, except him who shall believe in our signs; for they are resigned unto us. It is GOD who created you in weakness, and after weakness hath given you strength; and after strength, he will again reduce you to weakness, and gray hairs: he createth that which he pleaseth; and he is the wise, the powerful. On the day whereon the last hour shall come, the wicked will swear that they have not tarriedi above an hour: in like manner did they utter lies in their lifetime. But those on whom knowledge hath been bestowed, and faith, will say, Ye have tarried, according to the book of GOD,k until the day of resurrection; for this is the day of resurrection; but ye knew it not. On that day their excuse shall not avail those who have acted unjustly; neither shall they be invited any more to make themselves acceptable unto God. And now have we propounded unto men, in this Koran, parables of every kind: yet if thou bring them a verse thereof, the unbelievers will surely say, Ye are no other than publishers of vain falsehoods. Thus hath GOD sealed up the hearts of those who believe not: But do thou, O Mohammed, persevere with constancy, for GOD is true; and let not those induce thee to waver, who have no certain knowledge.
ENTITLED, LOKMÂN;l REVEALED AT MECCA.m
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
A. L. M.n THESE are the signs of the wise book, a direction, and a mercy unto the righteous; who observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms, and have firm assurance in the life to come: these are directed by their LORD, and they shall prosper. There is a man who purchaseth a ludicrous story,o that he may seduce men from the way of GOD, without knowledge, and may laugh the same to scorn:
these shall suffer a shameful punishment. And when our signs are rehearsed unto him, he disdainfully turneth his back as though he heard them not, as though there were a deafness in his ears: wherefore denounce unto him a grievous punishment. But they who shall believe and work righteousness, shall enjoy gardens of pleasure: they shall continue therein forever: this is the certain promise of GOD; and he is the mighty, the wise. He hath created the heavens without visible pillars to sustain them, and thrown on the earth mountains firmly rooted, lest it should move with you;p and he hath replenished the same with all kinds of beasts; and we send down rain from heaven, and cause every kind of noble vegetable to spring forth therein. This is the creation of GOD: show me now what they have created, who are worshipped besides him? verily the ungodly are in a manifest error. We heretofore bestowed wisdom on Lokmân,q and commanded him, saying, Be thou thankful unto GOD: for whoever is thankful, shall be thankful to the advantage of his own soul; and if any shall be unthankful, verily GOD is self-sufficient, and worthy to be praised. And remember when Lokmân said unto his son,r as he admonished him, Oh my son, give not a partner unto GOD; for polytheism is a great impiety. We have commanded man concerning his parents,s
(his mother carrieth him in her womb with weakness and faintness, and he is weaned in two years), saying, Be grateful unto me, and to thy parents. Unto me shall all come to be judged. But if thy parents endeavor to prevail on thee to associate with me that concerning which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not: bear them company in this world in what shall be reasonable;t but follow the way of him who sincerely turneth unto me.u Hereafter unto me shall ye return, and then will I declare unto you that which ye have done. Oh my son, verily every matter, whether good or bad, though it be of the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, and be hidden in a rock, or in the heavens, or in the earth, GOD will bring the same to light; for GOD is clear-sighted and knowing. Oh my son, be constant at prayer, and command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil: and be patient under the afflictions which shall befall thee; for this is a duty absolutely incumbent on all men. Distort not thy face out of contempt to men, neither walk in the earth with insolence; for GOD loveth no arrogant, vain-glorious person. And be moderate in thy pace; and lower thy voice; for the most ungrateful of all voices surely is the voice of asses.x Do ye not see that GOD hath subjected whatever is in heaven and on earth to your service, and hath abundantly poured on you his favors, both outwardly and inwardly?y There are some who dispute concerning GOD without knowledge, and without a direction, and without an enlightening book. And when it is said unto them, Follow that which GOD hath revealed, they answer, Nay, we will follow that which we found our fathers to practise. What, though the devil invite them to the torment of hell? Whosoever resigneth himself unto GOD, being a worker of righteousness, taketh hold on a strong handle; and unto GOD belongeth the issue of all things. But whoever shall be an unbeliever, let not his unbelief grieve thee: unto us shall they return; then will we declare unto them that which they have done, for GOD knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. We will suffer them to enjoy this world for a little while: afterwards we will drive them to a severe punishment. If thou ask them who hath created the heavens and the earth, they will surely answer, GOD. Say, GOD be praised! but the greater part of them do not understand. Unto GOD belongeth whatever is in heaven and earth: for GOD is the self-sufficient, the praiseworthy. If whatever trees are in the earth were pens, and he should after that swell the sea into seven seas of ink, the words of GOD would not be exhausted;z for GOD is mighty and wise. Your creation and your resuscitation are but as the creation and resuscitation of one soul: verily GOD both heareth and seeth. Dost thou not see
that GOD causeth the night to succeed the day, and causeth the day to succeed the night, and compelleth the sun and the moon to serve you? Each of those luminaries hasteneth in its course to a determined period: and GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. This is declared concerning the divine knowledge and power, for that GOD is the true Being, and for that whatever ye invoke, besides him is vanity; and for that GOD is the high, the great God. Dost thou not see that the ships run in the sea, through the favor of GOD, that he may show you of his signs? Verily herein are signs unto every patient, grateful person. When waves cover them, like overshadowing clouds, they call upon GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him; but when he bringeth them safe to land, there is of them who halteth between the true faith and idolatry. Howbeit, none rejecteth our signs, except every perfidious, ungrateful person. O men, fear your LORD, and dread the day whereon a father shall not make satisfaction for his father at all: the promise of GOD is assuredly true. Let not this present life, therefore, deceive you; neither let the deceiverb deceive you concerning GOD. Verily the knowledge of the hour of judgment is with GOD; and he causeth the rain to descend at his own appointed time; and he knoweth what is in the wombs of females. No soul knoweth what it shall gain on the morrow; neither doth any soul know in what land it shall die;c but GOD is knowing and fully acquainted with all things.
ENTITLED, ADORATION;d REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
A. L. M.e THE revelation of this book, there is no doubt thereof, is from the LORD of all creatures. Will they say, Mohammed hath forged it? Nay it is the truth from thy LORD, that thou mayest preach to a people, unto whom no preacher hath come before thee;f
peradventure they will be directed. It is GOD who hath created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in six days; and then ascended his throne. Ye have no patron or intercessor besides him. Will ye not therefore consider? He governeth all things from heaven even to the earth: hereafter shall they return unto him, on the day whose length shall be a thousand years,g of those which ye compute. This is he who knoweth the future, and the present; the mighty, the merciful. It is he who hath made everything which he hath created exceeding good; and first created man of clay, and afterwards made his posterity of an extract of despicable water;h and then formed him into proper shape, and breathed of his spirit into him; and hath given you the senses of hearing and seeing, and hearts to understand. How small thanks do ye return! And they say, When we shall lie hidden in the earth, shall we be raised thence a new creature? Yea, they deny the meeting of their LORD at the resurrection. Say, The angel of death,i who is set over you, shall cause you to die: then shall ye be brought back unto your LORD. If thou couldest see, when the wicked shall bow down their heads before their LORD, saying, O LORD, we have seen, and have heard: suffer us therefore to return into the world, and we will work that which is right; since we are now certain of the truth of what hath been preached to us: thou wouldest see an amazing sight. If we had pleased we had certainly given unto every soul its direction: but the word which hath proceeded from me must necessarily be fulfilled, when I said, Verily I will fill hell with genii and men, altogether.k Taste therefore the torment prepared for you, because ye have forgotten the coming of this your day: we also have forgotten you; taste therefore the punishment of eternal duration, for that which ye have wrought. Verily they only believe in our signs, who, when they are warned thereby, fall down adoring, and celebrate the praise of their LORD, and are not elated with pride; their sides are raised from their beds, calling on their LORD with fear and with hope; and they distribute alms out of what we have bestowed on them. No soull knoweth the complete satisfactionm which is secretly
prepared for them, as a reward for that which they have wrought. Shall he, therefore, who is a true believer, be as he who is an impious transgressor? They shall not be held equal. As to those who believe and do that which is right, they shall have gardens of perpetual abode, an ample recompense for that which they shall have wrought: but as for those who impiously transgress, their abode shall be hell fire; so often as they shall endeavor to get thereout, they shall be dragged back into the same, and it shall be said unto them, Taste ye the torment of hell fire, which ye rejected as a falsehood. And we will cause them to taste the nearer punishment of this world, besides the more grievous punishment of the next; peradventure they will repent. Who is more unjust than he who is warned by the signs of his LORD, and then turneth aside from the same? We will surely take vengeance on the wicked. We heretofore delivered the book of the law unto Moses; wherefore be not thou in doubt as to the revelation thereof:n and we ordained the same to be a direction unto the children of Israel; and we appointed teachers from among them, who should direct the people at our command, when they had persevered with patience, and had firmly believed in our signs. Verily thy LORD will judge between them, on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein they have disagreed. Is it not known unto them how many generations we have destroyed before them, through whose dwellings they walk?o Verily herein are signs: will they not therefore hearken? Do they not see that we drive rain unto a land bare of grass and parched up, and thereby produce corn, of which their cattle eat, and themselves also? Will they not therefore regard? The infidels say to the true believers, When will this decision be made between us, if ye speak truth? Answer, On the day of that decision,p the faith of those who shall have disbelieved shall not avail them; neither shall they be respited any longer. Wherefore avoid them, and expect the issue: verily they expect to obtain some advantage over thee.
ENTITLED, THE CONFEDERATES;q REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O PROPHET, fear GOD, and obey not the unbelievers and the hypocrites:r verily GOD is knowing and wise. But follow that which is revealed unto thee from thy LORD; for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do; and put thy trust in GOD; for GOD is a sufficient protector. GOD hath not given a man two hearts within him; neither hath he made your wives (some of whom ye divorce, regarding them thereafter as your mothers) your true mothers; not hath he made your adopted sons your true sons.s This is your saying in your mouths: but GOD speaketh the truth; and he directed the right way. Call such as are adopted, the sons of their natural fathers: this will be more just in the sight of GOD. And if ye know not their fathers, let them be as your brethren in religion, and your companions: and it shall be no crime in you, that ye errt in this matter; but that shall be criminal which your hearts purposely design; for GOD is gracious and merciful. The prophet is nigher unto the true believers than their own souls;u
and his wives are their mothers.x Those who are related by consanguinity are nigher of kin the one of them unto the others, according to the book of GOD, than the other true believers, and the Mohâjerûn:y unless that ye do what is fitting and reasonable to your relations in general. This is written in the book of God.z Remember when we accepted their covenant from the prophets,a and from thee, O Mohammed, and from Noah, and Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus the son of Mary, and received from them a firm covenant;b that God may examine the speakers of truth concerning their veracity:c and he hath prepared a painful torment for the unbelievers. O true believers, remember the favor of GOD towards you, when armies of infidels came against you,d and we sent against them a wind, and hosts of angels which ye saw not:e and GOD beheld that which ye did. When they came against you from above you, and from below you,f and when your sight became troubled, and your hearts came even to your throats for fear, and ye imagined of GOD various imaginations.g There were the faithful tried, and made to tremble with a violent trembling. And when the hypocrites, and those in whose heart was an infirmity, said, GOD and
his apostle have made you no other than a fallacious promise.h And when a party of themi said, O inhabitants of Yathreb,k there is no place of security for you here; wherefore return home. And a part of them asked leave of the prophet to depart, saying, Verily our houses are defenceless and exposed to the enemy: but they were not defenceless; and their intention was no other than to fly. If the city had been entered upon them by the enemy from the parts adjacent, and they had been asked to desert the true believers, and to fight against them; they had surely consented thereto: but they had not, in such case, remained in the samel but a little while. They had before made a covenant with GOD, that they would not turn their backs:m and the performance of their covenant with GOD shall be examined into hereafter. Say, Flight shall not profit you, if ye fly from death or from slaughter: and if it would, yet shall ye not enjoy this world but a little. Say, Who is he who shall defend you against GOD, if he is pleased to bring evil on you, or is pleased to show mercy towards you? They shall find none to patronize or protect them, besides GOD. GOD already knoweth those among you who hinder others from following his apostle, and who say unto their brethren, Come hither unto us; and who come not to battle, except a little:n being covetous towards you:o but when fear cometh on them, thou seest them look unto thee for assistance, their eyes rolling about like the eyes of him who fainteth by reason of the agonies of death: yet when their fear is past they inveigh against you with sharp tongues; being covetous of the best and most valuable part of the spoils. These believe not sincerely; wherefore GOD hath rendered their works of no avail; and this is easy with GOD. They imagined that the confederates would not depart and raise the siege: and if the confederates should come another time, they would wish to live in the deserts among the Arabs who dwell in tents,p and there to inquire after news concerning you; and although they were with you this time, yet they fought not, except a little. Ye have in the apostle of GOD an excellent example,q unto him who hopeth in GOD, and the last day, and remembereth GOD
frequently. When the true believers saw the confederates, they said, This is what GOD and his apostle have foretold us;r and GOD and his apostle have spoken the truth: and it only increased their faith and resignation. Of the true believers some men justly performed what they had promised unto GOD;s and some of them have finished their course,t and some of them wait the same advantage;u and they changed not their promise by deviating therefrom in the least: that GOD may reward the just performers of their covenant for their fidelity; and may punish the hypocritical, if he pleaseth, or may be turned unto them; for GOD is ready to forgive, and merciful. GOD hath driven back the infidels in their wrath: they obtained no advantage; and GOD was a sufficient protector unto the faithful in battle; for GOD is strong and mighty. And he hath caused such of those who have received the scriptures, as assisted the confederates, to come down out of their fortresses,x and he cast into their hearts terror and dismay:z a part of them ye slew, and a part ye made captives; and God hath caused you to inherit their land, and their houses, and their
wealth,a and a land on which ye have not trodden;b for GOD is almighty. O prophet, say unto thy wives, If ye seek this present life, and the pomp thereof, come, I will make a handsome provision for you, and I will dismiss you with an honourable dismission;c but if ye seek GOD and his apostle, and the life to come, verily GOD hath prepared for such of you as work righteousness a great reward. O wives of the prophet, whosoever of you shall commit a manifest wickedness, the punishment thereof shall be doubled unto her twofold;d and this is easy with GOD: (XXII.) but whosoever of you shall be obedient unto GOD and his apostle, and shall do that which is right, we will give her her reward twice,e and we have prepared for her an honourable provision in paradise. O wives of the prophet, ye are not as other women: if ye fear God, be not too complaisant in speech, lest he should covet, in whose heart is a disease of incontinence; but speak the speech which is convenient. And sit still in your houses; and set not out yourselves with the ostentation of the former time of ignorance:f and observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms; and obey GOD, and his apostle; for GOD desireth only to remove from you the abomination of vanity, since ye are the household of the prophet, and to purify you by a perfect purification.g And remember that which is read in your houses, of the signs of GOD, and of the wisdom revealed in the Koran; for GOD is clear-sighted, and well acquainted with your actions. Verily the Moslems of either sex, and the true believers of either sex, and the devout men, and the devout women, and the men of veracity, and the women of veracity, and the patient men, and the patient women, and the humble men, and the humble women, and the alms-givers of either sex, and the men who fast, and the women who fast, and the chaste men, and the chaste
women, and those of either sex who remember GOD frequently; for them hath GOD prepared forgiveness, and a great reward. It is not fit for a true believer of either sex, when GOD and his apostle have decreed a thing, that they should have the liberty of choosing a different matter of their own:h and whoever is disobedient unto GOD and his apostle surely erreth with a manifest error. And remember when thou saidst to him unto whom GOD had been gracious,i and on whom thou also hadst conferred favours,k Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear GOD: and thou didst conceal that in thy mind which GOD had determined to discover,l and didst fear men; whereas it was more just that thou shouldest fear GOD. But when Zeidm had determined the matter concerning her, and had resolved to divorce her, we joined her in marriage unto thee;n lest a crime should be charged on the true believers, in marrying the wives of their adopted sons, when they have determined the matter concerning them;o and the command of GOD is to be performed. No crime is to be charged on the prophet, as to what GOD hath allowed him, conformable to the ordinance of GOD with regard
to those who preceded him (for the command of GOD is a determinate decree), who brought the messages of GOD, and feared him, and feared none besides GOD: and GOD is a sufficient accountant. Mohammed is not the father of any man among you; but the apostle of GOD, and the seal of the prophets: and GOD knoweth all things. O true believers, remember GOD with a frequent remembrance, and celebrate his praise morning and evening. It is he who is gracious unto you, and his angels intercede for you, that he may lead you forth from darkness into light; and he is merciful towards the true believers. Their salutation, on the day whereon they shall meet him, shall be, Peace! and he hath prepared for them an honourable recompense. O prophet, verily we have sent thee to be a witness, and a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats, and an inviter unto GOD, through his good pleasure, and a shining light. Bear good tidings therefore unto the true believers, that they shall receive great abundance from GOD. And obey not the unbelievers, and the hypocrites, and mind not their evil treatment: but trust in GOD; and GOD is a sufficient protector. O true believers, when ye marry women who are believers, and afterwards put them away, before ye have touched them, there is no term prescribed you to fulfil towards themp after their divorce: but make them a present,q and dismiss them freely with an honourable dismission. O prophet, we have allowed thee thy wives unto whom thou hast given their dower, and also the slaves which thy right hand possesseth, of the booty which GOD hath granted thee;r and the daughters of thy uncle, and the daughters of thy aunts, both on thy father's side, and on thy mother's side, who have fled with thee from Mecca,s and any other believing woman, if she give herself unto the prophet;t in case the prophet desireth to take her to wife. This is a peculiar privilege granted unto thee above the rest of the true believers.u We know what we have ordained them concerning their wives, and the
slaves which their right hands possess: lest it should be deemed a crime in thee to make use of the privilege granted thee; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Thou mayest postpone the turn of such of thy wives as thou shalt please, in being called to thy bed; and thou mayest take unto thee her whom thou shalt please, and her whom thou shalt desire of those whom thou shalt have before rejected: and it shall be no crime in thee.x This will be more easy, that they may be entirely content, and may not be grieved, but may be well pleased with what thou shalt give every of them: GOD knoweth whatever is in your hearts; and GOD is knowing and gracious. It shall not be lawful for thee to take other women to wife hereafter,z nor to exchange any of thy wives for them,a although their beauty please thee; except the slaves whom thy right hand shall possess: and GOD observeth all things. O true believer, enter not the houses of the prophet, unless it be permitted you to eat meat with him, without waiting his convenient time; but when ye are invited, then enter. And when ye shall have eaten, disperse yourselves; and stay not to enter into familiar discourse: for this incommodeth the prophet. He is ashamed to bid you depart; but GOD is not ashamed of the truth. And when ye ask of the prophet's wives what ye may have occasion for, ask it of them from behind a curtain.b This will be more pure for your hearts and their hearts. Neither is it fit for you to give any uneasiness to the apostle of GOD, or to marry his wives after him for ever:c for this would be a grievous thing in the sight of GOD. Whether ye divulge a thing or conceal it, verily GOD knoweth all things. It shall be no crime in them, as to their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or
their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves which their right hands possess, if they speak to them unveiled:d and fear ye GOD;e for GOD is witness of all things. Verily GOD and his angels bless the prophet. O true believers, do ye also bless him, and salute him with a respectful salutation.f As to those who offend GOD and his apostle, GOD shall curse them in this world and in the next; and he hath prepared for them a shameful punishment. And they who shall injure the true believers of either sex, without their deserving it, shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and a manifest injustice.g O prophet, speak unto thy wives, and thy daughters, and the wives of the true believers, that they cast their outer garmentsh over them when they walk abroad; this will be more proper, that they may be known to be matrons of reputation, and may not be affronted by unseemly words or actions. GOD is gracious and merciful. Verily if the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is an infirmity, and they who raise disturbances in Medina, do not desist, we will surely stir thee up against them, to chastise them: henceforth they shall not be suffered to dwell near thee therein, except for a little time, and being accursed; wherever they are found they shall be taken, and killed with a general slaughter, according to the sentence of GOD concerning those who have been before; and thou shalt not find any change in the sentence of GOD. Men will ask thee concerning the approach of the last hour; answer, Verily the knowledge thereof is with GOD alone; and he will not inform thee: peradventure the hour is nigh at hand. Verily GOD hath cursed the infidels, and hath prepared for them a fierce fire, wherein they shall remain forever: they shall find no patron or defender. On the day whereon their faces shall be rolled in hell fire, they shall say, Oh that we had obeyed GOD, and had obeyed his apostle! And they shall say, O LORD, verily we have obeyed our lords, and our great men; and they have seduced us from the right way. O LORD, give them the double of our punishment; and curse them with a heavy curse! O true believers, be not as those who injured Moses; but GOD cleared him from the scandal which they had spoken concerning him;i and he
was of great consideration in the sight of GOD.k O true believers, fear GOD, and speak words well directed: that God may correct your works for you, and may forgive you your sins: and whoever shall obey GOD and his apostle shall enjoy great felicity. We proposed the faith unto the heavens, and the earth, and the mountains: and they refused to undertake the same, and were afraid thereof; but man undertook it:l verily he was unjust to himself, and foolish;m that GOD may punish the hypocritical men, and the hypocritical women, and the idolaters, and the idolatresses; and that GOD may be turned unto the true believers, both men and women; for GOD is gracious and merciful.
ENTITLED, SABA;n REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
PRAISE be unto GOD, unto whom belongeth whatever is in the heavens and on earth: and unto him be praise in the world to come; for he is wise and intelligent. He knoweth whatsoever entereth into the earth,o and whatsoever cometh out of the same,p and whatsoever descendeth from heaven,q and whatsoever ascendeth thereto:r and he is merciful and ready to forgive. The unbelievers say, The hour of judgment will not come unto us. Answer, Yea, by my LORD, it will surely come unto you; it is he who knoweth the hidden secret: the weight of an ant, either in heaven or in earth, is not absent from him,
nor anything lesser than this or greater, but the same is written in the perspicuous book of his decrees; that he may recompense those who shall have believed, and wrought righteousness: they shall receive pardon, and an honourable provision. But they who endeavor to render our signs of none effect shall receive a punishment of painful torment. Those unto whom knowledge hath been given, see that the book which hath been revealed unto thee from thy LORD is the truth, and directeth into the glorious and laudable way. The unbelievers say to one another, Shall we show you a man who shall prophesy unto you, that when ye shall have been dispersed with a total dispersion, ye shall be raised a new creature? He hath forged a lie concerning GOD, or rather he is distracted. But they who believe not in the life to come shall fall into punishment and a wide error. Have they not therefore considered what is before them, and what is behind them, of the heaven and the earth? If we please, we will cause the earth to open and swallow them up, or will cause a piece of the heaven to fall upon them: verily herein is a sign unto every servant, who turneth unto God. We heretofore bestowed on David excellence from us: and we said, O mountains, sing alternate praises with him; and we obliged the birds also to join therein.s And we softened the iron for him, saying, Make thereof complete coats of mail,t and rightly dispose the small plates which compose the same: and work ye righteousness, O family of David; for I see that which ye do. And we made the wind subject unto Solomon:u it blew in the morning for a month, and in the evening for a month. And we made a fountain of molten brass to flow for him.x And some of the genii were obliged to work in his presence, by the will of his LORD; and whoever of them turned aside from our command, we will cause him to taste the pain of hell fire.y They made for him whatever he pleased of palaces, and statues,z and large dishes like fishponds,a and caldrons standing firm on their trevets;b and we said, Work righteousness, O family of David, with thanksgiving; for few of my servants are thankful. And when we had decreed that Solomon should die, nothing discovered his death unto them, except the creeping thing of the earth, which gnawed his staff.c And when his
body fell down, the genii plainly perceived that if they had known that which is secret, they had not continued in a vile punishment.d The descendants of Sabae had heretofore a sign in their dwelling; namely, two gardens on the right hand and on the left,f and it was said unto them, Eat ye of the provision of your LORD, and give thanks unto him; ye have a good country, and a gracious LORD. But they turned aside from what we had commanded them; wherefore we sent against them the inundation of al Arem,g and we changed their two gardens for them into two gardens producing bitter fruit, and tamarisks,h and some little fruit of the lote-tree. This we gave them in reward, because they were ungrateful: is any thus rewarded except the ungrateful? And we placed between them and the cities which we have blessed,i cities situated near each other; and we made the journey easy between them,k saying, Travel through the same by night and by day, in security. But they said, O LORD, put a greater distance between our journeys:l and they were unjust unto themselves; and we made them the subject of discourse, and dispersed them with a total dispersion.m Verily, herein
are signs unto every patient, grateful person. And Eblis found his opinion of them to be true:n and they followed him, except a party of the true believers:o and he had no power over them, unless to tempt them, that we might know him who believed in the life to come, from him who doubted thereof. Thy LORD observeth all things. Say unto the idolaters, Call upon those whom ye imagine to be gods, besides GOD: they are not masters of the weight of an ant in heaven or on earth, neither have they any share in the creation or government of the same; nor is any of them assistant to him therein. No intercession will be of service in his presence, except the intercession of him to whom he shall grant permission to intercede for others:p and they shall wait in suspense until, when the terror shall be taken off from their hearts,q they shall say to one another: What doth your LORD say? They shall answer, That which is just: and he is the high, the great God. Say, Who provideth food for you from heaven and earth? Answer, GOD: and either we, or ye, follow the true direction, or are in a manifest error. Say, Ye shall not be examined concerning what we shall have committed: neither shall we be examined concerning what ye shall have done. Say, Our LORD will assemble us together at the last day: then he will judge between us with truth; and he is the judge, the knowing. Say, Show me those whom ye have joined as partners with him? Nay; rather he is the mighty, the wise GOD. We have not sent thee otherwise than unto mankind in general, a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats; but the greater part of men do not understand. And they say, When will this threat be fulfilled, if ye speak truth? Answer, A threat is denounced unto you of a day which ye shall not retard one hour, neither shall ye hasten. The unbelievers say, We will by no means believe in this Koran, nor in that which hath been revealed before it.r But if thou couldest see when the unjust doers shall be set before their LORD! They will iterate discourse with one another: those who were esteemed weak shall say unto those who behaved themselves arrogantly,s Had it not been for you, verily we had been true believers. They who behaved themselves arrogantly shall say unto those who were esteemed weak, Did we turn you aside from the true direction, after it had come unto you? On the contrary, ye
acted wickedly of your own free choice. And they who were esteemed weak shall say unto those who behaved with arrogance, Nay, but the crafty plot which ye devised by night and by day, occasioned our ruin: when ye commanded us that we should not believe in GOD, and that we should set up other gods as equals unto him. And they shall conceal their repentance,t after they shall have seen the punishment prepared for them. And we will put yokes on the necks of those who shall have disbelieved: shall they be rewarded any otherwise than according to what they shall have wrought? We have sent no warner unto any city, but the inhabitants thereof who lived in affluence said, Verily we believe not that with which ye are sent. And those of Mecca also say, We abound in riches and children, more than ye; and we shall not be punished hereafter. Answer, Verily my LORD will bestow provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth, and will be sparing unto whom he pleaseth: but the greater part of men know not this. Neither your riches nor your children are the things which shall cause you to draw nigh unto us with a near approach: only whoever believeth, and worketh righteousness, they shall receive a double reward for that which they shall have wrought: and they shall dwell in security, in the upper apartments of paradise. But they who shall endeavor to render our signs of none effect shall be delivered up to punishment. Say, Verily my LORD will bestow provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth of his servants, and will be sparing unto whom he pleaseth: and whatever thing ye shall give in alms, he will return it; and he is the best provider of food. On a certain day he shall gather them altogether: then shall he say unto the angels, Did these worship you? And the angels shall answer, GOD forbid! thou art our friend, and not these: but they worshipped devils; the greater part of them believed in them. On this day the one of you shall not be able either to profit or to hurt the other. And we will say unto those who have acted unjustly, Taste ye the pain of hell fire, which ye rejected as a falsehood. When our evident signs are read unto them, they say of thee, O Mohammed, This is no other than a man who seeketh to turn you aside from the gods which your fathers worshipped. And they say of the Koran, This is no other than a lie blasphemously forged. And the unbelievers say of the truth, when it is come unto them, This is no other than manifest sorcery: yet we have given them no books of scripture wherein to exercise themselves, nor have we sent unto them any warner before thee. They who were before them in like manner accused their prophets of imposture: but these have not arrived unto the tenth part of the riches and strength which we had bestowed on the former: and they accused my apostles of imposture; and how severe was my vengeance! Say, Verily I advise you unto one thing, namely, that ye stand before GOD by two and two, and singly;u and then consider
seriously and you will find that there is no madness in your companion Mohammed: he is no other than a warner unto you, sent before a severe punishment. Say, I ask not of you any reward for my preaching;x it is your own, either to give or not:y my reward is to be expected from GOD alone; and he is witness over all things. Say, Verily my LORD sendeth down the truth to his prophets: he is the knower of secrets. Say, Truth is come, and falsehood is vanished, and shall not return any more. Say, If I err, verily I shall err only against my own soul: but if I be rightly directed, it will be by that which my LORD revealeth unto me; for he is ready to hear, and nigh unto those who call upon him. If thou couldest see, when the unbelievers shall tremble,z and shall find no refuge, and shall be taken from a near place,a and shall say, We believe in him! But how shall they receive the faith from a distant place:b since they had before denied him, and reviled the mysteries of faith, from a distant place? And a bar shall be placed between them and that which they shall desire; as it hath been done with those who behaved like them heretofore: because they have been in a doubt which hath caused scandal.
ENTITLED, THE CREATOR;c REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
PRAISE be unto GOD the Creator of heaven and earth; who maketh the angels his messengers, furnished with two, and three, and four pair of wings:d GOD maketh what addition he pleaseth unto his creatures; for GOD is almighty. The mercy which GOD shall freely bestow on mankind, there is none who can withhold; and what he shall withhold, there is none who can bestow, besides him; and he is the mighty, the wise. O men, remember the favor of GOD towards you: is there any creator, besides GOD, who provideth food for you from heaven
and earth? There is no GOD but he: how therefore are ye turned aside from acknowledging his unity? If they accuse thee of imposture, apostles before thee have also been accused of imposture: and unto GOD shall all things return. O men, verily the promise of GOD is true: let not therefore the present life deceive you, neither let the deceiver deceive you concerning GOD: for Satan is an enemy unto you; wherefore hold him for an enemy: he only inviteth his confederates to be the inhabitants of hell. For those who believe not there is prepared a severe torment: but for those who shall believe and do that which is right, is prepared mercy and a great reward. Shall he therefore for whom his evil work hath been prepared, and who imagineth it to be good, be as he who is rightly disposed, and discerneth the truth? Verily GOD will cause to err whom he pleaseth, and will direct whom he pleaseth. Let not thy soul therefore be spent in sighs for their sakes, on account of their obstinacy; for GOD well knoweth that which they do. It is God who sendeth the winds, and raiseth a cloud; and we drive the same unto a dead country, and thereby quicken the earth after it hath been dead; so shall the resurrection be.e Whoever desireth excellence; unto GOD doth all excellence belong: unto him ascendeth the good speech; and the righteous work will he exalt. But as for them who devise wicked plots,f they shall suffer a severe punishment; and the device of those men shall be rendered vain. GOD created you first of the dust, and afterwards of seed;g and he hath made you man and wife. No female conceiveth, or bringeth forth, but with his knowledge. Nor is anything added unto the age of him whose life is prolonged, neither is anything diminished from his age, but the same is written in the book of God's decrees. Verily this is easy with GOD. The two seas are not to be held in comparison: this is fresh and sweet, pleasant to drink: but that is salt and bitter:h yet out of each of them ye eat fish,i and take ornamentsk for you to wear. Thou seest the ships also ploughing the waves thereof, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves by commerce, of the abundance of God: peradventure ye will be thankful. He causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night; and he obligeth the sun and the moon to perform their services: each of them runneth an appointed course. This is GOD, your LORD: his is the kingdom. But the idols which ye invoke besides him have not the power even over the skin of a date-stone: if ye invoke them, they will not hear your calling; and although they should hear, yet they would not answer you. On the day of resurrection they shall disclaim your having associated them with God: and none shall declare unto thee the truth, like one who is well acquainted therewith. O men, ye have need of GOD; but GOD is self-sufficient, and to be praised. If he pleaseth, he can take you away, and produce a new creature in your stead: neither will this be difficult with GOD. A burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another: and if a heavy-
burdened soul call on another to bear part of its burden, no part thereof shall be borne by the person who shall be called on, although he be ever so nearly related. Thou shalt admonish those who fear their LORD in secret and are constant at prayer: and whoever cleanseth himself from the guilt of disobedience, cleanseth himself to the advantage of his own soul; for all shall be assembled before GOD at the last day. The blind and the seeing shall not be held equal; neither darkness and light; nor the cool shade and the scorching wind: neither shall the living and the dead be held equal.l GOD shall cause him to hear whom he pleaseth; but thou shalt not make those to hear who are in their graves.m Thou art no other than a preacher: verily we have sent thee with truth, a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats. There hath been no nation, but a preacher hath in past times been conversant among them: if they charge thee with imposture, they who were before them likewise charged their apostles with imposture. Their apostles came unto them with evident miracles, and with divine writings,n and with the enlightening book:o afterwards I chastised those who were unbelievers; and how severe was my vengeance! Dost thou not see that GOD sendeth down rain from heaven, and that we thereby produce fruits of various colours?q In the mountain also there are some tracts white and red, of various colours;q and others are of a deep black: and of men, and beasts, and cattle there are whose colours are in like manner various. Such only of his servants fear GOD as are endued with understanding: verily GOD is mighty and ready to forgive. Verily they who read the book of GOD, and are constant at prayer, and give alms out of what we have bestowed on them, both in secret and openly, hope for a merchandise which shall not perish: that God may fully pay them their wages, and make them a superabundant addition of his liberality; for he is ready to forgive the faults of his servants, and to requite their endeavors. That which we have revealed unto thee of the book of the Koran is the truth, confirming the scriptures which were revealed before it: for GOD knoweth and regardeth his servants. And we have given the book of the Koran in heritage unto such of our servants as we have chosen: of them there is one who injureth his own soul;r and there is another of them who keepeth the middle way;s and there is another of them who outstrippeth others in good works, by the permission of GOD. This is the great excellence. They shall be introduced into gardens of perpetual abode; they shall be adorned therein with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their clothing therein shall be of silk: and they shall say, Praise be unto GOD, who hath taken away sorrow from us! verily our LORD is ready
to forgive the sinners, and to reward the obedient; who hath caused us to take up our rest in a dwelling of eternal stability, through his bounty, wherein no labor shall touch us, neither shall any weariness affect us. But for the unbelievers is prepared the fire of hell: it shall not be decreed them to die a second time; neither shall any part of the punishment thereof be made lighter unto them. Thus shall every infidel be rewarded. And they shall cry out aloud in hell, saying, LORD, take us hence, and we will work righteousness, and not what we have formerly wrought. But it shall be answered them, Did we not grant you lives of length sufficient, that whoever would be warned might be warned therein; and did not the preachert come unto you? taste therefore the pains of hell. And the unjust shall have no protector. Verily GOD knoweth the secrets both of heaven and earth, for he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. It is he who hath made you to succeed in the earth. Whoever shall disbelieve, on him be his unbelief; and their unbelief shall only gain the unbelievers greater indignation in the sight of their LORD; and their unbelief shall only increase the perdition of the unbelievers. Say, What think ye of your deities which ye invoke besides GOD? Show me what part of the earth they have created. Or had they any share in the creation of the heavens? Have we given unto the idolaters any book of revelations, so that they may rely on any proof therefrom to authorize their practice? Nay; but the ungodly make unto one another only deceitful promises. Verily GOD sustaineth the heavens and the earth, lest they fail: and if they should fail, none could support the same besides him; he is gracious and merciful. The Koreish swore by GOD, with a most solemn oath, that if a preacher had come unto them, they would surely have been more willingly directed than any nation: but now a preacher is come unto them, it hath only increased in them their aversion from the truth, their arrogance in the earth, and their contriving of evil; but the contrivance of evil shall only encompass the authors thereof. Do they expect any other than the punishment awarded against the unbelievers of former times? For thou shalt not find any change in the ordinance of GOD; neither shalt thou find any variation in the ordinance of GOD. Have they not gone through the earth, and seen what hath been the end of those who were before them; although they were more mighty in strength than they? GOD is not to be frustrated by anything either in heaven or on earth; for he is wise and powerful. If GOD should punish men according to what they deserve, he would not leave on the back of the earth so much as a beast: but he respiteth them to a determined time; and when their time shall come, verily GOD will regard his servants.
ENTITLED, Y. S.; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
Y. S.u I SWEAR by the instructive Koran, that thou art one of the messengers of God, sent to show the right way. This is a revelation of the most mighty, the merciful God: that thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned, and who live in negligence. Our sentencex hath justly been pronounced against the greater part of them; wherefore they shall not believe. We have put yokesy on their necks, which come up to their chins; and they are forced to hold up their heads; and we have set a bar before them, and a bar behind them;z and we have covered them with darkness; wherefore they shall not see.a It shall be equal unto them whether thou preach unto them, or do not preach unto them; they shall not believe. But thou shalt preach with effect unto him only who followeth the admonition of the Koran, and feareth the Merciful in secret. Wherefore bear good tidings unto him, of mercy, and an honourable reward. Verily we will restore the dead to life, and will write down their works which they shall have sent before them, and their footsteps which they shall have left behind them: b and everything do we set down in a plain register. Propound unto them as an example the inhabitants of the city of Antioch, when the apostles of Jesus came thereto:c when we
sent unto them two of the said apostles;d but they charged them with imposture. Wherefore we strengthened them with a third.e And they said, Verily we are sent unto you by God. The inhabitants answered, Ye are no other than men, as we are; ye only publish a lie. The apostles replied, Our LORD knoweth that we are really sent unto you: and our duty is only public preaching. Those of Antioch said, Verily we presage evil from you: if ye desist not from preaching, we will surely stone you, and a painful punishment shall be inflicted on you by us. The apostles answered, Your evil presage is with yourselves:f although ye be warned, will ye persist in yours errors? Verily ye are a people who transgress exceedingly. And a certain mang came hastily from the farther parts of the city, and said, O my people, follow the messengers of God; follow him who demandeth not any reward of you: for these are rightly directed. (XXIII.) What reason have I that I should not worship him who hath created me? for unto him shall ye return. Shall I take other gods besides him? If the Merciful be pleased to afflict me, their intercession will not avail me at all, neither can they deliver me: then should I be in a manifest error. Verily I believe in your LORD; wherefore hearken unto me. But they stoned him: and as he died, it was said unto him, Enter thou into paradise. And he said, O that my people knew how merciful GOD hath been unto me! for he hath highly honoured me. And we sent not down against his people, after they had slain him, an army from heaven, nor the other instruments of destruction which we sent down on unbelievers in former days:h there was only one cry of Gabriel from heaven, and behold, they became utterly extinct. Oh the misery of men! No apostle cometh unto them, but they laugh him to scorn. Do they not consider how many generations we have destroyed before them? Verily they shall not return unto them: but all of them in general shall be assembled before us. One sign of the resurrection
unto them is the dead earth:i we quicken the same by the rain, and produce thereout various sorts of grain, of which they eat. And we make therein gardens of palm-trees, and vines; and we cause springs to gush forth in the same: that they may eat of the fruits thereof, and of the labor of their hands. Will they not therefore give thanks? Praise be unto him who hath created all the different kinds, both of vegetables, which the earth bringeth forth, and of their own species, by forming the two sexes, and also the various sorts of things which they know not. The night also is a sign unto them: we withdraw the day from the same, and behold, they are covered with darkness: and the sun hasteneth to his place of rest.k This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God. and for the moon have we appointed certain mansions,l until she change and return to be like the old branch of a palm-tree.m It is not expedient that the sun should overtake the moon in her course: neither doth the night outstrip the day: but each of these luminaries moving in a peculiar orbit. It is a sign also unto them, that they carry their offspring in the ship filled with merchandise;n and that we have made for them other conveniences like unto it,o whereon they ride. If we please, we drown them, and there is none to help them; neither are they delivered, unless through our mercy, and that they may enjoy life for a season. When it is said unto them, Fear that which is before you, and that which is behind you,p that ye may obtain mercy: they withdraw from thee: and thou dost not bring them one sign, of the signs of their LORD, but they turn aside from the same. And when it is said unto them, Give alms of that which GOD hath bestowed on you; the unbelievers say unto those who believe, by way of mockery, Shall we feed him whom GOD can feed, if he pleaseth?q Verily ye are in no other than a manifest error. And they say, When will this promise of the resurrection be fulfilled, if ye speak truth? They only wait for one sounding of the trumpet,r which shall overtake them while they are disputing together; and they shall not have time to make any disposition of their effects, neither shall they return to their family. And the trumpet shall be sounded again;s and behold they shall come forth from their graves, and hasten unto
their LORD. They shall say, Alas for us! who hath awakened us from our bed?t This is what the Merciful promised us; and his apostles spoke the truth. It shall be but one sound of the trumpet, and behold, they shall be all assembled before us. On this day no soul shall be unjustly treated in the least; neither shall ye be rewarded, but according to what ye shall have wrought. On this day the inhabitants of paradise shall be wholly taken up with joy: they and their wives shall rest in shady groves, leaning on magnificent couches. There shall they have fruit, and they shall obtain whatever they shall desire. Peace shall be the word spoken unto the righteous, by a merciful LORD: but he shall say unto the wicked, Be ye separated this day, O ye wicked, from the righteous. Did I not command you, O sons of Adam, that ye should not worship Satan; because he was an open enemy unto you? And did I not say, Worship me; this is the right way? But now hath he seduced a great multitude of you: did ye not therefore understand? This is hell, with which ye were threatened: be ye cast into the same this day to be burned; for that ye have been unbelievers. On this day we will seal up their mouths, that they shall not open them in their own defence; and their hands shall speak unto us, and their feet shall bear witness of that which they have committed.u If we pleased we could put out their eyes, and they might run with emulation in the way they use to take; and how should they see their error? And if we pleased we could transform them into other shapes, in their places when they should be found; and they should not be able to depart; neither should they repent.x Unto whomsoever we grant a long life, him do we cause to bow down his body through age. Will they not therefore understand? We have not taught Mohammed the art of poetry;y nor is it expedient for him to be a poet. This book is no other than an admonition from God, and a perspicuous Korân; that he may warn him who is living:z and the sentence of condemnation will be justly executed on the unbelievers. Do they not consider that we have created for them, among the things which our hands have wrought, cattle of several kinds, of which they are possessors; and that we have put the same in subjection under them? Some of them are for their riding; and on some of them do they feed: and they receive other advantages therefrom; and of their milk do they drink. Will they not, therefore, be thankful? They have taken other gods, besides GOD, in hopes that they may be assisted by them; but they are not able to give them any assistance: yet are they a party of troops ready to defend them. Let not their speech, therefore, grieve thee: we know that which they privately conceal, and that which they publicly discover. Doth not man know that we have created him of seed? yet behold, he is an open disputer against the resurrection; and he propoundeth unto us a comparison, and forgetteth his creation. He
saith, Who shall restore bones to life, when they are rotten?a Answer, He shall restore them to life, who produced them the first time: for he is skilled in every kind of creation: who giveth you fire out of the green tree,b and behold, ye kindle your fuel from thence. Is not he who hath created the heavens and the earth able to create new creatures like unto them? Yea certainly: for he is the wise Creator. His command, when he willeth a thing, is only that he saith unto it, Be; and it is. Wherefore praise be unto him, in whose hand is the kingdom of all things, and unto whom ye shall return at the last day.
ENTITLED, THOSE WHO RANK THEMSELVES IN ORDER;
REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the angels who rank themselves in order;c and by those who drive forward and dispel the clouds;d and by those who read the Koran for an admonition; verily your GOD is one: the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them, and the LORD of the east.e We have adorned the lower heaven with the ornament of the stars: and we have placed therein a guard against every rebellious devil; that they may not listen to the discourse of the exalted princes (for they are darted at from every side, to repel them, and a lasting torment is prepared for them); except him who catcheth a word by stealth, and is pursued by a shining flame.f Ask the Meccans, therefore, whether they be stronger by nature, or the angels, whom we have created? We have surely created them of stiff clay. Thou wonderest at God's power and their obstinacy; but they mock at the arguments urged to convince
them: when they are warned, they do not take warning; and when they see any sign, they scoff thereat, and say, This is no other than manifest sorcery: after we shall be dead, and become dust and bones, shall we really be raised to life, and our forefathers also? Answer, Yea: and ye shall then be despicable. There shall be but one blast of the trumpet, and they shall see themselves raised: and they shall say, Alas for us! this is the day of judgment, this is the day of distinction between the righteous and the wicked, which ye rejected as a falsehood. Gather together those who have acted unjustly, and their comrades, and the idols which they worshipped besides GOD, and direct them in the way to hell; and set them before God's tribunal; for they shall be called to account. What aileth you that ye defend not one another? But on this day they shall submit themselves to the judgment of God: and they shall draw nigh unto one another, and shall dispute among themselves. And the seduced shall say unto those who seduced them, Verily ye came unto us with presages of prosperity;g and the seducers shall answer, Nay, rather ye were not true believers: for we had no power over you to compel you; but ye were people who voluntarily transgressed: wherefore the sentence of our LORD hath been justly pronounced against us, and we shall surely taste his vengeance. We seduced you; but we also erred ourselves. They shall both therefore be made partakers of the same punishment on that day. Thus will we deal with the wicked: because, when it is said unto them, There is no god besides the true GOD, they swell with arrogance, and say, Shall we abandon our gods for a distracted poet? Nay: he cometh with the truth, and beareth witness to the former apostles. Ye shall surely taste the painful torment of hell; and ye shall not be rewarded, but according to your works. But as for the sincere servants of GOD, they shall have a certain provision in paradise, namely, delicious fruits: and they shall be honoured: they shall be placed in gardens of pleasure, leaning on couches, opposite to one another:h a cup shall be carried round unto them, filled from a limpid fountain, for the delight of those who drink: it shall not oppress the understanding, neither shall they be inebriated therewith. And near them shall lie the virgins of paradise, refraining their looks from beholding any besides their spouses, having large black eyes, and resembling the eggs of an ostrich covered with feathers from the dust.i And they shall turn the one unto the other, and shall ask one another questions. And one of them shall say, Verily I had an intimate friend while I lived in the world, who said unto me, Art thou one of those who assertest the truth of the resurrection? After we shall be dead, and reduced to dust and bones, shall we surely be judged? Then he shall say to his companions, Will ye look down? And he shall look down, and shall see him in the midst of hell: and he shall say unto him, By GOD, it wanted little but thou hadst drawn me into ruin: and had it not been for the grace of my LORD, I had surely been one of those who have been delivered up to
eternal torment. Shall we die any other than our first death; or do we suffer any punishment? Verily this is great felicity: for the obtaining a felicity like this let the laborers labor. Is this a better entertainment, or the tree of al Zakkum?k Verily we have designed the same for an occasion of dispute unto the unjust.l It is a tree which issueth from the bottom of hell: the fruit thereof resembleth the heads of devils;m and the damned shall eat of the same, and shall fill their bellies therewith; and there shall be given them thereon a mixture of filthy and boiling water to drink: afterwards shall they return into hell.n They found their fathers going astray, and they trod hastily in their footsteps: for the greater part of the ancients erred before them. And we sent warners unto them heretofore: and see how miserable was the end of those who were warned; except the sincere servants of GOD. Noah called on us in former days: and we heard him graciously: and we delivered him and his family out of the great distress; and we caused his offspring to be those who survived to people the earth: and we left the following salutation to be bestowed on him by the latest posterity, namely, Peace be on Noah among all creatures! Thus do we reward the righteous; for he was one of our servants the true believers. Afterwards we drowned the others. Abraham also was of his religion:o when he came unto his LORD with a perfect heart. When he said unto his father and his people, What do ye worship? Do ye choose false gods preferably to the true GOD? What therefore is your opinion of the LORD of all creatures? And he looked and observed the stars, and said, Verily I shall be sick,p and shall not assist at your sacrifices: and they turned their backs and departed from him.q And Abraham went privately to their gods, and said, scoffingly unto them, Do ye not eat of the meat which is set before you? What aileth you that ye speak not? And he turned upon them, and struck them with his right hand, and demolished them. And the people came hastily unto him: and he said, Do ye worship the images which ye carve? whereas GOD hath created you, and also that which ye make. They said, Build a pile for him, and cast him into the glowing fire. And they devised a plot against him; but we made them the inferior, and delivered him.r And Abraham said, Verily I am going unto my LORD,s who will direct me. O LORD, grant me a righteous issue. Wherefore we acquainted him that he should have a son, who should be a meek youth. And when he had
attained to years of discretion,t and could join in acts of religion with him, Abraham said unto him, O my son, verily I saw in a dream that I should offer thee in sacrifice:u consider therefore what thou art of opinion I should do. He answered, O my father, do what thou art commanded: thou shalt find me, if GOD please, a patient person. And when they had submitted themselves to the divine will, and Abraham had laid his son prostrate on his face,x we cried unto him, O Abraham, now hast thou verified the vision. Thus do we reward the righteous. Verily this was a manifest trial. And we ransomed him with a noble victim.y And we left the following salutation to be bestowed on him by the latest posterity, namely, Peace be on Abraham! Thus do we reward the righteous: for he was one of our faithful servants. And we rejoiced him with the promise of Isaac: and of their offspring were some righteous doers, and others who manifestly injured their own souls. We were also gracious unto Moses and Aaron, heretofore: and we delivered them and their people from a great distress. And we assisted them against the Egyptians; and they became the conquerors. And we gave them the perspicuous book of the law, and we directed them into the right way, and we left the following salutation to be bestowed on them by the latest posterity, namely, Peace be on Moses and Aaron! Thus do we reward the righteous; for they were two of our faithful servants. And Eliasz
was also one of those who were sent by us. When he said unto his people, Do ye not fear God? Do ye invoke Baal, and forsake the most excellent Creator? GOD is your LORD, and the LORD of your forefathers. But they accused him of imposture: wherefore they shall be delivered up to eternal punishment; except the sincere servants of GOD. And we left the following salutation to be bestowed on him by the latest posterity, namely, Peace be on Ilyâsin!a Thus do we reward the righteous: for he was one of our faithful servants. And Lot was also one of those who were sent by us. When we delivered him and his whole family, except an old woman, his wife, who perished, among those that remained behind: afterwards we destroyed the others.b And ye, O people of Mecca, pass by the places where they once dwelt, as ye journey in the morning, and by night; will ye not therefore understand? Jonas was also one of those who were sent by us.c When he fledd into the loaded ship; and those who were on board cast lots among themselves,e and he was condemned:f and the fish swallowed him;g for he was worthy of reprehension. And if he had not been one those who praised GOD,h verily he had remained in the belly thereof until the day of resurrection. And we cast him on the naked shore, and he was sick:i and we caused a plant of a gourdk to grow up over him; and we went him to an hundred thousand persons, or they were a greater number, and they believed: wherefore we granted them to enjoy this life for a season. Inquire of the Meccans whether thy LORD hath daughters, and they sons?l Have we created the angels of the female sex? and were they witnesses
thereof? Do they not say of their own false invention, GOD hath begotten issue? and are they not really liars? Hath he chosen daughters preferably to sons? Ye have no reason to judge thus. Will ye therefore not be admonished? Or have ye a manifest proof of what ye say? Produce now your book of revelations, if ye speak truth. And they make him to be of kin unto the genii;m whereas the genii know that they who affirm such things shall be delivered up to eternal punishment; (far be that from GOD, which they affirm of him!) except the sincere servants of GOD. Moreover ye and that which ye worship shall not seduce any concerning God, except him who is destined to be burned in hell. There is none of us but hath an appointed place: we range ourselves in order, attending the commands of God; and we celebrate the divine praise.n The infidels said, If we had been favored with a book of divine revelations, of those which were delivered to the ancients, we had surely been sincere servants of GOD: yet now the Koran is revealed, they believe not therein; but hereafter shall they know the consequence of their unbelief. Our word hath formerly been given unto our servants the apostles; that they shall certainly be assisted against the infidels, and that our armies should surely be the conquerors. Turn aside therefore from them, for a season: and see the calamities which shall afflict them; for they shall see thy future success and prosperity. Do they therefore seek to hasten our vengeance? Verily when it shall descend into their courts, an evil morning shall it be unto those who were warned in vain. Turn aside from them therefore for a season, and see: hereafter shall they see thy success and their punishment. Praise be unto thy LORD, the LORD who is far exalted above what they affirm of him! And peace be on his apostles! And praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!
ENTITLED, S.; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
S.o BY the Korân full of admonition.p Verily the unbelievers are addicted to pride and contention. How many generations have
we destroyed before them; and they cried for mercy, but it was not a time to escape. They wonder that a warner from among themselves hath come unto them. And the unbelievers said, This man is a sorcerer, and a liar: doth he affirm the gods to be but one GOD. Surely this is a wonderful thing. And the chief men among them departed,q saying to one another, Go, and persevere in the worship of your gods: verily this is the thing which is designed.r We have not heard anything like this in the last religion:s this is no other than a false contrivance. Hath an admonition been sent unto him preferable to any other among us? Verily they are in a doubt concerning my admonition: but they have not yet tasted my vengeance. Are the treasures of the mercy of thy LORD, the mighty, the munificent God, in their hands? Is the kingdom of the heavens, and the earth, and of whatever is between them, in their possession? If it be so, let them ascend by steps unto heaven. But any army of the confederates shall even here be put to flight. The people of Noah, and the tribe of Ad, and Pharaoh the contriver of the stakes,t and the tribe of Thamud, and the people of Lot, and the inhabitants of the wood near Madian,u accused the prophets of imposture before them; these were the confederates against the messengers of God. All of them did no other than accuse their apostles of falsehood: wherefore my vengeance hath been justly executed upon them. And these wait only for one sounding of the trumpet; which there shall be no deferring. And they scoffingly say, O LORD, hasten our sentence unto us, before the day of account. Do thou patiently bear that which they utter: and remind them of our servant David, endued with strength;x for he was one who seriously turned himself unto God. We compelled the mountains to celebrate our praise with him, in the evening and at sunrise, and also the birds, which gathered themselves together unto him:y all of them returned frequently unto him for this purpose. And we established his kingdom, and gave him wisdom and eloquence of speech. Hath the story of the two adversariesz come to thy knowledge; when they ascended over the wall into the upper apartment, when they went in unto David, and
he was afraid of them.a They said, Fear not: we are two adversaries who have a controversy to be decided. The one of us hath wronged the other: wherefore judge between us with truth, and be not unjust; and direct us into the even way. This my brother had ninety and nine sheep: and I had only one ewe: and he said, Give her me to keep; and he prevailed against me in the discourse which we had together. David answered, Verily he hath wronged thee in demanding thine ewe as an addition to his own sheep: and many of them who are concerned together in business wrong one another, except those who believe and do that which is right; but how few are they! And David perceived that we had tried him by this parable, and he asked pardon of his LORD: and he fell down and bowed himself, and repented.b Wherefore we forgave him this fault; and he shall be admitted to approach near unto us, and shall have an excellent place of abode in paradise. O David, verily we have appointed thee a sovereign prince in the earth: judge therefore between men with truth; and follow not thy own lust, lest it cause thee to err from the way of GOD: for those who err from the way of GOD shall suffer a severe punishment, because they have forgotten the day of account. We have not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in vain.c This is the opinion of the unbelievers: but woe unto those who believe not, because of the fire of hell. Shall we deal with those who believe and do good works, as with those who act corruptly in the earth? Shall we deal with the pious as with the wicked? A blessed book have we sent down unto thee, O Mohammed, that they may attentively meditate on the signs thereof, and that men of understanding may be warned. And we gave unto David Solomon; how excellent a servant! for he frequently turned himself unto God. When the horses standing on three feet, and touching the ground with the edge of the fourth foot, and swift in the course, were set in parade before him in the evening,d he said, Verily I have loved the love of earthly good above the remembrance of my LORD: and have spent the time in viewing these horses, until the sun is hidden by the veil of night; bring the horses back unto me. And when they were brought back, he began to cut off their
legs and their necks. We also tried Solomon, and placed on his throne a counterfeit body:e afterwards he turned unto God, and said, O LORD, forgive me, and give me a kingdom which may not be obtained by any after me;f for thou art the giver of kingdoms. And we made the wind subject to him; it ran gently at his command, whithersoever we directed. And we also put the devils in subjection under him; and among them such as were every way skilled in building, and in diving for pearls:g and others we delivered to him bound in chains, saying, This is our gift: therefore be bounteous, or be sparing unto whom thou shalt think fit,h without rendering an account. And he shall approach near unto us, and shall have an excellent abode in paradise. And remember our servant Job,i when he cried unto his LORD, saying, Verily Satan hath afflicted me with calamity and pain. And it was said unto him, Strike the earth with thy foot; which when he had done, a fountaink sprang up, and it was said to him, This is for thee to wash in, to refresh thee, and to drink. And we restored unto him his family, and as many more with them, through our mercy; and for an admonition unto those who are endued with understanding. And we said unto him, Take a handful of rodsl in thy hand, and strike thy wife therewith;m and break not thine oath.n Verily we found him a patient person: how excellent a servant was he! for he was one who frequently turned himself unto us. Remember also our servants Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, who were men strenuous and prudent. Verily
we purified them with a perfect purification, through the remembrance of the life to come;o and they were in our sight, elect and good men. And remember Ismael, and Elisha,p and Dhu'lkefl:q for all these were good men. This is an admonition. Verily the pious shall have an excellent place to return unto, namely, gardens of perpetual abode, the gates whereof shall stand open unto them. As they lie down therein, they shall there ask for many sorts of fruits, and for drink; and near them shall sit the virgins of paradise, refraining their looks from beholding any besides their spouses, and of equal age with them.r This is what ye are promised, at the day of account. This is our provision, which shall not fail. This shall be the reward of the righteous. But for the transgressors is prepared an evil receptacle, namely, hell: they shall be cast into the same to be burned, and a wretched couch shall it be. This let them taste, to wit, scalding water, and corruption flowing from the bodies of the damned, and divers other things of the same kind. And it shall be said to the seducers, This troop which was guided by you shall be thrown, together with you, headlong into hell: they shall not be bidden welcome: for they shall enter the fire to be burned. And the seduced shall say to their seducers, Verily ye shall not be bidden welcome: ye have brought it upon us; and a wretched abode is hell. They shall say, O LORD, doubly increase the torment of him who hath brought this punishment upon us, in the fire of hell. And the infidels shall say, Why do we not see the men whom we numbered among the wicked, and whom we received with scorn? Or do our eyes miss them? Verily this is a truth; to wit, the disputing of the inhabitants of hell fire. Say, O Mohammed, unto the idolaters, Verily I am no other than a warner: and there is no god, except the one only GOD, the Almighty, the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatsoever is between them; the mighty, the forgiver of sins. Say, it is a weighty message, from which ye turn aside. I had no knowledge of the exalted princes,s when they disputed concerning the creation of man: (it hath been revealed unto me only as a proof that I am a public preacher:) when thy LORD said unto the angels, Verily I am about to create man of clay: when I shall have formed him, therefore, and shall have breathed my spirit into him, do ye fall down and worship him.t And all the angels worshipped him, in general, except Eblis, who was puffed up with pride, and became an unbeliever. God said unto him, O Eblis, what hindereth thee from worshipping that which I have created with my hands? Art thou elated with vain pride? Or art thou really one of exalted merit? He answered, I am more excellent than he: thou hast created me of fire,
and thou hast created him of clay. God said unto him, Get thee hence therefore; for thou shalt be driven away from mercy; and my curse shall be upon thee, until the day of judgment. He replied, O LORD, respite me, therefore, until the day of resurrection. God said, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited until the day of the determined time. Eblis said, By thy might do I swear, I will surely seduce them all, except thy servants who shall be peculiarly chosen from among them. God said, It is a just sentence; and I speak the truth: I will surely fill hell with thee, and with such of them as shall follow thee, altogether.u Say unto the Meccans, I ask not of you any reward for this my preaching: neither am I one of those who assume a part which belongs not to them. The Koran is no other than an admonition unto all creatures: and ye shall surely know what is delivered therein to be true, after a season.
ENTITLED, THE TROOPS;x REVEALED AT MECCA.y
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD. Verily we have revealed this book unto thee with truth: wherefore serve GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him. Ought not the pure religion to be exhibited unto GOD? But as to those who take other patrons besides him, saying, We worship them only that they may bring us nearer unto GOD; verily GOD will judge between them concerning that wherein they disagree. Surely GOD will not direct him who is a liar, or ungrateful. If GOD had been minded to have had a son, he had surely chosen what he pleased out of that which he hath created.z But far be such a thing from him! He is the sole, the almighty God. He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth: he causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night, and he obligeth the sun and the moon to perform their services; each of them hastening to an appointed period. Is not he the mighty, the forgiver of sins? He created you of one man, and afterwards out of him formed his wife: and he hath bestoweda on you
four pair of cattle.b He formeth you in the wombs of your mothers, by several gradual formations,c within three veils of darkness.d This is GOD, your LORD: his is the kingdom: there is no GOD but he. Why therefore are ye turned aside from the worship of him to idolatry? If ye be ungrateful, verily GOD hath no need of you; yet he liketh not ingratitude in his servants: but if ye be thankful, he will be well pleased with you. A burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another; hereafter shall ye return unto your LORD, and he shall declare unto you that which ye have wrought, and will reward you accordingly; for he knoweth the innermost parts of your breasts. When harm befalleth a man, he calleth upon his LORD, and turneth unto him: yet afterwards, when God hath bestowed on him favor from himself, he forgetteth that Being which he invoked before,e and setteth up equals unto GOD, that he may seduce men from his way. Say unto such a man, Enjoy this life in thy infidelity for a little while; but hereafter shalt thou surely be one of the inhabitants of hell fire. Shall he who giveth himself up to prayer in the hours of the night, prostrate, and standing, and who taketh heed as to the life to come, and hopeth for the mercy of his LORD, be dealt with as the wicked unbeliever? Say, Shall they who know their duty and they who know it not, be held equal? Verily the men of understanding only will be warned. Say, O my servants who believe, fear your LORD. They who do good in this world shall obtain good in the next;f and GOD'S earth is spacious:g verily those who persevere with patience shall receive their recompense without measure. Say, I am commanded to worship GOD, and to exhibit the pure religion unto him: and I am commanded to be the first Moslem.h Say, Verily I fear, if I be disobedient unto my LORD, the punishment of the great day. Say, I worship GOD, exhibiting my religion pure unto him; but do ye worship that which ye will, besides him. Say, Verily they will be the losers, who shall lose their own souls, and their families, on the day of resurrection: is not this manifest loss? Over them shall be roofs of fire, and under them shall be floors of fire. With this doth GOD terrify his servants: wherefore, oh my servants, fear him. But those who eschew the worship of idols, and are turned unto GOD, shall receive good tidings. Bear good tidings therefore unto my servants, who hearken unto my word, and follow that which is most excellent therein: these are they whom GOD directeth, and these are men of understanding. Him, therefore, on whom the sentence of eternal punishment shall be justly pronounced, canst thou, O Mohammed, deliver him who is destined to dwell in the fire of hell? But for those who fear their LORD will be prepared high apartments in paradise, over which shall be other apartments built; and rivers shall run beneath them: this is the promise of GOD; and GOD will not be contrary to the promise. Dost thou not see that GOD sendeth down
water from heaven, and causeth the same to enter and form sources in the earth; and produceth thereby corn of various sorts? Afterwards he causeth the same to wither; and thou seest it become yellow: afterwards he maketh it crumble into dust. Verily, herein is an instruction to men of understanding. Shall he, therefore, whose breast GOD hath enlarged to receive the religion of Islam, and who followeth the light from his LORD, be as he whose heart is hardened? But woe unto those whose hearts are hardened against the remembrance of GOD! they are in a manifest error. GOD hath revealed a most excellent discourse; a book conformable to itself, and containing repeated admonitions. The skins of those who fear their LORD shrink for fear thereat; afterwards their skins grow soft, and their hearts also, at the remembrance of their LORD. This is the direction of GOD: he will direct thereby whom he pleaseth; and whomsoever GOD shall cause to err, he shall have no director. Shall he therefore who shall be obliged to screen himself with his face from the severity of the punishment on the day of resurrection, be as he who is secure therefrom? And it shall be said unto the ungodly, Taste that which ye have deserved. Those who were before them accused their apostles of imposture; wherefore a punishment came upon them from whence they expected it not: and GOD caused them to take shame in this present life; but the punishment of the life to come will certainly be greater. If they were men of understanding, they would know this. Now have we proposed unto mankind, in this Koran, every kind of parable; that they may be warned: an Arabic Koran, wherein there is no crookedness; that they may fear God. GOD propoundeth as a parable a man who hath several companions which are at mutual variance, and a man who committeth himself wholly to one person:l shall these be held in equal comparison? GOD forbid! But the greater part of them do not understand. Verily thou, O Mohammed, shalt die, and they also shall die: and ye shall debate the matterm with one another before your LORD, at the day of resurrection. (XXIV.) Who is more unjust than he who uttereth a lie concerning GOD, and denieth the truth when it cometh unto him? Is there not a dwelling provided in hell for the unbelievers? But he who bringeth the truth, and giveth credit thereto,n these are they who fear God; they shall obtain whatever they shall desire, in the sight of their LORD: this shall be the recompense of the righteous; that GOD may expiate from them the very worst of that which they have wrought, and may render them their reward according to the utmost merit of the good which they have wrought. Is not GOD a sufficient protector of
his servant? yet they will attempt to make thee afraid of the false deities which they worship besides GOD.o But he whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have none to direct him: and he whom GOD shall direct, shall have none to mislead him. Is not GOD most mighty, able to avenge? If thou ask them who hath created the heavens and the earth, they will surely answer, GOD. Say, Do ye think, therefore, that the deities which ye invoke besides GOD, if GOD be pleased to afflict me, are able to relieve me from his affliction? or if he be pleased to show mercy unto me, that they are able to withhold his mercy? Say, GOD is my sufficient support: in him let those put their trust, who seek in whom to confide. Say, O my people, do ye act according to your state; verily I will act according to mine: hereafter shall ye know on which of us will be inflicted a punishment that shall cover him with shame, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall. Verily we have revealed unto thee the book of the Koran, for the instruction of mankind, with truth. Whoso shall be directed thereby shall be directed to the advantage of his own soul; and whoso shall err, shall only err against the same: and thou art not a guardian over them. GOD taketh unto himself the souls of men at the time of their death; and those which die not he also taketh in their sleep:p and he withholdeth those on which he hath passed the decree of death,q but sendeth back the others till a determined period.r Verily herein are signs unto the people who consider. Have the Koreish taken idols for their intercessors with God? Say, What, although they have not dominion over anything, neither do they understand? Say, Intercession is altogether in the disposal of GOD:s his is the kingdom of heaven and earth; and hereafter shall ye return unto him. When the one sole GOD is mentioned, the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come, shrink with horror: but when the false gods, which are worshipped besides him, are mentioned, behold they are filled with joy. Say, O GOD, the creator of heaven and earth, who knowest that which is secret, and that which is manifest; thou shalt judge between thy servants concerning that wherein they disagree. If those who act unjustly were masters of whatever is in the earth, and as much more therewith, verily they would give it to ransom themselves from the evil of the punishment, on the day of resurrection: and there shall appear unto them, from GOD, terrors which they never imagined; and there shall appear unto them the evils of that which they shall have gained; and that which they mocked at shall encom-
pass them. When harm befalleth man, he calleth upon us; yet afterwards, when we have bestowed on him favor from us, he saith, I have received it merely because of God's knowledge of my deserts.t On the contrary, it is a trial; but the greater part of them know it not. Those who were before them said the same:u but that which they had gained, profited them not: and the evils which they had deserved, fell upon them. And whoever of these Meccans shall have acted unjustly, on them likewise shall fall the evils which they shall have deserved;x neither shall they frustrate the divine vengeance. Do they not know that GOD bestoweth provision abundantly on whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth? Verily herein are signs unto people who believe. Say, O my servants who have transgressed against your own souls, despair not of the mercy of GOD: seeing that GOD forgiveth all sins,y for he is gracious and merciful. And be turned unto your LORD, and resign yourselves unto him, before the threatened punishment overtake you; for then ye shall not be helped. And follow the most excellent instructions which have been sent down unto you from your LORD, before the punishment come suddenly upon you, and ye perceive not the approach thereof; and a soul say, Alas! for that I have been negligent in my duty to GOD; verily I have been one of the scorners: or say, If GOD had directed me, verily I had been one of the pious: or say, when it seeth the prepared punishment, If I could return once more into the world, I would become one of the righteous. But God shall answer, My signs came unto thee heretofore, and thou didst charge them with falsehood, and wast puffed up with pride; and thou becamest one of the unbelievers. On the day of resurrection, thou shalt see the faces of those who have uttered lies concerning GOD, become black: is there not an abode prepared in hell for the arrogant? But GOD shall deliver those who shall fear him, and shall set them in their place of safety: evil shall not touch them, neither shall they be grieved. GOD is the creator of all things, and he is the governor of all things. His are the keys of heaven and earth: and they who believe not in the signs of GOD, they shall perish. Say, Do ye therefore bid me to worship other than GOD, oh ye fools? since it hath been spoken by revelation unto thee, and also unto the prophets who have been before thee, saying, Verily if thou join any partners with God, thy work will be altogether unprofitable, and thou shalt certainly be one of those who perish: wherefore rather fear GOD, and be one of those who give thanks. But they make not a due estimation of GOD:z since the whole earth shall be but his handful, on the day of resurrection; and the heavens shall be rolled together in his right hand. Praise be unto him! and far be he exalted above the idols which they associate with him! the trumpet shall be sounded,a and whoever
are in heaven, and whoever are on earth, shall expire; except those whom GOD shall please to exempt from the common fate.b Afterwards it shall be sounded again; and behold, they shall arise and look up. And the earth shall shine by the light of its LORD: and the book shall be laid open,c and the prophets and the martyrs shall be brought as witnesses; and judgment shall be given between them with truth, and they shall not be treated unjustly. And every soul shall be fully rewarded, according to that which it shall have wrought; for he perfectly knoweth whatever they do. And the unbelievers shall be driven unto hell by troops, until, when they shall arrive at the same, the gates thereof shall be opened: and the keepers thereofd shall say unto them, Did not apostles from among you come unto you, who rehearsed unto you the signs of your LORD, and warned you of the meeting of this your day? They shall answer, Yea: but the sentence of eternal punishment hath been justly pronounced on the unbelievers.e It shall be said unto them, Enter ye the gates of hell, to dwell therein forever; and miserable shall be the abode of the proud! But those who shall have feared their LORD shall be conducted by troops towards paradise, until they shall arrive at the same: and the gates thereof shall be ready set open; and the guards thereof shall say unto them, Peace be on you! ye have been good: wherefore enter ye into paradise, to remain therein forever. And they shall answer, Praise be unto GOD, who hath performed his promise unto us, and hath made us to inherit the earth,f that we may dwell in paradise wherever we please! How excellent is the reward of those who work righteousness! And thou shalt see the angels going in procession round the throne, celebrating the praises of their LORD: and judgment shall be given between them with truth; and they shall say, Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!
ENTITLED, THE TRUE BELIEVER;g REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
H. M.h THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD; the forgiver of sin and the accepter of repentance; severe in punishing; long suffering. There is no GOD but he: before him shall be the general assembly at the last day. None disputeth against the signs of GOD, except the unbelievers: but let not their prosperous dealing in the landi deceive thee with vain allurement. The people of Noah, and the confederated infidels which were after them, accused their respective prophets of imposture before these; and each nation hatched ill designs against their apostle, that they might get him into their power; and they disputed with vain reasoning, that they might thereby invalidate the truth: wherefore I chastised them; and how severe was my punishment! Thus hath the sentence of thy LORD justly passed on the unbelievers; and they shall be the inhabitants of hell fire. The angels who bear the throne of God, and those who stand about it,k celebrate the praise of their LORD, and believe in him; and they ask pardon for the true believers, saying, O LORD, thou encompassest all things by thy mercy and knowledge; wherefore forgive those who repent, and follow thy path, and deliver them from the pains of hell: O LORD, lead them also into gardens of eternal abode, which thou hast promised unto them, and unto every one who shall do right, of their fathers, and their wives, and their children; for thou art the mighty, the wise God. And deliver them from evil; for whomsoever thou shalt deliver from evil on that day, on him wilt thou show mercy; and this will be great salvation. But the infidels at the day of judgment, shall hear a voice crying unto them, Verily the hatred of GOD towards you is more grievous than your hatred towards yourselves: since ye were called unto the faith, and would not believe. They shall say, O LORD, thou hast given us death twice, and thou hast twice given us life;l and we confess our sins: is there therefore no way to get forth from this fire? And it shall be answered them, This hath befallen you, for that when one GOD was preached unto you, ye believed not; but if a plurality of gods had been associated with him, ye had believed: and
judgment belongeth unto the high, the great GOD. It is he who showeth you his signs, and sendeth down food unto you from heaven: but none will be admonished, except he who turneth himself unto God. Call therefore upon GOD, exhibiting your religion pure unto him, although the infidels be averse thereto. He is the Being of exalted degree, the possessor of the throne; who sendeth down the spirit, at his command, on such of his servants as he pleaseth: that he may warn mankind of the day of meeting,m the day whereon they shall come forth out of their graves, and nothing of what concerneth them shall be hidden from GOD. Unto whom will the kingdom belong, on that day? Unto the only, the almighty GOD. On that day shall every soul be rewarded according to its merits: there shall be no injustice done on that day. Verily GOD will be swift in taking an account. Wherefore warn them, O prophet, of the day which shall suddenly approach; when men's hearts shall come up to their throats, and strangle them. The ungodly shall have no friend or intercessor who shall be heard. God will know the deceitful eye, and that which their breasts conceal; and GOD will judge with truth: but the false gods which they invoke, besides him, shall not judge at all: for GOD is he who heareth and seeth. Have they not gone through the earth, and seen what hath been the end of those who were before them? They were more mighty than these in strength, and left more considerable footsteps of their power in the earth: yet GOD chastised them for their sins, and there was none to protect them from GOD. This they suffered, because their apostles had come unto them with evident signs, and they disbelieved: wherefore GOD chastised them; for he is strong, and severe in punishing. We heretofore sent Moses with our signs and manifest power, unto Pharaoh, and Haman, and Karûn; and they said, He is a sorcerer, and a liar. And when he came unto them with the truth from us, they said, Slay the sons of those who have believed with him, and save their daughters alive:n but the stratagem of the infidels was no other than vain. And Pharaoh said, Let me alone, that I may kill Moses;o and let him call upon his LORD: verily I fear lest he change your religion, or cause violence to appear in the earth.p And Moses said unto his people, Verily I have recourse unto my LORD and your LORD, to defend me against every proud person, who believeth not in the day of account. And a man who was a true believer, of the family of Pharaoh,q and concealed in his faith, said, Will ye put a man to death, because he saith, GOD is my LORD; seeing he is come unto you with evident signs from your LORD? If he be a liar, on him will the punishment of his falsehood light; but if he speaketh the truth, some of those judgments with which he threateneth you will fall upon you: verily GOD directeth not him who is a transgressor, or
a liar: O my people, the kingdom is yours this day; and ye are conspicuous in the earth; but who shall defend us from the scourge of GOD, if it come unto us?r Pharaoh said, I only propose to you what I think to be most expedient; and I guide you only into the right path. And he who had believed said, O my people, Verily I fear for you a day like that of the confederates against the prophets in former times; a condition like that of the people of Noah, and the tribes of Ad and Thamud, and of those who have lived after them; for GOD willeth not that any injustice be done unto his servants. O my people, verily I fear for you the day whereon men shall call unto one another;s the day whereon ye shall be turned back from the tribunal, and driven to hell: then shall ye have none to protect you against GOD. And he whom GOD shall cause to err shall have no director. Joseph came unto you, before Moses, with evident signs; but ye ceased not to doubt of the religion which he preached unto you, until, when he died, ye said, GOD will by no means send another apostle after him. Thus doth GOD cause him to err, who is a transgressor, and a sceptic. They who dispute against the signs of GOD, without any authority which hath come unto them, are in great abomination with GOD, and with those who believe. Thus doth GOD seal up every proud and stubborn heart. And Pharaoh said, O Haman, build me a tower, that I may reach the tracts, the tracts of heaven, and may view the GOD of Moses;t for verily I think him to be a liar. And thus the evil of his work was prepared for Pharaoh, and he turned aside from the right path: and the stratagems of Pharaoh ended only in loss. And he who had believed said, O my people, follow me: I will guide you into the right way. O my people, verily this present life is but a temporary enjoyment; but the life to come is the mansion of firm continuance. Whoever worketh evil shall only be rewarded in equal proportion to the same: but whoever worketh good, whether male or female, and is a true believer, they shall enter paradise: they shall be provided for therein superabundantly. And, O my people, as for me, I invite you to salvation; but ye invite me to hell fire: ye invite me to deny GOD, and to associate with him that whereof I have no knowledge; but I invite you to the most mighty, the forgiver of sins. There is no doubt but that the false gods to which ye invite me deserve not to be invoked, either in this world or in the next; and that we must return unto GOD; and that the transgressors shall be the inhabitants of hell fire: and ye shall then remember what I now say unto you. And I commit my affair unto GOD; for GOD regardeth his servants. Wherefore GOD delivered him from the evils which they had devised; and a grievous punishment encompassed the people of Pharaoh.u They shall be exposed to the fire of hell morning
and evening:x and the day whereon the hour of judgment shall come, it shall be said unto them, Enter, O people of Pharaoh, into a most severe torment. And think on the time when the infidels shall dispute together in hell fire; and the weak shall say unto those who behaved with arrogance,y Verily we were your followers: will ye therefore relieve us from any part of this fire? Those who behaved with arrogance shall answer, Verily we are all doomed to suffer therein: for GOD hath now judged between his servants. And they who shall be in the fire shall say unto the keepers of hell,z Call ye on your LORD, that he would ease us, for one day, from this punishment. They shall answer, Did not your apostles come unto you with evident proofs? They shall say, Yea. The keepers shall reply, Do ye therefore call on God: but the calling of the unbelievers on him shall be only in vain. We will surely assist our apostles, and those who believe, in this present life, and on the day whereon the witnesses shall stand forth: a day, whereon the excuse of the unbelievers shall not avail them; but a curse shall attend them, and a wretched abode. We heretofore gave unto Moses a direction; and we left as an inheritance unto the children of Israel the book of the law; a direction, and an admonition to men of understanding. Wherefore do thou, O prophet, bear the insults of the infidels with patience; for the promise of GOD is true; and ask pardon for thy fault;a and celebrate the praise of thy LORD, in the evening and in the morning. As to those who impugn the signs of GOD, without any convincing proof which hath been revealed unto them, there is nothing but pride in their breasts;b but they shall not attain their desire: wherefore fly for refuge unto GOD; for it is he who heareth and seeth. Verily the creation of heaven and earth is more considerable than the creation of man: but the greater part of men do not understand. The blind and the seeing shall not be held equal; nor they who believe and work righteousness, and the evil doer: how few revolve these things in their mind! The last hour will surely come; there is no doubt thereof: but the greater part of men believe it not. Your LORD said, Call upon me, and I will hear you: but they who proudly disdain my service shall enter with ignominy into hell. It is GOD who hath appointed the night for you to take your rest therein, and the day to give you light: verily GOD is endued with beneficence towards mankind: but the greater part of men do not give thanks. This is GOD, your LORD, the Creator of all things; there is no GOD besides him: how therefore are ye turned aside from his worship? Thus are they turned aside, who oppose the signs of GOD. It is GOD
who hath given you the earth for a stable floor, and the heaven for a ceiling; and who hath formed you, and made your forms beautiful, and feedeth you with good things. This is GOD, your LORD. Wherefore blessed be GOD, the LORD of all creatures! He is the living God: there is no GOD but he. Wherefore call upon him, exhibiting unto him the pure religion. Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures! Say, Verily I am forbidden to worship the deities which ye invoke, besides GOD, after that evident proofs have come unto me from my LORD; and I am commanded to resign myself unto the LORD of all creatures. It is he who first created you of dust, and afterwards of seed, and afterwards of coagulated blood; and afterwards brought you forth infants out of your mothers' wombs: then he permitteth you to attain your age of full strength, and afterwards to grow old men (but some of you die before that age), and to arrive at the determined period of your life;c that peradventure ye may understand. It is he who giveth life, and causeth to die: and when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is. Dost thou not observe those who dispute against the signs of GOD, how they are turned aside from the true faith? They who charge with falsehood the book of the Koran, and the other scriptures and revealed doctrines which we have sent our former apostles to preach, shall hereafter know their folly, when the collars shall be on their necks, and the chains by which they shall be dragged into hell; then shall they be burned in the fire. And it shall be said unto them, Where are the gods which ye associated, besides GOD? They shall answer, They have withdrawn themselves from us: yea, we called on nothingd heretofore. Thus doth GOD lead the unbelievers into error. This hath befallen you, for that ye rejoiced insolently on earth, in that which was false; and for that ye were elated with immoderate joy. Enter the gates of hell, to remain therein forever: and wretched shall be the abode of the haughty! Wherefore persevere with patience, O Mohammed; for the promise of GOD is true. Whether we cause thee to see any part of the punishment with which we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before thou see it; before us shall they be assembled at the last day. We have sent a great number of apostles before thee;e the histories of some of whom we have related unto thee, and the histories of others of them we have not related unto thee: but no apostle had the power to produce a sign, unless by the permission of GOD. When the command of GOD, therefore, shall come, judgment shall be given with truth; and then shall they perish who endeavor to render the signs of God of no effect. It is GOD who hath given you the cattle, that ye may ride on some of them, and may eat of others of them; (ye also receive other advantages therefrom;)f and that on them ye may arrive at the business proposed in your mind: and on them are ye carried by land, and on ships by sea. And he showeth you his signs; which, therefore, of the signs of GOD, will ye deny? Do they not pass through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who were
before them? They were more numerous than these, and more mighty in strength, and left more considerable monuments of their power in the earth: yet that which they had acquired profited them not. And when their apostles came unto them with evident proofs of their mission, they rejoiced in the knowledge which was with them:g but that which they mocked at encompassed them. And when they beheld our vengeance, they said, We believe in GOD alone, and we renounce the idols which we associated with him: but their faith availed them not, after they had beholden our vengeance. This was the ordinance of GOD, which was formerly observed in respect to his servants and then did the unbelievers perish.
ENTITLED, ARE DISTINCTLY EXPLAINED;h REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
H. M.i This is a revelation from the most Merciful; a book, the verses whereof are distinctly explained,k an Arabic Koran, for the instruction of people who understand; bearing good tidings, and denouncing threats: but the greater part of them turn aside, and hearken not thereto. And they say, Our hearts are veiled from the doctrine to which thou invitest us; and there is a deafness in our ears, and a curtain between us and thee: wherefore act thou as thou shalt think fit; for we shall act according to our own sentiments. Say, Verily I am only a man like you. It is revealed unto me, that your GOD is one GOD: wherefore direct your way straight unto him; and ask pardon of him for what is past. And woe be to the idolaters: who give not the appointed alms, and believe not in the life to come! But as to those who believe and work righteousness, they shall receive an everlasting reward. Say, Do ye indeed disbelieve in him who created the earth in two days;l and do ye set up equals unto him? He is the LORD of all creatures. And he placed in the earth mountains firmly rooted,m rising above the same: and he blessed it; and provided therein the food of the creatures designed to be the inhabitants thereof, in four days;n equally, for those who ask.o Then he set his mind to
the creation of heaven, and it was smoke;p and he said unto it, and to the earth, Come, either obediently, or against your will. They answered, We come, obedient to thy command. And he formed them into seven heavens, in two days;q and revealed unto every heaven its office. And we adorned the lower heaven with lights, and placed therein, a guard of angels.r This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God. If the Meccans withdraw from these instructions, say, I denounce unto you a sudden destruction, like the destruction of Ad and Thamud. When the apostles came unto them before them and behind them,s saying, Worship GOD alone; they answered, If our LORD had been pleased to send messengers, he had surely sent angels; and we believe not the message with which ye are sent. As to the tribe of Ad, they behaved insolently in the earth, without reason, and said, Who is more mighty than we in strength? Did they not see that GOD, who had created them, was more mighty than they in strength? And they knowingly rejected our signs. Wherefore we sent against them a piercing wind, on days of ill luck,t that we might make them taste the punishment of shame in this world: but the punishment of the life to come will be more shameful; and they shall not be protected therefrom. And as to Thamud, we directed them; but they loved blindness better than the true direction: wherefore the terrible noise of an ignominious punishment assailed them, for that which they had deserved; but we delivered those who believed, and feared God.u And warn them of the day, on which the enemies of GOD shall be gathered together unto hell fire, and shall march in distinct bands; until, when they shall arrive thereat, their ears, and their eyes, and their skins, shall bear witness against them of that which they shall have wrought. And they shall say unto their skins, Wherefore do ye bear witness against us? They shall answer, GOD hath caused us to speak, who giveth speech unto all things: he created you the first time; and unto him are ye returned. Ye did not hide yourselves, while ye sinned, so that your ears, and your eyes, and your skins could not bear witness against you:x but ye thought that GOD was ignorant of many things which ye did. This was your opinion, which ye imagined of your LORD: it hath ruined you; and ye are
become lost people. Whether they bear their torment, hell fire shall be their abode; or whether they beg for favor, they shall not obtain favor. And we will give them the devils to be their companions; for they dressed up for them the false notions which they entertained of this present world, and of that which is to come; and the sentence justly fitteth them, which was formerly pronounced on the nations of genii and men who were before them; for they perished. The unbelievers say, Hearken not unto this Koran: but use vain discoursey during the reading thereof; that ye may overcome the voice of the reader by your scoffs and laughter. Wherefore we will surely cause the unbelievers to taste a grievous punishment, and we will certainly reward them for the evils which they shall have wrought. This shall be the reward of the enemies of GOD, namely, hell fire; therein is prepared for them an everlasting abode, as a reward for that they have wittingly rejected our signs. And the infidels shall say in hell, O LORD, show us the two that seduced us, of the genii and men,z and we will cast them under our feet, that they may become most base and despicable. As for those who say, Our LORD is GOD, and who behave uprightly; the angels shall descend unto them,a and shall say, Fear not, neither be ye grieved; but rejoice in the hopes of paradise which ye have been promised. We are your friends in this life, and in that which is to come: therein shall ye have that which your souls shall desire, and therein shall ye obtain whatever ye shall ask for; as a gift from a gracious and merciful God. Who speaketh better than he who inviteth unto GOD, and worketh righteousness, and saith, I am a Moslem? Good and evil shall not be held equal. Turn away evil with that which is better; and behold, the man between whom and thyself there was enmity shall become, as it were, thy warmest friend: but none shall attain to this perfection, except they who are patient; nor shall any attain thereto, except he who is endued with a great happiness of temper. And if a malicious suggestion be offered unto thee from Satan, have recourse unto GOD; for it is he who heareth and knoweth. Among the signs of his power are the night, and the day, and the sun, and the moon. Worship not the sun, neither the moon: but worship GOD, who hath created them; if ye serve him. But if they proudly disdain his service; verily the angels, who are with thy LORD, praise him night and day, and are not wearied. And among his signs another is, that thou seest the land waste; but when we send down rain thereon, it is stirred and fermenteth. And he who quickeneth the earth will surely quicken the dead; for he is almighty. Verily those who impiously wrong our signs are not concealed from us. Is he, therefore, better, who shall be cast into hell fire, or he who shall appear secure on the day of resurrection? Work that which ye will: he certainly beholdeth whatever ye do. Verily they who believe not in the admoni-
tion of the Koran, after it hath come unto them, shall one day be discovered. It is certainly a book of infinite value: vanity shall not approach it, either from before it, or from behind it:b it is a revelation from a wise God, whose praise is justly to be celebrated. No other is said unto thee by the infidels of Mecca than what hath been formerly said unto the apostles before thee: verily thy LORD is inclined to forgiveness, and is also able to chastise severely. If we had revealed the Koran in a foreign language,c they had surely said, Unless the signs thereof be distinctly explained, we will not receive the same: is the book written in a foreign tongue, and the person unto whom it is directed an Arabian? Answer, It is, unto those who believe, a sure guide, and a remedy for doubt unto those who believe, a sure guide, and a remedy for doubt and uncertainty: but unto those who believe not, it is a thickness of hearing in their ears, and it is a darkness which covereth them; these are as they who are called unto from a distant place.d We heretofore gave the book of the law unto Moses; and a dispute arose concerning the same: and if a previous decree had not proceeded from thy LORD, to respite the opposers of that revelation, verily the matter had been decided between them, by the destruction of the infidels; for they were in a very great doubt as to the same. He who doth right, doth it to the advantage of his own soul; and he who doth evil, doth it against the same: for thy LORD is not unjust towards his servants. (XXV.) Unto him is reserved the knowledge of the hour of judgment: and no fruit cometh forth from the knops which involve it; neither doth any female conceive in her womb, nor is she delivered of her burden, but with his knowledge. On the day whereon he shall call them to him, saying, Where are my companions which ye ascribed unto me? they shall answer, We assure thee there is no witness of this matter among us:e and the idols which they called on before shall withdraw themselves from them; and they shall perceive that there will be no way to escape. Man is not wearied with asking good; but if evil befall him, he despondeth, and despaireth. And if we cause him to taste mercy from us, after affliction hath touched him, he surely saith, This is due to me on account of my deserts: I do not think the hour of judgment will ever come: and if I be brought before my LORD, I shall surely attain, with him, the most excellent condition. But we will then declare unto those who shall not have believed, that which they have wrought; and we will surely cause them to taste a most severe punishment. When we confer favors on man, he turneth aside, and departeth without returning thanks: but when evil toucheth him, he is frequent at prayer. Say, What think ye? if the Koran be from GOD, and ye believe not therein; who will lie under a greater error, than he who dissenteth widely therefrom? Hereafter we will show them our signs in the regions in the regions of the earth, and in themselves;f until it become manifest unto
them that this book is the truth. Is it not sufficient for thee that thy LORD is witness of all things? Are they not in a doubt as to the meeting of their LORD at the resurrection? Doth not he encompass all things?
ENTITLED, CONSULTATION;g REVEALED AT MECCA.h
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
H. M. A. S. K.i THUS doth the mighty, the wise GOD reveal his will unto thee; and in like manner did he reveal it unto the prophets who were before thee. Unto him belongeth whatever is in heaven, and in earth; and he is the high, the great God. It wanteth little but that the heavens be rent in sunder from above, at the awfulness of his majesty: the angels celebrate the praise of their LORD, and ask pardon for those who dwell in the earth. Is not GOD the forgiver of sins, the merciful? But as to those who take other gods for their patrons, besides him, GOD observeth their actions: for thou art not a steward over them. Thus have we revealed unto thee an Arabic Koran, that thou mayest warn the metropolis of Mecca, and the Arabs who dwell round about it; and mayest threaten them with the day of the general assembly, of which there is no doubt: one part shall then be placed in paradise, and another part in hell. If GOD had pleased, he had made them all of one religion; but he leadeth whom he pleaseth into his mercy; and the unjust shall have no patron or helper. Do they take other patrons, besides him? whereas GOD is the only true patron: he quickeneth the dead; and he is almighty. Whatever matter ye disagree about, the decision thereof appertaineth unto GOD. This is GOD, my LORD: in him do I trust, and unto him do I turn me: the Creator of heaven and earth: he hath given you wives of your own species, and cattle both male and female; by which means he multiplieth you: there is nothing like him; and it is he who heareth and seeth. His are the keys of heaven and earth; he bestoweth provision abundantly on whom he pleaseth, and he is sparing unto whom he pleaseth; for he knoweth all things. He hath ordained you the religion which he commanded Noah, and which we have revealed unto thee, O Mohammed, and which we commanded Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus:k saying, Observe this religion, and be not divided therein. The worship of one God, to which thou invitest them, is grievous unto the
unbelievers: GOD will elect thereto whom he pleaseth, and will direct unto the same him who shall repent. Those who lived in times past were not divided among themselves, until after that the knowledge of God's unity had come unto them; through their own perverseness: and unless a previous decree had passed from thy LORD, to bear with them till a determined time, verily the matter had been decided between them, by the destruction of the gainsayers. They who have inherited the scriptures after them,l are certainly in a perplexing doubt concerning the same.m Wherefore invite them to receive the sure faith, and be urgent with them, as thou hast been commanded; and follow not their vain desires: and say, I believe in all the scriptures which GOD hath sent down; and I am commanded to establish justice among you: GOD is our LORD and your LORD: unto us will our works be imputed, and unto you will your works be imputed: let there be no wrangling between us and you; for GOD will assemble us all at the last day, and unto him shall we return. As to those who dispute concerning GOD, after obedience hath been paid him by receiving his religion, their disputing shall be vain in the sight of their LORD; and wrath shall fall on them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. It is GOD who hath sent down the scripture with truth; and the balance of true judgment: and what shall inform with truth; and the balance of true judgment: and what shall inform thee whether the hour be nigh at hand? They who believe not therein wish it to be hastened by way of mockery: but they who believe dread the same, and know it to be the truth. Are not those who dispute concerning the last hour in a wide error? GOD is bounteous unto his servants; he provideth for whom he pleaseth; and he is the strong, the mighty. Whoso chooseth the tillage of the life to come,n unto him will we give increase in his tillage: and whoso chooseth the tillage of this world, we will give him the fruit thereof; but he shall have no part in the life to come. Have the idolaters deities which ordain them a religion which GOD hath not allowed? But had it not been for the decree of respiting their punishment to the day of separating the infidels from the true believers, judgment had been already given between them: for the unjust shall surely suffer a painful torment. On that day thou shalt see the unjust in great terror, because of their demerits; and the penalty thereof shall fall upon them: but they who believe and do good works shall dwell in the delightful meadows of paradise; they shall obtain whatever they shall desire, with their LORD. This is the greatest acquisition. This is what GOD promiseth unto his servants who believe and do good works. Say, I ask not of you, for this my preaching, any reward, except the love of my relations: and whoever shall have deserved well by one good action, unto him will we add the merit of another action thereto; for GOD is inclined to forgive, and ready to reward. Do they say, Mohammed hath blasphemously forged a lie concerning GOD? If GOD pleaseth, he will seal up thy heart:o and GOD will absolutely abolish vanity, and will establish
the truth in his words;p for he knoweth the innermost part of men's breasts. It is he who accepteth repentance from his servants, and forgiveth sins, and knoweth that which ye do. He will incline his ear unto those who believe and work righteousness, and will add unto them above what they shall ask or deserve, of his bounty: but the unbelievers shall suffer a severe punishment. If GOD should bestow abundance upon his servants they would certainly behave insolently in the earth: but he sendeth down by measure unto every one that which he pleaseth; for he well knoweth and seeth the condition of his servants. It is he who sendeth down the rain, after men have despaired thereof, and spreadeth abroad his mercy; and he is the patron, justly to be praised. Among his signs is the creation of heaven and earth, and of the living creatures with which he hath replenished them both; and he is able to gather them together before his tribunal, whenever he pleaseth. Whatever misfortune befalleth you is sent unto you by God, for that which your hands have deserved; and yet he forgiveth many things: ye shall not frustrate the divine vengeance in the earth; neither shall ye have any protector or helper, against GOD. Among his signs also are the ships running in the sea, like high mountains: if he pleaseth, he causeth the wind to cease, and they lie still on the back of the water: (verily herein are signs unto every patient and grateful person): or he destroyeth them by shipwreck, be cause of that which their crews have merited; though he pardoneth many things. And they who dispute against our signs shall know that there will be no way for them to escape our vengeance. Whatever things are given you, they are the provision of this present life: but the reward which is with GOD is better, and more durable, for those who believe, and put their trust in their LORD; and who avoid heinous and filthy crimes, and when they are angry, forgive; and who hearken unto their LORD, and are constant at prayer, and whose affairs are directed by consultation among themselves, and who give alms out of what we have bestowed on them; and who, when an injury is done them, avenge themselvesq (and the retaliation of evil ought to be an evil proportionate thereto): but he who forgiveth and is reconciled unto his enemy, shall receive his reward from GOD;r for he loveth not the unjust doers. And whoso shall avenge himself, after he hath been injured; as to these, it is not lawful to punish them for it: but it is only lawful to punish those who wrong men, and act insolently in the earth, against justice; these shall suffer a grievous punishment. And whoso beareth injuries patiently, and forgiveth; verily this is a necessary work. Whom GOD shall cause to err, he shall afterwards have no protector. And thou shalt see the ungodly, who shall say,
when they behold the punishment prepared for them, Is there no way to return back into the world? And thou shalt see them exposed unto hell fire; dejected, because of the ignominy they shall undergo: they shall look at the fire sideways, and by stealth; and the true believers shall say, Verily the losers are they who have lost their own souls, and their families, on the day of resurrection: shall not the ungodly continue in eternal torment? They shall have no protectors to defend them against GOD: and whom GOD shall cause to err, he shall find no way to the truth. Hearken unto your LORD, before the day come, which GOD will not keep back: ye shall have no place of refuge on that day; neither shall ye be able to deny your sins. But if those to whom thou preachest turn aside from thy admonitions, verily we have not sent thee to be a guardian over them: thy duty is preaching only. When we cause man to taste mercy from us, he rejoiceth thereat: but if evil befall them, for that which their hands have formerly committed, verily man becometh ungrateful. Unto GOD appertaineth the kingdom of heaven and earth: he createth that which he pleaseth; he giveth females unto whom he pleaseth, and he giveth males unto whom he pleaseth; or he giveth them males and females jointly: and he maketh whom he pleaseth to be childless; for he is wise and powerful. It is not fit for man that GOD should speak unto him otherwise than by private revelation, or from behind a veil, or by his sending of a messenger to reveal, by his permission, that which he pleaseth; for he is high and wise. Thus have we revealed unto thee a revelation,s by our command. Thou didst not understand, before this, what the book of the Koran was, nor what the faith was: but we have ordained the same for a light; we will thereby direct such of our servants as we please: and thou shalt surely direct them into the right way, the way of GOD, unto whom belongeth whatever is in heaven and in earth. Shall not all things return unto GOD?
ENTITLED, THE ORNAMENTS OF GOLD;t REVEALED AT MECCA.u
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
H. M.x BY the perspicuous book; verily we have ordained the same an Arabic Koran that ye may understand: and it is certainly written in the original book,y kept with us, being sublime and
full of wisdom. Shall we therefore turn away from you the admonition, and deprive you thereof, because ye are a people who transgress? And how many prophets have we sent among those of old? and no prophet came unto them, out they laughed him to scorn: wherefore we destroyed nations who were more mighty than these in strength; and the example of those who were of old hath been already set before them. If thou ask them who created the heavens and the earth, they will certainly answer, The mighty, the wise God created them: who hath spread the earth as a bed for you, and hath made you paths therein, that ye may be directed: and who sendeth down rain from heaven by measure, whereby we quicken a dead country; (so shall ye be brought forth from your graves:) and who hath created all the various species of things, and hath given you ships and cattle, whereon ye are carried; that ye may sit firmly on the backs thereof, and may remember the favor of your LORD, when ye sit thereon, and may say, Praise be unto him, who hath subjected these unto our service! for we could not have mastered them by our own power: and unto our LORD shall we surely return. Yet have they attributed unto him some of his servants as his offspring: verily man is openly ungrateful. Hath God taken daughters out of those beings which he hath created; and hath he chosen sons for you? But when one of them hath the news brought of the birth of a child of that sex which they attribute unto the Merciful, as his similitude, his face becometh black, and he is oppressed with sorrow.z Do they therefore attribute unto God female issue, which are brought up among ornaments, and are contentious without cause? And do they make the angels, who are the servants of the Merciful, females? Were they present at their creation? Their testimony shall be written down, and they shall be examined concerning the same, on the day of judgment. And they say, If the Merciful had pleased, we had not worshipped them. They have no knowledge herein: they only utter a vain lie. Have we given them a book of revelations before this; and do they keep the same in their custody? But they say, Verily we found our fathers practising a religion; and we are guided in their footsteps. Thus we sent no preacher before thee, unto any city, but the inhabitants thereof who lived in affluence, said, Verily we found our fathers practising a religion: and we tread in their footsteps. And the preacher answered, What, although I bring you a more right religion than that which ye found your fathers to practise? And they replied, Verily we believe not that which ye are sent to preach. Wherefore we took vengeance on them: and behold what hath been the end of those who accused our apostles of imposture. Remember when Abraham said unto his father, and his people, Verily I am clear of the gods which ye worship, except him who hath created me; for he will direct me aright. And he ordained this to be a constant doctrine among his posterity; that they should be turned from idolatry to the worship of the only true God. Verily I have permitted these Meccans and their fathers to live in prosperity, until the truth should come unto them, and a manifest apostle: but now the truth is come unto them, they say, This is a piece of sorcery; and we believe not therein. And they say, Had this Korân
been sent down unto some great man of either of the two cities,a we would have received it. Do they distribute the mercy of thy LORD?b We distribute the necessary provision among them, in this present life, and we raise some of them several degrees above the others, that the one of them may take the other to serve him: and the mercy of thy LORD is more valuable than the riches which they gather together. If it were not that mankind would have become one sect of infidels, verily we had given unto those who believe not in the Merciful, roofs of silver to their houses, and stairs of silver, by which they might ascend thereto, and doors of silver to their houses, and couches of silver, for them to lean on; and ornaments of gold: for all this is the provision of the present life; but the next life with thy LORD shall be for those who fear him. Whoever shall withdraw from the admonition of the Merciful, we will chain a devil unto him; and he shall be his inseparable companion: (and the devils shall turn them aside from the way of truth; yet they shall imagine themselves to be rightly directed:) until, when he shall appear before us at the last day, he shall say unto the devil,c Would to GOD that between me and thee there was the distance of the east from the west! Oh how wretched a companion art thou! But wishes shall not avail you on this day, since ye have been unjust; for ye shall be partakers of the same punishment. Canst thou, O prophet, make the deaf to hear, or canst thou direct the blind, and him who is in a manifest error? Whether we take thee away, we will surely take vengeance on them; or whether we cause thee to see the punishment with which we have threatened them executed, we will certainly prevail over them. Wherefore hold fast the doctrine which hath been revealed unto thee; for thou art in a right way: and it is a memorial unto thee and thy people, and hereafter shall ye be examined concerning your observance thereof. And ask our apostles whom we have sent before thee,d whether we have appointed gods for them to worship, besides the Merciful. We formerly sent Moses with our signs unto Pharaoh and his princes, and he said, Verily I am the apostle of the LORD of all creatures. And when he came unto them with our signs, behold, they laughed him to scorn; although we showed them no sign, but it was greater than the other:e and we inflicted a punishmentf on them, that peradventure they might be converted. And they said unto Moses, O magician, pray unto thy LORD for us, according to the covenant which he hath made with thee; for we will certainly be directed. But when we took the plague from off them, behold, they brake their promise. And Pharaoh made proclamation among his people, saying, O my people, is not the kingdom of Egypt mine, and these rivers,g which flow beneath
me? Do ye not see? Am not I better than this Moses, who is a contemptible person, and can scarce express himself intelligibly?h Have bracelets of gold, therefore, been put upon him;i or do the angels attend him in orderly procession? And Pharaoh persuaded his people to light behavior; and they obeyed him: for they were a wicked people. And when they had provoked us to wrath, we took vengeance on them: and we drowned them all: and we made them a precedent, and an example unto others. And when the son of Mary was proposed for an example, behold, thy people cried out through excess of joy thereat;k and they said, Are our gods better, or he? They have proposed this instance unto thee no otherwise than for an occasion of dispute: yea, they are contentious men. Jesus is no other than a servant, whom we favored with the gift of prophecy; and we appointed him for an examplel unto the children of Israel: (if we pleased, verily we could from ourselves produce angels, to succeed you in the earth):m and he shall be a sign of the approach of the last hour;n wherefore doubt not thereof. And follow me: this is the right way. And let not Satan cause you to turn aside: for he is your open enemy. And when Jesus came with evident miracles, he said, Now am I come unto you with wisdom,o and to explain unto you part of those things concerning which ye disagree; wherefore fear GOD, and obey me. Verily GOD is my LORD, and your LORD; wherefore worship him: this is the right way. And the confederated sects among them fell to variance:p but woe unto those who have acted unjustly, because of the punishment of a grievous day. Do the unbelievers wait for any other than the hour of judgment; that it may come upon them suddenly, while they foresee it not? The intimate friends, on that day, shall be enemies unto one
another; except the pious. O my servants, there shall no fear come on you this day, neither shall ye be grieved: who have believed in our signs, and have been Moslems: enter ye into paradise, ye and your wives, with great joy. Dishes of gold shall be carried round unto them, and cups without handles: and therein shall they enjoy whatever their souls shall desire, and whatever their eyes shall delight in: and ye shall remain therein forever. This is paradise, which ye have inherited as a reward for that which ye have wrought. Therein shall ye have fruits in abundance, of which ye shall eat. But the wicked shall remain forever in the torment of hell: it shall not be made lighter unto them; and they shall despair therein. We deal not unjustly with them, but they deal unjustly with their own souls. And they shall call aloud, saying, O Malec,q intercede for us that thy LORD would end us by annihilation. He shall answer,r Verily ye shall remain here forever. We brought you the truth heretofore, but the greater part of you abhorred the truth. Have the infidels fixed on a method to circumvent our apostle? Verily we will fix on a method to circumvent them. Do they imagine that we hear not their secrets, and their private discourse? Yea; and our messengers who attend thems write down the same. Say, If the Merciful had a son, verily I would be the first of those who should worship him. Far be the LORD of heaven and earth, the LORD of the throne, from that which they affirm of him! Wherefore let them wade in their vanity, and divert themselves until they arrive at their day with which they have been threatened. He who is GOD in heaven, is GOD on earth also: and he is the wise, the knowing. And blessed be he unto whom appertaineth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them; with whom is the knowledge of the last hour; and before whom ye shall be assembled. They whom they invoke besides him have not the privilege to intercede for others; except those who bear witness to the truth, and know the same.t If thou ask them who hath created them, they will surely answer, GOD. How therefore are they turned away to the worship of others? God also heareth the saying of the prophet, O LORD, verily these are people who believe not: and he answereth, Therefore turn aside from them; and say, Peace:u hereafter shall they know their folly.
ENTITLED, SMOKE;x REVEALED AT MECCA.y
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
H. M.z BY the perspicuous book of the Koran; verily we have sent down the same on a blessed nighta (for we had engaged so to do), on the night wherein is distinctly sent down the decree of every determined thing, as a command from us.b Verily we have ever used to send apostles with revelations, at proper intervals, as a mercy from thy LORD; for it is he who heareth and knoweth: the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them; if ye are men of sure knowledge. There is no GOD but he: he giveth life, and he causeth to die; he is your LORD, and the LORD of your forefathers. Yet do they amuse themselves with doubt. But observe them, on the day whereon the heaven shall produce a visible smoke, which shall cover mankind:c this will be a tormenting plague. They shall say, O LORD, take this plague from off us: verily we will become true believers. How should an admonition be of avail to them in this condition; when a manifest apostle came unto them, but they retired from him, saying, This man is instructed by others,d or is a distracted person? We will take the plague from off you, a little: but ye will certainly return to your infidelity.e On the day whereon we shall fiercely assault them with great power,f verily we will take vengeance on them. We made trial of the people of Pharaoh before them, and an honourable messenger
came unto them, saying, Send unto me the servants of GOD;g verily I am a faithful messenger unto you: and lift not yourselves up against GOD; for I come unto you with manifest power. And I fly for protection unto my LORD, and your LORD, that ye stone me not.h If ye do not believe me, at least depart from me.i And when they accused him of imposture, he called upon his LORD, saying, These are a wicked people. And God said unto him, March forth with my servants by night; for ye will be pursued: and leave the sea divided, that the Egyptians may enter the same; for they are a host doomed to be drowned. How many gardens, and fountains, and fields of corn, and fair dwellings, and advantages which they enjoyed, did they leave behind them! Thus we dispossessed them thereof; and we gave the same for an inheritance unto another people.k Neither heaven nor earth wept for them;l neither were they respited any longer. And we delivered the children of Israel from a shameful affliction; from Pharaoh; for he was haughty, and a transgressor: and we chose them, knowingly,m above all people; and we showed them several signs,n wherein was an evident trial. Verily these Meccans say, Assuredly our final end will be no other than our first natural death; neither shall we be raised again: bring now our forefathers back to life, if ye speak truth. Are they better, or the people of Tobba,o and those who were before them? we destroyed them, because they wrought wickedness. We have not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, by way of sport: we have created them no otherwise than in truth;p but the greater part of them do not understand. Verily the day of separationq shall be the appointed term of them all: a day, whereon the master and the servant shall be of no advantage to one another, neither shall they be helped; excepting those on whom GOD shall have mercy; for he is the mighty, the merciful. Verily, the fruit of the tree of al Zakkum shall be the food of the impious:r as the dregs of oil shall it boil in the bellies of the damned, like the boiling of the hottest water. And it shall be said to the tormentors, Take him, and drag him into the midst of hell: and pour on his head the torture of boiling water, saying, Taste this; for thou art that mighty and honourable person. Verily this is the punishment of
which ye doubted. But the pious shall be lodged in a place of security, among gardens and fountains: they shall be clothed in fine silk, and in satin; and they shall sit facing one another. Thus shall it be: and we will espouse them to fair damsels, having large black eyes. In that place shall they call for all kinds of fruits, in full security: they shall not taste death therein, after the first death; and God shall deliver from the pains of hell: through the gracious bounty of thy LORD. This will be great felicity. Moreover we have rendered the Koran easy for thee, by revealing it in thine own tongue; to the end that they may be admonished: wherefore do thou wait the event; for they wait to see some misfortune befall thee.
ENTITLED, THE KNEELING;s REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
H. M.t THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD. Verily both in heaven and earth are signs of the divine power unto the true believers: and in the creation of yourselves, and of the beasts which are scattered over the face of the earth, are signs unto people of sound judgment; and also in the vicissitude of night and day, and the rain which GOD sendeth down from heaven, whereby he quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead: in the change of the winds also are signs unto people of understanding. These are the signs of GOD; we rehearse them unto thee with truth. In what revelation therefore will they believe, after they have rejected GOD and his signs? Woe unto every lying and impious person; who heareth the signs of GOD, which are read unto him, and afterwards proudly persisteth in infidelity, as though he heard them not: (denounce unto him a painful punishment:) and who, when he cometh to the knowledge of any of our signs, receiveth the same with scorn. For these is prepared a shameful punishment: before them lieth hell; and whatever they shall have gained shall not avail them at all, neither shall the idols which they have taken for their patrons, besides GOD; and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. This is a true direction: and for those who disbelieve the signs of their LORD, is prepared the punishment of a painful torment. It is GOD who hath subjected the sea unto you, that the ships may sail therein, at his command; and that ye may seek advantage unto yourselves by commerce; of his bounty; and that ye may give thanks: and he obligeth whatever is in heaven and on earth to serve you; the whole being from him. Verily herein are signs unto people who consider. Speak unto the true believers, that they forgive
those who hope not for the days of GOD,u that he may reward people according to what they shall have wrought. Whoso doeth that which is right doth it to the advantage of his own soul; and whoso doeth evil doth it against the same: hereafter shall ye return unto your LORD. We gave unto the children of Israel the book of the law, and wisdom, and prophecy; and we fed them with good things, and preferred them above all nations: and we gave them plain ordinances concerning the business of religion; neither do they fall to variance, except after that knowledge had come unto them, through envy among themselves: but thy LORD will decide the controversy between them, on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein they disagree. Afterwards we appointed thee, O Mohammed, to promulgate a law concerning the business of religion: wherefore follow the same, and follow not the desires of those who are ignorant.x Verily they shall not avail thee against GOD at all; the unjust are the patrons of one another; but GOD is the patron of the pious. This Koran delivereth evident precepts unto mankind; and is a direction, and a mercy, unto people who judge aright. Do the workers of iniquity imagine that we will deal with them as with those who believe and do good works; so that their life and their death shall be equal? An ill judgment do they make. GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in truth; that he may recompense every soul according to that which it shall have wrought: and they shall not be treated unjustly. What thinkest thou? He who taketh his own lust for his GOD, and whom GOD causeth knowingly to err, and whose ears and whose heart he hath sealed up, and over whose eyes he hath cast a veil; who shall direct him, after GOD shall have forsaken him? Will ye therefore not be admonished? They say, There is no other life, except our present life: we die, and we live; and nothing but time destroyeth us. But they have no knowledge in this matter; they only follow a vain opinion. And when our evident signs are rehearsed unto them, their argument which they offer against the same is no other than that they say, Bring to life our fathers who have been dead; if ye speak truth. Say, GOD giveth you life; and afterwards causeth you to die: hereafter will he assemble you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt thereof; but the greater part of men do not understand. Unto GOD appertaineth the kingdom of heaven and earth; and the day whereon the hour shall be fixed, on that day shall those who charge the Koran with vanity perish. And thou shalt see every nationy kneeling: every nation shall be called unto its book of account; and it shall be said unto them, This day shall ye be rewarded according to that which ye have wrought. This our book will speak concerning you with truth; therein have we written down whatever ye
have done.z As to those who shall have believed and done good works, their LORD shall lead them into his mercy: this shall be manifest felicity. But as to the infidels, it shall be said unto them, Were not my signs rehearsed unto you? but ye proudly rejected them, and became a wicked people! And when it was said unto you, Verily the promise of GOD is true: and as to the hour of judgment, there is no doubt thereof: ye answered, We know not what the hour of judgment is: we hold an uncertain opinion only; and we are not well assured of this matter. But on that day the evils of that which they have wrought shall appear unto them; and that which they mocked at shall encompass them: and it shall be said unto them, This day will we forget you, as ye did forget the meeting of this your day: and your abode shall be hell fire; and ye shall have none to deliver you. This shall ye suffer, because ye turned the signs of GOD to ridicule; and the life of the world deceived you. On this day, therefore, they shall not be taken forth from thence, neither shall they be asked any more to render themselves well-pleasing unto God. Wherefore praise be unto GOD, the LORD of the heavens, and the LORD of the earth; the LORD of all creatures: and unto him be glory in heaven and earth; for he is the mighty, the wise God.
ENTITLED, AL AHKAF;a REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
(XXVI.) H. M.b THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD. We have not created the heavens, and the earth, and whatever is between them, otherwise than in truth,c and for a determined period:d but the unbelievers turn away from the warning which is given them. Say, What think ye? Show me what part of the earth the idols which ye invoke, besides GOD, have created? Or, had they any share in the creation of the heavens? Bring me a book of scripture revealed before this, or some footstep of ancient knowledge, to countenance your idolatrous practices; if ye are men of veracity. Who is in a wider error than he who invoketh, besides GOD, that which cannot return him an answer, to the day of resurrection; and idols which regard not their calling on them: and which, when men shall be gathered together to judgment, will become their enemies, and will ungratefully deny their worship? When our evident signs are
rehearsed unto them, the unbelievers say of the truth,e when it cometh unto them, This is a manifest piece of sorcery. Will they say, Mohammed hath forged it? Answer, If I have forged it, verily ye shall not obtain for me any favor from GOD: he well knoweth the injurious language which ye utter concerning it: he is a sufficient witness between me and you; and he is gracious and merciful. Say, I am not singular among the apostles;f neither do I know what will be done with me or with you hereafter: I follow no other than what is revealed unto me; neither am I any more than a public warner. Say, What is your opinion? If this book be from GOD, and ye believe not therein; and a witness of the children of Israel bear witness to its consonancy with the law,g and believeth therein; and ye proudly reject the same: are ye not unjust doers? Verily GOD directeth not unjust people. But those who believe not say of the true believers, If the doctrine of the Koran had been good, they had not embraced the same before us.h And when they are not guided thereby, they say, This is an antiquated lie. Whereas the book of Moses was revealed before the Koran, to be a guide and a mercy: and this is a book confirming the same, delivered in the Arabic tongue; to denounce threats unto those who act unjustly, and to bear good tidings unto the righteous doers. As to those who say, Our LORD is GOD; and who behave uprightly: on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved. These shall be the inhabitants of paradise, they shall remain therein forever: in recompense for that which they have wrought. We have commanded man to show kindness to his parents: his mother beareth him in her womb with pain, and bringeth him forth with pain: and the space of his being carried in her womb, and of his weaning, is thirty months;i until, when he attaineth his age of strength, and attaineth the age of forty years, he saith,k O LORD, excite me, by the inspiration, that I may be grateful for their favors, wherewith thou hast favored me and my parents; and that I may work righteousness, which may please thee: and be gracious unto me in my issue; for I am turned unto thee, and am a Moslem. These are they from whom we accept the good work which they have wrought, and whose evil works we pass by; and they shall be among the inhabitants of paradise: this is a true promise, which they are promised in
this world. He who saith unto his parents, Fie on you! Do ye promise me that I shall be taken forth from the grave, and restored to life; when many generations have passed away before me, and none of them have returned back?l And his parents implore GOD'S assistance, and say to their son, Alas for thee! Believe: for the promise of GOD is true. But he answereth, This is no other than silly fables of the ancients. These are they whom the sentence passed on the nations which have been before them, of genii and of men, justly fitteth: they shall surely perish.m For every one is prepared a certain degree of happiness or misery, according to that which they shall have wrought: that God may recompense them for their works: and they shall not be treated unjustly. On a certain day, the unbelievers shall be exposed before the fire of hell; and it shall be said unto them, Ye received your good things in your lifetime, while ye were in the world; and ye enjoyed yourselves therein: wherefore this day ye shall be rewarded with the punishment of ignominy; for that ye behaved insolently in the earth, without justice, and for that ye transgressed. Remember the brother of Ad,n when he preached unto his people in Al Ahkaf (and there were preachers before him, and after him), saying, Worship none but GOD: verily I fear for you the punishment of a great day. They answered, Art thou come unto us that thou mayest turn us aside from the worship of our gods? Bring on us now the punishment with which thou threatenest us, if thou art a man of veracity. He said, Verily the knowledge of the time when your punishment will be inflicted is with GOD; and I only declare unto you that which I am sent to preach; but I see ye are an ignorant people. And when they saw the preparation made for their punishment, namely, a cloud traversing the sky, and tending towards their valleys, they said, This is a traversing cloud, which bringeth us rain. Hud answered, Nay; it is what ye demanded to be hastened: a wind, wherein is a severe vengeance: it will destroy everything,o at the command of its LORD. And in the morning nothing was to be seen, besides their empty dwellings. Thus do we reward wicked people. We had established them in the like flourishing condition wherein we have established you, O men of Mecca; and we had given them ears, and eyes, and hearts: yet neither their ears, nor their eyes, nor their hearts profited them at all, when they rejected the signs of GOD; but the vengeance which they mocked at fell upon them. We heretofore destroyed the cities which were round about you;p and we variously proposed our signs unto them, that they might repent. Did those protect them, whom they took for gods, besides GOD, and imagined
to be honoured with his familiarity? Nay; they withdrew from them: yet this was their false opinion which seduced them, and the blasphemy which they had devised. Remember when we caused certain of the geniiq to turn aside unto thee, that they might hear the Koran: and when they were present at the reading of the same, they said to one another, Give ear: and when it was ended, they returned back unto their people, preaching what they had heard. They said, Our people, verily we have heard a book read unto us, which hath been revealed since Moses,r confirming the scripture which was delivered before it; and directing unto the truth, and the right way. Our people, obey GOD'S preacher: and believe in him; that he may forgive you your sins, and may deliver you from a painful punishment. And whoever obeyeth not GOD'S preacher shall by no means frustrate God's vengeance on earth: neither shall he have any protectors besides him. These will be in a manifest error. Do they not know that GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and was not fatigued with the creation thereof, is able to raise the dead to life? Yea verily; for he is almighty. On a certain day the unbelievers shall be exposed unto hell fire; and it shall be said unto them, Is not this really come to pass? They shall answer, Yea, by our LORD. God shall reply, Taste, therefore, the punishment of hell, for that ye have been unbelievers. Do thou, O prophet, bear the insults of thy people with patience, as our apostles, who were endued with constancy, bear the injuries of their people: and require not their punishment to be hastened unto them. On the day whereon they shall see the punishment wherewith they have been threatened, it shall seem as though they had tarried in the world but an hour of a day. This is a fair warning. Shall they perish except the people who transgress?
ENTITLED, MOHAMMED;s REVEALED AT MEDINA.t
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
GOD will render of none effect the works of those who believe not, and who turn away men from the way of GOD: but as to those who believe, and work righteousness, and believe the revelation which hath been sent down unto Mohammed (for it is the truth from
their LORD), he will expiate their evil deeds from them, and will dispose their heart aright. This will he do, because those who believe not follow vanity, and because those who believe follow the truth from their LORD. Thus GOD propoundeth unto men their examples. When ye encounter the unbelievers, strike off their heads, until ye have made a great slaughter among them; and bind them in bonds; and either give them a free dismission afterwards, or exact a ransom; until the war shall have laid down its arms.u This shall ye do. Verily if GOD pleased he could take vengeance on them, without your assistance; but he commandeth you to fight his battles, that he may prove the one of you by the other. And as to those who fightx in defence of GOD'S true religion, God will not suffer their works to perish: he will guide them, and will dispose their heart aright; and he will lead them into paradise, of which he hath told them. O true believers, if ye assist GOD, by fighting for his religion, he will assist you against your enemies; and will set your feet fast: but as for the infidels, let them perish; and their works shall God render vain. This shall befall them, because they have rejected with abhorrence that which GOD hath revealed: wherefore their works shall become of no avail. Do they not travel through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who were before them? GOD utterly destroyed them: and the like catastrophe awaiteth the unbelievers. This shall come to pass, for that GOD is the patron of the true believers, and for that the infidels have no protector. Verily GOD will introduce those who believe, and do good works, into gardens beneath which rivers flow: but the unbelievers indulge themselves in pleasures, and eat as beasts eat; and their abode shall be hell fire. How many cities were more mighty in strength than thy city which hath expelled thee; yet have we destroyed them, and there was none to help them? Shall he therefore, who followeth the plain declaration of his LORD, be as he whose evil works have been dressed up for him by the devil; and who follow their own lusts? The description of paradise, which is promised unto the pious: therein are rivers of incorruptible water; and rivers of milk, the taste whereof changeth not; and rivers of wine, pleasant unto those who drink; and rivers of clarified honey: and therein shall they have plenty of all kinds of fruits; and pardon from their LORD. Shall the man for whom these things are prepared be as he who must dwell forever in hell fire; and will have the boiling water given him to drink, which shall burst their bowels? Of the unbelievers there are some who give ear unto thee, until, when they go out from thee, they say, by way of derision,
unto those to whom knowledge hath been given,y What hath he said now? These are they whose hearts GOD hath sealed up, and who follow their own lusts: but as to those who are directed, God will grant them a more ample direction, and he will instruct them what to avoid.z Do the infidels wait for any other than the last hour, that it may come upon them suddenly? Some signs thereof are already come:a and when it shall actually overtake them, how can they then receive admonition? Know therefore, that there is no god but GOD: and ask pardon for thy sin,b and for the true believers, both men and women. GOD knoweth your busy employment in the world, and the place of your abode hereafter. The true believers say, Hath not a Sura been revealed commanding war against the infidels? But when a Sura without any ambiguity is revealed, and war is mentioned therein, thou mayest see those in whose hearts is an infirmity,c look towards thee with the look of one whom death overshadoweth. But obedience would be more eligible for them, and to speak that which is convenient. And when the command is firmly established, if they give credit unto GOD, it will be better for them. Were ye ready, therefore, if ye had been put in authority,d to commit outrages in the earth, and to violate the ties of blood? These are they whom GOD hath cursed, and hath rendered deaf, and whose eyes he hath blinded. Do they not therefore attentively meditate on the Koran? Are there locks upon their hearts? Verily they who turn their backs, after the true direction is made manifest unto them, Satan shall prepare their wickedness for them, and God shall bear with them for a time. This shall befall them, because they say privately unto those who detest what GOD hath revealed, We will obey you in part of the matter.e But GOD knoweth their secrets. How therefore will it be with them, when the angels shall cause them to die, and shall strike their faces, and their backs?f This shall they suffer, because they follow that which provoketh GOD to wrath, and are averse to what is well pleasing unto him: and he will render their works vain. Do they in whose hearts is an infirmity imagine that GOD will not bring their malice to light? If we pleased, we could surely show them unto thee, and thou shouldest know them by their marks; but thou shalt certainly know them by their perverse pronunciation of their words. GOD knoweth your actions: and we will try you, until we know those among you who fight valiantly, and
who persevere with constancy: and we will try the reports of your behavior. Verily those who believe not, and turn away men from the way of GOD, and make opposition against the apostle,g after the divine direction hath been manifested unto them, shall not hurt GOD at all; but he shall make their works to perish. O true believers, obey GOD; and obey the apostle: and render not your works of no effect. Verily those who believe not, and who turn away men from the way of GOD, and then die, being unbelievers, GOD will by no means forgive. Faint not therefore, neither invite your enemies to peace, while ye are the superior: for GOD is with you, and will not defraud you of the merit of your works. Verily this present life is only a play and a vain amusement; but if ye believe, and fear God, he will give you your rewards. He doth not require of you your whole substance: if he should require the whole of you, and earnestly press you, ye would become niggardly, and it would raise your hatred against his apostle. Behold, ye are those who are invited to expend part of your substance for the support of GOD'S true religion; and there are some of you who are niggardly. But whoever shall be niggardly shall be niggardly towards his own soul: for GOD wanteth nothing, but ye are needy: and if ye turn back, he will substitute another people in your stead, who shall not be like unto you.h
ENTITLED, THE VICTORY; REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
VERILY we have granted thee a manifest victory:i that GOD may forgive theek thy preceding and thy subsequent sin,l and may
complete his favour on thee, and direct thee in the right way; and that GOD may assist thee with a glorious assistance. It is he who sendeth down secure tranquility into the hearts of the true believers, that they may increase in faith, beyond their former faith; (the hosts of heaven and earth are GOD'S; and GOD is knowing and wise): that he may lead the true believers of both sexes into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever; and may expiate their evil deeds from them: (this will be great felicity with GOD): and that he may punish the hypocritical men, and the hypocritical women, and the idolaters, and the idolatresses, who conceive an ill opinion of GOD. They shall experience a turn of evil fortune: and GOD shall be angry with them, and shall curse them, and hath prepared hell for them; and ill journey shall it be thither! Unto GOD belong the hosts of heaven and earth; and GOD is mighty and wise. Verily we have sent thee to be a witness, and a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats; that ye may believe in GOD, and his apostle; and may assist him, and revere him, and praise him morning and evening. Verily they who swear fealtym unto thee, swear fealty unto GOD: the hand of GOD is over their hands.n Whoever shall violate his oath, will violate the same to the hurt only of his own soul: but whoever shall perform that which he hath covenanted with GOD, he will surely give him a great reward. The Arabs of the desert who were left behindo will say unto thee, Our substance and our families employed us, so that we went not forth with thee to war; wherefore, ask pardon for us. They speak that with their tongues, which is not in their hearts. Answer, Who shall be able to obtain for you anything from GOD to the contrary, if he is pleased to afflict you, or is pleased to be gracious unto you? Yea, verily, GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. Truly ye imagined that the apostle and the true believers would never return to their families: and this was prepared in your hearts: but ye imagined an evil imagination; and ye are a corrupt people. Whoso believeth not in GOD and his apostle, verily we have prepared burning fire for the unbelievers. Unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth: he forgiveth whom he pleaseth: and he punisheth whom he pleaseth: and GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. Those who were left behind will say, when ye go forth to take the spoil,p Suffer us
to follow you. They seek to change the word of GOD.q Say, Ye shall by no means follow us: thus hath GOD said heretofore. They will reply, Nay: ye envy us a share of the booty. But they are men of small understanding. Say unto the Arabs of the desert who were left behind, Ye shall be called forth against a mighty and a warlike nation;r ye shall fight against them, or they shall profess Islâm. If ye obey, GOD will give you a glorious reward: but if ye turn back, as ye turned back heretofore, he will chastise you with a grievous chastisement. It shall be no crime in the blind, neither shall it be a crime in the lame, neither shall it be a crime in the sick, if they go not forth to war: and whoso shall obey GOD and his apostle, he shall lead them into gardens beneath which rivers flow; but whoso shall turn back, he will chastise him with a grievous chastisement. Now GOD was well pleased with the true believers, when they sware fidelity to thee under the tree;s and he knew that which was in their hearts; wherefore he sent down on them tranquility of mind,t and rewarded them with a speedy victory,u and many spoils which they took: for GOD is mighty and wise. GOD promised you many spoils which ye should take; but he have you these by way of earnest; and he restrained the hands of men from you:x that the same may be a sign unto the true believers; and that he may guide you into the right way. And he also promiseth you other spoils, which ye have not yet been able to take: but now hath GOD encompassed them for you; and GOD is almighty. If the unbelieving Meccans had fought against you, verily they had turned their backs; and they would not have found a patron or protector: according to the ordinance of GOD, which hath been put in execution heretofore against opposers of the prophets; for thou shalt not find any change in the ordinance of GOD. It was he who restrained their hands from you, and your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca; after that he had given you the victory over them:y and GOD
saw that which ye did. These are they who believed not, and hindered you from visiting the holy temple, and also hindered the offering being detained, that it should not arrive at the place where it ought to be sacrificed.z Had it not been that ye might have trampled on divers true believers, both men and women, whom ye know not, being promiscuously assembled with the infidels, and that a crime might therefore have lighted on you on their account, without your knowledge, he had not restrained your hands from them: but this was done, that GOD might lead whom he pleased into his mercy. If they had been distinguished from one another, we had surely chastised such of them as believed not, with a severe chastisement. When the unbelievers had put in their hearts an affected preciseness, the preciseness of ignorance, and GOD sent down his tranquility on his apostle and on the true believers;a and firmly fixed in them the word of piety,b and they were the most worthy of the same, and the most deserving thereof: for GOD knoweth all things. Now hath GOD in truth verified unto his apostle the vision,c wherein he said, Ye shall surely enter the holy temple of Mecca, if GOD please, in full security; having your heads shaved, and
your hair cut:d ye shall not fear: for God knoweth that which ye know not; and he hath appointed you, besides this, a speedy victory.e It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and the religion of truth; that he may exalt the same above every religion: and GOD is a sufficient witness hereof. Mohammed is the apostle of GOD: and those who are with him are fierce against the unbelievers, but compassionate towards one another. Thou mayest see them bowing down, prostrate, seeking a recompense from GOD, and his good-will. Their signs are in their faces, being marks of frequent prostration. This is their description in the pentateuch, and their description in the gospel: they are as seed which putteth forth its stalk and strengtheneth it, and swelleth in the ear, and riseth upon its stem; giving delight unto the sower. Such are the Moslems described to be: that the infidels may swell with indignation at them. GOD hath promised unto such of them as believe, and do good works, pardon and a great reward.
ENTITLED, THE INNER APARTMENTS; REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O TRUE believers, anticipate not any matter in the sight of GOD and his apostle:f and fear GOD; for GOD both heareth and knoweth. O true believers, raise not your voices above the voice of the prophet;g neither speak loud unto him in discourse, as ye speak loud unto one another, lest your works become vain, and ye perceive it not. Verily they who lower their voices in the presence of the apostle of GOD are those whose hearts GOD hath disposed unto piety: they shall obtain pardon, and a great reward. As to those who call unto thee from without the inner apartments;h the greater part of them do not understand the respect due to thee. If they wait with patience, until thou come forth unto them, it will certainly be better for them: but GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. O true believers, if a wicked man come unto you with a tale, inquire strictly into the truth
thereof; lest ye hurt people through ignorance, and afterwards repent of what ye have done;i and know that the apostle of GOD is among you: if he should obey you in many things, ye would certainly be guilty of a crime, in leading him into a mistake. But GOD hath made the faith amiable unto you, and hath prepared the same in your hearts; and hath rendered infidelity, and iniquity, and disobedience hateful unto you. These are they who walk in the right way; through mercy from GOD, and grace: and GOD is knowing, and wise. If two parties of the believers contend with one another, do ye endeavor to compose the matter between them: and if the one of them offer an insult unto the other, fight against that party which offered the insult, until they return unto the judgment of GOD; and if they do return, make peace between them with equity: and act with justice; for GOD loveth those who act justly.k Verily the true believers are brethren; wherefore reconcile your brethren; and fear GOD, that ye may obtain mercy. O true believers, let not men laugh other men to scorn; who peradventure may be better than themselves: neither let women laugh other women to scorn; who may possibly be better than themselves. Neither defame one another; nor call one another by opprobrious appellations. An ill name it is to be charged with wickedness, after having embraced the faith: and whoso repenteth not, they will be the unjust doers.l O true believers, carefully avoid entertaining a suspicion of another: for some suspicions are a crime. Inquire not too curiously into other men's failings: neither let the one of you speak ill of another in his absence. Would any of you desire to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Surely ye would abhor it. And fear GOD; for GOD is easy to be reconciled, and merciful. O men, verily we have created you of a male and a female; and we have distributed you into nations and tribes, that ye might know one another. Verily the most honourable of you, in the sight of GOD, is the most pious of you: and GOD is wise and knowing. The Arabs of the desertm say, We believe. Answer, Ye do
by no means believe; but say, We have embraced Islâm:n for the faith hath not yet entered into your hearts. If ye obey GOD and his apostle, he will not defraud you of any part of the merit of your works: for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. Verily the true believers are those only who believe in GOD and his apostle, and afterwards doubt not; and who employ their substance and their persons in the defence of GOD'S true religion: these are they who speak sincerely. Say, Will ye inform GOD concerning your religion?o But GOD knoweth whatever is in heaven and in earth: for GOD is omniscient. They upbraid thee that they have embraced Islâm. Answer, Upbraid me not with your having embraced Islâm: rather GOD upbraideth you, that he hath directed you to the faith;p if ye speak sincerely. Verily GOD knoweth the secrets of heaven and earth: and GOD beholdeth that which ye do.
ENTITLED, K; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
K.q BY the glorious Koran: verily they wonder that a preacher from among themselves is come unto them; and the unbelievers say, This is a wonderful thing: after we shall be dead, and become dust, shall we return to life? This is a return remote from thought. Now we know what the earth consumeth of them; and with us is a book which keepeth an account thereof. But they charge falsehood on the truth, after it hath come unto them: wherefore they are plunged in a confused business.r Do they not look up to the heaven above them, and consider how we have raised it and adorned it; and that there are no flaws therein? We have also spread forth the earth, and thrown thereon mountains firmly rooted:s and we caused every beautiful kind of vegetables to spring up therein; for a subject of meditation, and an admonition unto every man who turneth unto us. And we send down rain as a blessing from heaven, whereby we cause gardens to spring forth, and the grain of harvest, and tall palm-trees having branches laden with dates hanging one above another, as a provision
for mankind; and we thereby quicken a dead country: so shall be the coming forth of the dead from their graves. The people of Noah, and those who dwelt at Al Rass,t and Thamud, and Ad, and Pharaoh, accused the prophets of imposture before the Meccans; and also the brethren of Lot, and the inhabitants of the wood near Midian, and the people of Tobba:u all these accused the apostles of imposture; wherefore the judgments which I threatened were justly inflicted on them. Is our power exhausted by the first creation? Yea; they are in a perplexity, because of a new creation which is foretold them, namely the raising of the dead. We created man, and we know what his soul whispereth within him; and we are nearer unto him than his jugular vein. When the two angels deputed to take account of a man's behavior, take an account thereof; one sitting on the right hand, and the other on the left: he uttereth not a word, but there is with him a watcher, ready to note it.x And the agony of death shall come in truth: this, O man, is what thou soughtest to avoid. And the trumpet shall sound: this will be the day which hath been threatened. And every soul shall come; and therewith shall be a driver and a witness.y And the former shall say unto the unbeliever, Thou wast negligent heretofore of this day: but we have removed thy veil from off thee; and thy sight is become piercing this day. And his companions shall say, This is what is ready with me to be attested. And God shall say, Cast into hell every unbeliever, and perverse person, and every one who forbade good, and every transgressor, and doubter of the faith, who set up another god with the true GOD; and cast him into a grievous torment. His companionz shall say, O LORD, I did not seduce him; but he was in a wide error.a God shall say, Wrangle not in my presence: since I threatened you beforehand with the torments which ye now see prepared for you. The sentence is not changed with me: neither do I treat my servants unjustly. On that day we will say unto hell, Art thou full? and it shall answer, Is there yet any addition?b And paradise shall be brought near unto the pious; and it shall be said unto them,
This is what ye have been promised; unto every one who turned himself unto God, and kept his commandments; who feared the Merciful in secret, and came unto him with a converted heart: enter the same in peace: this is the day of eternity. Therein shall they have whatever they shall desire; and there will be a superabundant addition of bliss with us.c How many generations have we destroyed before the Meccans, which were more mighty than they in strength? Pass, therefore, through the regions of the earth, and see whether there be any refuge from our vengeance. Verily herein is an admonition unto him who hath a heart to understand, or giveth ear, and is present with an attentive mind. We created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in six days, and no weariness affected us.d Wherefore patiently suffer what they say;e and celebrate the praise of thy LORD before sunrise, and before sunset, and praise him in some part of the night: and perform the additional parts of worship.f And hearken unto the day whereon the crier shall call men to judgment from a near place:g the day whereon they shall hear the voice of the trumpet in truth: this will be the day of men's coming forth from their graves: we give life, and we cause to die; and unto us shall be the return of all creatures: the day whereon the earth shall suddenly cleave in sunder over them. This will be an assembly easy for us to assemble. We well know what the unbelievers say; and thou art not sent to compel them forcibly to the faith. Wherefore warn, by the Koran, him who feareth my threatening.
ENTITLED, THE DISPERSING; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the winds dispersing and scattering the dust;h and by the clouds bearing a load of rain;i by the ships running swiftly in the sea;k and by the angels who distribute things necessary for the support of all
creatures;l verily that wherewith ye are threatened is certainly true; and the last judgment will surely come. By the heaven furnished with paths;m ye widely differ in what ye say.n He will be turned aside from the faith, who shall be turned aside by the divine decree. Cursed be the liars; who wade in deep waters of ignorance, neglecting their salvation. They ask, When will the day of judgment come? On that day shall they be burned in hell fire; and it shall be said unto them, Taste your punishment; this is what ye demanded to be hastened. But the pious shall dwell among gardens and fountains, receiving that which their LORD shall give them; because they were righteous doers before this day. They slept but a small part of the night;o and early in the morning they asked pardon of God: and a due portion of their wealth was given unto him who asked, and unto him who was forbidden by shame to ask. There are signs of the divine power and goodness in the earth, unto men of sound understanding; and also in your own selves: will ye not therefore consider? Your sustenance is in the heaven; and also that which ye are promised.p Wherefore by the LORD of heaven and earth I swear that this is certainly the truth; according to what ye yourselves speak.q Hath not the story of Abraham's honoured guestsr come to thy knowledge? When they went in unto him, and said, Peace: he answered Peace; saying within himself, These are unknown people. And he went privately unto his family, and brought a fatted calf. And he set it before them, and when he saw they touched it not, he said, Do ye not eat? And he began to entertain a fear of them. They said, Fear not:s and they declared unto him the promise of a wise youth. And his wife drew near with exclamation, and she smote her face,t and said, I am an old woman, and barren. The angels answered, Thus saith thy LORD: verily he is the wise, the knowing. (XXVII.) And Abraham said unto them, What is your errand, therefore, O messengers of God? They answered, Verily we are sent unto a wicked people: that we may send down upon them stones of baked clay, marked from thy LORD, for the destruction of transgressors. And we brought forth the true believers who were in the city: but we found not therein more than one family of Moslems. And we overthrew the same, and left a sign therein unto those who dread the severe chastisement of God. In Moses also was a sign: when we sent him unto Pharaoh with manifest power. But he turned back, with his princes,
saying, This man is a sorceror, or a madman. Wherefore we took him and his forces, and cast them into the sea: and he was one worthy of reprehension. And in the tribe of Ad also was a sign: when we sent against them a destroying wind;u it touched not aught whereon it came, but it rendered the same as a thing rotten, and reduced to dust. In Thamud likewise was a sign: when it was said unto them, Enjoy yourselves for a time.x But they insolently transgressed the command of their LORD: wherefore a terrible noise from heaven assailed them, while they looked on;y and they were not able to stand on their feet, neither did they save themselves from destruction. And the people of Noah did we destroy before these: for they were a people who enormously transgressed. We have built the heaven with might; and we have given it a large extent: and we have stretched forth the earth beneath; and how evenly have we spread the same! And of everything have we created two kinds,z that peradventure ye may consider. Fly, therefore, unto GOD; verily I am a public warner unto you, from him. And set not up another god with the true GOD: verily I am a public warner unto you, from him. In like manner there came no apostle unto their predecessors, but they said, This man is a magician, or a madman. Have they bequeathed this behavior successively the one to the other? Yea; they are a people who enormously transgress. Wherefore withdraw from them; and thou shalt not be blameworthy in so doing. Yet continue to admonish: for admonition profiteth the true believers. I have not created genii and men for any other end than that they should serve me. I require not any sustenance from them; neither will I that they feed me. Verily GOD is he who provideth for all creatures; possessed of mighty power. Unto those who shall injure our apostle shall be given a portion like unto the portion of those who behaved like them in times past; and they shall not wish the same to be hastened. Woe, therefore, to the unbelievers, because of their day with which they are threatened!
ENTITLED, THE MOUNTAIN; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the mountain of Sinai; and by the book written in an expanded scroll;a and by the visited house;b and by the elevated roof of
heaven; and by the swelling ocean: verily the punishment of thy LORD will surely descend; there shall be none to withhold it. On that day the heaven shall be shaken, and shall reel; and the mountains shall walk and pass away. And on that day woe be unto those who accused God's apostles of imposture; who amused themselves in wading in vain disputes! On that day shall they be driven and thrust into the fire of hell; and it shall be said unto them, This is the fire which ye denied as a fiction. Is this a magic illusion? Or do ye not see? Enter the same to be scorched: whether ye bear your torments patiently, or impatiently, it will be equal unto you: ye shall surely receive the reward of that which ye have wrought. But the pious shall dwell amidst gardens and pleasures; delighting themselves in what their LORD shall have given them: and their LORD shall deliver them from the pains of hell. And it shall be said unto them, Eat and drink with easy digestion; because of that which ye have wrought: leaning on couches disposed in order: and we will espouse them unto virgins having large black eyes. And unto those who believe, and whose offspring follow them in the faith, we will join their offspring in paradise: and we will not diminish unto them aught of the merit of their works. (Every man is given in pledge for that which he shall have wrought.c) And we will give them fruits in abundance, and flesh of the kinds which they shall desire. They shall present unto one another therein a cup of wine, wherein there shall be no vain discourse, nor any incitement unto wickedness. And youths appointed to attend them shall go round them: beautiful as pearls hidden in their shell. And they shall approach unto one another, and shall ask mutual questions. And they shall say, Verily we were heretofore amidst our family, in great dread with regard to our state after death: but GOD hath been gracious unto us, and hath delivered us from the pain of burning fire: for we called on him heretofore; and he is the beneficent, the merciful. Wherefore do thou, O prophet, admonish thy people. Thou art not, by the grace of thy LORD, a soothsayer, or a madman. Do they say, He is a poet; we wait, concerning him, some adverse turn of fortune? Say, Wait ye my ruin: verily I wait, with you, the time of your destruction. Do their mature understandings bid them say this; or are they people who perversely transgress? Do they say, He hath forged the Koran? Verily they believe not. Let them produce a discourse like unto it, if they speak truth. Were they created by nothing; or were they creators of themselves? Did they create the heavens and the earth? Verily they are not firmly persuaded that God hath created them.d Are the stores of thy LORD in their hands? Are they the supreme dispensers of all things? Have they a ladder whereby they may ascend to heaven, and hear the discourses of angels? Let
one, therefore, who hath heard them, produce an evident proof thereof. Hath God daughters, and have ye sons?e Dost thou ask them a reward for thy preaching? but they are laden with debts. Are the secrets of futurity with them; and do they transcribe the same from the table of God's degrees? Do they seek to lay a plot against thee? But the unbelievers are they who shall be circumvented.f Have they any god, besides GOD? Far be GOD exalted above the idols which they associate with him! If they should see a fragment of the heaven falling down upon them, they would say, It is only a thick cloud.g Wherefore leave them, until they arrive at their day wherein they shall swoon for fear:h a day, in which their subtle contrivances shall not avail them at all, neither shall they be protected. And those who act unjustly shall surely suffer another punishment besides this:i but the greater part of them do not understand. And wait thou patiently the judgment of thy LORD concerning them; for thou art in our eye: and celebrate the praise of thy LORD, when thou risest up; and praise him in the night-season, and when the stars begin to disappear.
ENTITLED, THE STAR; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the star,k when it setteth;l your companion Mohammed erreth not; nor is he led astray: neither doth he speak of his own will. It is no other than a revelation, which hath been revealed unto him. One mighty in power, endued with understanding, taught it him:m and he appearedn in the highest part of the horizon. Afterwards he approached the prophet,o and near unto him; until he was at the
distance of two bows' lengthp from him, or yet nearer; and he revealed unto his servant that which he revealed. The heart of Mohammed did not falsely represent that which he saw. Will ye therefore dispute with him concerning that which he saw?q He also saw him another time, by the lote-tree beyond which there is no passing:r near it is the garden of eternal abode. When the lote-tree covered that which it covered,s his eyesight turned not aside, neither did it wander: and he really beheld some of the greatest signs of his LORD.t What think ye of Allat, and Al Uzza, and Manah, that other third goddess?u Have ye male children, and God female?x This, therefore, is an unjust partition. They are no other than empty names, which ye and your fathers have named goddesses. GOD hath not revealed concerning them anything to authorize their worship. They follow no other than a vain opinion, and what their souls desire: yet hath the true direction come unto them from their LORD. Shall man have whatever he wisheth for?y The life to come and the present life are GOD'S: and how many angels soever there be in the heavens, their intercession shall be of no avail, until after GOD shall have granted permission unto whom he shall please and shall accept. Verily they who believe not in the life to come give unto the angels a female appellation. But they have no knowledge herein: they follow no other than a bare opinion; and a bare opinion attaineth not anything of truth. Wherefore withdraw from him who turneth away from our admonition, and seeketh only the present life. This is their highest pitch of knowledge. Verily thy LORD well knoweth him who erreth from his way; and he well knoweth him who is rightly directed. Unto GOD belongeth whatever is in heaven and earth: that he may reward those who do evil, according to that which they shall have wrought; and may reward those who do well, with the most excellent reward. As to those who avoid great crimes, and heinous sins, and are guilty only of lighter faults; verily thy LORD will be extensive in mercy towards them. He well knew you when he produced you out of the earth, and when ye were embryos in your mothers' wombs: wherefore justify not yourselves: he best knoweth the man who feareth him. What thinkest thou of him who turneth aside from following the truth,
and giveth little, and covetously stoppeth his hand?z Is the knowledge of futurity with him, so that he seeth the same?a Hath he not been informed of that which is contained in the books of Moses, and of Abraham who faithfully performed his engagements? To wit: that a burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another; and that nothing shall be imputed to a man for righteousness, except his own labor; and that his labor shall surely be made manifest hereafter, and that he shall be rewarded for the same with a most abundant reward; and that unto thy LORD will be the end of all things; and that he causeth to laugh, and causeth to weep; and that he putteth to death, and giveth life: and that he createth the two sexes, the male and the female, of seed when it is emitted; and that unto him appertaineth another production, namely, the raising of the dead again to life hereafter; and that he enricheth, and causeth to acquire possessions; and that he is the LORD of the dog-star;b and that he destroyed the ancient tribe of Ad, and Thamud, and left not any of them alive; and also the people of Noah, before them; for they were most unjust and wicked: and he overthrew the cities which were turned upside down;c and that which covered them, covered them. Which, therefore, of thy LORD'S benefits, O man, wilt thou call in question? This our apostle is a preacher like the preachers who preceded him. The approaching day of judgment draweth near: there is none who can reveal the exact time of the same, besides GOD. Do ye, therefore, wonder at this new revelation, and do ye laugh, and not weep, spending your time in idle diversions? But rather worship GOD, and serve him.
ENTITLED, THE MOON; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE hour of judgment approacheth; and the moon hath been split in sunder:d but if the unbelievers see a sign, they turn aside,
saying, This is a powerful charm.e And they accuse thee, O Mohammed, of imposture, and follow their own lusts: but everything will be immutably fixed.f And now hath a messageg come unto them, wherein is a determent from obstinate infidelity; the same being consummate wisdom: but warners profit them not; wherefore do thou withdraw from them. The day whereon the summoner shall summon mankind to an ungrateful business,h they shall come forth from their graves with downcast looks: numerous as locusts scattered far abroad; hastening with terror unto the summoner. The unbelievers shall say, This is a day of distress. The people of Noah accused that prophet of imposture, before thy people rejected thee: they accused our servant of imposture, saying, He is a madman; and he was rejected with reproach. He called, therefore, upon his LORD, saying, Verily I am overpowered; wherefore avenge me.i So we opened the gates of heaven, with water pouring down, and we caused the earth to break forth into springs; so that the water of heaven and earth met, according to the decree which had been established. And we bare him on a vessel composed of planks and nails; which moved forward under our eyes:k as a recompense unto him who had been ungratefully rejected. And we left the said vessel for a sign: but is any one warned thereby? And how severe was my vengeance, and my threatening! Now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby? Ad charged their prophet with imposture: but how severe was my vengeance, and my threatening! Verily we sent against them a roaringl wind, on a day of continued ill luck;m it carried men away, as though they had been roots of palm-trees forcibly torn up.n And how severe was my vengeance and my threatening! Now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby? Thamud charged the admonitions of their prophet with falsehood, and said, Shall we follow a single man among us? verily we should then be guilty of error, and preposterous madness: is the office of
admonition committed unto him preferably to the rest of us? Nay; he is a liar, and an insolent fellow. But God said to Saleh, To-morrow shall they know who is the liar, and the insolent person: for we will surely send the she-camel for a trial of them:o and do thou observe them, and bear their insults with patience: and prophesy unto them that the water shall be divided between them,p and each portion shall be sat down to alternately. And they called their companion:q and he took a sword,r and slew her. But how severe was my vengeance, and my threatening! For we sent against them one cry of the angel Gabriel; and they became like the dry sticks used by him who buildeth a fold for cattle.s And now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby? The people of Lot charged his preaching with falsehood: but we sent against them a wind driving a shower of stones, which destroyed them all except the family of Lot; whom we delivered early in the morning, through favor from us. Thus do we reward those who are thankful. And Lot had warned them of our severity in chastising; but they doubted of that warning. And they demanded his guests of him, that they might abuse them: but we put out their eyes,t saying, Taste my vengeance, and my threatening. And early in the morning a lasting punishmentu surprised them. Taste, therefore, my vengeance, and my threatening. Now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby? The warning of Moses also came unto the people of Pharaoh; but they charged every one of our signs with imposture: wherefore we chastised them with a mighty and irresistible chastisement. Are your unbelievers, O Meccans, better than these? Is immunity from punishment promised unto you in the scriptures? Do they say, We are a body of men able to prevail against our enemies? The multitude shall surely be put to flight, and shall turn their back.x But the hour of judgment is their threatened time of punishment:y and that hour shall be more grievous and more bitter than their afflictions in this life. Verily the wicked wander in error, and shall be tormented hereafter in burning flames. On that day they shall be dragged into the fire on their faces; and it shall be said unto them, Taste ye the touch of hell. All things have we created bound by a fixed decree: and our command is no more than a single word,z like the twinkling of an eye. We have
formerly destroyed nations like unto you; but is any of you warned by their example? Everything which they do is recorded in the books kept by the guardian angels: and every action both small and great, is written down in the preserved table. Moreover the pious shall dwell among gardens and rivers, in the assembly of truth, in the presence of a most potent king.
ENTITLED, THE MERCIFUL; REVEALED AT MECCA.a
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE Merciful hath taught his servant the Koran. He created man: he hath taught him distinct speech. The sun and the moon run their courses according to a certain rule: and the vegetables which creep on the ground, and the trees submit to his disposition. He also raised the heaven; and he appointed the balance,b that ye should not transgress in respect to the balance: wherefore observe a just weight; and diminish not the balance. And the earth hath he prepared for living creatures: therein are various fruits, and palm-trees bearing sheaths of flowers; and grain having chaff, and leaves. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?c He created man of dried clay like an earthen vessel: but he created the genii of fire clear from smoke. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? He is the LORD of the east, and the LORD of the west.d Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? He hath let loose the two seas,e that they meet each another: between them is placed a bar which they cannot pass. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? From them are taken forth unions and lesser pearls. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? His also are the ships, carrying their sails aloft in the sea like mountains. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Every creature which liveth on the earth is subject to decay: but the glorious and
honourable countenance of thy LORD shall remain forever. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Unto him do all creatures which are in heaven and earth make petition: every day is he employed in some new work.f Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? We will surely attend to judge you, O men and genii, at the last day. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? O ye collective body of genii and men, if ye be able to pass out of the confines of heaven and earth,g pass forth: ye shall not pass forth but by absolute power. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? A flame of fire without smoke, and a smoke without flameh shall be sent down upon you; and ye shall not be able to defend yourselves therefrom. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? And when the heaven shall be rent in sunder, and shall become red as a rose, and shall melt like ointment.i (Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?) On that day neither man nor genius shall be asked concerning his sin.k Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? The wicked shall be known by their marks;l and they shall be taken by the forelocks, and the feet, and shall be cast into hell. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? This is hell, which the wicked deny as a falsehood: they shall pass to and fro between the same and hot boiling water.m Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? But for him who dreadeth the tribunal of his LORD are prepared two gardens:n (Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?) planted with shady trees. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? In each of them shall be two fountains flowing. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? In each of them shall there be of every fruit two kinds.o Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? They shall repose on couches, the linings whereof shall be of thick silk interwoven with gold: and the fruit of the two gardens shall be near at hand together.p Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Therein shall receive them beauteous
damsels, refraining their eyes from beholding any besides their spouses: whom no man shall have deflowered before them, neither any genius: (Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?) Having complexions like rubies and pearls. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Shall the reward of good works be any other good? Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? And besides these there shall be two other gardens:q (Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?) Of a dark green.r Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? In each of them shall be two fountains pouring forth plenty of water. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? In each of them shall be fruits, and palm-trees, and pomegranates. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Therein shall be agreeable and beauteous damsels: Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Having fine black eyes, and kept in pavilions from public view: Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Whom no man shall have deflowered before their destined spouses, nor any genius. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Therein shall they delight themselves, lying on green cushions and beautiful carpets. Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny? Blessed be the name of thy LORD, possessed of glory and honour!
ENTITLED, THE INEVITABLE; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHEN the inevitables day of judgment shall suddenly come, no soul shall charge the prediction of its coming with falsehood: it will abase some, and exalt others. When the earth shall be shaken with a violent shock; and the mountains shall be dashed in pieces, and shall become as dust scattered abroad; and ye shall be separated into three distinct classes: the companions of the right hand; (how happy shall the companions of the right hand be!) and the companions of the left handt (how miserable shall the companions of the left hand be!), and
those who have preceded others in the faith shall precede them to paradise.u These are they who shall approach near unto God: they shall dwell in gardens of delight: (There shall be many of the former religions; and few of the last.x) Reposing on couches adorned with gold and precious stones; sitting opposite to one another thereon.y Youths which shall continue in their bloom forever, shall go round about to attend them, with goblets, and beakers, and a cup of flowing wine: their heads shall not ache by drinking the same, neither shall their reason be disturbed: and with fruits of the sorts which they shall choose, and the flesh of birds of the kind which they shall desire. And there shall accompany them fair damsels having large black eyes; resembling pearls hidden in their shells: as a reward for that which they shall have wrought. They shall not hear therein any vain discourse, or any charge of sin; but only the salutation, Peace! Peace! And the companions of the right hand (how happy shall the companions of the right hand be!) shall have their abode among lote-trees free from thorns, and trees of mauzz loaded regularly with their produce from top to bottom; under an extended shade, near a flowing water,a and amidst fruits in abundance, which shall not fail, nor shall be forbidden to be gathered: and they shall repose themselves on lofty beds.b Verily we have created the damsels of paradise by a peculiar creation;c and we have made them virgins,d beloved by their husbands, of equal age with them; for the delight of the companions of the right hand. There shall be many of the former religions, and many of the latter.e And the
companions of the left hand (how miserable shall the companions of the left hand be!) shall dwell amidst burning winds,f and scalding water, under the shade of a black smoke, neither cool nor agreeable. For they enjoyed the pleasures of life before this, while on earth; and obstinately persisted in a heinous wickedness: and they said, After we shall have died, and become dust and bones, shall we surely be raised to life? Shall our forefathers also be raised with us? Say, Verily both the first and the last shall surely be gathered together to judgment, at the prefixed time of a known day. Then ye, O men, who have erred, and denied the resurrection as a falsehood, shall surely eat of the fruit of the tree of al Zakkum, and shall fill your bellies therewith: and ye shall drink thereon boiling water; and ye shall drink as a thirsty camel drinketh. This shall be their entertainment on the day of judgment. We have created you: will ye not therefore believe that we can raise you from the dead? What think ye? The seed which ye emit, do ye create the same, or are we the creators thereof? We have decreed death unto you all: and we shall not be prevented. We are able to substitute others like unto you in your stead, and to produce you again in the condition or form which ye know not. Ye know the original production by creation; will ye not therefore consider that we are able to produce you by resuscitation? What think ye? The grain which ye sow, do ye cause the same to spring forth, or do we cause it to spring forth? If we pleased, verily we could render the same dry and fruitless, so that ye would not cease to wonder,g saying, Verily we have contracted debtsh for seed and labor, but we are not permittedi to reap the fruit thereof. What think ye? The water which ye drink, do ye send down the same from the clouds, or are we the senders thereof? If we pleased, we could render the same brackish: will ye not therefore give thanks? What think ye? The fire which ye strike, do ye produce the tree whence ye obtain the same,k or are we the producers thereof? We have ordained the same for an admonition,l and an advantage to those who travel through the deserts. Wherefore praise the name of thy LORD, the great God. Moreover I swearm by the setting of the stars; (and it is surely a great oath, if ye knew it;) that this is the excellent Koran, the original whereof is written in the preserved book: none shall touch the same, except those who are clean.n It is a revelation from the LORD of all creatures. Will ye, therefore, despise this new revelation? And do ye make this return for your food which ye receive
from God, that ye deny yourselves to be obliged to him for the same?o When the soul of a dying person cometh up to his throat, and ye at the same time are looking on; (and we are nigher unto him than ye, but ye see not his true condition;) would ye not, if ye are not to be rewarded for your action hereafter, cause the same to return into the body, if ye speak the truth?p And whether he be of those who shall approach near unto God,q his reward shall be rest, and mercy, and a garden of delights: or whether he be of the companions of the right hand, he shall be saluted with the salutation, Peace be unto thee! by the companions of the right hand, his brethren: or whether he be of those who have rejected the true faith, and gone astray, his entertainment shall consist of boiling water, and the burning of hell fire. Verily this is a certain truth. Wherefore praise the name of thy LORD, the great God.
ENTITLED, IRON;r REVEALED AT MECCA, OR AT MEDINA.s
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHATEVER is in heaven and earth singeth praise unto GOD; and he is mighty and wise. His is the kingdom of heaven and earth; he giveth life, and he putteth to death; and he is almighty. He is the first, and the last; the manifest and the hidden: and he knoweth all things. It is he who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then ascended his throne. He knoweth that which entereth into the earth, and that which issueth out of the same, and that which descendeth from heaven, and that which ascendeth thereto; and he is with you, wheresoever ye be: for GOD seeth that which ye do. His is the kingdom of heavens and earth; and unto GOD shall all things return. He causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night; and he knowest the innermost part of men's breasts. Believe in GOD and his apostle, and lay out in alms a part of the wealth whereof GOD hath made you inheritors: for unto such of you as believe, and bestow alms, shall be given a great reward. And what aileth you, that ye believe not in GOD, when the apostle inviteth
you to believe in your LORD; and he hath received your covenantt concerning this matter, if ye believe any proposition? It is he who hath sent down unto his servant evident signs, that he may lead you out of darkness into light; for GOD is compassionate and merciful unto you. And what aileth you, that ye contribute not of your substance for the defence of GOD'S true religion? Since unto GOD appertaineth the inheritance of heaven and earth. Those among you who shall have contributed and fought in defence of the faith, before the taking of Mecca, shall not be held equal with those who shall contribute and fight for the same afterwards.u These shall be superior in degree unto those who shall contribute and fight for the propagation of the faith, after the above-mentioned success; but unto all hath GOD promised a most excellent reward; and GOD well knoweth that which ye do. Who is he that will lend unto GOD an acceptable loan? for he will double the same unto him, and he shall receive moreover an honourable reward. On a certain day, thou shalt see the true believers of both sexes: their light shall run before them, and on their right hands;x and it shall be said unto them, Good tidings unto you this day: gardens through which rivers flow; ye shall remain therein forever. This will be great felicity. On that day the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women shall say unto those who believe, Stay for us,y what we may borrow some of your light. It shall be answered, Return back into the world, and seek light. And a high wall shall be set betwixt them, wherein shall be a gate, within which shall be mercy; and without it, over against the same, the torment of hell. The hypocrites shall call out unto the true believers, saying, Were we not with you? They shall answer, Yea; but ye seduced your own souls by your hypocrisy; and ye waited our ruin; and ye doubted concerning the faith; and your wishes deceived you, until the decree of GOD came, and ye died: and the deceiver deceived you concerning GOD. This day, therefore, a ransom shall not be accepted of you, nor of those who have been unbelievers. Your abode shall be hell fire: this is what ye have deserved; and an unhappy journey shall it be thither! Is not the time yet come unto those who believe, that their hearts should humbly submit to the admonition of GOD, and to that truth which hath been revealed; and that they be not as those unto whom the scripture was given heretofore, and to whom the time of forbearance was prolonged, but their hearts were hardened, and many of them were wicked doers? Know that GOD quickeneth the earth, after it hath been dead. Now have we distinctly declared our signs unto you, that ye may understand. Verily as to the almsgivers, both men and women, and those who lend unto GOD an acceptable loan, he will double the same unto them; and they shall moreover receive an honourable reward. And they who believe in GOD and his apostles, these are the men of veracity, and the witnesses in the presence of their LORD: they shall have their reward, and their light. But as to those who believe not, and accuse our signs
of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell. Know that this present life is only a toy and a vain amusement: and worldly pomp, and the affectation of glory among you, and the multiplying of riches and children, are as the plants nourished by the rain, the springing up whereof delighteth the husbandmen; afterwards they wither, so that thou seest the same turned yellow, and at length they become dry stubble. And in the life to come will be a severe punishment for those who covet worldly grandeur; and pardon from GOD, and favor for those who renounce it: for this present life is no other than a deceitful provision. Hasten with emulation to obtain pardon from your LORD, and paradise, the extent whereof equalleth the extent of heaven and earth, prepared for those who believe in GOD and his apostles. This is the bounty of GOD: he will give the same unto whom he pleaseth; and GOD is endued with great bounty. No accident happeneth in the earth, nor in your persons, but the same was entered in the book of our decrees, before we created it: verily this is easy with GOD: and this is written lest ye immoderately grieve for the good which escapeth you, or rejoice for that which happened unto you; for GOD loveth no proud or vain-glorious person, or those who are covetous, and command men covetousness. And whoso turneth aside from giving alms; verily GOD is self-sufficient, worthy to be praised. We formerly sent our apostles with evident miracles and arguments; and we sent down with them the scriptures and the balance,z that men might observe justice: and we sent them down iron,a wherein is mighty strength for war,b and various advantages unto mankind: that GOD may know who assisteth him and his apostles in secret;c for GOD is strong and mighty. We formerly sent Noah and Abraham, and we established in their posterity the gift of prophecy, and the scripture: and of them some were directed, but many of them were evil-doers. Afterwards we caused our apostles to succeed in their footsteps; and we caused Jesus the son of Mary to succeed them, and we gave him the gospel: and we put in the hearts of those that followed him compassion and mercy: but as to the monastic state, they instituted the same (we did not prescribe it to them) only out of a desire to please GOD; yet they observed not the same as it ought truly to have been observed. And we gave unto such of them as believed their reward: but many of them were wicked doers. O ye who believe in the former prophets,d fear GOD, and believe in his apostle Mohammed: he will give you two portions of his mercy,e and he will ordain a light wherein ye may walk, and he will forgive you; for GOD is ready to forgive, and merciful: that those who have received the
scriptures may know that they have not power over any of the favours of GOD,f and that good is in the hand of GOD; he bestoweth the same on whom he pleaseth; for GOD is endued with great beneficence.
ENTITLED, SHE WHO DISPUTED; REVEALED AT MEDINA.g
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
(XXVIII.) NOW hath GOD heard the speech of her who disputed with thee concerning her husband, and made her complaint unto GOD;h and GOD hath heard your mutual discourse: for GOD both heareth and seeth. As to those among you who divorce their wives, by declaring that they will thereafter regard them as their mothers; let them know that they are not their mothers. They only are their mothers who brought them forth;i and they certainly utter an unjustifiable saying and a falsehood: but GOD is gracious and ready to forgive. Those who divorce their wives by declaring that they will for the future regard them as their mothers, and afterwards would repairk what they have said, shall be obliged to free a captive,l before they touch one another. That is what ye are warned to perform: and GOD is well apprised of that which ye do. And whoso findeth not a captive to redeem, shall observe a fast of two consecutive months, before they touch one another. And whoso shall not be able to fast that time, shall feed threescore poor men. This is ordained you, that ye may believe in GOD and his apostle. These are the statutes of GOD: and for the unbelievers is prepared a grievous torment. Verily they who oppose
GOD and his apostle shall be brought low, as the unbelievers who preceded them were brought low. And now have we sent down manifest signs: and an ignominious punishment awaiteth the unbelievers. On a certain day GOD shall raise them all to life, and shall declare unto them that which they have wrought. GOD hath taken an exact account thereof; but they have forgotten the same: and GOD is witness over all things. Dost thou not perceive that GOD knoweth whatever is in heaven and in earth? There is no private discourse among three persons, but he is the fourth of them; nor among five, but he is the sixth of them; neither among a smaller number than this, nor a larger, but he is with them, wheresoever they be: and he will declare unto them that which they have done, on the day of resurrection; for GOD knoweth all things. Hast thou not observed those who have been forbidden to use clandestine discourse, but afterwards return to what they have been forbidden, and discourse privily among themselves of wickedness, and enmity, and disobedience towards the apostle?m And when they come unto thee, they salute thee with that form of salutation wherewith GOD doth not salute thee;n and they say among themselves, by way of derision, Would not GOD punish us for what we say, if this man were a prophet? Hell shall be their sufficient punishment: they shall go down into the same to be burned; and an unhappy journey shall it be! O true believers, when ye discourse privily together, discourse not of wickedness, and enmity, and disobedience towards the apostle; but discourse of justice and piety: and fear GOD, before whom ye shall be assembled. Verily the clandestine discourse of the infidels proceedeth from Satan, that he may grieve the true believers: but there shall be none to hurt them in the least, unless by the permission of GOD; wherefore in GOD let the faithful trust. O true believers, when it is said unto you, Make room in the assembly; make room:o GOD will grant you ample room in paradise. And when it is said unto you, Rise up; rise up: GOD will raise those of you who believe, and those to whom knowledge is given, to superior degrees of honour; and GOD is fully apprised of that which ye do. O true believers, when ye go to speak with the apostle, give alms previously to your discoursing with him;p this will be better for you, and more pure. But if ye find not what to give, verily GOD will be gracious and merciful unto you. Do ye fear to give alms previously to your discoursing with the prophet, lest ye should impoverish yourselves? Therefore if ye do it not, and GOD is gracious unto you, by dispensing with the said precept for the future, be constant at prayer, and pay the legal alms; and obey GOD and his apostle in all other matters: for GOD well knoweth that
which ye do. Hast thou not observed those who have taken for their friends a people against whom GOD is incensed?q They are neither of you, nor of them:r and they swear to a lies knowingly. GOD hath prepared for them a grievous punishment; for it is evil which they do. They have taken their oaths for a cloak, and they have turned men aside from the way of GOD: wherefore a shameful punishment awaiteth them; neither their wealth nor their children shall avail them at all against GOD. These shall be the inhabitants of hell fire; they shall abide therein forever. On a certain day GOD shall raise them all: then will they swear unto him, as they swear now unto you, imagining that it will be of service to them. Are they not liars? Satan hath prevailed against them, and hath caused them to forget the remembrance of GOD. These are the party of the devil; and shall not the party of the devil be doomed to perdition? Verily they who oppose GOD and his apostle shall be placed among the most vile. GOD hath written, Verily I will prevail, and my apostles: for GOD is strong and mighty. Thou shalt not find people who believe in GOD and the last day to love him who opposeth GOD and his apostle; although they be their fathers, or their sons, or their brethren, or their nearest relations. In the hearts of these hath GOD written faith; and he hath strengthened them with his spirit: and he will lead them into gardens, beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever. GOD is well pleased in them; and they are well pleased in him. These are the party of GOD: and shall not the party of GOD prosper?
ENTITLED, THE EMIGRATION;t REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHATEVER is in heaven and earth celebrateth the praise of GOD: and he is the mighty, the wise. It was he who caused those who believed not, of the people who receive the scripture, to depart from their habitations at the first emigration.u Ye did not think that
they would go forth: and they thought that their fortresses would protect them against GOD. But the chastisement of GOD came upon them, from whence they did not expect; and he cast terror into their hearts. They pulled down their houses with their own hands,x and the hands of the true believers. Wherefore take example from them, O ye who have eyes. And if GOD had not doomed them to banishment, he had surely punished them in this world:y and in the world to come they shall suffer the torment of hell fire. This, because they opposed GOD and his apostle: and whoso opposeth GOD, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him. What palm-trees ye cut down, or left standing on their roots, were so cut down or left by the will of GOD; and that he might disgrace the wicked doers. And as to the spoils of these people which GOD hath granted wholly to his apostle,z ye did not push forward any horses or camels against the same;a but GOD giveth unto his apostles dominion over whom he pleaseth: for GOD is almighty. The spoils of the inhabitants of the towns which GOD hath granted to his apostle are due unto GOD and to the apostle, and to him who is of kin to the apostle, and the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller; that they may not be forever divided in a circle among such of you as are rich. What the apostle shall give you, that accept; and what he shall forbid you, that abstain from: and fear GOD; for GOD is severe in chastising. A part also belongeth to the poor Mohâjerîn,b who have been dispossessed of their houses and their substance, seeking favor from GOD, and his good-will, and assisting GOD and his apostle. These are the men of veracity. And they who quietly possessed the town of Medina, and professed the faith without molestation, before them,c love
him who hath fled unto them, and find in their breasts no want of that which is given the Mohâjerîn,d but prefer them before themselves, although there be indigence among them. And whoso is preserved from the covetousness of his own soul, those shall surely prosper. And they who have come after theme say, O LORD, forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in the faith, and put not into our hearts ill-will against those who have believed: O LORD, verily thou art compassionate and merciful. Hast thou not observed them who play the hypocrites? They say unto their brethren who believe not, of those who have received the scriptures,f Verily if ye be expelled your habitations, we will surely go forth with you; and we will not pay obedience, in your respect, unto any one forever: and if ye be attacked, we will certainly assist you. But GOD is witness that they are liars. Verily if they be expelled, they will not go forth with them: and if they be attacked, they will not assist them;g and if they do assist them, they will surely turn their backs: and they shall not be protected. Verily ye are stronger than they, by reason of the terror cast into their breasts from GOD. This, because they are not people of prudence. They will not fight against you in a body, except in fenced towns, or from behind walls. Their strength in war among themselves is great:h thou thinkest them to be united; but their hearts are divided. This, because they are people who do not understand. Like those who lately preceded them,i they have tasted the evil consequence of their deed; and a painful torment is prepared for them hereafter. Thus have the hypocrites deceived the Jews: like the devil, when he saith unto a man, Be thou an infidel; and when he is become an infidel, he saith, Verily I am clear of thee; for I fear GOD, the LORD of all creatures. Wherefore the end of them both shall be that they shall dwell in hell fire, abiding therein forever: and this shall be the recompense of the unjust. O true believers, fear GOD; and let a soul look what it sendeth before for the morrow:k and fear GOD, for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. And be not as those who have forgotten GOD, and whom he hath caused to forget their own souls: these are the wicked doers. The inhabitants of hell fire and the inhabitants of paradise shall not be held equal. The inhabitants of paradise are they who shall enjoy felicity. If we had sent down this Koran on a mountain, thou wouldest certainly have seen the same humble itself, and cleave in sunder for fear of GOD. These similitudes do we propose unto men, that they may consider. He is GOD, besides whom there is no GOD; who knoweth that which is future, and that which is present: he is the most Merciful;
he is GOD, besides whom there is no GOD: the King, the Holy, the Giver of peace, the Faithful, the Guardian, the Powerful, the Strong, the most High. Far be GOD exalted above the idols which they associate with him! He is GOD, the Creator, the Maker, the Former. He hath most excellent names.l Whatever is in heaven and in earth praiseth him: and he is the Mighty, the Wise.
ENTITLED, SHE WHO IS TRIED;m REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O TRUE believers, take not my enemy and your enemy for your friends,n showing kindness towards them; since they believe not in the truth which hath come unto you, having expelled the apostle and yourselves from your native city, because ye believe in GOD, your LORD. If ye go forth to fight in defence of my religion, and out of a desire to please me, and privately show friendship unto them;o verily I well know that which ye conceal, and that which ye discover: and whoever of you doth this, hath already erred from the straight path. If they get the better of you, they will be enemies unto you, and they will stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil: and they earnestly desire that ye should become unbelievers. Neither your kindred nor your children will avail you at all on the day of resurrection, which will separate you from one another: and GOD seeth that which ye do. Ye have an excellent pattern in Abraham, and those who were with him, when they said unto their people, Verily we are clear of you, and of the idols which ye worship, besides GOD: we have renounced you; and enmity and hatred is begun between us and you forever, until ye believe in GOD alone: except Abraham's saying unto
his father, Verily I will beg pardon for thee:p but I cannot obtain aught of GOD in thy behalf. O LORD, in thee do we trust, and unto thee are we turned; and before thee shall we be assembled hereafter. O LORD, suffer us not to be put to trial by the unbelievers:q and forgive us, O LORD; for thou art mighty and wise. Verily ye have in them an excellent example, unto him who hopeth in GOD and the last day: and whoso turneth back; verily GOD is self-sufficient, and praiseworthy. Peradventure GOD will establish friendship between yourselves and such of them as ye now hold for enemies:r for GOD is powerful; and GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. As to those who have not borne arms against you on account of religion, nor turned you out of your dwellings, GOD forbiddeth you not to deal kindly with them, and to behave justly towards them:s for GOD loveth those who act justly. But as to those who have borne arms against you on account of religion, and have dispossessed you of your habitations, and have assisted in dispossessing you, GOD forbiddeth you to enter into friendship with them: and whosoever of you entereth into friendship with them, those are unjust doers. O true believers, when believing women come unto you as refugees, try them: GOD well knoweth their faith. And if ye know them to be true believers, send them not back to the infidels: they are not lawful for the unbelievers to have in marriage; neither are the unbelievers lawful for them. But give their unbelieving husbands what they shall have expended for their dowers.t Nor shall it be any crime in you if ye marry them, provided ye give them their dowries.u And retain not the patronage of the unbelieving women: but demand back that which ye have expended for the dowry of such of your wives as go over to the unbelievers; and let them demand back that which they have expended for the dowry of those who come over to you. This is the judgment of GOD, which he establisheth among you: and GOD is knowing and wise. If any of your wivesx escape from you to the unbelievers, and ye have your turn by the coming over of any of the un-
believers' wives to you;y give unto those believers whose wives shall have gone away, out of the dowries of the latter, so much as they shall have expended for the dowers of the former: and fear GOD, in whom ye believe. O prophet, when believing women come unto thee, and plight their faith unto thee,z that they will not associate anything with GOD, nor steal, nor commit fornication, nor kill their children,a nor come with a calumny which they have forged between their hands and their feet,b nor be disobedient to thee in that which shall be reasonable: then do thou plight thy faith unto them, and ask pardon for them of GOD; for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. O true believers, enter not into friendship with a people against whom GOD is incensed;c they despair of the life to come,d as the infidels despair of the resurrection of those who dwell in the graves.
ENTITLED, BATTLE-ARRAY; REVEALED AT MECCA.e
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHATEVER is in heaven and in earth celebrateth the praise of GOD; for he is mighty and wise. O true believers, why do ye say that which ye do not?f It is most odious in the sight of GOD, that ye say that which ye do not. Verily GOD loveth those who fight for his religion in battle-array, as though they were a well-compacted building. Remember when Moses said unto his people, O my people, why do ye injure me;g since ye know that I am the apostle of GOD
sent unto you? And when they had deviated from the truth, GOD made their hearts to deviate from the right way; for GOD directeth not wicked people. And when Jesus the Son of Mary said, O children of Israel, verily I am the apostle of GOD sent unto you, confirming the law which was delivered before me, and bringing good tidings of an apostle who shall come after me, and whose name shall be Ahmed.i And when he produced unto them evident miracles, they said, This is manifest sorcery. But who is more unjust than he who forgeth a lie against GOD, when he is invited unto Islam? And GOD directeth not the unjust people. They seek to extinguish GOD'S light with their mouths: but GOD will perfect his light, though the infidels be averse thereto. It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and the religion of truth, that he may exalt the same above every religion, although the idolaters be averse thereto. O true believers, shall I show you a merchandise which will deliver you from a painful torment hereafter? Believe in GOD and his apostle; and defend GOD'S true religion with your substance, and in your own persons. This will be better for you, if ye knew it. He will forgive you your sins, and will introduce you into gardens through which rivers flow, and agreeable habitations in gardens of perpetual abode. This will be great felicity. And ye shall obtain other things which ye desire, namely, assistance from GOD, and a speedy victory. And do thou bear good tidings to the true believers. O true believers, be ye assistants of GOD; as Jesus the son of Mary said to the apostles, Who will be my assistants with respect to GOD?k The apostles answered, We will be the assistants of GOD. So a part of the children of Israel believed, and a part believed not:l but we strengthened those who believed, above their enemy; wherefore they became victorious over them.
ENTITLED, THE ASSEMBLY; REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHATEVER is in heaven and earth praiseth GOD; the King, the Holy, the Mighty, the Wise. It is he who hath raised up amidst
the illiterate Arabians an apostle from among themselves,m to rehearse his signs unto them, and to purify them, and to teach them the scriptures and wisdom; whereas before they were certainly in a manifest error; and others of them have not yet attained unto them, by embracing the faith; though they also shall be converted in God's good time; for he is mighty and wise. This is the free grace of GOD: he bestoweth the same on whom he pleaseth: and GOD is endued with great beneficence. The likeness of those who were charged with the observance of the law, and then observed it not, is as the likeness of an ass laden with books.n How wretched is the likeness of the people who charge the signs of GOD with falsehood! and GOD directeth not the unjust people. Say, O ye who follow the Jewish religion, if ye say that ye are the friends of GOD above other men, wish for death,o if ye speak truth. But they will never wish for it, because of that which their hands have sent before them:p and GOD well knoweth the unjust. Say, Verily death, from which ye fly, will surely meet you: then shall ye be brought before him who knoweth as well what is concealed as what is discovered; and he will declare unto you that which ye have done. O true believers, when ye are called to prayer on the day of assembly,q hasten to the commemoration of GOD and leave merchandising. This will be better for you, if you knew it. And when prayer is ended, then disperse yourselves through the land as ye list, and seek gain of the liberality of GOD:r and remember GOD frequently, that ye may prosper. But when they see any merchandising, or sport, they flock thereto, and leave thee standing up in the pulpit.s Say, The reward which is with GOD is better than any sport or merchandise: and GOD is the best provider.
ENTITLED, THE HYPOCRITES; REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHEN the hypocrites come unto thee, they say, We bear witness that thou art indeed the apostle of GOD. And GOD knoweth that thou art indeed his apostle: but GOD beareth witness that the hypocrites are certainly liars. They have taken their oaths for a protection, and they turn others aside from the way of GOD: it is surely evil which they do. This is testified of them, because they believed, and afterwards became unbelievers: wherefore a seal is set on their hearts, and they shall not understand. When thou beholdest them, their persons please thee:t and if they speak, thou hearest their discourse with delight. They resemble pieces of timber set up against a wall.u They imagine every shout to be against them.x They are enemies: wherefore beware of them. GOD curse them: how are they turned aside from the truth! And when it is said unto them, Come, that the apostle of GOD may ask pardon for you; they turn away their heads, and thou seest them retire big with disdain. It shall be equal unto them, whether thou ask pardon for them, or do not ask pardon for them: GOD will by no means forgive them; for GOD directeth not the prevaricating people. These are the men who say to the inhabitants of Medina, Do not bestow anything on the refugees who are with the apostle of GOD, that they may be obliged to separate from him. Whereas unto GOD belong the stores of heaven and earth: but the hypocrites do not understand. They say, Verily, if we return to Medina, the worthier shall expel thence the meaner.y Whereas superior worth belongeth unto GOD and his apostle, and the true believers: but the hypocrites know it not. O true believers, let not your riches or your children divert you from the remembrance of GOD: for whosoever doth this, they will surely be losers. And give alms out of that which we have bestowed on you; before death come unto one of you, and he say, O LORD, wilt thou not grant me respite for a short term: that I may give alms, and become one of the righteous? For GOD will by no means grant further respite to a soul, when its determined time is come: and GOD is fully apprised of that which ye do.
ENTITLED, MUTUAL DECEIT; REVEALED AT MECCA.z
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHATEVER is in heaven and earth celebrateth the praises of GOD: his is the kingdom, and unto him is the praise due; for he is almighty. It is he who hath created you; and one of you is predestined to be an unbeliever, and another of you is predestined to be a believer: and GOD beholdeth that which ye do. He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth; and he hath fashioned you, and given you beautiful forms: and unto him must ye all go. He knoweth whatever is in heaven and earth: and he knoweth that which ye conceal, and that which ye discover; for GOD knoweth the innermost part of men's breasts. Have ye not been acquainted with the story of those who disbelieved heretofore, and tasted the evil consequence of their behavior? And for them is prepared in the life to come a tormenting punishment. This shall they suffer, because their apostles came unto them with evident proofs of their mission, and they said, Shall men direct us? Wherefore they believed not, and turned their backs. But GOD standeth in need of no person: for GOD is self-sufficient, and worthy to be praised. The unbelievers imagine that they shall not be raised again. Say, Yea, by my LORD, ye shall surely be raised again; then shall ye be told that which ye have wrought; and this is easy with GOD. Wherefore believe in GOD and his apostle, and the light which we have sent down: for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. On a certain day he shall assemble you, at the day of the general assembly: that will be the day of mutual deceit.a And whoso shall believe in GOD, and shall do that which is right, from him will he expiate his evil deeds, and he will lead him into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever. This will be great felicity. But they who shall not believe, and shall accuse our signs of falsehood, those shall be the inhabitants of hell fire, wherein they shall remain forever; and a wretched journey shall it be thither! No misfortune happeneth but by the permission of GOD; and whoso believeth in GOD, he will direct his heart: and GOD knoweth all things. Wherefore obey GOD, and obey the apostle: but if ye turn back, verily the duty incumbent on our apostle is only public preaching. GOD! there is no GOD but he: wherefore in GOD let the faithful put their trust. O true believers, verily of your wives and your children ye have an enemy:b wherefore beware of them. But if ye pass over their offences, and pardon, and forgive them;c GOD is likewise inclined to forgive, and
merciful. Your wealth and your children are only a temptation; but with GOD is a great reward. Wherefore fear GOD, as much as ye are able; and hear, and obey: and give alms, for the good of your souls; for whoso is preserved from the covetousness of his own soul, they shall prosper. If ye lend unto GOD an acceptable loan, he will double the same unto you, and will forgive you: for GOD is grateful, and long-suffering, knowing both what is hidden, and what is divulged; the Mighty, the Wise.
ENTITLED, DIVORCE; REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O PROPHET, when ye divorce women, put them away at their appointed term;d and compute the term exactly: and fear GOD, your LORD. Oblige them not to go out of their apartments, neither let them go out, until the term be expired, unless they be guilty of manifest uncleanness. These are the statutes of GOD: and whoever transgresseth the statutes of GOD assuredly injureth his own soul. Thou knowest not whether GOD will bring something new to pass, which may reconcile them after this. And when they shall have fulfilled their term, either retain them with kindness, or part from them honourably: and take witnesses from among you, men of integrity; and give your testimony as in the presence of GOD. This admonition is given unto him who believeth in GOD and the last day: and whoso feareth GOD, unto him will he grant a happy issue out of all his afflictions, and he will bestow on him an ample provision from whence he expecteth it not: and whoso trusteth in GOD, he will be his sufficient support; for GOD will surely attain his purpose. Now hath GOD appointed unto everything a determined period. As to such of your wives as shall despair having their courses, by reason of their age; if ye be in doubt thereof, let their term be three months: and let the same be the term of those who have not yet had their courses. But as to those who are pregnant, their term shall be, until they be delivered of their burden.e And whoso feareth GOD, unto him will he make his command easy. This is the command of GOD, which he hath sent down unto you. And whoso feareth GOD, he will expiate his evil deeds from him, and will increase his reward. Suffer the women whom ye divorce to dwell in some part of the houses wherein ye dwell; according to the room and conveniences of the habitations which ye possess: and make them not uneasy, that
ye may reduce them to straits. And if they be with child, expend on them what shall be needful, until they be delivered of their burden. And if they suckle their children for you, give them their hire;f and consult among yourselves, according to what shall be just and reasonable. And if ye be put to a difficulty herein, and another woman shall suckle the child for him, let him who hath plenty expend proportionably in the maintenance of the mother and the nurse, out of his plenty: and let him whose income is scanty expend in proportion out of that which GOD hath given him. GOD obligeth no man to more than he hath given him ability to perform: GOD will cause ease to succeed hardship. How many cities have turned aside from the command of the LORD and his apostles! Wherefore we brought them to a severe account; and we chastised them with a grievous chastisement: and they tasted the evil consequence of their business; and the end of their business was perdition. GOD hath prepared for them a severe punishment: wherefore fear GOD, O ye who are endued with understanding. True believers, now hath GOD sent down unto you an admonition, an apostle who may rehearse unto you the perspicuous signs of GOD; that he may bring forth those who believe and do good works, from darkness into light. And whoso believeth in GOD, and doth that which is right, him will he lead into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever: now hath GOD made an excellent provision for him. It is GOD who hath created seven heavens, and as many different stories of the earth: the divine command descendeth between them;g that ye may know that GOD is omnipotent, and that GOD comprehendeth all things by his knowledge.
ENTITLED, PROHIBITION; REVEALED AT MEDINA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O PROPHET, why holdest thou that to be prohibited which GOD hath allowed thee, seeking to please thy wives;h since GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful? GOD hath allowed you the dissolu-
tion of your oaths:i and GOD is your master; and he is knowing and wise. When the prophet intrusted as a secret unto one of his wives a certain accident; and when she disclosed the same, and GOD made it known unto him; he acquainted her with part of what she had done, and forbore to upbraid her with the other part thereof. And when he had acquainted her therewith, she said, Who hath discovered this unto thee? He answered, The knowing, the sagacious God hath discovered it unto me.k If ye both be turned unto GOD (for your hearts have swerved) it is well: but if ye join against him, verily GOD is his patron;
and Gabriel, and the good man among the faithful, and the angels also are his assistants.l If he divorce you, his LORD can easily give him in exchange other wives better than you, women resigned unto God, true believers, devout, penitent, obedient, given to fasting, both such as have been known by other men, and virgins. O true believers, save your souls, and those of your families, from the fire whose fuel is men and stones, over which are set angels fierce and terrible;m who disobey not GOD in what he hath commanded them, but perform what they are commanded. O unbelievers, excuse not yourselves this day; ye shall surely be rewarded for what ye have done.n O true believers, turn unto GOD with a sincere repentance: peradventure your LORD will do away from you your evil deeds, and will admit you into gardens, through which rivers flow; on the day whereon GOD will not put to shame the prophet, or those who believe with him: their light shall run before them, and on their right hands,o and they shall say, LORD, make our light perfect, and forgive us: for thou art almighty. O prophet, attack the infidels with arms, and the hypocrites with arguments; and treat them with severity: their abode shall be hell, and an ill journey shall it be thither. GOD propoundeth as a similitude unto the unbelievers, the wife of Noah, and the wife of Lot: they were under two of our righteous servants, and they deceived them both;p wherefore their husbands were of no advantage unto them at all, in the sight of GOD:q and it shall be said unto them, at the last day, Enter ye into hell fire, with those who enter therein. GOD also propoundeth as a similitude unto those who believe, the wife of Pharaoh;r when she said, LORD, build me a house with thee in paradise; and deliver me from Pharaoh and his doings, and deliver me from the unjust people: and Mary the daughter of Imran; who preserved her chastity, and into whose womb we breathed of our spirit,s and who believed in the words of her LORD, and his scriptures, and was a devout and obedient person.t
ENTITLED, THE KINGDOM;u REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
(XXIX.) BLESSED be he in whose hand is the kingdom, for he is almighty! Who hath created death and life, that he might prove you, which of you is most righteous in his actions: and he is mighty, and ready to forgive. Who hath created seven heavens, one above another: thou canst not see in a creature of the most Merciful any unfitness or disproportion. Lift up thine eyes again to heaven, and look whether thou seest any flaw: then take two other views; and thy sight shall return unto thee dull and fatigued. Moreover we have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, and have appointed them to be darted at the devils,x for whom we have prepared the torment of burning fire: and for those who believe not in their LORD is also prepared the torment of hell; and ill journey shall it be thither. When they shall be thrown thereinto, they shall hear it bray like an ass;y and it shall boil, and almost burst for fury. So often as a company of them shall be thrown therein, the keepers thereof shall ask them, saying, Did not a warner come unto you? They shall answer, Yea, a warner came unto us: but we accused him of imposture, and said, GOD hath not revealed anything; ye are in no other than a great error: and they shall say, If we had hearkened, or had rightly considered, we should not have been among the inhabitants of burning fire: and they shall confess their sins; but far be the inhabitants of burning fire from obtaining mercy! Verily they who fear their LORD in secret shall receive pardon and a great reward. Either conceal your discourse, or make it public; he knoweth the innermost part of your breasts: shall not he know all things who hath created them; since he is the sagacious, the knowing? It is he who hath levelled the earth for you: therefore walk through the regions thereof, and eat of his provision; unto him shall be the resurrection. Are ye secure that he who dwelleth in heaven will not cause the earth to swallow you up? and behold, it shall shake. Or are you secure that he who dwelleth in heaven will not send against you an impetuous whirlwind, driving the sands to overwhelm you? then shall ye know how important my warning was. Those also who were before you disbelieved; and how grievous was my displeasure! Do they not behold the birds above them, extending and drawing back their wings? None sustaineth them, except the Merciful; for he regardeth all things. Or who is he that will be as an army unto you, to defend you against the Merciful? Verily the unbelievers are in no other than a mistake. Or who is he that will give
you food, if he withholdeth his provision? yet they persist in perverseness, and flying from the truth. Is he, therefore, who goeth grovelling upon his face, better directed than he who walketh upright in a straight way?z Say, It is he who hath given you being, and endued you with hearing, and sight, and understanding; yet how little gratitude have ye! Say, It is he who hath sown you in the earth, and unto him shall ye be gathered together. They say, When shall this menace be put in execution, if ye speak truth? Answer, The knowledge of this matter is with GOD alone: for I am only a public warner. But when they shall see the same nigh at hand, the countenance of the infidels shall grow sad: and it shall be said unto them, This is what ye have been demanding. Say, What think ye? Whether GOD destroy me and those who are with me, or have mercy on us; who will protect the unbelievers from a painful punishment? Say, He is the Merciful; in him do we believe, and in him do we put our trust. Ye shall hereafter know who is in a manifest error. Say, What think ye? If your water be in the morning swallowed up by the earth, who will give you clear and running water?
ENTITLED, THE PEN; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
N.a BY the pen, and what they write,b thou, O Mohammed, through the grace of thy LORD, art not distracted. Verily there is prepared for thee an everlasting reward: for thou art of a noble disposition.c Thou shalt see, and the infidels shall see, which of you are bereaved of your senses. Verily thy LORD well knoweth him who wandereth from his path; and he well knoweth those who are rightly directed: wherefore obey not those who charge thee with imposture. They desire that thou shouldest be easy with them, and they will be easy with thee.d
But obey not any who is a common swearer, a despicable fellow, a defamer, going about with slander, who forbiddeth that which is good, who is also a transgressor, a wicked person, cruel, and besides this, of spurious birth:e although he be possessed of wealth and many children: when our signs are rehearsed unto him, he saith, They are fables of the ancients. We will stigmatize him on the nose.f Verily we have tried the Meccans,g as we formerly tried the owners of the garden;h when they swore that they would gather the fruit thereofi in the morning, and added not the exception, if it please God: wherefore a surrounding destruction from thy LORD encompassed it, while they slept; and in the morning it became like a garden whose fruits had been gathered.k And they called the one to the other as they rose in the morning, saying, Go out early to your plantation, if ye intend to gather the fruit thereof: so they went on, whispering to one another, No poor man shall enter the garden upon you, this day. And they went forth early, with a determined purpose. And when they saw the garden blasted and destroyed, they said, We have certainly mistaken our way: but when they found it to be their own garden, they cried, Verily we are not permittedl to reap the fruit thereof. The worthier of them said, Did I not say unto you, Will ye not give praise unto GOD? They answered, Praise be unto our LORD! Verily we have been unjust doers. And they began to blame one another,m and they said, Woe be unto us! verily we have been transgressors: peradventure our LORD will give us in exchange a better garden than this: and we earnestly beseech our LORD to pardon us. Thus is the chastisement of this life: but the chastisement of the next shall be more grievous: if they had known it, they would have taken heed. Verily for the pious are prepared, with their LORD, gardens of delight. Shall we deal with the Moslems, as with the wicked?n What
aileth you that ye judge thus? Have ye a book from heaven, wherein ye read that ye are therein promised that which ye shall choose? Or have ye received oaths which shall be binding upon us to the day of resurrection, that ye shall enjoy what ye imagine? Ask them, which of them will be the voucher of this. Or have they companionso who will vouch for them? Let them produce their companions, therefore, if they speak truth. On a certain day the leg shall be made bare;p and they shall be called upon to worship, but they shall not be able.q Their looks shall be cast down: ignominy shall attend them; for that they were invited to the worship of God, while they were in safety, but would not hear. Let me alone, therefore, with him who accuseth this new revelation of imposture. We will lead them gradually to destruction, by ways which they know not:r and I will bear with them for a long time; for my stratagem is effectual. Dost thou ask them any reward for thy preaching? But they are laden with debts. Are the secrets of futurity with them; and do they transcribe the same from the table of God's decrees?s Wherefore patiently wait the judgment of thy LORD: and be not like him who was swallowed by the fish;t when he cried unto God, being inwardly vexed. Had not grace from his LORD reached him, he had surely been cast forth on the naked shore, covered with shame: but his LORD chose him, and made him one of the righteous. It wanteth little but that the unbelievers strike thee down with their malicious looks, when they hear the admonition of the Koran; and they say, He is certainly distracted: but it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures.
ENTITLED, THE INFALLIBLE; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE infallible!u What is the infallible? And what shall cause thee to understand what the infallible is? The tribes of Thamud and
Ad denied as a falsehood the day which shall strikex men's hearts with terror. But Thamud were destroyed by a terrible noise: and Ad were destroyed by a roaring and furious wind; which God caused to assail them for seven nights and eight days successively: thou mightest have seen people during the same, lying prostrate, as though they had been the roots of hollow palm-trees;y and couldest thou have seen any of them remaining? Pharaoh also, and those who were before him, and the cities which were overthrown,z were guilty of sin: and they severally were disobedient to the apostle of their LORD; wherefore he chastised them with an abundant chastisement. When the water of the deluge arose, we carried you in the ark which swam thereon; that we might make the same a memorial unto you, and the retaining ear might retain it. And when one blast shall sound the trumpet, and the earth shall be moved from its place, and the mountains also, and shall be dashed in pieces at one stroke: on that day the inevitable hour of judgment shall suddenly come; and the heavens shall cleave in sunder, and shall fall in pieces, on that day: and the angels shall be on the sides thereof;a and eight shall bear the throne of thy LORD above them, on that day.b On that day ye shall be presented before the judgment-seat of God; and none of your secret actions shall be hidden. And he who shall have his book delivered into his right hand shall say, Take ye, read this my book; verily I thought that I should be brought to this my account: he shall lead a pleasing life, in a lofty garden, the fruits whereof shall be near to gather. Eat and drink with easy digestion; because of the good works which ye sent before you, in the days which are past. But he who shall have his book delivered into his left hand shall say, Oh that I had not received this book; and that I had not known what this my account was! Oh that death had made an end of me! My riches have not profited me; and my power is passed from me. And God shall say to the keepers of hell, Take him, and bind him, and cast him into hell to be burned: then put him into a chain of the length of seventy cubits:c because he believed not in the great GOD; and was not solicitous to feed the poor: wherefore this day he shall have no friend here; nor any food, but the filthy corruption flowing from the bodies of the damned, which none shall eat but the sinners. I sweard by that which ye see, and that which ye see not, that this is the discourse of an honourable apostle and not the discourse of a poet: how little do ye believe! Neither is it the discourse of a soothsayer: how little are ye admonished! It is a revelation from the LORD of all creatures. If Mohammed had forged any part of these discourses concerning us, verily we had taken him by the right hand, and had cut in sunder the vein of his heart; neither
would we have withheld any of you from chastising him. And verily this book is an admonition unto the pious; and we well know that there are some of you who charge the same with imposture: but it shall surely be an occasion of grievous sighing unto the infidels; for it is the truth of a certainty. Wherefore praise the name of thy LORD, the great God.
ENTITLED, THE STEPS; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
ONE demanded and called for vengeance to fall on the unbelievers:e there shall be none to avert the same from being inflicted by GOD, the possessor of the steps:f by which the angels ascend unto him, and the spirit Gabriel also, in a day whose space is fifty thousand years:g wherefore bear the insults of the Meccans with becoming patience; for they see their punishment afar off, but we see it nigh at hand. On a certain day the heaven shall become like molten brass, and the mountains like wool of various colours, scattered abroad by the wind: and a friend shall not ask a friend concerning his condition, although they see one another. The wicked shall wish to redeem himself from the punishment of that day, by giving up his children, and his wife, and his brother, and his kindred who showed kindness unto him, and all who are in the earth; and that this might deliver him: by no means: for hell fire, dragging them by their scalps, shall call him who shall have turned his back, and fled from the faith, and shall have amassed riches, and covetously hoarded them. Verily man is created extremely impatient:h when evil toucheth him, he is full of complaint;
but when good befalleth him, he becometh niggardly: except those who are devoutly given, and who persevere in their prayers; and those of whose substance a due and certain portion is ready to be given unto him who asketh, and him who is forbidden by shame to ask: and those who sincerely believe the day of judgment, and who dread the punishment of their LORD: (for there is none secure from the punishment of their LORD:) and who abstain from the carnal knowledge of women other than their wives, or the slaves which their right hands possess: (for as to them they shall be blameless; but whoever coveteth any woman besides these, they are transgressors:) and those who faithfully keep what they are intrusted with, and their covenant; and who are upright in their testimonies, and who carefully observe the requisite rites in their prayers: these shall dwell amidst gardens, highly honoured. What aileth the unbelievers, that they run before thee in companies, on the right hand and on the left? Doth every man of them wish to enter into a garden of delight? By no means: verily we have created them of that which they know.i I sweark by the LORD of the east and of the west,l that we are able to destroy them, and to substitute better than them in their room; neither are we to be prevented, if we shall please so to do. Wherefore suffer them to wade in vain disputes, and to amuse themselves with sport: until they meet their day with which they have been threatened; the day whereon they shall come forth hastily from their graves, as though they were troops hastening to their standard: their looks shall be downcast; ignominy shall attend them. This is the day with which they have been threatened.
ENTITLED, NOAH; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
VERILY we sent Noah unto his people, saying, Warn thy people, before a grievous punishment overtake them. Noah said, O my people, verily I am a public warner unto you; wherefore serve GOD, and fear him, and obey me; he will forgive you part of your sins;m and will grant you respite until a determined time: for GOD'S determined time, when it cometh, shall not be deferred; if ye were men of under-
standing, ye would know this. He said, LORD, verily I have called my people night and day; but my calling only increaseth their aversion: and whensoever I call them to the true faith, that thou mayest forgive them, they put their fingers in their ears, and cover themselves with their garments, and persist in their infidelity, and proudly disdain my counsel. Moreover I invited them openly, and I spake to them again in public; and I also secretly admonished them in private; and I said, Beg pardon of your LORD; for he is inclined to forgive: and he will cause the heaven to pour down rain plentifully upon you, and will give you increase of wealth and of children;n and he will provide you gardens, and furnish you with rivers. What aileth you, that ye hope not for benevolence in GOD;o since he hath created you variously?p Do ye not see how GOD hath created the seven heavens, one above another; and hath placed the moon therein for a light, and hath appointed the sun for a taper? GOD hath also produced and caused you to spring forth from the earth: hereafter he will cause you to return into the same; and he will again take you thence, by bringing you forth from your graves. And GOD hath spread the earth as a carpet for you, that ye may walk therein through spacious paths. Noah said, LORD, verily they are disobedient unto me; and they follow him whose riches and children do no other than increase his perdition. And they devised a dangerous plot against Noah: and the chief men said to the others, Ye shall by no means leave your gods; neither shall ye forsake Wadd, nor Sowa, nor Yaghuth, and Yauk, and Nesr.q And they seduced many; (for thou shalt only increase error in the wicked:) because of their sins they were drowned, and cast into the fire of hell; and they found none to protect them against GOD. And Noah said, LORD, leave not any families of the unbelievers on the earth: for if thou leave them, they will seduce thy servants, and will beget none but a wicked and unbelieving offspring.r LORD, forgive me and my parents,s and every one who shall enter my house,t being a true believer, and the true believers of both sexes; and add unto the unjust doers nothing but destruction.
ENTITLED, THE GENII; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
SAY, It hath been revealed unto me that a company of genii attentively heard me reading the Koran,u and said, Verily we have heard an admirable discourse; which directeth unto the right institution; wherefore we believe therein, and we will by no means associate any other with our LORD. He (may the majesty of our LORD be exalted!) hath taken no wife, nor hath he begotten any issue. Yet the foolish among usx hath spoken that which is extremely false of GOD; but we verily thought that neither man nor genius would by any means have uttered a lie concerning GOD. And there are certain men who fly for refuge unto certain of the genii;y but they increase their folly and transgression: and they also thought, as ye thought,z that GOD would not raise any one to life. And we formerly attempted to pry into what was transacting in heaven; but we found the same filled with a strong guard of angels, and with flaming darts: and we sat on some of the seats thereof to hear the discourse of its inhabitants; but whoever listeneth now, findeth a flame laid in ambush for him, to guard the celestial confines.a And we know not whether evil be hereby intended against those who are in the earth, or whether their LORD intendeth to direct them aright. There are some among us who are upright; and there are some among us who are otherwise: we are of different ways. And we verily thought that we could by no means frustrate GOD in the earth, neither could we escape him by flight: wherefore, when we had heard the direction contained in the Koran, we believed therein. And whoever believeth in his LORD, need not fear any diminution of his reward, nor any injustice. There are some Moslems among us; and there are others of us who swerve from righteousness.b And whoso embraceth Islam, they earnestly seek true direction: but those who swerve from righteousness shall be fuel for hell. If they tread in the way of truth, we will surely water them with abundant rain:c that we may prove them thereby: but whoso turneth aside from the admonition of his LORD, him will he send into a severe torment. Verily the places of worship are set apart unto GOD: wherefore invoke not any other therein together with GOD. When the servant of GODd stood up
to invoke him, it wanted little but that the genii had pressed on him in crowds, to hear him rehearse the Koran. Say, Verily I call upon my LORD only, and I associate no other god with him. Say, Verily I am not able, of myself, to procure you either hurt, or a right institution. Say, Verily none can protect me against GOD; neither shall I find any refuge besides him. I can do no more than publish what hath been revealed unto me from GOD, and his messages. And whosoever shall be disobedient unto GOD, and his apostle, for him is the fire of hell prepared; they shall remain therein forever. Until they see the vengeance with which they are threatened, they will not cease their opposition: but then shall they know who were the weaker in a protector, and the fewer in number. Say, I know not whether the punishment with which ye are threatened be nigh, or whether my LORD will appoint for it a distant term. He knoweth the secrets of futurity; and he doth not communicate his secrets unto any, except an apostle in whom he is well pleased: and he causeth a guard of angels to march before him, and behind him; that he may know that they have executed the commissions of their LORD;e he comprehendeth whatever is with them; and counteth all things by number.
ENTITLED, THE WRAPPED UP; REVEALED AT MECCA.f
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O THOU wrapped up,g arise to prayer, and continue therein during the night, except a small part;h that is to say, during one half thereof: or do thou lessen the same a little or add thereto.i And
repeat the Koran with a distinct and sonorous voice: for we will lay on thee a weighty word.k Verily the rising by nightl is more efficacious for steadfast continuance in devotion, and more conducive to decent pronunciation:m for in the day-time thou hast long employment. And commemorate the name of thy LORD; and separate thyself unto him, renouncing worldly vanities. He is the LORD of the east, and of the west; there is no GOD but he. Wherefore take him for thy patron: and patiently suffer the contumelies which the infidels utter against thee; and depart from them with a decent departure. And let me alone with those who charge the Koran with falsehood, who enjoy the blessings of this life; and bear with them for a while: verily with us are heavy fetters, and a burning fire, and food ready to choke him who swalloweth it,n and painful torment. On a certain day the earth shall be shaken, and the mountains also, and the mountains shall become a heap of sand poured forth. Verily we have sent unto you an apostle, to bear witness against you; as we sent an apostle unto Pharaoh; but Pharaoh was disobedient unto the apostle; wherefore we chastised him with a heavy chastisement. How, therefore, will ye escape, if ye believe not, the day which shall make children become gray-headed through terror? The heaven shall be rent in sunder thereby: the promise thereof shall surely be performed. Verily this is an admonition; and whoever is willing to be admonished will take the way unto his LORD. Thy LORD knoweth that thou continuest in prayer and meditation sometimes near two third parts of the night, and sometimes one half thereof, and at other times one third part thereof; and a part of thy companions, who are with thee, do the same. But GOD measureth the night and the day; he knoweth that ye cannot exactly compute the same: wherefore he turneth favourably unto you.o Read, therefore, so much of the Koran as may be easy unto you. He knoweth that there will be some infirm among you; and others travel through the earth, that they may obtain a competency of the bounty of GOD;
and others fight in the defence of GOD'S faith. Read, therefore, so much of the same as may be easy. And observe the stated times of prayer, and pay the legal alms; and lend unto GOD an acceptable loan; for whatever good ye send before your souls, ye shall find the same with GOD. This will be better, and will merit a greater reward.p And ask GOD forgiveness; for GOD is ready to forgive, and merciful.
ENTITLED, THE COVERED; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
O THOU covered,q arise and preach,r and magnify thy LORD. And cleanse thy garments: and fly every abomination:s and be not liberal in hopes to receive more in return: and patiently wait for thy LORD. When the trumpet shall sound, verily that day shall be a day of distress and uneasiness unto the unbelievers. Let me alone with him whom I have created,t on whom I have bestowed abundant riches, and children dwelling in his presence,u and for whom I have disposed affairs in a smooth and easy manner,x and who desireth that I will yet add other blessings unto him. By no means: because he is an adversary to our signs.y I will afflict him with grievous calamities:z for he
hath devised and prepared contumelious expressions to ridicule the Koran. May he be cursed: how maliciously hath he prepared the same! And again, may he be cursed: how maliciously hath he prepared the same! Then he looked, and frowned, and put on an austere countenance: then he turned back, and was elated with pride; and he said, This is no other than a piece of magic, borrowed from others: these are only the words of a man. I will cast him to be burned in hell. And what shall make thee to understand what hell is? It leaveth not anything unconsumed, neither doth it suffer anything to escape: it scorcheth men's flesh: over the same are nineteen angels appointed. We have appointed none but angels to preside over hell fire:a and we have expressed the number of them only for an occasion of discord to the unbelievers;b that they to whom the scriptures have been given may be certain of the veracity of this book,c and the true believers may increase in faith; and that those to whom the scriptures have been given, and the true believers, may not doubt hereafter; and that those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, and the unbelievers, may say, What mystery doth GOD intend by this number? Thus doth GOD cause to err whom he pleaseth; and he directeth whom he pleaseth. None knoweth the armies of thy LORD,d besides him; and thise is no other than a memento unto mankind. Assuredly. By the moon, and the night when it retreateth, and the morning when it reddeneth, I swear that this is one of the most terrible calamities, giving warning unto men, as well as unto him among you who desireth to go forward, as unto him who chooseth to remain behind. Every soul is given in pledge for that which it shall have wrought:f except the companions of the right hand;g who shall dwell in gardens, and shall ask one another questions concerning the wicked, and shall also ask the wicked themselves, saying, What hath brought you into hell? They shall answer, We were not of those who were constant at prayer, neither did we feed the poor; and we waded in vain disputes with the fallacious reasoners; and we denied the day of judgment, until deathh overtook us: and the intercession of the interceders shall not avail them. What aileth them, therefore, that they turn aside from the admonition of the Koran, as though they were timorous asses flying from a lion? But every man among them desireth that he may have expanded scrolls delivered to him from God.i By no means. They fear not the life to come. By no means: verily this is a sufficient warning. Whoso is
willing to be warned, him shall it warn: but they shall not be warned, unless GOD shall please. He is worthy to be feared; and he is inclined to forgiveness.
ENTITLED, THE RESURRECTION; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
VERILY I sweark by the day of resurrection; and I swear by the soul which accuseth itself:l doth man think that we will not gather his bones together? Yea: we are able to put together the smallest bones of his fingers. But man chooseth to be wicked, for the time which is before him. He asketh, When will the day of resurrection be? But when the sight shall be dazzled, and the moon shall be eclipsed, and the sun and the moon shall be in conjunction;m on that day man shall say, Where is a place of refuge? By no means: there shall be no place to fly unto. With thy LORD shall be the sure mansion of rest on that day: on that day shall a man be told that which he hath done first and last.n Yea; a man shall be an evidence against himself: and though he offer his excuses, they shall not be received. Move not thy tongue, O Mohammed, in repeating the revelations brought thee by Gabriel, before he shall have finished the same, that thou mayest quickly commit them to memory: for the collecting the Koran in thy mind, and the teaching thee the true reading thereof, are incumbent on us. But when we shall have read the same unto thee by the tongue of the angel, do thou follow the reading thereof: and afterwards it shall be our part to explain it unto thee. By no means shalt thou be thus hasty for the future. But ye love that which hasteneth away,o and neglect the life to come. Some countenances on that day shall be bright, looking towards their LORD: and some countenances, on that day, shall be dismal: they shall think that a crushing calamity shall be brought upon them. Assuredly. When a man's soul shall come up to his throat, in his last agony, and the standers-by shall say, Who bringeth a charm to recover him? and shall think it to be his departure out of
this world; and one leg shall be joined with the other leg:p on that day unto thy LORD shall he be driven. For he believed not,q neither did he pray; but he accused God's apostle of imposture, and turned back from obeying him: then he departed unto his family, walking with a haughty mien. Wherefore, woe be unto thee; woe! And again, woe be unto thee; woe! Doth man think that he shall be left at full liberty, without control? Was he not a drop of seed, which was emitted? Afterwards he became a little coagulated blood, and God formed him, and fashioned him with just proportion; and made of him two sexes, the male and the female. Is not he who hath done this able to quicken the dead?
ENTITLED, MAN; REVEALED AT MECCA.r
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
DID there not pass over man a long space of time; during which he was a thing not worthy of remembrance?s Verily we have created man of the mingled seed of both sexes, that we might prove him: and we have made him to hear and to see.t We have surely directed him in the way; whether he be grateful, or ungrateful. Verily we have prepared for the unbelievers chains, and collars, and burning fire. But the just shall drink of a cup of wine, mixed with the water of Cafur,u a fountain whereof the servants of GOD shall drink; they shall convey the same by channels whithersoever they please. These fulfil their vow, and dread the day, the evil whereof will disperse itself far abroad; and give food unto the poor, and the orphan, and the bondman, for his sake, saying, We feed you for GOD'S sake only: we desire no recompense from you, nor any thanks: verily we dread, from our LORD, a dismal and calamitous day.x Wherefore GOD shall deliver them
from the evil of that day, and shall cast on them brightness of countenance, and joy; and shall reward them, for their patient persevering, with a garden and silk garments: therein shall they repose themselves on couches; they shall see therein neither sun nor moon;y and the shades thereof shall be near spreading above them, and the fruits thereof shall hang low, so as to be easily gathered. And their attendants shall go round about unto them, with vessels of silver, and goblets: the bottles shall be bottles of silver shining like glass; they shall determine the measure thereof by their wish. And therein shall they be given to drink of a cup of wine, mixed with the water of Zenjebil,z a fountain in paradise named Salsabil:a and youths, which shall continue forever in their bloom, shall go round to attend them; when thou seest them, thou shalt think them to be scattered pearls: and when thou lookest, there shalt thou behold delights, and a great kingdom. Upon them shall be garments of fine green silk, and of brocades, and they shall be adorned with bracelets of silver: and their LORD shall give them to drink of a most pure liquor; and shall say unto them, Verily this is your reward: and your endeavor is gratefully accepted. Verily we have sent down unto thee the Koran, by a gradual revelation. Wherefore patiently wait the judgment of thy LORD; and obey not any wicked person or unbeliever among them. And commemorate the name of thy LORD, in the morning, and in the evening: and during some part of the night worship him, and praise him a long part of the night. Verily these men love the transitory life, and leave behind them the heavy day of judgment. We have created them, and have strengthened their joints; and when we please, we will substitute others like unto them, in their stead. Verily this is an admonition: and whoso willeth, taketh the way unto his LORD: but ye shall not will, unless GOD willeth; for GOD is knowing and wise. He leadeth whom he pleaseth into his mercy; but for the unjust hath he prepared a grievous punishment.
ENTITLED, THOSE WHICH ARE SENT; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the angels which are sent by God, following one another in a continual series; and those which move swiftly, with a rapid motion; and by those which disperse his commands, by divulging them through the earth; and by those which separate truth from falsehood, by distinguishing the same; and by those which communicate the divine admonitions, to excuse, or to threaten:b verily that which ye are promisedc is inevitable. When the stars, therefore, shall be put out, and when the heaven shall be cloven in sunder, and when the mountains shall be winnowed, and when the apostles shall have a time assigned to them to appear and bear testimony against their respective people; to what a day shall that appointment be deferred! to the day of separation: and what shall cause thee to understand what the day of separation is? On that day, woe be unto them who accused the prophets of imposture! Have we not destroyed the obstinate unbelievers of old? We will also cause those of the latter times to follow them. Thus do we deal with the wicked. Woe be, on that day, unto them who accused the prophets of imposture! Have we not created you of a contemptible drop of seed, which we placed in a sure repository, until the fixed term of delivery? And we were able to do this: for we are most powerful. On that day, woe be unto those who accused the prophets of imposture: Have we not made the earth to contain the living and the dead, and placed therein stable and lofty mountains, and given you fresh water to drink? Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! It shall be said unto them, Go ye to the punishment which ye denied as a falsehood: go ye into the shadow of the smoke of hell, which shall ascend in three columns, and shall not shade you from the heat, neither shall it be of service against the flame; but it shall cast forth sparks as big as towers, resembling yellow camels in colour.d Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! This shall be a day whereon they shall not speak to any purpose; neither shall they be permitted to excuse themselves. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! This shall be the day of separation: we will assemble both you and your predecessors. Wherefore, if ye have any cunning stratagem, employ stratagems against me. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets
of imposture! But the pious shall dwell amidst shades and fountains, and fruits of the kinds which they shall desire: and it shall be said unto them, Eat and drink with easy digestion, in recompense for that which ye have wrought; for thus do we reward the righteous doers. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! Eat, O unbelievers, and enjoy the pleasures of this life, for a little while: verily ye are wicked men. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! And when it is said unto them, Bow down; they do not bow down. Woe be, on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture! In what new revelation will they believe, after this.
ENTITLED, THE NEWS; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
(XXX.) CONCERNING what do the unbelievers ask questions of one another? Concerning the great news of the resurrection, about which they disagree. Assuredly they shall hereafter know the truth thereof. Again, Assuredly they shall hereafter know the truth thereof. Have we not made the earth for a bed, and the mountains for stakes to fix the same?e And have we not created you of two sexes; and appointed your sleep for rest; and made the night a garment to cover you; and destined the day to the gaining your livelihood; and built over you seven solid heavens; and placed therein a burning lamp? And do we not send down from the clouds pressing forth rain, water pouring down in abundance, that we may thereby produce corn, and herbs, and gardens planted thick with trees? Verily the day of separation is a fixed period: the day whereon the trumpet shall sound, and ye shall come in troops to judgment; and the heaven shall be opened, and shall be full of gates for the angels to pass through; and the mountains shall pass away, and become as a vapor; verily hell shall be a place of ambush, a receptacle for the transgressors, who shall remain therein for ages: they shall not taste any refreshment therein, or any drink, except boiling water, and filthy corruption: a fit recompense for their deeds! For they hope that they should not be brought to an account, and they disbelieved our signs, accusing them of falsehood. But everything have we computed, and written down. Taste, therefore: we will not add unto you any other than torment.f But for the pious is prepared a place of bliss: gardens planted with trees, and vineyards, and damsels with swelling breasts, of equal age with themselves, and a full cup. They shall hear no vain discourse there, nor any falsehood. This shall be their recompense from thy LORD; a gift fully
sufficient: from the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them; the Merciful. The inhabitants of heaven or of earth shall not dare to demand audience of him: the day whereon the spirit Gabriel and the other angels shall stand in order, they shall not speak in behalf of themselves or others, except he only to whom the Merciful shall grant permission, and who shall say that which is right. This is the infallible day. Whoso, therefore, willeth, let him return unto his LORD. Verily we threaten you with a punishment nigh at hand: the day whereon a man shall behold the good or evil deeds which his hands have sent before him; and the unbeliever shall say, Would to GOD I were dust!
ENTITLED, THOSE WHO TEAR FORTH; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the angels who tear forth the souls of some with violence; and by those who draw forth the souls of others with gentleness;g by those who glide swimmingly through the air with the commands of God; and those who precede and usher the righteous to paradise; and those who subordinately govern the affairs of this world: on a certain day, the disturbing blast of the trumpet shall disturb the universe; and the subsequent blast shall follow it. On that day men's hearts shall tremble: their looks shall be cast down. The infidels say, Shall we surely be made to return whence we came?h After we shall have become rotten bones, shall we be again raised to life? They say, This then will be a return to loss. Verily it will be but one sounding of the trumpet,i and, behold, they shall appear alive on the face of the earth.k Hath not the story of Moses reached thee? When his LORD called unto him in the holy valley Towa,l saying, Go unto Pharaoh; for he is insolently wicked: and say, Hast thou a desire to become just and holy; and I will direct thee unto thy LORD, that thou mayest fear to transgress. And he showed him the very great sign of the rod turned into a serpent: but he charged Moses with imposture, and rebelled against God. Then he turned back hastily; and he assembled the magicians, and cried
aloud, saying, I am your supreme LORD. Wherefore GOD chastised him with the punishment of the life to come, and also of this present life. Verily herein is an example unto him who feareth to rebel. Are ye more difficult to create, or the heaven which God hath built? He hath raised the height thereof, and hath perfectly formed the same: and he hath made the night thereof dark, and hath produced the light thereof. After this, he stretched out the earth,m whence he caused to spring forth the water thereof, and the pasture thereof; and he established the mountains, for the use of yourselves, and of your cattle. When the prevailing, the great day shall come, on that day shall a man call to remembrance what he hath purposely done: and hell shall be exposed to the view of the spectator. And whoso shall have transgressed, and shall have chosen this present life; verily hell shall be his abode; but whoso shall have dreaded the appearing before his LORD, and shall have refrained his soul from lust, verily paradise shall be his abode. They will ask thee concerning the last hour, when will be the fixed time thereof? By what means canst thou give any information of the same? Unto thy LORD belongeth the knowledge of the period thereof: and thou art only a warner, who fearest the same. The day whereon they shall see the same, it shall seem to them as though they had not tarried in the world longer than an evening, or a morning thereof.
ENTITLED, HE FROWNED; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE prophet frowned, and turned aside, because the blind man came unto him:n and how dost thou know whether he shall peradventure be cleansed from his sins, or whether he shall be admonished, and the admonition shall profit him? The man who is wealthy, thou receivest respectfully; whereas it is not to be charged on thee, that he is not cleansed: but him who cometh unto thee earnestly, seeking his salvation, and who feareth God, dost thou neglect. By no means shouldst thou act thus. Verily the Koran is an admonition (and he who is willing retaineth the same;) written in volumes honourable,
exalted, and pure; by the hands of scribes honoured, and just.o May man be cursed! What hath seduced him to infidelity? Of what thing doth God create him? Of a drop of seed doth he create him; and he formeth him with proportion; and then facilitateth his passage out of the womb: afterwards he causeth him to die, and layeth him in the grave; hereafter, when it shall please him, he shall raise him to life. Assuredly, He hath not hitherto fully performed what God hath commanded him. Let man consider his food; in what manner it is provided. We pour down water by showers; afterwards we cleave the earth in clefts, and we cause corn to spring forth therein, and grapes, and clover, and the olive, and the palm, and gardens planted thick with trees, and fruits, and grass, for the use of yourselves and of your cattle. When the stunning sound of the trumpet shall be heard; on that day shall a man fly from his brother, and his mother, and his father, and his wife, and his children. Every man of them, on that day, shall have business of his own sufficient to employ his thoughts. On that day the faces of some shall be bright, laughing, and joyful: and upon the faces of others, on that day, shall there be dust; darkness shall cover them. These are the unbelievers, the wicked.
ENTITLED, THE FOLDING UP; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHEN the sun shall be folded up;p and when the stars shall fall; and when the mountains shall be made to pass away; and when the camels ten months gone with young shall be neglected;q and when the wild beasts shall be gathered together;r and when the seas shall boil;s and when the souls shall be joined again to their bodies; and when the girl who hath been buried alive shall be asked for what crime she was put to death;t and when the books shall be laid open; and when the heaven shall be removed;u and when hell shall burn fiercely; and when paradise shall be brought near; every soul shall know what
it hath wrought. Verily I swearx by the stars which are retrograde, which move swiftly, and which hide themselves;y and by the night, when it cometh on; and by the morning, when it appeareth; these these are the words of an honourable messenger,z endued with strength, of established dignity in the sight of the possessor of the throne, obeyed by the angels under his authority, and faithful: and your companion Mohammed is not distracted. He had already seen him in the clear horizon:a and he suspected notb the secrets revealed unto him. Neither are these the words of an accursed devil.c Whither, therefore, are you going? This is no other than an admonition unto all creatures; unto him among you who shall be willing to walk uprightly: but ye shall not will, unless GOD willeth, the LORD of all creatures.
ENTITLED, THE CLEAVING IN SUNDER; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHEN the heaven shall be cloven in sunder; and when the stars shall be scattered; and when the seas shall be suffered to join their waters; and when the graves shall be turned upside down: every soul shall know what it hath committed, and what it hath omitted. O man, what hath seduced thee against thy gracious LORD, who hath created thee, and put thee together, and rightly disposed thee? In what form he pleased hath he fashioned thee. Assuredly. But ye deny the last judgment as a falsehood. Verily there are appointed over you guardian angels,d honourable in the sight of God, writing down your actions; who know that which ye do. The just shall surely be in a place of delight: but the wicked shall surely be in hell; they shall be cast therein to be turned, on the day of judgment, and they shall not be absent therefrom forever. What shall cause thee to understand what the day of judgment is? Again, What shall cause thee to understand what the day of judgment is? It is a day whereon one soul shall not be able to obtain anything in behalf of another soul: and the command, on that day, shall be GOD'S.
ENTITLED, THOSE WHO GIVE SHORT MEASURE OR WEIGHT;
REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WOE be unto those who give short measure or weight: who, when they receive by measure from other men, take the full; but when they measure unto them, or weigh unto them, defraud! Do not these think they shall be raised again, at the great day, the day whereon mankind shall stand before the LORD of all creatures? By no means. Verily the register of the actions of the wicked is surely in Sejjîn.e And what shall make thee to understand what Sejjîn is? It is a book distinctly written. Woe be on that day, unto those who accused the prophets of imposture; who denied the day of judgment as a falsehood! And none denieth the same as a falsehood, except every unjust and flagitious person: who, when our signs are rehearsed unto him, saith, They are fables of the ancients. By no means: but rather their lusts have cast a veil over their hearts. By no means. Verily they shall be shut out from their LORD on that day; and they shall be sent into hell to be burned: then shall it be said unto them by the infernal guards, This is what ye denied as a falsehood. Assuredly. But the register of the actions of the righteous is Illiyyûn:f and what shall cause thee to understand what Illiyyun is? It is a book distinctly written: those who approach near unto God are witnesses thereto.g Verily the righteous shall dwell among delights: seated on couches they shall behold objects of pleasure; thou shalt see in their faces the brightness of joy. They shall be given to drink of pure wine, sealed; the seal whereof shall be musk:h and to this let those aspire, who aspire to happiness: and the water mixed therewith shall be of Tasnîm,i a fountain whereof those shall drink who approach near unto the divine presence.k They
who act wickedly laugh the true believers to scorn: and when they pass by them, they wink at one another: and when they turn aside to their people, they turn aside making scurrilous jests; and when they see them, they say, Verily these are mistaken men. But they are not sent to be keepers over them.l Wherefore one day the true believers, in their turn, shall laugh the infidels to scorn:m lying on couches they shall look down upon them in hell. Shall not the infidels be rewarded for that which they have done?
ENTITLED, THE RENDING IN SUNDER; REVEALED AT MECCA.n
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHEN the heaven shall be rent in sunder, and shall obey its LORD, and shall be capable thereof; and when the earth shall be stretched out,o and shall cast forth that which is therein,p and shall remain empty, and shall obey its LORD, and shall be capable thereof: O man, verily laboring thou laborest to meet thy LORD, and thou shalt meet him.q And he who shall have his book given into his right hand shall be called to an easy account, and shall turn unto his familyr with joy: but he who shall have his book given him behind his back,s shall invoke destruction to fall upon him, and he shall be sent into hell to be burned; because he rejoiced insolently amidst his family on earth. Verily he thought he should never return unto God: yea verily, but his LORD beheld him. Wherefore I sweart by the redness of the sky after sunset, and by the night, and the animals which it driveth together, and by the moon when she is in the full; ye shall surely be transferred successively from state to state.u What aileth them, therefore, that they believe not the resurrection; and that, when the Koran is read unto them, they worship not?x Yea: the unbelievers accuse the same of imposture: but GOD well knoweth the malice which they keep
hidden in their breasts. Wherefore denounce unto them a grievous punishment, except those who believe and do good works: for them is prepared a never-failing reward.
ENTITLED, THE CELESTIAL SIGNS; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the heaven adorned with signs;y by the promised day of judgment; by the witness, and the witnessed;z cursed were the contrivers of the pit,a of fire supplied with fuel; when they sat around the same, and were witnesses of what they did against the true believers:b and they afflicted them for no other reason, but because they believed in the mighty, the glorious GOD, unto whom belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth: and GOD is witness of all things. Verily for those who persecute the true believers of either sex, and afterwards repent not, is prepared the torment of hell; and they shall suffer the pain of burning.c But for those who believe, and do that which is right, are destined gardens beneath which rivers flow: this shall be great felicity. Verily the vengeance of thy LORD is severe. He createth, and he restoreth to life: he is inclined to forgive, and gracious; the possessor of the glorious throne, who effecteth that which he pleaseth. Hath not the story of the hosts of Pharaohd and of Thamude reached thee? Yet the unbelievers cease not to accuse the divine revelations of false-
hood: but GOD encompasseth them behind, that they cannot escape. Verily that which they reject is a glorious Koran; the original whereof is written in a table kept in heaven.f
ENTITLED, THE STAR WHICH APPEARED BY NIGHT; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the heaven, and that which appeareth by night: but what shall cause thee to understand what that which appeareth by night is? it is the star of piercing brightness:g every soul hath a guardian set over it. Let a man consider, therefore, of what he is created. He is created of seed poured forth, issuing from the loins, and the breastbones.h Verily God is able to restore him to life, the day whereon all secret thoughts and actions shall be examined into; and he shall have no power to defend himself, nor any protector. By the heaven which returneth the rain;i and by the earth which openeth to let forth vegetables and springs: verily this is a discourse distinguishing good from evil: and it is not composed with lightness. Verily the infidels are laying a plot to frustrate my designs: but I will lay a plot for their ruin. Wherefore, O prophet, bear with the unbelievers: let them alone a while.
ENTITLED, THE MOST HIGH;k REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
PRAISE the name of thy LORD, the most high; who hath created, and completely formed his creatures: and who determineth them
to various ends,l and directeth them to attain the same;m and who produceth the pasture for cattle, and afterwards rendereth the same dry stubble of a dusky hue. We will enable thee to rehearse our revelations;n and thou shalt not forget any part thereof, except what GOD shall please;o for he knoweth that which is manifest, and that which is hidden. And we will facilitate unto thee the most easy way.p Wherefore admonish thy people, if thy admonition shall be profitable unto them. Whoso feareth God, he will be admonished: but the most wretched unbeliever will turn away therefrom; who shall be cast to be broiled in the greater fire of hell, wherein he shall not die, neither shall he live. Now hath he attained felicity, who is purified by faith, and who remembereth the name of his LORD, and prayeth. But ye prefer this present life: yet the life to come is better, and more durable. Verily this is written in the ancient books, the books of Abraham and Moses.
ENTITLED, THE OVERWHELMING;q REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
HATH the news of the overwhelming day of judgment reached thee? The countenances of some, on that day, shall be cast down; labouring and toiling:r they shall be cast into scorching fire to be broiled: they shall be given to drink of a boiling fountain: they shall have no food, but of dry thorns and thistles:s which shall not fatten, neither shall they satisfy hunger. But the countenances of others, on that day, shall be joyful; well pleased with their past endeavor: they shall be placed in a lofty garden, wherein thou shalt hear no vain discourse: therein shall be a running fountain; therein shall be raised beds, and goblets placed before them, and cushions laid in order, and carpets ready spread. Do they not consider the camels,t how they are created;
and the heaven, how it is raised; and the mountains, how they are fixed; and the earth, how it is extended? Wherefore warn thy people; for thou art a warner only: thou art not impowered to act with authority over them. But whoever shall turn back,u and disbelieve, GOD shall punish him with the greater punishment of the life to come. Verily unto us shall they return: then shall it be our part to bring them to account.
ENTITLED, THE DAYBREAK; REVEALED AT MECCA.x
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the daybreak, and ten nights;y by that which is double, and that which is single;z and by the night when it cometh on: is there not in this an oath formed with understanding? Hast thou not considered how thy LORD dealt with Ad, the people of Irem,a adorned with lofty buildings,b the like whereof hath not been erected in the land;c and with Thamud, who hewed the rocks in the valleyd into houses; and
with Pharaoh, the contriver of the stakes:e who had behaved insolently in the earth, and multiplied corruption therein? Wherefore thy LORD poured on them various kindsf of chastisement: for thy LORD is surely in a watch-tower, whence he observeth the actions of men. Moreover man, when his LORD trieth him by prosperity, and honoureth him, and is bounteous unto him, saith, My LORD honoureth me; but when he proveth him by afflictions, and withholdeth his provisions from him, he saith, My LORD despiseth me. By no means:g but ye honour not the orphan, neither do ye excite one another to feed the poor; and ye devour the inheritance of the weak,h with undistinguishing greediness, and ye love riches with much affection. By no means should ye do thus. When the earth shall be minutely ground to dust; and thy LORD shall come, and the angels rank by rank; and hell, on that day, shall be brought nigh:i on that day shall man call to remembrance his evil deeds; but how shall remembrance avail him? He shall say, Would to GOD that I had heretofore done good works in my lifetime!k On that day none shall punish with his punishment; nor shall any bind with his bonds.l O thou soul which art at rest,m return unto thy LORD, well pleased with thy reward, and well pleasing unto God: enter among my servants; and enter my paradise.
ENTITLED, THE TERRITORY; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
I SWEARn by this territory,o (and thou, O prophet, residest in this territory,)p and by the begetter, and that which he hath begotten;q verily we have created man in misery.r Doth he think that none shall prevail over him?s He saith, I have wasted plenty of riches.t Doth he think that none seeth him? Have we not made him two eyes, and a tongue, and two lips; and shown him the two highways of good and evil? Yet he attempteth not the cliff. What shall make thee to understand what the cliff is? It is to free the captive; or to feed, in the day of famine, the orphan who is of kin, or the poor man who lieth on the ground. Whoso doth this, and is one of those who believe, and recommend perseverance unto each other, and recommend mercy unto each other; these shall be the companions of the right hand.u But they who shall disbelieve our signs shall be the companions of the left hand:x above them shall be arched fire.
ENTITLED, THE SUN; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the Sun, and its rising brightness; by the moon when she followeth him;y by the day, when it showeth its splendor; by the night, when it covereth him with darkness; by the heaven, and him who built it; by the earth, and him who spread it forth; by the soul, and him who completely formed it, and inspired into the same its faculty of distinguishing, and power of choosing, wickedness and piety:
now is he who hath purified the same, happy; but he who hath corrupted the same, is miserable. Thamud accused their prophet Saleh of imposture, through the excess of their wickedness: when the wretchz among them was sent to slay the camel; and the apostle of GOD said unto them, Let alone the camel of GOD; and hinder not her drinking. But they charged him with imposture; and they slew her. Wherefore their LORD destroyed them, for their crime, and made their punishment equal unto them all: and he feareth not the issue thereof.
ENTITLED, THE NIGHT; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the night, when it covereth all things with darkness; by the day, when it shineth forth; by his who hath created the male, and the female: verily your endeavor is different. Now whoso is obedient, and feareth God, and professeth the truth of that faith which is most excellent; unto him will we facilitate the way to happiness: but whoso shall be covetous, and shall be wholly taken up with this world, and shall deny the truth of that which is most excellent; unto him will we facilitate the way to misery; and his riches shall not profit him, when he shall fall headlong into hell. Verily unto us appertaineth the direction of mankind: and ours is the life to come, and the present life. Wherefore I threaten you with fire which burneth fiercely, which none shall enter to be burned except the most wretched; who shall have disbelieved, and turned back. But he who strictly bewareth idolatry and rebellion shall be removed far from the same; who giveth his substance in alms, and by whom no benefit is bestowed on any, that it may be recompensed, but who bestoweth the same for the sake of his LORD, the most High,a and hereafter he shall be well satisfied with his reward.
ENTITLED, THE BRIGHTNESS; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the brightness of the morning;b and by the night, when it groweth dark: thy LORD hath not forsaken thee, neither doth
he hate thee.c Verily the life to come shall be better for thee than this present life: and thy LORD shall give thee a reward wherewith thou shalt be well pleased. Did he not find thee an orphan, and hath he not taken care of thee? And did he not find thee wandering in error, and hath he not guided thee into the truth? And did he not find thee needy, and hath he not enriched thee? Wherefore oppress not the orphan: neither repulse the beggar: but declare the goodness of thy LORD.
ENTITLED, HAVE WE NOT OPENED; REVEALED AT MECCA
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
HAVE we not opened thy breast;d and eased thee of thy burden,e which galled thy back; and raise thy reputation for thee? Verily a difficulty shall be attended with ease. Verily a difficulty shall be attended with ease. When thou shalt have ended thy preaching; labor to serve God in return for his favours;f and make thy supplication unto thy LORD.
ENTITLED, THE FIG; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the fig, and the olive;g and by mount Sinai, and this territory of
security;h verily we created man of a most excellent fabric; afterwards we rendered him the vilest of the vile:i except those who believe, and work righteousness; for they shall receive an endless reward. What, therefore, shall cause thee to deny the day of judgment after this?k Is not GOD the most wise judge?
ENTITLED, CONGEALED BLOOD; REVEALED AT MECCA.l
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
READ, in the name of thy LORD, who hath created all things; who hath created man of congealed blood.m Read, by thy most beneficent LORD;n who taught the use of the pen; who teacheth man that which he knoweth not. Assuredly. Verily man becometh insolent, because he seeth himself abound in riches.o Verily unto thy LORD shall be the return of all. What thinkest thou as to him who forbiddeth our servant, when he prayeth?p What thinkest thou; if he follow the right direction; or command piety? What thinkest thou; if he accuse
the divine revelations of falsehood, and turn his back? Doth he not know that GOD seeth? Assuredly. Verily, if he forbear not, we will drag him by the forelock,q the lying, sinful forelock. And let him call his councilr to his assistance: we also will call the infernal guards to cast him into hell. Assuredly. Obey him not: but continue to adore God; and draw nigh unto him.
ENTITLED, AL KADR; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
VERILY we sent down the Koran in the night of al Kadr.s And what shall make thee understand how excellent the night of al Kadr is? The night of al Kadr is better than a thousand months. Therein do the angels descend, and the spirit of Gabriel also, by the permission of their LORD, with his decrees concerning every matter.t It is peace until the rising of the morn.
ENTITLED, THE EVIDENCE;u WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE unbelievers among those to whom the scriptures were given, and among the idolaters, did not stagger,x until the clear evidencey
had come unto them: an apostle from GOD, rehearsing unto them pure books of revelations; wherein are contained right discourses. Neither were they unto whom the scriptures were given divided among themselves, until after the clear evidence had come unto them.z And they were commanded no other in the scriptures than to worship GOD, exhibiting unto him the pure religion, and being orthodox; and to be constant at prayer, and to give alms;a and this is the right religion. Verily those who believe not, among those who have received the scriptures, and among the idolaters, shall be cast into the fire of hell, to remain therein forever. These are the worst of creatures. But they who believe, and do good works; these are the best of creatures: their reward with their LORD shall be gardens of perpetual abode, through which rivers flow; they shall remain therein forever. GOD will be well pleased in them; and they shall be well pleased in him. This is prepared for him who shall fear his LORD.
ENTITLED, THE EARTHQUAKE; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHEN the earth shall be shaken by an earthquake;b and the earth shall cast forth her burdens;c and a man shall say, What aileth her? On that day the earth shall declare her tidings, for that thy LORD will inspire her.d On that day men shall go forward in distinct classes, that they may behold their works. And whoever shall have wrought good of the weight of an ant,e shall behold the same. And whoever shall have wrought evil of the weight of an ant, shall behold the same.
ENTITLED, THE WAR-HORSES WHICH RUN SWIFTLY; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the war-horses which run swiftly to the battle, with a panting noise; and by those which strike fire, by dashing their hoofs against the stones; and by those which make a sudden incursion on the enemy early in the morning, and therein raise the dust, and therein pass through the midst of the adverse troops:f verily man is ungrateful unto his LORD; and he is witness thereof: and he is immoderate in the love of worldly good. Doth he not know, therefore, when that which is in the graves shall be taken forth, and that which is in men's breasts shall be brought to light, that their LORD will, on that day, be fully informed concerning them?
ENTITLED, THE STRIKING; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE striking!g What is the striking? And what shall make thee to understand how terrible the striking will be? On that day men shall be like moths scattered abroad, and the mountains shall become like carded wool of various colours driven by the wind. Moreover he whose balance shall be heavy with good works, shall lead a pleasing life: but as to him whose balance shall be light, his dwelling shall be the pit of hell.h What shall make thee to understand how frightful the pit of hell is? It is a burning fire.
ENTITLED, THE EMULOUS DESIRE OF MULTIPLYING; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE emulous desire of multiplying riches and children employeth you, until ye visit the graves.i By no means should ye thus employ your time: hereafter shall ye know your folly. Again, By no means: hereafter shall ye know your folly. By no means: if ye knew the consequence hereof with certainty of knowledge, ye would not act thus. Verily ye shall see hell: again, ye shall surely see it with the eye of certainty. Then shall ye be examined, on that day, concerning the pleasures with which ye have amused yourselves in this life.
ENTITLED, THE AFTERNOON; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
BY the afternoon;k verily man employeth himself in that which will prove of loss: except those who believe, and do that which is right; and who mutually recommend the truth, and mutually recommend perseverance unto each other.
ENTITLED, THE SLANDERER; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WOE unto every slanderer, and backbiter:l who heapeth up riches, and prepareth the same for the time to come! He thinketh that
his riches will render him immortal. By no means. He shall surely be cast into Al Hotama.m And who shall cause thee to understand what Al Hotama is? It is the kindled fire of GOD;n which shall mount above the hearts of those who shall be cast therein. Verily it shall be as an arched vault above them on columns of vast extent.
ENTITLED, THE ELEPHANT; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
HAST thou not seen how thy LORD dealt with the masters of the elephant?o Did he not make their treacherous design an occa-
sion of drawing them into error; and send against them flocks of birds, which casts down upon them stones of baked clay;p and render them like the leaves of corn eaten by cattle?
ENTITLED, KOREISH; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
FOR the uniting of the tribe of Koreish;q their uniting in sending forth the caravan of merchants and purveyorsr in winter and
summer; let them serve the LORD of this house; who supplieth them with food against hunger,s and hath rendered them secure from fear.t
ENTITLED, NECESSARIES; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHAT thinkest thou of him who denieth the future judgment as a falsehood? It is he who pusheth away the orphan;u and stirreth not up others to feed the poor. Woe be unto those who pray, and who are negligent at their prayer: who play the hypocrites, and deny necessariesx to the needy.
ENTITLED, AL CAWTHAR; REVEALED AT MECCA.y
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
VERILY we have given thee al Cawthar.z Wherefore pray unto thy
LORD, and slay the victims.a Verily he who hateth thee shall be childless.b
ENTITLED, THE UNBELIEVERS; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
SAY: O unbelievers,c I will not worship that which ye worship; nor will ye worship that which I worship. Neither do I worship that which ye worship; neither do ye worship that which I worship. Ye have your religion, and I my religion.
ENTITLED, ASSISTANCE; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
WHEN the assistance of GOD shall come, and the victory;d and thou shalt see the people enter into the religion of GOD by troops:e celebrate the praise of thy LORD, and ask pardon of him;f for he is inclined to forgive.
ENTITLED, ABU LAHEB; REVEALED AT MECCA.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
THE hands of Abu Laheb shall perish,g and he shall perish.h His riches shall not profit him, neither that which he hath gained.i He shall go down to be burned into flaming fire;k and his wife also,l bearing wood,m having on her neck a cord of twisted fibres of a palm-tree.
ENTITLED, THE DECLARATION OF GOD'S UNITY;n
WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
SAY, God is one GOD; the eternal GOD: be begetteth not, neither is he begotten: and there is not any one like unto him.
ENTITLED, THE DAYBREAK; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
SAY, I fly for refuge unto the LORD of the daybreak,o that he may deliver me from the mischief of those things which he hath created;p and from the mischief of the night, when it cometh on;q and from the mischief of women blowing on knots;r and from the mischief of the envious, when he envieth.
ENTITLED, MEN; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED.s
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
SAY, I fly for refuge unto the LORD of men, the king of men, the GOD of men, that he may deliver me from the mischief of the whisperer who slyly withdraweth,t who whispereth evil suggestions into the breasts of men: from genii and men.