|Rodwell Suráh #||Verse #||Traditional Suráh #||Sale Translation||Sale's Notes||Bahá'í References (Central Figures)||Bahá'í Translation (Shoghi Effendi unless otherwise noted)||Bahá'í References (Special)||Rodwell Translation||Rodwell's notes|
|8||0||1||CHAPTER I.||SURA I.1 [VIII.]||1 This Sura, which Nöldeke places last, and Muir sixth, in the earliest class of Meccan Suras, must at least have been composed prior to Sura xxxvii. 182,where it is quoted, and to Sura xv. 87, which refers to it. And it can scarcely be an accidental circumstance that the words of the first, second, and fifth verses do not occur in any other Suras of the first Meccan period as given by Nldeke, but frequently in those of the second, which it therefore, in Nldeke, opinion, immediately precedes. But this may be accounted for by its having been recast for the purposes of private and public devotion by Muhammad himself, which is the meaning probably of the Muhammadan tradition that it was revealed twice. It should also be observed that, including the auspicatory formula, there are the same number of petitions in this Sura as in the Lord's Prayer. It is recited several times in each of the five daily prayers, and on many other occassions, as in concluding a bargain, etc. It is termed "the Opening of the Book," "the Completion," "the Sufficing Sura," the Sura of Praise, Thanks, and Prayer," "the Healer," "the Remedy," "the Basis," "the Treasure," "the Mother of the Book," "the Seven Verses of Repetition." The Muhammadans always say "Amen" after this prayer, Muhammad having been instructed, says the Sonna, to do so by the Angel Gabriel.|
|8||0||1||ENTITLED, THE PREFACE, OR INTRODUCTION;a REVEALED AT MECCA.||a In Arabic al Fâtihat. This chapter is a prayer, and held in great veneration by the Mohammedans, who give it several other honourable titles; as the chapter of prayer, of praise, of thanksgiving, of treasure, &c. They esteem it as the quintessence of the whole Korân, and often repeat it in their devotions both public and private, as the Christians do the Lords Prayer.1
1 Vide Bobovium de Precib. Mohammed. p. 3, et seq.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Tablet of Ishráqát, within pp. 99-134)
The Dawn-Breakers (Chapter V, p. 116)
|8||0||1||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD||Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Tablet of Ishráqát, within pp. 99-134)
|BWC: In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter III, p. 75
|In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|8||1||1||PRAISE be to GOD, the LORD of all creatures;b||b The original words are, Rabbi lâlamîna, which literally signify Lord of the worlds; but âlamîna in this and other places of the Korân properly mean the three species of rational creatures, men, genii, and angels. Father Marracci has endeavoured to prove from this passage that Mohammed believed a plurality of worlds, which he calls the error of the Manichees, &c.:2 but this imputation the learned Reland has shown to be entirely groundless.3
2 In Prodromo ad Refut. Alcorani part iv. p. 76, et in notis ad Alc. c. I.
3 De Religion. Mohammed. p. 262
|PRAISE be to God, Lord of the worlds!|
|8||2||1||the most merciful,||The compassionate, the merciful!|
|8||3||1||the king of the day of judgment.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 58, paragraph 78
|BWC: Lord of the Day of Reckoning!||King on the day of reckoning!|
|8||4||1||Thee do we worship, and of thee do we beg assistance.||Thee only do we worship, and to Thee do we cry for help.|
|8||5||1||Direct us in the right way,||The Seven Valleys (The Valley of Knowledge)
Tablets of the Divine Plan (9 Tablet to the Baháís of the Southern States, within pp. 9-13)
Tablets of the Divine Plan (9 Tablet to the Baháís of the Northeastern States, within pp. 59-67)
|MG: Guide Thou us on the straight path,
O: Direct us to the straight path!
O: Guide us to the straight path.
|Guide Thou us on the straight path,2||2 Islam|
|8||6||1||in the way of those to whom thou hast been gracious; not of those against whom thou art incensed, nor of those who go astray.c||c This last sentence contains a petition, that GOD would lead the supplicants into the true religion, by which is meant the Mohammedan, in the Korân often called the right way; in this place more particularly defined to be, the way of those to whom GOD hath been gracious, that is, of the prophets and faithful who preceded Mohammed; under which appellations are also comprehended the Jews and Christians, such as they were in the times of their primitive purity, before they had deviated from their respective institutions; not the way of the modern Jews, whose signal calamities are marks of the just anger of GOD against them for their obstinacy and disobedience: nor of the Christians of this age, who have departed from the true doctrine of Jesus, and are bewildered in a labyrinth of error.4
This is the common exposition of the passage; though al Zamakhshari, and some others, by a different application of the negatives, refer the whole to the true believers; and then the sense will run thus: The way of those to whom thou hast been gracious, against whom thou art not incensed, and who have not erred. Which translation the original will very well bear.
4 Jallaloddin. Al Beidawi, &c.
|The path of those to whom Thou hast been gracious;with whom thou art not angry, and who go not astray.3||3 The following transfer of this Sura from the Arabic into the corresponding English characters may give some idea of the rhyming prose in which the Koran is written:
Bismillahi 'rahhmani 'rrahheem.
El-hamdoo lillahi rabi 'lalameen.
Eyaka naboodoo, wayaka nest aeen.
Ihdina 'ssirat almostakeem.
Sirat alezeena anhamta aleihim, gheiri-'l mughdoobi aleihim, wala dsaleen. Ameen.
|91||0||2||CHAPTER II.||SURA II.THE COW1 [XCI.]||1 The greater part of this, the oldest of the Medina Suras, was revealed in the early part of the second year of the Hejira and previously to the battle of Bedr.The Hejira took place in the beginning of Muharram, or middle of April, A.D. 622. The numbers who emigrated with Muhammad at first, were about 150 persons. Medina is 250 miles north of Mecca, and ten days' journey.|
|91||0||2||ENTITLED, THE COW;d REVEALED PARTLY AT MECCA, AND PARTLY AT MEDINA.||d This title was occasioned by the story of the red heifer, mentioned p. 9.||MEDINA.286 Verses|
|91||0||2||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|91||1||2||A. L. M.e There is no doubt in this book; it is a direction to the pious,||e As to the meaning of these letters, see the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. III.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 224, p. 202
|Alif, Lam. Mim. No doubt is there about this Book: It is a guidance unto the God-fearing.||ELIF. LAM. MIM.2 No doubt is there about this Book: It is a guidance to the God-fearing,||2 Said to mean A mara li Muhammad, i.e. at the command of Muhammad; but see Sura 1xviii. p. 32.|
|91||2||2||who believe in the mysteriesf of faith, who observe the appointed times of prayer, and distribute alms out of what we have bestowed on them,||f The Arabic word is gheib, which properly signifies a thing that is absent, at a great distance, or invisible, such as the resurrection, paradise, and hell. And this is agreeable to the language of scripture, which defines faith to be the evidence of things not seen.1
1 Heb. xi. I. See also Rom. xxiv. 25; 2 Cor. iv. 18 and v. 7.
|Who believe in the unseen,3 who observe prayer, and out of what we have bestowed on them, expend for God;||3 Death, Resurrection, Judgment, etc.|
|91||3||2||and who believe in that revelation, which hath been sent down unto thee and that which hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee,g and have firm assurance of the life to come:h||g The Mohammedans believe that GOD gave written revelations not only to Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, but to several other prophets;2 though they acknowledge none of those which preceded the Korân to be now extant, except the Pentateuch of Moses, the Psalms of David, and the Gospel of Jesus; which yet they say were even before Mohammeds time altered and corrupted by the Jews and Christians; and therefore will not allow our present copies to be genuine.
2 Vide Reland. de Relig. Moham. p. 34 and Dissert. de Samaritanis, p. 34, &c.
h The original word al-âkherhat properly signifies the latter part of anything, and by way of excellence the next life, the latter or future state after death; and is opposed to al-donya, this world; and al-oula, the former or present life. The Hebrew word ahharith, from the same root, is used by Moses in this sense, and is translated latter end.3
3 Numb. xxiv. 20; Deut. viii. 16.
|And who believe in what hath been sent down to thee, and in what hath been sent down before thee, and full faith have they in the life to come:|
|91||4||2||these are directed by their LORD, and they shall prosper.||These are guided by their Lord; and with these it shall be well.|
|91||5||2||As for the unbelievers, it will be equal to them whether thou admonish them, or do not admonish them; they will not believe.||As to the infidels, alike is it to them whether thou warn them or warn them notthey will not believe:|
|91||6||2||GOD hath sealed up their hearts and their hearing; a dimness covereth their sight, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment.||Their hearts and their ears hath God sealed up; and over their eyes is a covering. For them, a severe chastisement!|
|91||7||2||There are some who say, We believe in GOD, and the last day; but are not really believers:||And some4 there are who say, "We believe in God, and in the latter day:" Yet are they not believers!||4 The Jews.|
|91||8||2||they seek to deceive GOD, and those who do believe, but they deceive themselves only, and are not sensible thereof.||Fain would they deceive God and those who have believed; but they deceive themselves only, and know it not.|
|91||9||2||There is an infirmity in their hearts, and GOD hath increased that infirmity;i and they shall suffer a most painful punishment, because they have disbelieved.||i Mohammed here, and elsewhere frequently, imitates the truly inspired writers, in making GOD by operation on the minds of reprobates to prevent their conversion. This fatality or predestination, as believed by the Mohammedans, hath been sufficiently treated of in the Preliminary Discourse.||Diseased are their hearts! And that disease hath God increased creased to them. Their's a sore chastisement, for that they treated their prophet as a liar!|
|91||10||2||When one saith unto them, Act not corruptlyk in the earth; they reply, Verily we are men of integrity.l||k Literally corrupt not in the earth, by which some expositors understand the sowing of false doctrine, and corrupting peoples principles.
l According to the explication in the preceding note, this word must be translated reformers, who promote true piety by their doctrine and example.
|And when it is said to them, "Cause not disorders in the earth:" they say, "Nay, rather do we set them right."|
|91||11||2||Are not they themselves corrupt doers? but they are not sensible thereof.||Is it not that they are themselves the authors of disorder? But they perceive it not!|
|91||12||2||And when one saith unto them, Believe ye as othersm believe; they answer, Shall we believe as fools believe? Are not they themselves fools? but they know it not.||m The first companions and followers of Mohammed.4
|And when it is said to them, "Believe as other men have believed;" they say, "Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" Is it not that they are themselves the fools? But they know it not!|
|91||13||2||When they meet those who believe, they say, We do believe: but when they retire privately to their devils,n they say, We really hold with you, and only mock at those people:||n The prophet, making use of the liberty zealots of all religions have, by prescription, of giving ill language, bestows this name on the Jewish rabbins and Christian priests; though he seems chiefly to mean the former, against whom he had by much the greater spleen.||And when they meet the faithful they say, "We believe;" but when they are apart with their Satans5 they say, "Verily we hold with you, and at them we only mock."||5 The Jews and Christians, hostile to the mission of Muhammad.|
|91||14||2||GOD shall mock at them, and continue them in their impiety; they shall wander in confusion.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXI, within pp. 60-61)
|BWC: ...the objects of ridicule, and We, in truth, aid them to wax in their iniquity.||God shall mock at them, and keep them long in their rebellion, wandering in perplexity.|
|91||15||2||There are the the men who have purchased error at the price of true direction: but their traffic hath not been gainful, neither have they been rightly directed.||These are they who have purchased error at the price of guidance: but their traffic hath not been gainful, neither are they guided at all.|
|91||16||2||They are like unto one who kindleth a fire,o and when it hath enlightened all around him,p GOD taketh away their lightq and leaveth them in darkness, they shall not see;||o In this passage, Mohammed compares those who believed not on him, to a man who wants to kindle a fire, but as soon as it burns up, and the flames give a light, shuts his eyes, lest he should see. As if he had said, You, O Arabians, have long desired a prophet of your own nation, and now I am sent unto you, and have plainly proved my mission by the excellence of my doctrine and revelation, you resist conviction, and refuse to believe in me; therefore shall God leave you in your ignorance.
p The sense seems to be here imperfect, and may be completed by adding the words, He turns from it, shuts his eyes, or the like.
q That is of the unbelievers, to whom the word their being in the plural, seems to refer; though it is not unusual for Mohammed, in affectation of the prophetic style, suddenly to change the number against all rules of grammar.
|They are like one6 who kindleth a fire, and when it hath thrown its light on all around him. . . . God taketh away their light and leaveth them in darknessthey cannot see!||6 Lit. the similitude of them is as the similitude of, etc.|
|91||17||2||they are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore will they not repent.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
|MG: deaf, dumb, blind: therefore they shall not retrace their steps from error!||Deaf, dumb, blind: therefore they shall not retrace their steps from error!|
|91||18||2||Or like a stormy cloud from heaven, fraught with darkness, thunder, and lightning,r they put their fingers in their ears because of the noise of the thunder, for fear of death; GOD encompasseth the infidels:||r Here he compares the unbelieving Arabs to people caught in a violent storm. To perceive the beauty of this comparison, it must be observed, that the Mohammedan doctors say, this tempest is a type or image of the Korân itself: the thunder signifying the threats therein contained; the lightning, the promises; and the darkness, the mysteries. The terror of the threats makes them stop their ears, unwilling to hear truths so disagreeable; when the promises are read to them, they attend with pleasure; but when anything mysterious or difficult of belief occurs, they stand stock still, and will not submit to be directed.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 175, p. 164
|They have thrust their fingers into their ears.||Or like those who, when there cometh a storm-cloud out of the Heaven, big with darkness thunder and lightning, thrust their fingers into their ears because of the thunder-clap, for fear of death! God is round about the infidels.|
|91||19||2||the lightning wanteth but little of taking away their sight; so often as it enlighteneth them, they walk therein, but when darkness cometh on them, they stand still; and if GOD so pleased, he would certainly deprive them of their hearing and their sight, for GOD is almighty. O men of Mecca, serve your LORD who hath created you, and those who have been before you: peradventure ye will fear him;||The lightning almost snatcheth away their eyes! So oft as it gleameth on them they walk on in it, but when darkness closeth upon them, they stop! And if God pleased, of their ears and of their eyes would he surely deprive them: verily God is Almighty! O men of Mecca7 adore your Lord, who hath created you and those who were before you: haply ye will fear Him||7 The people of Medina are generally addressed with "O ye who believe;" the Meccans, with "O men." Hence it has been inferred that from verse 19 (O men) to 37 inclusively, is of the Meccan period. The subjects treated of also lead to this conclusion.|
|91||20||2||who hath spread the earth as a bed for you, and the heaven as a covering, and hath caused water to descend from heaven, and thereby produced fruits for your sustenance. Set not up therefore any equals unto GOD, against your own knowledge.||Who hath made the earth a bed for you, and the heaven a covering, and hath caused water to come down from heaven, and by it hath brought forth fruits for your sustenance! Do not then wittingly give peers to God.|
|91||21||2||If ye be in doubt concerning that revelation which we have sent down unto our servant, produce a chapter like unto it, and call upon your witnesses besides GOD,s if ye say truth.||s i.e., Your false gods and idols.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 226, p. 205
|And if ye be in doubt as to that which We have sent down to Our Servant, then produce a Surah like it, and summon your witnesses, beside God, if ye are men of truth.||And if ye be in doubt as to that which we have sent down to our servant, then produce a Sura like it, and summon your witnesses, beside God, if ye are men of truth:|
|91||22||2||But if ye do it not, nor shall ever be able to do it; justly fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the unbelievers.||But if ye do it not, and never shall ye do it, then fear the fire prepared for the infidels, whose fuel is men and stones:8||8 The statues of false gods.|
|91||23||2||But bear good tidings unto those who believe, and do good works, that they shall have gardens watered by rivers; so often as they eat of the fruit thereof for sustenance, they shall say, this is what we have formerly eaten of; and they shall be supplied with several sorts of fruit having a mutual resemblance to one another.t There shall they enjoy wives subject to no impurity, and there shall they continue forever.||t Some commentators1 approve of this sense, supposing the fruits of paradise, though of various tastes, are alike in colour and outward appearance: but others2 think the meaning to be, that the inhabitants of that place will find there fruits of the same or the like kinds as they used to eat while on earth.
2 Al Zamakhshari.
|But announce to those who believe and do the things that are right, that for them are gardens 'neath which the rivers flow! So oft as they are fed therefrom with fruit for sustenance, they shall say, "This same was our sustenance of old:" And they shall have its like given to them.9 Therein shall they have wives of perfect purity, and therein shall they abide for ever.||9 It will be an agreeable surprise to the blessed to have fruits, which at first sight resemble those of earth, but are infinitely more delicious,.|
|91||24||2||Moreover, GOD will not be ashamed to propound in a parable a gnat, or even a more despicable thing:u for they who believe will know it to be the truth from their LORD; but the unbelievers will say, What meaneth GOD by this parable? he will thereby mislead many, and will direct many thereby: but he will not mislead any thereby, except the transgressors,||u This was revealed to take off an objection made to the Korân by the infidels, for condescending to speak of such insignificant insects as the spider, the pismire, the bee, &c.3
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 73
|MG: Many will He mislead by such parables and many guide: but none will He mislead thereby except the wicked...||Verily God is not ashamed to set forth as well the instance of a gnat10 as of any nobler object: for as to those who have believed, they know it to be the truth from their Lord; but as to the unbelievers, they will say, "What meaneth God by this comparison?" Many will He mislead by such parables and many guide: but none will He mislead thereby except the wicked,||10 Muhammad had been reproached for having drawn illustrations from the Ant, Bee, Spider, etc.|
|91||25||2||who make void the covenant of GOD after the establishing thereof, and cut in sunder that which GOD hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the earth; they shall perish.||Who, after its establishment, violate the covenant of God,11 and cut in sunder what God hath bidden to be joined, and act disorderly on the Earth. These are they who shall suffer loss!||11 Concerning faith in Muhammad. See verse 39 below, note.|
|91||26||2||How is it that ye believe not in GOD? Since ye were dead, and he gave you life;x he will hereafter cause you to die, and will again restore you to life; then shall ye return unto him.||x i.e., Ye were dead while in the loins of your fathers, and he gave you life in your mothers wombs; and after death ye shall be again raised at the resurrection.4
|How can ye withhold faith from God? Ye were dead and He gave you life; next He will cause you to die; next He will restore you to life: next shall ye return to Him!|
|91||27||2||It is he who hath created for you whatsoever is on earth, and then set his mind to the creation of heaven, and formed it into seven heavens; he knoweth all things.||He it is who created for you all that is on Earth, then proceeded to the Heaven, and into seven12 Heavens did He fashion it: and He knoweth all things.||12 The number of the Heavens is borrowed from the Talmud, or traditions based upon it; but the idea probably has its root in the Scriptural expression, "Heaven of Heavens."|
|91||28||2||When thy LORD said unto the angels, I am going to place a substitute on earth;y they said, Wilt thou place there one who will do evil therein, and shed blood? but we celebrate thy praise, and sanctify thee. GOD answered, Verily I know that which ye know not;||y Concerning the creation of Adam, here intimated, the Mohammedans have several peculiar traditions. They say the angels, Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil, were sent by God, one after another, to fetch for that purpose seven handfuls of earth from different depths, and of different colours (whence some account for the various complexion of mankind5); but the earth being apprehensive of the consequence, and desiring them to represent her fear to God that the creature he designed to form would rebel against him, and draw down his curse upon her, they returned without performing Gods command; whereupon he sent Azraïl on the same errand, who executed his commission without remorse, for which reason God appointed that angel to separate the souls from the bodies, being therefore called the angel of death. The earth he had taken was carried into Arabia, to a place between Mecca and Tayef, where, being first kneaded by the angels, it was afterwards fashioned by God himself into a human form, and left to dry6 for the space of forty days, or, as others say, as many years, the angels in the meantime often visiting it, and Eblis (then one of the angels who are nearest to Gods presence, afterwards the devil) among the rest; but he, not contented with looking on it, kicked it with his foot till it rung and knowing God designed that creature to be his superior, took a secret resolution never to acknowledge him as such. After this, God animated the figure of clay and endued it with an intelligent soul, and when he had placed him in paradise, formed Eve out of his left side.7
5 Al Termedi, from a tradition of Abu Musa al Ashari
6 Kor. c. 55.
7 Khondamir. Jallaloddin. Comment. in Korân, &c. Vide DHerbelot, Biblioth. Orient. p. 55.
|When thy Lord said to the angels, "Verily, I am about to place one in my stead on earth,"13 they said, "Wilt thou place there one who will do ill therein and shed blood, when we celebrate thy praise and extol thy holiness?" God said, "Verily, I know what ye know not."||13 Lit. a caliph, vicegerent. "When the Holy One, Blessed be He, would create man, He took counsel with the Angels and said to them, We will make man in our image." Midr. Rabbah on Numb. iv. par. 19. Comp. Midr. on Gen. 1, par. 8, 17. Sanhedr. 38.|
|91||29||2||and he taught Adam the names of all things, and then proposed them to the angels, and said, Declare unto me the names of these things if ye say truth.||And he taught Adam the names of all things, and then set them before the angels,14 and said, "Tell me the names of these, if ye are endued with wisdom."15||14 "God said to the Angels, 'His wisdom is greater than yours.' Then brought he before them beasts, cattle, and birds, and asked for their names, but they knew them not. But when he had created man," etc. Midr. as above.
15 Or, if ye are truthful, or can make good a better claim to the vicegerency.
|91||30||2||They answered, Praise be unto thee; we have no knowledge but what thou teachest us, for thou art knowing and wise.||They said, "Praise be to Thee! We have no knowledge but what Thou hast given us to know. Thou! Thou art the Knowing, the Wise."|
|91||31||2||GOD said, O Adam, tell them their names. And when he had told them their names, GOD said, Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and know that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal?z||z This story Mohammed borrowed from the Jewish traditions, which say that the angels having spoken of man with some contempt when God consulted them about his creation, God made answer that the man was wiser than they; and to convince them of it, he brought all kinds of animals to them, and asked them their names; which they not being able to tell, he put the same question to the man, who named them one after another; and being asked his own name and Gods name, he answered very justly, and gave God the name of JEHOVAH1. The angels adoring of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud.2
1 Vide Rivin. Serpent. seduct. p. 56.
2 R. Moses Haddarshan, in Bereshit rabbah.
|He said, "O Adam, inform them of their names." And when he had informed them of their names, He said, "Did I not say to you that I know the hidden things of the Heavens and of the Earth, and that I know what ye bring to light, and what ye hide?"|
|91||32||2||And when we said unto the angels, Worshipa Adam, they all worshipped him, except Eblis, who refused, and was puffed up with pride, and became of the number of unbelievers.b||a The original word signifies properly to prostrate ones self till the forehead touches the ground, which is the humblest posture of adoration, and strictly due to GOD only; but it is sometimes, as in this place, used to express that civil worship or homage, which may be paid to creatures.3
b This occasion of the devils fall has some affinity with an opinion which has been pretty much entertained among Christians,4 viz., that the angels being informed of GODS intention to create man after his own image, and to dignify human nature by CHRISTS assuming it, some of them, thinking their glory to be eclipsed thereby, envied mans happiness, and so revolted.
4 Irenæus, Lact. Greg. Nyssen. &c.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 24)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXVII, p. 64)
|And when we said to the angels, "Bow down and worship Adam," then worshipped they all, save Eblis.16 He refused and swelled with pride, and became one of the unbelievers.||16 In the name Eblis (diabolos) and in the honour claimed for Adam as a kind of Godman, there are traces of a Christian original, as well as in the identification of the serpent with Satan. Comp. Ps. civ. 4; Heb. i. 6. The Talmudists also enlarge on the honour paid to Adam. "Adam sat in the garden and the Angels brought him flesh and cooling wine." Sanhedr. 29. "In the hour when the Holy One, Blessed be He, created man, the Angels went astray in regard to him, and essayed to say before him, 'O Holy One!' then God permitted sleep to fall on him, and all knew that he was of earth." Midr. Rabbah on Gen. par. 8. It is possible that the Arabic word balas, a profligate, wicked person, may have influenced Muhammad in the formation of the word Eblis. See note, p. 185. Eblis is used in the Arabic version of the New Testament, for the probable date of which, see Tischendorf, Prol. p. 78.|
|91||33||2||And we said, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in the garden,c and eat of the fruit thereof plentifully wherever ye will; but approach not this tree,d lest ye become of the number of the transgressors.||c Mohammed, as appears by what presently follows, does not place this garden or paradise on earth, but in the seventh heaven.5
5 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 24.
d Concerning this tree or the forbidden fruit, the Mohammedans, as well as the Christians, have various opinions. Some say it was an ear of wheat; some will have it to have been a fig-tree, and others a vine.6 The story of the Fall is told, with some further circumstances, in the beginning of the seventh chapter.
6 Vide ibid. p. 22.
|And we said, "O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye plentifully therefrom wherever ye list; but to this tree come not nigh, lest ye become of the transgressors."|
|91||34||2||But Satan caused them to forfeit paradise,e and turned them out of the state of happiness wherein they had been; whereupon we said, Get ye down,f the one of you an enemy unto the other; and there shall be a dwelling-place for you on earth, and a provision for a season.||e They have a tradition that the devil offering to get into paradise to tempt Adam, was not admitted by the guard; whereupon he begged of the animals, one after another, to carry him in, that he might speak to Adam and his wife; but they all refused him except the serpent, who took him between two of his teeth, and so introduced him. They add that the serpent was then of a beautiful form, and not in the shape he now bears.7
7 Vide ibid.
f The Mohammedans say that when they were cast down from paradise, Adam fell on the isle of Ceylon or Serendib, and Eve near Joddah (the port of Mecca) in Arabia; and that after a separation of 200 years, Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Mecca, where he found and knew his wife, the mountain being thence named Arafat; and that he afterwards retired with her to Ceylon, where they continued to propagate their species.8
It may not be improper here to mention another tradition concerning the gigantic stature of our first parents. Their prophet, they say, affirmed Adam to have been as tall as a high palm-tree;9 but this would be too much in proportion, if that were really the print of his foot, which is pretended to be such, on the top of a mountain in the isle of Ceylon, thence named Pico de Adam, and by the Arab writers Rahûn, being somewhat above two spans long10 (though others say it is 70 cubits long, and that when Adam set one foot here, he had the other in the sea)11; and too little, if Eve were of so enormous a size, as is said, when her head lay on one hill near Mecca, her knees rested on two others in the plain, about two musket-shots asunder.12
8 DHerbelot, Bib. Orient. p. 55.
10 Monconys Voyage, part i. p. 372, &c. See Knoxs Account of Ceylon.
11 Anciennes Relations des Indes, &c. p. 3.
12 Monconys, ubi sup.
|But Satan17 made them slip from it, and caused their banishment from the place in which they were. And we said, "Get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the other: and there shall be for you in the earth a dwelling-place, and a provision for a time."||17 Observe the change from Eblis, the calumniator, to Satan, the hater.|
|91||35||2||And Adam learned words of prayer from his LORD, and GOD turned unto him, for he is easy to be reconciled and merciful.||And words of prayer learned Adam from his Lord: and God turned to him; for He loveth to turn, the Merciful.|
|91||36||2||We said, Get ye all down from hence; hereafter shall there come unto you a direction from me,g and whoever shall follow my direction, on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved;||g GOD here promises Adam that his will should be revealed to him and his posterity; which promise the Mohammedans believe was fulfilled at several times by the ministry of several prophets, from Adam himself, who was the first, to Mohammed, who was the last. The number of books revealed unto Adam they say was ten.1
1 Vide Hottinger Hist. Orient. p. 11. Reland. de Relig. Mohammed, p. 21.
|We said, "Get ye down from it, all together: and if Guidance shall come to you from me, whoso shall follow my guidance, on them shall come no fear, neither shall they be grieved:|
|91||37||2||but they who shall be unbelievers, and accuse our signsh of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell fire, therein shall they remain forever.||h This word has various significations in the Korân; sometimes, as in this passage, it signifies divine revelation, or scripture in general; sometimes the verses of the Korân in particular, and at other times visible miracles. But the sense is easily distinguished by the context.||But they who shall not believe, and treat our signs as false-hoods, these shall be inmates of the fire; in it shall they remain for ever."|
|91||38||2||O children of Israeli, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you; and perform your covenant with me, and I will perform my covenant with you; and revere me: and believe in the revelation which I have sent down, confirming that which is with you, and be not the first who believe not therein, neither exchange my signs for a small price; and fear me.||i The Jews are here called upon to receive the Korân, as verifying and confirming the Pentateuch, particularly with respect to the unity of God and the mission of Mohammed.2 And they are exhorted not to conceal the passages of their law which bear witness to those truths, nor to corrupt them by publishing false copies of the Pentateuch, for which the writers were but poorly paid.3
|O children of Israel! remember my favour wherewith I shewed favour upon you, and be true to your covenant with me; I will be true to my covenant with you; me therefore, revere me! and believe in what I have sent down confirming your Scriptures, and be not the first to disbelieve it, neither for a mean price barter my signs: me therefore, fear ye me!|
|91||39||2||Clothe not the truth with vanity, neither conceal the truth against your own knowledge;||And clothe not the truth with falsehood, and hide not the truth when ye know it:18||18 Muhammad rarely accused the Jews and Christians of corrupting, but often of misinterpreting, their Sacred Books, in order to evade his claims. His charges, however, are always very vaguely worded, and his utterances upon this subject are tantamount to a strong testimony in favour of the unimpeachable integrity of the sacred books, both of the Jews and Christians, so far as he knew them. See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 168, and v. 73 below.|
|91||40||2||observe the stated times of prayer, and pay your legal alms, and bow down yourselves with those who bow down.||And observe prayer and pay the legal impost, and bow down with those who bow.|
|91||41||2||Will ye command men to do justice, and forget your own souls? yet ye read the book of the law: do ye not therefore understand?||Will ye enjoin what is right upon others, and forget yourselves? Yet ye read the Book: will ye not understand?|
|91||42||2||Ask help with perseverance and prayer; this indeed is grievous unless to the humble,||And seek help with patience and prayer: a hard duty indeed is this, but not to the humble,|
|91||43||2||who seriously think they shall meet their LORD and that to him they shall return.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 148, p. 139
|They who bear in mind that they shall attain unto the Presence of their Lord, and that unto Him shall they return.||Who bear in mind that they shall meet their Lord, and that unto Him shall they return.|
|91||44||2||O children of Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have preferred you above all nations;||O children of Israel! remember my favour wherewith I shewed favour upon you; for verily to you above all human beings have I been bounteous.|
|91||45||2||dread the day wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any intercession be accepted from them, nor shall any compensation be received, neither shall they be helped.||And fear ye the day when soul shall not satisfy for soul at all, nor shall any intercession be accepted from them, nor shall any ransom be taken, neither shall they be helped.|
|91||46||2||Remember when we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed you, they slew your male children, and let your females live: therein was a great trial from your LORD.||And remember when we rescued you from the people of Pharaoh, who had laid on you a cruel chastisement. They slew your male children, and let only your females live: and in this was a great trial from your Lord:|
|91||47||2||And when we divided the sea for you and delivered you, and drowned Pharaoh's people while ye looked on.k||k See the story of Moses and Pharaoh more particularly related, chapter vii. and xx. &c.||And when we parted the sea for you, and saved you, and drowned the people of Pharaoh, while ye were looking on:|
|91||48||2||And when we treated with Moses forty nights; then ye took the calfl for your God, and did evil;||l The person who cast this calf, the Mohammedans say, was (not Aaron but) al Sâmeri, one of the principal men among the children of Israel, some of whose descendants it is pretended still inhabit an island of that name in the Arabian Gulf.4 It was made of the rings5 and bracelets of gold, silver, and other materials, which the Israelites had borrowed of the Egyptians; for Aaron, who commanded in his brothers absence, having ordered al Sâmeri to collect those ornaments from the people, who carried on a wicked commerce with them, and to keep them together till the return of Moses; al Sâmeri, understanding the founders art, put them altogether into a furnace to melt them down into one mass, which came out in the form of a calf.1 The Israelites, accustomed to the Egyptian idolatry, paying a religious worship to this image, al Sâmeri went farther, and took some dust from the footsteps of the horse of the angel Gabriel, who marched at the head of the people, and threw it into the mouth of the calf, which immediately began to low, and became animated;2 for such was the virtue of that dust.3 One writer says that all the Israelites adored this calf, except only 12,000.4
4 Geogr. Nubiens. p. 45.
5 Kor. c. 7.
1 See Exod. xxxii. 24.
2 Kor. c. 7.
3 Jallaloddin. Vide DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 650.
|And when we were in treaty with Moses forty nights: then during his absence took ye the calf and acted wickedly:|
|91||49||2||yet afterwards we forgave you, that peradventure ye might give thanks.||Yet after this we forgave you, that ye might be grateful:|
|91||50||2||And when we gave Moses the book of the law, and the distinction between good and evil, that peradventure ye might be directed.||And when we gave Moses the Book and the Illumination19 in order to your guidance:||19 See Sura [lxv.] xxi. 49.|
|91||51||2||And when Moses said unto his people, O my people, verily ye have injured your own souls, by your taking the calf for your God; therefore be turned unto your Creator, and slay those among you who have been guilty of that crime;m this will be better for you in the sight of your Creator: and thereupon he turned unto you, for he is easy to be reconciled, and merciful.||m In this particular, the narration agrees with that of Moses, who ordered the Levites to slay every man his brother:5 but the scripture says, there fell of the people that day about 3,000 (the Vulgate says 23,000) men;6 whereas the commentators of the Korân make the number of the slain to amount to 70,000; and add, that GOD sent a dark cloud which hindered them from seeing one another, lest the sight should move those who executed the sentence to compassion.7
5 Exod. xxxii. 26, 27.
6 Ibid. 28.
7 Jallaloddin, &c.
|And remember when Moses said to his people, "O my people! verily ye - have sinned to your own hurt, by your taking the calf to worship it: Be turned then to your creator, and slay the guilty among you;20 this will be best for you with your creator:" Then turned He unto you, for He is the one who turneth, the Merciful:||20 Lit. slay one another.|
|91||52||2||And when ye said, O Moses, we will not believe thee, until we see GOD manifestly; therefore a punishment came upon you, while ye looked on;||And when ye said, "O Moses! we will not believe thee until we see God plainly;" the thunderbolt fell upon you while ye were looking on:|
|91||53||2||then we raised you to life after ye had been dead, that peradventure ye might give thanks.n||n The persons here meant are said to have been seventy men, who were made choice of by Moses and heard the voice of GOD talking with him. But not being satisfied with that, they demanded to see GOD; whereupon they were all struck dead by lightning, and on Mosess intercession restored to life.8
8 Ismael Ebn Ali.
|Then we raised you to life after ye had been dead,21 that haply ye might give thanks:||21 The Talmudists relate how the Israelites who had died, on hearing the divine voice, etc., were restored by the intercession of the Law itself. Sanh. 5.|
|91||54||2||And we caused clouds to overshadow you, and manna and quailso to descend upon you, saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food: and they injured not us, but injured their own souls.||o The eastern writers say these quails were of a peculiar kind, to be found nowhere but in Yaman, from whence they were brought by a south wind in great numbers to the Israelites camp in the desert.9 The Arabs call these birds Salwâ, which is plainly the same with the Hebrew Salwim, and say they have no bones, but are eaten whole.10
9 See Psalm lxxviii. 26.
10 Vide DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 477.
|And we caused the clouds to overshadow you, and we sent down manna and quails upon you;"Eat of the good things we have give you for sustenance;"and they injured not us but they injured themselves.22||22 By storing them up in violation of God's command.|
|91||55||2||And when we said, Enter into this city,p and eat of the provisions thereof plentifully as ye will; and enter the gate worshipping, and say, Forgiveness!q we will pardon you your sins, and give increase unto the well-doers.||p Some commentators suppose it to be Jericho, others Jerusalem.
q The Arabic word is Hittaton, which some take to signify that profession of the unity of GOD so frequently used by the Mohammedans, La ilâha illa llaho, There is no god but GOD.
|And when we said, "Enter this city,23 and eat therefrom plentifully, at your will, and enter the gate with prostrations, and say, 'Forgiveness;' and we will pardon you your sins, and give an increase to the doers of good:"||23 Jericho according to some commentators, Jerusalem according to others, but see verse 58.|
|91||56||2||But the ungodly changed the expression into another,r different from what had been spoken unto them; and we sent down upon the ungodly indignation from heaven,s because they had transgressed.||r According to Jallaloddin, instead of Hittaton, they cried Habbat fi shaïrati.e., a grain in an ear of barley; and in ridicule of the divine command to enter the city in an humble posture, they indecently crept in upon their breech.
s A pestilence which carried off near 70,000 of them.11
|But the evil-doers changed that word into another than that spoken to them,24 and we sent down upon those evil-doers wrath from heaven, for that they had done amiss:||24 See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 162.|
|91||57||2||And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, Strike the rockt with thy rod; and there gushed thereout twelve fountainsu according to the number of the tribes, and all men knew their respective drinking-place. Eat and drink of the bounty of GOD, and commit not evil on the earth, acting unjustly.||t The commentators say this was a stone which Moses brought from Mount Sinai, and the same that fled away with his garments which he laid upon it one day while he washed; they add that Moses ran after the stone naked, till he found himself, ere he was aware, in the midst of the people, who, on this accident, were convinced of the falsehood of a report which had been raised of their prophet, that he was bursten, or, as others write, an hermaphrodite.1
They describe it to be a square piece of white marble, shaped like a mans head; wherein they differ not much from the accounts of European travellers, who say this rock stands among several lesser ones, about 100 paces from Mount Horeb, and appears to have been loosened from the neighbouring mountains, having no coherence with the others; that it is a huge mass of red granite, almost round on one side, and flat on the other, twelve feet high, and as many thick, but broader than it is high, and about fifty feet in circumference.2
1 Jallaloddin, Yahya.
2 Breydenbach, Itinerar. Chartâ m. p. 1. Sicard, dans les Mémoires des Missions, vol. vii. p. 14.
u Marracci thinks this circumstance looks like a Rabbinical fiction, or else that Mohammed confounds the water of the rock at Horeb with the twelve wells at Elim;3 for he says several who have been on the spot affirm there are but three orifices whence the water issued.4 But it is to be presumed that Mohammed had better means of information in this respect than to fall into such a mistake; for the rock stands within the borders of Arabia, and some of his countrymen must needs have seen it, if he himself did not, as it is most probable he did. And in effect he seems to be in the right. For one who went into those parts in the end of the fifteenth century tells us expressly that the water issued from twelve places of the rock, according to the number of the tribes of Israel; egressæ sunt aquæ largissimæ in duodecim locis petræ, juxta numerum duodecim tribuum Israel.5 A late curious traveller6 observes that there are twenty-four holes in the stone, which may be easily countedthat is to say, twelve on the flat side, and as many on the opposite round side, every one being a foot deep, and an inch wide; and he adds, that the holes on one side do not communicate with those on the other, which a less accurate spectator not perceiving (for they are placed horizontally, within two feet of the top of the rock), might conclude they pierced quite through the stone, and so reckon them to be but twelve.
3 Exod. xv. 27; Numb. xxxiii. 9.
4 Marracc. Prodr. part iv. p. 80.
5 Breydenbach, ubi sup.
6 Sicard, ubi sup.
|And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, "Strike the rock with thy rod;" and from it there gushed twelve fountains: each tribe25 knew their drinking-place:"Eat and drink," said we, "of what God hath supplied, and do no wrong on the earth by licentious deeds:"||25 Lit. all men. This incident is perhaps inadvertently borrowed from Ex. xv. 27.|
|91||58||2||And when ye said, O Moses, we will by no means be satisfied with one kind of food; pray unto thy LORD therefore for us, that he would produce for us of that which the earth bringeth forth, herbs and cucumbers, and garlic, and lentils, and onions;x Moses answered, Will ye exchange that which is better, for that which is worse? Get ye down into Egypt, for there shall ye find what ye desire: and they were smitten with vileness and misery, and drew on themselves indignation from GOD. This they suffered, because they believed not in the signs of GOD, and killed the prophets unjustly; this, because they rebelled and transgressed.||x See Numb. xi. 5, &c.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 79
|MG: Humiliation and misery were stamped upon them.||And when ye said, "O Moses! we will not put up with one sort of food: pray, therefore, thy Lord for us, that He would bring forth for us of that which the earth groweth, its herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions:" He said, "What! will ye exchange that which is worse for what is better? Get ye down into Egypt;for ye shall have what ye have asked:" Vileness and poverty were stamped upon them, and they returned with wrath from God: This, for that they disbelieved the signs of God, and slew the Prophets26 unjustly: this, for that they rebelled and transgressed!||26 This passage (comp. xxvi. 59) is one of the numerous anachronisms which abound in the Koran and prove the gross ignorance of the Arabian Prophet.|
|91||59||2||Surely those who believe, and those who Judaize, and Christians, and Sabians,y whoever believeth in GOD, and the last day, and doth that which is right, they shall have their reward with their LORD; there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved.||y From these words, which are repeated in the fifth chapter, several writers7 have wrongly concluded that the Mohammedans hold it to be the doctrine of their prophet that every man may be saved in his own religion, provided he be sincere and lead a good life. It is true, some of their doctors do agree this to be the purport of the words;1 but then they say the latitude hereby granted was soon revoked, for that this passage is abrogated by several others in the Korân, which expressly declare that none can be saved who is not of the Mohammedan faith, and particularly by those words of the third chapter, Whoever followeth any other religion than Islâm (i.e., the Mohammedan) it shall not be accepted of him, and at the last day he shall be of those who perish.2 However, others are of opinion that this passage is not abrogated, but interpret it differently, taking the meaning of it to be that no man, whether he be a Jew, a Christian, or a Sabian, shall be excluded from salvation, provided he quit his erroneous religion and become a Moslem, which they say is intended by the following words, Whoever believeth in GOD and the last day, and doth that which is right. And this interpretation is approved by Mr. Reland, who thinks the words here import no more than those of the apostle, In every nation he that feareth GOD, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him;3 from which it must not be inferred that the religion of nature, or any other, is sufficient to save, without faith in Christ.4
7 Selden, de Jure Nat. et Gent. sec. Hebr. l. 6, c. 12. Angel, a St. Joseph. Gazophylac. Persic. p. 365. Nic. Cusanus in Cribratione Alcorani, l. 3, c. 2, &c.
1 See Chardins Voyages, vol. ii. p. 326, 331.
2 Abulkasem Hebatallah de abrogante et abrogato.
3 Acts x. 35.
4 Vide Reland. de Rel. Moham. p. 128, &c.
|Verily, they who believe (Muslims), and they who follow the Jewish religion, and the Christians, and the Sabeites27whoever of these believeth in God and the last day, and doeth that which is right, shall have their reward with their Lord: fear shall not come upon them, neither shall they be grieved.||27 The Sabeites are identical with the Mendaites, or so-called Christians of S. John, residing in the marshy district at the mouth of the Euphrates, but are not the same with the star-worshipping Sabians of Harran in Mesopotamia. See D'Herbelot, Bibl. Or. under the word Sabi; Assemani, Bibl. Or. iii. 2, 609. For curious details as to the elements of the Sabeite religion, see Chwolson's SSabier and SSabaismus I.|
|91||60||2||Call to mind also when we accepted your covenant, and lifted up the mountain of Sinai over you,z saying, Receive the law which we have given you, with a resolution to keep it, and remember that which is contained therein, that ye may beware.||z The Mohammedan tradition is, that the Israelites refusing to receive the law of Moses, GOD tore up the mountain by the roots, and shook it over their heads, to terrify them into a compliance.5
|Call to mind also when we entered into a covenant with you, and lifted up the mountain28 over you:"Take hold," said we, "on what we have revealed to you, with resolution, and remember what is therein, that ye may fear:"||28 See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 170.|
|91||61||2||After this ye again turned back, so that if it had not been for GOD's indulgence and mercy towards you, ye had certainly been destroyed. Moreover ye know what befell those of your nation who transgressed on the sabbath day;a We said unto them, Be ye changed into apes, driven away from the society of men.||a The story to which this passage refers, is as follows: In the days of David some Israelites dwelt at Ailah, or Elath, on the Red Sea, where on the night of the sabbath the fish used to come in great numbers to the shore, and stay there all the sabbath, to tempt them; but the night following they returned into the sea again. At length some of the inhabitants, neglecting GODS command, catched fish on the sabbath, and dressed and ate them; and afterward cut canals from the sea, for the fish to enter, with sluices, which they shut on the sabbath, to prevent their return to the sea. The other part of the inhabitants, who strictly observed the sabbath, used both persuasion and force to stop this impiety, but to no purpose, the offenders growing only more and more obstinate; whereupon David cursed the sabbath-breakers, and God transformed them into apes. It is said that one going to see a friend of his that was among them, found him in the shape of an ape, moving his eyes about wildly; and asking him whether he was not such a one, the ape made a sign with his head that it was he; whereupon the friend said to him, Did not I advise you to desist? at which the ape wept. They add that these unhappy people remained three days in this condition, and were afterwards destroyed by a wind which swept them all into the sea.6
|But after this ye turned back, and but for God's grace and mercy toward you, ye had surely been of the lost! Ye know too those of you who transgressed on the Sabbath, and to whom we said, "Be changed into scouted apes:"29||29 See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 164.|
|91||62||2||And we made them an example unto those who were contemporary with them, and unto those who came after them, and a warning to the pious.||And we made them a warning to those of their day, and to those who came after them, and a caution to the God-fearing:|
|91||63||2||And when Moses said unto his people, Verily GOD commandeth you to sacrifice a cow;b they answered, Dost thou make a jest of us! Moses said, GOD forbid that I should be one of the foolish. They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would show us what cow it is. Moses answered, He saith, She is neither an old cow, nor a young heifer, but of a middle age between both: do ye therefore that which ye are commanded.||b The occasion of this sacrifice is thus related. A certain man at his death left his son, then a child, a cow-calf, which wandered in the desert till he came to age; at which time his mother told him the heifer was his, and bid him fetch her, and sell her for three pieces of gold. When the young man came to the market with his heifer, an angel in the shape of a man accosted him, and bid him six pieces of gold for her; but he would not take the money till he had asked his mothers consent; which when he had obtained, he returned to the market-place, and met the angel, who now offered him twice as much for the heifer, provided he would say nothing of it to his mother; but the young man refusing, went and acquainted her with the additional offer. The woman perceiving it was an angel, bid her son go back and ask him what must be done with the heifer; whereupon the angel told the young man that in a little time the children of Israel would buy that heifer of him at any price. And soon after it happened that an Israelite, named Hammiel, was killed by a relation of his, who, to prevent discovery, conveyed the body to a place considerably distant from that where the fact was committed. The friends of the slain man accused some other persons of the murder before Moses; but they denying the fact, and there being no evidence to convict them, God commanded a cow, of such and such particular marks, to be killed; but there being no other which answered the description except the orphans heifer, they were obliged to buy her for as much gold as her hide would hold; according to some, for her full weight in gold, and as others say, for ten times as much. This heifer they sacrificed, and the dead body being, by divine direction, struck with a part of it, revived, and standing up, named the person who had killed him; after which it immediately fell down dead again.1 The whole story seems to be borrowed from the red heifer, which was ordered by the Jewish law to be burnt, and the ashes kept for purifying those who happened to touch a dead corpse;2 and from the heifer directed to be slain for the expiation of an uncertain murder. See Deut. xxi. 1-9.
2 Numb. xix.
|And when Moses said to his people, "Verily, God bids you sacrifice a COW;"30 they said, "Makest thou a jest of us?" He said, "God keep me from being one of the foolish." They said, "Call on thy Lord for us that He would make plain to us what she is." He said, "God saith, 'She is a cow neither old nor young, but of the middle age between the two:' do therefore what ye are bidden."||30 Compare Numb. xix.; Deut. xxii. 1-9. The cow was to be sacrificed in order that a murderer might be discovered through the miracle to be wrought on the corpse by a piece of her flesh.|
|91||64||2||They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would show us what colour she is of. Moses answered, He saith, She is a red cow,c intensely red, her colour rejoiceth the beholders.||c The epithet in the original is yellow; but this word we do not use in speaking of the colour or cattle.||They said, "Call on your Lord for us, that he would make plain to us what is her colour." He said, "God saith, 'She is a fawn-coloured cow; her colour is very bright; she rejoiceth the beholders.' "|
|91||65||2||They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would further show us what cow it is, for several cows with us are like one another, and we, if GOD please, will be directed.||They said, "Call on they Lord for us that He would make plain to us what cow it isfor to us are cows alike,and verily, if God please, we shall be guided rightly:"|
|91||66||2||Moses answered, He saith, She is a cow not broken to plough the earth, or water the field, a sound one, there is no blemish in her. They said, Now hast thou brought the truth. Then they sacrificed her; yet they wanted but little of leaving it undone.d||d Because of the exorbitant price which they were obliged to pay for the heifer.||He said, "God saith, 'She is a cow not worn by ploughing the earth or watering the field, sound, no blemish in her.' " They said, "Now hast thou brought the truth:" Then they sacrificed her; Yet nearly had they done it not:|
|91||67||2||And when ye slew a man, and contended among yourselves concerning him, GOD brought forth to light that which ye concealed.||And when ye slew a man, and strove among yourselves about him, God brought to light what he had hidden:|
|91||68||2||For we said, Strike the dead body with part of the sacrificed cow:e so GOD raiseth the dead to life, and showeth you his signs, that peradventure ye may understand.||e i.e., Her tongue, or the end of her tail.3
|For we said, "Strike the corpse with part of her." So God giveth life to the dead, and sheweth you his signs, that haply ye may understand.|
|91||69||2||Then were your hearts hardened after this, even as stones, or exceeding them in hardness: for from some stones have rivers bursted forth, others have been rent in sunder, and water hath issued from them, and others have fallen down for fear of GOD. But GOD is not regardless of that which ye do.||Then after that your hearts became hard like rocks, or harder still: for verily, from rocks have rivers gushed; others, verily, have been cleft, and water hath issued from them; and others, verily, have sunk down through fear of God: And God is not regardless of your actions.|
|91||70||2||Do ye therefore desire that the Jews should believe you? yet a part of them heard the word of GOD, and then perverted it, after they had understood it, against their own conscience.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 94, p. 87
|A part of them heard the Word of God, and then, after they had understood it, distorted it, and knew that they did so.||Desire ye then that for your sakes31 the Jews should believe? Yet a part of them heard the word of God, and then, after they had understood it, perverted it, and knew that they did so.||31 To please you, O Muslims.|
|91||71||2||And when they meet the true believers, they say, We believe: but when they are privately assembled together, they say, Will ye acquaint them with what GOD hath revealed unto you, that they may dispute with you concerning it in the presence of your LORD? Do ye not therefore understand?||And when they fall in with the faithful, they say, "We believe;" but when they are apart32 one with another, they say, "Will ye acquaint them with what God hath revealed to you, that they may dispute with you about it in the presence of your Lord?" Understand ye their aim?||32 This is one of the passages which shews great familiarity with the habits of the Jews, on the part of Muhammad. See Maracci's Prodr. i. 44. Wahl's Einleitung, xxx. xxxv.|
|91||72||2||Do not they know that GOD knoweth that which they conceal as well as that which they publish?||Know they not that God knoweth what they hide, as well as what they bring to light?|
|91||73||2||But there are illiterate men among them, who know not the book of the law, but only lying stories, although they think otherwise. And woe unto them, who transcribe corruptly the book of the lawf with their hands, and then say, This is from GOD: that they may sell it for a small price. Therefore woe unto them because of that which their hands have written; and woe unto them for that which they have gained.||f Mohammed again accuses the Jews of corrupting their scripture.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 95, p. 87
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 249)
|Woe unto those who, with their own hands, transcribe the Book corruptly, and then say: 'This is from God,' that they may sell it for some mean price.||But there are illiterates among them who are unacquainted with the Book,33 but with lies only, and have but vague fancies. Woe to those who with their own hands transcribe the Book corruptly, and then say, "This is from God," that they may sell it for some mean price! Woe then to them for that which their hands have written! and, Woe to them for the gains which they have made!||33 The Pentateuch. This passage shews that the art of writing was known in Medina shortly after the Hejira.|
|91||74||2||They say, The fire of hell shall not touch us but for a certain number of days.g Answer, Have ye received any promise from GOD to that purpose? for GOD will not act contrary to his promise: or do ye speak concerning GOD that which ye know not?||g That is, says Jallaloddin, forty; being the number of days that their forefathers worshipped the golden calf; after which they gave out that their punishment should cease. It is a received opinion among the Jews at present, that no person, be he ever so wicked, or of whatever sect, shall remain in hell above eleven months, or at most a year; except Dathan and Abiram, and atheists, who will be tormented there to all eternity.1
1 Vide Bartoloccii Biblioth. Rabbinic. tom. ii. p. 128, et tom. iii. p. 421.
|And they say, "Hell fire shall not touch us, but for a few days:"34 SAY: Have ye received such a promise from God? for God will not revoke his promise: or, Speak ye of God that which ye know not?||34 Forty days; the period during which they worshipped the calf.|
|91||75||2||Verily whoso doth evil,h and is encompassed by his iniquity, they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever:||h By evil in this place the commentators generally understand polytheism or idolatry; which sin the Mohammedans believe, unless repented of in this life, is unpardonable and will be punished by eternal damnation; but all other sins they hold will at length be forgiven. This therefore is that irremissible impiety, in their opinion, which in the New Testament is called the sin against the Holy Ghost.||But they whose only gains are evil works, and who are environed by their sins,they shall be inmates of the fire, therein to abide for ever:|
|91||76||2||but they who believe and do good works, they shall be the companions of paradise, they shall continue therein forever.||But they who have believed and done the things that be right, they shall be the inmates of Paradise,therein to abide for ever.|
|91||77||2||Remember also, when we accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall not worship any other except GOD, and ye shall show kindness to your parents and kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and speak that which is good unto men, and be constant at prayer, and give alms. Afterwards ye turned back, except a few of you, and retired afar off.||And when we entered into covenant with the children of Israel, we said, "Worship none but God, and be good to your parents and kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and speak with men what is right, and observe prayer, and pay the stated alms." Then turned ye away, except a few of you, and withdrew afar off.|
|91||78||2||And when we accepted your covenant, saying, Ye shall not shed your brother's blood nor dispossess one another of your habitations; then ye confirmed it, and were witnesses thereto.||And when we made a covenant with you that ye should not shed your own blood,35 nor expel one another from your abodes, then ye ratified it and yourselves were witnesses.||35 The blood of those who are as your own flesh.|
|91||79||2||Afterwards ye were they who slew one another,i and turned several of your brethren out of their houses, mutually assisting each other against them with injustice and enmity; but if they come captives unto you, ye redeem them: yet it is equally unlawful for you to dispossess them. Do ye therefore believe in part of the book of the law, and reject other part thereof? But whoso among you doth this, shall have no other reward than shame in this life, and on the day of resurrection they shall be sent to a most grievous punishment; for GOD is not regardless of that which ye do.||i This passage was revealed on occasion of some quarrels which arose between the Jews of the tribes of Koreidha, and those of al Aws, al Nadhîr, and al Khazraj, and came to that height that they took arms and destroyed one anothers habitations, and turned one another out of their houses; but when any were taken captive, they redeemed them. When they were asked the reason of their acting in this manner, they answered, That they were commanded by their law to redeem the captives, but that they fought out of shame, lest their chiefs should be despised.2
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 181, p. 169
|Believe ye then part of the Book, and deny part?||Then were ye the very persons who slew one another; and ye drove out a part of your own people from their abodes; ye lent help against them with wrong and hatred; but if they come captives to you, ye redeem them!Yet it was forbidden you to drive them out.36 Believe ye then part of the Book, and deny part? But what shall be the meed of him among you who doth this, but shame in this life? And on the day of the Resurrection they shall be sent to the most cruel of torments, for God is not regardless of what ye do.||36 Two Jewish tribes (Koreidha and Nadhir) in alliance with certain Arab tribes who were at war, destroyed one another's abodes, but redeemed the Jewish captives, professing that they were commanded to do this by the Law. So the commentators.|
|91||80||2||These are they who have purchased this present life, at the price of that which is to come; wherefore their punishment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be helped.||These are they who purchase this present life at the price of that which is to come: their torment shall not be lightened, neither shall they be helped.|
|91||81||2||We formerly delivered the book of the law unto Moses, and caused apostles to succeed him, and gave evident miracles to Jesus the son of Mary, and strengthened him with the holy spirit.k Do ye therefore, whenever an apostle cometh unto you with that which your souls desire not, proudly reject him, and accuse some of imposture, and slay others?||k We must not imagine Mohammed here means the Holy Ghost in the Christian acceptation. The commentators says this spirit was the angel Gabriel, who sanctified Jesus and constantly attended on him.1
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 13, p. 13
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 79, p. 71
|As oft as an Apostle cometh unto you with that which your souls desire not, ye swell
with pride, accusing some of being impostors and slaying others.
|Moreover, to Moses gave we "the Book," and we raised up apostles after him; and to Jesus, son of Mary, gave we clear proofs of his mission, and strengthened him by the Holy Spirit.37 So oft then as an apostle cometh to you with that which your souls desire not, swell ye with pride, and treat some as impostors, and slay others?||37 Gabriel. Muhammad either knowingly rejected the divinity of the Holy Ghost, or confounded Gabriel announcing the conception, with the Holy Spirit that overshadowed Mary. It is probable that Muhammad's ideas of the Spirit were at first indefinite, but that the two expressions, Gabriel and the Holy Spirit, became ultimately synonymous. See note on Sura [lxvii.] xvii. 87. Geiger (p. 82) quotes an instance in which the Jewish expositors understand the distinctly-speaking Spirit (Sanhedr. 44) of Gabriel.|
|91||82||2||The Jews say, Our hearts are uncircumcised: but GOD hath cursed them with their infidelity; therefore few shall believe.||And they say, "Uncircumcised are our hearts." Nay! God hath cursed them in their infidelity: few are they who believe!|
|91||83||2||And when a book came unto them from GOD, confirming the scriptures which were with them, although they had before prayed for assistance against those who believed not,l yet when that came unto them which they knew to be from God, they would not believe therein: therefore the curse of GOD shall be on the infidels.||l The Jews in expectation of the coming of Mohammed (according to the tradition of his followers) used this prayer, O God, help us against the unbelievers by the prophet who is to be sent in the last times.2
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 159, p. 150
|Although they had before prayed for victory over those who believed not, yet when there came unto them, He of Whom they had knowledge, they disbelieved in Him. The curse of God on the infidels!||And when a Book had come to them from God, confirming that which they had received alreadyalthough they had before prayed for victory over those who believed notyet when that Koran come to them, of which they had knowledge, they did not recognise it. The curse of God on the infidels!|
|91||84||2||For a vile price have they sold their souls, that they should not believe in that which GOD hath sent down;m out of envy, because GOD sendeth down his favors to such of his servants as he pleaseth: therefore they brought on themselves indignation on indignation; and the unbelievers shall suffer an ignominious punishment.||m The Korân.||The Seven Valleys (The Valley of True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness)
|MG: grace on such of His servants as He pleaseth.||For a vile price have they sold themselves, by not believing what God hath sent down, envious of God's sending down his grace on such of his servants as he pleaseth:38 and they have brought on themselves wrath upon wrath. And for the unbelievers is a disgraceful chastisement.||38 The gift of the prophetic office, etc., to a pagan Arab and not to a Jew.|
|91||85||2||When one saith unto them, Believe in that which GOD hath sent down; they answer, We believe in that which hath been sent down unto us:n and they reject what hath been revealed since, although it be the truth, confirming that which is with them. Say, Why therefore have ye slain the prophets of GOD in times past, if ye be true believers?||n The Pentateuch.||And when it is said to them, "Believe in what God hath sent down," they say, "In that which hath been sent down to us we believe:" but what hath since been sent down they disbelieve, although it be the truth confirmatory of their own Scriptures. SAY: Why then have ye of old slain God's prophets,39 if ye are indeed believers?||39 Matt. xxiii. 37.|
|91||86||2||Moses formerly came unto you with evident signs, but ye afterwards took the calf for your god and did wickedly.||Moreover, Moses came unto you with proofs of his mission. Then in his absence ye took the calf for your God, and did wickedly.|
|91||87||2||And when we accepted your covenant, and lifted the mountain of Sinai over you,o saying Receive the law which we have given you, with a resolution to perform it, and hear; they said, We have heard, and have rebelled: and they were made to drink down the calf into their heartsp for their unbelief. Say, A grievous thing hath your faith commanded you, if ye be true believers?q||o See before p. 8.
p Moses took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strewed it upon the water (of the brook that descended from the mount), and made the children of Israel drink of it.3
3 Exod. xxxii. 20; Deut. ix. 21.
q Mohammed here infers from their forefathers disobedience in worshipping the calf, at the same time that they pretended to believe in the law of Moses, that the faith of the Jews in his time was as vain and hypocritical, since they rejected him, who was foretold therein, as an impostor.4
4 Jallaloddin, Yahya, al Beidâwi.
|And when we accepted your covenant, and uplifted40 the mountain over you, we said, "Take firm hold on what we have given you, and hearken." They said, "We have hearkened and have rebelled:" then were they made to drink down the calf into their hearts for their ingratitude. SAY: A bad thing hath your faith commanded you, if ye be indeed believers.||40 See Sura vii. 170, p. 309.|
|91||88||2||Say, if the future mansion with GOD be prepared peculariarly for you, exclusive of the rest of mankind, wish for death, if ye say truth;||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 252, p. 227
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 67
|Wish for death, if ye are men of truth.
BWC: Wish ye, then, for death, if ye are sincere.
MG: Desire death, then, if ye be sincere.
|SAY: If the future dwelling place with God be specially for you, but not for the rest of mankind, then wish for death, if ye are sincere:|
|91||89||2||but they will never wish for it, because of that which their hands have sent before them;r GOD knoweth the wicked-doers;||r That is, by reason of the wicked forgeries which they have been guilty of in respect to the scriptures. An expression much like that of St. Paul, where he says, that some mens sins are open beforehand, going before to judgment.5
5 1 Tim. v. 24.
|Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 22, paragraph 27
|But never can they wish for it, because of that which their own hands have sent on before them!41 And God knoweth the offenders.||41 Comp. 1 Tim. v. 24.|
|91||90||2||and thou shalt surely find them of all men the most covetous of life, even more than the idolaters: one of them would desire his life to be prolonged a thousand years, but none shall reprieve himself from punishment, that his life may be prolonged: GOD seeth that which they do.||And thou wilt surely find them of all men most covetous of life, beyond even the polytheists. To be kept alive a thousand years might one of them desire: but that he may be preserved alive, shall no one reprieve himself from the punishment! And God seeth what they do.|
|91||91||2||Say, Whoever is an enemy to Gabriels (for he hath caused the Koran to descend on thy heart, by the permission of GOD, confirming that which was before revealed, a direction, and good tidings to the faithful);||s The commentators say that the Jews asked what angel it was that brought the divine revelations to Mohammed; and being told that it was Gabriel, they replied that he was their enemy, and the messenger of wrath and punishment; but if it had been Michael, they would have believed on him, because that angel was their friend, and the messenger of peace and plenty. And on this occasion, they say, this passage was revealed.1
That Michael was really the protector or guardian angel of the Jews, we know from scripture;2 and it seems that Gabriel was, as the Persians call him, the angel of revelations, being frequently sent on messages of that kind;3 for which reason it is probable Mohammed pretended he was the angel from whom he received the Korân.
1 Jallaloddin; al Zamakh. Yahya.
2 Dan. xii. I.
3 Ibid.. c. viii. 16, and ix. 21; Luke i. 19, 26. See Hyde de Rel. Vet. Persar. p. 263.
|SAY: Whoso is the enemy of GabrielFor he it is who by God's leave hath caused the Koran to descend on thy heart, the confirmation of previous revelations, and guidance, and good tidings to the faithful|
|91||92||2||whosoever is an enemy to GOD, or his angels, or his apostles, or to Gabriel, or Michael, verily GOD is an enemy to the unbelievers.||Whoso is an enemy to God or his angels, or to Gabriel, or to Michael, shall have God as his enemy: for verily God is an enemy to the Infidels.|
|91||93||2||And now we have sent down unto thee evident signs,t and none will disbelieve them but the evil-doers.||t i.e., the revelations of this book.||Moreover, clear signs have we sent down to thee, and none will disbelieve them but the perverse.|
|91||94||2||Whenever they make a covenant, will some of them reject it? yea, the greater part of them do not believe.||
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 223)
|Oft as they have formed an engagement with thee, will some of them set it aside? But most of them believe not.|
|91||95||2||And when there came unto them an apostle from GOD, confirming that scripture which was with them, some of those to whom the scriptures were given cast the book of GOD behind their backs, as if they knew it not:||And when there came to them an apostle from God, affirming the previous revelations made to them, some of those to whom the Scriptures were given, threw the Book of God behind their backs as if they knew it not:|
|91||96||2||and they followed the device which the devils devised against the kingdom of Solomon;u and Solomon was not an unbeliever; but the devils believed not, they taught men sorcery, and that which was sent down to the two angels at Babel, Harût and Marût:v yet those two taught no man until they had said, Verily we are a temptation, therefore be not an unbeliever. So men learned from those two a charm by which they might cause division between a man and his wife; but they hurt none thereby, unless by GOD'S permission, and they learned that which would hurt them, and not profit them; and yet they knew that he who bought that art should have no part in the life to come, and woful is the price for which they have sold their souls, if they knew it.||u The devils having, by GODS permission, tempted Solomon without success, they made use of a trick to blast his character. For they wrote several books of magic, and hid them under that princes throne, and after his death, told the chief men that if they wanted to know by what means Solomon had obtained his absolute power over men, genii, and the winds, they should dig under his throne; which having done, they found the aforesaid books, which contained impious superstitions. The better sort refused to learn the evil arts therein delivered, but the common people did; and the priests published this scandalous story of Solomon, which obtained credit among the Jews, till GOD, say the Mohammedans, cleared that king by the mouth of their prophet, declaring that Solomon was no idolater.4
4 Yahya, Jallaloddin.
v Some say only that these were two magicians, or angels sent by GOD to teach men magic, and to tempt them.5 But others tell a longer fable; that the angels expressing their surprise at the wickedness of the sons of Adam, after prophets had been sent to them with divine commissions, GOD bid them choose two out of their own number to be sent down to be judges on earth. Whereupon they pitched upon Harût and Marût, who executed their office with integrity for some time, till Zohara, or the planet Venus, descended and appeared before them in the shape of a beautiful woman, bringing a complaint against her husband (though others say she was a real woman). As soon as they saw her, they fell in love with her, and endeavoured to prevail on her to satisfy their desires; but she flew up again to heaven, whither the two angels also returned, but were not admitted. However, on the intercession of a certain pious man, they were allowed to choose whether they would be punished in this life, or in the other; whereupon they chose the former, and now suffer punishment accordingly in Babel, where they are to remain till the day of judgment. They add that if a man has a fancy to learn magic, he may go to them, and hear their voice, but cannot see them.1
This story Mohammed took directly from the Persian Magi, who mention two rebellious angels of the same names, now hung up by the feet, with their heads downwards, in the territory of Babel.2 And the Jews have something like this, of the angel Shamhozai, who, having debauched himself with women, repented, and by way of penance hung himself up between heaven and earth.3
1 Yahya, &c.
2 Vide Hyde, ubi sup. c. 12.
3 Bereshit rabbah, in Gen. vi. 2.
|And they followed what the Satans read42 in the reign of Solomon: not that Solomon was unbelieving, but the Satans were unbelieving. Sorcery did they teach to men, and what had been revealed to the two angels, Harut and Marut, at Babel. Yet no man did these two teach until they had said, "We are only a temptation. Be not then an unbeliever." From these two did men learn how to cause division between man and wife: but unless by leave of God, no man did they harm thereby. They learned, indeed, what would harm and not profit them; and yet they knew that he who bought that art should have no part in the life to come! And vile the price for which they have sold themselves,if they had but known it!||42 In Solomon's Books of Magic. This story has been supposed to be of Persian origin. See Hyde de Rel. Vet. Pers. ch. xii. But from a passage in the Midr. Abhkhir quoted in the Midr. Jalkut, ch. 44, and from a quotation in Maracci's Prodr. iv. 82, Geiger infers that Muhammad has transferred to the time of Solomon, the Rabbinic traditions concerning the influence of angels upon men at the time of the Deluge. p. 106. "Babel is regarded by the Muslims as the fountain head of the science of magic. They suppose Haroot and Maroot to be two angels who, in consequence of their want of compassion for the frailties of mankind, were sent down to earth to be tempted. They both sinned; and being permitted to choose whether they would be punished now or hereafter, chose the former, and are still suspended by the feet at Babel in a rocky pit, and are the great teachers of magic." (Lane on ch. iii. note 14 of the 1001 Nights.)|
|91||97||2||But if they had believed, and feared GOD, verily the reward they would have had from GOD would have been better, if they had known it.||But had they believed and feared God, better surely would have been the reward from God,if they had but known it!|
|91||98||2||O true believers, say not to our apostle, Raïna; but say Ondhorna;x and hearken: the infidels shall suffer a grievous punishment.||x Those two Arabic words have both the same signification, viz., Look on us; and are a kind of salutation. Mohammed had a great aversion to the first, because the Jews frequently used it in derision, it being a word of reproach in their tongue.4 They alluded, it seems, to the Hebrew verb [Hebrew Text] ruá, which signifies to be bad or mischievous.
|O ye who believe! say not to our apostle, "Raina"43 (Look at us); but say, "Ondhorna" (Regard us). And attend to this; for, the Infidels shall suffer a grievous chastisement.||43 Raina, as pronounced in Hebrew, "our bad one;" but in Arabic, "look upon us," a kind of salutation of the same signification as ondhorna, which, however, does not admit of any secondary bad sense like raina.|
|91||99||2||It is not the desire of the unbelievers, either among those unto whom the scriptures have been given, or among the idolaters, that any good should be sent down unto you from your LORD: but GOD will appropriate his mercy unto whom he pleaseth; for GOD is exceeding beneficent.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 49-54, Nabíl of Qáin)
Tablets of the Divine Plan (11 Tablet to the Baháís of the Central States, within pp. 75-83)
|MG: And God will single out for His mercy whomsoever He willeth.
O: He specializes for His Mercy whomsoever He willeth.
|The unbelievers among the people of the Book, and among the idolaters, desire not that any good should be sent down to you from your Lord: but God will shew His special mercy to whom He will, for He is of great bounty.|
|91||100||2||Whatever verse we shall abrogate, or cause thee to forget, we will bring a better than it, or one like unto it. Dost thou not know that God is almighty?||Whatever verses we cancel,44 or cause thee to forget, we bring a better or its like. Knowest thou not that God hath power over all things?||44 Comp. Sura xvi. 103; iv. 84. The Muslims admit that there are 225 verses cancelled by later ones. The doctrine of "abrogation" is taught in the Talmud. Thus Hilchoth Mamrim, ii. 1, 2, etc.|
|91||101||2||Dost thou not know that unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth? neither have ye any protector or helper except GOD.||Knowest thou not that the dominion of the Heavens and of the Earth is God's? and that ye have neither patron nor helper, save God?|
|91||102||2||Will ye require of your apostle according to that which was formerly required of Moses?y but he that hath exchanged faith for infidelity, hath already erred from the straight way.||y Namely, to see GOD manifestly.5
5 See before, p. 7.
|Would ye ask of your apostle what of old was asked of Moses? But he who exchangeth faith for unbelief,45 hath already erred from the even way.||45 That is, does not weigh the evidence for Muhammad's mission already given, but demands, as the Jews did, to see God himself.|
|91||103||2||Many of those unto whom the scriptures have been given, desire to render you again unbelievers, after ye have believed; out of envy from their souls, even after the truth is become manifest unto them; but forgive them, and avoid them, till GOD shall send his command; for GOD is omnipotent.||Many of the people of the Book desire to bring you back to unbelief after ye have believed, out of selfish envy, even after the truth hath been clearly shewn them. But forgive them, and shun them till God shall come in with His working. Truly God hath power over all things.|
|91||104||2||Be constant in prayer, and give alms; and what good ye have sent before for your souls, ye shall find it with GOD; surely GOD seeth that which ye do.||And observe prayer and pay the legal impost:46 and whatever good thing ye have sent on before for your soul's sake, ye shall find it with God. Verily God seeth what ye do.||46 In all Muhammadan countries the first time of prayer is the moghreb or sunset, or rather, four minutes later; the second the eshe, when it has become quite dark; the third the soobh or fegr, the daybreak; the fourth, doohr, or a little after noon, when the sun has begun to decline; the fifth, the asr, midway between noon and nightfall. The obligatory legal alms or impost are called, as here, zekah (lit. purity), the voluntary, sudackah. It is, however, left to the conscience of individuals to give and to apply them as they think fit.|
|91||105||2||They say, Verily none shall enter paradise, except they who are Jews or Christians:z this is their wish. Say, Produce your proof of this, if ye speak truth.||z This passage was revealed on occasion of a dispute which Mohammed had with the Jews of Medina, and the Christians of Najrân, each of them asserting that those of their religion only should be saved.6
|And they say, "None but Jews or Christians shall enter Paradise:" This is their wish. SAY: Give your proofs if ye speak the truth.|
|91||106||2||Nay, but he who resigneth himselfa to GOD, and doth that which is right,b he shall have his reward with his LORD: there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved.||a Literally, resigneth his face, &c.
b That is, asserteth the unity of GOD.7
|But they who set their face with resignation Godward, and do what is right,their reward is with their Lord; no fear shall come on them, neither shall they be grieved.|
|91||107||2||The Jews say, The Christians are grounded on nothing;c and the Christians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing; and the Christians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing; yet they both read the scriptures. So likewise say they who know not the scripture, according to their saying. But GOD shall judge between them on the day of the resurrection, concerning that about which they now disagree.||c The Jews and Christians are here accused of denying the truth of each others religion, notwithstanding they read the scriptures. Whereas the Pentateuch bears testimony to Jesus, and the Gospel bears testimony to Moses.1
|Moreover, the Jews say, "The Christians lean on nought:" "On nought lean the Jews," say the Christians: Yet both are readers of the Book. So with like words say they who have no knowledge.47 But on the resurrection day, God shall judge between them as to that in which they differ.||47 The idolatrous Arabs.|
|91||108||2||Who is more unjust than he who prohibiteth the temples of GOD,d that his name should be remembered therein, and who hasteth to destroy them? Those men cannot enter therein, but with fear: they shall have shame in this world, and in the next a grievous punishment.||d Or hindereth men from paying their adorations to GOD in those sacred places. This passage, says Jallaloddin, was revealed on news being brought that the Romans had spoiled the temple of Jerusalem; or else when the idolatrous Arabs obstructed Mohammeds visiting the temple of Mecca, in the expedition of al Hodeibiya, which happened in the sixth year of the Hejra.2
2 Vide Abulfeda. Vit. Moham. p. 84, &c.
|And who committeth a greater wrong than he who hindereth God's name from being remembered in his temples, and who hasteth to ruin them?48 Such men cannot enter them but with fear. Their's is shame in this world, and a severe torment in the next.||48 If this verse is aimed at the Meccans who, in the 6th year of the Hejira, forbad Muhammad and his followers to enter the temple of Mecca in the expedition of Hodeibiya, it is misplaced here.|
|91||109||2||To GOD belongeth the east and the west; therefore whithersoever ye turn yourselves to pray, there is the face of GOD; for GOD is omnipresent and omniscient.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 55, p. 52
|The East and the West are God's: therefore whichever way ye turn, there is the face of God.||The East and the West is God's: therefore, whichever way ye turn, there is the face of God:49 Truly God is immense and knoweth all.||49 Abrogated by verse 139 below.|
|91||110||2||They say, GOD hath begotten children:e GOD forbid! To him belongeth whatever is in heaven, and on earth; all is possessed by him,||e This is spoken not only of the Christians and of the Jews (for they are accused of holding Ozair, or Ezra, to be the Son of GOD), but also the pagan Arabs, who imagined the angels to be the daughters of GOD.||And they say, "God hath a son:" No! Praise be to Him! ButHis, whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth! All obeyeth Him,|
|91||111||2||the Creator of heaven and earth; and when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is.||Sole maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! And when He decreeth a thing, He only saith to it, "Be," and it is.|
|91||112||2||And they who know not the scriptures say, Unless GOD speak unto us, or thou show us a sign, we will not believe. So said those before them, according to their saying: their hearts resemble each other. We have already shown manifest signs unto people who firmly believe;||And they who have no knowledge say, "Unless God speak to us, or thou shew us a sign . . . !" So, with like words, said those who were before them: their hearts are alike: Clear signs have we already shewn for those who have firm faith:|
|91||113||2||we have sent thee in truth, a bearer of good tidings and a preacher; and thou shalt not be questioned concerning the companions of hell.||Verily, with the Truth have we sent thee, a bearer of good tidings and a warner: and of the people of Hell thou shalt not be questioned.|
|91||114||2||But the Jews will not be pleased with thee, neither the Christians, until thou follow their religion; say, The direction of GOD is the true direction. And verily if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, thou shalt find no patron or protector against GOD.||But until thou follow their religion, neither Jews nor Christians will be satisfied with thee. SAY: Verily, guidance of God,that is the guidance! And if, after "the Knowledge" which hath reached thee, thou follow their desires, thou shalt find neither helper nor protector against God.|
|91||115||2||They to whom we have given the book of the Koran, and who read it with its true reading, they believe therein; and whoever believeth not therein, they shall perish.||They to whom we have given the Book, and who read it as it ought to be read,these believe therein: but whoso believeth not therein, shall meet with perdition.|
|91||116||2||O children of Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have preferred you before all nations;||O children of Israel! remember my favour wherewith I have favoured you, and that high above all mankind have I raised you:|
|91||117||2||and dread the day wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any compensation be accepted from them, nor shall any intercession avail, neither shall they be helped.||And dread the day when not in aught shall soul satisfy for soul, nor shall any ransom be taken from it, nor shall any intercession avail, and they shall not be helped.|
|91||118||2||Remember when the LORD tried Abraham by certain words,f which he fulfilled: GOD said, Verily I will constitute thee a model of religiong unto mankind; he answered, And also of my posterity; GOD said, My covenant doth not comprehend the ungodly.||f GOD tried Abraham chiefly by commanding him to leave his native country, and to offer his son. But the commentators suppose the trial here meant related only to some particular ceremonies, such as circumcision, pilgrimage to the Caaba, several rites of purification, and the like.3
g I have rather expressed the meaning, than truly translated the Arabic word Imâm, which answers to the Latin Antistes. This title the Mohammedans give to their priests, who begin the prayers in their mosques, and whom all the congregation follow.
|When his Lord made trial of Abraham by commands which he fulfilled, He said, "I am about to make thee an Imâm to mankind:" he said, "Of my offspring also:" "My covenant," said God, "embraceth not the evil doers."|
|91||119||2||And when we appointed the holy househ of Mecca to be a place of resort for mankind, and a place of security; and said, Take the station of Abrahami for a place of prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham for a place of prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham and Ismael, that they should cleanse my house for those who should compass it, and those who should be devoutly assiduous there, and those who should bow down and worship.||h That is, the Caaba, which is usually called, by way of eminence, the House. Of the sanctity of this building, and other particulars relating to it, see the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.
i A place so called within the inner enclosure of the Caaba, where they pretend to show the print of his foot in a stone.4
4 See the Prelim. Disc., Sect. IV.
|And remember when we appointed the Holy House50 as man's resort and safe retreat, and said, "Take ye the station of Abraham for a place of prayer:" And we commanded Abraham and Ismael, "Purify my house for those who shall go in procession round it, and those who shall abide there for devotion, and those who shall bow down and prostrate themselves."||50 The Caaba.|
|91||120||2||And when Abraham said, LORD make this a territory of security, and bounteously bestow fruits on its inhabitants, such of them as believe in GOD and the last day; GOD answered, And whoever believeth not, I will bestow on him little; after wards I will drive him to the punishment of hell fire; an ill journey shall it be!||And when Abraham said, "Lord! make this secure land, and supply its people with fruits, such of them as believe in God and in the last day:" He said, "And whoso believeth not, for a little while will I bestow good things on him; then will I drive him to the torment of the Fire!" An ill passage!|
|91||121||2||And when Abraham and Ismael raised the foundations of the house, saying, LORD, accept it from us, for thou art he who heareth and knoweth:||And when Abraham, with Ismael, raised the foundations51 of the House, they said, "O our Lord! accept it from us; for thou art the Hearer, the Knower.||51 Freytag (Einl. p. 339) says that there is no good reason for doubting that the Caaba was founded as stated in this passage. See note on Sura [xcvii.] iii. 90.|
|91||122||2||LORD, make us also resignedk unto thee, and of our posterity a people resigned unto thee, and show us our holy ceremonies, and be turned unto us, for thou art easy to be reconciled, and merciful:||k The Arabic word is Moslemûna, in the singular Moslem, which the Mohammedans take as a title peculiar to themselves. The Europeans generally write and pronounce it Musulman.||O our Lord! make us also Muslims, and our posterity a Muslim people; and teach us our holy rites, and be turned towards us, for thou art He who turneth, the Merciful.|
|91||123||2||LORD, send them likewise an apostle from among them, who may declare thy signs unto them, and teach them the book of the Koran and wisdom, and may purify them; for thou art mighty and wise.||O our Lord! raise up among them an apostle52 who may rehearse thy signs unto them, and teach them 'the Book,' and Wisdom, and purify them: for thou art the Mighty, the Wise."||52 Deut. xviii. 15.|
|91||124||2||Who will be averse to the religion of Abraham, but he whose mind is infatuated? Surely we have chosen him in this world, and in that which is to come he shall be one of the righteous.||And who but he that hath debased his soul to folly will mislike the faith of Abraham, when we have chosen him in this world, and in the world to come he shall be of the Just?|
|91||125||2||When his LORD said unto him, Resign thyself unto me; he answered, I have resigned myself unto the LORD of all creatures.||When his Lord said to him, "Resign thyself to me," he said, "I resign myself to the Lord of the Worlds."|
|91||126||2||And Abraham bequeathed this religion to his children, and Jacob did the same, saying, My children, verily GOD hath chosen this religion for you, therefore die not, unless ye also be resigned.||And this to his children did Abraham bequeath, and Jacob also, saying, "O my children! truly God hath chosen a religion for you; so die not unless ye be also Muslims."|
|91||127||2||Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death? when he said to his sons, Whom will ye worship after me? They answered, We will worship thy GOD, and the GOD of thy fathers Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, one GOD, and to him will we be resigned.||Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death?53 when he said to his sons, "Whom will ye worship when I am gone?" They said, "We will worship thy God and the God of thy fathers Abraham and Ismael and Isaac, one God, and to Him are we surrendered (Muslims)."||53 "At the time when our father Jacob quitted this world, be summoned his twelve sons and said to them, Hearken to your father Israel (Gen. xlix. 2). Have ye any doubts in your hearts concerning the Holy One, Blessed be He! They said, Hear, O Israel, our Father. As there is no doubt in thy heart, so neither is there in ours. For the Lord is our God, and He is one." Midr. Rabbah on Gen. par. 98, and on Deut. par. 2. Comp. also Targ. Jer. on Deut. vi. 4. Tract. Pesachim, 56.|
|91||128||2||That people are now passed away, they have what they have gained,l and ye shall have what ye gain; and ye shall not be questioned concerning that which they have done.||l Or deserved. The Mohammedan notion, as to the imputation of moral actions to man, which they call gain, or acquisition, is sufficiently explained in the Preliminary Discourse.||That people have now passed away; they have the reward of their deeds, and ye shall have the meed of yours: but of their doings ye shall not be questioned.|
|91||129||2||They say, Become Jews or Christians that ye may be directed. Say, Nay we follow the religion of Abraham the orthodox, who was no idolater.||They say, moreover, "Become Jews or Christians that ye may have the true guidance." SAY: Nay! the religion of Abraham, the sound in faith,54 and not one of those who join gods with God!||54 See Sura [lxxiii.] xvi. 121, n., p. 209.|
|91||130||2||Say, We believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto us, and that which hath been sent down unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered unto Moses, and Jesus, and that which was delivered unto the prophets from their LORD: We make no distinction between any of them, and to GOD are we resigned.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 191, p. 176
|No distinction do We make between any of them.||Say ye: "We believe in God, and that which hath been sent down to us, and that which hath been sent down to Abraham and Ismael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes: and that which hath been given to Moses and to Jesus, and that which was given to the prophets from their Lord. No difference do we make between any of them: and to God are we resigned (Muslims)."|
|91||131||2||Now if they believe according to what ye believe, they are surely directed, but if they turn back, they are in schism. GOD shall support thee against them, for he is in the hearer, the wise.||If therefore they believe even as ye believe, then have they true guidance; but if they turn back, then do they cut themselves off from you: and God will suffice to protect thee against them, for He is the Hearer, the Knower.55||55 Ibn Batutah assures us (vol. ii. 10) that when in the 14th century he visited Basra, he saw in the mosque the copy of the Koran which the Caliph Othman had in his hands when murdered, and that the marks of his blood were still visible at the words of this verse. Othman's originals are also said to be preserved in Egypt, Morocco, Damascus, Mecca, and Medina. See M. Quatremere in Journ. Asiatique, Juillet, 1838.|
|91||132||2||The baptism of GODm have we received, and who is better than GOD to baptize? him do we worship.||m By baptism is to be understood the religion which GOD instituted in the beginning; because the signs of it appear in the person who professes it, as the signs of water appear in the clothes of him that is baptized.1
|Islam is the Baptism of God,56 and who is better to baptise than God? And Him do we serve.||56 The original simply has Baptism of God. This may be understood either of Islam generally, or, with Ullmann, in the more restricted sense of circumcision. Perhaps Muhammad used the word advisedly as a hint to the Christians of his land, that in the reception of his religion consisted the true new birth.|
|91||133||2||Say, Will ye dispute with us concerning GOD,n who is our LORD, and your LORD? we have our works, and ye have your works, and unto him are we sincerely devoted.||n These words were revealed because the Jews insisted that they first received the scriptures, that their Keblah was more ancient, and that no prophets could arise among the Arabs; and therefore if Mohammed was a prophet, he must have been of their nation.2
|SAY: Will ye dispute with us about God? when He is our Lord and your Lord! We have our works and ye have your works; and we are sincerely His.|
|91||134||2||Will ye say, truly Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say, are ye wiser, or GOD? And who is more unjust than he who hideth the testimony which he hath received from GOD?o But GOD is not regardless of that which ye do.||o The Jews are again accused of corrupting and suppressing the prophecies in the Pentateuch relating to Mohammed.||Will ye say, "Verily Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, were Jews or Christians?" SAY: Who knoweth best, ye, or God? And who is more in fault than he who concealeth the witness which he hath from God? But God is not regardless of what ye do.|
|91||135||2||That people are passed away, they have what they have gained, and ye shall have what ye gain, nor shall ye be questioned concerning that which they have done.||That people have now passed away: they have the reward of their deeds, and for you is the meed of yours; but of their doings ye shall not be questioned.|
|91||136||2||The foolish men will say, What hath turned them from their Keblah, towards which they formerly prayed?p Say unto GOD belongeth the east and the west: he directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way.||p At first, Mohammed and his followers observed no particular rite in turning their faces towards any certain place, or quarter of the world, when they prayed; it being declared to be perfectly indifferent.3 Afterwards, when the prophet fled to Medina, he directed them to turn towards the temple of Jerusalem (probably to ingratiate himself with the Jews), which continued to be their Keblah for six or seven months; but either finding the Jews too intractable, or despairing otherwise to gain the pagan Arabs, who could not forget their respect to the temple of Mecca, he ordered that prayers for the future should be towards the last. This change was made in the second year of the Hejra,4 and occasioned many to fall from him, taking offence at his inconstancy.5
3 See before, p. 13.
4 Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moham. p. 54.
|The foolish ones will say, "What hath turned them from the kebla which they used?" SAY: The East and the West are God's. He guideth whom he will into the right path.|
|91||137||2||Thus have we placed you, O Arabians, an intermediate nation,q that ye may be witness against the rest of mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness against you.||q This seems to be the sense of the words; though the commentators6 will have the meaning to be that the Arabians are here declared to be a most just and good nation.
6 Idem. Yahya, &c.
|Thus have we made you a central people,57 that ye may be witnesses in regard to mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness in regard to you.||57 Or, intermediate, i.e., according to the commentators, not addicted to excess, just. Ullm. ein vermittelndes Volk, zwischen Juden und Christen die Mitte haltend.|
|91||138||2||We appointed the Keblah, towards which thou didst formerly pray, only that we might know him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth back on the heels;r though this change seem a great matter, unless unto those whom GOD hath directed. But GOD will not render your faith of none effect;s for GOD is gracious and merciful unto man.||r i.e., Returneth to Judaism.
s Or will not suffer it to go without its reward, while ye prayed towards Jerusalem.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 55, p. 52
|We did not appoint that which Thou wouldst have to be the Qiblih, but that We might know him who followeth the Apostle from him who turneth on his heels.||We appointed the kebla which thou formerly hadst, only that we might know him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth on his heels: The change is a difficulty, but not to those whom God hath guided. But God will not let your faith58 be fruitless; for unto man is God Merciful, Gracious.||58 In having prayed towards Jerusalem.|
|91||139||2||We have seen thee turn about thy face towards heaven with uncertainty, but we will cause thee to turn thyself towards a Keblah that will please thee. Turn, therefore, thy face towards the holy temple of Mecca; and wherever ye be, turn your faces towards that place. They to whom the scripture hath been given, know this to be truth from their LORD. GOD is not regardless of that which ye do.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 54, p. 50
|We behold Thee from above, turning Thy face to heaven; but We will have Thee turn to a Qiblih which shall please Thee.||We have seen thee turning thy face towards every part of Heaven; but we will have thee turn to a kebla which shall please thee. Turn then thy face towards the sacred Mosque,59 and wherever ye be, turn your faces towards that part. They, verily, to whom "the Book" hath been given, know this to be the truth from their Lord: and God is not regardless of what ye do.||59 Of Mecca. This change of the Kebla from Jerusalem to Mecca shows that this part of the Sura was revealed at a time when the breach between Muhammad and the Jews was past healing; i.c. in the first half of the second year of the Hejira. See Thilo's. Cod. Apoc. p. 21, n.|
|91||140||2||Verily although thou shouldest show unto those to whom the scripture hath been given all kinds of signs, yet they will not follow thy Keblah, neither shalt thou follow their Keblah; nor will one part of them follow the Keblah of the other. And if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, verily thou wilt become one of the ungodly.||Even though thou shouldest bring every kind of sign to those who have received the Scriptures, yet thy kebla they will not adopt; nor shalt thou adopt their kebla; nor will one part of them adopt the kebla of the other. And if, after the knowledge which hath come to thee, thou follow their wishes, verily then wilt thou become of the unrighteous.|
|91||141||2||They to whom we have given the scripture know our apostle, even as they know their own children, but some of them hide the truth, against their own knowledge.||They to whom we have given the Scriptures know himthe apostleeven as they know their own children: but truly a part of them do conceal the truth, though acquainted with it.60||60 That is, the Jews are really convinced of the truth of Muhammad's mission.|
|91||142||2||Truth is from thy LORD, therefore thou shalt not doubt.||The truth is from thy Lord. Be not then of those who doubt.|
|91||143||2||Every sect hath a certain tract of heaven to which they turn themselves in prayer; but do ye strive to run after good things; wherever ye be, GOD will bring you all back at the resurrection, for GOD is almighty.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 54, p. 50
|All have a quarter of the Heavens to which they turn.||All have a quarter of the Heavens to which they turn them; but wherever ye be, hasten emulously after good: God will one day bring you all together; verily, God is all-powerful.|
|91||144||2||And from what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple, for this is truth from thy LORD; neither is GOD regardless of that which ye do.||And from whatever place thou comest forth, turn thy face toward the sacred Mosque; for this is the truth from thy Lord; and God is not inattentive to your doings.|
|91||145||2||From what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple; and wherever ye be, thitherward turn your faces, lest men have matter of dispute against you; but as for those among them who are unjust doers, fear them not, but fear me, that I may accomplish my grace upon you, and that ye may be directed.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 245, p. 221
|Turn Thou Thy face towards the sacred Mosque.||And from whatever place thou comest forth, turn thy face toward the sacred Mosque; and wherever ye be, to that part turn your faces, lest men have cause of dispute against you: but as for the impious among them, fear them not; but fear me, that I may perfect my favours on you, and that ye may be guided aright.|
|91||146||2||As we have sent unto you an apostle from among you,t to rehearse our signs unto you, and to purify you, and to teach you the book of the Koran and wisdom, and to teach you that which ye knew not:||t That is, of your own nation.||And we sent to you an apostle from among yourselves to rehearse our signs unto you, and to purify you, and to instruct you in "the Book," and in the wisdom, and to teach you that which ye knew not:|
|91||147||2||therefore remember me, and I will remember you, and give thanks unto me, and be not unbelievers.||Therefore remember me: I will remember you; and give me thanks and be not ungrateful.|
|91||148||2||O true believers, beg assistance with patience and prayer, for GOD is with the patient.||O ye who believe! seek help with patience and with prayer, for God is with the patient.|
|91||149||2||And say not of those who are slain in fight for the religion of GOD,u that they are dead; yea, they are living:x but ye do not understand.||u The original words are literally, who are slain in the way of GOD; by which expression, frequently occurring in the Korân, is always meant war undertaken against unbelievers for the propagation of the Mohammedan faith.
x The souls of martyrs (for such they esteem those who die in battle against infidels), says Jallaloddin, are in the crops of green birds, which have liberty to fly wherever they please in paradise, and feed on the fruits thereof.
|And say not of those who are slain on God's path61 that they are Dead; nay, they are Living! But ye understand not.||61 That is, warring with the infidels. The precise date of verses 148-152 depends upon whether this passage refers to the battle of Bedr or Ohod.|
|91||150||2||We will surely prove you by afflicting you in some measure with fear, and hunger, and decrease of wealth, and loss of lives, and scarcity of fruits: but bear good tidings unto the patient,||With somewhat of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth, and lives, and fruits, will we surely prove you: but bear good tidings to the patient,|
|91||151||2||who, when a misfortune befalleth them, say, We are GOD'S and unto him shall we surely return.y||y An expression frequently in the mouths of the Mohammedans, when under any great affliction, or in any imminent danger.||The Seven Valleys (The Valley of Knowledge)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 26, paragraph 33
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 71, paragraph 104
|MG: Verily, we are from God and to Him shall we return.
BWC: Verily we are God's, and to Him shall we return.
BWC: Verily we are God's, and to Him shall we return.
|Who when a mischance chanceth them, say, "Verily we are God's, and to Him shall we return:"62||62 These words are constantly used by the pious Muslims when in any trouble.|
|91||152||2||Upon them shall be blessings from their LORD and mercy, and they are the rightly directed.||On them shall be blessings from their Lord, and mercy: and these!they are the rightly guided.|
|91||153||2||Moreover Safa and Merwah are two of the monuments of God: whoever therefore goeth on pilgrimage to the temple of Mecca or visiteth it, it shall be no crime in him, if he compass them both.z And as for him who voluntarily performeth a good work; verily GOD is grateful and knowing.||z Safâ and Merwâ are two mountains near Mecca, whereon were anciently two idols, to which the pagan Arabs used to pay a superstitious veneration.1 Jallaloddin says this passage was revealed because the followers of Mohammed made a scruple of going round these mountains, as the idolaters did. But the true reason of his allowing this relic of ancient superstition seems to be the difficulty he found in preventing it. Abul Kâsem Hebatollah thinks these last words are abrogated by those other, Who will reject the religion of Abraham, except he who hath infatuated his souls?2 So that he will have the meaning to be quite contrary to the letter, as if it had been, it shall be no crime in him if he do not compass them. However, the expositors are all against him3, and the ceremony of running between these two hills is still observed at the pilgrimage.4
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I.
2 See before, p. 15.
3 Vide Marracci in Alc. p. 69, &c
4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
|Verily, Safa and Marwah63 are among the monuments of God: whoever then maketh a pilgrimage to the temple, or visiteth it, shall not be to blame if he go round about them both. And as for him who of his own accord doeth what is goodGod is Grateful, Knowing.||63 Hills in the sacred territory of Mecca, which had long been objects of superstitious reverence to the idolatrous Arabs, on which account the Muslims were at first unwilling to include them among the sacred places.|
|91||154||2||They who conceal any of the evident signs, or the direction which we have sent down, after what we have manifested unto men in the scripture, GOD shall curse them; and they who curse shall curse them.a||a That is, the angels, the believers, and all things in general.5 But Yahya interprets it of the curses which will be given to the wicked, when they cry out because of the punishment of the sepulchre,6 by all who hear them, that is, by all creatures except men and genii.
6 See Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV
|They who conceal aught that we have sent down, either of clear proof or of guidance, after what we have so clearly shewn to men in the Book,64 God shall curse them, and they who curse shall curse them.||64 The Pentateuch. See verse 141.|
|91||155||2||But as for those who repent and amend, and make known what they concealed, I will be turned unto them, for I am easy to be reconciled and merciful.||But as for those who turn to me, and amend and make known the truth, even unto them will I turn me, for I am He who Turneth, the Merciful.|
|91||156||2||Surely they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, upon them shall be the curse of GOD, and of the angels, and of all men;||Verily, they who are infidels and die infidels,these! upon them shall be the malison of God and of angels and of all men:|
|91||157||2||they shall remain under it forever, their punishment shall not be alleviated, neither shall they be regarded.b||b Or, as Jallaloddin expounds it, GOD will not wait for their repentance.||Under it shall they remain for ever: their torment shall not be lightened, and God will not even look upon them!|
|91||158||2||Your GOD is one GOD; there is no GOD but He, the most merciful.||Your God is one God:65 there is no God but He, the Compassionate, the Merciful.||65 This and the three following verses are probably Meccan, as also verses 167-171.|
|91||159||2||Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, and in the ship which saileth in the sea, loaden with what is profitable for mankind, and in the rain water which GOD sendeth from heaven, quickening thereby the dead earth, and replenishing the same with all sorts of cattle, and in the change of winds, and the clouds that are compelled to do servicec between heaven and earth, are signs to people of understanding:||c The original word signifies properly that are pressed or compelled to do personal service without hire; which kind of service is often exacted by the eastern princes of their subjects, and is called by the Greek and Latin writers, Angaria. The scripture often mentions this sort of compulsion by force.7
7 Matth. v. 41; xxvii. 32, &c.
|Assuredly in the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth; and in the alternation of night and day; and in the ships which pass through the sea with what is useful to man; and in the rain which God sendeth down from Heaven, giving life by it to the earth after its death, and by scattering over it all kinds of cattle; and in the change of the winds, and in the clouds that are made to do service between the Heaven and the Earth;are signs for those who understand.|
|91||160||2||yet some men take idols beside GOD, and love them as with the love due to GOD; but the true believers are more fervent in love towards GOD. Oh that they who act unjustly did perceive,d when they behold their punishment, that all power belongeth unto GOD, and that he is severe in punishing!||d Or it may be translated, Although the ungodly will perceive, &c. But some copies instead of yara, in the third person, read tara, in the second; and then it must be rendered, Oh if thou didst see when the ungodly behold their punishment, &c.||Yet there are men who take to them idols along with God, and love them with the love of God: But stronger in the faithful is the love of God. Oh! the impious will see, when they see their chastisement, that all power is God's, and that God is severe in chastising.|
|91||161||2||When those who have been followed shall separate themselves from their followers,e and shall see the punishment, and the cords of relation between them shall be cut in sunder;||e That is, when the broachers or heads of new sects shall at the last day forsake or wash their hands of their disciples, as if they were not accomplices in their superstitions.||When those who have had followers66 shall declare themselves clear from their followers after that they have seen the chastisement, and when the ties between them shall be cut asunder;||66 The ringleaders of infidelity and idolatrous faiths.|
|91||162||2||the followers shall say, If we could return to life, we would separate ourselves from them, as they have now separated themselves from us. So GOD will show them their works; they shall sigh grievously, and shall not come forth from the fire of hell.||The followers shall say, "Could we but return to life we would keep ourselves clear from them, as they have declared themselves clear of us." So will God shew them their works! Sighing is upon them! but, forth from the fire they come not.|
|91||163||2||O men, eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth; and tread not in the steps of the devil, for he is your open enemy.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LI, within pp. 56-57)
|BWC: follow not the steps of the Evil One, for he prompteth you to walk in the ways of impiety and wickedness; he is, in truth, your declared enemy.||Oh men! eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth, but follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your avowed enemy:|
|91||164||2||Verily he commandeth you evil and wickedness, and that ye should say that of GOD which ye know not.||He only enjoineth you evil and wickedness, and that ye should aver of God that which ye know not.|
|91||165||2||And when it is said unto them who believe not, Follow that which GOD hath sent down; they answer, Nay, but we will follow that which we found our fathers practise. What? though their fathers knew nothing, and were not rightly directed?||And when it is said to them, "Follow ye that which God hath sent down;" they say, "Nay, we follow the usages which we found with our fathers." What! though their fathers were utterly ignorant and devoid of guidance?|
|91||166||2||The unbelievers are like unto one who crieth aloud to that which heareth not so much as his calling, or the sound of his voice. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore do they not understand.||The infidels resemble him who shouteth aloud to one who heareth no more than a call and cry! Deaf, Dumb, blind: therefore they have no understanding.|
|91||167||2||O true believers, eat of the good things which we have bestowed on you for food, and return thanks unto GOD, if ye serve him.||O ye who believe! eat of the good things with which we have supplied you, and give God thanks if ye are His worshippers.|
|91||168||2||Verily he hath forbidden you to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood and swine's flesh, and that on which any other name but GOD'S hath been invocated.f But he who is forced by necessity, not lusting, nor returning to transgress, it shall be no crime in him if he eat of those things, for GOD is gracious and merciful.||f For this reason, whenever the Mohammedans kill any animal for food, they always say, Bismi llah, or In the name of GOD; which, if it be neglected, they think it not lawful to eat of it.||But that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that over which any other name than that of God hath been invoked, is forbidden you. But he who shall partake of them by constraint, without lust or wilfulness, no sin shall be upon him. Verily God is Indulgent, Merciful.|
|91||169||2||Moreover they who conceal any part of the scripture which GOD hath sent down unto them, and sell it for a small price, they shall swallow into their bellies nothing but fire; GOD shall not speak unto them on the day of resurrection, neither shall he purify them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment.||They truly who hide the Scriptures which God hath sent down, and barter them for a mean pricethese shall swallow into their bellies nought but fire. God will not speak to them, or assoil them, on the day of the Resurrection: and theirs shall be a grievous torment.|
|91||170||2||These are they who have sold direction for error, and pardon for punishment: but how great will their suffering be in the fire!||These are they who have bartered guidance for error, and pardon for torment; But how great their endurance in fire!67||67 Freyt. Lex. vol. ii. p. 477 Quid eos agere coegit quemadmodum damnati agunt? But Mar. Quanta erit sustinentia corum!|
|91||171||2||This they shall endure, because GOD sent down the book of the Koran with truth, and they who disagree concerning that book are certainly in a wide mistake.||This shall be their doom, because God had sent down "the Book" with the very truth. And verily they who dispute about that Book are in a far-gone severance from it.|
|91||172||2||It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces in prayer towards the east and the west, but righteousness is of him who believeth in GOD and the last day, and the angels, and the scriptures, and the prophets; who giveth money for GOD'S sake unto his kindred, and unto orphans, and the needy, and the stranger, and those who ask, and for redemption of captives; who is constant at prayer, and giveth alms; and of those who perform their covenant, when they have covenanted, and who behave themselves patiently in adversity, and hardships, and in time of violence; these are they who are true, and these are they who fear GOD.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 101, p. 93
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 96
|There is no piety in turning our faces toward the east or toward the west, but he is pious who believeth in God and the Last Day.
MG: There is no righteousness in turning your faces toward the East or the West, but he is righteous who believeth in God, and the last day, and the angels, and the Scriptures, and the Prophets; who for the love of God disburseth his wealth to his kindred, and to orphans, and the needy and the wayfarer, and those who ask, and for ransom; who observeth prayer, and payeth the legal alms, and who is of those who perform their covenant when they have covenanted, and are patient under ills and hardships, and in time of trouble: these are they who are just, and these are they who fear the Lord.
|There is no piety in turning your faces toward the east or the west, but he is pious who believeth in God, and the last day, and the angles, and the Scriptures, and the prophets; who for the love of God disburseth his wealth to his kindred, and to the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and those who ask, and for ransoming; who observeth prayer, and payeth the legal alms, and who is of those who are faithful to their engagements when they have engaged in them, and patient under ills and hardships, and in time of trouble: these are they who are just, and these are they who fear the Lord.|
|91||173||2||O true believers, the law of retaliation is ordained you for the slain: the free shall die for the free, and the servant for the servant, and a woman for a woman:g but he whom his brother shall forgive may be prosecuted, and obliged to make satisfaction according to what is just, and a fine shall be set on himh with humanity.||g This is not to be strictly taken; for according to the Sonna, a man also is to be put to death for the murder of a woman. Regard is also to be had to difference in religion, so that a Mohammedan, though a slave, is not to be put to death for an infidel, though a freeman.1 But the civil magistrates do not think themselves always obliged to conform to this last determination of the Sonna.
h This is the common practice in Mohammedan countries, particularly in Persia,2 where the relations of the deceased may take their choice, either to have the murderer put into their hands to be put to death, or else to accept of a pecuniary satisfaction.
2 Vide Chardin Voyage de Perse, t. ii. p. 299, &c.
|O believers! retaliation for bloodshedding is prescribed to you: the free man for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the woman for the woman: but he to whom his brother shall make any remission,68 is to be dealt with equitably; and to him should he pay a fine with liberality.||68 To whom his brother, that is, any Arab or believer, shall remit the penalty of death.|
|91||174||2||This is indulgence from your LORD, and mercy. And he who shall transgress after this, by killing the murderer, shall suffer a grievous punishment.||This is a relaxation69 from your Lord and a mercy. For him who after his shall transgress,70 a sore punishment!||69 Of the stricter Mosaic lex talionis, as well of the ante-Islamitic Arabian custom, by which the killing of a slave was avenged by the death of a free man, and the killing of a woman by taking the life of a man. See Freyt. Einl. p. 193. Comp. Ex. xxi. 23.
70 That is, by killing the manslayer.
|91||175||2||And in this law or retaliation ye have life, O ye of understanding, that peradventure ye may fear.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 237)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 71
|BWC: In punishment will ye find life, O men of insight!
EGB: And in retaliation ye have life, O people of understanding.
|But in this law of retaliation is your security for life, O men of understanding! to the intent that ye may fear God.|
|91||176||2||It is ordained you, when any of you is at the point of death, if he leave any goods, that he bequeath a legacy to his parents, and kindred, according to what shall be reasonable.i This is a duty incumbent on those who fear GOD.||i That is, the legacy was not to exceed a third part of the testators substance, nor to be given where there was no necessity. But this injunction is abrogated by the law concerning inheritances.||It is prescribed to you, when any one of you is at the point of death, if he leave goods, that he bequeath equitably to his parents and kindred. This is binding on those who fear God.|
|91||177||2||But he who shall change the legacy, after he hath heard it bequeathed by the dying person, surely the sin thereof shall be on those who change it, for GOD is he who heareth and knoweth.||But as for him who after he hath heard the bequest shall change it, surely the wrong of this shall be on those who change it: verily, God Heareth, Knoweth.|
|91||178||2||Howbeit he who apprehendeth from the testator any mistake or injustice, and shall compose the matter between them, that shall be no crime in him, for GOD is gracious and merciful.||But he who feareth from the testator any mistake or wrong, and shall make a settlement between the partiesthat shall be no wrong in him: verily, God is Lenient, Merciful.|
|91||179||2||O true believers, a fast is ordained you, as it was ordained unto those before you, that ye may fear GOD.||O believers! a Fast is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may fear God,|
|91||180||2||A certain number of days shall ye fast: but he among you who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast an equal number of other days. And those who cank keep it, and do not, must redeem their neglect by maintaining of a poor man.l And he who voluntarily dealeth better with the poor man than he is obliged, this shall be better for him. But if ye fast, it will be better for you, if ye knew it.||k The expositors differ much about the meaning of this passage, thinking it very improbable that people should be left entirely at liberty either to fast or not, on compounding for it in this manner. Jallaloddin, therefore, supposes the negative particle not to be understood, and that this is allowed only to those who are not able to fast, by reason of age or dangerous sickness; whether they would fast or maintain a poor man, which liberty was soon after taken away, and this passage abrogated by the following, Therefore let him who shall be present in this month, fast the same month. Yet this abrogation, he says, does not extend to women with child or that give suck, lest the infant suffer.
Al Zamakhshari, having first given an explanation of Ebn Abbâs, who, by a different interpretation of the Arabic word Yotikûnaho, which signifies can or are able to fast, renders it, Those who find great difficulty therein, &c., adds an exposition of his own, by supposing something to be understood, according to which the sense will be, Those who can fast and yet have a legal excuse to break it, must redeem it, &c.
l According to the usual quantity which a man eats in a day and the custom of the country.3
|For certain days. But he among you who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast that same number of other days: and as for those who are able to keep it and yet break it, the expiation of this shall be the maintenance of a poor man. And he who of his own accord performeth a good work, shall derive good from it: and good shall it be for you to fast if ye knew it.|
|91||181||2||The month of Ramadan shall ye fast, in which the Koran was sent down from heaven,n a direction unto men, and declarations of direction, and the distinction between good and evil. Therefore, let him among you who shall be present in this month, fast the same month; but he who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast the like number of other days. GOD would make this an ease unto you, and would not make it a difficulty unto you; that ye may fulfil the number of days, and glorify GOD, for that he hath directed you, and that ye may give thanks.||m See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
n i.e., At home, and not in a strange country, where the fact cannot be performed, or on a journey.
|As to the month Ramadhan in which the Koran was sent down to be man's guidance, and an explanation of that guidance, and of that illumination,71 as soon as any one of you observeth the moon, let him set about the fast; but he who is sick, or upon a journey, shall fast a like number of other days. God wisheth you ease, but wisheth not your discomfort, and that you fulfil the number of days, and that you glorify God for his guidance, and that you be thankful.||71 On the word Furquan, see Sura [1xv.] xxi. 49.|
|91||182||2||When my servants ask thee concerning me, Verily I am near; I will hear the prayer of him that prayeth, when he prayeth unto me: but let them hearken unto me, and believe in me, that they may be rightly directed.||And when my servants ask thee concerning me, then will I be nigh unto them. I will answer the cry of him that crieth, when he crieth unto me: but let them hearken unto me, and believe in me, that they may proceed aright.|
|91||183||2||It is lawful for you, on the night of the fast, to go in unto your wives;o they are a garmentp unto you, and ye are a garment unto them. GOD knoweth that ye defraud yourselves therein, wherefore he turneth unto you, and forgiveth you. Now, therefore, go in unto them; and earnestly desire that which GOD ordaineth you, and eat and drink, until ye can plainly distinguish a white thread from a black thread by the daybreak: then keep the fast until night, and go not in unto them, but be constantly present in the places of worship. These are the prescribed bounds of GOD, therefore draw not near them to transgress them. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto men, that ye may fear him.||o In the beginning of Mohammedism, during the fast, they neither lay with their wives, nor ate nor drank after supper. But both are permitted by this passage.1
p A metaphorical expression, to signify the mutual comfort a man and his wife find in each other.
|You are allowed on the night of the fast to approach your wives: they are your garment and ye are their garment.72 God knoweth that ye defraud yourselves therein, so He turneth unto you and forgiveth you! Now, therefore, go in unto them with full desire for that which God hath ordained for you; and eat and drink until ye can discern a white thread from a black thread73 by the daybreak: then fast strictly till night, and go not in unto them, but rather pass the time in the Mosques. These are the bounds set up by God: therefore come not near them. Thus God maketh his signs clear to men that they may fear Him.74||72 A mutual comfort to each other.
73 Thus Misch. Berachoth, 1, 2, "Prayer is to be said as soon as one can distinguish between a blue and white thread."
74 Judging from the minuteness of the precepts laid down in this and the following verses to 193, it would appear that they were added at a late period of Muhammad's residence at Medina.
|91||184||2||Consume not your wealth among yourselves in vain; nor present it unto judges, that ye may devour part of men's substance unjustly, against your own consciences.||Consume not your wealth among yourselves in vain things, nor present it to judges that ye may consume a part of other men's wealth unjustly, while ye know the sin which ye commit.|
|91||185||2||They will ask thee concerning the phases of the moon: Answer, They are times appointed unto men, and to show the season of the pilgrimage to Mecca. It is not righteousness that ye enter your houses by the back parts thereof,q but righteousness is of him who feareth GOD. Therefore enter your houses by their doors; and fear GOD, that ye may be happy.||q Some of the Arabs had a superstitious custom after they had been at Mecca (in pilgrimage, as it seems), on their return home, not to enter their house by the old door, but to make a hole through the back part for a passage, which practice is here reprehended.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 200, p. 182
|They are periods appointed unto men.||They will ask thee of the new moons. SAY: They are periods fixed for man's service and for the Pilgrimage. There is no piety in entering your houses at the back,75 but piety consists in the fear of God. Enter your houses then by their doors; and fear God that it may be well with you.||75 Such appears to have been the superstitious custom of the Arabs after their return from pilgrimages to Mecca.|
|91||186||2||And fight for the religion of GOD against those who fight against you; but transgress not by attacking them first, for GOD loveth not the transgressors.||And fight for the cause of God against those who fight against you: but commit not the injustice of attacking them first: God loveth not such injustice:|
|91||187||2||And kill them wherever ye find them, and turn them out of that whereof they have dispossessed you; for temptation to idolatry is more grievous than slaughter; yet fight not against them in the holy temple, until they attack you therein; but if they attack you, slay them there. This shall be the reward of infidels.||And kill them wherever ye shall find them, and eject them from whatever place they have ejected you; for civil discord76 is worse than carnage: yet attack them not at the sacred Mosque, unless they attack you therein; but if they attack you, slay them. Such the reward of the infidels.||76 Their driving you out of Mecca; or, the temptation (to idolatry).|
|91||188||2||But if they desist, GOD is gracious and merciful.||But if they desist, then verily God is Gracious, Merciful.|
|91||189||2||Fight therefore against them, until there be no temptation to idolatry, and the religion be GOD'S; but if they desist, then let there be no hostility, except against the ungodly.||Fight therefore against them until there be no more civil discord, and the only worship be that of God: but if they desist, then let there be no hostility, save against the wicked.|
|91||190||2||A sacred month for a sacred month,r and the holy limits of Mecca, if they attack you therein, do ye also attack them therein in retaliation; and whoever transgresseth against you by so doing, do ye transgress against him in like manner as he hath transgressed against you, and fear GOD, and know that GOD is with those who fear him.||r As to these sacred months, wherein it was unlawful for the ancient Arabs to attack one another, see the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VII.||The sacred month and the sacred precincts are under the safeguard of reprisals:77 whoever offereth violence to you, offer ye the like violence to him, and fear God, and know that God is with those who fear Him.||77 Lit. the sacred month for the sacred month, and the sacred precincts or things (for) reprisals. The meaning of this difficult passage is that in wars for the cause of religion, the sacred month and the temple of Mecca may be made the time and scene of contests, which then and there are usually prohibited. For the most accurate information as to the Pilgrimage, see Freytag, Einl. 418.|
|91||191||2||Contribute out of your substance toward the defence of the religion of GOD, and throw not yourselves with your own hands into perdition;s and do good, for GOD loveth those who do good.||s i.e., Be not accessory to your own destruction, by neglecting your contributions towards the wars against infidels, and thereby suffering them to gather strength.||Give freely for the cause of God, and throw not yourselves with your own hands into ruin;78 and do good, for God loveth those who do good.||78 This shows that Muhammad inculcated the doctrine of entire freedom of the will.|
|91||192||2||Perform the pilgrimage of Mecca, and the visitation of GOD; and, if ye be besieged, send that offering which shall be the easiest; and shave not your heads,t until your offering reacheth the place of sacrifice. But, whoever among you is sick, or is troubled with any distemper of the head, must redeem the shaving his head, by fasting, or alms, or some offering.u When ye are secure from enemies, he who tarrieth in the visitation of the temple of Meccax until the pilgrimage, shall bring that offering which shall be the easiest. But he who findeth not anything to offer, shall fast three days in the pilgrimage, and seven when ye are returned: they shall be ten days complete. This is incumbent on him whose family shall not be present at the holy temple. And fear GOD, and know that GOD is severe in punishing.||t For this was a sign they had completed their vow, and performed all the ceremonies of the pilgrimage.1
u That is, either by fasting three days, or feeding six poor people, or sacrificing a sheep.
x This passage is somewhat obscure. Yahya interprets it of him who marries a wife during the visitation, and performs the pilgrimage the year following. But Jallaloddin expounds it of him who stays within the sacred enclosures, in order to complete the ceremonies which (as it should seem) he had not been able to do within the prescribed time.
|Accomplish the Pilgrimage and the Visitation79 of the holy places in honour of God: and if ye be hemmed in by foes, send whatever offering shall be the easiest: and shave not your heads until the offering reach the place of sacrifice. But whoever among you is sick, or hath an ailment of the head, must satisfy by fasting, or alms, or an offering. And when ye are safe from foes, he who contents himself with the Visitation of the holy places, until the Pilgrimage, shall bring whatever offering shall be the easiest. But he who findeth nothing to offer, shall fast three days in the Pilgrimage itself, and seven days when ye return: they shall be ten days in all. This is binding on him whose family shall not be present at the sacred Mosque. And fear God, and know that God is terrible in punishing.||79 The greater Pilgrimage, which every Muslim is bound to perform once in his life, is the Hadjat el Farz (the one obligatory Pilgrimage), or the Hadjat el Islam. The Umrah, or little pilgrimage, may be performed at any time except the pilgrimage season, and its ceremonies are much fewer. They are described by Lieut. Burton in his "Pilgrimage," vol. iii. ch. xxviii.|
|91||193||2||The pilgrimage must be performed in the known months:y whosoever therefore purposeth to go on pilgrimage therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress, nor quarrel in the pilgrimage. The good which ye do, GOD knoweth it. Make provision for your journey; but the best provision is piety and fear me, O ye of understanding.||y i.e., Shawâl, Dhulkaada, and Dhulhajja. See the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.||Let the Pilgrimage be made in the months already known:80 whoever therefore undertaketh the Pilgrimage therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress, nor wrangle in the Pilgrimage. The good which ye do, God knoweth it. And provide for your journey; but the best provision is the fear of God: fear me, then, O men of understanding!||80 Namely, Shawâl, Dhu'lkaada, and Dhu'lhajja.|
|91||194||2||It shall be no crime in you, if ye seek an increase from your LORD, by trading during the pilgrimage. And when ye go in processionz from Arafat,a remember GOD near the holy monument;b and remember him for that he hath directed you, although ye were before this of the number of those who go astray.||z The original word signifies to rush forward impetuously; as the pilgrims do when they proceed from Arafat to Mozdalifa.
a A mountain near Mecca, so called because Adam there met and knew his wife, after a long separation.2 Yet others say that Gabriel, after he had instructed Abraham in all the sacred ceremonies, coming to Arafat, there asked him if he knew the ceremonies which had been shown him; to which Abraham answering in the affirmative, the mountain had thence its name.3
2 See before, p. 5, note f.
3 Al Hasan.
b In Arabic, al Masher al harâm. It is a mountain in the farther part of Mozdalifa, where it is said Mohammed stood praying and praising God, till his face became extremely shining.4 Bobovious calls it Farkh5, but the true name seems to be Kazah; the variation being occasioned only by the different pointing of the Arabic letters.
5 Bobov. de Peregr. Meccana, p. 15.
|It shall be no crime in you if ye seek an increase from your Lord;81 and when ye pour swiftly on from Arafat, then remember God near the holy monument; and remember Him, because He hath guided you who before this were of those who went astray:||81 By trading during the Hadj.|
|91||195||2||Therefore go in procession from whence the people go in procession, and ask pardon of GOD, for GOD is gracious and merciful.||Then pass on quickly82 where the people quickly pass, and ask pardon of God, for God is Forgiving, Merciful.||82 The pilgrims move on very rapidly when in the immediate neighbourhood of the Holy Places.|
|91||196||2||And when ye have finished your holy ceremonies, remember GOD, according as ye remember your fathers, or with a more reverent commemoration. There are some men who say, O LORD, give us our portion in this world; but such shall have no portion in the next life:||And when ye have finished your holy rites, remember God as ye remember your own fathers, or with a yet more intense remembrance! Some men there are who say, "O our Lord! give us our portion in this world:" but such shall have no portion in the next life:|
|91||197||2||and there are others who say, O LORD, give us good in this world and also good in the next world, and deliver us from the torment of hell fire.||And some say, "O our Lord! give us good in this world and good in the next, and keep us from the torment of the fire."|
|91||198||2||They shall have a portion of that which they have gained: GOD is swift in taking an account.c||c For he will judge all creatures, says Jallaloddin, in the space of half a day.||They shall have the lot which they have merited: and God is swift to reckon.|
|91||199||2||Remember GOD the appointed number of days:d but if any haste to depart from the valley of Mina in two days, it shall be no crime in him. And if any tarry longer, it shall be no crime in him, in him who feareth GOD. Therefore fear GOD, and know that unto him ye shall be gathered.||d i.e., Three days after slaying the sacrifices.||Bear God in mind during the stated days: but if any haste away83 in two days, it shall be no fault in him: And if any tarry longer, it shall be no fault in him, if he fear God. Fear God, then, and know that to Him shall ye be gathered.||83 From the valley of Mina.|
|91||200||2||There is a man who causeth thee to marvele by his speech concerning this present life, and calleth God to witness that which is in his heart, yet he is most intent in opposing thee;||e This person was al Akhnas Ebn Shoraik, a fair-spoken dissembler, who swore that he believed in Mohammed, and pretended to be one of his friends, and to contemn this world. But GOD here reveals to the prophet his hypocrisy and wickedness.1
|A man there is84 who surpriseth thee by his discourse concerning this life present. He taketh God to witness what is in his heart; yet is he the most zealous in opposing thee:||84 Said to have been one Al Akhnas Ibn Shoraik, a dissembler with Muhammad.|
|91||201||2||and when he turneth away from thee, he hasteth to act corruptly in the earth, and to destroy that which is sown, and springeth up:f but GOD loveth not corrupt doing.||f Setting fire to his neighbours corn, and killing his asses by night.2
|And when he turneth his back on thee, he runneth through the land to enact disorders therein, and layeth waste the fields and flocks: but God loveth not the disorder.|
|91||202||2||And if one say unto him, Fear GOD; pride seizeth him, together with wickedness; but hell shall be his reward, and an unhappy couch shall it be.||And when it is said to him, "Fear God," the pride of sin seizeth him: but he shall have his fill of Hell; and right wretched the couch!|
|91||203||2||There is also a man who selleth his soul for the sake of those things which are pleasing unto GOD;g and GOD is gracious unto his servants.||g The person here meant was one Soheib, who being persecuted by the idolaters of Mecca, forsook all he had, and fled to Medina.3
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 97
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 85
|MG: A man, too, there is who selleth his very self out of desire to please God.
MG: out of desire to please the Lord
|A man, too, there is85 who selleth his very self out of desire to please God: and God is good to his servants.||85 Sohaib, when he joined the standard of Muhammad, left all his property in the hands of the infidels.|
|91||204||2||O true believers, enter into the true religion wholly, and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your open enemy.||O believers! enter completely into the true religion, and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy.|
|91||205||2||If ye have slipped after the declarations of our will have come unto you, know that GOD is mighty and wise.||But if ye lapse after that our clear signs86 have come to you, know that God is Mighty, Wise.||86 Verses 204-210 are probably addressed to those Muslims who were desirous to observe certain parts of the Jewish law.|
|91||206||2||Do the infidels expect less than that GOD should come down to them overshadowed with clouds, and the angels also? but the thing is decreed, and to GOD shall all things return.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 83, p. 75
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 152, p. 144
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XLVI, p. 56)
|What can such expect but that God should come down to them overshadowed with clouds?||What can such expect but that God should come down to them overshadowed with clouds, and the angels also, and their doom be sealed? And to God shall all things return.|
|91||207||2||Ask the children of Israel how many evident signs we have showed them; and whoever shall change the grace of GOD after it shall have come unto him, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him.||Ask the children of Isreal how many clear signs we have given them. But if any man shall alter the boon87 of God after it shall have reached him, assuredly God will be vehement in punishing him.||87 The Koran.|
|91||208||2||The present life was ordained for those who believe not, and they laugh the faithful to scorn; but they who fear GOD shall be above them, on the day of the resurrection: for GOD is bountiful unto whom he pleaseth without measure.||This present life is prepared for those who believe not, and who mock at the faithful. But they who fear God shall be above them on the day of resurrection; and God is bounteous without measure to whom He will.|
|91||209||2||Mankind was of one faith, and GOD sent prophets bearing good tidings, and denouncing threats and sent down with them the scripture in truth, that it might judge between men of that concerning which they disagreed: and none disagreed concerning it, except those to whom the same scriptures were delivered, after the declarations of GOD'S will had come unto them, out of envy among themselves. And GOD directed those who believed, to that truth concerning which they disagreed, by his will: for GOD directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way.||Mankind was but one people;88 and God sent prophets to announce glad tidings and to warn; and He sent down with them the Book of Truth, that it might decide the disputes of men; and none disputed but those to whom the Book had been given, after the clear tokens had reached them,being full of mutual jealousy. And God guided those who believed to the truth of that about which, by his permission, they had disputed; for God guideth whom he pleaseth into the straight path.||88 That is, there was originally but one religion in the world.|
|91||210||2||Did ye think ye should enter paradise, when as yet no such thing had happened unto you, as hath happened unto those who have been before you? They suffered calamity, and tribulation, and were afflicted; so that the apostle, and they who believed with him, said: When will the help of GOD come? Is not the help of GOD nigh?||Think ye to enter Paradise, when no such things have come upon you, as on those who flourish before you? Ills and troubles tried them; and so tossed were they by trials, that the Apostle and they who shared his faith, said, "When will the help of God come?"Is not the help of God nigh?|
|91||211||2||They will ask thee what they shall bestow in alms: Answer, The good which ye bestow, let it be given to parents, and kindred, and orphans, and the poor and the stranger. Whatsoever good ye do, GOD knoweth it.||They will ask thee what they shall bestow in alms. SAY: Let the good which ye bestow be for parents, and kindred, and orphans, and the poor, and the wayfarer; and whatever good ye do, of a truth God knoweth.|
|91||212||2||War is enjoined you against the Infidels; but this is hateful unto you:||War is prescribed to you: but from this ye are averse.|
|91||213||2||yet perchance ye hate a thing which is better for you, and perchance ye love a thing which is worse for you: but GOD knoweth and ye know not.||Yet haply ye are averse from a thing, though it be good for you, and haply ye love a thing though it be bad for you: And God knoweth; but ye, ye know not.|
|91||214||2||They will ask thee concerning the sacred month, whether they may war therein: Answer, To war therein is grievous; but to obstruct the way of GOD, and infidelity towards him, and to keep men from the holy temple, and to drive out his people from thence, is more grievous in the sight of GOD, and the temptation to idolatry is more grievous than to kill in the sacred months. They will not cease to war against you, until they turn you from your religion, if they be able: but whoever among you shall turn back from his religion, and die an infidel, their works shall be vain in this world, and the next; they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever.||They will ask thee concerning war in the Sacred Month. SAY: To war therein is bad, but to turn aside from the cause of God, and to have no faith in Him, and in the Sacred Temple, and to drive out its people, is worse in the sight of God; and civil strife is worse than bloodshed. They will not cease to war against you until they turn you from your religion, if they be able: but whoever of you shall turn from his religion and die an infidel, their works shall be fruitless in this world, and in the next: they shall be consigned to the fire; therein to abide for aye.|
|91||215||2||But they who believe, and who fly for the sake of religion, and fight in GOD's cause, they shall hope for the mercy of GOD; for GOD is gracious and merciful.||But they who believe, and who fly their country, and fight in the cause of God may hope for God's mercy: and God is Gracious, Merciful.|
|91||216||2||They will ask thee concerning wineh and lots:i Answer, In both there is great sin, and also some things of use unto men;k but their sinfulness is greater than their use. They will ask thee also what they shall bestow in alms:||h Under the name of wine all sorts of strong and inebriating liquors are comprehended.1
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V.
i The original word, al Meiser, properly signifies a particular game performed with arrows, and much in use with the pagan Arabs. But by lots we are here to understand all games whatsoever, which are subject to chance or hazard, as dice, cards, &c.2
2 See ibid.
k From these words some suppose that only drinking to excess and too frequent gaming are prohibited.3 And the moderate use of wine they also think is allowed by these words of the 16th chapter, And of the fruits of palm-trees and grapes ye obtain inebriating drink, and also good nourishment. But the more received opinion is, that both drinking wine or other strong liquors in any quantity, and playing at any game of chance, are absolutely forbidden.4
3 Vide Jallaloddin et al Zamakhshari.
4 See the Prelim. Disc. ubi sup.
|Memorandum from the Research Department on Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal (27 June 1996)
|They will ask thee concerning wine89 and games of chance. SAY: In both is great sin, and advantage also, to men; but their sin is greater than their advantage. They will ask thee also what they shall bestow in alms:||89 Comp. Sura [c.] iv. 42, and [cxiv.] v. 99, 100.|
|91||217||2||Answer, What ye have to spare. Thus GOD showeth his signs unto you, that peradventure ye might seriously think||SAY: What ye can spare. Thus God sheweth you his signs that ye may ponder|
|91||218||2||of this present world, and of the next. They will also ask thee concerning orphans: Answer, To deal righteously with them is best;||On this present world, and on the next. They will also ask thee concerning orphans. SAY: Fair dealing with them is best;|
|91||219||2||and if ye intermeddle with the management of what belongs to them, do them no wrong; they are your brethren: GOD knoweth the corrupt dealer from the righteous; and if GOD please, he will surely distress you,l for GOD is mighty and wise.||l viz., By his curse, which shall certainly bring to nothing what ye shall wrong the orphans of.||But if ye mix yourselves up (in their affairs)they are your brethren: God knoweth the foul dealer from the fair: and, if God pleased, he could indeed afflict you! Verily, God is Mighty, Wise.|
|91||220||2||Marry not women who are idolaters, until they believe: verily a maid-servant who believeth, is better than an idolatress, although she please you more. And give not women who believe in marriage to the idolaters, until they believe: for verily a servant who is a true believer, is better than an idolater, though he please you more.||Marry not idolatresses until they believe; a slave who believeth is better than an idolatress, though she please you more. And wed not your daughters to idolaters until they believe; for a slave who is a believer, is than better an idolater, though he please you.|
|91||221||2||They invite unto hell fire, but GOD inviteth unto paradise and pardon through his will, and declareth his signs unto men, that they may remember.||They invite to the Fire; but God inviteth to Paradise, and to pardon, if he so will, and maketh clear his signs to men that they may remember.|
|91||222||2||They will ask thee also concerning the courses of women: Answer, They are a pollution: therefore separate yourselves from women in their courses, and go not near them, until they be cleansed. But when they are cleansed, go in unto them as GOD hath commanded you,m for GOD loveth those who repent, and loveth those who are clean.||m But not while they have their courses, nor by using preposterous venery.1
1 Ebn Abbas, Jallaloddin.
|They will also question thee as to the courses of women. SAY: They are a pollution. Separate yourselves therefore from women and approach them not, until they be cleansed. But when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God hath ordained for you. Verily God loveth those who turn to Him, and loveth those who seek to be clean.|
|91||223||2||Your wives are your tillage, go in therefore unto your tillage in what manner soever ye will:n and do first some act that may be profitable unto your souls;o and fear GOD, and know that ye must meet him; and bear good tidings unto the faithful.||n It has been imagined that these words allow that preposterous lust, which the commentators say is forbidden by the preceding; but I question whether this can be proved.2
2 Jallaloddin, Yahya, al Zamakhshari Vide Lucret. de Rer. Nat. l. 4, v. 1258, &c.
o i.e., Perform some act of devotion or charity.
|Your wives are your field: go in, therefore, to your field as ye will; but do first some act for your souls' good: and fear ye God, and know that ye must meet Him; and bear these good tidings to the faithful.|
|91||224||2||Make not GOD the object of your oaths,p that ye will deal justly, and be devout, and make peace among men;q for God is he who heareth and knoweth.||p So as to swear frequently by him. The word translated object, properly signifies a butt to shoot at with arrows.3
q Some commentators4 expound this negatively, That ye will not deal justly, nor be devout, &c. For such wicked oaths, they say, were customary among the idolatrous inhabitants of Mecca; which gave occasion to the following saying of Mohammed: When your swear to do a thing, and afterwards find it better to do otherwise, do that which is better, and make void your oath.
4 Idem. Yahya.
|Swear not by God, when ye make oath, that ye will be virtuous and fear God, and promote peace among men; for God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.|
|91||225||2||GOD will not punish you for an inconsiderate wordr in your oaths; but he will punish you for that which your hearts have assented unto: GOD is merciful and gracious.||r When a man swears inadvertently, and without design.||God will not punish you for a mistake in your oaths: but He will punish you for that which your hearts have done. God is Gracious, Merciful.|
|91||226||2||They who vow to abstain from their wives, are allowed to wait four months:s but if they go back from their vow, verily GOD is gracious and merciful;t||s That is, they may take so much time to consider; and shall not, by a rash oath, be obliged actually to divorce them.
t i.e., If they be reconciled to their wives within four months, or after, they may retain them, and GOD will dispense with their oath.
|They who intend to abstain from their wives shall wait four months; but if they go back from their purpose, then verily God is Gracious, Merciful:|
|91||227||2||and if they resolve on a divorce, GOD is he who heareth and knoweth.||And if they resolve on a divorce, then verily God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.|
|91||228||2||The women who are divorced shall wait concerning themselves until they have their courses thrice,u and it shall not be lawful for them to conceal that which GOD hath created in their wombs,x if they believe in GOD and the last day; and their husbands will act more justly to bring them back at this time, if they desire a reconciliation. The women ought also to behave towards their husbands in like manner as their husbands should behave towards them, according to what is just: but the men ought to have a superiority over them. GOD is mighty and wise.||u This is to be understood of those only with whom the marriage has been consummated; for as to the others there is no time limited. Those who are not quite past childbearing (which a woman is reckoned to be after her courses cease, and she is fifty-five lunar years, or about fifty-three solar years old), and those who are too young to have children, are allowed three months only; but they who are with child must wait till they be delivered.5
x That is, they shall tell the real truth, whether they have their courses, or be with child, or not; and shall not, by deceiving their husband, obtain a separation from him before the term be accomplished: lest the first husbands child should, by that means, go to the second; or the wife, in case of the first husbands death, should set up her child as his heir, or demand her maintenance during the time she went with such child, and the expenses of her lying-in, under pretence that she waited not her full prescribed time.6
|The divorced shall wait the result, until they have had their courses thrice, nor ought they to conceal what God hath created in their wombs, if they believe in God and the last day; and it will be more just in their husbands to bring them back when in this state, if they desire what is right. And it is for the women to act as they (the husbands) act by them, in all fairness; but the men are a step above them. God is Mighty, Wise.|
|91||229||2||Ye may divorce your wives twice; and then either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness. But it is not lawful for you to take away anything of what ye have given them, unless both fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of GOD.y And if ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinance of GOD, it shall be no crime in either of them on account of that for which the wife shall redeem herself.z These are the ordinances of GOD; therefore transgress them not; for whoever transgresseth the ordinances of GOD, they are unjust doers.||y For if there be a settled aversion on either side, their continuing together may have very ill, and perhaps fatal consequences.
z i.e., If she prevail on her husband to dismiss her, by releasing part of her dowry.
|Ye may divorce your wives twice: Keep them honourably, or put them away with kindness. But it is not allowed you to appropriate to yourselves aught of what ye have given to them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the bounds90 set up by God. And if ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of God, no blame shall attach to either of you for what the wife shall herself give for her redemption. These are the bounds of God: therefore overstep them not; for whoever oversteppeth the bounds of God, they are evil doers.||90 Limits, fences. The word is Talmudic. Thus Pirke Aboth, i. "The men of the great synagogue said . . . Make a fence for the law;" and iii. 13, "Tradition is a fence to the law."|
|91||230||2||But if the husband divorce her a third time, she shall not be lawful for him again, until she marry another husband. But if he also divorce her, it shall be no crime in them if they return to each other, if they think they can observe the ordinances of GOD, and these are the ordinances of GOD, he declareth them to people of understanding.||But if the husband divorce her a third time, it is not lawful for him to take her again, until she shall have married another husband; and if he also divorce her, then shall no blame attach to them if they return to each other, thinking that they can keep within the bounds fixed by God. And these are the bounds of God; He maketh them clear to those who have knowledge.|
|91||231||2||But when ye divorce women, and they have fulfilled their pre-scribed time, either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness; and retain them not by violence, so that ye transgress;a for he who doth this surely injureth his own soul. And make not the signs of GOD a jest: but remember GOD'S favor towards you, and that he hath sent down unto you the book of the Koran, and wisdom admonishing you thereby; and fear GOD, and know that GOD is omniscient.||a viz., By obliging them to purchase their liberty with part of their dowry.||But when ye divorce women, and the time for sending them away is come, either retain them with generosity, or put them away with generosity: but retain them not by constraint so as to be unjust towards them. He who doth so, doth in fact injure himself. And make not the signs of God a jest; but remember God's favour toward you, and the Book and the Wisdom which He hath sent down to you for your warning, and fear God, and know that God's knowledge embraceth everything.|
|91||232||2||But when ye have divorced your wives, and they have fulfilled their prescribed time, hinder them not from marrying their husbands, when they have agreed among themselves according to what is honourable. This is given in admonition unto him among you who believeth in GOD, and the last day. This is most righteous for you, and most pure. GOD knoweth, but ye know not.||And when ye divorce your wives, and they have waited the prescribed time, hinder them not from marrying their husbands when they have agreed among themselves in an honourable way. This warning is for him among you who believeth in God and in the last day. This is most pure for you, and most decent. God knoweth, but ye know not.|
|91||233||2||Mothers after they are divorced shall give suck unto their children two full years, to him who desireth the time of giving suck to be completed; and the father shall be obliged to maintain them and clothe them in the mean time, according to that which shall be reasonable. No person shall be obliged beyond his ability. A mother shall not be compelled to what is unreasonable on account of her child nor a father on account of his child. And the heir of the father shall be obliged to do in like manner. But if they choose to wean the child before the end of two years, by common consent, and on mutual consideration, it shall be no crime in them. And if ye have a mind to provide a nurse for your children, it shall be no crime in you, in case ye fully pay what ye offer her, according to that which is just. And fear GOD, and know that GOD seeth whatsoever ye do.||Mothers, when divorced, shall give suck to their children two full years,91 if the father desire that the suckling be completed; and such maintenance and clothing as is fair for them, shall devolve on the father. No person shall be charged beyond his means. A mother shall not be pressed unfairly for her child, nor a father for his child: And the same with the father's heir. But if they choose to wean the child by consent and by bargain, it shall be no fault in them. And if ye choose to have a nurse for your children, it shall be no fault in you, in case ye pay what ye promised her according to that which is fair. Fear God, and know that God seeth what ye do.||91 Comp. Sura [lxxxii.] xxxi. 13.|
|91||234||2||Such of you as die, and leave wives, their wives must wait concerning themselves four months and ten days,b and when they shall have fulfilled their term, it shall be no crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves,c according to what is reasonable. GOD well knoweth that which ye do.||b That is to say, before they marry again; and this, not only for decency sake, but that it may be known whether they be with child by the deceased or not.
c That is, if they leave off their mourning weeds, and look out for new husbands.
|If those of you who die leave wives, they must await their state during four months and ten days; and when this their term is expired, you shall not be answerable for the way in which they shall dispose of themselves fairly. And God is cognisant of what ye do.|
|91||235||2||And it shall be no crime in you, whether ye make public overtures of marriage unto such women, within the said four months and ten days, or whether ye conceal such your designs in your minds: GOD knoweth that ye will remember them. But make no promises unto them privately, unless ye speak honourable words;||And then shall no blame attach to you in making proposals of marriage92 to such women, or in keeping such intention to yourselves? God knoweth that ye will not forget them. But promise them not in secret, unless ye speak honourable words;||92 Within the four months and ten days.|
|91||236||2||and resolve not on the knot of marriage until the prescribed time be accomplished; and know that GOD knoweth that which is in your minds, therefore beware of him and know that GOD is gracious and merciful.||And resolve not on the marriage tie until the prescribed time be reached; and know that God knoweth what is in your minds: therefore, beware of Him; and know that God is Gracious, Mild!|
|91||237||2||It shall be no crime in you, if ye divorce your wives, so long as ye have not touched them, nor settled any dowry on them. And provide for them (he who is at his ease must provide according to his circumstances) necessaries, according to what shall be reasonable. This is a duty incumbent on the righteous.||It shall be no crime in you if ye divorce your wives so long as ye have not consummated the marriage, nor settled any dowry on them. And provide what is needful for them he who is in ample circumstances according to his means, and he who is straitened, according to his meanswith fairness: This is binding on those who do what is right.|
|91||238||2||But if ye divorce them before ye have touched them, and have already settled a dowry on them, ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless they release any part, or he release part in whose hand the knot of marriage is;d and if ye release the whole, it will approach nearer unto piety. And not forget liberality among you, for GOD seeth that which ye do.||d i.e., Unless the wife agree to take less than half her dowry, or unless the husband be so generous as to give her more than half, or the whole, which is here approved of as most commendable.||But if ye divorce them before consummation, and have already settled a dowry on them, ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless they make a release, or he make a release in whose hand is the marriage tie. But if ye make a release, it will be nearer to piety. And forget not generosity in your relations one towards another; for God beholdeth your doings.|
|91||239||2||Carefully observe the appointed prayers, and the middle prayer,e and be assiduous therein, with devotion towards GOD.||e Yahya interprets this from a tradition of Mohammed, who, being asked which was the middle prayer, answered, The evening prayer, which was instituted by the prophet Solomon. But Jallaloddin allows a greater lattitude, and supposes it may be the afternoon prayer, the morning prayer, the noon prayer, or any other.||Observe strictly the prayers, and the middle93 prayer, and stand up full of devotion towards God.||93 Either the asr, midway between noon and nightfall (see verse 104 above) or the prayer immediately after midday. See note on Sura [c.] iv. 46.|
|91||240||2||But if ye fear any danger, pray on foot or on horseback; and when ye are safe remember GOD, how he hath taught you what as yet ye knew not.||And if you have any alarm, then pray on foot or riding: but when you are safe, then remember God, how he hath made you to know what ye knew not.|
|91||241||2||And such of you as shall die and leave wives ought to bequeath their wives a year's maintenance, without putting them out of their houses: but if they go out voluntarily, it shall be no crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves, according to what shall be reasonable; GOD is mighty and wise.||And94 such of you as shall die and leave wives, shall bequeath their wives a year's maintenance without causing them to quit their homes; but if they quit them of their own accord, then no blame shall attach to you for any disposition they may make of themselves in a fair way. And God is Mighty, Wise.||94 This verse is certainly older than the commencement of Sura iv. which alters the law here laid down.|
|91||242||2||And unto those who are divorced, a reasonable provision is also due; this is a duty incumbent on those who fear GOD.||And for the divorced let there be a fair provision. This is a duty in those who fear God.|
|91||243||2||Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may understand.||Thus God maketh his signs clear to you that ye may understand.|
|91||244||2||Hast thou not considered those, who left their habitations, (and they were thousands,) for fear of death?f And GOD said unto them, Die; then he restored them to life, for GOD is gracious towards mankind; but the greater part of men do not give thanks.||f These were some of the children of Israel, who abandoned their dwellings because of a pestilence, or, as others say, to avoid serving in a religious war; but, as they fled, God struck them all dead in a certain valley. About eight days or more after, when their bodies were corrupted, the prophet Ezekiel, the son of Buzi, happening to pass that way, at the sight of their bones wept; whereupon God said to him, Call to them, O Ezekiel, and I will restore them to life. And accordingly on the prophets call they all arose, and lived several years after; but they retained the colour and stench of dead corpses as long as they lived, and the clothes they wore changed as black as pitch, which qualities they transmitted to their posterity.1 As to the number of these Israelites the commentators are not agreed; they who reckon least say they were 3,000, and they who reckon most, 70,000. This story seems to have been taken from Ezekiels vision of the resurrection of dry bones.2
Some of the Mohammedan writers will have Ezekiel to have been one of the judges of Israel, and to have succeeded Othoniel the son of Caleb. They also call this prophet Ebn al ajûz, or the son of the old woman; because they say his mother obtained him by her prayers in her old age.3
1 Jallaloddin, Yahya, Abulfeda, &c.
2 Ezek. xxxvii. 1-10.
3 Al Thalabi, Abu Ishak, &c.
|Hast thou not thought on those who quitted their dwellingsand they were thousandsfor fear of death?95 God said to them, "Die:" then He restored them to life, for full of bounty towards man is God. But most men give not thanks!||95 Comp. Ezek. xxxvii. 1-10. These Jews are said by some commentators to have abandoned their dwellings through fear of a pestilence (comp. Talmud Sanhed. 92); by others, for fear of being compelled to serve in the wars of God.|
|91||245||2||Fight for the religion of GOD, and know that GOD is he who heareth and knoweth.||Fight for the cause of God; and know that God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.|
|91||246||2||Who is he that will lend unto GOD on good usury?g verily he will double it unto him manifold; for GOD contracteth and extendeth his hand as he pleaseth, and to him shall ye return.||g viz., By contributing towards the establishment of his true religion.||Who is he that will lend to God a goodly loan? He will double it to him again and again: God is close, but open handed also: and to Him shall ye return.|
|91||247||2||Hast thou not considered the assembly of the children of Israel, after the time of Moses; when they said unto their prophet Samuel, Set a king over us, that we may fight for the religion of GOD. The prophet answered, If ye are enjoined to go to war, will ye be near refusing to fight? They answered, And what should ail us that we should not fight for the religion of GOD, seeing we are dispossessed of our habitations, and deprived of our children? But when they were enjoined to go to war, they turned back, except a few of them: and GOD knew the ungodly.||Hast thou not considered96 the assembly of the children of Israel after the death of Moses, when they said to a prophet of theirs, "Set up for us a king; we will do battle for the cause of God?" He said, "May it not be that if to fight were ordained you, ye would not fight?" They said, "And why should we not fight in the cause of God, since we and our children are driven forth from our dwellings?" But when fighting was commanded them, they turned back, save a few of them: But God knew the offenders!||96 This and the seven following verses shew that Muhammad, foreseeing an open rupture with the people of Medina at no distant period, felt it necessary to stimulate the zeal and courage of his partisans by examples from Jewish history.|
|91||248||2||And their prophet said unto them, Verily GOD hath set Talût,h king over you: they answered, How shall he reign over us, seeing we are more worthy of the kingdom than he, neither is he possessed of great riches? Samuel said, Verily GOD hath chosen him before you, and hath caused him to increase in knowledge and stature, for GOD giveth his kingdom unto whom he pleaseth; GOD is bounteous and wise.||h So the Mohammedans name Saul.||And their prophet said to them, "Now hath God set (Talout) Saul king over you." They said, "How shall he reign over us, when we are more worthy of the kingdom than he, and of wealth he hath no abundance?" He said, "Verily God hath chosen him to be over you, and hath given him increase in knowledge and stature; God giveth his kingdom to whom he pleaseth; and God is Liberal, Knowing!"|
|91||249||2||And their prophet said unto them, Verily the sign of his kingdom shall be, that the ark shall come unto you:i therein shall be tranquility from your LORD,k and the relicsl which have been left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron; the angels shall bring it. Verily this shall be a sign unto you, if ye believe.||i This ark, says Jallaloddin, contained the images of the prophets, and was sent down from heaven to Adam, and at length came to the Israelites, who put great confidence therein, and continually carried it in the front of their army, till it was taken by the Amalekites. But on this occasion the angels brought it back, in the sight of all the people, and placed it at the feet of Talût; who was thereupon unanimously acknowledged for their king.
This relation seems to have arisen from some imperfect tradition of the taking and sending back the ark by the Philistines.4
4 I Sam. iv. v. and vi.
k That is, because of the great confidence the Israelites placed in it, having won several battles by its miraculous assistance. I imagine, however, that the Arabic word Sakînat, which signifies tranquillity or security of mind, and is so understood by the commentators, may not improbably mean the divine presence or glory, which used to appear on the ark, and which the Jews express by the same word Shechinah.
l These were the shoes and rod of Moses, the mitre of Aaron, a pot of manna, and the broken pieces of the two tables of the law.5
|And their prophet said to them, "Verily, the sign of his kingship shall be that the Ark shall come to you: in it is a pledge of security97 from your Lord and the relics98 left by the family of Moses, and the family of Aaron; the angels shall bear it: Truly herein shall be a sign indeed to you if ye are believers."||97 Ar. Shechinah. See Freytag Lex. in v. This word, as well as the Arabic word for ark (p. 95, n.) betray in their form a Rabbinic origin.
98 The shoes and rod of Moses, the mitre of Aaron, the vase of manna, the fragments of the two tables of the law.
|91||250||2||And when Talut departed with his soldiers he said, Verily GOD will prove you by the river: for he who drinketh thereof, shall not be on my side (but he who shall not taste thereof he shall be on my side), except he who drinketh a draught out of his hand. And they drank thereof, except a few of them.m And when they had passed the river, he and those who believed with him, they said, We have no strength to-day, against Jalutn and his forces. But they who considered that they should meet GOD at the resurrection, said, How often hath a small army discomfited a great one, by the will of GOD! and GOD is with those who patiently persevere.||m The number of those who drank out of their hands was about 313.1 It seems that Mohammed has here confounded Saul with Gideon, who by the divine direction took with him against the Midianites such of his army only as lapped water out of their hands, which were 300 men.2
1 Idem, Yahya.
2 Judges vii.
n Or Goliath.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 148, p. 139
|They who held it as certain that they must meet God, said, 'How oft, by God's will, hath a small host vanquished a numerous host!'||And when Saul marched forth with his forces, he said, "God will test you by a river: He who drinketh of it shall not be of my band; but he who shall not taste it, drinking a drink out of the hand excepted, shall be of my band."99 And, except a few of them, they drank of it. And when they had passed it, he and those who believed with him, the former said, "We have no strength this day against (Djalout) Goliath and his forces:" But they who held it as certain that they must meet God, said, "How oft, by God's will, hath a small host vanquished a numerous host! and God is with the steadfastly enduring."||99 Observe the confusion between Gideon and Saul.|
|91||251||2||And when they went forth to battle against Jalut and his forces, they said, O LORD, pour on us patience, and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving people.||And when they went forth against Goliath and his forces, they said, "O our Lord! pour out steadfastness upon us, and set our feet firm, and help us against the infidels!"|
|91||252||2||Therefore they discomfited them, by the will of GOD, and David slew Jalut. And GOD gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him his will;o and if GOD had not prevented men, the one by the other, verily the earth had been corrupted: but GOD is beneficent towards his creatures.||o Or what he pleased to teach him. Yahya most rationally understands hereby the divine revelations which David received from GOD; but Jallaloddin the art of making coats of mail (which the Mohammedans believe was that prophets peculiar trade), and the knowledge of the language of birds.||And by the will of God they routed them; and (Daood) David slew Goliath; and God gave him the kingship and wisdom, and taught him according to His will: and were it not for the restraint of one by means of the other, imposed on men by God, verily the earth had been utterly corrupted. But God is bounteous to his creatures.|
|91||253||2||These are the signs of GOD: we rehearse them unto thee with truth, and thou art surely one of those who have been sent by GOD.||Such are the signs of God: with truth do we rehearse them to thee, for one of the Sent Ones art Thou.|
|91||254||2||These are the apostles; we have preferred some of them before others; some of them hath GOD spoken unto, and hath exalted the degree of others of them. And we gave unto Jesus the son of Mary manifest signs, and strengthened him with the holy spirit.p And if GOD had pleased, they who came after those apostles would not have contended among themselves, after manifest signs had been shown unto them. But they fell to variance; therefore some of them believed, and some of them believed not; and if GOD had so pleased, they would not have contended among themselves; but GOD doth what he will.||p See before p. 10, note k.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 110, p. 104
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 191, p. 177
A Travelers Narrative, p. 73
|Some of the Apostles We have caused to excel the others.
EGB: doing what He pleaseth and ordering what He willeth.
|Some of the apostles we have endowed more highly than others: Those to whom God hath spoken, He hath raised to the loftiest grade, and to Jesus the Son of Mary we gave manifest signs, and we strengthened him with the Holy Spirit.100 And if God had pleased, they who came after them would not have wrangled, after the clear signs had reached them. But into disputes101 they fell: some of them believed, and some were infidels; yet if God had pleased, they would not have thus wrangled: but God doth what he will.||100 See verse 81.
101 The drift of these words, which are of such frequent recurrence in the Koran, is, that the former revelations had been abused, and instead of leading them to Islam broke them up into sects and dissentient parties.
|91||255||2||O true believers, give alms of that which we have bestowed unto you, before the day cometh wherein there shall be no merchandizing, nor friendship, nor intercession. The infidels are unjust doers.||O Believers! give alms of that with which we have supplied you, before the day cometh when there shall be no trafficking, nor friendship, nor intercession. And the infidels are the wrong-doers.|
|91||256||2||GOD! there is no GOD but he;q the living, the self-subsisting: neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him; to him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven, and on earth. Who is he than can intercede with him, but through his good pleasure? He knoweth that which is past, and that which is to come unto them, and they shall not comprehend anything of his knowledge, but so far as he pleaseth. His throne is extended over heaven and earth,r and the preservation of both is no burden unto him. He is the high, the mighty.||q The following seven lines contain a magnificent description of the divine majesty and providence; but it must not be supposed the translation comes up to the dignity of the original. This passage is justly admired by the Mohammedans, who recite it in their prayers; and some of them wear it about them, engraved on an agate or other precious stone.3
3 Vide Bobov. de Prec. Moham. p. 5, et Reland. Dissert. de Gemmis Arab p. 235, 239.
r This throne, in Arabic called Corsi, is by the Mohammedans supposed to be Gods tribunal, or seat of justice; being placed under that other called al Arsh, which they say is his imperial throne. The Corsi allegorically signifies the divine providence, which sustains and governs the heaven and the earth, and is infinitely above human comprehension.4
4 Vide DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Corsi.
|God! There is no God but He; the Living, the Eternal; Nor slumber seizeth Him, nor sleep; His, whatsoever is in the Heavens and whatsoever is in the Earth! Who is he that can intercede with Him but by His own permission? He knoweth what hath been before them and what shall be after them; yet nought of His knowledge shall they grasp, save what He willeth. His Throne reacheth over the Heavens and the Earth, and the upholding of both burdeneth Him not; and He is the High, the Great!|
|91||257||2||Let there be no violence in religion.s Now is right direction manifestly distinguished from deceit: whoever therefore shall deny Tagut,t and believe in GOD, he shall surely take hold on a strong handle, which shall not be broken; GOD is he who heareth and seeth.||s This passage was particularly directed to some of Mohammeds first proselytes, who, having sons that had been brought up in idolatry or Judaism, would oblige them to embrace Mohammedism by force.1
t This word properly signifies an idol, or whatever is worshipped besides GODparticularly the two idols of the Meccans, Allât and al Uzza; and also the devil, or any seducer.
|A Travelers Narrative, p. 76
|EGB: Most Firm Handle||Let there be no compulsion in Religion.102 Now is the right way made distinct from error. Whoever therefore shall deny Thagout103 and believe in Godhe will have taken hold on a strong handle that shall not be broken: and God is He who Heareth, Knoweth.||102 This verse must have been revealed before Muhammad felt himself secure in his new position at Medina.
103 A name applied to an idol or idols especially Allat and Ozza, the ancient idols of the Meccans. The termination of the word Thagout is more Hebraic than pure Arabic, and literally means error.
|91||258||2||GOD is the patron of those who believe; he shall lead them out of darkness into light:||Tablets of the Divine Plan (4 Tablet to the Baháís of the Western States, within pp. 19-25)
|O: Verily God is the helper of those who have believed. He will lead them from darkness into light.||God is the patron of believers: He shall bring them out of darkness into light:|
|91||259||2||but as to those who believe not, their patrons are Tagut; they shall lead them from the light into darkness; they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever.||As to those who believe not, their patrons are Thagout: they shall bring them out of light into darkness: they shall be given over to the fire: they shall abide therein for ever.|
|91||260||2||Hast thou not considered him who disputed with Abraham concerning his LORD,u because GOD had given him the kingdom? When Abraham said, My LORD is he who giveth life, and killeth: he answered, I give life, and I kill. Abraham said, Verily GOD bringeth the sun from the east, now do thou bring it from the west. Whereupon the infidel was confounded; for GOD directeth not the ungodly people.||u This was Nimrod, who, as the commentators say, to prove his power of life and death by ocular demonstration, caused two men to be brought before him at the same time, one of whom he slew, and saved the other alive. As to this tyrants persecution of Abraham, see chapter 21, and the notes thereon.||Hast thou not thought on him104 who disputed with Abraham about his Lord, because God had given him the kingdom? When Abraham said, "My Lord is He who maketh alive and cause to die:" He said, "It is I who make alive and cause to die!" Abraham said, "Since God bringeth the sun from the East, do thou, then, bring it from the West." The infidel was confounded; for God guideth not the evil doers:||104 Nimrod.|
|91||261||2||Or hast thou not considered how he behaved who passed by a city which had been destroyed, even to her foundations?x He said, How shall GOD quicken this city, after she hath been dead? And GOD caused him to die for an hundred years, and afterwards raised him to life. And GOD said, how long hast thou tarried here? He answered, A day, or part of a day. GOD said, Nay, thou hast tarried here a hundred years. Now look on thy food and thy drink, they are not yet corrupted; and look on thine ass: and this have we done that we might make thee a sign unto men. And look on the bones of thine ass, how we raise them, and afterwards clothe them with flesh. And when this was shown unto him, he said, I know that GOD is able to do all things.||x The person here meant was Ozair or Ezra, who riding on an ass by the ruins of Jerusalem, after it had been destroyed by the Chaldeans, doubted in his mind by what means God could raise the city and its inhabitants again; whereupon God caused him to die, and he remained in that condition 100 years; at the end of which God restored him to life, and he found a basket of figs and a cruse of wine he had with him not in the least spoiled or corrupted; but his ass was dead, the bones only remaining, and these, while the prophet looked on, were raised and clothed with flesh, becoming an ass again, which being inspired with life, began immediately to bray.2
This apocryphal story may perhaps have taken its rise from Nehemiahs viewing of the ruins of Jerusalem.3
2 Jallaloddin, Yahya, &c See DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Ozair.
3 Nehem. ii. 12, &c.
|Or how he105 demeaned him who passed by a city which had been laid in ruins.106 "How," said he, "shall God give life to this city, after she hath been dead?" And God caused him to die for an hundred years, and then raised him to life. And God said, "How long hast thou waited?" He said, "I have waited a day or part of a day." He said, "Nay, thou hast waited an hundred years. Look on thy food and thy drink; they are not corrupted; and look on thine ass: we would make thee a sign unto men: And look on the bones of thine ass, how we will raise them, then clothe them with flesh." And when this was shewn to him, he said, "I acknowledge that God hath power to do all things."||105 Ozair or Esdras doubted whether Jerusalem could be rebuilt after its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar, and the miracle here narrated, was wrought for his assurance. The fable has its origin in the circuit made by Nehemiah around the ruined city. Neh. ii. 13.
106 Lit. it was falling on its roofs.
|91||262||2||And when Abraham said, O LORD, show me how thou wilt raise the dead;y God said, Dost thou not yet believe? He answered, Yea, but I ask this that my heart may rest at ease. GOD said, take therefore four birds, and divide them;z then lay a part of them on every mountain; then call them, and they shall come swiftly unto thee: and know that GOD is mighty and wise.||y The occasion of this request of Abraham is said to have been on a doubt proposed to him by the devil, in human form, how it was possible for the several parts of the corpse of a man which lay on the sea-shore, and had been partly devoured by the wild beasts, the birds, and the fish, to be brought together at the resurrection.4
4 See DHerbelot, p. 13.
z These birds, according to the commentators, were an eagle (a dove, say others), a peacock, a raven and a cock, which Abraham cut to pieces, and mingled their flesh and feathers together, or, as some tell us, pounded all in a mortar, and dividing the mass into four parts, laid them on so many mountains, but kept the heads, which he had preserved whole, in his hand. Then he called them each by their name, and immediately one part flew to the other, till they all recovered their first shape, and then came to be joined to their respective heads.1
This seems to be taken from Abrahams sacrifice of birds mentioned by Moses,2 with some additional circumstances.
1 Jallaloddin. See DHerbelot, ubi supra.
2 Gen. xv
|When Abraham said, "O Lord, shew me how thou wilt give life to the dead!" He said, "Hast thou not believed?" He said, "Yes; but I have asked thee, that my heart may be well assured." He said, "Take, then, four birds,107 and draw them towards thee, and cut them in pieces; then place a part of them on every mountain; then call them and they shall come swiftly to thee: and know thou that God is Might, Wise!"||107 Comp. Gen. xv. 9.|
|91||263||2||The similitude of those who lay out their substance, for advancing the religion of GOD, is as a grain of corn which produceth seven ears, and in every ear an hundred grains; for GOD giveth twofold unto whom he pleaseth: GOD is bounteous and wise.||Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 3-9, 1 To the Baháís of the Northeastern States)
|O: One grain will bring forth seven sheaves, and every sheaf shall contain one hundred grains.||The likeness of those who expend their wealth for the cause of God, is that of a grain of corn which produceth seven ears, and in each ear a hundred grains; and God will multiply to whom He pleaseth: God is Liberal, Knowing!|
|91||264||2||They who lay out their substance for the religion of GOD, and afterwards follow not what they have so laid out by reproaches or mischief,a they shall have their reward with their LORD; upon them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved.||a i.e., Either by reproaching the person whom they have relieved with what they have done for him, or by exposing his poverty to his prejudice.3
|They who expend their wealth for the cause of God, and never follow what they have laid out with reproaches or harm, shall have their reward with their Lord; no fear shall come upon them, neither shall they be put to grief.|
|91||265||2||A fair speech and to forgive, is better than alms followed by mischief. GOD is rich and merciful.||A kind speech and forgiveness is better than alms followed by injury. God is Rich, Clement.|
|91||266||2||O true believers, make not your alms of none effect by reproaching, or mischief, as he who layeth out what he hath to appear unto men to give alms, and believeth not in GOD and the last day. The likeness of such a one is as a flint covered with earth, on which a violent rain falleth, and leaveth it hard. They cannot prosper in anything which they have gained, for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people.||2:265, 266
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 102-106, Ustád `Alí-Akbar-i-Najjar)
|MG: a heavy rain||O ye who believe! make not your alms void by reproaches and injury, like him who spendeth his substance to be seen of men, and believeth not in God and in the latter day. The likeness of such an one is that of a rock with a thin soil upon it, on which a heavy rain falleth but leaveth it hard: No profit from their works shall they be able to gain; for God guideth not the unbelieving people.|
|91||267||2||And the likeness of those who lay out their substance from a desire to please GOD, and for an establishment for their souls, is as a garden on a hill, on which a violent rain falleth, and it bringeth forth its fruits twofold; and if a violent rain falleth not on it, yet the dew falleth thereon: and GOD seeth that which ye do.||2:265, 266 (cont.)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 102-106, Ustád `Alí-Akbar-i-Najjar)
|MG: a heavy rain||And the likeness of those who expend their substance from a desire to please God, and for the stablishing of their souls, is as a garden on a hill, on which the heavy rain falleth, and it yieldeth its fruits twofold; and even if a heavy rain fall not on it, yet is there a dew: God beholdeth your actions.|
|91||268||2||Doth any of you desire to have a garden of palm-trees and vines,b through which rivers flow, wherein ye may have all kinds of fruits, and that he may attain to old age, and have a weak offspring? then a violent fiery wind shall strike it, so that it shall be burned. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may consider.||b This garden is an emblem of alms given out of hypocrisy, or attended with reproaches, which perish, and will be of no service hereafter to the giver.4
|Desireth any one of you a garden of palms and vines through which rivers flow, in which he may have every fruit, and that old age should surprise him there, and that his offspring should be weakly, and that then a fiery violent wind shall strike it so that it shall be burned? Thus God maketh plain his signs to you that ye may reflect.|
|91||269||2||O true believers, bestow alms of the good things which ye have gained, and of that which we have produced for you out of the earth, and choose not the bad thereof, to give it in alms,||O ye who believe! bestow alms of the good things which ye have acquired, and of that which we have brought forth for you out of the earth, and choose not the bad for almsgiving,|
|91||270||2||such as ye would not accept yourselves, otherwise than by connivance:c and know that GOD is rich and worthy to be praised.||c That is, on having some amends made by the seller of such goods, either by abatement of the price, or giving something else to the buyer to make up the value.||Such as ye would accept yourselves only by connivance: and know that God is Rich, Praiseworthy.|
|91||271||2||The devil threateneth you with poverty, and commandeth you filthy covetousness; but GOD promiseth you pardon from himself and abundance: GOD is bounteous and wise.||Satan menaceth you with poverty,108 and enjoineth base actions: but God promiseth you pardon from himself and abundance: God is All-bounteous, Knowing.||108 That is, Satan would dissuade you from liberal contributions by instilling the fear of poverty.|
|91||272||2||He giveth wisdom unto whom he pleaseth; and he unto whom wisdom is given hath received much good: but none will consider, except the wise of heart.||He giveth wisdom to whom He will: and he to whom wisdom is given, hath had much good given him; but none will bear it in mind, except the wise of heart.|
|91||273||2||And whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow, verily GOD knoweth it; but the ungodly shall have none to help them. If ye make your alms to appear, it is well; but if ye conceal them, and give them unto the poor, this will be better for you, and will atone for your sins; and GOD is well informed of that which ye do.||And whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow, of a truth God knoweth it: but they who act unjustly shall have no helpers. Give ye your alms openly?109 it is well. Do ye conceal them and give them to the poor? This, too, will be of advantage to you, and will do away your sins: and God is cognisant of your actions.||109 Comp. Matt. vi. 3, 4.|
|91||274||2||The direction of them belongeth not unto thee; but GOD directeth whom he pleaseth. The good that ye shall give in alms shall redound unto yourselves; and ye shall not give unless out of desire of seeing the face of GOD.d And what good thing ye shall give in alms, it shall be repaid you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly; unto the poor who are wholly employed in fighting for the religion of GOD, and cannot go to and fro on the earth; whom the ignorant man thinketh rich, because of their modesty: thou shalt know them by this mark, they ask not men with importunity; and what good ye shall give in alms, verily GOD knoweth it.||d i.e., For the sake of a reward hereafter, and not for any worldly consideration.1
|Their guidance is not thine affair, O Muhammad; but God guideth whom he pleaseth. And the good that ye shall give in alms shall redound unto yourselves; and ye shall not give but as seeking the face of God; and whatever good thing ye shall have given in alms, shall be repaid you, and ye shall not be wronged. There are among you the poor, who being shut up to fighting for the cause of God, have it not in their power to strike out into the earth for riches. Those who know them not, think them rich because of their modesty. By this their token thou shalt know themthey ask not of men with importunity: and of whatever good thing ye shall give them in alms, of a truth God will take knowledge.|
|91||275||2||They who distribute alms of their substance night and day, in private and in public, shall have their reward with the LORD; on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved.||They who give away their substance in alms, by night and day, in private and in public, shall have their reward with their Lord: no fear shall come on them, neither shall they be put to grief.|
|91||276||2||They who devour usury shall not arise from the dead, but as he ariseth whom Satan hath infected by a touch:e this shall happen to them because they say, Truly selling is but as usury: and yet GOD hath permitted selling and forbidden usury. He therefore who when there cometh unto him an admonition from his LORD abstaineth from usury for the future, shall have what is past forgiven him, and his affair belongeth unto GOD. But whoever returneth to usury, they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall continue therein forever.||e viz., Like demoniacs or possessed persons, that is, in great horror and distraction of mind and convulsive agitation of body.||They who swallow down usury, shall arise in the resurrection only as he ariseth whom Satan hath infected by his touch. This, for that they say, "Selling is only the like of usury:" and yet God hath allowed selling, and forbidden usury. He then who when this warning shall come to him from his Lord, abstaineth, shall have pardon for the past, and his lot shall be with God. But they who return to usury, shall be given over to the fire; therein shall they abide for ever.|
|91||277||2||GOD shall take his blessing from usury, and shall increase alms: for GOD loveth no infidel, or ungodly person. But they who believe and do that which is right, and observe the stated times of prayer, and pay their legal alms, they shall have their reward with their LORD: there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved.||God will bring usury to nought, but will increase alms with usury, and God loveth no infidel, or evil person. But they who believe and do the things that are right, and observe the prayers, and pay the legal impost, they shall have their reward with their Lord: no fear shall come on them, neither shall they be put to grief.|
|91||278||2||O true believers, fear GOD, and remit that which remaineth of usury,f if ye really believe;||f Or the interest due before usury was prohibited. For this some of Mohammeds followers exacted of their debtors, supposing they lawfully might.2
|O believers! fear God and abandon your remaining usury, if ye are indeed believers.|
|91||279||2||but if ye do it not, hearken unto war, which is declared against you from GOD and his apostle: yet if ye repent, ye shall have the capital of your money. Deal not unjustly with others, and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly.||But if ye do it not, then hearken for war on the part of God and his apostle: yet if ye repent, ye shall have the principal of your money. Wrong not, and ye shall not be wronged.|
|91||280||2||If there be any debtor under a difficulty of paying his debt, let his creditor wait till it be easy for him to do it; but if ye remit it as alms, it will be better for you, if ye knew it.||Compilation: Trustworthiness: A Cardinal Baháí Virtue, no. 2047, by Baháulláh
|BWC: Respite thy debtor till he findeth means to pay.||If any one find difficulty in discharging a debt, then let there be a delay until it be easy for him: but if ye remit it as alms it will be better for you, if ye knew it.|
|91||281||2||And fear the day wherein ye shall return unto GOD; then shall every soul be paid what it hath gained, and they shall not be treated unjustly.||Fear the day wherein ye shall return to God: then shall every soul be rewarded according to its desert, and none shall have injustice done to them.|
|91||282||2||O true believers, when ye bind yourselves one to the other in a debt for a certain time, write it down; and let a writer write between you according to justice, and let not the writer refuse writing according to what GOD hath taught him; but let him write, and let him who oweth the debt dictate, and let him fear GOD his LORD, and not diminish aught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt be foolish, or weak, or be not able to dictate himself, let his agentg dictate according to equity; and call to witness two witnesses of your neighboring men; but if there be not two men, let there be a man and two women of those whom ye shall choose for witnesses: if one of those women should mistake, the other of them will cause her to recollect. And the witnesses shall not refuse, whensoever they shall be called. And disdain not to write it down, be it a large debt, or be it a small one, until its time of payment: this will be more just in the sight of GOD, and more right for bearing witness, and more easy, that ye may not doubt. But if it be a present bargain which ye transact between yourselves, it shall be no crime in you, if ye write it not down. And take witnesses when ye sell one to the other, and let no harm be done to the writer, nor to the witness; which if ye do, it will surely be injustice in you: and fear GOD, and GOD will instruct you, for GOD knoweth all things.||g Whoever manages his affairs, whether his father, heir, guardian, or interpreter.1
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 76, p. 69
The Seven Valleys (Preamble)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 28, paragraph 36
|Fear ye God; God will teach you;
MG: Fear God and God will give you knowledge
BWC: Fear God and God will give you knowledge.
|O ye who believe! when ye contract a debt (payable) at a fixed date, write it down, and let the notary faithfully note between you: and let not the notary refuse to note, even as God hath taught him; but let him note it down, and let him who oweth the debt dictate, and let him fear God his Lord, and not diminish aught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt be foolish or weak, or be not able to dictate himself, let his friend dictate for him with fairness; and call to witness two witnesses of your people: but if there be not two men, let there be a man, and two women of those whom ye shall judge fit for witnesses: if the one of them should mistake, the other may cause her to recollect. And the witnesses shall not refuse, whenever they shall be summoned. And disdain not to put the debt in writing, be it large or small, with its time of payment: this will be more just for you in the sight of God, better suited for witnessing, and the best for avoiding doubt. But if the goods be there present, and ye pass them from hand to handthen it shall be no fault in you not to write it down. And have witnesses when ye sell, and harm not writer or witness: it will be a crime in you to do this. But fear God and God will give you knowledge, for God hath knowledge of all things.|
|91||283||2||And if ye be on a journey, and find no writer, let pledges be taken: but if one of you trust the other, let him who is trusted return what he is trusted with, and fear GOD his LORD. And conceal not the testimony, for he who concealeth it hath surely a wicked heart: GOD knoweth that which ye do.||And if ye be on a journey and shall find no notary, let pledges be taken: but if one of you trust the other, let him who is trusted, restore what he is trusted with, and fear God his Lord. And refuse not to give evidence. He who refuseth is surely wicked at heart: and God knoweth your deeds.|
|91||284||2||Whatever is in heaven and on earth is GOD'S: and whether ye manifest that which is in your minds, or conceal it, GOD will call you to account for it, and will forgive whom he pleaseth, and will punish whom he pleaseth, for GOD is almighty.||Whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth is God's: and whether ye bring forth to light what is in your minds or conceal it, God will reckon with you for it; and whom He pleaseth will He forgive, and whom He pleaseth will He punish; for God is All-powerful.|
|91||285||2||The apostle believeth in that which hath been sent down unto him from his LORD, and the faithful also. Every one of them believeth in GOD, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his apostles: we make no distinction at all between his apostles.h And they say, We have heard, and do obey: we implore thy mercy, O LORD, for unto thee must we return.||h But this, say the Mohammedans, the Jews do, who receive Moses but reject Jesus; and the Christians, who receive both those prophets, but reject Mohammed.2
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 161, p. 152
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter II, within pp. 43-44)
|No distinction do We make between any of His Messengers!
BWC: O Lord our God! We have hearkened to the call of Thy Remembrance and obeyed Him. Forgive us our sins. Thou art, verily, the Eternal Truth, and unto Thee, our infallible Retreat, must we all return.
|The apostle believeth in that which hath been sent down from his Lord, as do the faithful also. Each one believeth in God, and His Angels, and His Books, and His Apostles: we make no distinction between any of His Apostles.110 And they say, "We have heard and we obey. Thy mercy, Lord! for unto thee must we return."||110 This contradicts verse 254, as well as several verses in Sura [1viii.] xix.|
|91||286||2||GOD will not force any one beyond its capacity: it shall have the good which it gaineth, and it shall suffer the evil which it gaineth. O LORD, punish us not, if we forget, or act sinfully: O LORD, lay not on us a burden like that which thou hast laid on those who have been before us;i neither make us, O LORD, to bear what we have not strength to bear, but be favorable unto us, and spare us, and be merciful unto us. Thou art our patron, help us therefore against the unbelieving nations.||i That is, on the Jews, who, as the commentators tell us, were ordered to kill a man by way of atonement, to give one-fourth of their substance in alms, and to cut off an unclean ulcerous part,3 and were forbidden to eat fat, or animals that divided the hoof, and were obliged to observe the sabbath, and other particulars wherein the Mohammedans are at liberty.4
|God will not burden any soul beyond its power. It shall enjoy the good which it hath acquired, and shall bear the evil for the acquirement of which it laboured. O our Lord! punish us not if we forget, or fall into sin; O our Lord! and lay not on us a load like that which thou hast laid on those who have been before us; O our Lord! and lay not on us that for which we have not strength: but blot out our sins and forgive us, and have pity on us. Thou art our protector: give us victory therefore over the infidel nations.|
|97||0||3||CHAPTER III.||SURA III.THE FAMILY OF IMRAN1 [XCVII.]||1 Verses 1-87 probably belong to the period between the battle of Bedr and Hej. 6.Muhammad supposed Imran or Amran to be the father of the Virgin Mary (Sura [cix.] lxvi. 12)Mary and Elizabeth to be sisters; who, with Jesus, John, and Zacharias, make up the family of Imran. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that Muhammad is guilty of the anachronism of confounding Miriam with the Virgin Mary. On the other hand is the difficulty of conceiving that as the sequence of time and fact is observed with tolerable accuracy in regard to the main features of Jewish and Christian History, he should have fallen into so serious an error, or have so inadvertently adopted, as Mr. Muir supposes, the phraseology of his Jewish informants (amongst whom the only well-known Mary (Miriam) was the daughter of Imran and the sister of Moses) as to have overlooked the discrepancy in their respective dates. But it is possible that Muhammad believed, as some Muslim writers assert, that Miriam's soul and body were miraculously preserved till the time of Jesus in order to become Mary his mother. Certainly the Talmudists fabled that the Angel of Death and the worm of corruption had no power over Miriam. Comp. Babha Bathra, 17. Jos. Ant. iv. 4, 6.|
|97||0||3||ENTITLED, THE FAMILY OF IMRAN;k REVEALED AT MEDINA||k This name is given in the Korân to the father of the Virgin Mary. See below, p. 35.||MEDINA.200 Verses|
|97||0||3||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|97||1||3||AL. M.l There is no GOD but GOD, the living, the self-subsisting:||l For the meaning of these letters the reader is referred to the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. III.||ELIF. LAM. MIM.2 God! there is no god but He, the Living, the Merciful!||2 See note, p. 32.|
|97||2||3||he hath sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that which was revealed before it; for he had formerly sent down the law, and the gospel a direction unto men; and he had also sent down the distinction between good and evil.||In truth hath He sent down to thee "the Book," which confirmeth those which precede it: For He had sent down the Law, and the Evangel aforetime, as man's Guidance; and now hath He sent down the "Illumination."3 (Furkan.)||3 See Sura xxi. 49, p. 154, n.|
|97||3||3||Verily those who believe not the signs of GOD shall suffer a grievous punishment; for GOD is mighty, able to revenge.||Verily for those who believe not in the signs of God, is a severe chastisement! And God is Mighty, the Avenger!|
|97||4||3||Surely nothing is hidden from GOD, of that which is on earth, or in heaven: it is he who formeth you in the wombs, as he pleaseth; there is no GOD but he, the mighty, the wise.||God! nought that is in Earth or that is in Heaven, is hidden unto Him. He it is who formeth you in your mothers' wombs. There is no god but He; the Mighty, the Wise!|
|97||5||3||It is he who hath sent down unto thee the book, wherein are some verses clear to be understood, they are the foundation of the book; and others are parabolical.m But they whose hearts are perverse will follow that which is parabolical therein, out of love of schism, and a desire of the interpretation thereof; yet none knoweth the interpretation thereof, except God. But they who are well grounded in the knowledge say, We believe therein, the whole is from our LORD; and none will consider except the prudent.||m This passage is translated according to the exposition of al Zamakhshari and al Beidâwi, which seems to be the truest.
The contents of the Korân are here distinguished into such passages as are to be taken in the literal sense, and such as require a figurative acceptation. The former being plain and obvious to be understood, compose the fundamental part, or, as the original expresses it, the mother of the book, and contain the principal doctrines and precepts; agreeably to and consistently with which, those passages which are wrapt up in metaphors, and delivered in an enigmatical, allegorical style, are always to be interpreted.5
5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 16, p. 17
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 237, p. 213
|None knoweth the meaning thereof except God and them that are well-grounded in knowledge.
None knoweth the interpretation thereof but God and they that are well-grounded in knowledge.
|He it is who hath sent down to thee "the Book." Some of its signs are of themselves perspicuous;these are the basis4 of the Bookand others are figurative. But they whose hearts are given to err, follow its figures, craving discord, craving an interpretation; yet none knoweth its interpretation but God. And the stable in knowledge say, "We believe in it: it is all from our Lord." But none will bear this in mind, save men endued with understanding.||4 Lit. mother.|
|97||6||3||O LORD, cause not our hearts to swerve from truth, after thou hast directed us: and give us from thee mercy, for thou art he who giveth.||O our Lord! suffer not our hearts to go astray after that thou hast once guided us, and give us mercy from before thee; for verily thou art He who giveth.|
|97||7||3||O LORD, thou shalt surely gather mankind together, unto a day of resurrection: there is no doubt of it, for GOD will not be contrary to the promise.||O our Lord! For the day of whose coming there is not a doubt, thou wilt surely gather mankind together. Verily, God will not fail the promise.|
|97||8||3||As for the infidels, their wealth shall not profit them anything, nor their children, against GOD: they shall be the fuel of hell fire.||As for the infidels, their wealth, and their children, shall avail them nothing against God. They shall be fuel for the fire.|
|97||9||3||According to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those who went before them, they charged our signs with a lie; but GOD caught them in their wickedness, and GOD is severe in punishing.||After the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those who went before them, they treated our signs as falsehoods. Therefore God laid hold of them in their sins; and God is severe in punishing!|
|97||10||3||Say unto those who believe not, Ye shall be overcome, and thrown together into hell; and an unhappy couch shall it be.||Say to the infidels: ye shall be worsted, and to Hell shall ye be gathered together; and wretched the couch!|
|97||11||3||Ye have already had a miracle shown you in two armies, which attacked each other:n one army fought for GOD'S true religion, but the other were infidels; they saw the faithful twice as many as themselves in their eyesight; for GOD strengthened with his help whom he pleaseth. Surely herein was an example unto men of understanding.||n The sign or miracle here meant, was the victory gained by Mohammed in the second year of the Hejra, over the idolatrous Meccans, headed by Abu Sofiân, in the valley of Bedr, which is situate near the sea, between Mecca and Medina. Mohammeds forces consisted of no more than three hundred and nineteen men, but the enemys army of near a thousand, notwithstanding which odds he put them to flight, having killed seventy of the principal Koreish, and taken as many prisoners, with the loss of only fourteen of his own men.1 This was the first victory obtained by the prophet, and though it may seem no very considerable action, yet it was of great advantage to him, and the foundation of all his future power and success. For which reason it is famous in the Arabian history, and more than once vaunted in the Korân,2 as an effect of the divine assistance. The miracle, it is said, consisted in three things: 1. Mohammed, by the direction of the angel Gabriel, took a handful of gravel and threw it toward the enemy in the attack, saying, May their faces be confounded; whereupon they immediately turned their backs and fled. But though the prophet seemingly threw the gravel himself, yet it is told in the Korân,3 that it was not he, but God, who threw it, that is to say, by the ministry of his angel. 2. The Mohammedan troops seemed to the infidels to be twice as many in number as themselves, which greatly discouraged them. And 3. God sent down to their assistance first a thousand and afterwards three thousand angels, led by Gabriel, mounted on his horse Haizûm; and, according to the Korân,4 these celestial auxiliaries really did all the execution, though Mohammeds men imagined themselves did it, and fought stoutly at the same time.
1 Elmacin. p. 5. Hottinger. Hist. Orient. l. 2, c. 4. Abulfed. Vit. Moham. p. 56, &c. Prideauxs Life of Mahom. p. 71, &c.
2 See this chapter below, and c. 8 and 32.
3 Cap. 8, not far from the beginning.
|Ye have already had a sign5 in the meeting of the two hosts. The one host fought in the cause of God, and the other was infidel. To their own eyesight, the infidels saw you twice as many as themselves: And God aided with his succour whom He would: And in this truly was a lesson for men endued with discernment.||5 In the battle of Bedr, Muhammad, with 319 followers routed 1000 Meccans, A.H. 2.|
|97||12||3||The love and eager desire of wives, and children, and sums heaped up of gold and silver, and excellent horses, and cattle, and land, is prepared for men: this is the provision of the present life; but unto GOD shall be the most excellent return.||Fair-seeming to men is the love of pleasures from women and children, and the treasured treasures of gold and silver, and horses of mark, and flocks, and cornfields! Such the enjoyment of this world's life. But God! goodly the home with Him.|
|97||13||3||Say, Shall I declare unto you better things than this? For those who are devout are prepared with their LORD gardens through which rivers flow; therein shall they continue forever: and they shall enjoy wives free from impurity, and the favor of GOD; for GOD regardeth his servants||SAY: Shall I tell you of better things than these, prepared for those who fear God, in His presence? Theirs shall be gardens, beneath whose pavilions the rivers flow, and in which shall they abide for aye: and wives of stainless purity, and acceptance with God: for God regardeth his servants|
|97||14||3||who say, O LORD, we do sincerely believe; forgive us therefore our sins, and deliver us from the pain of hell fire:||Who say, "O our Lord! we have indeed believed; pardon us our sins, and keep us from the torment of the fire;"|
|97||15||3||the patient, and the lovers of truth, and the devout, and the almsgivers, and those who ask pardon early in the morning.||The patient, and the truthful, the lowly, and the charitable, and they who seek pardon at each daybreak.|
|97||16||3||GOD hath borne witness that there is no GOD but he; and the angels, and those who are endowed with wisdom, profess the same; who executeth righteousness; there is no GOD but he; the mighty, the wise.||God witnesseth that there is no god but He: and the angels, and men endued with knowledge, stablished in righteousness, proclaim "There is no god but He, the Mighty, the Wise!"|
|97||17||3||Verily the true religion in the sight of GOD is Islâm;o and they who had received the scriptures dissented not therefrom, until after the knowledge of God's unity had come unto them, out of envy among themselves; but whosoever believeth not in the signs of GOD, verily GOD will be swift in bringing him to account.||o The proper name of the Mohammedan religion, which signifies the resigning or devoting ones self entirely to GOD and his service. This they say is the religion which all the prophets were sent to teach, being founded on the unity of GOD.5
5 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|The true religion with God is Islam: and they to whom the Scriptures had been given, differed not till after "the knowledge"6 had come to them, and through mutual jealousy. But as for him who shall not believe in the signs of GodGod will be prompt to reckon with him!||6 That is, knowledge, or revelation, became the cause of disputings.|
|97||18||3||If they dispute with thee, say, I have resigned myself unto GOD, and he who followeth me doth the same;||If they shall dispute with thee, then SAY: I have surrendered myself to God, as have they who follow me.|
|97||19||3||and say unto them who have received the scriptures, and to the ignorant,p Do ye profess the religion of Islam? now if they embrace Islam, they are surely directed; but if they turn their backs, verily unto thee belongeth preaching only; for GOD regardeth his servants.||p i.e., The pagan Arabs, who had no knowledge of the scriptures.1
|SAY to those who have received the Book, and to the common folk, Do ye surrender yourselves unto God?7 If they become Muslims, then are they guided aright: but if they turn awaythy duty is only preaching; and God's eye is on His servants.||7 That is, will ye receive Islam? The Ummiin, or common folk, the heathen Arabians destitute of Revelation. In the earliest extant biography of Muhammad by Ibn Ishaq, we find these words addressed by Zaid, previous to the assumption of the prophetic office by Muhammad, to the Koreisch. This is one of the facts which shew that the way was to a great extent prepared for Islam. This whole address of Zaid'swhich contains not less than six passages afterwards repeated in the Koranmay be seen in Dr. Sprenger's Life of M. p. 42. The instances of others who had learned to disbelieve in idolatry, and had either become Jews or Christians, or held their minds in suspense, might easily be multiplied. Comp. Sharastani, p. 437. Masudi, ch. 6.|
|97||20||3||And unto those who believe not in the signs of GOD, and slay the prophets without a cause, and put those men to death who teach justice; denounce unto them a painful punishment.||But to those who believe not in the signs of God, and unjustly slay the prophets, and slay those men who enjoin uprightness,announce an afflictive chastisement.|
|97||21||3||These are they whose works perish in this world, and in that which is to come; and they shall have none to help them.||These are they whose works come to nought in this world, and in the next; and none shall they have to help them!|
|97||22||3||Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the scripture was given?q They were called unto the book of GOD, that it might judge between them;r then some of them turned their backs, and retired afar off.||q That is, the Jews.
r This passage was revealed on occasion of a dispute Mohammed had with some Jews, which is differently related by the commentators.
Al Beidâwi says that Mohammed going one day into a Jewish synagogue, Naïm Ebn Amru and al Hareth Ebn Zeid asked him what religion he was of? To which he answering, Of the religion of Abraham; they replied, Abraham was a Jew. But on Mohammeds proposing that the Pentateuch might decide the question, they would by no means agree to it.
But Jallaloddin tells us that two persons of the Jewish religion having committed adultery, their punishment was referred to Mohammed, who gave sentence that they should be stoned, according to the law of Moses. This the Jews refused to submit to, alleging there was no such command in the Pentateuch; but on Mohammeds appealing to the book, the said law was found therein. Whereupon the criminals were stoned, to the great mortification of the Jews.
It is very remarkable that this law of Moses concerning the stoning of adulterers is mentioned in the New Testament2 (though I know some dispute the authenticity of that whole passage), but is not now to be found, either in the Hebrew or Samaritan Pentateuch, or in the Septuagint; it being only said that such shall be put to death.3 This omission is insisted on by the Mohammedans as one instance of the corruption of the law of Moses by the Jews.
It is also observable that there was a verse once extant in the Korân, commanding adulterers to be stoned; and the commentators say the words only are abrogated, the sense or law still remaining in force.4
2 John viii. 5.
3 Levit. xx. 10. See Whistons Essay towards restoring the true text of the Old Test. p. 99, 100. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III.
|Hast thou not marked those who have received a portion of the Scriptures, when they are summoned to the Book of God, that it may settle their differences? Then did a part of them turn back, and withdrew far off.|
|97||23||3||This they did because they said, the fire of hell shall by no means touch us, but for a certain number of days;s and that which they had falsely devised hath deceived them in their religion.||s i.e., Forty; the time their forefathers worshipped the calf.5 Al Beidâwi adds, that some of them pretended their punishment was to last but seven days, that is, a day for every thousand years which they supposed the world was to endure; and that they imagined they were to be so mildly dealt with, either by reason of the intercession of their fathers the prophets, or because GOD had promised Jacob that his offspring should be punished but slightly.
5 See before, p. 10, note g.
|Thisbecause they said, "The fire shall by no means touch us, but for certain days:"Their own devices have deceived them in their religion.|
|97||24||3||How then will it be with them, when we shall gather them together at the day of judgment,t of which there is no doubt; and every soul shall be paid that which it hath gained, neither shall they be treated unjustly?||t The Mohammedans have a tradition that the first banner of the infidels that shall be set up, on the day of judgment, will be that of the Jews; and that GOD will first reproach them with their wickedness, over the heads of those who are present, and then order them to hell.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|But how, when we shall assemble them together for the day of (which) whose coming there is no doubt, and when every soul shall be paid what it hath earned, and they shall not be wronged?|
|97||25||3||Say, O GOD, who possessest the kingdom; thou givest the kingdom unto whom thou wilt, and thou takest away the kingdom from whom thou wilt: thou exaltest whom thou wilt, and thou humblest whom thou wilt: in thy hand is good, for thou art almighty.||SAY: O God, possessor of all power,8 thou givest power to whom thou wilt, and from whom thou wilt, thou takest it away! Thou raisest up whom thou wilt, and whom thou wilt thou dost abase! In thy hand is good; for thou art over all things potent.||8 The King of the Kingdom, or, Lord of Might. This verse and the following are either fragments of some lost Sura, or belonging to one of the Meccan Suras. At any rate, they are misplaced, interrupting as they do the connection of the preceding and subsequent verses.|
|97||26||3||Thou makest the night to succeed the day: thou bringest forth the living out of the dead, and thou bringest forth the dead out of the living;u and providest food for whom thou wilt without measure.||u As a man from seed, and a bird from an egg; and vice versâ.1
|Thou causest the night to pass into the day, and thou causest the day to pass into the night. Thou bringest the living out of the dead, and thou bringest the dead out of the living; and thou givest sustenance to whom thou wilt, without measure.|
|97||27||3||Let not the faithful take the infidels for their protectors, rather than the faithful: he who doth this shall not be protected of GOD at all; unless ye fear any danger from them: but GOD warneth you to beware of himself; for unto GOD must ye return. Say, Whether ye conceal that which is in your breasts, or whether ye declare it, GOD knoweth it; for he knoweth whatever is in heaven, and whatever is on earth: GOD is almighty.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 105, p. 99
|God would have you beware of Himself||Let not believers take infidels for their friends rather than believers: whoso shall do this hath nothing to hope from Godunless, indeed, ye fear a fear from them: But God would have you beware of Himself; for to God ye return. SAY: Whether ye hide what is in your breasts, or whether ye publish it abroad, God knoweth it: He knoweth what is in the heavens and what is in the earth; and over all things is God potent.|
|97||28||3||On the last day every soul shall find the good which it hath wrought, present; and the evil which it hath wrought, it shall wish that between itself and that were a wide distance: but GOD warneth you to beware of himself; for GOD is gracious unto his servants.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 102-106, Ustád `Alí-Akbar-i-Najjar)
|And to those who serve Him, is God full of kindness.||On that day shall every soul find present to it, whatever it hath wrought of good: and as to what it hath wrought of evil, it will wish that wide were the space between itself and it! But God would have you beware of Himself; for God is kind to His servants.|
|97||29||3||Say, If ye love GOD, follow me: then GOD shall love you, and forgive you your sins; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Say, Obey GOD, and his apostle; but if ye go back, verily GOD loveth not the unbelievers.||SAY: If ye love God, then follow me: God will love you, and forgive your sins, for God is Forgiving, Merciful. SAY: Obey God and the Apostle; but if ye turn away, then verily, God loveth not the unbelievers.|
|97||30||3||GOD hath surely chosen Adam, and Noah, and the family of Abraham, and the family of Imrânx above the rest of the world; a race descending the one from the other: GOD is he who heareth and knoweth.||x Or Amrân, is the name of two several persons, according to the Mohammedan tradition. One was the father of Moses and Aaron; and the other was the father of the Virgin Mary;2 but he is called by some Christian writers Joachim. The commentators suppose the first, or rather both of them, to be meant in this place; however, the person intended in the next passage, it is agreed, was the latter; who besides Mary the mother of Jesus, had also a son named Aaron,3 and another sister, named Ishá (or Elizabeth), who married Zacharias, and was the mother of John the Baptist; whence that prophet and Jesus are usually called by the Mohammedans, The two sons of the aunt, or the cousins german.
From the identity of names it has been generally imagined by Christian writers4 that the Korân here confounds Mary the mother of Jesus, with Mary or Miriam the sister of Moses and Aaron; which intolerable anachronism, if it were certain, is sufficient of itself to destroy the pretended authority of this book. But though Mohammed may be supposed to have been ignorant enough in ancient history and chronology to have committed so gross a blunder, yet I do not see how it can be made out from the words of the Korân. For it does not follow, because two persons have the same name, and have each a father and brother who bear the same names, that they must therefore necessarily be the same person: besides, such a mistake is inconsistent with a number of other places in the Korân, whereby it manifestly appears that Mohammed well knew and asserted that Moses preceded Jesus several ages. And the commentators accordingly fail not to tell us that there had passed about one thousand eight hundred years between Amrân the father of Moses, and Amrân the father of the Virgin Mary: they also make them the sons of different persons; the first, they say, was the son of Yeshar, or Izhar (though he was really his brother),5 the son of Kâhath, the son of Levi; and the other was the son of Mathân,6 whose genealogy they trace, but in a very corrupt and imperfect manner, up to David, and thence to Adam.7
It must be observed that though the Virgin Mary is called in the Korân1 the sister of Aaron, yet she is nowhere called the sister of Moses; however, some Mohammedan writers have imagined that the same individual Mary, the sister of Moses, was miraculously preserved alive from his time till that of Jesus Christ, purposely to become the mother of the latter.2
2 Al Zamakhshari, al Beidâwi.
3 Kor. c. 19.
4 Vide Reland. de Rel. Moh. p. 211 Marracc. in Alc. p. 115, &c. Prideaux, Letter to the Deists, p. 185.
5 Exod. vi. 18.
6 Al Zamakh. al Beidâwi.
7 Vide Reland. ubi sup. DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 583.
1 Cap. 19.
2 Vide Guadagnol. Apolog. pro Rel. Christ. contra Ahmed Ebn Zein al Abedin. p. 279.
|Verily above all human beings did God choose Adam, and Noah, and the family of Abraham, and the family of IMRAN, the one the posterity of the other: And God Heareth, Knoweth.|
|97||31||3||Remember when the wife of Imrâny said, LORD, verily I have vowed unto thee that which is in my womb, to be dedicated to thy service;z accept it therefore of me; for thou art he who heareth and knoweth. And when she was delivered of it, she said, LORD, verily I have brought forth a female (and GOD well knew what she had brought forth), and a male is not as a female.a I have called her MARY; and I commend her to thy protection, and also her issue, against Satan driven away with stones.b||y The Imrân here mentioned was the father of the Virgin Mary, and his wifes name was Hannah, or Ann, the daughter of Fakudh. This woman, say the commentators, being aged and barren, on seeing a bird feed her young ones, became very desirous of issue, and begged a child of GOD, promising to consecrate it to his service in the temple; whereupon she had a child, but it proved a daughter.3
3 Al Beidâwi, al Thalabi.
z The Arabic word is free, but here signifies particularly one that is free or detached from all worldly desires and occupations, and wholly devoted to GODS service.4
4 Jallaloddin, al Zamakhshari.
a Because a female could not minister in the temple as a male could.5
b This expression alludes to a tradition, that Abraham, when the devil tempted him to disobey God in not sacrificing his son, drove the fiend away by throwing stones at him; in memory of which, the Mohammedans, at the pilgrimage of Mecca, throw a certain number of stones at the devil, with certain ceremonies, in the valley of Mina.6
It is not improbable that the pretended immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary is intimated in this passage; for according to a tradition of Mohammed, every person that comes into the world is touched at his birth by the devil, and therefore cries out: Mary and her son only excepted, between whom and the evil spirit God placed a veil, so that his touch did not reach them.7 And for this reason, they say, neither of them were guilty of any sin, like the rest of the children of Adam:8 which peculiar grace they obtained by virtue of this recommendation of them by Hannah to Gods protection.
6 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
7 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
|Remember when the wife of Imran9 said, "O my Lord! I vow to thee what is in my womb, for thy special service. Accept it from me, for thou Hearest, Knowest!" And when she had given birth to it, she said, "O my Lord! Verily I have brought forth a female,"God knew what she had brought forth; a male is not as a female10"and I have named her Mary, and I take refuge with thee for her and for her offspring, from Satan the stoned."11||9 The wife of Imran is Hannah or Anne. Comp. Protev. Jac. iv. [greek text].Evang. de Nat. Mar. 1: Voverunt tamen (Mari parentes) si forte donaret eis Deus sobolem, eam se Dni servitio mancipaturos.Although Muhammad had no direct access to the Apocryphal Gospels, yet these may have influenced, or at any rate, contained much in common with, the ordinary traditions of S. Syria. And of this, the Immaculate Conception of the B. V. Mary, supposed by Gibbon (ch. 50) to have been "borrowed from the Koran," probably formed a part.
10 That is, the female could not become a priest.
11 See note, p. 114.
|97||32||3||Therefore the LORD accepted her with a gracious acceptance,c and caused her to bear an excellent offspring. And Zacharias took care of the child; whenever Zacharias went into the chamber to her, he found provisions with her:d and he said, O Mary, whence hadst thou this? she answered, This is from GOD, for GOD provideth for whom he pleaseth without measure.e||c Though the child happened not to be a male, yet her mother presented her to the priests who had the care of the temple, as one dedicated to GOD; and they having received her, she was committed to the care of Zacharias, as will be observed by-and-bye, and he built her an apartment in the temple, and supplied her with necessaries.9
9 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi. Vide Lud. de Dieu, in not. ad Hist. Christi Xaverii, p. 542.
d The commentators say that none went into Marys apartment but Zacharias himself, and that he locked seven doors upon her, yet he found she had always winter fruits in summer, and summer fruits in winter.10
10 Al Beidâwi. Vide de Dieu, ubi sup. p. 548.
e There is a story of Fâtema, Mohammeds daughter, that she once brought two loaves and a piece of flesh to her father, who returned them to her, and having called for her again, when she uncovered the dish, it was full of bread and meat; and on Mohammeds asking her whence she had it, she answered in the words of this passage: This is from GOD; for GOD provideth for whom he pleaseth without measure. Whereupon he blessed GOD, who thus favoured her, as he had the most excellent of the daughters of Israel.1
1 Al Beidâwi
|So with goodly acceptance did her Lord accept her, and with goodly growth did he make her grow.12 Zacharias reared her. So oft as Zacharias went in to Mary at the sanctuary, he found her supplied with food.13 "Oh, Mary!" said he, "whence hast thou this?" She said, "It is from God; for God supplieth whom He will, without reckoning!"||12 According to a tradition of Muhammad every new-born child is touched by Satan, with the exception of Mary and her Son, between whom and Satan God interposed a veil. (Djelal. Beidh.) Hence this passage may imply the Immaculate Conception of the B. V. Mary. See v. 37 below.
13 Evang. de Nat. Mar. 7: Quotidie ab angelis frequentabatur, quotidie divinâ visione fruebatur, queam a malis omnibus custodiebat et bonis omnibus redundare faciebat. Protev. Jac. 8: [greek text]. Hist. Nativ. Mar. 6: Quotidie escâ, quam de manu angeli accipiebat, ipsâ tantum reficiebatur.
|97||33||3||There Zacharias called on his LORD, and said, LORD, give me from thee a good offspring, for thou art the hearer of prayer. And the angelsf called to him, while he stood praying in the chamber,||f Though the word be in the plural, yet the commentators say it was the angel Gabriel only. The same is to be understood where it occurs in the following passages.||There did Zacharias call upon his Lord: "O my Lord!" said he, "vouchsafe me from thyself good descendants,14 for thou art the hearer of prayer." Then did the angels call to him, as he stood praying in the sanctuary:15||14 The word rendered descendants is a collective noun. Gerock (p. 20) thinks that Zacharias' prayer was not for a son of his own, but for an adopted sonas, for instance, the future husband of Mary who might become his heir, and hence accounts for his surprise and unbelief at the announcement of John.
15 Lit. chamber. By this may be meant an [greek text] of the Temple Comp. Luke i. 21.
|97||34||3||saying, Verily GOD promiseth thee a son named John, who shall bear witness to the Wordg which cometh from GOD; and honourable person, chaste,h and one of the righteous prophets.||g That is, Jesus, who, al Beidâwi says, is so called because he was conceived by the word or command of GOD without a father.
h The original word signifies one who refrains not only from women, but from all other worldly delights and desires. Al Beidâwi mentions a tradition, that during his childhood some boys invited him to play, but he refused, saying that he was not created to play.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 70, p. 64
|God announceth Yahya to thee, who shall bear witness unto the Word from God, and a great one and chaste.||"God announceth John (Yahia) to thee, who shall be a verifier of the word from God, and a great one, chaste, and a prophet of the number of the just."|
|97||35||3||He answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, when old age hath overtaken me,i and my wife is barren? The angel said, So GOD doth that which he pleaseth.||i Zacharias was then ninety-nine years old, and his wife eighty-nine.2
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 241)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 63
A Travelers Narrative, p. 73
|BWC: doeth as He willeth
EGB: He doeth what He will
EGB: doing what He pleaseth and ordering what He willeth
|He said, "O my Lord! how shall I have a son, now that old age hath come upon me, and my wife is barren?" He said, "Thus will God do His pleasure."|
|97||36||3||Zacharias answered, LORD, give me a sign. The angel said, Thy sign shall be, that thou shalt speak unto no mank for three days, otherwise than by gesture: remember thy LORD often, and praise him evening and morning.||k Though he could not speak to anybody else, yet his tongue was at liberty to praise GOD as he is directed to do by the following words.||He said, "Lord! give me a token." He said, "Thy token shall be, that for three days thou shalt speak to no man but by signs: But remember thy Lord often, and praise him at even and at morn:"|
|97||37||3||And when the angels said, O Mary, verily GOD hath chosen thee, and hath purified thee and hath chosen thee above all the women of the world:||And remember when the angels said, "O Mary! verily hath God chosen thee,16 and purified thee, and chosen thee above the women of the worlds!||16 Luke i. 28.|
|97||38||3||O Mary, be devout towards thy LORD, and worship, and bow down with those who bow down.||O Mary! be devout towards thy Lord,17 and prostrate thyself, and bow down with those who bow."||17 Hist. de Nativ. Mar. 6: Abierunt simul Joachim et Anna uxor ejus ad templum domini, et . . . tradiderunt . . . Mariam in contubernio virginum qu die noctuque in Dei laudibus manebant.|
|97||39||3||This is a secret history: we reveal it unto thee, although thou wast not present with them when they threw in their rods to cast lots which of them should have the education of Mary;l neither wast thou with them, when they strove among themselves.||l When Mary was first brought to the temple, the priests, because she was the daughter of one of their chiefs, disputed among themselves who should have the education of her. Zacharias insisted that he ought to be preferred, because he had married her aunt; but the others not consenting that it should be so, they agreed to decide the matter by casting of lots; whereupon twenty-seven of them went to the river Jordan and threw in their rods (or arrows without heads or feathers, such as the Arabs used for the same purpose), on which they had written some passages of the law; but they all sank except that of Zacharias, which floated on the water; and he had thereupon the care of the child committed to him.3
3 Idem. Jallaloddin, &c.
|This is one of the announcements of things unseen by thee: To thee, O Muhammad! do we reveal it; for thou wast not with them when they cast lots with reeds18 which of them should rear Mary; nor wast thou with them when they disputed about it.||18 These reeds, say the commentators, were written over with passages from the law, and cast into Jordan. That of Zacharias alone swam, and was the token that the charge of Mary was to devolve on him. Others render, their divining arrows. See a detailed account of the manner in which this matter was settled by [greek text], virgae, in Protev. Jac. Thilo. p. 204. Hist. Nat. Mar. ib. p. 359 sqq.|
|97||40||3||When the angels said; O Mary, verily GOD sendeth thee good tidings, that thou shalt bear the Word proceeding from himself; his name shall be CHRIST JESUS the son of Mary, honourable in this world and in the world to come, and one of those who approach near to the presence of GOD;||Remember when the angel said, "O Mary! Verily God announceth to thee the Word from Him: His name shall be, Messiah Jesus the son of Mary,19 illustrious in this world, and in the next, and one of those who have near access to God;||19 Ar. El-Mesich Isa ben Mariam, illustrious in this world as a Prophet, in the next as an Intercessor. Beidh.|
|97||41||3||and he shall speak unto men in the cradle,m and when he is grown up;n and he shall be one of the righteous:||m Besides an instance of this given in the Korân itself,1 which I shall not here anticipate, a Mohammedan writer, (of no very great credit, indeed) tells two stories, one of Jesuss speaking while in his mothers womb, to reprove her cousin Joseph for his unjust suspicions of her;2 and another of his giving an answer to the same person soon after he was born. For Joseph being sent by Zacharias to seek Mary (who had gone out of the city by night to conceal her delivery) and having found her began to expostulate with her, but she made no reply; whereupon the child spoke these words: Rejoice, O Joseph, and be of good cheer; for God hath brought me forth from the darkness of the womb, to the light of the world; and I shall go to the children of Israel, and invite them to the obedience of God.3
These seem all to have been taken from some fabulous traditions of the eastern Christians, one of which is preserved to us in the spurious gospel of the Infancy of Christ; where we read that Jesus spoke while yet in the cradle, and said to his mother, Verily I am Jesus the Son of God, the word which thou hast brought forth, as the angel Gabriel did declare unto thee; and my father hath sent me to save the world.4
1 Cap. 19.
2 Vide Sikii notas in Evang. Infant. p. 5.
3 Al Kessai, apud eundem
4 Evang. Infant. p. 5.
n The Arabic word properly signifies a man in full age, that is, between thirty or thirty-four, and fifty-one; and the passage may relate to Christs preaching here on earth. But as he had scarce attained this age when he was taken up into heaven, the commentators choose to understand it of his second coming.5
5 Jallaloddin. Al Beidâwi.
|And He shall speak to men alike when in the cradle and when grown up; And he shall be one of the just."|
|97||42||3||she answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, since a man hath not touched me? the angel said, So GOD createth that which he pleaseth: when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is:||She said, "How, O my Lord! shall I have a son, when man hath not touched me?" He said, "Thus: God will create what He will; When He decreeth a thing, He only saith, 'Be,' and it is."|
|97||43||3||GOD shall teach him the scripture, and wisdom, and the law, and the gospel; and shall appoint him his apostle to the children of Israel; and he shall say, Verily I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; for I will make before you, of clay, as it were the figure of a bird;o then I will breathe thereon, and it shall become a bird, by the permission of GOD;p and I will heal him that hath been blind from his birth; and the leper: and I will raise the deadq by the permission of GOD: and I will prophesy unto you what ye eat, and what ye lay up for store in your houses. Verily herein will be a sign unto you, if ye believe.||o Some say it was a bat,6 though others suppose Jesus made several birds of different sorts.
This circumstance is also taken from the following fabulous tradition, which may be found in the spurious gospel above mentioned. Jesus being seven years old, and at play with several children of his age, they made several figures of birds and beasts, for their diversion, of clay; and each preferring his own workmanship, Jesus told them, that he would make his walk and leap; which accordingly, at his command, they did. He made also several figures of sparrows and other birds, which flew about or stood on his hands as he ordered them, and also ate and drank when he offered them meat and drink. The children telling this to their parents, were forbidden to play any more with Jesus, whom they held to be a sorcerer.8
7 Al Thalabi
8 Evang. Infant. p. 111, &c.
p The commentators observe that these words are added here, and in the next sentence, lest it should be thought Jesus did these miracles by his own power, or was GOD.9
9 Al Beidâwi, &c.
q Jallaloddin mentions three persons whom Christ restored to life, and who lived several years after, and had children, viz., Lazarus, the widows son, and the publicans (I suppose he means the ruler of the synagogues) daughter. He adds that he also raised Shem the son of Noah, who, as another writes10 thinking he had been called to judgment, came out of his grave with his head half grey, whereas men did not grow grey in his days; after which he immediately died again.
10 Al Thalabi.
|And he will teach him the Book, and the Wisdom, and the Law, and the Evangel; and he shall be an apostle to the children of Israel. "Now have I come," he will say, "to you with a sign from your Lord: Out of clay will I make for you, as it were, the figure of a bird: and I will breathe into it, and it shall become, by God's leave, a bird.20 And I will heal the blind, and the leper; and by God's leave will I quicken the dead; and I will tell you what ye eat, and what ye store up in your houses! Truly in this will be a sign for you, if ye are believers.||20 Evang. Thom, ch. 2 (Thilo. p. 281) and Evang. Infantiæ Arab. ch. 36, 46. (Thilo. p. 111, 123.)|
|97||44||3||And I come to confirm the law which was revealed before me and to allow unto you as lawful part of that which hath been forbidden you:r and I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; therefore fear GOD, and obey me. Verily GOD is my LORD, and your LORD; therefore serve him. This is the right way.||r Such as the eating of fish that have neither fins nor scales, the caul and fat of animals, and camels flesh, and to work on the sabbath. These things, say the commentators, being arbitrary institutions in the law of Moses, were abrogated by Jesus; as several of the same kind, instituted by the latter, have been since abrogated by Mohammed.1
1 Al Beidâwi. Jallaloddin.
|And I have come to attest the law which was before me; and to allow you part of that which had been forbidden you; and I come to you with a sign from your Lord: Fear God, then, and obey me; of a truth God is my Lord, and your Lord: Therefore worship Him. This is a right way."|
|97||45||3||But when Jesus perceived their unbelief, he said, Who will be my helpers towards GOD? The apostles answered,s We will be the helpers of GOD; we believe in GOD, and do thou bear witness that we are true believers.||s In Arabic, al Hawâriyûn; which word they derive from Hâra, to be white, and suppose the apostles were so called either from the candour and sincerity of their minds, or because they were princes and wore white garments, or else because they were by trade fullers.2 According to which last opinion, their vocation is thus related; that as Jesus passed by the seaside, he saw some fullers at work, and accosting them, said, Ye cleanse these clothes, but cleanse not your hearts; upon which they believed on him. But the true etymology seems to be from the Ethiopic verb Hawyra, to go; whence Hawârya signifies one that is sent, a messenger or apostle.3
3 Vide Ludolfi Lexic. Æthiop. col. 40, et Golii notas ad cap. 61 Korâni, p. 205.
|And when Jesus perceived unbelief on their part, He said, "Who my helpers with God?"20-21 The apostles21 said, "We will be God's helpers! We believe in God, and bear thou witness that we are Muslims.||20-21a (0) Addendum: Lit. who my helpers unto God? i.e., helpers of his religion (Beidh). If Muhammad had become, by any means, acquainted with the use of the Æth. radeh, helper or disciple, we have herein a probable interpretation of this passage, as well as of the word Ansar.
21 See Sura [cxiv.] v. 111.
|97||46||3||O LORD, we believe in that which thou hast sent down, and we have followed thy apostle; write us down therefore with those who bear witness of him.||O our Lord! we believe in what thou hast sent down, and we follow the apostle; write us up, then, with those who bear witness to him."|
|97||47||3||And the Jews devised a stratagem against him;t but GOD devised a stratagem against them;u and GOD is the best deviser of stratagems.||t i.e., They laid a design to take away his life.
u This stratagem of Gods was the taking of Jesus up into heaven, and stamping his likeness on another person, who was apprehended and crucified in his stead. For it is the constant doctrine of the Mohammedans that it was not Jesus himself who underwent that ignominious death, but somebody else in his shape and resemblance.4 The person crucified some will have to be a spy that was sent to entrap him; others, that it was one Titian, who by the direction of Judas entered in at a window of the house where Jesus was, to kill him; and others that it was Judas himself, who agreed with the rulers of the Jews to betray him for thirty pieces of silver, and led those who were sent to take him.
They add, that Jesus after his crucifixion in effigy, was sent down again to the earth, to comfort his mother and disciples and acquaint them how the Jews were deceived; and was then taken up a second time into heaven.5
It is supposed by several that this story was an original invention of Mohammeds; but they are certainly mistaken; for several sectaries held the same opinion, long before his time. The Basilidians,6 in the very beginning of Christianity, denied that Christ himself suffered, but that Simon the Cyrenean was crucified in his place. The Cerinthians before them, and the Carpocratians next (to name no more of those who affirmed Jesus to have been a mere man), did believe the same thing; that it was not himself, but one of his followers very like him that was crucified. Photius tells us, that he read a book entitled, The Journeys of the Apostles, relating the acts of Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas and Paul; and among other things contained therein, this was one, that Christ, was not crucified, but another in his stead, and that therefore he laughed at his crucifiers,7 or those who thought they had crucified him.8
I have in another place9 mentioned an apocryphal gospel of Barnabas, a forgery originally of some nominal Christians, but interpolated since by Mohammedans; which gives this part of the history of Jesus with circumstances too curious to be omitted. It is therein related, that the moment the Jews were going to apprehend Jesus in the garden, he was snatched up into the third heaven by the ministry of four angels, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael and Uriel; that he will not die till the end of the world, and that it was Judas who was crucified in his stead; God having permitted that traitor to appear so like his master, in the eyes of the Jews, that they took and delivered him to Pilate. That this resemblance was so great, that it deceived the Virgin Mary and the Apostles themselves; but that Jesus Christ afterward obtained leave of God to go and comfort them. That Barnabas having then asked him, why the divine goodness had suffered the mother and disciples of so holy a prophet to believe even for one moment that he had died in so ignominious a manner? Jesus returned the following answer. O Barnabas, believe me that every sin, how small soever, is punished by God with great torment, because God is offended with sin. My mother therefore and faithful disciples, having loved me with a mixture of earthly love, the just God has been pleased to punish this love with their present grief, that they might not be punished for it hereafter in the flames of hell. And as for me, though I have myself been blameless in the world, yet other men having called me God and the Son of God; therefore God, that I might not be mocked by the devils at the day of judgment, has been pleased that in this world I should be mocked by men with the death of Judas, making everybody believe that I died upon the cross. And hence it is that this mocking is still to continue till the coming of Mohammed, the messenger of God; who, coming into the world, will undeceive every one who shall believe in the law of God from this mistake.1
4 See Kor. c. 4.
5 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 113, &c., et in Prodr. part iii. p. 63, &c.
5 Irenæus, l. I, c. 23, &c. Epiphan. Hæres. 24, num. iii.
7 Photius, Bibl. Cod. 114, col. 291.
8 Tolands Nararenus, p 17, &c.
9 Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
1 See the Menagiana. tom. iv. p. 326, &c.
|And the Jews plotted, and God plotted: But of those who plot is God the best.|
|97||48||3||When GOD said, O Jesus, verily I will cause thee to die,x and I will take thee up unto me,y and I will deliver thee from the unbelievers; and I will place those who follow thee above the unbelievers, until the day of resurrection:z then unto me shall ye return, and I will judge between you of that concerning which ye disagree.||x It is the opinion of a great many Mohammedans that Jesus was taken up into heaven without dying; which opinion is consonant to what is delivered in the spurious gospel above mentioned. Wherefore several of the commentators say that there is a hysteron proteron in these words, I will cause thee to die, and I will take thee up unto me; and that the copulative does not import order, or that he died before his assumption; the meaning being this, viz., that GOD would first take Jesus up to heaven, and deliver him from the infidels, and afterwards cause him to die; which they suppose is to happen when he shall return into the world again, before the last day.2 Some, thinking the order of the words is not to be changed, interpret them figuratively, and suppose their signification to be that Jesus was lifted up while he was asleep, or that GOD caused him to die a spiritual death to all worldly desires. But others acknowledge that he actually died a natural death, and continued in that state three hours, or, according to another tradition, seven hours; after which he was restored to life, and then taken up to heaven.3
2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
3 Al Beidâwi.
y Some Mohammedans say this was done by the ministry of Gabriel; but others that a strong whirlwind took him up from Mount Olivet.4
4 Al Thalabi. See 2 Kings ii. I, II
z That is, they who believe in Jesus (among whom the Mohammedans reckon themselves) shall be for ever superior to the Jews, both in arguments and in arms. And accordingly, says al Beidâwi, to this very day the Jews have never prevailed either against the Christians or Moslems, nor have they any kingdom or established government of their own.
|Remember when God said, "O Jesus! verily I will cause thee to die,22 and will take thee up to myself and deliver thee from those who believe not; and I will place those who follow thee above those who believe not, until the day of resurrection. Then, to me is your return, and wherein ye differ will I decide between you.||22 Muhammad probably believed that God took the dead body of Jesus to Heavenfor three hours according to somewhile the Jews crucified a man who resembled him. Sura [c.] iv. 156. The word motewaffika (comp. Sura [lxxx.] xxxix. 156) means, in speaking of God, to cause to die, take to himself. It would also seem from Sura [lviii.] xix. 34, that Muhammad supposed Jesus to have died a natural death, though it is nowhere said how long he continued in that state. The Muhammadans believe that Jesus on his return to earth at the end of the world will slay the Antichrist, die, and be raised again. A vacant place is reserved for his body in the Prophet's tomb at Medina. See Lieut. Burton's Pilgrimage, vol. ii.|
|97||49||3||Moreover, as for the infidels, I will punish them with a grievous punishment in this world, and in that which is to come; and there shall be none to help them.||And as to those who believe not, I will chastise them with a terrible chastisement in this world and in the next; and none shall they have to help them."|
|97||50||3||But they who believe, and do that which is right, he shall give them their reward: for GOD loveth not the wicked doers.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter III, within pp. 44-45)
|But as to those who believe, and do the things that are right, He will pay them their recompense. God loveth not the doers of evil.|
|97||51||3||These signs and this prudent admonition do we rehearse unto thee.||These signs, and this wise warning do we rehearse to thee.|
|97||52||3||Verily the likeness of Jesus in the sight of GOD is as the likeness of Adam; he created him out of the dust, and then said unto him, Be; and he was.a||a He was like to Adam in respect of his miraculous production by the immediate power of GOD.1
1 Jallaloddin, &c
|Verily, Jesus is as Adam in the sight of God.23 He created him of dust: He then said to him, "Be"and he was.||23 Lit. verily the similitude or analogy of Isa is as the similitude or analogy of Adam, i.e. neither of them had a human father.|
|97||53||3||This is the truth from thy LORD; be not therefore one of those who doubt;||The truth from thy Lord! Be not thou, therefore, of those who doubt.|
|97||54||3||and whoever shall dispute with thee, concerning him,b after the knowledge which hath been given thee, say unto them, Come, let us call together our sons and your sons, and our wives and your wives, and ourselves and yourselves; then let us make imprecations, and lay the curse of GOD on those who lie.c||b Namely, Jesus.
c To explain this passage their commentators tell the following story. That some Christians, with their bishop named Abu Hareth, coming to Mohammed as ambassadors from the inhabitants of Najrân, and entering into some disputes with him touching religion and the history of Jesus Christ, they agreed the next morning to abide the trial here mentioned, as a quick way of deciding which of them were in the wrong. Mohammed met them accordingly, accompanied by his daughter Fâtema, his son-in-law Ali, and his two grandsons, Hasan and Hosein, and desired them to wait till he had said his prayers. But when they saw him kneel down, their resolution failed them, and they durst not venture to curse him, but submitted to pay him tribute.2
2 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|MG: Then will we invoke and lay the malison of God on those that lie!||As for those 24 who dispute with thee about Him, after "theknowledge" hath come to thee, SAY: Come,25 let us summon our sons and your sons, our wives and your wives, and ourselves and yourselves. Then will we invoke and lay the malison of God on those that lie!||24 This refers to an embassy from the Christians in Nedjran in Arabia, with their Bishop, Abu Hareth, at their head, to Muhammad at Medina, who had now acquired political power. The embassy declined to be parties to the strange mode of settling the dispute here proposed, but consented to pay tribute on condition of not being molested in their religion or lands.
25 If this be not a mere figure of speech, it must mean let us call over and curse the names, the persons being at a distance.
|97||55||3||Verily this is a true history: and there is no GOD, but GOD; and GOD is most mighty and wise.||This recital is very truth, and there is no god but God; and verily God is the Mighty, the Wise.|
|97||56||3||If they turn back, GOD well knoweth the evil doers.||But if they turn away, then verily God hath knowledge of the corrupt doers.|
|97||57||3||Say, O ye who have received the scripture, come to a just determination between us and you;d that we worship not any except GOD, and associate no creature with him; and that the one of us take not the other for lords,e beside GOD. But if they turn back, say, Bear witness that we are true believers.||d That is, to such terms of agreement as are indisputably consonant to the doctrine of all the prophets and scriptures, and therefore cannot be reasonably rejected.3
e Besides other charges of idolatry on the Jews and Christians, Mohammed accused them of paying too implicit an obedience to their priests and monks, who took upon them to pronounce what things were lawful, and what unlawful, and to dispense with the laws of GOD.4
|SAY: O people of the Book! come ye to a just judgment between us and youThat we worship not aught but God, and that we join no other god with Him, and that the one of us take not the other for lords,26 beside God. Then if they turn their backs, SAY: Bear ye witness that we are Muslims.||26 As the Christians do their Bishops and Priests.|
|97||58||3||O ye to whom the scriptures have been given, why do ye dispute concerning Abraham,f since the Law and the Gospel were not sent down until after him? Do ye not therefore understand?||f viz., By pretending him to have been of your religion.||O people of the Book! Why dispute about Abraham,27 when the Law and the Evangel were not sent down till after him? Do ye not then understand?||27 Whether he were a Jew or Christian.|
|97||59||3||Behold ye are they who dispute concerning that which ye have some knowledge in; why therefore do you dispute concerning that which ye have no knowledge of?g GOD knoweth, but ye know not.||g i.e., Ye perversely dispute even concerning those things which ye find in the law and the gospel, whereby it appears they were both sent down long after Abrahams time; why then will ye offer to dispute concerning such points of Abrahams religion, of which your scriptures say nothing, and of which ye consequently can have no knowledge?5
|Lo! ye are they who dispute about that in which ye have knowledge; 28 but why dispute ye about that of which ye have no knowledge? God hath knowledge, but ye know nothing.||28 About Moses and Jesus, and their respective faiths.|
|97||60||3||Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian; but he was of the true religion, one resigned unto God, and was not of the number of the idolaters.||Abraham was neither Jew nor Christian; but he was sound in the faith,29 a Muslim; and not of those who add gods to God.||29 See Sura xvi. 121, p. 209, note.|
|97||61||3||Verily the men who are the nearest of kin unto Abraham are they who follow him; and this prophet, and they who believed on him: GOD is the patron of the faithful.||They among men, who are nearest of kin to Abraham, are surely those who follow him, and this prophet Muhammad, and they who believe on him. And God is the protector of the faithful.|
|97||62||3||Some of those who have received the scriptures desire to seduce you;h but they seduce themselves only, and they perceive it not.||h This passage was revealed when the Jews endeavoured to pervert Hodheifa, Ammâr, and Moâdh to their religion.1
|A party among the people of the Book would fain mislead you: but they only mislead themselves, and perceive it not.|
|97||63||3||O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of GOD, since ye are witnesses of them?||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 15, p. 16
|O people of the Book! Why disbelieve the signs of God to which ye yourselves have been witnesses?||O people of the Book! why disbelieve the signs of God, of which yourselves have been witnesses?|
|97||64||3||O ye who have received the scriptures, why do you clothe truth with vanity, and knowingly hide the truth?i||i The Jews and Christians are again accused of corrupting the scriptures and stifling the prophecies concerning Mohammed.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 15, p. 16
|O people of the Book! Why clothe ye the truth with falsehood? Why wittingly hide the truth?||O people of the Book! why clothe ye the truth with falsehood? Why wittingly hide the truth?|
|97||65||3||And some of those to whom the scriptures were given say, Believe in that which hath been sent down unto those who believe, in the beginning of the day, and deny it in the end thereof; that they may go back from their faith;k||k The commentators, to explain this passage, say that Caab Ebn al Ashraf and Malec Ebn al Seif (two Jews of Medina) advised their companions, when the Keblah was changed,2 to make as if they believed it was done by the divine direction, and to pray towards the Caaba in the morning, but that in the evening they should pray, as formerly, towards the temple of Jerusalem; that Mohammeds followers, imagining the Jews were better judges of this matter than themselves, might imitate their example. But others say these were certain Jewish priests of Khaibar, who directed some of their people to pretend in the morning that they had embraced Mohammedism, but in the close of the day to say that they had looked into their books of scripture, and consulted their Rabbins, and could not find that Mohammed was the person described and intended in the law, by which trick they hoped to raise doubts in the minds of the Mohammedans.3
2 See before, c. 2, p. 16.
3 Al Beidâwi
|Others of the people of the Book say: "Believe in what hath been sent down to the believers, at daybreak, and deny it at its close"Thus do they go back|
|97||66||3||and believe him only who followeth your religion. Say, Verily the true direction is the direction of GOD, that there may be given unto some other a revelation like unto what hath been given unto you. Will they dispute with you before your Lord? Say, Surely excellence is in the hand of GOD, he giveth it unto whom he pleaseth; GOD is bounteous and wise:||"And believe in those only who follow your Religion." SAY: True guidance is guidance from Godthat to others may be imparted the like of what hath been imparted to you. Will they wrangle then with you in the presence of their Lord? SAY: Plenteous gifts are in the hands of God: He imparteth them unto whom He will, and God is Bounteous, Wise.|
|97||67||3||he will confer peculiar mercy on whom he pleaseth; for GOD is endued with great beneficence.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 49-54, Nabíl of Qáin)
Tablets of the Divine Plan (11 Tablet to the Baháís of the Central States, within pp. 75-83)
|MG: And God will single out for His mercy whomsoever He willeth.
O: He specializes for His Mercy whomsoever He willeth.
|He will vouchsafe His mercy to whom He will, for God is of great bounteousness.|
|97||68||3||There is of those who have received the scriptures, unto whom if thou trust a talent he will restore it unto thee;l and there is also of them, unto whom if thou trust a dinâr, he will not restore it unto thee, unless thou stand over him continually with great urgency.m||l As an instance of this, the commentators bring Abdallah Ebn Salâm, a Jew, very intimate with Mohammed,4 to whom one of the Koreish lent 1,200 ounces of gold, which he very punctually repaid at the time appointed.5
4 See Prideauxs Life of Mahom. p. 33.
5 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
m Al Beidâwi produces an example of such a piece of injustice in one Phineas Ebn Azûra, a Jew, who borrowed a dinâr, which is a gold coin worth about ten shillings, of a Koreishite, and afterwards had the conscience to deny it.
But the person more directly struck at in this passage was the above-mentioned Caab Ebn al Ashraf, a most inveterate enemy of Mohammed and his religion, of whom Jallaloddin relates the same story as al Beidâwi does of Phineas. This Caab, after the battle of Bedr, went to Mecca, and there, to excite the Koreish to revenge themselves, made and recited verses lamenting the death of those who were slain in that battle, and reflecting very severely on Mohammed; and he afterwards returned to Medina, and had the boldness to repeat them publicly there also, at which Mohammed was so exceedingly provoked that he proscribed him, and sent a party of men to kill him, and he was circumvented and slain by Mohammed Ebn Moslema, in the third year of the Hejra.1 Dr. Prideaux2 has confounded the Caab we are now speaking of with another very different person of the same name, and a famous poet, but who was the son of Zohair, and no Jew, as a learned gentleman has already observed.3 In consequence of which mistake, the doctor attributes what the Arabian historians write of the latter to the former, and wrongly affirms that he was not put to death by Mohammed.
Some of the commentators, however, suppose that in the former part of this passage the Christians are intended, who, they say, are generally people of some honour and justice; and in the latter part the Jews, who, they think, are more given to cheating and dishonesty.4
1 Al Jannâbi, Elmacin.
2 Life of Mahom. p. 78, &c.
3 Vide Gagnier, in not. ad Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 64 and 122.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|Among the people of the Book are some, to one of whom if thou entrust a thousand dinars, he will restore them to thee: And there is of them to whom if thou entrust a dinar, he will not restore it to thee, unless thou be ever instant with him.|
|97||69||3||This they do because they say, We are not obliged to observe justice with the heathen: but they utter a lie against GOD, knowingly.||Thisbecause they say, "We are not bound to keep faith with the ignorant (Pagan) folk, and they utter a lie against God, and know they do so:"|
|97||70||3||Yea, whoso keepeth his covenant, and feareth God, GOD surely loveth those who fear him.||But whoso is true to his engagement, and feareth God,verily God loveth those that fear Him.|
|97||71||3||But they who make merchandise of GOD'S covenant, and of their oaths, for a small price, shall have no portion in the next life, neither shall GOD speak to them or regard them on the day of resurrection, nor shall he cleanse them; but they shall suffer a grievous punishment.||Verily they who barter their engagement with God, and their oaths, for some paltry priceThese! no portion for them in the world to come! and God will not speak to them, and will not look on them, on the day of resurrection, and will not assoil them! for them, a grievous chastisement!|
|97||72||3||And there are certainly some of them who read the scriptures perversely, that ye may think what they read to be really in the scriptures, yet it is not in the scripture; and they say, This is from GOD; but it is not from GOD: and they speak that which is false concerning GOD, against their own knowledge.||And some truly are there among them who torture the Scriptures with their tongues, in order that ye may suppose it to be from the Scripture, yet it is not from the Scripture. And they say, "This is from God;" yet it is not from God: and they utter a lie against God, and they know they do so.|
|97||73||3||It is not fit for a man, that GOD should give him a book of revelations, and wisdom, and prophecy; and then he should say unto men, Be ye worshippers of me, besides GOD; but he ought to say, Be ye perfect in knowledge and in works, since ye know the scriptures, and exercise yourselves therein.n||n This passage was revealed, say the commentators, in answer to the Christians, who insisted that Jesus had commanded them to worship him as GOD. Al Beidâwi adds that two Christians, named Abu Râfé al Koradhi and al Seyid al Najrâni, offered to acknowledge Mohammed for their Lord, and to worship him; to which he answered, GOD forbid that we should worship any besides GOD.||It beseemeth not a man, that God should give him the Scriptures and the Wisdom, and the gift of prophecy, and that then he should say to his followers, "Be ye worshippers of me, as well as of God;" 30 but rather, "Be ye perfect in things pertaining to God, since ye know the Scriptures, and have studied deep."||30 Muhammad insinuates that the claim to be equal with God could never have been made by Jesus himself, but by his followers, in ignorance of the Scriptures and of his true nature.|
|97||74||3||GOD hath not commanded you to take the angels and the prophets for your lords: Will he command you to become infidels, after ye have been true believers?||God doth not command you to take the angels or the prophets as lords.31 What! would he command you to become infidels after ye have been Muslims?||31 That is, to call them rabba title due only to God.|
|97||75||3||And remember when GOD accepted the covenant of the prophets,o saying, This verily is the scripture and the wisdom which I have given you: hereafter shall an apostle come unto you, confirming the truth of that scripture which is with you; ye shall surely believe in him, and ye shall assist him. GOD said, Are ye firmly resolved, and do ye accept my covenant on this condition? They answered, We are firmly resolved: God said, Be ye therefore witnesses; and I also bear witness with you:||o Some commentators interpret this of the children of Israel themselves, of whose race the prophets were. But others say the souls of all the prophets, even of those who were not then born, were present on Mount Sinai when GOD gave the law to Moses, and that they entered into the covenant here mentioned with him. A story borrowed by Mohammed from the Talmudists, and therefore most probably his true meaning in this place.||When God entered into covenant with the prophets,32 he said, "This is the Book and the Wisdom which I give you. Hereafter shall a prophet came unto you to confirm the Scriptures already with you. Ye shall surely believe on him, and ye shall surely aid him. Are ye resolved?" said he, "and do ye accept the covenant on these terms?" They said, "We are resolved;" "Be ye then the witnesses," said he, "and I will be a witness as well as you.||32 Assembled on Mount Sinai. Compare the Jewish legend, that all the prophets, even those who were not yet born, were present on Mount Sinai, when God gave the law to Moses. See Shemoth Rabba. Parashah 28, according to which, not only the Prophets but the Rabbis of every generation, were present at the giving of the Law.|
|97||76||3||and whosoever turneth back after this, they are surely the transgressors.||And whoever turneth back after this, these are surely the perverse."|
|97||77||3||Do they therefore seek any other religion but GOD'S? since to him is resigned whosoever is in heaven or on earth, voluntarily or of force: and to him shall they return.||Other religion than that of God desire they? To him doth everything that is in the Heavens and in the Earth submit, in willing or forced obedience! and to Him do they return.|
|97||78||3||Say, We believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto us, and that which was sent down unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered to Moses, and Jesus, and the prophets from their LORD; we make no distinction between any of them; and to him are we resigned.||SAY: We believe in God, and in what hath been sent down to us, and what hath been sent down to Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and in what was given to Moses, and Jesus, and the Prophets, from their Lord. We make no difference between them. And to Him are we resigned (Muslims).|
|97||79||3||Whoever followeth any other religion than Islam, it shall not be accepted of him: and in the next life he shall be of those who perish.p||p See before, chapter 2, p. 8, note y.||Whoso desireth any other religion than Islam, that religion shall never be accepted from him, and in the next world he shall be among the lost.|
|97||80||3||How shall GOD direct men who have become infidels after they had believed, and borne witness that the apostle was true, and manifest declarations of the divine will had come unto them? for GOD directeth not the ungodly people.||How shall God guide a people who, after they had believed and bore witness that the apostle was true, and after that clear proofs of his mission had reached them, disbelieved? God guideth not the people who transgress.|
|97||81||3||Their reward shall be, that on them shall fall the curse of GOD and of angels, and of all mankind:||These! their recompense, that the curse of God, and of angels, and of all men, is on them!|
|97||82||3||they shall remain under the same forever; their torment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be regarded;||Under it shall they abide for ever; their torment shall not be assuaged! nor shall God even look upon them!|
|97||83||3||except those who repent after this, and amend; for GOD is gracious and merciful.||Save those who after this repent and amend; for verily God is Gracious, Merciful!|
|97||84||3||Moreover they who become infidels after they have believed, and yet increase in infidelity, their repentance shall in no wise be accepted, and they are those who go astray.||As for those who become infidels, after having believed, and then increase their infidelitytheir repentance shall never be accepted. These! they are the erring ones.|
|97||85||3||Verily they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, the world full of gold shall in nowise be accepted from any of them, even though he should give it for his ransom; they shall suffer a grievous punishment, and they shall have none to help them.||As for those who are infidels, and die infidels, from no one of them shall as much gold as the earth could contain be accepted, though he should offer it in ransom. These! a grievous punishment awaiteth them; and they shall have none to help them.|
|97||86||3||Ye will never attain unto righteousness until ye give in alms of that which ye love: and whatever ye give, GOD knoweth it.||Ye shall never attain to goodness till ye give alms of that which ye love; and whatever ye give, of a truth God knoweth it.|
|97||87||3||All food was permitted unto the children of Israel, except what Israel forbade unto himself,q before the Pentateuch was sent down.r Say unto the Jews, Bring hither the Pentateuch and read it, if ye speak truth.||q This passage was revealed on the Jews reproaching Mohammed and his followers with their eating of the flesh and milk of camels,1 which they said was forbidden Abraham, whose religion Mohammed pretended to follow. In answer to which he tells them that GOD ordained no distinction of meats before he gave the law to Moses, though Jacob voluntarily abstained from the flesh and milk of camels; which some commentators say was the consequence of a vow made by that patriarch, when afflicted with the sciatica, that if he were cured he would eat no more of that meat which he liked best; and that was camels flesh: but others suppose he abstained from it by the advice of physicians only.2
This exposition seems to be taken from the children of Israels not eating of the sinew on the hollow of the thigh, because the angel, with whom Jacob wrestled at Peniel, touched the hollow of his thigh in the sinew that shrank.3
1 See Levit. xi. 4; Deut. xiv. 7.
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
3 Gen. xxxii. 32.
r Wherein the Israelites, because of their wickedness and perverseness, were forbidden to eat certain animals which had been allowed their predecessors.4
4 Kor. c. 4. See the notes there.
|All food was allowed to the children of Israel, except what Jacob forbad himself, ere the law was sent down; SAY: Bring ye then the law and read it, if ye be men of truth.|
|97||88||3||Whoever therefore contriveth a lie against GOD after this, they will be evil doers.||And whoso after this inventeth the lie about God: These are evil doers.|
|97||89||3||Say, GOD is true: follow ye therefore the religion of Abraham the orthodox; for he was no idolater.||SAY: God speaketh truth. Follow, therefore, the religion of Abraham, the sound in faith, who was not one of those who joined other gods to God.|
|97||90||3||Verily the first house appointed unto men to worship in was that which was in Becca;s blessed, and a direction to all creatures.t||s Mohammed received this passage when the Jews said that their Keblah, or the temple of Jerusalem, was more ancient than that of the Mohammedans, or the Caaba.5 Becca is another name of Mecca.6 Al Beidâwi observes that the Arabs used the M and B promiscuously in several words.
5 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
6 See the Prelim. Disc Sect. I. p. 3.
t i.e., The Keblah, towards which they are to turn their faces in prayer.
|The first temple that was founded for mankind, was that in Becca,33Blessed, and a guidance to human beings.||33 Becca, place of crowding, i.e. Mecca. This sentence, together with other Surasthe Cave, Mary, Imran, Repentance, T, H, are woven into the Kiswah or covering of the Caaba, which is renewed annually.|
|97||91||3||Therein are manifest signs:u the place where Abraham stood; and whoever entereth therein, shall be safe. And it is a duty towards GOD, incumbent on those who are able to go thither,x to visit this house;||u Such is the stone wherein they show the print of Abrahams feet, and the inviolable security of the place immediately mentioned; that the birds light not on the roof of the Caaba, and wild beasts put off their fierceness there; that none who came against it in a hostile manner ever prospered,1 as appeared particularly in the unfortunate expedition of Abraha al Ashram;2 and other fables of the same stamp which the Mohammedans are taught to believe.
1 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
2 See Kor. c. 105.
x According to an exposition of this passage attributed to Mohammed, he is supposed to be able to perform the pilgrimage, who can supply himself with provisions for the journey, and a beast to ride upon. Al Shâfeï has decided that those who have money enough, if they cannot go themselves, must hire some other to go in their room. Malec Ebn Ans thinks he is to be reckoned able who is strong and healthy, and can bear the fatigue of the journey on foot, if he has no beast to ride, and can also earn his living by the way. But Abu Hanîfa is of opinion that both money sufficient and health of body are requisite to make the pilgrimage a duty.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Tablet of Ishráqát, within pp. 99-134)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 9-13, Mullá Alí-Akbar)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 84-86, Hájí Mullá Mihdíy-i-Yazdí)
|BWC: Pilgrimage to the House [Mecca.] is a service due to God.
MG: evident signs
MG: evident signs
|In it are evident signs, even the standing-place34 of Abraham: and he who entereth it is safe. And the pilgrimage to the temple, is a service due to God from those who are able to journey thither.||34 The Makam Ibrahim (praying place of Abraham) is a small building supported by six pillars about 8 ft. high, four of which are surrounded from top to bottom by a fine iron railing, while they leave the space between the two hind pillars open; within the railing is a frame about 5 ft. square, said to contain the sacred stone on which Ibrahim stood when he built the Caaba. Burckhardt. Lieut. Burton (Pilgrimage, iii. 336) says that as the Arab tradition speaks clearly and consistently as to the fact of Abraham having visited Mecca to build the Caaba, it may be considered an open question. Thus also Dr. G. W. Freytag (Einl.).|
|97||92||3||but whosoever disbelieveth, verily GOD needeth not the service of any creature.||And as to him who believeth notverily God can afford to dispense with all creatures!|
|97||93||3||Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of GOD?||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XX, p. 415
|SAY: O people of the Book! why disbelieve ye the signs of God? But God is witness of your doings.|
|97||94||3||Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye keep back from the way of GOD, him who believeth? Ye seek to make it crooked, and yet are witnesses that it is the right: but GOD will not be unmindful of what ye do.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 15, p. 16
|O people of the Book, Why repel believers from the way of God?||SAY: O people of the Book! why repel believers from the way of God? Ye fain would make it crooked, and yet ye are its witnesses! But God is not regardless of what ye do.|
|97||95||3||O true believers, if ye obey some of those who have received the scripture, they will render you infidels, after ye have believed:y||y This passage was revealed on occasion of a quarrel excited between the tribes of al Aws and al Khazraj, by one Shâs Ebn Kais, a Jew; who, passing by some of both tribes as they were sitting and discoursing familiarly together, and being inwardly vexed at the friendship and harmony which reigned among them on their embracing Mohammedism, whereas they had been, for 120 years before, most inveterate and mortal enemies, though descendants of two brothers; in order to set them at variance, sent a young man to sit down by them, directing him to relate the story of the battle of Boâth (a place near Medina), wherein, after a bloody fight, al Aws had the better of al Khazraj, and to repeat some verses on that subject. The young man executed his orders; whereupon those of each tribe began to magnify themselves, and to reflect on and irritate the other, till at length they called to arms, and great numbers getting together on each side, a dangerous battle had ensued, if Mohammed had not stepped in and reconciled them; by representing to them how much they would be to blame if they returned to paganism, and revived those animosities which Islâm had composed; and telling them that what had happened was a trick of the devil to disturb their present tranquility.4
|O believers! if ye obey some amongst those who have received the Scripture, after your very Faith will they make you infidels!|
|97||96||3||and how can ye be infidels, when the signs of GOD are read unto you, and his apostle is among you? But he who cleaveth firmly unto GOD, is already directed in the right way.||But how can ye become infidels, when the signs of God are recited to you, and his prophet is among you? Whoever holdeth fast by God, is already guided to a straight path.|
|97||97||3||O believers, fear GOD with his true fear, and die not unless ye also be true believers.||Tablets of the Divine Plan (11 Tablet to the Baháís of the United States and Canada, within pp. 99-107)
|O: Take ye hold of the Cord of God, all of you, and become ye not disunited.||O ye believers! fear God as He deserveth to be feared! and die not till ye have become Muslims.|
|97||98||3||And cleave all of you unto the covenantz of GOD, and depart not from it, and remember the favor of GOD towards you: since ye were enemies, and he reconciled your hearts, and ye became companions and brethren by his favor:||z Literally, Hold fast by the cord of God. That is, Secure yourselves by adhering to Islâm, which is here metaphorically expressed by a cord, because it is as sure a means of saving those who profess it from perishing hereafter, as holding by a rope is to prevent ones falling into a well, or other like place. It is said that Mohammed used for the same reason to call the Korân, Habl Allah al matîn, i.e., the sure cord of GOD.5
|And hold ye fast by the cord 35 of God, all of you, and break not loose from it; and remember God's goodness towards you, how that when ye were enemies, He united your hearts, and by his favour ye became brethren;||35 The Koran.|
|97||99||3||and ye were on the brink of a pit of fire, and he delivered you thence. Thus GOD declareth unto you his signs, that ye may be directed.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 49, paragraph 66
|And when ye were on the brink of the pit of fire, he drew you back from it. Thus God clearly sheweth you his signs that ye may be guided;|
|97||100||3||Let there be people among you who invite to the best religion; and command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil; and they shall be happy.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 95
|MG: that there may be among you a people who invite to the good, and enjoin the just, and forbid the wrong. These are they with whom it shall be well.||And that there may be among you a people who invite to the Good, and enjoin the Just, and forbid the Wrong. These are they with whom it shall be well.|
|97||101||3||And be not as they who are divided, and disagree in matters of religion,a after manifest proofs have been brought unto them: they shall suffer a great torment.||a i.e., As the Jews and Christians, who dispute concerning the unity of GOD, the future state, &c.1
|And be ye not like those who have formed divisions, and fallen to variance after the clear proofs have come to them. These! a terrible chastisement doth await them,|
|97||102||3||On the day of resurrection some faces shall become white, and other faces shall become black.b And unto them whose faces shall become black, GOD will say, Have ye returned unto your unbelief, after ye had believed? therefore taste the punishment, for that ye have been unbelievers:||b See the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.||On THE DAY when faces shall turn white, and faces shall turn black! And as to those whose faces shall have turned black ". . . .What! after your belief have ye become infidels? Taste then the chastisement, for that ye have been unbelievers."|
|97||103||3||but they whose faces shall become white shall be in the mercy of GOD, therein shall they remain for ever.||And as to those whose faces shall have become white, they shall be within the mercy of God: therein shall they abide for ever.|
|97||104||3||These are the signs of GOD: we recite them unto thee with truth. GOD will not deal unjustly with his creatures.||These are the signs of God: we recite them to thee in truth: And God willeth not injustice to mankind.|
|97||105||3||And to GOD belongeth whatever is in heaven and on earth; and to GOD shall all things return.||Whatever is in the Heavens, and whatever is on the Earth, is God's. And to God shall all things return.|
|97||106||3||Ye are the best nation that hath been raised up unto mankind: ye command that which is just, and ye forbid that which is unjust, and ye believe in GOD. And if they who have received the scriptures had believed, it had surely been the better for them: there are believers among them,c but the greater part of them are transgressors.||c As Abdallah Ebn Salâm and his companions,2 and those of the tribes of al Aws and al Khazraj who had embraced Mohammedism.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Ye are the best folk that hath been raised up unto mankind. Ye enjoin the Just, and ye forbid the Evil, and ye believe in God: And if the people of the Book had believed, it had surely been better for them! Believers there are among them, but most of them are perverse.|
|97||107||3||They shall not hurt you, unless with a slight hurt; and if they fight against you, they shall turn their backs to you; and they shall not be helped.d||d This verse, al Beidâwi says, is one of those whose meaning is mysterious, and relates to something future: intimating the low condition to which the Jewish tribes of Koreidha, Nadîr, Banu Kainokâ, and those who dwelt at Khaibar, were afterwards reduced by Mohammed.||They will never inflict on you but a trifling damage; and if they do battle with you, they shall turn their backs to you: then they shall not be succoured.|
|97||108||3||They are smitten with vileness wheresoever they are found; unless they obtain security by entering into a treaty with GOD, and a treaty with men:f and they draw on themselves indignation from GOD, and they are afflicted with poverty. This they suffer, because they disbelieved the signs of GOD,g and slew the prophets unjustly; this, because they were rebellious, and transgressed.||e i.e., Unless they either profess the Mohammedan religion, or submit to pay tribute.||Shame shall be stamped upon them36 wherever found, unless they ally them with God and men! And the wrath of God will they incur, and poverty shall be stamped upon them! Thisfor that they believed not in the signs of God, and slew the prophets unjustly: Thisbecause they rebelled, and became transgressors.||36 Or, they are smitten with. Sale. S'etendra comme une tente. Kas.|
|97||109||3||Yet they are not all alike: there are of those who have received the scriptures, upright people; they meditate on the signs of GOD in the night season, and worship;||f Those namely who have embraced Islâm.
g That is, the Korân.
|Yet all are not alike: Among the people of the Book is an upright folk, who recite the signs of God in the night-season, and adore:|
|97||110||3||they believe in GOD, and the last day; and command that which is just, and forbid that which is unjust, and zealously strive to excel in good works; these are of the righteous.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 95
|And they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is unjust, and speed on in good works. These are of the righteous.||They believe in God and in the latter day, and enjoin justice, and forbid evil, and speed on in good works. These are of the righteous.|
|97||111||3||And ye shall not be denied the reward of the good which ye do;h for GOD knoweth the pious.||h Some copies have a different reading in this passage, which they express in the third person: They shall not be denied, &c.||And of whatever good ye do, ye shall not be denied the meed. God knoweth those who fear Him.|
|97||112||3||As for the unbelievers, their wealth shall not profit them at all, neither their children, against GOD: they shall be the companions of hell fire; they shall continue therein forever.||But as for the infidels, their wealth, and their children shall avail them nothing against God. They shall be the inmates of the fire, to abide therein eternally.|
|97||113||3||The likeness of that which they lay out in this present life, is as a wind wherein there is a scorching cold: it falleth on the standing corn of those men who have injured their own souls, and destroyeth it. And GOD dealeth not unjustly with them; but they injure their own souls.||The alms which they bestow in this present life, are like a freezing wind, which falleth upon and destroyeth the cornfields of a people who have been to themselves unjust. God doeth them no injustice, but to themselves are they unjust.|
|97||114||3||O true believers, contract not an intimate friendship with any besides yourselves;i they will not fail to corrupt you. They wish for that which may cause you to perish: their hatred hath already appeared from out of their mouths; but what their breasts conceal is yet more inveterate. We have already shown you signs of their ill will towards you, if ye understand.||i i.e., Of a different religion.||O ye who have believed! form not intimacies among others than yourselves. They will not fail to corrupt you. They long for your ruin. Hatred hath already shewn itself out of their mouths, but more grievous is what their breasts conceal. The tokens thereof we have already made plain to you, if ye will comprehend.|
|97||115||3||Behold, ye love them, and they do not love you: ye believe in all the scriptures, and when they meet you, they say, We believe; but when they assemble privately together, they bite their fingers' ends out of wrath against you. Say unto them, Die in your wrath: verily GOD knoweth the innermost part of your breasts.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 84, p. 78
|And when they meet you, they will say, 'We believe'; but when they are apart, they bite their fingers' ends at you, out of wrath. Say: 'Die in your wrath!' God truly knoweth the very recesses of your breasts.||See now! ye love them, but they love not you. Ye believe the entire Book. And when they meet you, they say, "We believe;" but when they are apart, they bite their fingers' ends at you, out of wrath. SAY: "Die in your wrath!" God truly knoweth the very recesses of your breasts.|
|97||116||3||If good happen unto you, it grieveth them; and if evil befall you, they rejoice at it. But if ye be patient, and fear God, their subtlety shall not hurt you at all; for GOD comprehendeth whatever they do.||If good befalleth you it grieveth them, and when ill lighteth on you, they rejoice in it. But if ye be steadfast and fear God, their craft shall in no way harm you. For God is round about their doings.|
|97||117||3||Call to mind when thou wentest forth early from thy family, that thou mightest prepare the faithful a camp for war;k and GOD hear and knew it;||k This was at the battle of Ohod, a mountain about four miles to the north of Medina. The Koreish, to revenge their loss at Bedr,1 the next year being the third of the Hejra, got together an army of 3,000 men, among whom there were 200 horse, and 700 armed with coats of mail. These forces marched under the conduct of Abu Sofiân and sat down at Dhulholeifa, a village about six miles from Medina. Mohammed, being much inferior to his enemies in numbers, at first determined to keep himself within the town, and receive them there; but afterwards, the advice of some of his companions prevailing, he marched out against them at the head of 1,000 men (some say he had 1,050 men, others but 900), of whom 100 were armed with coats of mail, but he had no more than one horse, besides his own, in his whole army. With these forces he formed a camp in a village near Ohod, which mountain he contrived to have on his back; and the better to secure his men from being surrounded, he placed fifty archers in the rear, with strict orders not to quit their post. When they came to engage, Mohammed had the better at first, but afterwards by the fault of his archers, who left their ranks for the sake of the plunder, and suffered the enemies horse to encompass the Mohammedans and attack them in the rear, he lost the day, and was very near losing his life, being struck down by a shower of stones, and wounded in the face with two arrows, on pulling out of which his two foreteeth dropped out. Of the Moslems seventy men were slain, and among them Hamza the uncle of Mohammed, and of the infidels twenty-two.2 To excuse the ill success of this battle, and to raise the drooping courage of his followers, is Mohammeds drift in the remaining part of this chapter.
1 See before, p. 32.
2 Abulfeda, in Vita Moham. p. 64, &c. El Macin. l. x. Prideauxs Life of Mahomet, p. 80.
|And remember when thou didst leave thy household at early morn, that thou mightest prepare the faithful a camp for the war;37God heard, knew it||37 This probably refers to the battle of Ohod.|
|97||118||3||when two companies of you were anxiously thoughtful, so that ye became faint-hearted;l but GOD was the supporter of them both; and in GOD let the faithful trust.||l These were some of the families of Banu Salma of the tribe of al Khazraj, and Banul Hareth of the tribe of al Aws, who composed the two wings of Mohammeds army. Some ill impression had been made on them by Abdallah Ebn Obba Solûl, then an infidel, who having drawn off 300 men, told them that they were going to certain death, and advised them to return back with him; but he could prevail on but a few, the others being kept firm by the divine influence, as the following words intimate.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|When two troops of you became full of anxious thoughts, and lost heart, and when God became the protector of both! In God, then, let the faithful trust.|
|97||119||3||And GOD had already given you the victory at Bedr,m when ye were inferior in number; therefore fear GOD, that ye may be thankful.||m See before, p. 32.||God had already succoured you at Bedr, when ye were the weaker! Fear God, then, that ye may be thankful.|
|97||120||3||When thou saidst unto the faithful, Is it not enough for you, that your LORD should assist you with three thousand angels sent down from heaven?||Then thou didst say to the faithful, "Is it not enough for you that your Lord aideth you with three thousand angels sent down from on high?"|
|97||121||3||Verily if ye persevere, and fear God, and your enemies come upon you suddenly, your LORD will assist you with five thousand angels, distinguished by their horses and attire.n||n The angels who assisted the Mohammedans at Bedr, rode, say the commentators, on black and white horses, and had on their heads white and yellow sashes, the ends of which hung down between their shoulders.||Aye: but ye if be steadfast and fear God, and the foe come upon you in hot haste, your Lord will help you with five thousand angels in their cognisances!38||38 The Arabic word occurs at verse 13 of horses as known by certain marks. So here these angels would be known by their accoutrements, etc.|
|97||122||3||And this GOD designed only as good tidings for youo that your hearts might rest secure; for victory is from GOD alone, the mighty, the wise. That he should cut off the uttermost part of the unbelievers, or cast them down, or that they should be overthrown and unsuccessful is nothing to thee.||o i.e., As an earnest of future success.||This, as pure good tidings for you, did God appoint, that your hearts might be assuredfor only from God, the Mighty, the Wise, cometh the Victoryand that He might cut off the uttermost part of those who believed not, or cast them down so that they should be overthrown, defeated without resource.|
|97||123||3||It is no business of thine; whether God be turned unto them, or whether he punish them; they are surely unjust doers.p||p This passage was revealed when Mohammed received the wounds above mentioned at the battle of Ohod, and cried out, How shall that people prosper who have stained their prophets face with blood, while he called them to their Lord? The person who wounded him was Otha the son of Abu Wakkas.4
4 Idem. Abulfeda, ubi supra.
|It is none of thy concern whether He be turned unto them in kindness or chastise them: for verily they are wrongful doers.|
|97||124||3||To GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: he spareth whom he pleaseth, and he punisheth whom he pleaseth; for GOD is merciful.||Whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth is God's! He forgiveth whom He will, and whom He will, chastiseth: for God is Forgiving, Merciful.|
|97||125||3||O true believers, devour nor usury, doubling it twofold; but fear GOD, that ye may prosper:||O ye who believe! devour not usury, doubling it again and again! But fear God, that ye may prosper.|
|97||126||3||and fear the fire which is prepared for the unbelievers; and obey GOD, and his apostle that ye may obtain mercy.||And fear the fire which is prepared for them that believe not; and obey God and the apostle, that ye may find mercy:|
|97||127||3||And run with emulation to obtain remission from your LORD, and paradise, whose breath equalleth the heavens and the earth, which is prepared for the godly;||And vie in haste for pardon from your Lord, and a Paradise, vast as the Heavens and the Earth, prepared for the God-fearing.|
|97||128||3||who give alms in prosperity and adversity; who bridle their anger, and forgive men; for GOD loveth the beneficent.q||q It is related of Hasan the son of Ali, that a slave having once thrown a dish on him boiling hot, as he sat at table, and fearing his masters resentment, fell immediately on his knees, and repeated these words, Paradise is for those who bridle their anger: Hasan answered, I am not angry. The slave proceeded, and for those who forgive men. I forgive you, said Hasan. The slave, however, finished the verse, adding, for God loveth the beneficent. Since it is so replied Hasan, I give you your liberty, and four hundred pieces of silver.5 A noble instance of moderation and generosity.
5 Vide DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Hassan.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 95
|MG: ...who master their anger, and forgive others! God loveth the doers of good.||Who give alms, alike in prosperity and in success, and who master their anger, and forgive others! God loveth the doers of good.|
|97||129||3||And who, after they have committed a crime, or dealt unjustly with their own souls, remember GOD, and ask pardon for their sins, (for who forgiveth sins except GOD?) and persevere not in what they have done knowingly;||They who, after they have done a base deed or committed a wrong against their own selves, remember God and implore forgiveness of their sinsand who will forgive sins but God only?and persevere not in what they have wittingly done amiss.|
|97||130||3||their reward shall be pardon from their LORD, and gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever: and how excellent is the reward of those who labor!||As for these! Pardon from their Lord shall be their recompense, and gardens 'neath which the rivers flow; for ever shall they abide therein: And goodly the reward of those who labour!|
|97||131||3||There have already been before you examples of punishment of infidels, therefore go through the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those who accuse God's apostles of imposture.||Already, before your time, have examples been made! Traverse the earth, then, and see what hath been the end of those who treat prophets as liars.|
|97||132||3||This book is a declaration unto men, and a direction and an admonition to the pious.||This Koran is a manifest to man, and a guidance, and a warning to the God-fearing!|
|97||133||3||And be not dismayed, neither be ye grieved; for ye shall be superior to the unbelievers if ye believe.||And be not fainthearted, and be not sorrowful: For ye shall gain the upper hand if ye be believers.39||39 This and the following verses to 154 were probably revealed shortly after the reverse of Ohod.|
|97||134||3||If a wound hath happened unto you in war,r a like wound hath already happened unto the unbelieving people:s and we cause these days of different success interchangeably to succeed each other among men; that GOD may know those who believe, and may have martyrs from among you: (GOD loveth not the workers of iniquity;)||r That is, by your being worsted at Ohod.
s When they were defeated at Bedr. It is observable that the number of Mohammedans slain at Ohod, was equal to that of the idolaters slain at Bedr; which was so ordered by GOD for a reason to be given elsewhere.1
1 In not. ad cap. 8.
|If a wound hath befallen you, a wound like it hath already befallen others: we alternate these days of successes and reverses among men, that God may know those who have believed, and that He may take martyrs from among you,but God loveth not the wrongful doers|
|97||135||3||and that GOD might prove those who believe, and destroy the infidels.||And that God may test those who believe, and destroy the infidels.|
|97||136||3||Did ye imagine that ye should enter paradise, when as yet GOD knew not those among you who fought strenuously in his cause; nor knew those who persevered with patience?||Thought ye that ye should enter Paradise ere God had taken knowledge of those among you who did valiantly, and of those who steadfastly endure?|
|97||137||3||Moreover ye did sometimes wish for death before that ye met it;t but ye have now seen it, and ye looked on, but retreated from it.||t Several of Mohammeds followers who were not present at Bedr, wished for an opportunity of obtaining, in another action, the like honour as those had gained who fell martyrs in that battle; yet were discouraged on seeing the superior numbers of the idolaters in the expedition of Ohod. On which occasion this passage was revealed.2
2 Al Beidâwi
|Ye had desired death ere ye met it. But ye have now seen itand ye have beheld itand fled from it!|
|97||138||3||Mohammed is no more than an apostle; the other apostles have already deceased before him: if he die, therefore, or be slain, will ye turn back on your heels?u but he who turneth back on his heels will not hurt God at all; and GOD will surely reward the thankful.||u These words were revealed when it was reported in the battle of Ohod that Mohammed was slain; whereupon the idolaters cried out to his followers, Since your prophet is slain, return to your ancient religion, and to your friends; if Mohammed had been a prophet he had not been slain. It is related that a Moslem named Ans Ebn al Nadar, uncle to Malec Ebn Ans, hearing these words, said aloud to his companions, My friends, though Mohammed be slain, certainly Mohammeds Lord liveth and dieth not; therefore value not your lives since the prophet is dead, but fight for the cause for which he fought: then he cried out, O God, I am excused before thee, and acquitted in thy sight of what they say; and drawing his sword, fought valiantly till he was killed.3
|Muhammad is no more than an apostle; other apostles have already passed away before him: if he die, therefore,40 or be slain, will ye turn upon your heels?41 But he who turneth on his heels shall not injure God at all: And God will certainly reward the thankful!||40 This verse and xxxix. 31 (p.257) were recited at Muhammad's death by Abu Bekr, in order to convince Omar and the other Muslims of the possibility of that event. It has been supposed that these passages were invented by Abu Bekr on this occasion, and inserted into the Koran. But this is more than doubtful. See Nöldeke, pp. 199-201.
41 That is, return to idolatry. A report had been spread in the battle of Ohod that Muhammad had been slain.
|97||139||3||No soul can die unless by the permission of GOD, according to what is written in the book containing the determination of things.x And whoso chooseth the reward of this world, we will give him thereof: but whoso chooseth the reward of the world to come, we will give him thereof: and we will surely reward the thankful.||x Mohammed, the more effectually to still the murmurs of his party on their defeat, represents to them that the time of every mans death is decreed and predetermined by God, and that those who fell in the battle could not have avoided their fate had they stayed at home; whereas they had now obtained the glorious advantage of dying martyrs for the faith. Of the Mohammedan doctrine of absolute predestination I have spoken in another place.4
4 Prelim. Disc. Sect IV.
|No one can die except by God's permission, according to the Book that fixeth the term of life.42 He who desireth the recompense of this world, we will give him thereof; And he who desireth the recompense of the next life, we will give him thereof! And we will certainly reward the thankful.||42 Lit. according to a writing (i.e. of God) definite. The Rabbins also teach (Com. Tract. Rosch. Haschanah) that there are books in which God has written down the lifetime of every individual. Lit. No soul can die.|
|97||140||3||How many prophets have encountered those who had many myriads of troops: and yet they desponded not in their mind for what had befallen them in fighting for the religion of GOD; and were not weakened, neither behaved themselves in an abject manner? GOD loveth those who persevere patiently.||How many a prophet hath combated those who had with them many myriads! Yet were they not daunted at what befel them on the path of God, nor were they weakened, nor did they basely submit! God loveth those who endure with steadfastness,|
|97||141||3||And their speech was no other than what they said, Our LORD forgive us our offences, and our transgressions in our business; and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving people. And GOD gave them the reward of this world, and a glorious reward in the life to come; for GOD loveth the well-doers.||Nor said they more than this:43 "O our Lord! forgive us our sins and our mistakes in this our work; and set our feet firm; and help us against the unbelieving people." And God gave them the recompense of this world, and the excellence of the recompense of the next. For God loveth the doers of what is excellent.||43 Lit. and their saying was no other than that they said.|
|97||142||3||O ye who believe, if you obey the infidels, they will cause you to turn back on your heels, and ye will be turned back and perish:y||y This passage was also occasioned by the endeavours of the Koreish to seduce the Mohammedans to their old idolatry, as they fled in the battle of Ohod.||O ye who have believed! if ye obey the infidels, they will cause you to turn upon your heels,44 and ye will fall back into perdition:||44 To relapse into infidelity. The Koreisch attempted to seduce the Muslims to renounce their faith after the battle of Ohod.|
|97||143||3||but GOD is your LORD; and he is the best helper.||But God is your liege lord, and He is the best of helpers.|
|97||144||3||We will surely cast a dread into the hearts of the unbelievers,z because they have associated with GOD that concerning which he sent them down no power: their dwelling shall be the fire of hell; and the receptacle of the wicked shall be miserable.||z To this Mohammed attributed the sudden retreat of Abu Sofiân and his troops, without making any farther advantage of their success; only giving Mohammed a challenge to meet them next year at Bedr, which he accepted. Others say that as they were on their march home, they repented they had not utterly extirpated the Mohammedans, and began to think of going back to Medina for that purpose, but were prevented by a sudden consternation or panic fear, which fell on them from GOD.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
|We will cast a dread into hearts of the infidels because they have joined gods with God without warranty sent down; their abode shall be the fire; and wretched shall be the mansion of the evil doers.|
|97||145||3||GOD had already made good unto you his promise, when ye destroyed them by his permission,a until ye became faint-hearted, and disputed concerning the command of the apostle, and were rebellious;b after God had shown you what ye desired.||a i.e., In the beginning of the battle, when the Moslems had the advantage, putting the idolaters to flight, and killing several of them.
b That is, till the bowmen, who were placed behind to prevent their being surrounded, seeing the enemy fly, quitted their post, contrary to Mohammeds express orders, and dispersed themselves to seize the plunder; whereupon Khâled Ebn al Walîd perceiving their disorder, fell on their rear with the horse which he commanded, and turned the fortune of the day. It is related that though Abdallah Ebn Johair, their captain, did all he could to make them keep their ranks, he had not ten that stayed with him out of the whole fifty.6
6 Idem. Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 65, 66, and note, ibid.
|Already had God made good to you His promise, when by His permission ye destroyed your foes, until your courage failed you, and ye disputed about the order,45 and disobeyed, after that the Prophet had brought you within view of that for which ye longed.46||45 The command to abstain from taking the spoils. This disobedience turned the scale of victory against the Muslims.
46 Victory and plunder.
|97||146||3||Some of you chose this present world, and others of you chose the world to come.c Then he turned you to flight from before them, that he might make trial of you: (but he hath now pardoned you: for GOD is endued with beneficence towards the faithful;)||c The former were they who, tempted by the spoil, quitted their post; and the latter they who stood firm by their leader.||Some of you were for this world, and some for the next.47 Then, in order to make trial of you, He turned you to flight from them,yet hath He now forgiven you; for all-bounteous is God to the faithful||47 Some took to flight, others stood firm, and were not careful of their lives.|
|97||147||3||when ye went up as ye fled, and looked not back on any: while the apostle called you, in the uttermost part of you.d Therefore God rewarded you with affliction on affliction, that ye be not grieved hereafter for the spoils which ye fail of, nor for that which befalleth you,e for GOD is well acquainted with whatever ye do.||d Crying aloud, Come hither to me, O servants of GOD! I am the apostle of GOD; he who returneth back, shall enter paradise. But notwithstanding all his endeavours to rally his men, he could not get above thirty of them about him.
e i.e., GOD punished your avarice and disobedience by suffering you to be beaten by your enemies, and to be discouraged by the report of your prophets death; that ye might be inured to patience under adverse fortune, and not repine at any loss or disappointment for the future
|When ye came up the height48 and took no heed of any one, while the Prophet in your rear was calling you to the fight! God hath rewarded you with trouble upon trouble, that ye might learn not to be chagrined at your loss of booty, or at what befel you! God is acquainted with your actions.||48 That is, in confused rout.|
|97||148||3||Then he sent down upon you after affliction security; a soft sleep which fell on some part of you; but other part were troubled by their own souls;f falsely thinking of GOD, a foolish imagination saying, Will anything of the matter happen unto us?g Say, Verily, the matter belongeth wholly unto GOD. They concealed in their minds what they declared not unto thee; saying,h If anything of the matter had happened unto us,i we had not been slain here. Answer, If ye had been in your houses, verily they would have gone forth to fight, whose slaughter was decreed, to the places where they died, and this came to pass that GOD might try what was in your breasts, and might discern what was in your hearts; for GOD knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men.||f After the action, those who had stood firm in the battle were refreshed as they lay in the field by falling into an agreeable sleep, so that the swords fell out of their hands; but those who had behaved themselves ill were troubled in their minds, imagining they were now given over to destruction.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
g That is, is there any appearance of success, or of the divine favour and assistance which we have been promised?2
h i.e., To themselves, or to one another in private.
i If GOD had assisted us according to his promise; or, as others interpret the words, if we had taken the advice of Abdallah Ebn Obba Solûl, and had kept within the town of Medina, our companions had not lost their lives.3
|Then after the trouble God sent down security upon you. Slumber fell upon a part of you: as to the other parttheir own passions stirred them up to think unjustly of God with thoughts of ignorance! They saidWhat gain we by this affair? SAY: Verily the affair resteth wholly with God. They hid in their minds what they did not speak out to thee, saying, "Were we to have gained aught in this affair, none of us had been slain at this place." SAY: Had ye remained in your homes, they who were decreed to be slain would have gone forth to the places where they lie:in order that God might make trial of what was in your breasts, and might discover what was in your hearts, for God knoweth the very secrets of the breast.|
|97||149||3||Verily they among you who turned their backs on the day whereon the two armies met each other at Ohod, Satan caused them to slip for some crime which they had committed:k but now hath GOD forgiven them; for GOD is gracious and merciful.||k viz., For their covetousness in quitting their post to seize the plunder.||Of a truth it was Satan alone who caused those of you to fail in duty who turned back on the day when the hosts met, for some of their doings! But now hath God pardoned them; For God is Forgiving, Gracious.|
|97||150||3||O true believers, be not as they who believed not, and said of their brethren when they had journeyed in the land or had been at war, If they had been with us, those had not died, nor had these been slain: whereas what befell them was so ordained that GOD might take it matter of sighing in their hearts. GOD giveth life, and causeth to die: and GOD seeth that which ye do.||O ye who believe! be not like the infidels, who said of their brethren when they had travelled by land or had gone forth to war, "Had they kept with us, they had not died, and had not been slain!" God purposed that this affair should cause them heart sorrow! God maketh alive and killeth; and God beholdeth your actions.|
|97||151||3||Moreover if ye be slain, or die in defence of the religion of GOD, verily pardon from GOD, and mercy, is better than what they heap together of worldly riches.||And if ye shall be slain or die on the path of God, then pardon from God and mercy is better than all your amassings;|
|97||152||3||And if ye die, or be slain, verily unto GOD shall ye be gathered.||For if ye die or be slain, verily unto God shall ye be gathered.|
|97||153||3||And as to the mercy granted unto the disobedient from GOD, thou O Mohammed, hast been mild towards them; but if thou hadst been severe, and hard-hearted, they had surely separated themselves from about thee. Therefore forgive them, and ask pardon for them: and consult them in the affair of war; and after thou hast deliberated, trust in GOD; for GOD loveth those who trust in him.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 100
|MG: and consult them in the affair.||Of the mercy of God thou hast spoken to them in gentle terms. Hadst thou been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from thee. Therefore, forgive and ask for pardon for them, and consult them in the affair of war, and when thou art resolved, then put thou thy trust in God, for God loveth those who trust in Him.|
|97||154||3||If GOD help you, none shall conquer you; but if he desert you, who is it that will help you after him? Therefore in GOD let the faithful trust.||If God help you, none shall overcome you; but if He abandon you, who is he that shall help you when He is gone? In God, then, let the faithful trust.|
|97||155||3||It is not the part of a prophet to defraud,l for he who defraudeth shall bring with him what he hath defrauded any one of, on the day of the resurrection.m Then shall every soul be paid what he hath gained; and they shall not be treated unjustly.||l This passage was revealed, as some say, on the division of the spoil at Bedr; when some of the soldiers suspected Mohammed of having privately taken a scarlet carpet made all of silk and very rich, which was missing.4 Others suppose the archers, who occasioned the loss of the battle of Ohod, left their station because they imagined Mohammed would not give them their share of the plunder; because, as it is related, he once sent out a party as an advanced guard, and in the meantime attacking the enemy, took some spoils which he divided among those who were with him in the action, and gave nothing to the party that was absent on duty.5
4 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
5 Al Beidâwi.
m According to a tradition of Mohammed, whoever cheateth another will on the day of judgment carry his fraudulent purchase publicly on his neck.
|It is not the Prophet who will defraud you;49But he who shall defraud, shall come forth with his defraudings on the day of the resurrection: then shall every soul be paid what it hath merited, and they shall not be treated with injustice.||49 Muhammad had been accused of having secretly appropriated a portion of the spoil.|
|97||156||3||Shall he therefore who followeth that which is well-pleasing unto GOD be as he who bringeth on himself wrath from GOD, and whose receptacle is hell? an evil journey shall it be thither.||Shall he who hath followed the good pleasure of God be as he who hath brought on himself wrath from God, and whose abode shall be Hell? and wretched the journey thither!|
|97||157||3||There shall be degrees of rewards and punishments with GOD, for GOD seeth what they do.||There are varying grades with God: and God beholdeth what ye do.|
|97||158||3||Now hath GOD been gracious unto the believers when he raised up among them an apostle of their own nation,n who should recite his signs unto them, and purify them, and teach them the book of the Koran and wisdom:o whereas they were before in manifest error.||n Some copies, instead of min anfosihim, i.e., of themselves, read min anfasihim, i.e., of the noblest among them; for such was the tribe of Koreish, of which Mohammed was descended.1
o i.e., The Sonna.2
|Now hath God been gracious to the faithful, when he raised up among them an apostle out of their own people, to rehearse unto them his signs, and to cleanse them, and to give them knowledge of the Book and of Wisdom: for before they were in manifest error.|
|97||159||3||After a misfortune had befallen you at Ohod, (ye had already obtained two equal advantages)p do ye say, Whence cometh this? Answer, This is from yourselves:q for GOD is almighty.||p viz., In the battle of Bedr, where ye slew seventy of the enemy, equalling the number of those who lost their lives at Ohod, and also took as many prisoners.3
3 See before, p. 32.
q It was the consequence of your disobeying the orders of the prophet, and abandoning your post for the sake of plunder.
|When a reverse hath befallen you,50 the like of which ye had before inflicted, say ye, "Whence is this?" SAY: It is from yourselves. For God hath power over all things.||50 At Ohod.|
|97||160||3||And what happened unto you, on the day whereon the two armies met, was certainly by the permission of GOD; and that he might know the ungodly. It was said unto them, Come, fight for the religion of GOD, or drive back the enemy: they answered, if we had known ye went out to fight, we had certainly followed you.r They were on that day nearer unto unbelief, than they were to faith;||r That is, if we had conceived the least hope of success when ye marched out of Medina to encounter the infidels, and had not known that ye went rather to certain destruction than to battle, we had gone with you. But this Mohammed here tells them was only a feigned excuse; the true reason of their staying behind being their want of faith and firmness in their religion.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|And that which befel you on the day when the armies met, was certainly by the will of God, and that he might know the faithful, and that he might know the hypocrites! And when the word was "Advance, fight on the path of God, or drive back the foe,"they said, "Had we known how to fight, we would have followed you." Nearer were some of them on that day to unbelief, than to faith:|
|97||161||3||they spake with their mouths, what was not in their hearts: but GOD perfectly knew what they concealed;||They said with their lips what was not in their hearts! But God knew what they concealed,|
|97||162||3||who said of their brethren, while themselves stayed at home, if they had obeyed us, they had not been slain. Say, Then keep back death from yourselves, if ye say truth.||Who said of their brethren while themselves sat at home, "Had they obeyed us, they had not been slain." SAY: Keep back death from yourselves if ye speak truth.|
|97||163||3||Thou shalt in nowise reckon those who have been slain at Ohod, in the cause of GOD, dead; nay, they are sustained alive with their LORD,s||s See before, p. 17.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 48, paragraph 65
|BWC: Nay, they are alive and sustained by their Lord.||And repute not those slain on God's path to be dead.51 Nay, alive with their Lord, are they richly sustained;||51 See Sura [xci.] ii. 149.|
|97||164||3||rejoicing for what GOD of his favor hath granted them; and being glad for those who, coming after them, have not as yet overtaken them;t because there shall no fear come on them, neither shall they be grieved.||t i.e., Rejoicing also for their sakes, who are destined to suffer martyrdom, but have not as yet attained it.5
5 Vide Rev. vi. II.
|Rejoicing in what God of his bounty hath vouchsafed them, filled with joy for those who follow after them, but have not yet overtaken them, that on them nor fear shall come, nor grief;|
|97||165||3||They are filled with joy for the favor which they have received from GOD and his bounty; and for that GOD suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish.||Filled with joy at the favours of God, and at his bounty: and that God suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish.|
|97||166||3||They who hearkened unto GOD and his apostle, after a wound had befallen them at Ohod,u such of them as do good works, and fear God, shall have a great reward;||u The commentators differ a little as to the occassion of this passage. When news was brought to Mohammed, after the battle of Ohod, that the enemy, repenting of their retreat, were returning towards Medina, he called about him those who had stood by him in the battle, and marched out to meet the enemy as far as Homarâ al Asad, about eight miles from that town, notwithstanding several of his men were so ill of their wounds that they were forced to be carried; but a panic fear having seized the army of the Koreish, they changed their resolution and continued their march home; of which Mohammed having received intelligence, he also went back to Medina: and, according to some commentators, the Korân here approves the faith and courage of those who attended the prophet on this occasion. Others say the persons intended in this passage were those who went with Mohammed the next year, to meet Abu Sofiân and the Koreish, according to their challenge, at Bedr,1 where they waited some time for the enemy, and then returned home; for the Koreish, though they set out from Mecca, yet never came so far as the place of appointment, their hearts failing them on their march; which Mohammed attributed to their being struck with a terror from GOD.2 This expedition the Arabian histories call the second, or lesser expedition of Bedr.
1 See before, p. 47, note 2.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|As to those who after the reverse52 which befel them, respond to God and the Apostlesuch of them as do good works and fear God, shall have a great reward:||52 At Ohod; lit. wound.|
|97||167||3||unto whom certain men said, Verily the men of Mecca have already gathered forces against you, be ye therefore afraid of them:x but this increased their faith, and they said, GOD is our support, and the most excellent patron.||x The persons who thus endeavoured to discourage the Mohammedans were, according to one tradition, some of the tribe of Abd Kais, who, going to Medina, were bribed by Abu Sofiân with a camels load of dried raisins; and, according to another tradition, it was Noaim Ebn Masúd al Ashjaï who was also bribed with a she-camel ten months gone with young (a valuable present in Arabia). This Noaim, they say, finding Mohammed and his men preparing for the expedition, told them that Abu Sofiân, to spare them the pains of coming so far as Bedr, would seek them in their own houses, and that none of them could possibly escape otherwise than by timely flight. Upon which Mohammed, seeing his followers a little dispirited, swore that he would go himself though not one of them went with him. And accordingly he set out with seventy horsemen, every one of them crying out, Hashna Allah, i.e., GOD is our support.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|Who, when men said to them, "Now are the Meccans mustering against you; therefore fear them!" it only increased their faith, and they said, "Our sufficiency is God, and He is an excellent protector."|
|97||168||3||Wherefore they returned with favor from GOD, and advantage:y no evil befell them: and they followed what was well pleasing unto GOD: for GOD is endowed with great liberality.||y While they stayed at Bedr expecting the enemy, they opened a kind of fair there, and traded to very considerable profit.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|They returned, therefore, with the favour of God, enriched by Him, and untouched by harm; and they followed what was well pleasing to God. And God is of great Munificence.|
|97||169||3||Verily that devilz would cause you to fear his friends: but be ye not afraid of them: but fear me, if ye be true believers.||z Meaning either Noaim, or Abu Sofiân himself.||Only would that Satan53 instil the fear of his adherents: Fear them not, but fear me if ye are believers.||53 Lit. that Satan. Said to refer to Noaim, or Abu Sofian, the leader of the Koreisch.|
|97||170||3||They shall not grieve thee, who emulously hasten unto infidelity; for they shall never hurt GOD at all. GOD will not give them a part in the next life, and they shall suffer a great punishment.||Memorials of the Faithful (Mirzá Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
|Let not those who vie in haste after infidelity grieve thee: Verily not one whit shall they injure God! God will refuse them all part in the life to come: a severe chastisement shall be their lot.|
|97||171||3||Surely those who purchase infidelity with faith shall by no means hurt GOD at all, but they shall suffer a grievous punishment.||They truly who purchase infidelity at the price of their faith, shall not injure God one whit! and a grievous chastisement shall be their lot.|
|97||172||3||And let not the unbelievers think, because we grant them lives long and prosperous, that it is better for their souls: we grant them long and prosperous lives only that their iniquity may be increased; and they shall suffer an ignominious punishment.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXXXVII, 68)
|Let not the infidels deem that the length of days we give them is good for them! We only give them length of days that they may increase their sins! and a shameful chastisement shall be their lot.|
|97||173||3||GOD is not disposed to leave the faithful in the condition which ye are now in,a until he sever the wicked from the good;||a That is, he will not suffer the good and sincere among you to continue indiscriminately mixed with the wicked and hypocritical.||It is not in God to leave the faithful in the State in which they are, until he sever the bad from the good:|
|97||174||3||nor is GOD disposed to make you acquainted with what is a hidden secret, but GOD chooseth such of his apostles as he pleaseth, to reveal his mind unto:b believe therefore in GOD, and his apostles; and if ye believe, and fear God, ye shall receive a great reward.||b This passage was revealed on the rebellious and disobedient Mohammedans telling Mohammed that if he was a true prophet he could easily distinguish those who sincerely believed from the dissemblers.1
|Nor is God minded to lay open the secret things to you, but God chooseth whom he will of his apostles to know them.54 Believe, therefore, in God and his apostles: and if ye believe and fear God, a great reward awaiteth you.||54 This is an answer to the taunt that Muhammad could not distinguish true believers from hypocrites.|
|97||175||3||And let not those who are covetous of what GOD of his bounty hath granted them imagine that their avarice is better for them: nay, rather it is worse for them.||And let not those who are niggard of what God hath vouchsafed them in his bounty, think that this will be good for themNay, it will be bad for them|
|97||176||3||That which they have covetously reserved shall be bound as a collar about their neck,c on the day of the resurrection: unto GOD belongeth the inheritance of heaven and earth; and GOD is well acquainted with what ye do.||c Mohammed is said to have declared, that whoever pays not his legal contribution of alms duly shall have a serpent twisted about his neck at the resurrection.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|That of which they have been niggard shall be their collar on the day of the resurrection. God's, the heritage of the Heavens and of the Earth! And God is well-informed of all ye do.|
|97||177||3||GOD hath already heard the saying of those who said, Verily GOD is poor, and we are rich:d we will surely write down what they have said, and the slaughter which they have made of the prophets without a cause; and we will say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning.||d It is related that Mohammed, writing to the Jews of the tribe of Kainokâ to invite them to Islâm, and exhorting them, among other things, in the words of the Korân,3 to lend unto GOD on good usury, Phineas Ebn Azûra, on hearing that expression, said, Surely GOD is poor, since they ask to borrow for him. Whereupon Abu Becr, who was the bearer of that letter, struck him on the face, and told him that if it had not been for the truce between them, he would have struck off his head; and on Phineass complaining to Mohammed of Abu Becrs ill usage, this passage was revealed.4
3 Cap. 2, p. 26.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|Now hath God heard the saying of those who said: "Aye, God is poor and we are rich."55 We will surely write down their sayings, and their unjust slaughter of the prophets; and and we will say, "Taste ye the torment of the burning.||55 This was the taunt of the Jews of the tribe of Kainoka, when Muhammad demanded tribute of them in the name of God.|
|97||178||3||This shall they suffer for the evil which their hands have sent before them, and because GOD is not unjust towards mankind;||This, for what your hands have sent before you; and because God will not inflict a wrong upon his servants!"|
|97||179||3||who also say, Surely GOD hath commanded us, that we should not give credit to any apostle, until one should come unto us with a sacrifice, which should be consumed by fire.e||e The Jews, say the commentators, insisted that it was a peculiar proof of the mission of all the prophets sent to them, that they could, by their prayers, bring down fire from heaven to consume the sacrifice, and therefore they expected Mohammed should do the like. And some Mohammedan doctors agree that GOD appointed this miracle as the test of all their prophets, except only Jesus and Mohammed;5 though others say any other miracle was a proof full as sufficient as the bringing down fire from heaven.6
The Arabian Jews seem to have drawn a general consequence from some particular instances of this miracle in the Old Testament.7 And the Jews at this day say, that first the fire which fell from heaven on the altar of the tabernacle,8 after the consecration of Aaron and his sons, and afterwards that which descended on the altar of Solomons temple, at the dedication of that structure,9 was fed and constantly maintained there by the priests, both day and night, without being suffered once to go out, till it was extinguished, as some think, in the reign of Manasses,10 but, according to the more received opinion, when the temple was destroyed by the Chaldeans. Several Christians11 have given credit to this assertion of the Jews, with what reason I shall not here inquire; and the Jews, in consequence of this notion, might probably expect that a prophet who came to restore GODS true religion, should rekindle for them this heavenly fire, which they have not been favoured with since the Babylonish captivity.
6 Al Beidâwi.
7 Levit. ix. 24; I Chron. xxi. 26; 2 Chron. vii. I; 1 Kings xviii. 38.
8 Levit. ix. 24.
9 2 Chron. vii. x.
10 Talmud, Zebachim, c. 6.
11 See Prideauxs Connect part i. bk. iii. p. 158.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 157, p. 148
|Verily, God hath entered into a covenant with us that we are not to credit an apostle until he present us a sacrifice which fire out of heaven shall devour.||To those who say, "Verily, God hath enjoined us that we are not to credit an apostle until he present us a sacrifice which fire out of Heaven shall devour,"|
|97||180||3||Say, Apostles have already come unto you before me,f with plain proofs, and with the miracle which ye mention: why therefore have ye slain them, if ye speak truth?||f Among these the commentators reckon Zacharias and John the Baptist.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 157, p. 149
|Already have Apostles before me come to you with sure testimonies, and with that of which ye speak. Wherefore slew ye them? Tell me, if ye are men of truth.||SAY: Already have apostles before me come to you with miracles, and with that of which ye speak. Wherefore slew ye them? Tell me, if ye are men of truth.|
|97||181||3||If they accuse thee of imposture, the apostles before thee have also been accounted impostors, who brought evident demonstrations, and the scriptures, and the book which enlighteneth the understanding.||And if they treat thee as a liar, then verily apostles have been treated as liars before thee, though they came with clear proofs of their mission, and with Scriptures, and with the light-giving Book.|
|97||182||3||Every soul shall taste of death, and ye shall have your reward on the day of resurrection; and he who shall be far removed from hell fire, and shall be admitted into paradise, shall be happy: but the present life is only a deceitful provision.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 48, paragraph 65
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter I, p. 41)
|BWC: Every soul shall taste of death.
BWC: every soul shall taste of death,
|Every soul shall taste of death: and ye shall only receive your recompenses on the day of resurrection. And whoso shall scape the fire, and be brought into Paradise, shall be happy. And the life of this world is but a cheating fruition!|
|97||183||3||Ye shall surely be proved in your possessions, and in your persons; and ye shall bear from those unto whom the scripture was delivered before you, and from the idolaters, much hurt: but if ye be patient and fear God, this is a matter that is absolutely determined.||Ye shall assuredly be tried in your possessions and in yourselves. And many hurtful things shall ye assuredly hear from those to whom the Scriptures were given before you, and from those who join other gods with God. But if ye be steadfast, and fear God this verily is needed in the affairs of life.|
|97||184||3||And when GOD accepted the covenant of those to whom the book of the law was given, saying, Ye shall surely publish it unto mankind, ye shall not hide it: yet they threw it behind their backs, and sold it for a small price: but woful is the price for which they have sold it.g||g i.e., Dearly shall they pay hereafter for taking bribes to stifle the truth. Whoever concealeth the knowledge which GOD has given him, says Mohammed, GOD shall put on him a bridle of fire on the day of resurrection.||Moreover, when God entered into a convenant with those to whom the Scriptures had been given, and said, "Ye shall surely make it known to mankind and not hide it," they cast it behind their backs, and sold it for a sorry price! But vile is that for which they have sold it.|
|97||185||3||Think not that they who rejoice at what they have done, and expect to be praised for what they have not done;h think not, O prophet, that they shall escape from punishment, for they shall suffer a painful punishment;||h i.e., Who think they have done a commendable deed in concealing and dissembling the testimonies in the Pentateuch concerning Mohammed, and in disobeying GODS commands to the contrary. It is said that, Mohammed once asking some Jews concerning a passage in their law, they gave him an answer very different from the truth, and were mightily pleased that they had, as they thought, deceived him. Others, however, think this passage relates to some pretended Mohammedans who rejoiced in their hypocrisy, and expected to be commended for their wickedness.12
12 Al Beidâwi.
|Suppose not that they who rejoice in what they have brought to pass, and love to be praised for what they have not done56suppose not they shall escape the chastisement. An afflictive chastisement doth await them,||56 That is, who rejoice in their successful corruptions of their own sacred books, especially the testimony of Moses to Muhammad, and in their own fancied righteousness. Thus some of the commentators.|
|97||186||3||and unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth: GOD is almighty.||For the Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth is God's, and God hath power over all things.|
|97||187||3||Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, are signs unto those who are endued with understanding;||Verily, in the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth, and in the succession of the night and of the day, are signs for men of understanding heart;|
|97||188||3||who remember GOD standing, and sitting, and lying on their sides;i and meditate on the creation of heaven and earth, saying, O LORD, thou hast not created this in vain; far be it from thee: therefore deliver us from the torment of hell fire:||i viz., At all times and in all postures. Al Beidâwi mentions a saying of Mohammed to one Imrân Ebn Hosein, to this purpose: Pray standing, if thou art able; if not, sitting; and if thou canst not sit up, then as thou liest along. Al Shâfeï directs that he sick should pray lying on their right side.||Who standing, and sitting, and reclining, bear God in mind, and muse on the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth. "O our Lord!" say they, "thou hast not created this in vain. No. Glory be to Thee! Keep us, then, from the torment of the fire.|
|97||189||3||O LORD, surely whom thou shalt throw into the fire, thou wilt also cover with shame: nor shall the ungodly have any to help them.||O our Lord! surely thou wilt put him to shame whom thou shalt cause to enter into the Fire, and the wrong-doers shall have none to help them.|
|97||190||3||O LORD, we have heard a preacherk inviting us to the faith and saying, Believe in your LORD: and we believed.||k Namely, Mohammed, with the Korân.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 148-150, Mírzá Mustafá Naráqí)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 150-154, Zaynul-Muqarrabín)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 156-159, Mirzá Jafar-i-Yazdi)
|Shoghi Effendi in Dawn-Breakers:
O Lord, our God! We have indeed heard the voice of One that called. He called us to the Faith--`Believe ye on the Lord your God!'--and we have believed.
MG: O our Lord! we have indeed heard the voice of one that called. He called us to the Faith--`Believe ye on your Lord'--and we have believed.
MG: O our Lord! We have heard the voice of one that called. He called us to the Faith--`Believe ye on your Lord'--and we have believed.
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter VIII, p. 147
|O our Lord! we have indeed heard the voice of one that called. He called us to the faithBelieve on your Lordand we have believed.|
|97||191||3||O LORD, forgive us therefore our sins, and expiate our evil deeds from us, and make us to die with the righteous.||O God, our God! Forgive us, then, our sins, and hide away from us our evil deeds, and cause us to die with the righteous.||3:190-191 (cont.)
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter VIII, p. 147
|O our Lord! forgive us then our sin, and hide away from us our evil deeds, and cause us to die with the righteous.|
|97||192||3||O LORD, give us also the reward which thou hast promised by thy apostles; and cover us not with shame on the day of resurrection; for thou art not contrary to the promise.||O our Lord! and give us what thou hast promised us by thine apostles, and put us not to shame on the day of the resurrection. Verily, Thou wilt not fail thy promise."|
|97||193||3||Their LORD therefore answered them, saying, I will not suffer the work of him among you who worketh to be lost, whether he be male, or female:l the one of you is from the other.||l These words were added, as some relate, on Omm Salma, one of the prophets wives, telling him that she had observed GOD often made mention of the men who fled their country for the sake of their faith, but took no notice of the women.1
|And their Lord answereth them, "I will not suffer the work of him among you that worketh, whether of male or female, to be lost. The one of you is the issue of the other.57||57 Lit. some of you are from others. These words were occasioned by one of the Prophet's wives having told him that God often praised the men, but not the women, who had fled their country for the faith. Beidh.|
|97||194||3||They therefore who have left their country, and have been turned out of their houses, and have suffered for my sake, and have been slain in battle; verily I will expiate their evil deeds from them, and I will surely bring them into gardens watered by rivers;||And they who have fled their country and quitted their homes and suffered in my cause, and have fought and fallen, I will blot out their sins from them, and I will bring them into gardens beneath which the streams do flow."|
|97||195||3||a reward from GOD; and with GOD is the most excellent reward.||A recompense from God! and God! with His is the perfection of recompense!|
|97||196||3||Let not the prosperous dealing of the unbelievers in the land deceive thee;m it is but a slender provision;n and then their receptacle shall be hell; an unhappy couch shall it be.||m The original word properly signifies success in the affairs of life, and particularly in trade. It is said that some of Mohammeds followers observing the prosperity the idolaters enjoyed, expressed their regret that those enemies of GOD should live in such ease and plenty, while themselves were perishing for hunger and fatigue; whereupon this passage was revealed.2
n Because of its short continuance.
|Let not prosperity in the land58 on the part of those who believe not, deceive thee. 'Tis but a brief enjoyment! Then shall Hell be their abode; and wretched the bed!||58 Lit. their movements, their comings and goings. Hence, the success of the Meccans in their trading journeys. This may point to the comparative freedom from trade and general independence of the Meccans after the affair at Ohod.|
|97||197||3||But they who fear the LORD shall have gardens through which rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever: this is the gift of GOD for what is with GOD shall be better for the righteous than short-lived worldly prosperity.||But as to those who fear their Lordfor them are the gardens 'neath which the rivers flow: therein shall they abide for aye. Such their reception with Godand that which is with God is best for the righteous.|
|97||198||3||There are some of those who have received the scriptures, who believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto you, and that which hath been sent down to them, submitting themselves unto GOD;o they tell not the signs of GOD for a small price:||o The persons here meant, some will have to be Abdallah Ebn Salâm3 and his companions; others suppose they were forty Arabs of Najrân, or thirty-two Ethiopians, or else eight Greeks, who were converted from Christianity to Mohammedism; and others say this passage was revealed in the ninth year of the Hejra, when Mohammed, on Gabriels bringing him the news of the death of Ashama king of Ethiopia, who had embraced the Mohammedan religion some years before,4 prayed for the soul of the departed; at which some of his hypocritical followers were displeased, and wondered that he should pray for a Christian proselyte whom he had never seen.5
3 See before, p. 44.
4 See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. II.
5 Al Beidâwi.
|Among the people of the Book are those who believe in God, and in what He hath sent down to you, and in what He hath sent down to them, humbling themselves before God. They barter not the signs of God for a mean price.|
|97||199||3||these shall have their reward with their LORD; for GOD is swift in taking an account.p||p See before, p. 21, and the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.||These! their recompense awaiteth them with their Lord: aye! God is swift to take account.|
|97||200||3||O true believers, be patient and strive to excel in patience, and be constant-minded, and fear GOD, that ye may be happy.||O ye who believe! be patient, and vie in patience, and be firm, and fear God, that it may be well with you.|
|100||0||4||CHAPTER IV.||SURA IV.WOMEN1 [C.]||1 Most of the events alluded to in this Sura fall between the end of the third and the close of the fifth year after the Flight to Medina.|
|100||0||4||ENTITLED, WOMEN;q REVEALED AT MEDINA.||q This title was given to this chapter, because it chiefly treats of matters relating to women; as, marriages, divorces, dower, prohibited degrees, &c.||MEDINA.175 Verses|
|100||0||4||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|100||1||4||O MEN, fear your LORD, who hath created you out of one man, and out of him created his wife, and from them two hath multiplied many men, and women: and fear GOD by whom ye beseech one another;r and respect womens who have borne you, for GOD is watching over you.||r Saying, I beseech thee for GODS sake.1
s Literally, the wombs.
|O MEN! fear your Lord, who hath created you of one man (nafs, soul), and of him created his wife, and from these twain hath spread abroad so many men and WOMEN. And fear ye God, in whose name ye ask mutual favours,and reverence the wombs that bare you. Verily is God watching over you!|
|100||2||4||And give the orphans when they come to age their substance; and render them not in exchange bad for good:t and devour not their substance, by adding it to your own substance; for this is a great sin.||t That is, take not what ye find of value among their effects to your own use, and give them worse in its stead.||And give to the orphans their property; substitute not worthless things of your own for their valuable ones, and devour not their property after adding it to your own; for this is a great crime.|
|100||3||4||And if ye fear that ye shall not act with equity towards orphans of the female sex, take in marriage of such other women as please you, two, or three, or four, and not more.u But if ye fear that ye cannot act equitably towards so many, marry one only, or the slaves which ye shall have acquired.x This will be easier, that ye swerve not from righteousness. And give women their dowry freely; but if they voluntarily remit unto you any part of it, enjoy it with satisfaction and advantage.||u The commentators understand this passage differently. The true meaning seems to be as it is here translated; Mohammed advising his followers that if they found they should wrong the female orphans under their care, either by marrying them against their inclinations, ought, by reason of their having already several wives, they should rather choose to marry other women, to avoid all occasion of sin.2 Others say that when this passage was revealed, many of the Arabians, fearing trouble and temptation, refused to take upon them the charge of orphans, and yet multiplied wives to a great excess, and used them ill; or, as others write, gave themselves up to fornication; which occasioned this passage. And according to these, its meaning must be either that if they feared they could not act justly towards orphans, they had as great reason to apprehend they could not deal equitably with so many wives, and therefore are commanded to marry but a certain number; or else, that since fornication was a crime as well as wronging of orphans, they ought to avoid that also, by marrying according to their abilities.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin.
x For slaves requiring not so large a dower, nor so good and plentiful a maintenance as free women, a man might keep several of the former, as easily as one of the latter.
|And if ye are apprehensive that ye shall not deal fairly with orphans, then, of other women who seem good in your eyes, marry but two, or three, or four;2 and if ye still fear that ye shall not act equitably, then one only; or the slaves whom ye have acquired: this will make justice on your part easier. Give women their dowry freely; but if of themselves they give up aught thereof to you, then enjoy it as convenient, and profitable:||2 Muhammad assumed to himself the privilege of having a yet greater number of wives. But in doing so, he was probably actuated by a desire for male offspring. Chadijah was his only wife until quite a late period of his career. Comp. Arbah Turim. Ev. Hazaer 1, "A man may marry many wives, for Rabba saith it is lawful to do so, if he can provide for them. Nevertheless, the wise men have given good advice, that a man should not marry more than four wives." See also Yad Hachazakah Hilchoth Ishuth. 14, 3.|
|100||4||4||And give not unto those who are weak of understanding the substance which GOD hath appointed you to preserve for them; but maintain them thereout, and clothe them, and speak kindly unto them.||And entrust not to the incapable the substance which God hath placed with you for their support; but maintain them therewith, and clothe them, and speak to them with kindly speech.|
|100||5||4||And examine the orphansy until they attain the age of marriage:z but if ye perceive they are able to manage their affairs well, deliver their substance unto them; and waste it not extravagantly, or hastily,||y i.e., Try whether they be well grounded in the principles of religion, and have sufficient prudence for the management of their affairs. Under this expression is also comprehended the duty of a curators instructing his pupils in those respects.
z Or age of maturity, which is generally reckoned to be fifteen; a decision supported by a tradition of their prophet, though Abu Hanîfah thinks eighteen the proper age.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage; and if ye perceive in them a sound judgment, then hand over their substance to them; but consume ye it not wastefully, or by hastily entrusting it to them;|
|100||6||4||because they grow up.a Let him who is rich abstain entirely from the orphans' estates; and let him who is poor take thereof according to what shall be reasonable.b||a i.e., Because they will shortly be of age to receive what belongs to them.
b That is, no more than what shall make sufficient recompense for the trouble of their education.
|Because they are growing up. And let the rich guardian not even touch it; and let him who is poor use it for his support (eat of it) with discretion.|
|100||7||4||And when ye deliver their substance unto them, call witnesses thereof in their presence: GOD taketh sufficient account of your actions.||And when ye make over their substance to them, then take witnesses in their presence: God also maketh a sufficient account.|
|100||8||4||Men ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leavec behind them when they die: and women also ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leave, whether it be little, or whether it be much; a determinate part is due to them.||c This law was given to abolish a custom of the pagan Arabs, who suffered not women or children to have any part of their husbands or fathers inheritance, on pretence that they only should inherit who were able to go to war.2
|Men ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leave; and women3 a part of what their parents and kindred leave: whether it be little or much, let them have a stated portion.||3 Verses 8 and 12 are said by the commentators to have been revealed in consequence of the complaints of Omm Kuhha that, in accordance with the ante-Islamitic custom, she had been excluded from any portion of her deceased husband's property. The unsatisfactory nature of the Muhammadan traditions may be inferred from the fact, that no less than six different names are assigned to him. It is, however, probable that these and similar laws relative to inheritances were given at a time when many heads of families had fallen, as at Ohod, in battle. This remark applies to verses 33-45.|
|100||9||4||And when they who are of kin are present at the dividing of what is left, and also the orphans, and the poor; distribute unto them some part thereof; and if the estate be too small, at least speak comfortably unto them.||And when they who are of kin are present at the division, and the orphans and the poor, let them too have a share; and speak to them with kindly speech.|
|100||10||4||And let those fear to abuse orphans, who if they leave behind them a weak offspring, are solicitous for them; let them therefore fear GOD, and speak that which is convenient.d||d viz., Either to comfort the children, or to assure the dying father they shall be justly dealt by.3
|And let those be afraid to wrong the orphans, who, should they leave behind them weakly offspring, would be solicitous on their account. Let them, therefore, fear God, and let them propose what is right.|
|100||11||4||Surely they who devour the possessions of orphans unjustly shall swallow down nothing but fire into their bellies, and shall broil in raging flames.||Verily they who swallow the substance of the orphan wrongfully, shall swallow down only fire into their bellies, and shall burn in the flame!|
|100||12||4||GOD hath thus commanded you concerning your children. A male shall have as much as the share of two females:e but if they be females only, and above two in number, they shall have two third parts of what the deceased shall leave;f and if there be but one, she shall have the half.g And the parents of the deceased shall have each of them a sixth part of what he shall leave, if he have a child; but if he have no child, and his parents be his heirs, then his mother shall have the third part.h And if he have brethren, his mother shall have a sixth part, after the legaciesi which he shall bequeath, and his debts be paid. Ye know not whether your parents or your children be of greater use unto you. This is an ordinance from GOD, and GOD is knowing and wise.||e This is the general rule to be followed in the distribution of the estate of the deceased, as may be observed in the following cases.4
4 Vide Prelim. Disc. Sect. VI.
f Or if there be two and no more, they will have the same share.
g And the remaining third part, or the remaining moiety of the estate, which is not here expressly disposed of, if the deceased leaves behind him no son, nor a father, goes to the public treasury. It must be observed that Mr. Selden is certainly mistaken when, in explaining this passage of the Korân, he says, that where there is a son and an only daughter, each of them will have a moiety:5 for the daughter can have a moiety but in one case only, that is, where there is no son; for if there be a son, she can have but a third, according to the above-mentioned rule.
5 Selden, de Success. ad Leges Ebræor. l. I, c. I.
h And his father consequently the other two-thirds.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
i By legacies, in this and the following passages, are chiefly meant those bequeathed to pious uses; for the Mohammedans approve not of a persons giving away his substance from his family and near relations on any other account.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp.108-117, Mirzá Muhammad-i-Vakil)
Memorials of the Faithful (Mirzá Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
|With regard to your children, God commandeth you to give the male the portion of two females; and if they be females more than two, then they shall have two-thirds of that which their father hath left: but if she be an only daughter, she shall have the half; and the father and mother of the deceased shall each of them have a sixth part of what he hath left, if he have a child; but if he have no child, and his parents be his heirs, then his mother shall have the third: and if he have brethren, his mother shall have the sixth, after paying the bequests he shall have bequeathed, and his debts. As to your fathers, or your children, ye know not which of them is the most advantageous to you. This is the law of God. Verily, God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||13||4||Moreover ye may claim half of what your wives shall leave, if they have no issue; but if they have issue, then ye shall have the fourth part of what they shall leave, after the legacies which they shall bequeath, and the debts be paid.||Half of what your wives leave shall be your's, if they have no issue; but if they have issue, then a fourth of what they leave shall be your's, after paying the bequests they shall bequeath, and debts.|
|100||14||4||They also shall have the fourth part of what ye shall leave, in case ye have no issue; but if ye have issue, then they shall have the eighth part of what ye shall leave, after the legacies which ye shall bequeath, and your debts be paid.||And your wives shall have a fourth part of what ye leave, if ye have no issue; but if ye have issue, then they shall have an eighth part of what ye leave, after paying the bequests ye shall bequeath, and debts.|
|100||15||4||And if a man or woman's substance be inherited by a distant relation,k and he or she have a brother or sister; each of them two shall have a sixth part of the estate.l But if there be more than this number, they shall be equal sharers in a third part, after payment of the legacies which shall be bequeathed, and the debts,||k For this may happen by contract, or on some other special occasion.
l Here, and in the next case, the brother and sister are made equal sharers, which is an exception to the general rule, of giving a male twice as much as a female; and the reason is said to be because of the smallness of the portions, which deserve not such exactness of distribution; for in other cases the rule holds between brother and sister, as well as other relations.1
1 See this chapter, near the end.
|If a man or a woman make a distant relation their heir, and he or she have a brother or a sister, each of these two shall have a sixth; but if there are more than this, then shall they be sharers in a third, after payment of the bequests he shall have bequeathed, and debts,|
|100||16||4||without prejudice to the heirs. This is an ordinance from GOD: and GOD is knowing and gracious.||Without loss to any one. This is the ordinance of God, and God is Knowing, Gracious!|
|100||17||4||These are the statutes of GOD. And whoso obeyeth GOD and his apostle, God shall lead him into gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever; and this shall be great happiness.||These are the precepts of God; and whoso obeyeth God and his prophet, him shall God bring into gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flow, therein to abide for ever: and this, the great blessedness!|
|100||18||4||But whoso disobeyeth GOD, and his apostle, and transgresseth his statutes, God shall cast him into hell fire; he shall remain therein forever, and he shall suffer a shameful punishment.||And whoso shall rebel against God and his apostle, and shall break His bounds, him shall God place in the fire to abide therein for ever; and his shall be a shameful torment.|
|100||19||4||If any of your women be guilty of whoredom,m produce four witnesses from among you against them, and if they bear witness against them, imprison them in separate apartments until death release them, or GOD affordeth them a way to escape.n||m Either adultery or fornication.
n Their punishment, in the beginning of Mohammedism, was to be immured till they died, but afterwards this cruel doom was mitigated, and they might avoid it by undergoing the punishment ordained in its stead by the Sonna, according to which the maidens are to be scourged with a hundred stripes, and to be banished for a full year; and the married women to be stoned.2
|If any of your women be guilty of whoredom, then bring four witnesses against them from among yourselves; and if they bear witness to the fact, shut them up within their houses till death release them,4 or God make some way for them.||4 Women found guilty of adultery and fornication were punished at the first rise of Islam, by being literally immured. But this was exchanged, in the case of a maiden, for one year's banishment and 100 stripes; and in the case of a married woman, for stoning.|
|100||20||4||And if two of you commit the like wickedness,o punish them both:p but if they repent and amend, let them both alone; for GOD is easy to be reconciled and merciful.||o The commentators are not agreed whether the text speaks of fornication or sodomy. Al Zamakhshari, and from him, al Beidâwi, supposes the former is here meant: but Jallaloddin is of opinion that the crime intended in this passage must be committed between two men, and not between a man and a woman; not only because the pronouns are in the masculine gender, but because both are ordered to suffer the same slight punishment, and are both allowed the same repentance and indulgence; and especially for that a different and much severer punishment is appointed for the women in the preceding words. Abul Kâsem Hebatallah takes simple fornication to be the crime intended, and that this passage is abrogated by that of the 24th chapter, where the man and the woman who shall be guilty of fornication are ordered to be scourged with a hundred stripes each.
p The original is, Do them some hurt or damage: by which some understand that they are only to reproach them in public,3 or strike them on the head with their slippers4 (a great indignity in the east), though some imagine they may be scourged.5
3 Jallaloddin, Yahya, Abul Kâsem Habatallah, al Beidâwi.
4 Jallaloddin al Beidâwi.
5 Al Beidâwi.
|And if two men among you commit the same crime, then punish them both; but if they turn and amend, then let them be: for God is He who turneth, Merciful!|
|100||21||4||Verily repentance will be accepted with GOD, from those who do evil ignorantly, and then repent speedily; unto them will GOD be turned: for GOD is knowing and wise.||With God himself will the repentance of those who have done evil ignorantly, and then turn speedily unto Him, be accepted. These! God will turn unto them:for God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||22||4||But no repentance shall be accepted from those who do evil until the time when death presenteth itself unto one of them, and he saith, Verily I repent now; nor unto those who die unbelievers; for them have we prepared a grievous punishment.||But no place of repentance shall there be for those who do evil, until, when death is close to one of them, he saith, "Now verily am I turned to God;" nor to those who die unbelievers. These! we have made ready for them a grievous torment!|
|100||23||4||O true believers, it is not lawful for you to be heirs of women against their will,q nor to hinder them from marrying others,r that ye may take away part of what ye have given them in dowry; unless they have been guilty of a manifest crime:s but converse kindly with them. And if ye hate them, it may happen that ye may hate a thing wherein GOD hath placed much good.||q It was customary among the pagan Arabs, when a man died, for one of his relations to claim a right to his widow, which he asserted by throwing his garment over her; and then he either married her himself, if he thought fit, on assigning her the same dower that her former husband had done, or kept her dower and married her to another, or else refused to let her marry unless she redeemed herself by quitting what she might claim of her husbands goods.1 This unjust custom is abolished by this passage.
1 Al Beidâwi.
r Some say these words are directed to husbands who used to imprison their wives without any just cause, and out of covetousness, merely to make them relinquish their dower or their inheritance.2
s Such as disobedience, ill behaviour, immodesty, and the like.3
|O believers! it is not allowed you to be heirs of your wives against their will; nor to hinder them from marrying, in order to take from them part of the dowry you had given them, unless they have been guilty of undoubted lewdness; but associate kindly with them: for if ye are estranged from them, haply ye are estranged from that in which God hath placed abundant good.|
|100||24||4||If ye be desirous to exchange a wife for another wife,t and ye have already given one of them a talent,u take not away anything therefrom:x will ye take it by slandering her, and doing her manifest injustice?||t That is, by divorcing one, and marrying another.
u i.e., Ever so large a dower.
x See chapter 2, p. 25.
|And if ye be desirous to exchange one wife for another, and have given one of them a talent, make no deduction from it. Would ye take it by slandering her, and with manifest wrong?|
|100||25||4||And how can ye take it, since the one of you hath gone in unto the other, and they have received from you a firm covenant?||How, moreover, could ye take it, when one of you hath gone in unto the other, and they have received from you a strict bond of union?|
|100||26||4||Marry not women whom your fathers have had to wife; (except what is already past:) for this is uncleanness, and an abomination, and an evil way.||And marry not women whom your fathers have married: for this is a shame, and hateful, and an evil way: though what is past5 may be allowed.||5 What took place in the times of ignorance, previous to the revelation of the Koran. See Freytag's Einl. p. 201, as to the incestuous nature of the ante-Islamitic Arabian marriages.|
|100||27||4||Ye are forbidden to marry your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts both on the father's and on the mother's side, and your brothers' daughters, and your sisters' daughters, and your mothers who have given you suck, and your foster-sisters, and your wives' mothers, and your daughters-in-law which are under your tuition, born of your wives unto whom ye have gone in, (but if ye have not gone in unto them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them, ) and the wives of your sons who proceed out of your loins; and ye are also forbidden to take to wife two sisters,y except what is already past: for GOD is gracious and merciful.||y The same was also prohibited by the Levitical law.4
4 Levit. xviii. 18.
|Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts, both on the father and mother's side, and your nieces on the brother and sister's side, and your foster-mothers, and your foster-sisters, and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters who are your wards, born of your wives to whom ye have gone in: (but if ye have not gone in unto them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them;) and the wives of your sons who proceed out of your loins; and ye may not have two sisters; except where it is already done. Verily, God is Indulgent, Merciful!|
|100||28||4||Ye are also forbidden to take to wife free women who are married, except those women whom your right hands shall possess as slaves.z This is ordained you from GOD. Whatever is beside this is allowed you; that ye may with your substance provide wives for yourselves, acting that which is right, and avoiding whoredom. And for the advantage which ye receive from them, give them their reward,a according to what is ordained: but it shall be no crime in you to make any other agreement among yourselves,b after the ordinance shall be complied with; for GOD is knowing and wise.||z According to this passage it is not lawful to marry a free woman that is already married, be she a Mohammedan or not, unless she be legally parted from her husband by divorce; but it is lawful to marry those who are slaves, or taken in war, after they shall have gone through the proper purifications, though their husbands be living. Yet, according to the decision of Abu Hanîfah, it is not lawful to marry such whose husbands shall be taken, or in actual slavery with them.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
a That is, assign them their dower.
b That is, either to increase the dower, or to abate some part or even the whole of it.
|Forbidden to you also are married women, except those who are in your hands as slaves: This is the law of God for you. And it is allowed you, beside this, to seek out wives by means of your wealth, with modest conduct, and without fornication. And give those with whom ye have cohabited their dowry. This is the law. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. Verily, God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||29||4||Whoso among you hath not means sufficient that he may marry free women, who are believers, let him marry with such of your maid-servants whom your right hands possess, as are true believers; for GOD well knoweth your faith. Ye are the one from the other:c therefore marry them with the consent of their masters; and give them their dower according to justice; such as are modest, not guilty of whoredom, nor entertaining lovers.||c Being alike descended from Adam, and of the same faith.2
|And whoever of you is not rich enough to marry free believing women, then let him marry such of your believing maidens as have fallen into your hands as slaves; God well knoweth your faith. Ye are sprung the one from the other. Marry them, then, with the leave of their masters, and give them a fair dower: but let them be chaste and free from fornication, and not entertainers of lovers.|
|100||30||4||And when they are married, if they be guilty of adultery, they shall suffer half the punishment which is appointed for the free women.d This is allowed unto him among you, who feareth to sin by marrying free women; but if ye abstain from marrying slaves, it will be better for you; GOD is gracious and merciful.||d The reason of this is because they are not presumed to have had so good education. A slave, therefore, in such a case, is to have fifty stripes, and to be banished for half a year; but she shall not be stoned, because it is a punishment which cannot be inflicted by halves.3
|If after marriage they commit adultery, then inflict upon them half the penalty enacted for free married women. This law is for him among you who is afraid of doing wrong:6 but if ye abstain,7 it will be better for you. And God is Lenient, Merciful.||6 By marrying without means adequate to the support of a free wife, or by remaining single.
7 From marrying slaves.
|100||31||4||GOD is willing to declare these things unto you, and to direct you according to the ordinances of those who have gone before you,e and to be merciful unto you. GOD is knowing and wise.||e viz., Of the prophets, and other holy and prudent men of former ages.4
4 Jallaloddin. Al Beidâwi.
|God desireth to make this known to you, and to guide you into the ways of those who have been before you, and to turn Him unto you in mercy. And God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||32||4||GOD desireth to be gracious unto you; but they who follow their lusts,f desire that ye should turn aside from the truth with great deviation. GOD is minded to make his religion light unto you: for man was created weak.g||f Some commentators suppose that these words have a particular regard to the Magians, who formerly were frequently guilty of incestuous marriages, their prophet Zerdusht having allowed them to take their mothers and sisters to wife; and also to the Jews, who likewise might marry within some of the degrees here prohibited.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
g Being unable to refrain from women, and too subject to be led away by carnal appetites.6
6 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|God desireth thus to turn him unto you: but they who follow their own lusts, desire that with great swerving should ye swerve! God desireth to make your burden light: for man hath been created weak.|
|100||33||4||O true believers, consume not your wealth among yourselves in vanity;h unless there be merchandising among you by mutual consent: neither slay yourselves;i for GOD is merciful towards you:||h That is, employ it not in things prohibited by GOD; such as usury, extortion, rapine, gaming, and the like.7
i Literally, slay not your souls; i.e., says Jallaloddin, by committing mortal sins, or such crimes as will destroy them. Others, however, are of opinion that self-murder, which the gentile Indians did, and still do, often practise in honour of their idols, or else the taking away the life of any true believer, is hereby forbidden.8
|O believers! devour not each other's substance in mutual frivolities;8 unless there be a trafficking among you by your own consent: and commit not suicide:of a truth God is merciful to you.||8 Games of chance, usury, etc.|
|100||34||4||and whoever doth this maliciouslyk and wickedly, he will surely cast him to be broiled in hell fire; and this is easy with GOD.||k See Wisdom xvi. 14, in the Vulgate.||And whoever shall do this maliciously and wrongfully, we will in the end cast him into the fire; for this is easy with God.|
|100||35||4||If ye turn aside from the grievous sins,l of those which ye are forbidden to commit, we will cleanse you from your smaller faults; and will introduce you into paradise with an honourable entry.||l These sins al Beidâwi, from a tradition of Mohammed, reckons to be seven (equaling in number the sins called deadly by Christians), that is to say, idolatry, murder, falsely accusing modest women of adultery, wasting the substance of orphans, taking of usury, desertion in a religious expedition, and disobedience to parents. But Ebn Abbâs says they amount to near seven hundred; and others suppose that idolatry only, of different kinds, in worshipping idols or any creature, either in opposition to or jointly with the true God, is here intended; that sin being generally esteemed by Mohammedans, and in a few lines after declared by the Korân itself, to be the only one which God will not pardon.1
1 Idem. See before, c. 2, p. 10.
|If ye avoid the great sins which ye are forbidden, we will blot out your faults, and we will cause you to enter Paradise with honourable entry.|
|100||36||4||Covet not that which GOD hath bestowed on some of you preferably to others.m Unto the men shall be given a portion of what they shall have gained, and unto the women shall be given a portion of what they shall have gained:n therefore ask GOD of his bounty; for GOD is omniscient.||m Such as honour, power, riches, and other worldly advantages. Some, however, understand this of the distribution of inheritances according to the preceding determinations, whereby some have a larger share than others.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
n That is, they shall be blessed according to their deserts; and ought, therefore, instead of displeasing God by envying of others, to endeavor to merit his favour by good works and to apply to him by prayer.
|Covet not the gifts by which God hath raised some of you above others. The men shall have a portion according to their deserts, and the women a portion according to their deserts. Of God, therefore, ask his gifts. Verily, God hath knowledge of all things.|
|100||37||4||We have appointed unto every one kindred, to inherit part of what their parents and relations shall leave at their deaths. And unto those with whom your right hands have made an alliance, give their part of the inheritance;o for GOD is witness of all things.||o A precept conformable to an old custom of the Arabs, that where persons mutually entered into a strict friendship or confederacy, the surviving friend should have a sixth part of the deceaseds estate. But this was afterwards abrogated, according to Jallaloddin and al Zamakhshari, at least as to infidels. The passage may likewise be understood of a private contract, whereby the survivor is to inherit a certain part of the substance of him that dies first.3
3 Vide al Beidâwi.
|To every one have we appointed kindred, as heirs of what parents and relatives, and those with whom ye have joined right hands in contract, leave. Give therefore, to each their portion. Verily, God witnesseth all things.|
|100||38||4||Men shall have the preëminence above women, because of those advantages wherein GOD hath caused the one of them to excel the other,p and for that which they expend of their substance in maintaining their wives. The honest women are obedient. careful in the absence of their husbands,q for that GOD preserveth them, by committing them to the care and protection of the men. But those, whose perverseness ye shall be apprehensive of, rebuke; and remove them into separate apartments,r and chastise them.s But if they shall be obedient unto you, seek not an occasion of quarrel against them: for GOD is high and great.||p Such as superior understanding and strength, and the other privileges of the male sex, which enjoys the dignities in church and state, goes to war in defence of GODS true religion, and claims a double share of their deceased ancestors estates.4
q Both to preserve their husbands substance from loss or waste, and themselves from all degrees of immodesty.5
5 Idem, Jallaloddin.
r That is, banish them from your bed.
s By this passage the Mohammedans are in plain terms allowed to beat their wives, in case of stubborn disobedience; but not in a violent or dangerous manner.6
|Men are superior to women on account of the qualities with which God hath gifted the one above the other, and on account of the outlay they make from their substance for them. Virtuous women are obedient, careful, during the husband's absence, because God hath of them been careful.9 But chide those for whose refractoriness ye have cause to fear; remove them into beds apart, and scourage them: but if they are obedient to you, then seek not occasion against them: verily, God is High, Great!||9 By providing for them a home and the protection of a husband. Or, of that which God would have them care for.|
|100||39||4||And if ye fear a breach between the husband and wife, send a judget out of his family, and a judge out of her family: if they shall desire a reconciliation, GOD will cause them to agree; for GOD is knowing and wise.||t i.e., Let the magistrate first send two arbitrators or mediators, one on each side, to compose the difference, and prevent, if possible, the ill consequences of an open rupture.||And if ye fear a breach between man and wife, then send a judge chosen from his family, and a judge chosen from her family: if they are desirous of agreement, God will effect a reconciliation between them; verily, God is knowing, apprised of all!|
|100||40||4||Serve GOD, and associate no creature with him; and show kindness unto parents, and relations, and orphans, and the poor, and your neighbor who is of kin to you,u and also your neighbor who is a stranger, and to your familiar companion, and the traveller, and the captives whom your right hands shall possess; for GOD loveth not the proud or vain-glorious,||u Either of your own nation or religion.||Worship God, and join not aught with Him in worship. Be good to parents,10 and to kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and to a neighbour, whether kinsman or new-comer, and to a fellow traveller, and to the wayfarer, and to the slaves whom your right hands hold; verily, God loveth not the proud, the vain boaster,||10 An undutiful child is very seldom heard of among the Egyptians, or the Arabs in general. Sons scarcely ever sit, or sit, or eat, or smoke, in the presence of the father unless bidden to do so; and they often wait upon him and upon his guests at meals and on other occasions: they do not cease to act thus when they have become men. Lane's Mod. Egypt. vol. i. p. 69.|
|100||41||4||who are covetous, and recommend covetousness unto men, and conceal that which GOD of his bounty hath given themx (we have prepared a shameful punishment for the unbelievers;)||x Whether it be wealth, knowledge, or any other talent whereby they may help their neighbour.||Who are niggardly themselves, and bid others be niggards, and hide away what God of his bounty hath given them. We have made ready a shameful chastisement for the unbelievers,|
|100||42||4||and who bestow their wealth in charity to be observed of men, and believe not in GOD, nor in the last day; and whoever hath Satan for a companion, an evil companion hath he!||And for those who bestow their substance in alms to be seen of men, and believe not in God and in the last day. Whoever hath Satan for his companion, an evil companion hath he!|
|100||43||4||And what harm would befall them if they should believe in GOD, and the last day, and give alms out of that which GOD hath bestowed on them? since GOD knoweth them who do this.||Memorandum from the Research Department on Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal (27 June 1996)
|But what blessedness would be theirs, if they should believe in God and in the last day, and bestow alms out of what God hath vouchsafed them; for God taketh knowledge of them!|
|100||44||4||Verily GOD will not wrong any one even the weight of an ant:y and if it be a good action, he will double it, and will recompense it in his sight with a great reward.||y Either by diminishing the recompense due to his good actions, or too severely punishing his sins. On the contrary, he will reward the former in the next life far above their deserts. The Arabic word dharra, which is translated an ant, signifies a very small sort of that insect, and is used to denote a thing that is exceeding small, as a mite.||God truly will not wrong any one of the weight of a mote; and if there be any good deed, he will repay it doubly; and from his presence shall be given a great recompense.|
|100||45||4||How will it be with the unbelievers when we shall bring a witness out of each nation against itself,z and shall bring thee, O Mohammed, a witness against these people?a In that day they who have not believed, and have rebelled against the apostle of God, shall wish the earth was levelled with them; and they shall not be able to hide any matter from GOD.||z When the prophet who was sent to each nation in particular, shall on the last day be produced to give evidence against such of them as refused to believe on him, or observed not the laws which he brought.
a That is, the Arabians, to whom Mohammed was, as he pretended, more peculiarly sent.1
1 See before, c. 2, p. 16.
|How! when we shall bring up against them witnesses from all peoples, and when we shall bring thee up as witness against these? On that day they who were Infidels and rebelled against the prophet, shall wish that the earth were levelled with them! But nothing shall they hide from God.|
|100||46||4||O true believers, come not to prayers when ye are drunk,b until ye understand what ye say; nor when ye are polluted by emission of seed, unless ye be travelling on the road, until ye wash yourselves. But if ye be sick or on a journey, or any of you come from easing nature, or have touched women, and find no water; take fine clean sand and rub your faces and your hands therewith;c for GOD is merciful and inclined to forgive.||b It is related, that before the prohibition of wine, Abdalrahmân Ebn Awf made an entertainment, to which he invited several of the apostles companions; and after they had ate and drunk plentifully, the hour of evening prayer being come, one of the company rose up to pray, but being overcome with liquor, made a shameful blunder in reciting a passage of the Korân; whereupon to prevent the danger of any such indecency for the future, this passage was revealed.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
c See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
|O ye true believers,11 come not to prayer when ye are drunken, but wait till ye can understand what ye utter; nor when ye are polluted, unless ye be travelling on the road, until ye have washed you. If ye be sick, or on a journey, or have come from the unclean place, or have touched a woman, and ye find not water, then rub pure sand, and bathe your face and your hands with it: verily, God is Lenient, Merciful.||11 The Koranic precepts as to prayer savour of Jewish origin. Thus, "Prayer should be said standing" is a Rabbinic precept.Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 240.Misch.Berachoth 10may be shortened in dangerous places, ib. iv. 10is forbidden to the drunken, ib. 31, 2. Erubin, 64and to the polluted; Berachoth iii. 4and is to be preceded, in this case, by washings with water or sand. See Sura xvii. 110, note 2, p. 173. 1 Cor. xi. 21.|
|100||47||4||Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the scriptured was delivered? they sell error, and desire that ye may wander from the right way; but GOD well knoweth your enemies. GOD is a sufficient patron; and GOD is a sufficient helper.||d Meaning the Jews, and particularly their Rabbins.||Hast thou not remarked those12 to whom a part of the Scriptures hath been given? Vendors are they of error, and are desirous that ye go astray from the way. But God knoweth your enemies; and God is a sufficient patron, and God is a sufficient helper!||12 The Jews and their Rabbis.|
|100||48||4||Of the Jews there are some who pervert words from their places;e and say, We have heard, and have disobeyed; and do thou hear without understanding our meaning,f and look upon us:g perplexing with their tongues, and reviling the true religion.||e That is (according to the commentators), who change the true sense of the Pentateuch by dislocating passages, or by wresting the words according to their own fancies and lusts.3 But Mohammed seems chiefly to intend here the Jews bantering of him in their addresses, by making use of equivocal words, seeming to bear a good sense in Arabic, but spoken by them in derision according to their acceptation in Hebrew; an instance of which he gives in the following words.
3 Idem, Jallaloddin.
f Literally, without being made to hear or apprehend what we say.
g The original word is Raïna, which being a term of reproach in Hebrew, Mohammed forbade their using to him.4
4 See before, c. 2, p. 13.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 92, p. 86
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 249)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 30
|They pervert the text of the Word of God.
MG: They pervert the text of the Word of God.
|Among the Jews are those who displace the words of their Scriptures, and say, "We have heard, and we have not obeyed. Hear thou, but as one that heareth not; and LOOK AT US;"13 perplexing with their tongues, and wounding the Faith by their revilings.||13 See Sura [xci.] ii. 98.|
|100||49||4||But if they had said, We have heard, and do obey; and do thou hear, and regard us:h certainly it were better for them, and more right. But GOD hath cursed them by reason of their infidelity; therefore a few of them only shall believe.||h In Arabic, Ondhorna; which having no ill equivocal meaning, the prophet ordered them to use instead of the former.||But if they would say, "We have heard, and we obey; hear thou, and REGARD US;" it were better for them, and more right. But God hath cursed them for their unbelief. Few only of them are believers!|
|100||50||4||O ye to whom the scriptures have been given, believe in the revelation which we have sent down, confirming that which is with you; before we deface your countenances, and render them as the back parts thereof;i or curse them, as we cursed those who transgressed on the sabbath day;k and the command of GOD was fulfilled.||i That is, perfectly plain, without eyes, nose, or mouth. The original, however, may also be translated, and turn them behind, by wringing their necks backward.
k And were therefore changed into apes.5
5 See before, c. 2, p. 8.
|The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter VIII, p. 162
|O ye to whom the Scriptures have been given! believe in what we have sent down confirmatory of the Scripture which is in your hands, ere we efface your features, and twist your head round backward, or curse you as we cursed the sabbath-breakers:14 and the command of God was carried into effect.||14 Lit. the companions of the sabbath. See [xci.] ii. 61.|
|100||51||4||Surely GOD will not pardon the giving him an equal;l but will pardon any other sin except that, to whom he pleasethm and whoso giveth a companion unto GOD, hath devised a great wickedness.||l That is, idolatry of all kinds.
m viz., To those who repent.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|Verily, God will not forgive the union of other gods with Himself! But other than this will forgive to whom He pleaseth. And He who uniteth gods with God hath devised a great wickedness.|
|100||52||4||Hast thou not observed those who justify themselves?n But GOD justifieth whomsoever he pleaseth, nor shall they be wronged a hair.o||n i.e., The Christians and Jews, who called themselves the children of GOD, and his beloved people.1
7 Idem, Jallaloddin. See c. 5, not far from the beginning.
o The original word signifies a little skin in the cleft of a date-stone, and is used to express a thing of no value.
|Hast thou not marked those who hold themselves to be righteous? But God holdeth righteous whom He will; and they shall not be wronged the husk of a date stone.|
|100||53||4||Behold, how they imagine a lie against GOD; and therein is iniquity sufficiently manifest.||Behold how they devise a lie of God! Therein is wickedness manifest enough!|
|100||54||4||Hast thou not considered those to whom part of the scripture hath been given? They believe in false gods and idols,p and say of those who believe not, These are more rightly directed in the way of truth, than they who believe on Mohammed.||p The Arabic is, in Jibt and Taghût. The former is supposed to have been the proper name of some idol; but it seems rather to signify any false deity in general. The latter we have explained already.8
It is said that this passage was revealed on the following occasion. Hoyai Ebn Akhtab and Caab Ebn al Ashraf,9 two chief men among the Jews, with several others of that religion, went to Mecca, and offered to enter into a confederacy with the Koreish, and to join their forces against Mohammed. But the Koreish, entertaining some jealousy of them, told them, that the Jews pretended to have a written revelation from heaven, as well as Mohammed, and their doctrines and worship approached much nearer to what he taught, than the religion of their tribe; wherefore, said they, if you would satisfy us that you are sincere in the matter, do as we do, and worship our gods. Which proposal, if the story be true, these Jews complied with, out of their inveterate hatred to Mohammed.1
8 See p. 28, note t.
9 See before, p. 40, note m.
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Hast thou not observed those to whom a part of the Scriptures hath been given?15 They believe in Djibt and Thagout, and say of the infidels, "These are guided in a batter path than those who hold the faith."||15 This refers to certain renegade Jews, who out of hatred against Muhammad, went over to the Koreisch. See Nöldeke. p. 149.|
|100||55||4||Those are the men whom God hath cursed and unto him whom GOD shall curse, thou shalt surely find no helper.||These are they whom God hath cursed: and for him whom God hath cursed, thou shalt by on means find a helper.|
|100||56||4||Shall they have a part of the kingdom,q since even then they would not bestow the smallest matterr on men?||q For the Jews gave out that they should be restored to their ancient power and grandeur;2 depending, it is to be presumed, on the victorious Messiah whom they expected.
r The original word properly signifies a small dent on the back of a date-stone, and is commonly used to express a thing of little or no value.
|Shall they have a share in the kingdom who would not bestow on their fellow men even the speck in a date stone?|
|100||57||4||Do they envy other men that which GOD of his bounty hath given them?s We formerly gave unto the family of Abraham a book of revelations and wisdom; and we gave them a great kingdom.t||s viz., The spiritual gifts of prophecy, and divine revelations; and the temporal blessings of victory and success, bestowed on Mohammed and his followers.
t Wherefore GOD will doubtless show equal favour to this prophet (a descendant also of Abraham), and those who believe on him.3
|Envy they other men what God of his bounty hath given them? We gave of old the Scriptures and wisdom to the line of Abraham, and we gave them a grand kingdom:|
|100||58||4||There is of them who believeth on him;u and there is of them who turneth aside from him: but the raging fire of hell is a sufficient punishment.||u Namely, on Mohammed.||Some of them believe on the prophet and some turn aside from him:the flame of Hell is their sufficing punishment!|
|100||59||4||Verily those who disbelieve our signs, we will surely cast to be broiled in hell fire; so often as their skins shall be well burned, we will give them other skins in exchange, that they may taste the sharper torment; for GOD is mighty and wise.||Those who disbelieve our signs we will in the end cast into the fire: so oft as their skins shall be well burnt,16 we will change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the torment. Verily God is Mighty, Wise!||16 Lit. ripened.|
|100||60||4||But those who believe and do that which is right, we will bring into gardens watered by rivers, therein shall they remain forever, and there shall they enjoy wives free from all impurity; and we will lead them into perpetual shades.||But as for those who have believed, and done the things that are right, we will bring being them into gardens 'neath which the rivers flow therein to abide eternally;therein shall they have wives of stainless purity: and we will bring them into aye-shadowing shades.|
|100||61||4||Moreover GOD commandeth you to restore what ye are trusted with, to the owners;x and when ye judge between men, that ye judge according to equity: and surely an excellent virtue it is to which GOD exhorteth you; for GOD both heareth and seeth.||x This passage, it is said, was revealed on the day of the taking of Mecca, the primary design of it being to direct Mohammed to return the keys of the Caaba to Othmân Ebn Telha Ebn Abdaldâr, who had then the honour to be keeper of that holy place,4 and not to deliver them to his uncle al Abbâs, who having already the custody of the well Zemzem, would fain have had also that of the Caaba. The prophet obeying the divine order, Othmân was so affected with the justice of the action, notwithstanding he had at first refused him entrance, that he immediately embraced Mohammedism; whereupon the guardianship of the Caaba was confirmed to this Othmân and his heirs for ever.5
4 See Prideauxs Life of Mahomet, p. 2.
5 Al Beidâwi See DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 220, 221.
|Verily, God enjoineth you to give back your trusts to their owners, and when ye judge between men, to judge with fairness. Excellent is the practice to which God exhorteth you. God Heareth, Beholdeth!|
|100||62||4||O true believers, obey GOD, and obey the apostle; and those who are in authority among you: and if ye differ, in anything, refer it unto GODy and the apostle, if ye believe in GOD, and the last day: this is better, and a fairer method of determination.||y i.e., To the decision of the Korân.||O ye who believe! obey God and obey the apostle, and those among you invested with authority; and if in aught ye differ, bring it before God and the apostle, if ye believe in God and in the latter day. This is the best and fairest way of settlement.|
|100||63||4||Hast thou not observed those who pretend they believe in what hath been revealed unto thee, and what hath been revealed before thee? They desire to go to judgment before Taghût,z although they have been commanded not to believe in him; and Satan desireth to seduce them into a wide error.||z That is, before the tribunals of infidels. This passage was occasioned by the following remarkable accident. A certain Jew having a dispute with a wicked Mohammedan, the latter appealed to the judgment of Caab Ebn al Ashraf, a principal Jew, and the former to Mohammed. But at length they agreed to refer the matter to the prophet singly, who, giving it in favor of the Jew, the Mohammedan refused to acquiesce in his sentence, but would needs have it re-heard by Omar, afterwards Khalif. When they came to him, the Jew told him that Mohammed had already decided the affair in his favour, but that the other would not submit to his determination; and the Mohammedan confessing this to be true, Omar bid them stay a little, and fetching his sword, struck off the obstinate Moslems head, saying aloud, This is the reward of him who refuseth to submit to the judgment of God and his apostle. And from this action Omar had the surname of al Farûk, which alludes both to his separating that knaves head from his body, and to his distinguishing between truth and falsehood.1 The name of Taghût,2 therefore, in this place, seems to be given to Caab Ebn al Ashraf.
1 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi. See DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 688, and Ockleys Hist. of the Sarac. v. I, p. 365.
2 See before, p. 28.
|Hast thou not marked those who profess that they believe in what hath been sent down to thee, and what hath been sent down before thee? Fain would they be judged before Thagout, though commanded not to believe in him; and fain would Satan make them wander with wanderings wide of truth.|
|100||64||4||And when it is said unto them, Come unto the book which GOD hath sent down, and to the apostle; thou seest the ungodly turn aside from thee, with great aversion.||And when it is said to them, "Accede to that which God hath sent down, and to the apostle," thou seest the hypocrites avert them from thee with utter aversion.|
|100||65||4||But how will they behave when a misfortune shall befall them, for that which their hands have sent before them? Then will they come unto thee, and swear by GOD, saying, If we intended any other than to do good, and to reconcile the parties.a||a For this was the excuse of the friends of the Mohammedan whom Omar slew, when they came to demand satisfaction for his blood.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|But how, when some misfortune shall fortune them, for their previous handywork? Then will they come to thee, swearing by God, "We desire nothing but to promote good and concord!"|
|100||66||4||GOD knoweth what is in the hearts of these men; therefore let them alone, and admonish them, and speak unto them a word which may affect their souls.||These are they whose hearts God knoweth. Therefore break off from them, and warn them, speak words that may penetrate their souls.|
|100||67||4||We have not sent any apostle, but that he might be obeyed by the permission of GOD: but if they, after they have injured their own souls,b come unto thee, and ask pardon of GOD, and the apostle ask pardon for them, they shall surely find GOD easy to be reconciled and merciful.||b viz., By acting wickedly, and appealing to the judgment of the infidels.||We have not sent any apostle but to be obeyed, it God so will: but if they, after they have sinned to their own hurt by unbelief, come to thee and ask pardon of God, and the apostle ask pardon for them, they shall surely find that God is He who turneth unto man, Merciful.|
|100||68||4||And by thy LORD they will not perfectly believe, until they make thee judge of their controversies; and shall not afterwards find in their own minds any hardship in what thou shalt determine, but shall acquiesce therein with entire submission.||And they will notI swear by thy Lordthey will not believe, until they have set thee up as judge between them on points where they differ. Then shall they not find in their own minds any difficulty in thy decisions, and shall submit with entire submission.|
|100||69||4||And if we had commanded them, saying, Slay yourselves, or depart from your houses;c they would not have done it except a few of them. And if they had done what they were admonished, it would certainly have been better for them, and more efficacious for confirming their faith;||c Some understand these words of their venturing their lives in a religious expedition; and others, of their undergoing the same punishments which the Israelites did for their idolatry in worshipping the golden calf.4
4 Idem, see before, p. 7
|Had we laid down such a law for them as "Kill yourselves, or abandon your dwellings," but few of them would have done it. But had they done that to which they were exhorted, better and it been for them, and stronger for the confirmation of their faith.|
|100||70||4||and we should then have surely given them in our sight an exceeding great reward, and we should have directed them in the right way.||In that case we had surely given them from ourself a great recompense, and on the straight path should we surely have guided them.|
|100||71||4||Whoever obeyeth GOD and the apostle, they shall be with those unto whom GOD hath been gracious, of the prophets, and the sincere, and the martyrs, and the righteous; and these are the most excellent company.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 120-122 Jamshíd-i-Gurji)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
|And whoever shall obey God and the Apostle, these shall be with those of the Prophets, and of the Sincere, and of the Martyrs, and of the Just, to whom God hath been gracious. These are a goodly band!|
|100||72||4||This is bounty from GOD; and GOD is sufficiently knowing.||This is the bounty of God; and in knowledge doth God suffice.|
|100||73||4||O true believers, take your necessary precautiond against your enemies, and either go forth to war in separate parties, or go forth all together in a body.||d i.e., Be vigilant, and provide yourselves with arms and necessaries.||O ye who believe! make use of precautions; and advance in detachments, or , advance in a body.|
|100||74||4||There is of you who tarrieth behind;e and if a misfortune befall you, he saith, Verily GOD hath been gracious unto me, that I was not present with them:||e Mohammed here upbraids the hypocritical Moslems, who, for want of faith and constancy in their religion, were backward in going to war for its defence.||There is of you who will be a laggard: and if a reverse befall you he saith, "Now hath God dealt graciously with me, since I was not with you in the fight:"|
|100||75||4||but if success attend you from GOD, he will say (as if there was no friendship between you and him),f Would to GOD I had been with them, for I should have acquired great merit.||f i.e., As one who attendeth not to the public, but his own private interest. Or else these may be the words of the hypocritical Mohammedan himself, insinuating that he stayed not behind the rest of the army by his own fault, but was left by Mohammed, who chose to let the others share in his good fortune, preferably to him.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|But if a success from God betide you, he will say, as if there had never been any friendship between you and him, "Would I had been with them! a rich prize should I have won!"|
|100||76||4||Let them therefore fight for the religion of GOD, who part with the present life in exchange for that which is to come;g for whosoever fighteth for the religion of GOD, whether he be slain, or be victorious,h we will surely give him a great reward.||g By venturing their lives and fortunes in defence of the faith.
h For no man ought to quit the field till he either fall a martyr or gain some advantage for the cause.2
|Let those then fight on the path of God, who barter this present life for that which is to come; for whoever fighteth on God's path, whether he be slain or conquer, we will in the end give him a great reward.|
|100||77||4||And what ails you, that ye fight not for GOD'S true religion, and in defence of the weak among men, women, and children,i who say, O LORD, bring us forth from this city, whose inhabitants are wicked; grant us from before thee a protector, and grant us from before thee a defender.k||i viz., Those believers who stayed behind at Mecca, being detained there either forcibly by the idolaters, or for want of means to fly for refuge to Medina. Al Beidâwi observes that children are mentioned here to show the inhumanity of the Koreish, who persecuted even that tender age.
k This petition, the commentators say, was heard. For GOD afforded several of them an opportunity and means of escaping, and delivered the rest at the taking of Mecca by Mohammed, who left Otâb Ebn Osaid governor of the city: and under his care and protection, those who had suffered for their religion became the most considerable men in the place.
|But what hath come to you that ye fight not on the path of God, and for the weak among men, women and children, who say, "O our Lord! bring us forth from this city17 whose inhabitants are oppressors; give us a champion from thy presence; and give us from thy presence a defender."||17 Mecca.|
|100||78||4||They who believe fight for the religion of GOD; but they who believe not fight for the religion of Taghût.l Fight therefore against the friends of Satan, for the stratagem of Satan is weak.||l See before, p. 28.||They who believe, fight on the path of God; and they who believe not, fight on the path of Thagout: Fight therefore against the friends of Satan. Verily craft of Satan shall be powerless!|
|100||79||4||Hast thou not observed those unto whom it was said, Withhold your hands from war, and be constant at prayers, and pay the legal alms?m But when war is commanded them, behold a part of them fear men as they should fear GOD, or with a great fear, and say, O LORD, wherefore hast thou commanded us to go to war, and hast not suffered us to wait our approaching end?n Say unto them, The provision of this life is but small; but the future shall be better for him who feareth God; and ye shall not be in the least injured at the day of judgment.||m These were some of Mohammeds followers, who readily performed the duties of their religion so long as they were commanded nothing that might endanger their lives.
n That is, a natural death.
|Hast thou not marked those to whom it was said, "Withhold your hands awhile from war; and observe prayer, and pay the stated alms." But when war is commanded them, lo! a portion of them fear men as with the fear of God, or with a yet greater fear, and say: "O our Lord! why hast thou commanded us war? Couldst thou not have given us respite till our not distant end?" SAY: Small the fruition of this world; but the next life is the true good for him who feareth God! and ye shall not be wronged so much as the skin of a date stone.|
|100||80||4||Wheresoever ye be, death will overtake you, although ye be in lofty towers. If good befall them, they say, This is from GOD; but if evil befall them, they say, This is from thee, O Mohammed:o say, All is from GOD; and what aileth these people, that they are so far from understanding what is said unto them?||o As the Jews, in particular, who pretended that their land was grown barren, and provisions scarce, since Mohammed came to Medina.3
|The Seven Valleys (Valley of Unity, within pp. 17-29)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 55
|MG: Say, all is from God,
EGB: Say, all is from God
|Wherever ye be, death will overtake youalthough ye be in lofty towers! If good fortune betide them, they say, "This is from God;" and if evil betide them, they say, "This is from thee." SAY: All is from God: But what hath come to these people that they are not near to understanding what is told them?|
|100||81||4||Whatever good befalleth thee, O man, it is from GOD; and whatever evil befalleth thee, it is from thyself.p We have sent thee an apostle unto men, and GOD is a sufficient witness thereof.||p These words are not to be understood as contradictory to the preceding, That all proceeds from GOD; since the evil which befalls mankind, though ordered by GOD, is yet the consequence of their own wicked actions.||Whatever good betideth thee is from God, and whatever betideth thee of evil is from thyself; and we have sent thee to mankind as an apostle: God is thy sufficing witness.|
|100||82||4||Whoever obeyeth the apostle, obeyeth GOD; and whoever turneth back, we have not sent thee to be a keeper over them.q||q Or, to take an account of their actions, for this is GODS part.||Whoso obeyeth the Apostle, in so doing obeyeth God: and as to those who turn back from thee, we have not sent thee to be their keeper.|
|100||83||4||They say, Obedience: yet when they go forth from thee, part of them meditate by night a matter different from what thou speakest; but GOD shall write down what they meditate by night: therefore let them alone, and trust in GOD, for GOD is a sufficient protector.||Moreover, they say: "Obedience!" but when they come forth from thy presence, a party of them brood by night over other than thy words; but God writeth down what they brood over: therefore separate thyself from them, and put thou thy trust in God. is a sufficient protector!|
|100||84||4||Do they not attentively consider the Koran? if it had been from any besides GOD, they would certainly have found therein many contradictions.||Can they not consider the Koran? Were it from any other than God, they would surely have found in it many contradictions.|
|100||85||4||When any news cometh unto them, either of security or fear, they immediately divulge it; but if they told it to the apostle and to those who are in authority among them, such of them would understand the truth of the matter, as inform themselves thereof from the apostle and his chiefs. And if the favor of GOD and his mercy had not been upon you, ye had followed the devil, except a few of you.r||r That is, if GOD had not sent his apostle with the Korân to instruct you in your duty, ye had continued in idolatry and been doomed to destruction; except only those who, by GODS favour and their superior understanding, should have true notions of the divinity; such, for example, as Zeid Ebn Amru Ebn Nofail1 and Waraka Ebn Nawfal,2 who left idols, and acknowledged but one GOD, before the mission of Mohammed.3
1 Vide Millium, de Mohammedismo ante Moh. p. 311.
2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II.
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And when tidings, either of security or alarm, reach them, they tell them abroad; but if they would report them to the apostle, and to those who are in authority among them, those who desire information would learn it from them. But for the goodness and mercy of God towards you, ye would have followed Satan except a few!|
|100||86||4||Fight therefore for the religion of GOD, and oblige not any to what is difficult,s except thyself; however excite the faithful to war, perhaps GOD will restrain the courage of the unbelievers; for GOD is stronger than they, and more able to punish.||s It is said this passage was revealed when the Mohammedans refused to follow their prophet to the lesser expedition of Bedr, so that he was obliged to set out with no more than seventy.4 Some copies vary in this place, and instead of la tokallafo, in the second person singular, read la nokallafo, in the first person plural, We do not oblige, &c. The meaning being, that the prophet only was under an indispensable necessity of obeying GODS commands, however difficult, but others might choose, though at their peril.
4 See before, c. 3, p. 49.
|Fight, therefore, on God's path: lay not burdens on any but thyself; and stir up the faithful. The might of the infidels haply will god restrain, for God is the stronger in prowess, and the stronger to punish.|
|100||87||4||He who intercedeth between men with a good intercessiont shall have a portion thereof; and he who intercedeth with an evil intercession shall have a portion thereof; for GOD overlooketh all things.||t i.e., To maintain the right of a believer, or to prevent his being wronged.||He who shall mediate between men for a good purpose shall be the gainer by it. But he who shall mediate with an evil mediation shall reap the fruit of it. And God keepeth watch over everything.|
|100||88||4||When ye are saluted with a salutation, salute the person with a better salutation,u or at least return the same; for GOD taketh an account of all things.||u By adding something farther. As when one salutes another by this form, Peace be unto thee, he ought not only to return the salutation, but to add, and the mercy of GOD and his blessing.||If ye are greeted with a greeting, then greet ye with a better greeting, or at least return it: God taketh count of all things.|
|100||89||4||GOD! there is no GOD but he; he will surely gather you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt of it: and who is more true than GOD in what he saith?||God! there is no god but He! He will certainly assemble you on the day of resurrection. There is no doubt of it. And whose word is more true than God's?|
|100||90||4||Why are ye divided concerning the ungodly into two parties;x since GOD hath overturned them for what they have committed? Will ye direct him whom GOD hath led astray; since for him whom GOD shall lead astray, thou shalt find no true path?||x This passage was revealed, according to some, when certain of Mohammeds followers, pretending not to like Medina, desired leave to go elsewhere, and, having obtained it, went farther and farther, till they joined the idolaters; or, as others say, on occasion of some deserters at the battle of Ohod; concerning whom the Moslems were divided in opinion whether they should be slain as infidels or not.||Why are ye two parties on the subject of the hypocrites, when God hath cast them off for their doings? Desire ye to guide those whom god hath led astray? But for him whom God leadeth astray, thou shalt by no means find a pathway.|
|100||91||4||They desire that ye should become infidels, as they are infidels, and that ye should be equally wicked with themselves. Therefore take not friends from among them, until they fly their country for the religion of GOD; and if they turn back from the faith, take them, and kill them wherever ye find them; and take no friend from among them, nor any helper,||They desire that ye should be infidels as they are infidels, and that ye should be alike. Take therefore none of them for friends, till they have fled their homes for the cause of God. If they turn back, then seize them, and slay them wherever ye find them; but take none of them as friends or helpers,|
|100||92||4||except those who go unto a people who are in alliance with you,y or those who come unto you, their hearts forbidding them either to fight against you, or to fight against their own people.z And if GOD pleased he would have permitted them to have prevailed against you, and they would have fought against you. But if they depart from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, GOD doth not allow you to take or kill them.||y The people here meant, say some, were the tribe of Khozâah, or, according to others, the Aslamians, whose chief, named Helâl Ebn Owaimar, agreed with Mohammed, when he set out against Mecca, to stand neuter; or, as others rather think, Banu Becr Ebn Zeid.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
z These, it is said, were the tribe of Modlaj, who came in to Mohammed, but would not be obliged to assist him in war.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Except those who shall seek and asylum among your allies, and those who come over to youtheir hearts forbidding them to make war on you, or to make war on their own people. Had God pleased, he would have given them power against you, and they would have made war upon you! But, if they depart from you, and make not war against you and offer you peace, the God alloweth you no occasion against them.|
|100||93||4||Ye shall find others who are desirous to enter into confidence with you, and at the same time to preserve a confidence with their own people:a so often as they return to sedition, they shall be subverted therein; and if they depart not from you, and offer you peace, and restrain their hands from warring against you, take them and kill them wheresoever ye find them; over these have we granted you a manifest power.||a The person hinted at here were the tribes of Asad and Ghatfân, or, as some say, Banu Abdaldâr, who came to Medina and pretended to embrace Mohammedism, that they might be trusted by the Moslems, but when they returned, fell back to their old idolatry.3
|Ye will find others who seek to gain your confidence as well as that of their own people: So oft as they return to sedition, they shall be overthrown in it: But if they leave you not, nor propose terms or peace to you nor withhold their hands, then seize them, and slay them, wherever ye find them. Over these have we given you undoubted power.|
|100||94||4||It is not lawful for a believer to kill a believer, unless it happen by mistake;b and whoso killeth a believer by mistake, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer from slavery, and a fine to be paid to the family of the deceased,c unless they remit it as alms: and if the slain person be of a people at enmity with you, and be a true believer, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer;d but if he be of a people in confederacy with you, a fine to be paid to his family, and the freeing of a believer. And he who findeth not wherewith to do this shall fast two months consecutively as a penance enjoined from GOD; and GOD is knowing and wise.||b That is, by accident and without design. This passage was revealed to decide the case of Ayâsh Ebn Abi Rabîa, the brother, by the mothers side, of Abu Jahl, who meeting Hareth Ebn Zeid on the road, and not knowing that he had embraced Mohammedism, slew him.4
c Which fine is to be distributed according to the laws of inheritances given in the beginning of this chapter.5
d And no fine shall be paid, because in such case his relations, being infidels and at open war with the Moslems, have no right to inherit what he leaves.
|A believer killeth not a believer but by mischance: and whoso killeth a believer by mischance shall be bound to free a believer from slavery; and the blood-money shall be paid to the family of the slain, unless they convert it into alms. But if the slain believer be of a hostile people, then let him confer freedom on a slave who is a believer; and if he be of a people between whom and yourselves there is an alliance, then let the blood-money be paid to his family, and let him set free a slave who is a believer: and let him who hath not the means, fast two consecutive months. This is the penance enjoined by God; and God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||95||4||But whoso killeth a believer designedly, his reward shall be hell; he shall remain therein for ever;e and GOD shall be angry with him, and shall curse him, and shall prepare for him a great punishment.||e That is, unless he repent. Others, however, understand not here an eternity of damnation (for it is the general doctrine of the Mohammedans that none who profess that faith shall continue in hell for ever), but only a long space of time.1
|But whoever shall kill a believer of set purpose, his recompense shall be hell; for ever shall he abide in it; God shall be wrathful with him, and shall curse him, and shall get ready for him a great torment.|
|100||96||4||O true believers, when ye are on a march in defence of the true religion, justly discern such as ye shall happen to meet, and say not unto him who saluteth you, thou art not a true believer;f seeking the accidental goods of the present life;g for with GOD is much spoil. Such have ye formerly been; but GOD hath been gracious unto you;h therefore make a just discernment, for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.||f On pretence that he only feigns to be a Moslem, that he might escape from you. The commentators mention more instances than one of persons slain and plundered by Mohammeds men under this pretext, notwithstanding they declared themselves Moslems by repeating the usual form of words, and saluting them; for which reason this passage was revealed, to prevent such rash judgments for the future.
g That is, being willing to judge him an infidel, only that ye may kill and plunder him.
h viz., At your first profession of Islâmism, before ye had given any demonstrations of your sincerity and zeal therein.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 97)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 118)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|BWC: Say not to everyone who meeteth you with a greeting, `Thou art not a believer'
BWC: Say not to everyone who meeteth you with a greeting, `Thou art not a believer'
BWC: Say not to every one who meeteth you with a greeting, Thou art not a believer.
|O believers! when ye go forth to the fight for the cause of God, be discerning, and say not to every one who meeteth you with a greeting, "Thou art not a believer"18 in your greed after the chance good things of this present life! With God are abundant spoils. Such hath been your wont in times past; but god hath been gracious to you. Be discerning, then, for God well knoweth what ye do.||18 And therefore a fit subject for plunder.|
|100||97||4||Those believers who sit still at home, not having any hurt,i and those who employ their fortunes and their persons for the religion of GOD, shall not be held equal. GOD hath preferred those who employ their fortunes and their persons in that cause to a degree of honour above those who sit at home; GOD hath indeed promised every one paradise, but GOD hath preferred those who fight for the faith before those who sit still, by adding unto them a great reward,||i i.e., Not being disabled from going to war by sickness, or other just impediment. It is said that when the passage was first revealed there was no such exception therein, which occasioned Ebn Omm Mactûm, on his hearing it repeated, to object, And what though I be blind? Whereupon Mohammed, falling into a kind of trance, which was succeeded by strong agitations, pretended he had received the divine direction to add these words to the text.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Those believers who sit at home free from trouble, and those who do valiantly in the cause of God with their substance and their persons, shall not be treated alike. God hath assigned to those who contend earnestly with their persons and with their substance, a rank above those who sit at home. Goodly promises hath He made to all. But God hath assigned to the strenuous a rich recompense, above those who sit still at home,|
|100||98||4||by degrees of honour conferred on them from him, and by granting them forgiveness and mercy; for GOD is indulgent and merciful.||Rank of his own bestowal, and forgiveness, and mercy; for God is Indulgent, Merciful.|
|100||99||4||Moreover unto those whom the angels put to death, having injured their own souls,k the angels said, Of what religion were ye? they answered, We were weak in the earth.l The angels replied, Was not GOD'S earth wide enough, that ye might fly therein to a place of refuge?m Therefore their habitation shall be hell; and an evil journey shall it be thither:||k These were certain inhabitants of Mecca, who held with the hare and ran with the hounds, for though they embraced Mohammedism, yet they would not leave that city to join the prophet, as the rest of the Moslems did, but on the contrary went out with the idolaters, and were therefore slain with them at the battle of Bedr.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin
l Being unable to fly, and compelled to follow the infidels to war.
m As they did who fled to Ethiopia and to Medina.
|The angels,19 when they took the souls of those who had been unjust to their own weal, demanded, "What hath been your state?"20 They said, "We were the weak ones21 of the earth." They replied, "Was not God's earth broad enough for you to flee away in?" These! their home shall be Hell, and evil the passage to it||19 Some of the Meccans after embracing Islam did not thoroughly break with the infidels and fly their country. These persons were miraculously slain by angels at Bedr. Others suppose the angels to be Nakir and Monkir, who examine the dead in the grave.
20 That is, to what religion did ye belong?
21 And therefore could not resist the unbelievers.
|100||100||4||except the weak among men, and women, and children, who were not able to find means, and were not directed in the way; these peradventure GOD will pardon, for GOD is ready to forgive, and gracious.||Except the men and women and children who were not able, through their weakness, to find the means of escape, and were not guided on their way. These haply God will forgive: for God is Forgiving, Gracious.|
|100||101||4||Whosoever flieth from his country for the sake of GOD'S true religion, shall find in the earth many forced to do the same, and plenty of provisions. And whoever departeth from his house, and flieth unto GOD and his apostle, if death overtake him in the way,n GOD will be obliged to reward him, for GOD is gracious and merciful.||n This passage was revealed, says al Beidâwi, on account of Jondob Ebn Damra. This person being sick, was, in his flight, carried by his sons on a couch, and before he arrived at Medina, perceiving his end approached, he clapped his right hand on his left, and solemnly plighting his faith to GOD and his apostle, died.||Whoever flieth his country for the cause of God, will find in the earth many under like compulsion, and abundant resources; and if any one shall quit his home and fly to God and his apostle, and then death overtake him,his reward from God is sure: for God is Gracious, Merciful!|
|100||102||4||When ye march to war in the earth, it shall be no crime in you if ye shorten your prayers, in case ye fear the infidels may attack you; for the infidels are your open enemy.||And when ye go forth to war in the land, it shall be no crime in you to cut short your prayers,22 if ye fear lest the infidels come upon you; Verily, the infidels are your undoubted enemies!||22 Thus the Rabbins Tr. Berachoth, iv. 4, "He that goeth in a dangerous place may pray a short prayer."|
|100||103||4||But when thou, O prophet, shalt be among them, and shalt pray with them, let a party of them arise to prayer with thee, and let them take their arms; and when they shall have worshipped, let them stand behind you,o and let another party come that hath not prayed, and let them pray with thee, and let them be cautious and take their arms. The unbelievers would that ye should neglect your arms and your baggage while ye pray, that they might turn upon you at once. It shall be no crime in you, if ye be incommoded by rain, or be sick, that ye lay down your arms; but take your necessary precaution:p GOD hath prepared for the unbelievers an ignominious punishment.||o To defend those who are at prayers, and to face the enemy.
p By keeping strict guard.
|And when thou, O apostle! shalt be among them, and shalt pray with them, then let a party of them rise up with thee, but let them take their arms; and when they shall have made their prostrations, let them retire to your rear: then let another party that hath not prayed come forward, and let them pray with you; but let them take their precautions and their arms. Pleased would the infidels be for you to neglect your arms and your baggage, that they might turn upon you at once! And it shall be no crime in you to lay down your arms if rain annoy you, or if ye be sick. But take your precautions.23 Verily, God hath made ready a shameful torment for the infidels.||23 See Mischna Tr. Berachoth, 10.|
|100||104||4||And when ye shall have ended your prayer, remember GOD, standing, and sitting, and lying on your sides.q But when ye are secure from danger, complete your prayers: for prayer is commanded the faithful, and appointed to be said at the stated times.||q That is, in such posture as ye shall be able.1
1 See before, c. 3, p. 52.
|And when ye shall have ended the prayer, make mention of God, standing, and sitting, and reclining: and as soon as ye are secure, observe prayer; for to the faithful, prayer is a prescribed duty, and for stated hours.|
|100||105||4||Be not negligent in seeking out the unbelieving people, though ye suffer some inconvenience; for they also shall suffer as ye suffer, and ye hope for a reward from GOD which they cannot hope for; and GOD is knowing and wise.r||r This verse was revealed on occasion of the unwillingness of Mohammeds men to accompany him in the lesser expedition of Bedr.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Slacken not in pursuit of the foe. If ye suffer, assuredly they suffer also as ye suffer; but ye hope from God for what they cannot hope! And God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||106||4||We have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, that thou mayest judge between men through that wisdom which GOD showeth thee therein; and be not an advocate for the fraudulent;s but ask pardon of GOD for thy wrong intention, since GOD is indulgent and merciful.||s Tima Ebn Obeirak, of the sons of Dhafar, one of Mohammeds companions, stole a coat of mail from his neighbour, Kitâda Ebn al Nomân, in a bag of meal, and hid it at a Jews named Zeid Ebn al Samîn; Tima, being suspected, the coat of mail was demanded of him, but he denying he knew anything of it, they followed the track of the meal, which had run out through a hole in the bag, to the Jews house, and there seized it, accusing him of the theft; but he producing witnesses of his own religion that he had it of Tima, the sons of Dhafar came to Mohammed and desired him to defend his companions reputation, and condemn the Jew; which he having some thoughts of doing, this passage was revealed, reprehending him for his rash intention, and commanding him to judge not according to his own prejudice and opinion, but according to the merit of the case.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin, Yahya.
|Verily, we have sent down the Book to thee with the truth, thou that mayest judge between men according as God hath given thee insight: But with the deceitful ones dispute not: and implore pardon of God. Verily, God is Forgiving, Merciful.24||24 This verse is said to have been revealed when Muhammad was about to acquit a Muslim who had committed theft, and laid the guilt at the door of a Jew. But the particulars are given in a very contradictory manner. See Nöldeke, p. 151.|
|100||107||4||Dispute not for those who deceive one another, for GOD loveth not him who is a deceiver or unjust.t||t Al Beidâwi, as an instance of the divine justice, adds, that Tima, after the fact above mentioned, fled to Mecca, and returned to idolatry; and there undermining the wall of a house, in order to commit a robbery, the wall fell in upon him and crushed him to death.||And plead not with us for those who are self-deceivers; for God loveth not him who is deceitful, criminal.|
|100||108||4||Such conceal themselves from men, but they conceal not themselves from GOD; for he is with them when they imagine by night a saying which pleaseth him not,u and GOD comprehendeth what they do.||u That is, when they secretly contrive means, by false evidence or otherwise, to lay their crimes on innocent persons.||From men they hide themselves; but they cannot hide themselves from God: and when they hold nightly discourses which please Him not, He is with them. God is round about their doings!|
|100||109||4||Behold, ye are they who have disputed for them in this present life; but who shall dispute with GOD for them on the day of resurrection, or who will become their patron?||Oh! ye are they who plead in their favour in this present life; but who shall plead with God for them on the day of the resurrection? Who will be the guardian over them?|
|100||110||4||yet he who doth evil, or injureth his own soul, and afterwards asketh pardon of God, shall find God gracious and merciful.||Yet he who doth evil, or shall have acted against his own weal, and then shall ask pardon of God, will find God Forgiving, Merciful:|
|100||111||4||Whoso committeth wickedness, committeth it against his own soul: GOD is knowing and wise.||And whoever committeth a crime, committeth it to his own hurt. And God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||112||4||And whoso committeth a sin or iniquity, and afterwards layeth it on the innocent, he shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and manifest injustice.||And whoever committeth an involuntary fault or a crime, and then layeth it on the innocent, shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and of a manifest crime.|
|100||113||4||If the indulgence and mercy of GOD had not been upon thee, surely a part of them had studied to seduce thee;x but they shall seduce themselves only, and shall not hurt thee at all. GOD hath sent down unto thee the book of the Koran and wisdom, and hath taught thee that which thou knewest not;y for the favor of GOD hath been great towards thee.||x Meaning the sons of Dhafar.
y By instructing them in the knowledge of right and wrong, and the rules of justice.
|But for the grace and mercy of God upon thee, a party among them had resolved to mislead thee, but they shall only mislead themselves; nor in aught shall they harm thee. God hath caused the Book and the wisdom to descend upon thee: and what thou knowest not He hath caused thee to know: and the grace of God toward thee hath been great.|
|100||114||4||There is no good in the multitude of their private discourses, unless in the discourse of him who recommendeth alms, or that which is right, or agreement amongst men: whoever doth this out of a desire to please GOD, we will surely give him a great reward.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 85
|MG: out of desire to please the Lord||In most of their secret talk is nothing good; but only in his who enjoineth almsgiving, or that which is right, or concord among men. Whoso doth this, out of desire to please God, we will give him at the last a great reward:|
|100||115||4||But whoso separateth himself from the apostle, after true direction hath been manifested unto him, and followeth any other way than than of the true believers, we will cause him to obtain that to which he is inclined,z and will cast him to be burned in hell; and an unhappy journey shall it be thither.||z viz., Error, and false notions of religion.||But whoso shall sever himself from the prophet after that "the guidance" hath been manifested to him, and shall follow any other path than that of the faithful, we will turn our back on him as he hath turned his back on us, and we will cast him into Hell;an evil journey thither!|
|100||116||4||Verily GOD will not pardon the giving him a companion, but he will pardon any crime besides that, unto whom he pleaseth: and he who giveth a companion unto GOD is surely led aside into a wide mistake;||God truly will not forgive the joining other gods with Himself. Other sins He will forgive to whom He will: but he who joineth gods with God, hath erred with far-gone error.|
|100||117||4||the infidels invoke beside him only female deities;a and only invoke rebellious Satan.||a Namely, Allât, al Uzza, and Menât, the idols of the Meccans; or the angels, whom they called the daughters of GOD.4
4 See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. I.
|They call, beside Him, upon mere goddesses! they invoke a rebel Satan!|
|100||118||4||GOD cursed him; and he said, Verily I will take of thy servants a part cut off from the rest,b and I will seduce them, and will insinuate vain desires into them, and I will command them and they shall cut off the ears of cattle;c and I will command them and they shall change GOD'S creature.d But whoever taketh Satan for his patron, besides GOD,e shall surely perish with a manifest destruction.||b Or, as the original may be translated, a part destined or predetermined to be seduced by me.
c Which was done out of superstition by the old pagan Arabs. Some more of this custom in the notes to the fifth chapter.
d Either by maiming it, or putting it to uses not designed by the Creator. Al Beidâwi supposes the text to intend not only the superstitious amputations of the ears and other parts of cattle, but the castration of slaves, the marking their bodies with figures, by pricking and dyeing them with wood or indigo (as the Arabs did and still do), the sharpening their teeth by filing; and also sodomy, and the unnatural amours between those of the female sex, the worship of the sun, moon, and other parts of nature, and the like.
e i.e., By leaving the service of GOD, and doing the works of the devil.
|On them is the malison of God. For he said, "A portion of thy servants will I surely take, and will lead them astray, and will stir desires within them, and will command them and they shall cut the ears of animals;25 and I will command them, and they shall alter the creation of God."26 He who taketh Satan rather than God for his patron, is ruined with palpable ruin:||25 In allusion to an idolatrous and superstitious custom of the old Arabians.
26 By the mutilation of slaves, branding their bodies, filing the teeth, etc.
|100||119||4||He maketh them promises, and insinuateth into them vain desires; yet Satan maketh them only deceitful promises.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (1 Tablets and Addresses: Extracts from a Further Epistle to Muhammad Sháh, within pp. 24-29)
|He hath made them promises, and he hath stirred desires within them; but Satan promiseth, only to beguile!|
|100||120||4||The receptacle of these shall be hell, they shall find no refuge from it.||These! their dwelling Hell! no escape shall they find from it!|
|100||121||4||But they who believe, and do good works, we will surely lead them into gardens, through which rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever, according to the true promise of GOD; and who is more true than GOD in what he saith?||But they who believe and do the things that are right, we will bring them into gardens beneath which the rivers flow; For ever shall they abide therein. Truly it is the promise of God: And whose word is more sure than God's?|
|100||122||4||It shall not be according to your desires, nor according to the desires of those who have received the scriptures.f Whoso doth evil shall be rewarded for it; and shall not find any patron or helper, beside GOD;||f That is, the promises of GOD are not to be gained by acting after your own fancies, nor yet after the fancies of the Jews or Christians, but by obeying the commands of GOD. This passage, they say, was revealed on a dispute which arose between those of the three religions, each preferring his own, and condemning the others. Some, however, suppose the persons here spoken to in the second person were not the Mohammedans, but the idolaters.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, Yahya,
|Not according to your wishes, or the wishes of the people of the Book, shall these things be. He who doth evil shall be recompensed for it. Patron or helper, beside God, shall he find none.|
|100||123||4||but whoso doth good works, whether he be male or female, and is a true believer, they shall be admitted into paradise, and shall not in the least be unjustly dealt with.||But whoso doth the things that are right, whether male or female, and he or she a believer,these shall enter Paradise, nor shall they be wronged the skin of a date stone.|
|100||124||4||Who is better in point of religion than he who resigneth himself unto GOD, and is a worker of righteousness, and followeth the law of Abraham the orthodox? since GOD took Abraham for his friend:g||g Therefore the Mohammedans usually call that patriarch, as the scripture also does, Khalîl Allah, the Friend of God, and simply al Khalîl; and they tell the following story: That Abraham in a time of dearth sent to a friend of his in Egypt for a supply of corn; but the friend denied him, saying in his excuse, that though there was a famine in their country also, yet had it been for Abrahams own family, he would have sent what he desired, but he knew he wanted it only to entertain his guests and give away to the poor, according to his usual hospitality. The servants whom Abraham had sent on this message, being ashamed to return empty, to conceal the matter from their neighbours, filled their sacks with fine white sand, which in the east pretty much resembles meal. Abraham being informed by his servants, on their return of their ill success, the concern he was under threw him into a sleep; and in the meantime Sarah, knowing nothing of what had happened, opening one of the sacks, found good flour in it, and immediately set out about making of bread. Abraham awaking and smelling the new bread, asked her whence she had the flour? Why, says she, from your friend in Egypt. Nay, replied the Patriarch, it must have come from no other than my friend GOD Almighty.2
2 Al Beidâwi. See DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 14, and Morgans Mahometism Explained, vol. i. p. 132.
|And who hath a better religion than he who resigneth himself to God, who doth what is good, and followeth the faith of Abraham in all sincerity? And God took Abraham for his friend.|
|100||125||4||and to God belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; GOD comprehendeth all things.||All that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth is God's: and God encompasseth all things!|
|100||126||4||They will consult thee concerning women;h Answer, GOD instructeth you concerning them,i and that which is read unto you in the book of the Koran concerning female orphans, to whom ye give not that which is ordained them, neither will ye marry them,k and concerning weak infants,l and that ye observe justice towards orphans: whatever good ye do, GOD knoweth it.||h i.e., As to the share they are to have in the distribution of the inheritances of their deceased relations; for it seems that the Arabs were not satisfied with Mohammeds decision on this point, against the old customs.
i i.e., He hath already made his will known unto you, by revealing the passages concerning inheritances in the beginning of this chapter.
k Or the words may be rendered in the affirmative, and whom ye desire to marry. For the pagan Arabs used to wrong their female orphans in both instances; obliging them to marry against their inclinations, if they were beautiful or rich; or else not suffering them to marry at all, that they might keep what belonged to them.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
l That is, male children of tender years, to whom the Arabs, in the time of paganism, used to allow no share in the distribution of their parents estate.4
4 See before, p. 54, note c.
|Moreover, they will consult thee in regard to women: SAY: God hath instructed you about them; and His will is rehearsed to you, in the Book, concerning female orphans to whom ye give not their legal due, and whom ye refuse to marry; also with regard to weak children; and that ye deal with fairness towards orphans. Ye cannot do a good action, but verily God knoweth it.|
|100||127||4||If a woman fear ill usage, or aversion from her husband, it shall be no crime in them if they agree the matter amicably between themselves;m for a reconciliation is better than a separation. Men's souls are naturally inclined to covetousness:n but if ye be kind towards women, and fear to wrong them, GOD is well acquainted with what ye do.||m By the wifes remitting part of her dower or other dues.
n So that the woman, on the one side, is unwilling to part with any of her right; and the husband, on the other, cares not to retain one he has no affection for; or, if he should retain her, she can scarce expect he will use her in all respects as he ought.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And if a wife fear ill usage or aversion on the part of her husband, then shall it be no fault in them if they can agree with mutual agreement, for agreement is best. Men's souls are prone to avarice; but if ye act kindly and fear God, then, verily, your actions are not unnoticed by God!|
|100||128||4||Ye can by no means carry yourselves equally between women in all respects, although ye study to do it; therefore turn not from a wife with all manner of aversion,o nor leave her like one in suspense:p if ye agree, and fear to abuse your wives, GOD is gracious and merciful;||o i.e., Though you cannot use her equally well with a beloved wife, yet observe some measures of justice towards her; for if a man is not able perfectly to perform his duty, he ought not, for that reason, entirely to neglect it.2
p Or like one that neither has a husband, nor is divorced, and at liberty to marry elsewhere.
|And ye will not have it at all in your power to treat your wives alike, even though you fain would do so; but yield not wholly to disinclination, so that ye leave one of them as it were in suspense; if ye come to an understanding, and fear God, then, verily, God is Forgiving, Merciful;|
|100||129||4||but if they separate, GOD will satisfy them both of his abundance;q for GOD is extensive and wise,||q That is, either will bless them with a better and more advantageous match, or with peace and tranquility of mind.3
|The Seven Valleys (Valley of Contentment, within pp. 29-31)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (KALÍMÁT-I-FIRDAWSÍYYIH (Words of Paradise), within pp. 55-80)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 72, paragraph 105
|MG: God will compensate each one out of His abundance."
BWC: On that day God will satisfy everyone out of His abundance,
BWC: whereon God shall enrich all through His abundance
|But if they separate, God can compensate both out of His abundance; for God is Vast, Wise;|
|100||130||4||and unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth. We have already commanded those unto whom the scriptures were given before you, and we command you also, saying, Fear GOD; but if ye disbelieve, unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is self-sufficient,r and to be praised;||r Wanting the service of no creature.||And whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth is God's! We have already enjoined those to whom the Scriptures were given before you, and yourselves, to fear God. But if ye become unbelievers, yet know that whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth is God's: and God is Rich, Praiseworthy.|
|100||131||4||for unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and GOD is a sufficient protector.||All that is in Heaven and all that is in Earth is God's! God is a sufficient protector!|
|100||132||4||If he pleaseth he will take you away, O men, and will produce others in your stead;s for GOD is able to do this.||s i.e., Either another race of men or a different species of creatures.||If he pleased, he could cause you to pass away, O mankind! and create others in your stead: for this hath God power.|
|100||133||4||Whoso desireth the reward of this world, verily with GOD is the reward of this world, and also of that which is to come; GOD both heareth and seeth.||If any one desire the reward of this world, yet with God is the reward of this world and of the next! And God Heareth, Beholdeth.|
|100||134||4||O true believers, observe justice when ye bear witness before GOD, although it be against yourselves, or your parents, or relations; whether the party be rich, or whether he be poor; for GOD is more worthy than them both: therefore follow not your own lust in bearing testimony so that ye swerve from justice. And whether ye wrest your evidence, or decline giving it, GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.||O ye who believe! stand fast to justice, when ye bear witness before God, though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kindred, whether the party be rich or poor. God is nearer than you to both. Therefore follow not passion, lest ye swerve from truth. And if ye wrest your testimony or stand aloof, God verily is well aware of what ye do.|
|100||135||4||O true believers, believe in GOD and his apostle, and the book which he hath caused to descend unto his apostle, and the book which he hath formerly sent down.t And whosoever believeth not in GOD, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his apostles, and the last day, he surely erreth in a wide mistake.||t It is said that Abdallah Ebn Salâm and his companions told Mohammed that they believed in him, and his Korân, and in Moses, and the Pentateuch, and in Ezra, but no farther; whereupon this passage was revealed, declaring that a partial faith is little better than none at all, and that a true believer must believe in all GODS prophets and revelations without exception.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|O ye who believe! believe in God and his Apostle, and the Book which he hath sent down to his Apostle, and the Book which he hath sent down aforetime. Whoever believeth not on God and his Angels and his Books and his Apostles, and in the last day, he verily hath erred with far-gone error.|
|100||136||4||Moreover they who believed, and afterwards became infidels, and then believed again, and after that disbelieved, and increased in infidelity,u GOD will by no means forgive them, nor direct them into the right way.||u These were the Jews, who first believed in Moses, and afterwards fell into idolatry by worshiping the golden calf; and though they repented of that, yet in after ages rejected the prophets who were sent to them, and particularly Jesus, the son of Mary, and now filled up the measure of their unbelief by rejecting of Mohammed.5
|Verily, they who believed, then became unbelievers, then believed, and again became unbelievers, and then increased their unbeliefit is not God who will forgive them or guide them into the way.|
|100||137||4||Declare unto the ungodlyx that they shall suffer a painful punishment.||x Mohammed here means those who hypocritically pretended to believe in him but really did not, and by their treachery did great mischief to his party.1
|Announce27 to the hypocrites that a dolorous torment doth await them.||27 See Sura lxxxiv. 24, p. 47, note.|
|100||138||4||They who take the unbelievers for their protectors, besides the faithful, do they seek for power with them? since all power belongeth unto GOD.||Those who take the unbelievers for friends besides the faithfuldo they seek honour at their hands? Verily, all honour belongeth unto God!|
|100||139||4||And he hath already revealed unto you, in the book of the Korân,y the following passageWhen ye shall hear the signs of GOD, they shall not be believed, but they shall be laughed to scorn. Therefore sit not with them who believe not, until they engage in different discourse; for if ye do ye will certainly become like unto them. GOD will surely gather the ungodly and the unbelievers together in hell.||y Cap. 6.||And already hath He sent this down to you in the Book28 "WHEN YE SHALL HEAR THE SIGNS OF GOD THEY SHALL NOT BE BELIEVED BUT SHALL BE MOCKED AT." Sit ye not therefore with such, until they engage in other discourse; otherwise, ye will become like them. Verily God will gather the hypocrites and the infidels all together in Hell.||28 Sura vi.|
|100||140||4||They who wait to observe what befalleth you, if victory be granted you from GOD, say, Were we not with you?z But if any advantage happen to the infidels, they say unto them, Were we not superior to you,a and have we not defended you against the believers? GOD shall judge between you on the day of resurrection: and GOD will not grant the unbelievers means to prevail over the faithful.||z i.e., Did we not assist you? Therefore give us part of the spoil.2
a Would not our army have cut you off if it had not been for our faint assistance, or rather desertion, of the Moslems, and our disheartening them?3
|They watch you narrowly. Then if God grant you a victory, they say, "Are we not with you?" and if the infidels meet with a success, they say to them, "Were we not superior to you: and did we not defend you from those believers?" God shall judge betwixt ye on the day of the resurrection, and God will by no means make a way for the infidels over the believers.|
|100||141||4||The hypocrites act deceitfully with GOD, but he will deceive them; and when they stand up to pray, they stand carelessly, affecting to be seen of men, and remember not GOD, unless a little,b||b That is, with the tongue, and not with the heart.||The hypocrites would deceive God, but He will deceive them! When they stand up for prayer, they stand carelessly, to be seen of men, and they remember God but little:|
|100||142||4||wavering between faith and infidelity, and adhering neither unto these nor unto those:c and for him whom GOD shall lead astray thou shalt find no true path.||c Halting between two opinions, and being staunch friends neither to the Moslems nor the infidels.||Wavering between the one and the otherbelonging neither to these nor those! and by no means shalt thou find a path for him whom God misleadeth.|
|100||143||4||O true believers, take not the unbelievers for your protectors besides the faithful. Will ye furnish GOD with an evident argument of impiety against you?||O believers! take not infidels for friends rather than believers. Would ye furnish God with clear right to punish you?|
|100||144||4||Moreover the hypocrites shall be in the lowest bottom of hell fire,d and thou shalt not find any to help them thence.||d See the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.||Verily the hypocrites shall be in the lowest abyss of the fire: and, by no means shalt thou find a helper for them;|
|100||145||4||But they who repent and amend, and adhere firmly unto GOD, and approve the sincerity of their religion to GOD, they shall be numbered with the faithful; and GOD will surely give the faithful a great reward.||Save for those who turn and amend, and lay fast hold on God, and approve the sincerity of their religion to God; these shall be numbered with the faithful, and God will at last bestow on the faithful a great reward.|
|100||146||4||And how should GOD go about to punish you, if ye be thankful and believe? for GOD is grateful and wise.||Why should God inflict a chastisement upon you, if ye are grateful, and believe? God is Grateful, Wise!|
|100||147||4||(VI.) GOD loveth not the speaking ill of any one in public, unless he who is injured call for assistance; and GOD heareth and knoweth:||God loveth not that evil be matter of public talk, unless any one hath been wronged: God it is who Heareth, Knoweth!|
|100||148||4||whether ye publish a good action, or conceal it, or forgive evil, verily GOD is gracious and powerful.||Whether ye publish what is good, or conceal it, or pardon evil, verily God is Pardoning, Powerful!|
|100||149||4||They who believe not in GOD, and his apostles, and would make a distinction between GOD and his apostles,e and say, We believe in some of the prophets and reject others of them, and seek to take a middle way in this matter;||e See c. 2, p. 31, note h.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXI, within pp. 60-61)
|BWC: seek to separate God from His Remembrance||Of a truth they who believe not on God and his Apostles, and seek to separate God from his Apostles, and say, "Some we believe, and some we believe not," and desire to take a middle way;|
|100||150||4||these are really unbelievers: and we have prepared for the unbelievers an ignominious punishment.||These! they are veritable infidels! and for the infidels have we prepared a shameful punishment.|
|100||151||4||But they who believe in GOD and his apostles, and make no distinction between any of them, unto those will we surely give their reward; and GOD is gracious and merciful.||And they who believe on God and his Apostles, and make no difference between them these! we will bestow on them their reward at last. God is Gracious, Merciful!|
|100||152||4||They who have received the scripturesf will demand of thee, that thou cause a book to descend unto them from heaven: they formerly asked of Moses a greater thing than this: for they said, Show us GOD visibly.g Wherefore a storm of fire from heaven destroyed them, because of their iniquity. Then they took the calf for their God,h after that evident proofs of the divine unity had come unto them: but we forgave them that, and gave Moses a manifest power to punish them.i||f That is, the Jews; who demanded of Mohammed, as a proof of his mission, that they might see a book of revelations descend to him from heaven, or that he would produce one written in a celestial character, like the two tables of Moses.
g See chapter 2, p. 6.
This story seems to be an addition to what Moses says of the seventy elders, who went up to the mountain with him, and with Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and saw the GOD of Israel.1
1 Exod. xxiv. 9, 10, 11.
h See chapter 2, p. 6.
i See ibid. p. 6, note m.
|The people of the Book will ask of thee to cause a Book to come down unto them out of Heaven. But a greater thing than this did they ask of Moses! for they said, "Shew us God plainly!" and for this their wickedness did the fire-storm lay hold on them. Then took they the calf as the object of their worship, after that our clear tokens had come to them; but we forgave them this, and conferred on Moses undoubted power.|
|100||153||4||And we lifted the mountain of Sinai over them,k when we exacted from them their covenant; and said unto them, Enter the gate of the city worshipping.l We also said unto them, Transgress not on the Sabbath-day. And we received from them a firm covenant, that they would observe these things.||k See ibid. p. 8.
l See ibid. p. 7.
|And we uplifted the mountain 29 over them when we made a covenant with them, and we said to them, "Enter the gate adoring:"and we said to them, "Transgress not on the Sabbath," and we received from them a strict covenant.||29 See Sura [xci.] ii.7.|
|100||154||4||Therefore for thatm they have made void their covenant, and have not believed in the signs of GOD, and have slain the prophets unjustly, and have said, Our hearts are circumcised; (but GOD hath sealed them up, because of their unbelief; therefore they shall not believe, except a few of them:)||m There being nothing in the following words of this sentence, to answer to the causal for that, Jallaloddin supposes something to be understood to complete the sense, as therefore we have cursed them, or the like.||So, for that they have broken their covenant, and have rejected the signs of God, and have put the prophets to death unjustly, saying the while, "Our hearts are uncircumcised,"Nay, but God hath sealed them up for their unbelief, so that but few believe.|
|100||155||4||and for that they have not believed in Jesus, and have spoken against Mary a grievous calumny;n||n By accusing her of fornication.2
2 See the Kor. c. 19, and that virulent book entitled Toldoth Jesu.
|And for their unbelief,and for their having spoken against Mary a grievous calumny,|
|100||156||4||and have said, Verily we have slain Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the apostle of GOD; yet they slew him not, neither crucified him, but he was represented by one in his likeness;o and verily they who disagreed concerning himp were in a doubt as to this matter, and had no sure knowledge thereof, but followed only an uncertain opinion. They did not really kill him; but GOD took him up unto himself: and GOD is mighty and wise.||o See chapter 3, p. 38, and the notes there.
p For some maintained that he was justly and really crucified; some insisted that it was not Jesus who suffered, but another who resembled him in the face, pretending the other parts of his body, by their unlikeness, plainly discovered the imposition; some said he was taken up into heaven; and others, that his manhood only suffered, and that his godhead ascended into heaven.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|Letter on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer, March 19, 1938 (quoted in Lights of Guidance, no. 1669, p. 498)||And for their saying, "Verily we have slain the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, an Apostle of God." Yet they slew him not, and they crucified him not, but they had only his likeness.30 And they who differed about him were in doubt concerning him: No sure knowledge had they about him, but followed only an opinion, and they did not really slay him, but God took him up to Himself. And God is Mighty, Wise!||30 Lit. one was made to appear to them like (Jesus). Comp. [xcvii.] iii.48. Photius, Bibl. Cod. cxiv.says that the Apocr. Book, [Greek text]This individual according to the Basilidans was-Simon of Cyrene; according to the Evang. Barnab, Judas.Mani, Ep. Fund. ap. Evodium: "Princeps itaque tenebrarum cruci est affixus, idemque coronam spineam portavit."|
|100||157||4||And there shall not be one of those who have received the scriptures, who shall not believe in him, before his death;q and on the day of resurrection he shall be a witness against them.r||q This passage is expounded two ways.
Some, referring the relative his, to the first antecedent, take the meaning to be, that no Jew or Christian shall die before he believes in Jesus: for they say, that when one of either of those religions is ready to breathe his last, and sees the angel of death before him, he shall then believe in that prophet as he ought, though his faith will not then be of any avail. According to a tradition of Hejâj, when a Jew is expiring, the angels will strike him on the back and face, and say to him, O thou enemy of GOD, Jesus was sent as a prophet unto thee, and thou didst not believe on him; to which he will answer, I now believe him to be the servant of GOD; and to a dying Christian they will say, Jesus was sent as a prophet unto thee, and thou hast imagined him to be GOD, or the son of GOD; whereupon he will believe him to be the servant of GOD only, and his apostle.
Others, taking the above-mentioned relative to refer to Jesus, suppose the intent of the passage to be, that all Jews and Christians in general shall have a right faith in that prophet before his death, that is, when he descends from heaven and returns into the world, where he is to kill Antichrist, and to establish the Mohammedan religion, and a most perfect tranquility and security on earth.1
1 Jallaloddin, Yahya, al Zamakhshari, and al Beidâwi. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
r i.e., Against the Jews, for rejecting him; and against the Christians, for calling him GOD, and the son of GOD.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|There shall not be one of the people of the Book but shall believe in Him before his death, and in the day of resurrection, He will be a witness against them.|
|100||158||4||Because of the iniquity of those who Judaize, we have forbidden them good things, which had been formerly allowed them;s||s See chapter 3, p. 38 and 42, and the notes there.||For the wickedness of certain Jews, and because they turn many from the way of God, we have forbidden them goodly viands which had been before allowed them.|
|100||159||4||and because they shut out many from the way of GOD, and have taken usury, which was forbidden them by the law, and devoured men's substance vainly: we have prepared for such of them as are unbelievers a painful punishment.||And because they have taken usury, though they were forbidden it, and have devoured men's substance in frivolity, we have got ready for the infidels among them a grievous torment.|
|100||160||4||But those among them who are well grounded in knowledge,t and the faithful, who believe in that which hath been sent down unto thee, and that which hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee, and who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, and believe in GOD and the last day unto these will we give a great reward.||t As Abdallah Ebn Salâm, and his companions.3
|But their men of solid knowledge, and the believers who believe in that which hath been sent down to thee, and in what hath been sent down before thee, and who observe prayer, and pay the alms of obligation, and believe in God and the latter day,these! we will give them a great reward.|
|100||161||4||Verily we have revealed our will unto thee, as we have revealed it unto Noah and the prophets who succeeded him; and as we revealed it unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and unto Jesus, and Job, and Jonas, and Aaron, and Solomon; and we have given thee the Koran, as we gave the psalms unto David:||Verily we have revealed to thee as we revealed to Noah and the Prophets after him, and as we revealed to Abraham, and Ismaël, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and Jesus, and Job, and Jonah, and Aaron, and Solomon; and to David gave we Psalms.|
|100||162||4||some apostles have we sent, whom we have formerly mentioned unto thee; and other apostles have we sent, whom we have not mentioned unto thee; and GOD spake unto Moses, discoursing with him;||Of some apostles we have told thee before: of other apostles we have not told theeAnd discoursing did God discourse with Moses|
|100||163||4||apostles declaring good tidings, and denouncing threats, lest men should have an argument of excuse against GOD, after the apostles had been sent unto them; GOD is mighty and wise.||Apostles charged to announce and to warn, that men, after those apostles, might have no plea against God. And God is Mighty, Wise!|
|100||164||4||GOD is witness of that revelation which he hath sent down unto thee; he sent it down with his special knowledge: the angels also are witnesses thereof; but GOD is a sufficient witness.||But God is himself witness of what He hath sent down to thee: In His knowledge hath He sent it down to thee. The angels are also its witnesses: but God is a sufficient witness!|
|100||165||4||They who believe not, and turn aside others from the way of GOD, have erred in a wide mistake.||Verily, they who believe not and pervert from the way of God, have indeed erred with error wide of truth.|
|100||166||4||Verily those who believe not, and act unjustly, GOD will by no means forgive, neither will he direct them into any other way,||Verily, those who believe not, and act wrongfully, God will never pardon, and never will he guide them on path,|
|100||167||4||than the way of hell; they shall remain therein forever: and this is easy with GOD.||Than the path to Hell, in which they shall abide for ever! And this is easy for God.|
|100||168||4||O men, now is the apostle come unto you, with truth from your LORD; believe therefore, it will be better for you. But if ye disbelieve, verily unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is knowing and wise.||O men! now hath an apostle come to you with truth from your Lord. Believe then, it will be better for you. But if ye believe not, then, all that is in the Heavens and the Earth is God's; and God is Knowing, Wise!|
|100||169||4||O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,u neither say of GOD any other than the truth. Verily Christ Jesus the son of Mary is the apostle of GOD, and his Word, which he conveyed into Mary, and a spirit proceeding from him. Believe therefore in GOD, and his apostles, and say not, There are three Gods;x forbear this; it will be better for you. GOD is but one GOD. Far be it from him that he should have a son! unto him belongeth whatever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is a sufficient protector.||u Either by rejecting and contemning of Jesus as the Jews do; or raising him to an equality with GOD, as do the Christians.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
x Namely, God, Jesus, and Mary.1 For the eastern writers mention a sect of Christians which held the Trinity to be composed of those three;2 but it is allowed that this heresy has been long since extinct.3 The passage, however, is equally levelled against the Holy Trinity, according to the doctrine of the orthodox Christians, who, as al Beidâwi acknowledges, believe the divine nature to consist of three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; by the Father understanding GODS essence; by the Son his knowledge, and by the Holy Ghost his life.
1 Idem, Jallaloddin, Yahya.
2 Elmacin. p. 227. Eutych. p. 120. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II
3 Ahmed Ebn Abdal Halim.
|Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXI, within pp. 60-61)
|BWC: Word which We communicated unto Mary||O ye people of the Book! overstep not bounds in your religion;31 and of God, speak only truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is only an apostle of God, and his Word which he conveyed into Mary, and a Spirit32 proceeding from himself. Believe therefore in God and his apostles, and say not, "Three:" (there is a Trinity)Forbearit will be better for you. God is only one God! Far be it from His glory that He should have a son! His, whatever is in the Heavens, and whatever is in the Earth! And God is a sufficient Guardian.||31 By believing too much, like the Christians who regarded Jesus as God; or too little, like the Jews who would not believe on Muhammad.
32 That is, a Being possessing a Spirit.
|100||170||4||Christ doth not proudly disdain to be a servant unto GOD; neither the angels who approach near to his presence:||The Messiah disdaineth not to be a servant of God, nor do the angels who are nigh unto Him.|
|100||171||4||and whoso disdaineth his service, and is puffed up with pride, God will gather them all to himself, on the last day.||And whoso disdaineth His service, and is filled with pride, God will gather them all to Himself.|
|100||172||4||Unto those who believe, and do that which is right, he shall give their rewards, and shall superabundantly add unto them of his liberality: but those who are disdainful and proud, he will punish with a grievous punishment;||And to those who believe and do the things that are right, will He pay them their due recompense, and out of His bounty will He increase them: but as for those who are disdainful and proud, with a grievous chastisement will He chastise them;|
|100||173||4||and they shall not find any to protect or to help them, besides GOD.||And none beside God shall they find to protect or to help them.|
|100||174||4||O men, now is an evident proof come unto you from your LORD, and we have sent down unto you manifest light.y They who believe in GOD and firmly adhere to him, he will lead them into mercy from him, and abundance; and he will direct them in the right way to himself.z||y That is, Mohammed and his Korân.
z viz., Into the religion of Islâm, in this world, and the way to paradise in the next.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|O men! now hath a proof come to you from your Lord, and we have sent down to you a clear light. As to those who believe in God and lay fast hold on Him, these will He cause to enter into his mercy and grace, and along the straight way unto Himself will He guide them.|
|100||175||4||They will consult thee for thy decision in certain cases; say unto them, GOD giveth you these determinations, concerning the more remote degrees of kindred.a If a man die without issue, and have a sister, she shall have the half of what he shall leave:b and he shall be heir to her,c in case she have no issue. But if there be two sisters they shall have between them two third parts of what he shall leave; and if there be several, both brothers and sisters, a male shall have as much as the portion of two females. GOD declareth unto you these precepts, lest ye err: and GOD knoweth all things.||a See the beginning of this chapter, p. 53.
b And the other half will go to the public treasury.
c That is, he shall inherit her whole substance.
|Memorials of the Faithful (Mirzá Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
|They will consult thee. SAY: God instructeth you as to distant kindred. If a man die childless, but have a sister, half what he shall have shall be her's; and if she die childless he shall be her heir. But if there be two sisters, two-third parts of what he shall have shall be theirs; and if there be both brothers and sisters, the male shall have the portion of two females. God teacheth you plainly, that ye err not! God knoweth all things.|