|Rodwell Suráh #||Verse #||Traditional Suráh #||Sale Translation||Sale's Notes||Bahá'í References (Central Figures)||Bahá'í Translation (Shoghi Effendi unless otherwise noted)||Bahá'í References (Special)||Rodwell Translation||Rodwell's notes|
|84||0||10||CHAPTER X.||SURA X.JONAH, PEACE BE ON HIM! [LXXXIV.]|
|84||0||10||ENTITLED, JONAS;r REVEALED AT MECCA.||r This prophet is mentioned towards the end of the chapter.||MECCA.109 Verses|
|84||0||10||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|84||1||10||AL. R.s These are the signs of the wise book.||s See the Prelim. Disc. Sec. III. p. 46, 47.||ELIF. LAM. RA.1 These are the signs of the wise Book!||1 See Sura 1xviii. n. 3, p. 32.|
|84||2||10||Is it a strange thing unto the men of Mecca, that we have revealed our will unto a man from among them,t saying, Denounce threats unto men if they believe not; and bear good tidings unto those who believe, that on the merit of their sincerity they have an interest with their LORD? The unbelievers say, This is manifest sorcery.u||t And not one of the most powerful among them neither; so that the Koreish said it was a wonder GOD could find out no other messenger than the orphan pupil of Abu Taleb.2
u Meaning the Korân. According to the reading of some copies, the words may be rendered, This man (i.e., Mohammed) is no other than a manifest sorcerer.
|A matter of wonderment is it to the men of Mecca, that to a person among themselves We revealed, "Bear warnings to the people: and, to those who believe, bear the good tidings that they shall have with their Lord the precedence merited by their sincerity." The unbelievers say, "Verily this is a manifest sorcerer."|
|84||3||10||Verily your LORD is GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended his throne, to take on himself the government of all things. There is no intercessor, but by his permission.x This is GOD, your LORD; therefore serve him. Will ye not consider?||x These words were revealed to refute the foolish opinion of the idolatrous Meccans, who imagined their idols were intercessors with GOD for them.||Verily your Lord is God who hath made the Heavens and the Earth in six daysthen mounted his throne to rule all things: None can intercede with him till after his permission: This is God your Lord: therefore serve him: Will ye not reflect?|
|84||4||10||Unto him shall ye all return according to the certain promise of GOD; for he produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return again; that he may reward those who believe and do that which is right, with equity. But as for the unbelievers, they shall drink boiling water, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment, for that they have disbelieved.||Unto Him shall ye return, all together: the promise of God is sure: He produceth a creature, then causeth it to return againthat he may reward those who believe and do the things that are right, with equity: but as for the infidels!for them the draught that boileth and an afflictive tormentbecause they have not believed.|
|84||5||10||It is he who hath ordained the sun to shine by day, and the moon for a light by night; and had appointed her stations, that ye might know the number of years, and the computation of time. GOD hath not created this, but with truth. He explaineth his signs unto people who understand.||It is He who hath appointed the sun for brightness, and the moon for a light, and hath ordained her stations that ye may learn the number of years and the reckoning of time. God hath not created all this but for the truth.2 He maketh his signs clear to those who understand.||2 That is, for a serious end, to manifest the Divine Unity.|
|84||6||10||Moreover in the vicissitudes of night and day, and whatever GOD hath created in heaven and earth, are surely signs unto men who fear him.||Verily, in the alternations of night and of day, and in all that God hath created in the Heavens and in the Earth are signs to those who fear Him.|
|84||7||10||Verily they who hope not to meet us at the last day, and delight in this present life, and rest securely in the same, and who are negligent of our signs;||Verily, they who hope not to meet Us, and find their satisfaction in this world's life, and rest on it, and who of our signs are heedless;|
|84||8||10||their dwelling shall be hell fire, for that which they have deserved.||These! their abode the fire, in recompense of their deeds!|
|84||9||10||But as to those who believe, and work righteousness, their LORD will direct them because of their faith; they shall have rivers flowing through gardens of pleasure.||But they who believe and do the things that are right, shall their Lord direct aright because of their faith. Rivers shall flow at their feet in gardens of delight:|
|84||10||10||Their prayer therein shall be Praise be unto thee O GOD! and their salutationy therein shall be Peace!||y Either the mutual salutation of the blessed to one another, or that of the angels to the blessed.||Their cry therein, "Glory be to thee, O God!" and their salutation therein, "Peace!"|
|84||11||10||and the end of their prayer shall be, Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!||And the close of their cry, "Praise be to God, Lord, of all creatures!"|
|84||12||10||If GOD should cause evil to hasten unto men, according to their desire of hastening good, verily their end had been decreed. Wherefore we suffer those who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, to wander amazedly in their error.||Should God hasten evil on men as they fain would hasten their good, then were their end decreed! So leave we those who hope not to meet Us, bewildered in their error.|
|84||13||10||When evil befalleth a man, he prayeth unto us lying on his side, or sitting, or standing:z but when we deliver him from his affliction, he continueth his former course of life, as though he had not called upon us to defend him against the evil which had befallen him. Thus was that which the transgressors committed prepared for them.||z i.e., In all postures, and at all times.||When trouble toucheth a man, he crieth to us, on his side, or sitting, or standing; and when we withdraw his trouble from him, he passeth on as though he had not called on us against the trouble which touched him! Thus are the deeds of transgressors pre-arranged for them.|
|84||14||10||We have formerly destroyed the generations who were before you, O men of Mecca, when they had acted unjustly, and our apostles had come unto them with evident miracles and they would not believe. Thus do we reward the wicked people.||And of old destroyed we generations before you, when they had acted wickedly, and their Apostles had come to them with clear tokens of their mission, and they would not believe:thus reward we the wicked.|
|84||15||10||Afterwards did we cause you to succeed them in the earth; that we might see how ye would act.||Then we caused you to succeed them on the earth, that we might see how ye would act.|
|84||16||10||When our evident signs are recited unto them, they who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, say, Bring a different Koran from this; or make some change therein. Answer, It is not fit for me, that I should change it at my pleasure: I follow that only which is revealed unto me. Verily I fear if I should be disobedient unto my LORD, the punishment of the great day.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXXI, p. 66)
|cf. BWC: I follow only what is revealed unto Me. Verily, I shall fear My Lord on the Day of Separation||But when our clear signs are recited to them, they who look not forward to meet Us, say, "Bring a different Koran from this, or make some change in it." SAY: It is not for me to change it as mine own soul prompteth. I follow only what is revealed to me: verily, I fear, if I rebel against my Lord, the punishment of a great day.|
|84||17||10||Say, If GOD had so pleased, I had not read it unto you, neither had I taught you the same. I have already dwelt among you to the age of forty years,a before I received it. Do ye not therefore understand?||a For so old was Mohammed before he took upon him to be a prophet;1 during which time his fellow-citizens well knew that he had not applied himself to learning of any sort, nor frequented learned men, nor had ever exercised himself in composing verses or orations whereby he might acquire the art of rhetoric, or elegance of speech.2 A flagrant proof, says al Beidâwi, that this book could be taught him by none but God.
1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 33. Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. c. 7.
2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 21, &c.
|SAY: Had God so pleased, I had not recited it to you, neither had I taught it to you. Already have I dwelt among you for years, ere it was revealed to me. Understand ye not?|
|84||18||10||And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD, or accuseth his signs of falsehood? Surely the wicked shall not prosper.||And who is more unjust than he who coineth a lie against God, or treateth his signs as lies? Surely the wicked shall not prosper!|
|84||19||10||They worship besides GOD, that which can neither hurt them or profit them, and they say, These are our intercessors with GOD.b Answer, Will ye tell GOD that which he knoweth not, neither in heaven nor in earth?c Praise be unto him! and far be that from him, which they associate with him!||b See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 12, &c.
c viz., That he hath equals or companions either in heaven or on earth; since he acknowledgeth none.
|And they worship beside God, what cannot hurt or help them; and say, "These are our advocates with God!" SAY: Will ye inform God of aught in the Heavens and in the Earth which he knoweth not? Praise be to Him! High be He exalted above the deities they join with Him!|
|84||20||10||Men were professors of one religion only,d but they dissented therefrom; and if a decree had not previously issued from thy LORD, deferring their punishment, verily the matter had been decided between them, concerning which they disagreed.||d That is to say, the true religion, or Islâm, which was generally professed, as some say, till Abel was murdered, or, as others, till the days of Noah. Some suppose the first ages after the Flood are here intended: others, the state of religion in Arabia, from the time of Abraham to that of Amru Ebn Lohai, the great introducer of idolatry into that country.||Men were of one religion only:3 then they fell to variance: and had not a decree (of respite) previously gone forth from thy Lord, their differences had surely been decided between them!||3 Gen. xi. 1.|
|84||21||10||They say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Verily that which is hidden is known only unto GOD: wait, therefore, the pleasure of God; and I also will wait with you.||They say: "Unless a sign be sent down to him from his Lord. . . ." But SAY: The hidden is only with God: wait therefore: I truly will be with you among those who wait.|
|84||22||10||And when we caused the men of Mecca to taste mercy, after an affliction which had befallen them, behold, they devised a stratagem against our signs.e Say unto them, GOD is more swift in executing a stratagem, than ye. Verily our messengersf write down that which ye deceitfully devise.||e For it is said that they were afflicted with a dearth for seven years, so that they were very near perishing; but no sooner relieved by GODS sending them plenty, than they began again to charge Mohammed with imposture, and to ridicule his revelations.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
f i.e., The guardian angels.
|And when after a trouble which you befallen them,4 we caused this people to taste of mercy, lo! a plot on their part against our signs! SAY: Swifter to plot is God! Verily, our messengers note down your plottings.||4 This refers to the seven years of scarcity with which Mecca had been visited.|
|84||23||10||It is he who hath given you conveniences for travelling by land and by sea; so that ye be in ships, which sail with them, with a favorable wind, and they rejoice therein. And when a tempestuous wind overtaketh them, and waves come upon them from every side, and they think themselves encompassed with inevitable dangers; they call upon GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him,g and saying, Verily if thou deliver us from this peril, we will be of those who give thanks.||g That is, applying themselves to GOD only, and neglecting their idols; their fears directing them in such an extremity to ask help of him only who could give it.||He it is who enableth you to travel by land and sea, so that ye go on board of shipswhich sail on with them, with favouring breeze in which they rejoice. But if a tempestuous gale overtake them, and the billow come on them from every side, and they think that they are encompassed therewith, they call on God, professing sincere religion:"Wouldst thou but rescue us from this, then will we indeed be of the thankful."|
|84||24||10||But when he hath delivered them, behold, they behave themselves insolently in the earth, without justice. O men, verily the violence which ye commit against your own souls, is for the enjoyment of this present life only; afterwards unto us shall ye return, and we will declare unto you that which ye have done.||But when we have rescued them, lo! they commit unrighteous excesses on the earth! O men! assuredly your self-injuring excess is only an enjoyment of this life present: soon ye return to us: and we will let you know what ye have done!|
|84||25||10||Verily the likeness of this present life is no other than as water, which we send down from heaven, and wherewith the productions of the earth are mixed, of which men eat, and cattle also, until the earth receive its vesture, and be adorned with various plants: the inhabitants thereof imagine that they have power over the same; but our command cometh unto it by night, or by day, and we render it as though it had been mowen, as though it had not yesterday abounded with fruits. Thus do we explain our signs unto people who consider.||Verily, this present life is like the water which we send down from Heaven, and the produce of the earth, of which men and cattle eat, is mingled with it, till the earth hath received its golden raiment, and is decked out: and they who dwell on it deem that they have power over it! but, Our behest cometh to it by night or by day, and we make it as if it had been mown, as if it had not teemed only yesterday! Thus make we our signs clear to those who consider.|
|84||26||10||GOD inviteth unto the dwelling of peace,h and directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way.||h viz., Paradise.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 188, p. 174
|And God calleth to the Abode of Peace; and He guideth whom He will into the right way.||And God calleth to the abode of peace;5 and He guideth whom He will into the right way.||5 Paradise.|
|84||27||10||They who do right shall receive a most excellent reward, and a superabundant addition;i neither blacknessk nor shame shall cover their faces. These shall be the inhabitants of paradise; they shall continue therein forever.||i For their reward will vastly exceed the merit of their good works. Al Ghazâli supposes this additional recompense will be the beatific vision.4
4 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 78.
k See the Prelim. Disc. p. 67, &c.
|Goodness6 itself and an increase of it for those who do good! neither blackness nor shame shall cover their faces! These shall be the inmates of Paradise, therein shall they abide for ever.||6 Verses 27, 28 are to be noted, as defining the proportion to be observed in rewards and punishments, the severity of the latter being only in proportion to the crime, the excellence of the former being above and beyond its strict merits.|
|84||28||10||But they who commit evil shall receive the reward of evil, equal thereunto,l and they shall be covered with shame, (for they shall have no protector against GOD); as though their faces were covered with the profound darkness of the night. These shall be the inhabitants of hell fire: they shall remain therein forever.||l i.e., Though the blessed will be rewarded beyond their deserts, yet GOD will not punish any beyond their demerits, but treat them with the exactest justice.||And as for those who have wrought out evil, their recompense shall be evil of like degree, and shame shall cover themno protector shall they have against God: as though their faces were darkened with deep murk of night! These shall be inmates of the fire: therein they shall abide for ever.|
|84||29||10||On the day of the resurrection we will gather them altogether; then will we say unto the idolaters, Get ye to your place, ye and your companions:m and we will separate them from one another; and their companions will say unto them, Ye do not worship us;n||m That is, your idols, or the companions which ye attributed unto GOD.
n But ye really worshipped your own lusts, and were seduced to idolatry, not by us, but by your own superstitious fancies. It is pretended that GOD will, at the last day, enable the idols to speak, and that they will thus reproach their worshippers, instead of interceding for them, as they hoped. Some suppose the angels, who were also objects of the worship of the pagan Arabs, are particularly intended in this place.
|And on that day will we gather them all together: then will we say to those who added gods to God, "To your place, ye and those added gods of yours!" Then we will separate between them: and those their gods shall say, "Ye served us not:7||7 But rather your own lusts. The Muhammadans believe that idols will be gifted with speech at the day of judgment.|
|84||30||10||and GOD is a sufficient witness between us and you; neither did we mind your worshipping of us.||And God is a sufficient witness between us and you: we cared not aught for your worship."|
|84||31||10||There shall every soul experienceo that which it shall have sent before it;p and they shall be brought before GOD their true LORD; and the false deities which they vainly imagined, shall disappear from before them.||o Some copies instead of tablu, read tatiu, i.e., shall follow, or meditate upon.
p See chapter 2, p. 11, note r.
|There shall every soul make proof of what itself shall have sent on before, and they shall be brought back to God, their true lord, and the deities of their own devising shall vanish from them.|
|84||32||10||Say, Who provideth you food from heaven and earth? or who hath the absolute power over the hearing and the sight? and who bringeth forth the living from the dead, and bringeth forth the dead from the living? and who governeth all things? They will surely answer, GOD. Say, Will ye not therefore fear him?||SAY: Who supplieth you from the Heaven and the Earth? Who hath power over hearing and sight? And who bringeth forth the living from the dead, and bringeth forth the dead from the living? And who ruleth all things? They will surely say, "God:" then SAY: "What! will ye not therefore fear him?|
|84||33||10||This is therefore GOD your true LORD: and what remaineth there after truth, except error? How therefore are ye turned aside from the truth?||This God then is your true Lord: and when the truth is gone, what remaineth but error? How then are ye so perverted?|
|84||34||10||Thus is the word of thy LORD verified upon them who do wickedly; that they believe not.||Thus is the word of thy Lord made good on the wicked, that they shall not believe.|
|84||35||10||Say, Is there any of your companions who produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return unto himself? Say, GOD produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return unto himself. How therefore are ye turned aside from his worship?||SAY: Is there any of the gods whom ye add to God who produceth a creature, then causeth it to return to him? SAY: God produceth a creature, then causeth it to return to Him: How therefore are ye turned aside?|
|84||36||10||Say, Is there any of your companions who directeth unto the truth. Say, GOD directeth unto the truth. Whether is he, therefore, who directeth unto the truth, more worthy to be followed; or he who directeth not, unless he be directed? What aileth you therefore, that ye judge as ye do?||SAY: Is there any of the gods ye add to God who guideth into the truth? SAY: God guideth into the truth. Is He then who guideth into the truth the more worthy to be followed, or he who guideth not unless he be himself guided? What then hath befallen you that ye so judge?|
|84||37||10||And the greater part of them follow an uncertain opinion only; but a mere opinion attaineth not unto any truth. Verily GOD knoweth that which they do.||And most of them follow only a conceit:But a conceit attaineth to nought of truth! Verily God knoweth what they say.|
|84||38||10||This Koran could not have been composed by any except GOD; but it is a confirmation of that which was revealed before it, and an explanation of the scripture; there is no doubt thereof; sent down from the LORD of all creatures.||Moreover this Koran could not have been devised by any but God: but it confirmeth what was revealed before it, and is a clearing up of the Scripturesthere is no doubt thereoffrom the Lord of all creatures.|
|84||39||10||Will they say, Mohammed hath forged it? Answer, Bring therefore a chapter like unto it; and call whom you may to your assistance, besides GOD, if ye speak truth.||Do they say, "He hath devised it himself?" SAY: Then bring a Sura like it; and call on whom ye can beside God, if ye speak truth.|
|84||40||10||But they have charged that with falsehood, the knowledge whereof they do not comprehend, neither hath the interpretation thereof come unto them. In the same manner did those who were before them accuse their prophets of imposture; but behold, what was the end of the unjust!||But that which they embrace not in their knowledge have they charged with falsehood, though the explanation of it had not yet been given them. So those who were before them brought charges of imposture: But see what was the end of the unjust!|
|84||41||10||There are some of them who believe therein; and there are some of them who believe not therein:q and thy LORD well knoweth the corrupt doers.||q i.e., There are some of them who are inwardly well satisfied of the truth of thy doctrine, though they are so wicked as to oppose it; and there are others of them who believe it not, through prejudice and want of consideration. Or the passage may be understood in the future tense, of some who should afterwards believe, and repent, and of others who should die infidels.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And some of them believe in it, and some of them believe not in it. But thy Lord well knoweth the transgressors.|
|84||42||10||If they accuse thee of imposture, say, I have my work, and ye have your work; ye shall be clear of that which I do, and I will be clear of that which ye do.||And if they charge thee with imposture, then SAY: My work for me, and your work for you! Ye are clear of that which I do, and I am clear of that which ye do.|
|84||43||10||There are some of them who hearken unto thee; but wilt thou make the deaf to hear, although they do not understand?||And some of them lend a ready ear to thee: But wilt thou make the deaf to hear even though they understand not?|
|84||44||10||And there are some of them who look at thee; but wilt thou direct the blind, although they see not?r||r These words were revealed on account of certain Meccans, who seemed to attend while Mohammed read the Korân to them, or instructed them in any point of religion, but yet were as far from being convinced or edified, as if they had not heard him at all.2
2 Idem. See cap. 6, p. 90.
|And some of them look at thee: But wilt thou guide the blind even though they see not?|
|84||45||10||Verily GOD will not deal unjustly with men in any respect: but men deal unjustly with their own souls.s||s For GOD deprives them not of their senses or understanding; but they corrupt and make an ill use of them.||Verily, God will not wrong men in aught, but men will wrong themselves.|
|84||46||10||On a certain day he will gather them together, as though they had not tarriedt above an hour of a day: they shall know one another.u Then shall they perish who have denied the meeting of GOD; and were not rightly directed.||t Either in the world or in the grave.
u As if it were but a little while since they parted. But this will happen during the first moments only of the resurrection; for afterwards the terror of the day will disturb and take from them all knowledge of one another.3
|Moreover, on that day, He will gather them all together: They shall seem as though they had waited but an hour of the day! They shall recognise one another! Now perish they who denied the meeting with God, and were not guided aright!|
|84||47||10||Whether we cause thee to see a part of the punishment wherewith we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before thou see it; unto us shall they return: then shall GOD be witness of that which they do.||Whether we cause thee to see some of our menaces against them fulfilled, or whether we first take thee to Ourself,8 to us do they return. Then shall God bear witness of what they do.||8 The ordinary Arabic word for to die seems to be avoided in speaking of Jesus and Muhammad.|
|84||48||10||Unto every nation hath an apostle been sent; and when their apostle came, the matter was decided between them with equity;x and they were not treated unjustly.||x By delivering the prophet and those who believed on him, and destroying the obstinate infidels.||And every people hath had its apostle.9 And when their apostle came, a rightful decision took place between them, and they were not wronged.||9 This is the doctrine of the Rabbins. Comp. Midrasch Rabba, and Midr. Jalkut on Numb. xxii. 2.|
|84||49||10||The unbelievers say, When will this threatening be made good, if ye speak truth?||Yet they say, "When will this menace be made good? Tell us if ye speak truly."|
|84||50||10||Answer, I am able neither to procure advantage unto myself, nor to avert mischief from me, but as GOD pleaseth. Unto every nation is a fixed term decreed; when their term therefore is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, neither shall their punishment be anticipated.||SAY: I have no power over my own weal or woe, but as God pleaseth. Every people hath its time: when their time is come, they shall neither retard nor advance it an hour.|
|84||51||10||Say, Tell me, if the punishment of GOD overtake you by night, or by day, what part thereof will the ungodly wish to be hastened?||SAY: How think ye? if God's punishment came on you by night or by day, what portion of it would the wicked desire to hasten on?|
|84||52||10||When it falleth on you, do ye then believe it? Now do ye believe, and wish it far from you, when as ye formerly desired it should be hastened?||When it falleth on you, will ye believe it then? Yes! ye will believe it then. Yet did ye challenge its speedy coming.|
|84||53||10||Then shall it be said unto the wicked, Taste the punishment of eternity; would ye receive other than the reward of that which ye have wrought?||Then shall it be said to the transgressors, "Taste ye the punishment of eternity! Shall ye be rewarded but as ye have wrought?"|
|84||54||10||They will desire to know of thee, whether this be true. Answer, Yea, by my LORD, it is certainly true; neither shall ye weaken God's power so as to escape it.||They will desire thee to inform them whether this be true? SAY: Yes! by my Lord it is the truth: and it is not ye who can weaken Him.|
|84||55||10||Verily, if every soul which hath acted wickedly had whatever is on the earth, it would willingly redeem itself therewith at the last day. Yet they will conceal their repentance,y after they shall have seen the punishment; and the matter shall be decided between them with equity, and they shall not be unjustly treated.||y To hide their shame and regret;4 or because their surprise and astonishment will deprive them of the use of speech.5 Some, however, understand the verb which is here rendered will conceal, in the contrary signification, which it sometimes bears; and then it must be translatedThey will openly declare their repentance, &c.
5 Al Beidâwi.
|And every soul that hath sinned, if it possessed all that is on earth, would assuredly ransom itself therewith; and they will proclaim their repentance when they have seen the punishment: and there shall be a rightful decision between them, and they shall not be unjustly dealt with.|
|84||56||10||Doth not whatsoever is in heaven and on earth belong unto GOD? Is not the promise of GOD true? But the greater part of them know it not.||Is not whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth God's? Is not then the promise of God true? Yet most of them know it not.|
|84||57||10||He giveth life, and he causeth to die: and unto him shall ye all return.||He maketh alive and He causeth to die, and to Him shall ye return.|
|84||58||10||O men, now hath an admonition come unto you from your LORD, and a remedy for the doubts which are in your breasts; and a direction, and mercy unto the true believers.||O men! now hath a warning come to you from your Lord, and a medicine for what is in your breasts, and a guidance and a mercy to believers.|
|84||59||10||Say, Through the grace of GOD, and his mercy; therein therefore let them rejoice; this will be better than what they heap together of worldly riches.||SAY: Through the grace of God and his mercy! and in this therefore let them rejoice: better is this than all ye amass.|
|84||60||10||Say, Tell me; of that which GOD hath sent down unto you for food, have ye declared part to be lawful,z and other part to be unlawful? Say, Hath GOD permitted you to make this distinction? or do ye devise a lie concerning GOD?||z See chapter 6, p. 101, &c.||SAY: What think ye? of what God hath sent down to you for food, have ye made unlawful and lawful? SAY: Hath God permitted you? or invent ye on the part of God?|
|84||61||10||But what will be the opinion of those who devise a lie concerning GOD, on the day of the resurrection? Verily GOD is endued with beneficence towards mankind; but the greater part of them do not give thanks.||But what on the day of Resurrection will be the thought of those who invent a lie on the part of God? Truly God is full of bounties to man; but most of them give not thanks.|
|84||62||10||Thou shalt be engaged in no business, neither shalt thou be employed in meditating on any passage of the Koran; nor shall ye do any action, but we will be witnesses over you, when ye are employed therein. Nor is so much as the weight of an anta hidden from thy LORD, in earth or in heaven: neither is there anything lesser than that, or greater, but it is written in the perspicuous book.b||a See chapter 4, p. 58, note y.
b The preserved table, wherein GODS decrees are recorded.
|Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 68, paragraph 96
|Naught in the heavens or on the earth can escape His knowledge, and He, verily, perceiveth all things.||Thou shalt not be employed in affairs, nor shalt thou read a text out of the Koran, nor shall ye work any work, but we will be witnesses over you when ye are engaged therein: and not the weight of an atom on Earth or in Heaven escapeth thy Lord; nor is there aught that is less than this or greater, but it is in the perspicuous Book.|
|84||63||10||Are not the friends of GOD the persons on whom no fear shall come, and who shall not be grieved?||Are not the friends of God, those on whom no fear shall come, nor shall they be put to grief?|
|84||64||10||They who believe and fear God||They who believe and fear God|
|84||65||10||shall receive good tidings in this life, and in that which is to come. There is no change in the words of GOD. This shall be great felicity.||For them are good tidings in this life, and in the next! There is no change in the words of God! This, the great felicity!|
|84||66||10||Let not their discoursec grieve thee; for all might belongeth unto GOD: he both heareth and knoweth.||c The impious and rebellious talk of the infidels.||And let not their discourse grieve thee: for all might is God's: the Hearer, the Knower, He!|
|84||67||10||Is not whoever dwelleth in heaven and on earth subject unto GOD? What therefore do they follow, who invoke idols, besides GOD? They follow nothing but a vain opinion; and they only utter lies.||Is not whoever is in the Heavens and the Earth subject to God? What then do they follow who, beside God, call upon deities they have joined with Him? They follow but a conceit, and they are but liars!|
|84||68||10||It is he who hath ordained the night for you, that ye may take your rest therein, and the clear day for labor: verily herein are signs unto people who hearken.||It is He who hath ordained for you the night wherein to rest, and the lightsome day. Verily in this are signs for those who hearken.|
|84||69||10||They say, GOD hath begotten children; GOD forbid! He is self-sufficient. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: ye have no demonstrative proof of this. Do ye speak of GOD that which ye know not?||They say, "God hath begotten children." No! by his glory! He is the self-sufficient. All that is in the Heavens and all that is in the Earth is His! Have ye warranty for that assertion? What! speak ye of God that which ye know not?|
|84||70||10||Say, Verily they who imagine a lie concerning GOD shall not prosper.||SAY: Verily, they who devise this lie concerning God shall fare ill.|
|84||71||10||They may enjoy a provision in this world; but afterwards unto us shall they return, and we will then cause them to taste a grievous punishment, for that they were unbelievers.||A portion have they in this world! Then to us they return! Then make we them to taste the vehement torment, for that they were unbelievers.|
|84||72||10||Rehearse unto them the history of Noah:d when he said unto his people, O my people, if my standing forth among you, and my warning you of the signs of GOD, be grievous unto you; in GOD do I put my trust. Therefore lay your design against me, and assemble your false gods; but let not your design be carried on by you in the dark: then come forth against me, and delay not.||d See chapter 7, p. 110, &c.||Recite to them the history of Noah,10 when he said to his people,If, O my people! my abode with you, and my reminding you of the signs of God, be grievous to you, yet in God is my trust: Muster, therefore, your designs and your false gods, and let not your design be carried on by you in the dark: then come to some decision about me, and delay not.||10 The preaching of Noah is mentioned by the Rabbins. Sanhedrin, 108. Comp. Midr. Rabbah on Gen. Par. 30 and 33, on Eccl. ix. 14, and in the probably sub. Apostolic 2 Pet. ii. 5.|
|84||73||10||And if ye turn aside from my admonitions, I ask not any reward of you for the same;e I expect my reward from GOD alone, and I am commanded to be one of those who are resigned unto him.||e Therefore ye cannot excuse yourselves by saying that I am burdensome to you.||And if ye turn your backs on me, yet ask I no reward from you: my reward is with God alone, and I am commanded to be of the Muslims.|
|84||74||10||But they accused him of imposture, wherefore we delivered him, and those who were with him in the ark, and we caused them to survive the flood, but we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood. Behold therefore, what was the end of those who were warned by Noah.||But they treated him as a liar: therefore we rescued him and those who were with him in the ark, and we made them to survive the others; and we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood. See, then, what was the end of these warned ones!|
|84||75||10||Then did we send, after him, apostles unto their respective people,f and they came unto them with evident demonstrations: yet they were not disposed to believe in that which they had before rejected as false. Thus do we seal up the hearts of the transgressors.||f As Hûd, Sâleh, Abraham, Lot, and Shoaib, to those of Ad, Thamûd, Babel, Sodom, and Midian.||Then after him, we sent Apostles to their peoples, and they came to them with credentials; but they would not believe in what they had denied aforetime: Thus seal we up the hearts of the transgressors!|
|84||76||10||Then did we send, after them, Moses and Aaron unto Pharaoh and his princes with our signs:g but they behaved proudly, and were a wicked people.||g See chapter 7, p. 115, &c.||Then sent we, after them, Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and his nobles with our signs; but they acted proudly and were a wicked people:|
|84||77||10||And when the truth from us had come unto them, they said, Verily this is manifest sorcery.||And when the truth came to them from us, they said, "Verily, this is clear sorcery."|
|84||78||10||Moses said unto them, Do ye speak this of the truth, after it hath come unto you? Is this sorcery? but sorcerers shall not prosper.||Moses said: "What! say ye of the truth after it hath come to you, 'Is this sorcery?' But sorcerers shall not prosper."|
|84||79||10||They said, Art thou come unto us to turn us aside from that religion, which we found our fathers practise; and that ye two may have the command in the land? But we do not believe you.||They said: "Art thou come to us to pervert us from the faith in which we found our fathers, and that you twain shall bear rule in this land? But we believe you not."|
|84||80||10||And Pharaoh said, Bring unto me every expert magician. And when the magicians were come, Moses said unto them, Cast down that which ye are about to cast down.||And Pharaoh said: "Fetch me every skilled magician." And when the magicians arrived, Moses said to them, "Cast down what ye have to cast."|
|84||81||10||And when they had cast down their rods and cords, Moses said unto them, The enchantment which ye have performed shall GOD surely render vain; for GOD prospereth not the work of the wicked doers,||And when they had cast them down, Moses said, "Verily, God will render vain the sorceries which ye have brought to pass: God prospereth not the work of the evildoers.|
|84||82||10||and GOD will verify the truth of his words, although the wicked be adverse thereto.||And by his words will God verify the Truth, though the impious be averse to it.|
|84||83||10||And there believed not any on Moses, except a generation of his people,h for fear of Pharaoh and of his princes, lest he should afflict them. And Pharaoh was lifted up with pride in the earth, and was surely one of the transgressors.||h For when he first began to preach, a few of the younger Israelites only believed on him; the others not giving ear to him, for fear of the king. But some suppose the pronoun his refers to Pharaoh, and that these were certain Egyptians, who, together with his wife Asia, believed on Moses.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And none believed on Moses but a race among his own people, through fear of Pharaoh and his nobles, lest he should afflict them: For of a truth mighty was Pharaoh in the land, and one who committed excesses.|
|84||84||10||And Moses said, O my people, if ye believe in GOD, put your trust in him, if ye be resigned to his will.||And Moses said: "O my people! if ye believe in God, then put your trust in Himif ye be Muslims."|
|84||85||10||They answered, We put our trust in GOD: O LORD, suffer us not to be afflicted by unjust people;||And they said: "In God put we our trust. O our Lord! abandon us not to trial from that unjust people,|
|84||86||10||but deliver us, through thy mercy, from the unbelieving people.||And deliver us by thy mercy from the unbelieving people."|
|84||87||10||And we spake by inspiration unto Moses and his brother, saying, Provide habitations for your people in Egypt, and make your houses a place of worship,i and be constant at prayer: and bear good news unto the true believers.||i So Jallaloddin expounds the original word Kebla, which properly signifies that place or quarter toward which one prays. Wherefore al Zamakhshari supposes that the Israelites are here ordered to dispose their oratories in such a manner that, when they prayed, their faces might be turned towards Mecca; which he imagines was the Kebla of Moses, as it is that of the Mohammedans. The former commentator adds that Pharaoh had forbidden the Israelites to pray to GOD; for which reason they were obliged to perform that duty privately in their houses.||Then thus revealed we to Moses and to his brother: "Provide houses for your people in Egypt, and in your houses make a Kebla, and observe prayer and proclaim good tidings to the believers."|
|84||88||10||And Moses said, O LORD, verily thou hast given unto Pharaoh and his people pompous ornaments,k and riches in this present life, O LORD, that they may be seduced from thy way: O LORD, bring their riches to nought, and harden their hearts; that they may not believe, until they see their grievous punishment.||k As magnificent apparel, chariots, and the like.||And Moses said: "O our Lord! thou hast indeed given to Pharaoh and his nobles splendour and riches in this present life: O our Lord! that they may err from thy way! O our Lord! confound their riches, and harden their hearts that they may not believe till they see the dolorous torment."|
|84||89||10||God said, Your petition is hear;l be ye upright therefore,m and follow not the way of those who are ignorant.||l The pronoun is in the dual number; the antecedent being Moses and Aaron. The commentators say that, in consequence of this prayer, all the treasures of Egypt were turned into stones.2
m Or, as al Beidâwi interprets it, Be ye constant and steady in preaching to the people. The Mohammedans pretend that Moses continued in Egypt no less than forty years after he had first published his mission: which cannot be reconciled to scripture.
|He said: "The prayer of you both is heard: pursue ye both therefore the straight path, and follow not the path of those who have no knowledge."|
|84||90||10||And we caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea; and Pharaoh and his army followed them in a violent and hostile manner; until, when he was drowning, he said, I believe that there is no GOD but he, on whom the children of Israel believe; and I am one of the resigned.n||n These words, it is said, Pharaoh repeated often in his extremity, that he might be heard. But his repentance came too late; for Gabriel soon stopped his mouth with mud, lest he should obtain mercy; reproaching him at the same time in the words which follow.||And we led the children of Israel through the sea; and Pharaoh and his hosts followed them in eager and hostile sort until, when the drowning overtook him, he said, "I believe that there is no God but he on whom the children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims."|
|84||91||10||Now dost thou believe; when thou hast been hitherto rebellious, and one of the wicked doers?||"Yes, now," said God: "but thou hast been rebellious hitherto, and wast one of the wicked doers.|
|84||92||10||This day will we raise thy bodyo from the bottom of the sea, that thou mayest be a sign unto those who shall be after thee; and verily a great number of men are negligent of our signs.||o Some of the children of Israel doubting whether Pharaoh was really drowned. Gabriel, by GODS command, caused his naked corpse to swim to shore, that they might see it.3 The word here translated body, signifying also a coat of mail, some imagine the meaning to be, that his corpse floated armed with his coat of mail, which they tell us was of gold, by which they knew that it was he.
3 See Exod. xiv. 30.
|But this day will we rescue thee with thy body that thou mayest be a sign to those who shall be after thee:11 but truly, most men are of our signs regardless!"||11 This is in accordance with Talmudic legend. "Recognise the power of repentance, in the case of Pharaoh, King of Egypt, who rebelled excessively against the most High; Who is God that I should hearken to his voice? (Ex. v. 2). But with the same tongue that sinned he did penance: Who is like thee, O Lord, among the Gods? (xv. 11). The Holy One, Blessed be He, delivered him from the dead, . . . so that he should not die (ix. 15, 16).For now have I stretched forth my hand, and verily thee have I raised up from among the dead, to proclaim my might." Ex. ix. 15, 16. A strange comment! Pirke R. Eliezer, § 43. Comp. Midr. on Ps. cvi. Midr. Jalkut, ch. 238.|
|84||93||10||And we prepared for the children of Israel an established dwelling in the land of Canaan, and we provided good things for their sustenance; and they differed not in point of religion, until knowledge had come unto them;p verily thy LORD will judge between them on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein they disagreed.||p i.e., After the law had been revealed, and published by Moses.||Moreover we prepared a settled abode for the children of Israel, and provided them with good things: nor did they fall into variance till the knowledge (the Law) came to them: Truly thy Lord will decide between them on the day of Resurrection concerning that in which they differed.|
|84||94||10||If thou art in a doubt concerning any part of that which we have sent down unto thee,q ask them who have read the book of the law before thee. Now hath the truth come unto thee from thy LORD; be not therefore one of those who doubt;||q That is, concerning the truth of the histories which are here related. The commentators doubt whether the person here spoken to be Mohammed himself or his auditor.||And if thou art in doubt as to what we have sent down to thee, inquire at those who have read the Scriptures before thee.12 Now hath the truth come unto thee from thy Lord: be not therefore of those who doubt.||12 That is, whether thou art not foretold in the Law and Gospel, and whether the Koran is not in unison with, and confirmatory of, them.|
|84||95||10||neither be thou one of those who charge the signs of GOD with falsehood, lest thou become one of those who perish.||Neither be of those who charge the signs of God with falsehood, lest thou be of those who perish.|
|84||96||10||Verily those against whom the word of thy LORD is decreed, shall not believe,||Verily they against whom the decree of thy Lord is pronounced, shall not believe,|
|84||97||10||although there come unto them every kind of miracle, until they see the grievous punishment prepared for them.||Even though every kind of sign come unto them, till they behold the dolorous torment!|
|84||98||10||And if it were not so, some city, among the many which have been destroyed, would have believed; and the faith of its inhabitants would have been of advantage unto them; but none of them believed, before the execution of their sentence, except the people of Jonas.r When they believed, we delivered them from the punishment of shame in this world, and suffered them to enjoy their lives and possessions for a time.s||r viz., The inhabitants of Ninive, which stood on or near the place where al Mawsel now stands. This people having corrupted themselves with idolatry, Jonas the son of Mattai (or Amittai, which the Mohammedans suppose to be the name of his mother), an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin, was sent by God to preach to and reclaim them. When he first began to exhort them to repentance, instead of hearkening to him, they used him very ill, so that he was obliged to leave the city; threatening them, at his departure, that they should be destroyed within three days, or, as others say, within forty.1 But when the time drew near, and they saw the heavens overcast with a black cloud, which shot forth fire, and filled the air with smoke, and hung directly over their city, they were in a terrible consternation, and getting into the fields with their families and cattle, they put on sackcloth, and humbled themselves before God, calling aloud for pardon, and sincerely repenting of their past wickedness. Whereupon God was pleased to forgive them, and the storm blew over.2
1 See Jonah iii. 4.
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, Abulfeda. See cap. 21 and 37.
s i.e., Until they died according to the ordinary course of nature.
|Were it otherwise, any city, had it believed, might have found its safety in its faith. But it was so, only with the people of JONAS. When they believed, we delivered them from the penalty of shame in this world, and provided for them for a time.|
|84||99||10||But if thy LORD had pleased, verily all who are in the earth would have believed in general. Wilt thou therefore forcibly compel men to be true believers?||But if thy Lord had pleased, verily all who are in the earth would have believed together. What! wilt thou compel men to become believers?|
|84||100||10||No soul can believe, but by the permission of GOD: and he shall pour out his indignation on those who will not understand.||No soul can believe but by the permission of God: and he shall lay his wrath on those who will not understand.|
|84||101||10||Say, Consider whatever is in heaven and on earth: but signs are of no avail, neither preachers, unto people who will not believe.||SAY: Consider ye whatever is in the Heavens and on the Earth: but neither signs, nor warners, avail those who will not believe!|
|84||102||10||Do they therefore expect any other than some terrible judgment, like unto the judgments which have fallen on those who have gone before them? Say, Wait ye the issue; and I also will wait with you;||What then can they expect but the like of such days of wrath as befel those who flourish before them? SAY: WAIT; I too will wait with you:|
|84||103||10||then will we deliver our apostles and those who believe. Thus is it a justice due from us, that we should deliver the true believers.||Then will we deliver our apostles and those who believe. Thus is it binding on us to deliver the faithful.|
|84||104||10||Say, O men of Mecca, if ye be in doubt concerning my religion, verily I worship not the idols which ye worship, besides GOD; but I worship GOD, who will cause you to die: and I am commanded to be one of the true believers.||SAY: O men! if ye are in doubt as to my religion, verily I worship not what ye worship beside God; but I worship God who will cause you to die: and I am commanded to be a believer.|
|84||105||10||And it was said unto me, Set thy face towards the true religion, and be orthodox; and by no means be one of those who attribute companions unto God;||And set thy face toward true religion, sound in faith, and be not of those who join other gods with God:|
|84||106||10||neither invoke, besides GOD, that which can neither profit thee nor hurt thee: for if thou do, thou wilt then certainly become one of the unjust.||Neither invoke beside God that which can neither help nor hurt thee: for if thou do, thou wilt certainly then be one of those who act unjustly.|
|84||107||10||If GOD afflict thee with hurt, there is none who can relieve thee from it, except he; and if he willeth thee any good, there is none who can keep back his bounty: he will confer it on such of his servants as he pleaseth; and he is gracious and merciful.||A Travelers Narrative, p. 55
|EGB: if God toucheth thee with a hurt there is no dispeller thereof save Him||And if God lay the touch of trouble on thee, none can deliver thee from it but He: and if He will thee any good, none can keep back his boons. He will confer them on such of his servants as he chooseth: and He is the Gracious, the Merciful!|
|84||108||10||Say, O men, now hath the truth come unto you from your LORD. He therefore who shall be directed, will be directed to the advantage of his own soul: but he who shall err, will err only against the same. I am no guardian over you.||SAY: O men! now hath the truth come unto you from your Lord. He therefore who will be guided, will be guided only for his own behoof: but he who shall err will err only against it; and I am not your guardian!|
|84||109||10||Do thou, O prophet, follow that which is revealed unto thee: and persevere with patience, until GOD shall judge; for he is the best judge.||And follow what is revealed to thee: and persevere steadfastly till God shall judge, for He is the best of Judges.|
|75||0||11||CHAPTER XI.||SURA XI.HOUD [LXXV.]|
|75||0||11||ENTITLED, HUD;t REVEALED AT MECCA.||t The story of which prophet is repeated in this chapter.||11: all
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 5, pp. 5-6
|75||0||11||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|75||1||11||AL. R.u THIS book, the verses whereof are guarded against corruption, and are also distinctly explained,y is a revelation from the wise, the knowing God:||u See the Prelim. Disc. p. 46, &c.
x According to the various senses which the verb ohkimat, in the original, may bear, the commentators suggest as many different interpretations. Some suppose the meaning to be, according to our version, that the Korân is not liable to be corrupted,1 as the law and the gospel have been, in the opinion of the Mohammedans; others, that every verse in this particular chapter is in full force, and not one of them abrogated; others, that the verses of the Korân are disposed in a clear and perspicuous method, or contain evident and demonstrative arguments; and others, that they comprise judicial declarations, to regulate both faith and practice.2
1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 53.
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, al Zamakhshari, &c.
y The signification of the verb fossilat, which is here used, being also ambiguous, the meaning of this passage is supposed to be, either that the verses are distinctly proposed or expressed in a clear manner; or that the subject matter of the whole may be distinguished or divided into laws, monitions, and examples; or else that the verses were revealed by parcels.
|ELIF. LAM. RA.1 A book whose verses are stablished in wisdom and then set forth with clearness from the Wise, the All-informed||1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32.|
|75||2||11||that ye serve not any other GOD: (verily I am a denouncer of threats, and a bearer of good tidings unto you from him;)||That ye worship none other than GodVerily I come to you from Him charged with warnings, announcements;|
|75||3||11||and that ye ask pardon of your LORD, and then be turned unto him. He will cause you to enjoy a plentiful provision, until a prefixed time: and unto every one that hath merit by good works will he give his abundant reward. But if ye turn back, verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day:||And that ye seek pardon of your Lord, and then be turned unto Him! Goodly enjoyments will He give you to enjoy until a destined time, and His favours will He bestow on every one who deserves his favours.2 But if ye turn away, then verily I fear for you the chastisement of the great day.||2 Or, will bestow his grace on every gracious one, or will bestow his abundance on every one who hath abundance (of merit). The difficulty of rendering this passage arises from the word fadhl, which means merit as applied to man, favour as applied to God.|
|75||4||11||unto GOD shall ye return; and he is almighty.||Unto God shall ye return, and over all things is he Potent.|
|75||5||11||Do they not double the folds of their breasts,z that they may conceal their designs from him?||z Or, as it may be translated, Do they not turn away their breasts, &c.||Do they not doubly fold up their breasts, that they may hide themselves from Him?|
|75||6||11||When they cover themselves with their garments, doth not he know that which they conceal, and that which they discover?||But when they enshroud themselves in their garments, doth He not know alike what they conceal and what they shew?|
|75||7||11||For he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men.a||a This passage was occasioned by the words of certain of the idolaters, who said to one another, When we let down our curtains (such as the women use in the east to screen themselves from the sight of the men when they happen to be in the room), and wrap ourselves up in our garments, and fold up our breasts, to conceal our malice against Mohammed, how should he come to the knowledge of it? Some suppose the passage relates to certain hypocritical Moslems; but this opinion is generally rejected, because the verse was revealed at Mecca, and the birth of hypocrisy among the Mohammedans happened not till after the Hejra.||For He knoweth the very inmost of their breast.|
|75||8||11||(XII.) There is no creature which creepeth on the earth, but GOD provideth its food; and he knoweth the place of its retreat, and where it is laid up.b The whole is written in the perspicuous book of his decrees.||b i.e., Both during its life and after its death; or the repository of every animal, before its birth, in the loins and wombs of the parents.||There is no moving thing on earth whose nourishment dependeth not on God; he knoweth its haunts and final resting place: all is in the clear Book.|
|75||9||11||It is he who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days, (but his throne was above the waters before the creation thereof),c that he might prove you, and see which of you would excel in works.||c For the Mohammedans suppose this throne, and the waters whereon it stands, which waters they imagine are supported by a spirit or wind, were, with some other things, created before the heavens and earth. This fancy they borrowed from the Jews, who also say that the throne of glory then stood in the air, and was borne on the face of the waters, by the breath of GODS mouth.1
1 Rashi, ad Gen. i. 2. Vide Reland. de Relig. Moh. p. 50, &c.
|And He it is who hath made the Heavens and the Earth in six days: His throne had stood ere this upon the waters,3 that He might make proof which of you4 would excel in works.||3 That is, before the Creation. Precisely the same statement occurs in Raschi on Gen. i. 2, also in the modern catechism. Tsenah ur'enak b'noth Tsion, authoritatively put forth by the Polish and German Talmudist Rabbins. "At the first creation of Heaven and Earth . . . the throne of glory of the Blessed God stood in the air above the waters." Comp. Ps. civ. 3.
4 Men, heaven, and earth. Comp. Tr. Aboth, v. Mischna 1.
|75||10||11||If thou say, Ye shall surely be raised again, after death; the unbelievers will say, This is nothing but manifest sorcery.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 121, p. 115
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 46, paragraph 62
|And if thou shouldst say, 'After death ye shall surely be raised again,' the infidels will certainly exclaim, 'This is nothing but manifest sorcery.'
BWC: This is naught but palpable sorcery.
|And if thou say, "After death ye shall surely be raised again," the infidels will certainly exclaim, "This is nothing but pure sorcery."|
|75||11||11||And verily if we defer their punishment unto a determined season, they will say, What hindereth it from falling on us? Will it not come upon them on a day, wherein there shall be none to avert it from them; and that which they scoffed at shall encompass them?||And if we defer their chastisement to some definite time, they will exclaim, "What keepeth it back?" What! will it not come upon them on a day when there shall be none to avert it from them? And that at which they scoffed shall enclose them in on every side.|
|75||12||11||Verily, if we cause man to taste mercy from us, and afterwards take it away from him; he will surely become desperate,d and ungrateful.||d Casting aside all hopes of the divine favour, for want of patience and trust in GOD.||And if we cause man to taste our mercy, and then deprive him of it, verily, he is despairing, ungrateful.|
|75||13||11||And if we cause him to taste favor, after an affliction hath befallen him, he will surely say, The evils which I suffered are passed from me, and he will become joyful and insolent:||And if after trouble hath befallen him we cause him to taste our favour, he will surely exclaim, "The evils are passed away from me." Verily, he is joyous, boastful.|
|75||14||11||except those who persevere with patience, and do that which is right; they shall receive pardon, and a great reward.||Except those who endure with patience and do the things that are right: these doth pardon await and a great reward.|
|75||15||11||Peradventure thou wilt omit to publish part of that which hath been revealed unto thee, and thy breast will become straitened, lest they say, Unless a treasure be sent down unto him, or an angel come with him, to bear witness unto him, we will not believe. Verily thou art a preacher only; and GOD is the governor of all things.||Perhaps thou wilt suppress a part of what hath been revealed to thee, and wilt be distress at heart lest they say, "If a treasure be not sent down to him, or an angel come with him. . . ." But thou art only a warner, and God hath all things in his charge.|
|75||16||11||Will they say, He hath forged the Koran? Answer, Bring therefore ten chapterse like unto it, forged by yourselves: and call on whomsoever ye may to assist you, except GOD, if ye speak truth.||e This was the number which he first challenged them to compose; but they not being able to do it, he made the matter still easier, challenging them to produce a single chapter only,2 comparable to the Korân in doctrine and eloquence.
2 See c. 2, p. 3; c. 10, p. 153, &c.
|If they shall say, "The Koran is his own device," SAY: Then bring ten Suras like it5 of your devising, and call whom ye can to your aid beside God, if ye are men of truth.||5 Comp. verse 37 and Sura [xci.] ii. 21. It should be observed that the challenge in these passages is not to produce a book which shall equal the Koran in point of poetry or rhetoric, but in the importance of its subject-matter with reference to the Divine Unity, the future retribution, etc. Upon these topics Muhammad well knew that he had preoccupied the ground. And we may infer from the fragments of the Revelations of Musailima and Sajâh (Hisam. 946; Attabâri (ed. Kosegarten) i. 134, 136, 152; Tab. Agâni, 339), which are mere imitations of the Koran, that he felt this to be the case.|
|75||17||11||But if they whom ye call to your assistance hear you not; know that this book hath been revealed by the knowledge of GOD only,f and that there is no GOD but he. Will ye therefore become Moslems?||f Or containing several passages wrapped up in dark and mysterious expressions, which can proceed from and are perfectly comprehended by none but GOD.3
3 See c. 3, p. 32.
|But if they answer you not, then know that it hath been sent down to you in the wisdom of God only, and that there is no God but He. Are ye then Muslims?|
|75||18||11||Whoso chooseth the present life, and the pomp thereof, unto them will we give the recompense of their works therein, and the same shall not be diminished unto them.||Those who choose this present life and its braveries, we will recompense for their works therein: they shall have nothing less therein than their deserts.|
|75||19||11||These are they for whom no other reward is prepared in the next life, except the fire of hell: that which they have done in this life shall perish; and that which they have wrought shall be vain.||These are they for whom there is nothing in the next world but the Fire: all that they have wrought in this life shall come to nought, and vain shall be all their doings.|
|75||20||11||Shall he therefore be compared with them, who followeth the evident declaration of his LORD, and whom a witness from himg attendeth, preceded by the book of Moses,h which was revealed for a guide, and out of mercy to mankind? These believe in the Koran: but whosoever of the confederate infidels believeth not therein, is threatened the fire of hell, which threat shall certainly be executed: be not therefore in a doubt concerning it; for it is the truth from thy LORD: but the greater part of men will not believe.||g The Korân; or, as others suppose, the angel Gabriel.
h Which bears testimony thereto.
|With such can they be compared who rest upon clear proofs from their Lord? to whom a witness from him reciteth the Koran, and who is preceded by the Book of Moses, a guide and mercy? These have faith in it: but the partisans of idolatry, who believe not in it, are menaced with the fire! Have thou no doubts about that Book, for it is the very truth from thy Lord. But most men will not believe.|
|75||21||11||Who is more unjust than he who imagineth a lie concerning GOD? They shall be set before the LORD, at the day of judgment, and the witnessesi shall say, These are they who devised lies against their LORD. Shall not the curse of GOD fall on the unjust;||i That is, the angels, and prophets, and their own members.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 12, p. 12
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 135, p. 126
|The curse of God be upon the people of tyranny.
God's malison on the head of the people of tyranny!
|Who is guilty of a greater injustice than he who inventeth a lie concerning God? They shall be set before their Lord, and the witnesses shall say, "These are they who made their Lord a liar." Shall not the malison of God be on these unjust doers,|
|75||22||11||who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come? These were not able to prevail against God on earth, so as to escape punishment; neither had they any protectors besides GOD: their punishment shall be doubled unto them.k They could not hear, neither did they see||k For they shall be punished both in this life and in the next.||Who pervert others from the way of God, and seek to make it crooked, and believe not in a life to come? God's power on earth they shall not weaken; and beside God they have no protector! Doubled shall be their punishment! They were not able to hearken, and they could not see.|
|75||23||11||These are they who have lost their souls; and the idols which they falsely imagined have abandoned them.||These are they who have lost their own souls, and the deities of their own devising have vanished from them:|
|75||24||11||There is no doubt but they shall be most miserable in the world to come.||There is no doubt but that in the next world they shall be the lost ones.|
|75||25||11||But as for those who believe and do good works, and humble themselves before their LORD, they shall be the inhabitants of paradise; they shall remain therein forever.||But they who shall have believed and done the things that are right, and humbled them before their Lord, shall be the inmates of Paradise; therein shall they abide for ever.|
|75||26||11||The similitude of the two partiesl is as the blind and the deaf, and as he who seeth and heareth: shall they be compared as equal? Will ye not therefore consider?||l i.e., The believers and the infidels.||These two sorts of persons resemble the blind and deaf, and the seeing and hearing: shall these be compared as alike? Ah! do ye not comprehend?|
|75||27||11||We formerly sent Noahm unto his people; and he said, Verily I am a public preacher unto you;||m See chapter 7, p. 110, &c.||We sent Noah of old unto his people:"Verily I come to you a plain admonisher,|
|75||28||11||that ye worship GOD alone; verily I fear for you the punishment of the terrible day.||That ye worship none but God. Verily I fear for you the punishment of a grievous day."|
|75||29||11||But the chiefs of the people, who believed not, answered, We see thee to be no other than a man, like unto us; and we do not see that any follow thee, except those who are the most abject among us, who have believed on thee by a rash judgment;n neither do we perceive any excellence in you above us: but we esteem you to be liars.||n For want of mature consideration, and moved by the first impulse of their fancy.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 246, p. 222
|Then said the chiefs of His people who believed not, 'We see in Thee but a man like ourselves; and we see not any who have followed Thee except our meanest ones of hasty judgment, nor see we any excellence in you above ourselves: nay, we deem you liars.'||Then said the chiefs of his people who believed not, "We see in thee but a man like ourselves; and we see not who have followed thee except our meanest ones of hasty judgment, nor see we any excellence in you above ourselves: nay, we deem you liars."|
|75||30||11||Noah said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me mercy from himself, which is hidden from you, do we compel you to receive the same, in case ye be averse thereto?||He said: "O my people! how think you? If I am upon a clear revelation from my Lord, who hath bestowed on me mercy from Himself to which ye are blind, can we force it on you, if ye are averse from it?|
|75||31||11||O my people, I ask not of you riches, for my preaching unto you: my reward is with GOD alone. I will not drive away those who have believed:o verily they shall meet their LORD, at the resurrection; but I perceive that ye are ignorant men.||o For this they asked him to do, because they were poor mean people. The same thing the Koreish demanded of Mohammed, but he was forbidden to comply with their request.1
1 See cap. 6, p. 93.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 13
|No pay do I ask of you for this... My reward is of God alone.||And, O my people! I ask you not for riches: my reward is of God alone: and I will not drive away those who believe that they shall meet their Lord:but I see that ye are an ignorant people.|
|75||32||11||O my people, who shall assist me against GOD, if I drive them away? Will ye not therefore consider?||And, O my people! were I to drive them away, who shall help me against God? Will ye not therefore consider?|
|75||33||11||I say not unto you, The treasures of GOD are in my power; neither do I say, I know the secrets of God: neither do I say, Verily I am an angel;p neither do I say of those whom your eyes do contemn, GOD will by no means bestow good on them: (GOD best knoweth that which is in their souls;) for then should I certainly be one of the unjust.||p See chapter 6, p. 93.||And I tell you not that with me are the treasures of God: nor do I say, 'I know the things unseen;' nor do I say, 'I am an angel;' nor do I say of those whom you eye with scorn, No good thing will God bestow on them:God best knoweth what is in their mindsfor then should I be one of those who act unjustly."|
|75||34||11||They answered, O Noah, thou hast already disputed with us, and hast multiplied disputes with us; now therefore do thou bring that punishment upon us wherewith thou hast threatened us, if thou speakest truth.||They said: "O Noah! already hast thou disputed with us, and multiplied disputes with us: Bring then upon us what thou hast threatened, if thou be of those who speak truth."|
|75||35||11||Noah said, Verily GOD alone shall bring it upon you, if he pleaseth; and ye shall not prevail against him, so as to escape the same.||He said, "God will bring it on you at His sole pleasure, and it is not you who can weaken him;|
|75||36||11||Neither shall my counsel profit you, although I endeavor to counsel you aright, if GOD shall please to lead you into error. He is your LORD, and unto him shall ye return.||Nor, if God desire to mislead you, shall my counsel profit you, though I fain would counsel you aright. He is your Lord, and unto Him shall ye be brought back.|
|75||37||11||Will the Meccans say, Mohammed hath forged the Koran? Answer, If I have forged it, on me be my guilt: and let me be clear of that which ye are guilty of.||Do they say, "This Koran is of his own devising?" Say: On me be my own guilt, if I have devised it, but I am clear of that whereof ye are guilty.|
|75||38||11||And it was revealed unto Noah, saying, Verily none of thy people shall believe, except he who hath already believed: be not therefore grieved, for that which they are doing.||And it was revealed unto Noah. Verily, none of thy people shall believe, save they who have believed already; therefore be not thou grieved at their doings.|
|75||39||11||But make an ark in our presence, according to the form and dimensions which we have revealed unto thee: and speak not unto me in behalf of those who have acted unjustly; for they are doomed to be drowned.||But build the Ark under our eye and after our revelation: and plead not with me for the evil doers, for they are to be drowned.|
|75||40||11||And he built the ark; and so often as a company of his people passed by him, they derided him:q but he said, Though ye scoff at us now, we will scoff at you hereafter, as ye scoff at us; and ye shall surely know||q For building a vessel in an inland country, and so far from the sea; and for that he was turned carpenter after he had set up for a prophet.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 7, p. 7
|And as often as a company of His people passed by Him, they derided Him. To them He said: 'Though ye scoff at us now, we will scoff at you hereafter even as ye scoff at us. In the end ye shall know.'||So he built the Ark; and whenever the chiefs of his people passed by they laughed him to scorn:6 said he, "Though ye laugh at us, we truly shall laugh at you, even as ye laugh at us; and in the end ye shall know||6 "They laughed and jeered at him in their words." Midr. Tanchuma. "The passage Job xii. 5, refers to the righteous Noah who taught them and spake to them words severe as flames: but they scorned him, and said, 'Old man! for what purpose is this ark?"' Sanhedr. 108. Comp. Midr. Rabbah on Gen. 30, and 33 on Eccl. ix. 14.|
|75||41||11||on whom a punishment shall be inflicted, which shall cover him with shame, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall.||On whom a punishment shall come that shall shame him, and on whom shall light a lasting punishment."|
|75||42||11||Thus were they employed until our sentence was put in execution, and the oven poured forth water.r And we said unto Noah, Carry into the ark of every species of animals one pair;s and thy family,t (except him on whom a previous sentence of destruction hath passed),u and those who believe.x But there believed not with him except a few.y||r Or, as the original literally signifies, boiled over; which is consonant to what the Rabbins say, that the waters of the Deluge were boiling hot.
This oven was, as some say, at Cûfa, in a spot whereon a mosque now stands; or, as others rather think, in a certain place in India, or else at Ain warda in Mesopotamia;3 and its exundation was the sign by which Noah knew the flood was coming.4 Some pretend that it was the same oven which Eve made use of to bake her bread in, being of a form different from those we use, having the mouth in the upper part, and that it descended from patriarch to patriarch, till it came to Noah.5 It is remarkable that Mohammed, in all probability, borrowed this circumstance from the Persian Magi, who also fancied that the first waters of the Deluge gushed out of the oven of a certain old woman named Zala Cûfa.6
But the word tannûr, which is here translated oven, also signifying the superficies of the earth, or a place whence waters spring forth, or where they are collected, some suppose it means no more in this passage than the spot or fissure whence the first eruption of waters brake forth.
4 Jallaloddin, &c.
5 Vide DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Noah.
6 Vide Hyde, de Rel. Vet. Persar, and Lords Account of the Relig. of the Persees, p. 9.
s Or, as the words may also be rendered, and some commentators think they ought, two pair, that is, two males and two females of each species; wherein they partly agree with divers Jewish and Christian writers,1 who from the Hebrew expression, seven and seven and two and two, the male and his female,2 suppose there went into the ark fourteen pair of every clean, and two pair of every unclean species. There is a tradition that GOD gathered together unto Noah all sorts of beasts, birds, and other animals (it being indeed difficult to conceive how he should come by them all without some supernatural assistance), and that as he laid hold on them, his right hand constantly fell on the male, and his left on the female.3
1 Aben Ezra, Justin Martyr, Origen, &c.
2 Gen. vii. 2.
t Namely, thy wife, and thy sons and their wives.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
u This was an unbelieving son of Noah,5 named Canaan,6 or Yam;7 though others say he was not the son of Noah, but his grandson by his son Ham, or his wifes son by another husband; nay, some pretend he was related to him no farther than by having been educated and brought up in his house.8 The best commentators add, that Noahs wife, named Wâïla, who was n infidel, was also comprehended in this exception, and perished with her son.9
6 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
7 Ebn Shohnah.
8 Al Zamakhshari. Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 676.
9 Jallaloddin, al Zamakhshari, al Beidâwi.
x Noahs family being mentioned before, it is supposed that by these words are intended the other believers, who were his proselytes, but not of his family: whence the common opinion among the Mohammedans, of a greater number than eight being saved in the ark, seems to have taken its rise.10
10 See c. 7, p. 111.
y viz., His other wife, who was a true believer, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and their wives, and seventy-two persons more.11
11 See ibid. note x.
|Thus was it until our sentence came to pass, and the earth's surface7 boiled up. We said, "Carry into it one pair of every kind, and thy family, except him on whom sentence hath before been passed, and those who have believed." But there believed not with him except a few.||7 Or, oven: according to others, reservoir. Geiger thinks that the expression the oven boiled up may be a figurative mode of expressing the Rabbinic idea that "the generation of the Deluge were punished by hot water." Rosch. Haschanah, 16, 2; Sanhedr. 108. Comp. Weil's Legenden, p. 44.|
|75||43||11||And Noah said, Embark thereon, in the name of GOD; while it moveth forward, and while it standeth still;z for my LORD is gracious and merciful.||z That is, omit no opportunity of getting on board. According to a different reading, the latter words may be rendered, Who shall cause it to move forward, and to stop, as there shall be occasion. The commentators tell us that the ark moved forwards, or stood still, as Noah would have it, on his pronouncing only the words, In the name of GOD.12
It is to be observed that the more judicious commentators make the dimensions of the ark to be the same with those assigned by Moses:13 Notwithstanding, others have enlarged them most extravagantly,14 as some Christian writers15 have also done. They likewise tell us that Noah was two years in building the ark, which was framed of Indian plane-tree,16 that it was divided into three stories, of which the lower was designed for the beasts, the middle one for the men and women, and the upper for the birds;17 and that the men were separated from the women by the body of Adam, which Noah had taken into the ark.18 This last is a tradition of the eastern Christians,19 some of whom pretend that the matrimonial duty was superseded and suspended during the time Noah and his family were in the ark;20 though Ham has been accused of not observing continency on that occasion, his wife, it seems, bringing forth Caanan in the very ark.21
12 Al Beidâwi, &c.
13 Idem, &c.
14 Yahya. Vide Marracc. in Alcor. p. 340.
15 Origen. Contr. Cels. l. 4. Vide Kircher. de Arca Noe, c. 8.
16 Al Beidâwi. Vide DHerbel. p. 675, and Eutych. p. 34.
17 Al Beidâwi. Vide Eutych. Annal. p. 34.
19 Jacob, Edessenus, apud Barcepham de Parad. part i. c. 14. Eutych. ubi sup. Vide etiam Eliezer. pirke c. 23.
20 Ambros. de Noa et Arca, c. 21.
21 Vide Heidegger. Hist. Patriarchar. vol. i. p. 409.
|And he said, "Embark ye therein. In the name of God be its course and its riding at anchor! Truly my Lord is right Gracious, Merciful."|
|75||44||11||And the ark swam with them between waves like mountains:a and Noah called unto his son,b who was separated from him, saying, Embark with us, my son, and stay not with the unbelievers.||a The waters prevailing fifteen cubits above the mountains.22
22 Al Beidâwi.
b See above, note u.
|And the Ark moved on with them amid waves like mountains: and Noah called to his sonfor he was apart"Embark with us, O my child! and be not with the unbelievers."|
|75||45||11||He answered, I will get on a mountain, which will secure me from the water. Noah replied, There is no security this day from the decree of GOD, except for him on whom he shall have mercy. And a wave passed between them, and he became one of those who were drowned.||He said, "I will betake me to a mountain that shall secure me from the water." He said, "None shall be secure this day from the decree of God, save him on whom He shall have mercy." And a wave passed between them, and he was among the drowned.|
|75||46||11||And it was said, O earth, swallow up thy waters, and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain. And immediately the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the ark rested on the mountain Al Judi;c and it was said, Away with the ungodly people!||c This mountain is one of those which divide Armenia, on the south, from Mesopotamia, and that part of Assyria which is inhabited by the Curds, from whom the mountains took the name of Cardu, or Gardu, by the Greeks turned into Gordyæi, and other names.1 Mount al Jûdi (which name seems to be a corruption, though it be constantly so written by the Arabs, for Jordi, or Giordi) is also called Thamanin,2 probably from a town at the foot of it,3 so named from the number of persons saved in the ark, the word thamanin signifying eighty, and overlooks the country of Diyâr Rabîah, near the cities of Mawsel, Forda, and Jazîrat Ebn Omar, which last place one affirms to be but four miles from the place of the ark, and says that a Mohammedan temple was built there with the remains of that vessel, by the Khalif Omar Ebn Abdalaziz, whom he by mistake calls Omar Ebn al Khattâb.4
The tradition which affirms the ark to have rested on these mountains, must have been very ancient, since it is the tradition of the Chaldeans themselves:5 the Chaldee paraphrasts consent to their opinion,6 which obtained very much formerly, especially among the eastern Christians.7 To confirm it, we are told that the remainders of the ark were to be seen on the Gordyæan mountains: Berosus and Abydenus both declare there was such a report in their time;8 the first observing that several of the inhabitants thereabouts scraped the pitch off the planks as a rarity, and carried it about them for an amulet: and the latter saying that they used the wood of the vessel against many diseases with wonderful success. The relics of the ark were also to be seen here in the time of Epiphanius, if we may believe him;9 and we are told the emperor Heraclius went from the town of Thamanin up to the mountain al Jûdi, and saw the place of the ark.10 There was also formerly a famous monastery, called the monastery of the ark, upon some of these mountains, where the Nestorians used to celebrate a feast day on the spot where they supposed the ark rested; but in the year of Christ 776, that monastery was destroyed by lightning, with the church, and a numerous congregation in it.11 Since which time it seems the credit of this tradition hath declined, and given place to another, which obtains at present, and according to which the ark rested on Mount Masis, in Armenia, called by the Turks Aghir dagh, or the heavy or great mountain, and situate about twelve leagues south-east of Erivan.12
1 See Bochart. Phaleg. l. I, c. 3.
2 Geogr. Nub. p. 202.
3 Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 404 and 676, and Agathiam, l. 14, p. 135.
4 Benjamin. Itiner. p. 61.
5 Berosus, apud Joseph. Antiq. l. I, c. 4.
6 Onkelos et Jonathan, in Gen. viii. 4.
7 Vide Eutych. Annal. p. 41.
8 Berosus, apud Joseph. ubi sup. Abydenus, apud Euseb. Præp. Ev. l. 9, c.4.
9 Epiph. Hæres. 18.
10 Elmacin. l. I, c. I.
11 Vide Chronic. Dionysii Patriarch. Jacobitar. apud Asseman. Bibl. Orient. t. 2, p. 113.
12 Al Beidâwi.
|And it was said, "O Earth! swallow up thy water;" and "cease, O Heaven!" And the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the Ark rested upon Al-Djoudi;8 and it was said, "Avaunt! ye tribe of the wicked!"||8 The Montes Gordyoei, perhaps.|
|75||47||11||And Noah called upon his LORD, and said, O LORD, verily my son is of my family, and thy promise is true;d for thou art the most just of those who exercise judgment.||d Noah here challenges GODS promise that he would save his family.||And Noah called on his Lord and said, "O Lord! verily my son is of my family: and thy promise is true, and thou art the most just of judges."|
|75||48||11||God answered, O Noah, verily he is not of thy family;e this intercession of thine for him is not a righteous work.f Ask not of me therefore that wherein thou hast no knowledge: I admonish thee that thou become not one of the ignorant.||e Being cut off from it on account of his infidelity.
f According to a different reading, this passage may be rendered, For he hath acted unrighteously.
|He said, "O Noah! verily, he is not of thy family: in this thou actest not aright.9 Ask not of me that whereof thou knowest nought: I warn thee that thou become not of the ignorant.||9 According to another reading: He hath done amiss. The origin of this story is probably Gen. ix. 20-25.|
|75||49||11||Noah said, O LORD, I have recourse unto thee for the assistance of thy grace, that I ask not of thee that wherein I have no knowledge; and unless thou forgive me, and be merciful unto me, I shall be one of those who perish.||He said, "To thee verily, O my Lord, do I repair lest I ask that of thee wherein I have no knowledge: unless thou forgive me and be merciful to me I shall be one of the lost.|
|75||50||11||It was said unto him, O Noah, come down from the ark,g with peace from us, and blessings upon thee, and upon part of those who are with thee:h but as for a part of them,i we will suffer them to enjoy the provision of this world; and afterwards shall a grievous punishment from us be inflicted on them, in the life to come.||g The Mohammedans say that Noah went into the ark on the tenth of Rajeb, and came out of it the tenth of al Moharram, which therefore became a fast. So that the whole time of Noahs being in the ark, according to them, was six months.1
1 Idem. See DHerbel. ubi sup.
h viz., Such of them as continued in their belief.
i That is, such of his posterity as should depart from the true faith, and fall into idolatry.
|It was said to him, "O Noah! debark with peace from Us, and with blessings on thee and on peoples to be born from those who are with thee; but as for other and unbelieving peoples, we will give them their good things in this world, but hereafter shall a grievous punishment light on them from us.|
|75||51||11||This is a secret history, which we reveal unto thee: thou didst not know it, neither did thy people, before this. Wherefore persevere with patience: for the prosperous issue shall attend the pious.||This is one of the secret Histories: we reveal it unto thee: neither thou nor thy people knew it ere this: be patient thou: verily, there is a prosperous issue to the God-fearing.|
|75||52||11||And unto the tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hud.k He said, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him: ye only imagine falsehood, in setting up idols and intercessors of your own making.||k See chapter 7, p. 111.||And unto Ad we sent their Brother HOUD. He said, "O my people, worship God. You have no God beside Him. Ye only devise a lie.|
|75||53||11||O my people, I ask not of you for this my preaching, any recompense: my recompense do I expect from him only who hath created me. Will ye not therefore understand?||O my people! I ask of you no recompense for this: my recompense is with Him only who hath made me. Will ye not then understand?|
|75||54||11||O my people, ask pardon of your LORD; and be turned unto him: he will send the heaven to pour forth rain plentifully upon you,l||l For the Adites were grievously distressed by a drought for three years.2
2 See the notes to cap. 7, p. 111.
|O my people! ask pardon of your Lord; then be turned unto Him: He will send down the heavens upon you with copious rains:|
|75||55||11||and he will increase your strength by giving unto you farther strength:m therefore turn not aside, to commit evil.||m By giving you children; the wombs of their wives being also rendered barren during the time of the drought, as well as their lands.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And with strength on strength will He increase you: only turn not back with deeds of evil."|
|75||56||11||They answered, O Hud, thou hast brought us no proof of what thou sayest; therefore we will not leave our gods for thy saying, neither do we believe thee||They said, "O Houd, thou hast not brought us proofs of thy mission: we will not abandon our gods at thy word, and we believe thee not.|
|75||57||11||We say no other than that some of our gods have afflicted thee with evil.n He replied, Verily I call GOD to witness, and do ye also bear witness that I am clear of that which ye associate||n Or madness; having deprived thee of thy reason for the indignities thou hast offered them.||We can only say that some of our gods have smitten thee with evil." Said he, "Now take I God to witness, and do ye also witness, that I am clear of your joining other gods|
|75||58||11||with God, besides him. Do ye all therefore join to devise a plot against me, and tarry not;||To God. Conspire then against me all of you, and delay me not.|
|75||59||11||for I put my confidence in GOD, my LORD and your LORD. There is no beast, but he holdeth it by its forelock:o verily my LORD proceedeth in the right way.||o That is, he exerciseth an absolute power over it. A creature held in this manner being supposed to be reduced to the lowest subjection.||For I trust in God, my Lord and yours. No single beast is there which he holdeth not by its forelock. Right, truly, is the way in which my Lord goeth.|
|75||60||11||But if ye turn back, I have already declared unto you that with which I was sent unto you: and my LORD shall substitute another nation in your stead; and ye shall not hurt him at all: for my LORD is guardian over all things.||But if ye turn back, I have already declared to you my message. And my Lord will put another people in your place, nor shall ye at all hurt Him; verily, my Lord keepeth watch over all things."|
|75||61||11||And when our sentence came to be put in execution, we delivered Hud, and those who had believed with him,p through our mercy; and we delivered them from a grievous punishment.||p Who were in number four thousand.4
|And when our doom came to be inflicted, we rescued Houd and those who had like faith with Him, by our special mercy: we rescued them from the rigorous chastisement.|
|75||62||11||And this tribe of Ad wittingly rejected the signs of their LORD, and were disobedient unto his messengers, and they followed the command of every rebellious perverse person.||These men of Ad gainsaid the signs of their Lord, and rebelled against his messengers, and followed the bidding of every proud contumacious person.|
|75||63||11||Wherefore they were followed in this world by a curse, and they shall be followed by the same on the day of resurrection. Did not Ad disbelieve in their LORD? Was it not said, Away with Ad, the people of Hud?||Followed therefore were they in this world by a curse; and in the day of the Resurrection it shall be said to them, "What! Did not Ad disbelieve their Lord?" Was not Ad, the people of Houd, cast far away?|
|75||64||11||And unto the tribe of Thamud we sent their brother Saleh.q He said unto them, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him. It is he who hath produced you out of the earth, and hath given you an habitation therein. Ask pardon of him therefore, and be turned unto him; for my LORD is near, and ready to answer.||q See chapter 7, p. 112.||11:64-65
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 10, p. 10
|And unto the tribe of Thamud We sent their brother Salih. 'O my people,' said He, 'Worship God, ye have none other God beside Him. . . .'||And unto Themoud we sent their Brother Saleh:10"O my people! said he, worship God: you have no other god than Him. He hath raised you up out of the earth, and hath given you to dwell therein. Ask pardon of him then, and be turned unto him; for thy Lord is nigh, ready to answer."||10 A Prophet, so far as we know, of Muhammad's own invention, unless Muir's conjecture be admitted that he was a Christian or Jewish missionary whose adventures and persecution were recast into this form.The name may have been suggested by, Methusaleh, upon whose piety the Midrasch enlarges.|
|75||65||11||They answered, O Saleh, thou wast a person on whom we placed our hopes before this.r Dost thou forbid us to worship that which our fathers worshipped? But we are certainly in doubt concerning the religion to which thou dost invite us, as justly to be suspected.||r Designing to have made thee our prince, because of the singular prudence and other good qualities which we observed in thee; but thy dissenting from us in point of religious worship has frustrated those hopes.5
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 10, p. 10
|They made reply: 'O Salih, our hopes were fixed on thee until now; forbiddest thou us to worship that which our fathers worshipped? Truly we misdoubt that whereunto thou callest us as suspicious.'||They said, "O Saleh! our hopes were fixed on thee till now:11 forbiddest thou us to worship what our fathers worshipped? Truly we misdoubt the faith to which thou callest us, as suspicious."||11 That is, we had intended to make thee our chief. Beidh.|
|75||66||11||Saleh said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me mercy from himself; who will protect me from the vengeance of GOD, if I be disobedient unto him? For ye shall not add unto me, other than loss.||He said, "O my people! what think ye? If I have a revelation from my Lord to support me, and if He hath shewed his mercy on me, who could protect me from God if I rebel against him? Ye would only confer on me increase of ruin.|
|75||67||11||And he said, O my people, this she-camel of GOD is a sign unto you; therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in GOD'S earth, and do her no harm, lest a swift punishment seize you.||O my people! this is the she-Camel of God, and a sign unto you. Let her go at large and feed in God's earth, and do her no harm, lest a speedy punishment overtake you."|
|75||68||11||Yet they killed her; and Saleh said, Enjoy yourselves in your dwellings for three days:s after which ye shall be destroyed. This is an infallible prediction.||s viz., Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday.1 See chapter 7, p. 113, note m.
|Yet they hamstrung her: then said he, "Yet three days more enjoy yourselves in your dwellings: this menace will not prove untrue."|
|75||69||11||And when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Saleh and those who believed with him, through our mercy, from the disgrace of that day; for thy LORD is the strong, the mighty God.||And when our sentence came to pass, we rescued Saleh and those who had a like faith with him, by our mercy, from ignominy on that day. Verily, thy Lord is the Strong, the Mighty!|
|75||70||11||But a terrible noise from heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses, lying dead and prostrate:||And a violent tempest overtook the wicked, and they were found in the morning prostrate in their dwellings,|
|75||71||11||as though they had never dwelt therein. Did not Thamud disbelieve in their LORD? Was not Thamud cast far away?||As though they had never abode in them. What! Did not Themoud disbelieve his Lord? Was not Themoud utterly cast off?|
|75||72||11||Our messengerst also came formerly unto Abraham, with good tidings: they said, Peace be upon thee. And he answered, and on you be Peace! And he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf.||t These were the angels who were sent to acquaint Abraham with the promise of Isaac, and to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. Some of the commentators pretend they were twelve, or nine, or ten in number; but others, agreeably to scripture, say they were but three, viz., Gabriel, Michael and Israfîl.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin. See Gen. xviii.
|And our messengers came formerly to Abraham with glad tidings. "Peace," said they. He said, "Peace," and he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf.|
|75||73||11||And when he saw that their hands did not touch the meat, he misliked them, and entertained a fear of them.u But they said, Fear not: for we are sent unto the people of Lot.x||u Apprehending they had some ill design against him, because they would not eat with him.
x Being angels, whose nature needs not the support of food.3
|And when he saw that their hands touched it not,12 he misliked them, and grew fearful of them. They said, "Fear not, for we are sent to the people of Lot."||12 Thus, in contradiction to Gen. xviii. 8, the Rabbins; comp. Tr. Baba Mezia, fol. 86, "They made as though they ate."|
|75||74||11||And his wife Sarah was standing by,y and she laughed;z and we promised her Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob.||y Either behind the curtain, or door of the tent; or else waiting upon them.
z The commentators are so little acquainted with scripture, that, not knowing the true occasion of Sarahs laughter, they strain their invention to give some reason for it. One says that she laughed at the angels discovering themselves, and ridding Abraham and herself of their apprehensions; and another, that it was at the approaching destruction of the Sodomites (a very probable motive in one of her sex). Some, however, interpret the original word differently, and will have it that she did not laugh, but that her courses, which had stopped for several years, came upon her at this time, as a previous sign of her future conception.4
4 Idem, Jallaloddin, al Zamakhshari.
|His wife was standing by and laughed;13 and we announced Isaac to her; and after Isacc, Jacob.||13 Or, menstrua passa est, in token of the possibility of her bearing a child.|
|75||75||11||She said, Alas! shall I bear a son, who am old; this my husband also being advanced in years?a Verily this would be a wonderful thing.||a Al Beidâwi writes that Sarah was then ninety or ninety-nine years old, and Abraham a hundred and twenty.||She said, "Ah, woe is me! shall I bear a son when I am old, and when this my husband is an old man? This truly would be a marvellous thing."|
|75||76||11||The angels answered, Dost thou wonder at the effect of the command of GOD? The mercy of God and his blessings be upon you, the family of the house:b for he is praiseworthy, and to be glorified.||b Or the stock whence all the prophets were to proceed for the future. Or the expression may perhaps refer to Abraham and Ismaels building the Caaba, which is often called, by way of excellence, the house.||They said, "Marvellest thou at the command of God? God's mercy and blessing be upon you, O people of this house; praise and glory are His due!"|
|75||77||11||And when his apprehension had departed from Abraham, and the good tidings of Isaac's birth had come unto him, he disputed with us concerning the people of Lot;c for Abraham was a pitiful, compassionate, and devout person.||c That is, he interceded with us for them.5 Jallaloddin, instead of the numbers mentioned by Moses, says that Abraham first asked whether GOD would destroy those cities if three hundred righteous persons were found therein, and so fell successively to two hundred, forty, fourteen, and at last came to one: but there was not one righteous person to be found among them, except only Lot and his family.
5 Vide Gen. xviii. 23, &c.
|And when Abraham's fear had passed away, and these glad tidings had reached him, he pleaded with us for the people of Lot. Verily, Abraham was right kind, pitiful, relenting.|
|75||78||11||The angels said unto him, O Abraham, abstain from this; for now is the command of thy LORD come, to put their sentence in execution, and an inevitable punishment is ready to fall upon them.||"O Abraham! desist from this; for already hath the command of thy God gone forth; as for them, a punishment not to be averted is coming on them."|
|75||79||11||And when our messengers came unto Lot, he was troubled for them,d and his arm was straightened concerning them;e and he said, This is a grievous day.||d Because they appeared in the shape of beautiful young men, which must needs tempt those of Sodom to abuse them.6
6 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi. Vide Joseph. Ant. l. I, c. II.
e i.e., He knew himself unable to protect them against the insults of his townsmen.
|And when our messengers came to Lot, he was grieved for them; and he was too weak to protect them,14 and he said, "This is a day of difficulty."||14 Lit. his arm was straitened concerning them.|
|75||80||11||And his people came unto him, rushing upon him, and they had formerly been guilty of wickedness. Lot said unto them, O my people, these my daughters are more lawful for you: therefore fear GOD, and put me not to shame by wronging my guests. Is there not a man of prudence among you?||And his people came rushing on towards him, for aforetime had they wrought this wickedness. He said, "O my people! these my daughters will be purer for you: fear God, and put me not to shame in my guests. Is there no rightminded man among you?"|
|75||81||11||They answered, Thou knowest that we have no need of thy daughters; and thou well knowest what we would have.||They said, "Thou knowest now that we need not thy daughters; and thou well knowest what we require."|
|75||82||11||He said, If I had strength sufficient to oppose you, or I could have recourse unto a powerful support, I would certainly do it.||He said, "Would that I had strength to resist you, or that I could find refuge with some powerful chieftain."15||15 Lit. column.|
|75||83||11||The angels said, O Lot, verily we are the messengers of thy LORD; they shall by no means come in unto thee.f Go forth, therefore, with thy family, in some part of the night, and let not any of you turn back: but as for thy wife,g that shall happen unto her, which shall happen unto them. Verily the prediction of their punishment shall be fulfilled in the morning: is not the morning near?||f Al Beidâwi says that Lot shut his door, and argued the matter with the riotous assembly from behind it; but at length they endeavoured to get over the wall: whereupon Gabriel, seeing his distress, struck them on the face with one of his wings, and blinded them; so that they moved off, crying out for help, and saying that Lot had magicians in his house.
g This seems to be the true sense of the passage; but according to a different reading of the vowel, some interpret it, Except thy wife; the meaning being that Lot is here commanded to take his family with him except his wife. Wherefore the commentators cannot agree whether Lots wife went forth with him or not; some denying it, and pretending that she was left behind and perished in the common destruction; and others affirming it, and saying that when she heard the noise of the storm and overthrow of the cities, she turned back lamenting their fate, and was immediately struck down and killed by one of the stones mentioned a little lower.1 A punishment she justly merited for her infidelity and disobedience to her husband.2
1 Idem interpretes.
2 See cap. 66.
|Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XXIV, within pp. 50-51)
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: Verily, that with which they are threatened is for the morning. Is not the morning near?||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter II, p. 36
|The Angels said, "O Lot! verily, we are the messengers of thy Lord: they shall not touch thee: depart with thy family in the dead of night, and let not one of you turn back: as for thy wife, on her shall light what shall light on them. Verily, that with which they are threatened is for the morning. Is not the morning near?"|
|75||84||11||And when our command came, we turned those cities upside down,h and we rained upon them stones of baked clay,i one following another, and being markedk from thy LORD; and they are not far distant from those who act unjustly.l||h For they tell us that Gabriel thrust his wing under them, and lifted them up so high, that the inhabitants of the lower heaven heard the barking of the dogs and the crowing of the cocks; and then, inverting them, threw them down to the earth.3
3 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
i The kiln wherein they were burned some imagine to have been hell.
k That is, as some suppose, streaked with white and red, or having some other peculiar mark to distinguish them from ordinary stones. But the common opinion is that each stone had the name of the person who was to be killed by it written thereon.4 The army of Abraha al Ashram was also destroyed by the same kind of stones.
l This is a kind of threat to other wicked persons, and particularly to the infidels of Mecca, who deserved and might justly apprehend the same punishment.
|And when our decree came to be executed we turned those cities upside down, and we rained down upon them blocks of claystone one after another, marked16 by thy Lord himself. Nor are they far distant from the wicked Meccans.||16 With the name, it is said, of the person each should strike.|
|75||85||11||And unto Madian we sent their brother Shoaib:m he said, O people, worship GOD: ye have no GOD but him: and diminish not measure and weight. Verily I see you to be in a happy condition:n but I fear for you the punishment of the day which will encompass the ungodly.||m See chap. 7, p. 113, &c.
n That is, enjoying plenty of all things; and therefore having the less occasion to defraud one another, and being the more strongly bound to be thankful and obedient unto GOD.
|And we sent to Madian17 their brother Shoaib. He said, "O my people! worship God: no other God have you than He: give not short weight and measure: I see indeed that ye revel in good things; but I fear for you the punishment of the all-encompassing day.||17 See Sura [lvi.] xxvi. 176.|
|75||86||11||O my people, give full measure and just weight; and diminish not unto men aught of their matters; neither commit injustice in the earth, acting corruptly.||O my people! give weight and measure with fairness; purloin not other men's goods; and perpetrate not injustice on the earth with corrupt practices:|
|75||87||11||The residue which shall remain unto you as the gift of GOD, after ye shall have done justice to others, will be better for you, than wealth gotten by fraud, if ye be true believers.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXXXIV, p. 71)
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: The Baqiyyatu'llah [Remnant of God] will be best for you if ye are of those who believe||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XIX, p. 352
|A residue,18 the gift of God, will be best for you if ye are believers:||18 That is, after giving fair measure.|
|75||88||11||I am no guardian over you.||But I am not a guardian over you."|
|75||89||11||They answered, O Shoaib, do thy prayers enjoin thee, that we should leave the gods which our fathers worshipped; or that we should not do what we please with our substance?o Thou only, it seems, art the wise person, and fit to direct.||o For this liberty they imagined was taken from them, by his prohibition of false weights and measures, or to diminish or adulterate their coin.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
|They said to him, "O Shoaib! is it thy prayers which enjoin that we should leave what our fathers worshipped, or that we should not do with our substance as pleaseth us? Thou forsooth art the mild, the right director!"|
|75||90||11||He said, O my people, tell me: if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me an excellent provision, and I will not consent unto you in that which I forbid you; do I seek any other than your reformation, to the utmost of my power? My support is from GOD alone: on him do I trust, and unto him do I turn me.||He said, "O my people! How think ye? If I have a clear revelation from my Lord, and if from Himself He hath supplied me with goodly supplies, and if I will not follow you in that which I myself forbid you, do I seek aught but your amendment so far as in me lieth? My sole help is in God. In Him do I trust, and to Him do I turn me.|
|75||91||11||O my people, let not your opposing of me draw on you a vengeance like unto that which fell on the people of Noah, or the people of Hud, or the people of Saleh: neither was the people of Lot far distant from you.p||p For Sodom and Gomorrah were situate not a great way from you, and their destruction happened not many ages ago; neither did they deserve it, on account of their obstinacy and wickedness, much more than yourselves.||O my people! let not your opposition to me draw down upon you the like of that which befel the people of Noah, or the people of Houd, or the people of Saleh: and the abodes of the people of Lot are not far distant from you!|
|75||92||11||Ask pardon, therefore, of your LORD; and be turned unto him: for my LORD is merciful and loving.||Seek pardon of your Lord and be turned unto Him: verily, my Lord is Merciful, Loving.|
|75||93||11||They answered, O Shoaib, we understand not much of what thou sayest; and we see thee to be a man of no powerq among us: if it had not been for the sake of thy family,r we had surely stoned thee, neither couldst thou have prevailed against us.||q The Arabic word daîf, weak, signifying also, in the Hamyaritic dialect, blind, some suppose that Shoaib was so, and that the Midianites objected that to him as a defect which disqualified him for the prophetic office.
r i.e., For the respect we bear to thy family and relations, whom we honour as being of our religion, and not for any apprehension we have of their power to assist you against us. The original word, here translated family, signifies any number from three to seven or ten, but not more.6
|They said, "O Shoaib! we understand not much of what thou sayest, and we clearly see that thou art powerless among us: were it not for thy family we would have surely stoned thee, nor couldest thou have prevailed against us."|
|75||94||11||Shoaib said, O my people, is my family more worthy in your opinion than GOD? and do ye cast him behind you with neglect? Verily my LORD comprehendeth that which ye do.||He said, "O my people! think ye more highly of my family than of God? Cast ye Him behind your back, with neglect? Verily, my Lord is round about your actions.|
|75||95||11||O my people, do ye work according to your condition; I will surely work according to my duty.s And ye shall certainly know||s See chapter 6, p. 101, note o.||And, O my people! act with what power ye can for my hurt: I verily will act: and ye shall know|
|75||96||11||on whom will be inflicted a punishment which shall cover him with shame, and who is a liar. Wait, therefore, the event; for I also will wait it with you.||On whom shall light a punishment that shall disgrace him, and who is the liar. Await ye; verily I will await with you."|
|75||97||11||Wherefore, when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Shoaib and those who believed with him, through our mercy: and a terrible noise from Heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses lying dead and prostrate,||And when our decree came to pass, we delivered Shoaib and his companions in faith, by our mercy: And a violent tempest overtook the wicked, and in the morning they were found prostrate in their houses|
|75||98||11||as though they had never dwelt therein. Was not Madian removed from off the earth, as Thamud had been removed?||As if they had never dwelt in them. Was not Madian swept off even as Themoud had been swept off?|
|75||99||11||And we formerly sent Moses with our signs, and manifest power unto Pharaoh and his princes;t but they followed the command of Pharaoh; although the command of Pharaoh did not direct them aright.||t See chapter 7, p. 115, &c.||Of old sent we Moses with our signs and with incontestable power to Pharaoh, and to his nobleswho followed the behests of Pharaoh, and, unrighteous were Pharaoh's behests.|
|75||100||11||Pharaoh shall precede his on the day of resurrection, and he shall lead them into hell fire; an unhappy way shall it be which they shall be led.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 67-70, Muhammad-Hadiy-i-Sahhaf)
Memorials of the Faithful (Mirzá Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
|He shall head his people on the day of the Resurrection and cause them to descend into the fire: and wretched the descent by which they shall descend!|
|75||101||11||They were followed in this life by a curse, and on the day of resurrection miserable shall be the gift which shall be given them.||Memorials of the Faithful (Mirzá Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 67-70, Muhammad-Hadiy-i-Sahhaf)
|They were followed by a curse in this world; and in the day of the Resurrection, wretched the gift that shall be given them!|
|75||102||11||This is a part of the histories of the cities, which we rehearse unto thee. Of them there are some standing; and others which are utterly demolished.u||u Literally, mown down; the sentence presenting the different images of corn standing, and cut down, which is also often used by the sacred writers.||Such, the histories of the cities which we relate to thee. Some of them are standing, others mown down:|
|75||103||11||And we treated them not unjustly, but they dealt unjustly with their own souls: and their gods which they invoked, besides GOD, were of no advantage unto them at all, when the decree of thy LORD came to be executed on them, neither were they any other than a detriment unto them.||We dealt not unfairly by them, but they dealt not fairly by themselves: and their gods on whom they called beside God availed them not at all when thy Lord's behest came to pass. They did but increase their ruin.|
|75||104||11||And thus was the punishment of thy LORD inflicted, when he punished the cities which were unjust; for his punishment is grievous and severe.||Such was thy Lord's grasp19 when he laid that grasp on the cities that had been wicked. Verily his grasp is afflictive, terrible!||19 Seizure, for punishment. Hence, the punishment itself.|
|75||105||11||Verily herein is a sign unto him who feareth the punishment of the last day: that shall be a day, whereon all men shall be assembled, and that shall be a day whereon witness shall be borne;||Herein truly is a sign for him who feareth the punishment of the latter day. That shall be a day unto which mankind shall be gathered together; that shall be a day witnessed by all creatures.|
|75||106||11||we defer it not, but to a determined time.||Nor do we delay it, but until a time appointed.|
|75||107||11||When that day shall come, no soul shall speak to excuse itself, or to intercede for another, but by the permission of God. Of them, one shall be miserable, and another shall be happy.||When that day shall come no one shall speak a word but by His leave, and some shall be miserable and others blessed.|
|75||108||11||And they who shall be miserable, shall be thrown into hell fire; there shall they wail and bemoan themselves:x||x The two words in the original signify properly the vehement drawing in and expiration of ones breath, which is usual to persons in great pain and anguish; and particularly the reciprocation of the voice of an ass when he brays.||And as for those who shall be consigned to miserytheir place the Fire! therein shall they sigh and bemoan them|
|75||109||11||they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth shall endure;y except what thy LORD shall please to remit of their sentence;z for thy LORD effecteth that which he pleaseth.||y This is not to be strictly understood as if either the punishment of the damned should have an end, or the heavens and the earth should endure for ever; the expression being only used by way of image or comparison, which need not agree in every point with the thing signified. Some, however, think the future heavens and earth, into which the present shall be changed, are here meant.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
z See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 72, 73.
|Therein shall they abide while the Heavens and the Earth shall last, unless thy Lord shall will it otherwise; verily thy Lord doth what He chooseth.|
|75||110||11||But they who shall be happy, shall be admitted into paradise; they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth endure: besides what thy LORD shall please to add unto their bliss; a bounty which shall not be interrupted.||And as for the blessed onestheir place the Garden! therein shall they abide while the Heavens and the Earth endure, with whatever imperishable boon thy Lord may please to add.|
|75||111||11||Be not therefore in doubt concerning that which these men worship: they worship no other than what their fathers worshipped before them; and we will surely give them their full portion, not in the least diminished.||Have thou no doubts therefore concerning that which they worship: they worship but what their fathers worshipped before them: we will surely assign them their portion with nothing lacking.|
|75||112||11||We formerly gave unto Moses the book of the law; and disputes arose among his people concerning it: and unless a previous decree had proceeded from thy LORD, to bear with them during this life, the matter had been surely decided between them. And thy people are also jealous and in doubt concerning the Koran.||Of old gave we Moses the Book, and they fell to variance about it. If a decree of respite had not gone forth from thy Lord, there had surely been a decision between them. Thy people also are in suspicious doubts about the Koran.|
|75||113||11||But unto every one of them will thy LORD render the reward of their works; for he well knoweth that which they do.||And truly thy Lord will repay every one according to their works! for He is well aware of what they do.|
|75||114||11||Be thou steadfast, therefore, as thou hast been commanded; and let him also be steadfast who shall be converted with thee; and transgress not; for he seeth that which ye do.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 261, p. 233
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 55, paragraph 76
The Four Valleys (Preamble, within pp. 47-49)
|Be thou steadfast as thou hast been bidden.
BWC: Be thou steadfast as thou hast been bidden.
MG: Go straight on then as thou hast been commanded.
|Go straight on then as thou hast been commanded, and he also who hath turned to God with thee, and let him transgress no more. He beholdeth what ye do.|
|75||115||11||And incline not unto those who act unjustly, lest the fire of hell touch you: for ye have no protectors, except GOD; neither shall ye be assisted against him.||Lean not on the evil doers lest the Fire lay hold on you. Ye have no protector, save God, and ye shall not be helped against Him.|
|75||116||11||Pray regularly morning and evening;a and in the former part of the night,b for good works drive away evils. This is an admonition unto those who consider:||a Literally, in the two extremities of the day.
b That is, after sunset and before supper, when the Mohammedans say their fourth prayer, called by them Salât al moghreb, or the evening prayer.2
|And observe prayer at early morning, at the close of the day, and at the approach of night; for the good deeds drive away the evil deeds. This is a warning for those who reflect:|
|75||117||11||wherefore persevere with patience; for GOD suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish.||And persevere steadfastly, for verily God will not suffer the reward of the righteous to perish.|
|75||118||11||Were such of the generations before you, endued with understanding and virtue, who forbade the acting corruptly in the earth, any more than a few only of those whom we delivered; but they who were unjust followed the delights which they enjoyed in this world,c and were wicked doers:d||c Making it their sole business to please their luxurious desires and appetites, and placing their whole felicity therein.
d Al Beidâwi says that this passage gives the reason why the nations were destroyed of old; viz., for their violence and injustice, their following their own lusts, and for their idolatry and unbelief.
|Were the generations before you, endued with virtue, and who forbad corrupt doings on the earth, more than a few of those whom we delivered? but the evil doers followed their selfish pleasures, and became transgressors.|
|75||119||11||and thy LORD was not of such a disposition as to destroy the cities unjustly,e while their inhabitants behaved themselves uprightly.||e Or, as the commentator just named explains it, for their idolatry only, when they observed justice in other respects.||And thy Lord was not one who would destroy those cities unjustly, when its inhabitants were righteous.|
|75||120||11||And if thy LORD pleased, he would have made all men of one religion: but they shall not cease to differ among themselves, unless those on whom thy LORD shall have mercy: and unto this hath he created them; for the word of thy LORD shall be fulfilled, when he said, Verily I will fill hell altogether with genii and men.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXXXV, p. 67)
|cf. BWC: Had it been Our wish, We would have brought all men into one fold round Our Remembrance, yet they will not cease to differ||Had thy Lord pleased he would have made mankind of one religion: but those only to whom thy Lord hath granted his mercy will cease to differ. And unto this hath He created them; for the word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled, "I will wholly fill hell with Djinn and men."|
|75||121||11||The whole which we have related of the histories of our apostles do we relate unto thee, that we may confirm thy heart thereby; and herein is the truth come unto thee, and an admonition, and a warning unto the true believers.||And all that we have related to thee of the histories of these Apostles, is to confirm thy heart thereby. By these hath the truth reached thee, and a monition and warning to those who believe.|
|75||122||11||Say unto those who believe not, Act ye according to your condition; we surely will act according to our duty:f and wait the issue; for we certainly wait it also.||f See chapter 6, p. 110, note o.||But say to those who believe not, "Act as ye may and can: we will act our part: and wait ye; we verily will wait."|
|75||123||11||Unto GOD is known that which is secret in heaven and earth; and unto him shall the whole matter be referred. Therefore worship him, and put thy trust in him; for thy LORD is not regardless of that which ye do.||To God belong the secret things of the Heavens and of the Earth: all things return to him: worship him then and put thy trust in Him: thy Lord is not regardless of your doings.20||20 In the later period of his life Muhammad attributed his gray hairs to the effect produced upon him by this Sura and its "Sisters." While Abu Bekr and Omar sat in the mosque at Medina, Muhammad suddenly came upon them from the door of one of his wives' houses. . . . And Abu Bekr said, "Ah! thou for whom I would sacrifice father and mother, white hairs are hastening upon thee!" And the Prophet raised up his beard with his hand and gazed at it; and Abu Bekr's eyes filled with tears. "Yes," said Muhammad, "Hûd and its sisters have hastened my white hairs." "And what," asked Abu Bekr, "are its sisters?" "The Inevitable (Sura lvi.) and the Blow (Sura ci.)." Kitâb al Wackidi, p. 84, ap. Muir.|
|77||0||12||CHAPTER XII.||SURA XII.JOSEPH, PEACE BE ON HIM [LXXVII.]|
|77||0||12||ENTITLED, JOSEPH;g REVEALED AT MECCA.||g The Koreish, thinking to puzzle Mohammed, at the instigation and by the direction of certain Jewish Rabbins, demanded of him how Jacobs family happened to go down into Egypt, and that he would relate to them the history of Joseph, with all its circumstances: whereupon he pretended to have received this chapter from heaven, containing the story of that patriarch.1 It is said, however, to have been rejected by two Mohammedan sects, branches of the Khârejites, called the Ajâredites and the Maimûnians, as apocryphal and spurious.
1 Al Beidâwi.
The Seven Valleys (Valley of Search) regarding Joseph
A Travelers Narrative, p. 4
|This Suráh to have the title as the Best of Stories according to The Dawn-Breakers footnote||12:all
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter III, p. 59
|77||0||12||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|77||1||12||AL. R.h These are the signs of the perspicuous book;||h See the Prelim. Disc. p. 46, &c.||ELIF. LAM. RA.1 These are signs of the clear Book.||1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32. In no other Sura beside this is one subject treated of throughout. It was recited to the first eight of the Ansars who were converted, and clearly proves that Muhammad must have been in confidential intercourse with learned Jews.|
|77||2||12||which we have sent down in the Arabic tongue, that, peradventure, ye might understand.||An Arabic Koran have we sent it down, that ye might understand it.|
|77||3||12||We relate unto thee a most excellent history, by revealing unto thee this Korân,i whereas thou wast before one of thek negligent.||i Or this particular chapter. For the word Korân, as has been elsewhere observed,2 properly signifying no more than a reading or lecture, is often used to denote, not only the whole volume, but any distinct chapter or section of it.
2 Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 44.
k i.e., So far from being acquainted with the story, that it never so much as entered into thy thoughts; a certain argument, says al Beidâwi, that it must have been revealed to him from heaven.
|In revealing to thee this Koran,2 one of the most beautiful of narratives will we narrate to thee, of which thou hast hitherto been regardless.||2 The word Koran is here used in the same sense as Sura.|
|77||4||12||When Joseph said unto his father,l O my father, verily I saw in my dream eleven stars,m and the sun and the moon; I saw them make obeisance unto me:||l Who was Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham.3
1 Al Beidâwi, &c.
m The commentators give us the names of these stars (which I think it needless to trouble the reader with), as Mohammed repeated them, at the request of a Jew, who thought to entrap him by the question.2
2 Idem, al Zamakhshari.
|When Joseph said to his Father, "O my Father! verily I beheld eleven stars and the sun and the moonbeheld them make obeisance to me!"3||3 Muhammad was either unaware of the previous dream mentioned, Gen. xxxvii. 7, or passes it by in silence.|
|77||5||12||Jacob said, O my child, tell not thy vision to thy brethren, lest they devise some plot against thee;n for the devil is a professed enemy unto man;||n For they say, Jacob, judging that Josephs dream portended his advancement above the rest of the family, justly apprehended his brethrens envy might tempt them to do him some mischief.||He said, "O my son! tell not thy vision to thy brethren, lest they plot a plot against thee: for Satan is the manifest foe of man.|
|77||6||12||and thus, according to thy dream, shall thy LORD choose thee, and teach thee the interpretation of dark sayings,o and he shall accomplish his favor upon thee and upon the family of Jacob, as he hath formerly accomplished it upon thy fathers Abraham and Isaac; for thy LORD is knowing and wise.||o That is, of dreams; or, as others suppose, of the profound passages of scripture, and all difficulties respecting either religion or justice.||It is thus that thy Lord shall choose thee and will teach thee the interpretation of dark saying, and will perfect his favours on thee and on the family of Jacob, as of old he perfected it on thy fathers Abraham and Isaac; verily thy Lord is Knowing, Wise!"|
|77||7||12||Surely in the history of Joseph and his brethren there are signs of God's providence to the inquisitive;||Now in JOSEPH and his brethren are signs for the enquirers;4||4 The captious and unbelieving Koreisch.|
|77||8||12||when they said to one another, Joseph and his brotherp are dearer to our father than we, who are the greater number: our father certainly maketh a wrong judgment.||p viz., Benjamin, his brother by the same mother.||When they said, "Surely better loved by our Father, than we, who are more in number, is Joseph and his brother; verily, our father hath clearly erred.|
|77||9||12||Wherefore slay Joseph, or drive him into some distant or desert part of the earth, and the face of your father shall be cleared towards you;q and ye shall afterwards be people of integrity.||Senses, reason, traditions, intuition, Holy Spirit (SAQ 83)||Slay ye Joseph! or drive him to some other land, and on you alone shall your father's face be set! and after this, ye shall live as upright persons."|
|77||10||12||One of themr spoke and said; Slay not Joseph, but throw him to the bottom of the well; and some travellers will take him up, if ye do this.||r This person, as some say, was Judah, the most prudent and noble-minded of them all; or, according to others, Reuben, whom the Mohammedan writers call Rubîl.3 And both these opinions are supported by the account of Moses, who tells us that Reuben advised them not to kill Joseph, but to throw him into a pit privately, intending to release him;4 and that afterwards Judah, in Reubens absence, persuaded them not to let him die in the pit, but to sell him to the Ishmaelites.5
4 Gen. xxxvii. 21, 22.
5 Ibid. v. 26, 27.
|One of them said, "Slay not Joseph, but cast him down to the bottom of the well: if ye do so, some wayfarers will take him up."|
|77||11||12||They said unto Jacob, O father, why dost thou not intrust Joseph with us, since we are sincere well-wishers unto him?||They said, "O our Father! why dost thou not entrust us with Joseph? indeed we mean him well.|
|77||12||12||Send him with us to-morrow, into the field, that he may divert himself, and sport,s and we will be his guardians.||s Some copies read, in the first person plural, that we may divert ourselves, &c.||Send him with us to-morrow that he may enjoy himself and sport: we will surely keep him safely."|
|77||13||12||Jacob answered, It grieveth me that ye take him away; and I fear lest the wolf devour him,t while ye are negligent of him.||t The reason why Jacob feared this beast in particular, as the commentators say, was, either because the land was full of wolves, or else because Jacob had dreamed he saw Joseph devoured by one of those creatures.6
6 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, al Zamakhshari.
|He said, "Verily, your taking him away will grieve me; and I fear lest while ye are heedless of him the wolf devour him."|
|77||14||12||They said, Surely if the wolf devour him, when there are so many of us, we shall be weak indeed.u||u i.e., It will be an instance of extreme weakness and folly in us, and we shall be justly blamed for his loss.||They said, "Surely if the wolf devour him, and we so many, we must in that case be weak indeed."5||5 Wir mussten denn zuerst das Leben einbüssen. Wahl. Ullm. Maracci.|
|77||15||12||And when they had carried him with them, and agreed to set him at the bottom of the well,x they executed their design: and we sent a revelation unto him,y saying, Thou shalt hereafter declare this their action unto them; and they shall not perceive thee to be Joseph.||x This well, say some, was a certain well near Jerusalem, or not far from the river Jordan; but others call it the well of Egypt or Midian. The commentators tell us that, when the sons of Jacob had gotten Joseph with them in the field, they began to abuse and to beat him so unmercifully, that they had killed him, had not Judah, on his crying out for help, insisted on the promise they had made not to kill him, but to cast him into the well. Whereupon they let him down a little way; but, as he held by the sides of the well, they bound him, and took off his inner garment, designing to stain it with blood, to deceive their father. Joseph begged hard to have his garment returned him, but to no purpose, his brothers telling him, with a sneer, that the eleven stars and the sun and the moon might clothe him and keep him company. When they had let him down half-way, they let him fall thence to the bottom, and, there being water in the well (though the scripture says the contrary), he was obliged to get upon a stone, on which, as he stood weeping, the angel Gabriel came to him with the revelation mentioned immediately.1
y Joseph being then but seventeen years old, al Beidâwi observes that herein he resembled John the Baptist and Jesus, who were also favoured with the divine communication very early. The commentators pretend that Gabriel also clothed him in the well with a garment of silk of paradise. For they say that when Abraham was thrown into the fire by Nimrod,2 he was stripped; and that Gabriel brought this garment and put it on him; and that from Abraham it descended to Jacob, who folded it up and put it into an amulet, which he hung about Josephs neck, whence Gabriel drew it out.3
2 See cap. 21.
3 Al Beidâwi, al Zamakhshari.
|And when they went away with him they agreed to place him at the bottom of the well. And We revealed to him, "Thou wilt yet tell them of this their deed, when they shall not know thee."|
|77||16||12||And they came to their father at even, weeping,||And they came at nightfall to their father weeping.|
|77||17||12||and said, Father, we went and ran races with one another,z and we left Joseph with our baggage, and the wolf hath devoured him; but thou wilt not believe us, although we speak the truth.||z These races they used by way of exercise; and the commentators generally understand here that kind of race wherein they also showed their dexterity in throwing darts, which is still used in the east.||They said, "O our Father! of a truth, we went to run races, and we left Joseph with our clothes, and the wolf devoured him: but thou wilt not believe us even though we speak the truth."|
|77||18||12||And they produced his inner garment stained with false blood. Jacob answered, Nay, but ye yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes:a however patience is most becoming, and GOD'S assistance is to be implored to enable me to support the misfortune which ye relate.||a This Jacob had reason to suspect, because, when the garment was brought to him, he observed that, though it was bloody, yet it was not torn.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|And they brought his shirt with false blood upon it. He said, "Nay, but yourselves have managed this affair.6 But patience is seemly: and the help of God is to be implored that I may bear what you tell me."||6 Lit. your minds have made a thing seem pleasant to you.|
|77||19||12||And certain travellersb came, and sent onec to draw water for them; and he let down his bucket,d and said, Good news!e this is a youth. And they concealed him,f that they might sell him as a piece of merchandise: but GOD knew that which they did.||b viz., A caravan or company travelling from Midian to Egypt, who rested near the well three days after Joseph had been thrown into it.
c The commentators are so exact as to give us the name of this man, who, as they pretend, was Malec Ebn Dhór, of the tribe of Khozâah.5
d And Joseph, making use of the opportunity, took hold of the cord, and was drawn up by the man.
e The original words are Ya boshra: the latter of which some take for the proper name of the water-drawers companion, whom he called to his assistance; and then they must be translated, O Boshra.
f The expositors are not agreed whether the pronoun they relates to Malec and his companions or to Josephs brethren. They who espouse the former opinion say that those who came to draw water concealed the manner of their coming by him from the rest of the caravan, that they might keep him to themselves, pretending that some people of the place had given him to them to sell for them in Egypt. And they who prefer the latter opinion tell us that Judah carried victuals to Joseph every day while he was in the well, but not finding him there on the fourth day, he acquainted his brothers with it; whereupon they all went to the caravan and claimed Joseph as their slave, he not daring to discover that he was their brother, lest something worse should befall him; and at length they agreed to sell him to them.6
|And wayfarers came and sent their drawer of water,7 and he let down his bucket. "Good news!"8 said he, "This is a youth!" And they kept his case secret, to make merchandise of him. But God knew what they did.||7 According to Gen. xxxvii. 24, the well or pit had "no water in it.
8 Some take the Arabic Boshra as the proper name of the person who accompanied the drawer of water.
|77||20||12||And they sold him for a mean price, for a few pence,g and valued him lightly.||g Namely, twenty or twenty-two dirhems, and those not of full weight neither; for having weighed one ounce of silver only, the remainder was paid by tale, which is the most unfair way of payment.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XXI, p. 49)
|And they sold him for a paltry pricefor some dirhems counted down, and at no high rate did they value him.|
|77||21||12||And the Egyptian who bought himh said to his wife,i Use him honourably; peradventure he may be serviceable to us, or we may adopt him for our son.k Thus did we prepare an establishment for Joseph in the earth, and we taught him the interpretation of dark sayings: for GOD is well able to effect his purpose; but the greater part of men do not understand.||h His name was Kitfîr, or Itfîr (a corruption of Potiphar); and he was a man of great consideration, being superintendent of the royal treasury.2
The commentators say that Joseph came into his service at seventeen, and lived with him thirteen years; and that he was made prime minister in the thirty-third year of his age, and died at a hundred and twenty.
They who suppose Joseph was twice sold differ as to the price the Egyptian paid for him; some saying it was twenty dinârs of gold, a pair of shoes, and two white garments; and others, that it was a large quantity of silver or of gold.
i Some call her Raïl; but the name she is best known by is that of Zoleikha.
k Kitfîr having no children. It is said that Joseph gained his masters good opinion so suddenly by his countenance, which Kitfîr, who, they pretend, had great skill in physiognomy, judged to indicate his prudence and other good qualities.
|And he who bought himan Egyptiansaid to his wife, "Treat him hospitably; haply he may be useful to us, or we may adopt him as a son." Thus did we settle Joseph in the land, and we instructed him in the interpretation of dark sayings, for God is equal to his purpose; but most men know it not.|
|77||22||12||And when he had attained his age of strength, we bestowed on him wisdom, and knowledge; for thus do we recompense the righteous.||And when he had reached his age of strength we bestowed on him judgment and knowledge; for thus do we recompense the well doers.|
|77||23||12||And she, in whose house he was, desired him to lie with her; and she shut the doors and said, Come hither. He answered, GOD forbid! verily my lordl hath made my dwelling with him easy; and the ungrateful shall not prosper.||l viz., Kitfîr. But others understand it to be spoken of GOD.||And she in whose house he was conceived a passion for him, and she shut the doors and said, "Come hither." He said, "God keep me! Verily, my lord hath given me a good home: and the injurious shall not prosper."|
|77||24||12||But she resolved within herself to enjoy him, and he would have resolved to enjoy her, had he not seen the evident demonstration of his LORD.m So we turned away evil and filthiness from him, because he was one of our sincere servants.||m That is, had he not seriously considered the filthiness of whoredom, and the great guilt thereof. Some, however, suppose that the words mean some miraculous voice or apparition, sent by GOD to divert Joseph from executing the criminal thoughts which began to possess him. For they say that he was so far tempted with his mistresss beauty and enticing behaviour that he sat in her lap, and even began to undress himself, when a voice called to him, and bade him beware of her; but he taking no notice of this admonition, though it was repeated three times, at length the angel Gabriel, or, as others will have it, the figure of his master, appeared to him: but the more general opinion is that it was the apparition of his father Jacob, who bit his fingers ends, or, as some write, struck him on the breast, whereupon his lubricity passed out at the ends of his fingers.3
For this fable, so injurious to the character of Joseph, the Mohammedans are obliged to their old friends the Jews,4 who imagine that he had a design to lie with his mistress, from these words of Moses,5 And it came to passthat Joseph went into the house to do his business, &c.
3 Idem, al Zamakhshari, Jallaloddin, Yahya.
4 Talm. Babyl. Sed. Nashim, p. 36. Vide Bartolocc. Bibl. Rabb. part iii. p. 509.
5 Gen. xxxix. II.
|But she longed for him; and he had longed for her had he not seen a token from his lord.9 Thus we averted evil and defilement from him, for he was one of our sincere servants.||9 The apparition of his father, who said, "Hereafter shall the names of thy brethren, engraven on precious stones, shine on the breast of the High Priest. Shall thine be blotted out?" Tr. Sotah, fol. 36. Comp. Weil, Legenden, p. 109, n.|
|77||25||12||And they ran to get one before the other to the door;n and she rent his inner garment behind. And they met her lord at the door. She said, What shall be the reward of him who seeketh to commit evil in thy family, but imprisonment, and a painful punishment?||n He flying from her, and she running after to detain him.||And they both made for the door, and she rent his shirt behind; and at the door they met her lord. "What," said she, "shall be the recompense of him who would do evil to thy family, but a prison10 or a sore punishment?"||10 Lit. that he be imprisoned.|
|77||26||12||And Joseph said, She asked me to lie with her. And a witness of her familyo bore witness, saying, If his garment be rent before, she speaketh truth, and he is a liar:||o viz., A cousin of hers, who was then a child in the cradle.6
6 Supra citati interpretes
|He said, "She solicited me to evil." And a witness out of her own family11 witnessed: "If his shirt be rent in front she speaketh truth, and he is a liar:||11 An infant in the cradle. Sepher Hadjascher, as below on v. 31.|
|77||27||12||but if his garment be rent behind, she lieth, and he is a speaker of truth.||But if his shirt be rent behind, she lieth and he is true."|
|77||28||12||And when her husband saw that his garment was torn behind, he said, This is a cunning contrivance of your sex; for surely your cunning is great.||And when his lord saw his shirt torn behind, he said, "This is one of your devices! verily your devices are great!|
|77||29||12||O Joseph, take no farther notice of this affair: and thou, O woman, ask pardon for thy crime; for thou art a guilty person.||Joseph! leave this affair. And thou, O wife, ask pardon for thy crime, for thou hast sinned."|
|77||30||12||And certain women said publiclyp in the city, The nobleman's wife asked her servant to lie with her; he hath inflamed her breast with his love; and we perceive her to be in manifest error.||p These women, whose tongues were so free with Zoleikhas character on this occasion, were five in number, and the wives of so many of the kings chief officersviz., his chamberlain, his butler, his baker, his jailer, and his herdsman.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And in the city, the women said, "The wife of the Prince hath solicited her servant: he hath fired her with his love: but we clearly see her manifest error."|
|77||31||12||And when she heard of their subtle behaviour, she sent unto them,q and prepared a banquet for them, and she gave to each of them a knife; and she said unto Joseph, Come forth unto them. And when they saw him, they praised him greatly;r and they cut their own hands,s and said, O GOD! this is not a mortal; he is no other than an angel, deserving the highest respect.||q The number of all the women invited was forty, and among them were the five ladies above mentioned.2
r The old Latin translators have strangely mistaken the sense of the original word acbarnaho, which they render menstruatoe sunt; and then rebuke Mohammed for the indecency, crying out demurely in the margin, O fdum et obscnum prophetam! Erpenius3 thinks that there is not the least trace of such a meaning in the word; but he is mistaken: for the verb cabara in the fourth conjugation, which is here used, has that import, though the subjoining of the pronoun to it here (which possibly the Latin translators did not observe) absolutely overthrows that interpretation.
3 In not. ad Hist. Josephi.
s Through extreme surprise at the wonderful beauty of Joseph; which surprise Zoleikha foreseeing, put knives into their hands, on purpose that this accident might happen. Some writers have observed, on occasion of this passage, that it is customary in the east for lovers to testify the violence of their passion by cutting themselves, as a sign that they would spend their blood in the service of the person beloved; which is true enough, but I do not find that any of the commentators suppose these Egyptian ladies had any such design.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 270)
|And when she heard of their cabal, she sent to them and got ready a banquet for them, and gave each one of them a knife, and said, "Joseph shew thyself to them." And when they saw him they were amazed at him, and cut their hands,12 and said, "God keep us! This is no man! This is no other than a noble angel!"||12 Instead of their food, through surprise at his beauty. Seph. Hadj. in Midr. Jalkut. See also Midr. Abkhir, ib. ch. 146.|
|77||32||12||And his mistress said, This is he, for whose sake ye blamed me: I asked him to lie with me, but he constantly refused. But if he do not perform that which I command him, he shall surely be cast into prison, and he shall be made one of the contemptible.||She said, "This is he about whom ye blamed me. I wished him to yield to my desires, but he stood firm. But if he obey not my command, he shall surely be cast into prison, and become one of the despised."|
|77||33||12||Joseph said, O LORD, a prison is more eligible unto me than the crime to which they invite me; but unless thou turn aside their snares from me, I shall youthfully incline unto them, and I shall become one of the foolish.||He said, "O my Lord! I prefer the prison to compliance with their bidding: but unless thou turn away their snares from me, I shall play the youth with them, and become one of the unwise."|
|77||34||12||Wherefore his LORD heard him, and turned aside their snare from him; for he both heareth and knoweth.||And his Lord heard him and turned aside their snares from him: for he is the Hearer, the Knower.|
|77||35||12||And it seemed good unto themt even after they had seen the signs of innocency, to imprison him for a time.||t That is, to Kitfîr and his friends. The occasion of Josephs imprisonment is said to be, either that they suspected him to be guilty, notwithstanding the proofs which had been given of his innocence, or else that Zoleikha desired it, feigning, to deceive her husband, that she wanted to have Joseph removed from her sight, till she could conquer her passion by time; though her real design was to force him to compliance.||Yet resolved they, even after they had seen the signs of his innocence, to imprison him for a time.|
|77||36||12||And there entered into the prison with him two of the king's servants.u One of themx said, it seemed to me in my dream that I pressed wine out of grapes. And the other said, It seemed unto me in my dream that I carried bread on my head, whereof the birds did eat. Declare unto us the interpretation of our dreams, for we perceive that thou art a beneficent person.||u viz., His chief butler and baker, who were accused of a design to poison him. x Namely, the butler.||And there came into the prison with him two youths. Said one of them, "Methought in my dream that I was pressing grapes." And the other said, "I dreamed that I was carrying bread on my head, of which the birds did eat. Declare to us the interpretation of this, for we see thou art a virtuous person."|
|77||37||12||Joseph answered, No food, wherewith ye may be nourished, shall come unto you, but I will declare unto you the interpretation thereof, before it come unto you.y This knowledge is a part of that which my LORD hath taught me: for I have left the religion of people who believe not in GOD, and who deny the life to come;||y The meaning of this passage seems to be, either that Joseph, to show he used no arts of divination or astrology, promises to interpret their dreams to them immediately, even before they should eat a single meal; or else, he here offers to prophesy to them beforehand, the quantity and quality of the victuals which should be brought them, as a taste of his skill.||He said, "There shall not come to you in a dream any food wherewith ye shall be fed, but I will acquaint you with its interpretation ere it come to pass to you. This is a part of that which my Lord hath taught me: for I have abandoned the religion13 of those who believe not in God and who deny the life to come;||13 It is curious to observe how Muhammad, in this and the following verse, puts his own doctrine and convictions into the mouth of Joseph.|
|77||38||12||and I follow the religion of my fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. It is not lawful for us to associate anything with GOD. This knowledge of the divine unity hath been given us of the bounty of GOD towards us, and towards mankind; but the greater part of men are not thankful.||And I follow the religion of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. We may not associate aught with God. This is of God's bounty towards us and towards mankind: but the greater part of mankind are not thankful.|
|77||39||12||O my fellow-prisoners, are sundry lords better, or the only true and mighty GOD?||O my two fellow prisoners! are sundry lords best, or God, the One, the Mighty?|
|77||40||12||Ye worship not, besides him other than the names which ye have named,z ye and your fathers, concerning which GOD hath sent down no authoritative proof: yet judgment belongeth unto GOD alone; who hath commanded that ye worship none besides him. This is the right religion; but the greater part of men know it not.||z See c. 7, p. 111, note d.||Ye worship beside him mere names which ye have named, ye and your fathers, for which God hath not sent down any warranty. Judgment belongeth to God alone. He hath bidden you worship none but Him. This is the right faith: but most men know it not.|
|77||41||12||O my fellow-prisoners, verily the one of you shall serve wine unto his lord, as formerly; but the other shall be crucified, and the birds shall eat from off his head. The matter is decreed, concerning which ye seek to be informed.||O my two fellow prisoners! as to one of you, he will serve wine unto his Lord: but as to the other, he will be crucified and the birds shall eat from off his head. The matter is decreed concerning which ye enquire."|
|77||42||12||And Joseph said unto him whom he judged to be the person who should escape of the two, Remember me in the presence of thy lord. But the devil caused him to forget to make mention of Joseph unto his lord;a wherefore he remained in the prison some years.b||a According to the explication of some, who take the pronoun him to relate to Joseph, this passage may be rendered, But the devil caused him (i.e., Joseph) to forget to make his application unto his Lord; and to beg the good offices of his fellow-prisoner for his deliverance, instead of relying on GOD alone, as it became a prophet, especially, to have done.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
b The original word signifying any number from three to nine or ten, the common opinion is that Joseph remained in prison seven years, though some say he was confined no less than twelve years.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXVIII, within pp. 64-65)
|And he said unto him who he judged would be set at large, "Remember me with thy lord." But Satan caused him to forget the remembrance of his Lord,14 so he remained some years in prison.||14 Satan induced Joseph to place his confidence in man, rather than in God alone, in punishment of which sin the imprisonment was continued. Thus Midr. Rabba. Gen. Par. 89. Midr. Jalkut, ib. ch. 147.|
|77||43||12||And the king of Egyptc said, Verily, I saw in my dream seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured, and seven green ears of corn, and other seven withered ears. O nobles, expound my vision unto me, if ye be able to interpret a vision.||c This prince, as the oriental writers generally agree, was Riyân, the son of al Walîd, the Amalekite,3 who was converted by Joseph to the worship of the true GOD, and died in the lifetime of that prophet. But some pretend that the Pharaoh of Joseph and of Moses were one and the same person, and that he lived (or rather reigned) four hundred years.4
3 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 7.
4 Al Beidâwi. See c. 7, p. 115, note d.
|And the King said, "Verily, I saw in a dream seven fat kine which seven lean devoured; and seven green ears and other withered. O nobles, teach me my vision, if a vision ye are able to expound."|
|77||44||12||They answered, They are confused dreams, neither are we skilled in the interpretation of such kind of dreams.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 60
|MG: a confused medley of dreams,||They said, "They are confused dreams, nor know we aught of the unravelling of dreams."|
|77||45||12||And Joseph's fellow-prisoner who had been delivered, said, (for he remembered Joseph after a certain space of time,) I will declare unto you the interpretation thereof; wherefore let me go unto the person who will interpret it unto me.||And he of the twain who had been set at large, said, "I will tell you the interpretation; let me go for it."|
|77||46||12||And he went to the prison, and said, O Joseph, thou man of veracity, teach us the interpretation of seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured; and of seven green ears of corn, and other seven withered ears, which the king saw in his dream; that I may return unto the men who have sent me, that peradventure they may understand the same.||"Joseph, man of truth! teach us of the seven fat kine which seven lean devoured, and of the seven green ears, and other withered, that I may return to the men, and that they may be informed."|
|77||47||12||Joseph answered, Ye shall sow seven years as usual: and the corn which ye shall reap, do ye leave in its ear,d except a little whereof ye may eat.||d To preserve it from the weevil.5
|He said, "Ye shall sow seven years as is your wont, and the corn which ye reap leave ye in its ear, except a little of which ye shall eat.|
|77||48||12||Then shall there come, after this, seven grievous years of famine, which shall consume what ye shall have laid up as a provision for the same, except a little which ye shall have kept.||Then after that shall come seven grievous years which shall eat what ye have stored for them, except a little which ye shall have kept.|
|77||49||12||Then shall there come, after this, a year wherein men shall have plenty of rain,e and wherein they shall press wine and oil.||e Notwithstanding what some ancient authors write to the contrary,6 it often rains in winter in the lower Egypt, and even snow has been observed to fall at Alexandria, contrary to the express assertion of Seneca.7 In the upper Egypt, indeed, towards the cataracts of Nile, it rains very seldom.8 Some, however, suppose that the rains here mentioned are intended of those which should fall in Ethiopia, and occasion the swelling of the Nile, the great cause of the fertility of Egypt; or else of those which should fall in the neighbouring countries, which were also afflicted with famine during the same time.
6 Plato, in Timæo. Pomp. Mela.
7 Nat. Quæst. l. 4.
8 See Greavess Descr. of the Pyramids, p. 74, &c. Rays Collection of Travels, tom. ii. p. 92.
|Then shall come after this a year, in which men shall have rain, and in which they shall press the grape."|
|77||50||12||And when the chief butler had reported this, the king said, Bring him unto me. And when the messenger came unto Joseph, he said, Return unto thy lord, and ask of him, what was the intent of the women who cut their hands;f for my LORD well knoweth the snare which they laid for me.g||f Joseph, it seems, cared not to get out of prison till his innocence was publicly known and declared. It is observed by the commentators that Joseph does not bid the messenger move the king to inform himself of the truth of the affair, but bids him directly to ask the king, to incite him to make the proper inquiry with the greater earnestness. They also observe that Joseph takes care not to mention his mistress, out of respect and gratitude for the favours he had received while in her house.1
1 Al Beidâwi, &c.
g Endeavouring both by threats and persuasion to entice me to commit folly with my mistress.
|And the King said, "Bring him to me."15 And when the messenger came to Joseph he said, "Go back to thy lord, and ask him what meant the women who cut their hands, for my lord well knoweth the snare they laid."||15 In Gen. xli. 14, Joseph is released from prison before the interpretation of the dreams. But the Koran makes him decline to quit it till his character is cleared.|
|77||51||12||And when the women were assembled before the king, he said unto them, What was your design, when ye solicited Joseph to unlawful love? They answered, GOD be praised! we know not any ill of him. The nobleman's wife said, Now is the truth become manifest: I solicited him to lie with me; and he is one of those who speak truth.||Then said the Prince to the women, "What was your purpose when ye solicited Joseph?" They said, "God keep us! we know not any ill of him." The wife of the Prince said, "Now doth the truth appear. It was I who would have led him into unlawful love, and he is one of the truthful."|
|77||52||12||And when Joseph was acquainted therewith, he said, This discovery hath been made, that my lord might know that I was not unfaithful unto him in his absence, and that God directeth not the plot of the deceivers.||"By this" (said Joseph) "may my lord know that I did not in his absence play him false, and that God guideth not the machinations of deceivers.|
|77||53||12||(XIII.) Neither do I absolutely justify myself:h since every soul is prone unto evil, except those on whom my LORD shall show mercy; for my LORD is gracious and merciful.||h According to a tradition of Ebn Abbâs, Joseph had no sooner spoken the foregoing words, asserting his innocency, than Gabriel said to him, What, not when thou wast deliberating to lie with her? Upon which Joseph confessed his frailty.2
2 Idem, &c.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 35)
|Yet I hold not myself clear, for the soul is prone to evil.||Yet I hold not myself clear, for the heart is prone to evil, save theirs on whom my Lord hath mercy; for gracious is my Lord, Merciful."|
|77||54||12||And the king said, Bring him unto me: I will take him into my own peculiar service. And when Joseph was brought unto the king, and he had discoursed with him, he said, Thou art this day firmly established with us, and shalt be intrusted with our affairs.i||i The commentators say that Joseph being taken out of prison, after he had washed and changed his clothes, was introduced to the king, whom he saluted in the Hebrew tongue, and on the kings asking what language that was, he answered that it was the language of his fathers. This prince, they say, understood no less than seventy languages, in every one of which he discoursed with Joseph, who answered him in the same; at which the king greatly marvelling, desired him to relate his dream, which he did, describing the most minute circumstances: whereupon the king placed Joseph by him on his throne, and made him his Wazîr, or chief minister. Some say that his master Kitfîr dying about this time, he not only succeeded him in his place, but, by the kings command, married the widow, his late mistress, whom he found to be a virgin, and who bare him Ephraim and Manasses.3 So that according to this tradition, she was the same woman who is called Asenath by Moses. This supposed marriage, which authorized their amours, probably encouraged the Mohammedan divines to make use of the loves of Joseph and Zoleikha, as an allegorical emblem of the spiritual love between the Creator and the creature, GOD and the soul; just as the Christians apply the Song of Solomon to the same mystical purpose.4
3 Idem, Kitab Tafasir, &c.
4 Vide DHerbelot. Bibl. Orient. Art. Jousouf.
|And the King said, "Bring him to me: I will take him for my special service." And when he had spoken with him he said, "From this day shalt thou be with us, invested with place and trust."|
|77||55||12||Joseph answered, Set me over the storehouses of the land; for I will be a skilful keeper thereof.||He said, "Set me over the granaries of the land,16 I will be their prudent keeper!"||16 According to Gen. xli. 39, Pharaoh of his own accord sets Joseph over his house and land.|
|77||56||12||Thus did we establish Joseph in the land, that he might provide himself a dwelling therein, where he pleased. We bestow our mercy on whom we please, and we suffer not the reward of the righteous to perish:||Thus did we stablish Joseph in the land that he might house himself therein at pleasure. We bestow our favours on whom we will, and suffer not the reward of the righteous to perish.|
|77||57||12||and certainly the reward of the next life is better, for those who believe, and fear God.||And truly the recompense of the life to come is better, for those who have believed and feared God.|
|77||58||12||Moreover, Joseph's brethren came,k and went in unto him; and he knew them, but they knew not him.||k Joseph, being made Wazîr, governed with great wisdom; for he not only caused justice to be impartially administered, and encouraged the people to industry and the improvement of agriculture during the seven years of plenty, but began and perfected several works of great benefit; the natives at this day ascribing to the patriarch Joseph almost all the ancient works of public utility throughout the kingdom; as particularly the rendering the province of al Feyyûm, from a standing pool or marsh, the most fertile and best cultivated land in all Egypt.5 When the years of famine came, the effects of which were felt not only in Egypt, but in Syria and the neighbouring countries, the inhabitants were obliged to apply to Joseph for corn, which he sold to them, first for their money, jewels, and ornaments, then for their cattle and lands, and at length for their persons; so that all the Egyptians in general became slaves to the king, though Joseph, by his consent, soon released them, and returned them their substance. The dearth being felt in the land of Canaan, Jacob sent all his sons, except only Benjamin, into Egypt for corn. On their arrival, Joseph (who well knew them) asked them who they were, saying he suspected them to be spies; but they told him they came only to buy provisions, and that they were all the sons of an ancient man, named Jacob, who was also a prophet. Joseph then asked how many brothers there were of them; they answered, Twelve; but that one of them had been lost in a desert. Upon which he inquired for the eleventh brother, there being no more than ten of them present. They said he was a lad, and with their father, whose fondness for him would not suffer him to accompany them in their journey. At length Joseph asked them who they had to vouch for their veracity; but they told him they knew no man who could vouch for them in Egypt. Then, replied he, one of you shall stay behind with me as a pledge, and the others may return home with their provisions; and when ye come again, ye shall bring your younger brother with you, that I may know ye have told me the truth. Whereupon, it being in vain to dispute the matter, they cast lots who should stay behind, and the lot fell upon Simeon. When they departed, Joseph gave each of them a camel, and another for their brother.1
5 Vide Golii not. in Alfragan. p. 175, &c. Kircher. Oedip. Ægypt vol. i. p. 8. Lucas, Voy. tom. ii. p. 205, and tom. iii. p. 53.
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And Joseph's brethren came and went in to him and he knew them, but they recognised him not.|
|77||59||12||And when he had furnished them with their provisions, he said, Bring unto me your brother, the son of your father; do ye not see that I give full measure, and that I am the most hospitable receiver of guests?||And when he had provided them with their provision, he said, "Bring me your brother from your father. See ye not that I fill the measure, and am the best of hosts?|
|77||60||12||But if ye bring him not unto me, there shall be no corn measured unto you from me, neither shall ye approach my presence.||But if ye bring him not to me, then no measure of corn shall there be for you from me, nor shall ye come near me."|
|77||61||12||They answered, We will endeavor to obtain him of his father, and we will certainly perform what thou requirest.||They said, "We will ask him of his father, and we will surely do it."|
|77||62||12||And Joseph said to his servants, Put their money,l which they have paid for their corn; into their sacks, that they may perceive it, when they shall be returned to their family: peradventure they will come back unto us.||l The original word signifying not only money, but also goods bartered or given in exchange for other merchandise, some commentators tell us, that they paid for their corn, not in money, but in shoes and dressed skins,2
|Said he to his servants, "Put their money into their camel-packs, that they may perceive it when they have returned to their family: haply they will come back to us."|
|77||63||12||And when they were returned unto their father, they said, O father, it is forbidden to measure out corn unto us any more, unless we carry our brother Benjamin with us: wherefore send our brother with us, and we shall have corn measured unto us; and we will certainly guard him from any mischance.||And when they returned to their father, they said, "O, our father! corn is withholden from us: send, therefore, our brother with us and we shall have our measure; and all care of him will we take."|
|77||64||12||Jacob answered, Shall I trust him with you with any better success than I trusted your brother Joseph with you heretofore? But GOD is the best guardian; and he is the most merciful of those that show mercy.||He said, "Shall I entrust you with him otherwise than as I before entrusted you with his brother? But God is the best guardian, and of those who shew compassion He is the most compassionate."|
|77||65||12||And when they opened their provision, they found their money had been returned unto them; and they said, O father, what do we desire farther? this our money hath been returned unto us; we will therefore return, and provide corn for our family: we will take care of our brother; and we shall receive a camel's burden more than we did the last time. This is a small quantity.m||m The meaning may be, either that the corn they now brought was not sufficient for the support of their families, so that it was necessary for them to take another journey, or else, that a camels load, more or less, was but a trifle to the king of Egypt. Some suppose these to be the words of Jacob, declaring it was too mean a consideration to induce him to part with his son.||And when they opened their goods they found their money had been returned to them. They said, "O, our father, what more can we desire? Here is our money returned to us; we will provide corn for our families, and will take care of our brother, and shall receive a camel's burden more of corn. This is an easy quantity."17||17 For the king to bestow.|
|77||66||12||Jacob said, I will by no means send him with you, until ye give me a solemn promise, and swear by GOD that ye will certainly bring him back unto me, unless ye be encompassed by some inevitable impediment. And when they had given him their solemn promise, he said, GOD is witness of what we say.||He said, "I will not send him with you but on your oath before God that ye will, indeed, bring him back to me, unless hindrances encompass you." And when they had given him their pledge, he said, "God is witness of what we say."|
|77||67||12||And he said, My sons, enter not into the city by one and the same gate; but enter by different gates. But this precaution will be of no advantage unto you against the decree of GOD; for judgment belongeth unto GOD alone: in him do I put my trust, and in him let those confide who seek in whom to put their trust.||And he said, "O, my sons! Enter not by one gate, but enter by different gates.18 Yet can I not help you against aught decreed by God: judgment belongeth to God alone. In Him put I my trust, and in Him let the trusting trust."||18 Thus we read in Mid. Rab. on Gen. Par. 91, "Jacob said to them, Enter ye not all by one gate." See also Midr. Jalkut, ch. 148.|
|77||68||12||And when they entered the city, as their father had commanded them, it was of no advantage unto them against the decree of GOD; and the same served only to satisfy the desire of Jacob's soul, which he had charged them to perform: for he was endued with knowledge of that which we had taught him; but the greater part of men do not understand.||And when they entered as their father had bidden them, it did not avert from them anything decreed of God; but it only served to satisfy a desire in the soul of Jacob which he had charged them to perform; for he was possessed of knowledge which we had taught him; but most men have not that knowledge.|
|77||69||12||And when they entered into the presence of Joseph, he received his brother Benjamin as his guest, and said, Verily I am thy brother,n be not therefore afflicted for that which they have committed against us.||n It is related that Joseph, having invited his brethren to an entertainment, ordered them to be placed two and two together, by which means Benjamin, the eleventh, was obliged to sit alone, and bursting into tears, said, If my brother Joseph were alive, he would have sat with me. Whereupon Joseph ordered him to be seated at the same table with himself, and when the entertainment was over, dismissed the rest, ordering that they should be lodged two and two in a house, but kept Benjamin in his own apartment, where he passed the night. The next day Joseph asked him whether he would accept of himself for his brother, in the room of him whom he had lost, to which Benjamin replied, Who can find a brother comparable unto thee? yet thou art not the son of Jacob and Rachel. And upon this Joseph discovered himself to him.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And when they came in to Joseph, he took his brother to him. He said, "Verily, I am thy brother. Be not thou grieved for what they did."19||19 Thus also, in the Sepher Hadjaschar, Joseph first discovers himself to Benjamin, in opposition to Gen. xlv. 1.|
|77||70||12||And when he had furnished them with their provisions, he put his cupo in his brother Benjamin's sack. Then a crier cried after them, saying, O company of travellers, ye are surely thieves.||o Some imagine this to be a measure holding a saá (or about a gallon), wherein they used to measure corn or give water to the beasts. But others take it to be a drinking-cup of silver or gold.||And when he had provided them with their provisions, he placed his drinking cup in his brother's camel-pack. Then a crier cried after them, "O travellers! ye are surely thieves."|
|77||71||12||They said, (and turned back unto them,) What is it that ye miss?||They turned back to them and said, "What is that ye miss?"|
|77||72||12||They answered, We miss the prince's cup: and unto him who shall produce it, shall be given a camel's load of corn, and I will be surety for the same.||"We miss," said they, "the prince's cup. For him who shall restore it, a camel's load of corn! I pledge myself for it."|
|77||73||12||Joseph's brethren replied, By GOD, ye do well know, that we come not to act corruptly in the land,p neither are we thieves.||p Both by our behaviour among you, and our bringing again our money, which was returned to us without our knowledge.||They said, "By God! ye know certainly that we came not to do wrong20 in the land and we have not been thieves."||20 Comp. Gen. xlii. 9.|
|77||74||12||The Egyptians said, What shall be the reward of him, who shall appear to have stolen the cup, if ye be found liars?||"What," said the Egyptians, "shall be the recompense of him who hath stolen it, if ye be found liars?"|
|77||75||12||Joseph's brethren answered, As to the reward of him, in whose sack it shall be found, let him become a bondman in satisfaction of the same: thus do we reward the unjust, who are guilty of theft.q||q This was the method of punishing theft used by Jacob and his family; for among the Egyptians it was punished in another manner.||They said, "That he in whose camel-pack it shall be found be given up to you in satisfaction for it. Thus recompense we the unjust."|
|77||76||12||Then he began by their sacks, before he searched the sack of his brother;r and he drew out the cup from his brother's sack. Thus did we furnish Joseph with a stratagem. It was not lawful for him to take his brother for a bondman, by the law of the king of Egypt,s had not GOD pleased to allow it, according to the offer of his brethren. We exalt to degrees of knowledge and honour whom we please: and there is one who is knowing above all those who are endued with knowledge.||r Some suppose this search was made by the person whom Joseph sent after them; others by Joseph himself, when they were brought back to the city.
s For there the thief was not reduced to servitude, but was scourged, and obliged to restore the double of what he had stolen.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And Joseph began with their sacks, before the sack of his brother, and then from the sack of his brother he drew it out. This stratagem did we suggest to Joseph. By the King's law he had no power to seize his brother, had not God pleased. We uplift into grades of wisdom whom we will. And there is one knowing above every one else endued with knowledge.|
|77||77||12||His brethren said, If Benjamin be guilty of theft, his brother Joseph hath been also guilty of theft heretofore.t But Joseph concealed these things in his mind, and did not discover them unto them: and he said within himself, Ye are in a worse condition than us two; and GOD best knoweth what ye discourse about.||t The occasion of this suspicion, it is said, was, that Joseph having been brought up by his fathers sister, she became so fond of him that, when he grew up, and Jacob designed to take him from her, she contrived the following stratagem to keep him: Having a girdle which had once belonged to Abraham, she girt it about the child, and then, pretending she had lost it, caused strict search to be made for it; and it being at length found on Joseph, he was adjudged, according to the above-mentioned law of the family, to be delivered to her as her property. Some, however, say that Joseph actually stole an idol of gold, which belonged to his mothers father, and destroyed it; a story probably taken from Rachels stealing the images of Laban: and others tell us that he once stole a goat, or a hen, to give to a poor man.3
|They said, "If he steal, a brother of his hath stolen heretofore."21 But Joseph kept his secret, and did not discover it to them. Said he, aside, "Ye are in the worse condition. And God well knoweth what ye state."||21 Joseph is said by the Muhammadan commentators to have stolen an idol of gold belonging to his mother's father, which he broke, that he might not worship it. But this comment, as well as the text of the Koran, is probably based upon some such tradition as that of Midr. Rabba, Par. 92, "He is a thief and the son of a thief" (Comp. Gen. xxxi. 19)spoken of Benjamin.|
|77||78||12||They said unto Joseph, Noble lord, verily this lad hath an aged father; wherefore take one of us in his stead; for we perceive that thou art a beneficent person.||They said, "O Prince! Verily he hath a very aged father; in his stead, therefore, take one of us, for we see that thou art a generous person."|
|77||79||12||Joseph answered, GOD forbid that we should take any other than him with whom we found our goods; for then should we certainly be unjust.||He said, "God forbid that we should take but him with whom our property was found, for then should we act unjustly."|
|77||80||12||And when they despaired of obtaining Benjamin, they retired to confer privately together. And the elder of themu said, Do ye not know that your father hath received a solemn promise from you, in the name of GOD, and how perfidiously ye behaved heretofore towards Joseph? Wherefore I will by no means depart the land of Egypt, until my father give me leave to return unto him, or GOD maketh known his will to me; for he is the best judge.||u viz., Reuben. But some think Simeon or Judah to be here meant; and instead of the elder, interpret it the most prudent of them.||And when they despaired of Benjamin, they went apart for counsel. The eldest of them said, "Know ye not how that your father hath taken a pledge from you before God, and how formerly ye failed in duty with regard to Joseph? I will not quit the land till my father give me leave, or God decide for me; for of those who decide is He the best.|
|77||81||12||Return ye to your father, and say, O father, verily thy son hath committed theft; we bear witness of no more than what we know, and we could not guard against what we did not foresee:||Return ye to your father and say, 'O our father! Verily, thy son hath stolen: we bear witness only of what we know: we could not guard against the unforeseen.|
|77||82||12||and do thou inquire in the city, where we have been, and of the company of merchants, with whom we are arrived, and thou wilt find that we speak the truth.||Enquire for thyself in the city where we have been, and of the caravan with which we have arrived; and we are surely speakers of the truth.'|
|77||83||12||And when they were returned, and had spoken thus to their father, he said, Nay, but rather ye yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes, but patience is most proper for me; peradventure GOD will restore them allx unto me; for he is knowing and wise.||x i.e., Joseph, Benjamin, and Simeon.||He said, "Nay, ye have arranged all this among yourselves: But patience is seemly: God, may be, will bring them back to me together; for he is the Knowing, the Wise."|
|77||84||12||And he turned from them and said, Oh how I am grieved for Joseph! And his eyes became white with mourning,y he being oppressed with deep sorrow.||y That is, the pupils lost their deep blackness and became of a pearl colour (as happens in suffusions), by his continual weeping: which very much weakened his sight, or, as some pretend, made him quite blind.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|And he turned away from them and said, "Oh! how I am grieved for Joseph!" and his eyes became white with grief, for he bore a silent sorrow.|
|77||85||12||His sons said, By GOD, thou wilt not cease to remember Joseph until thou be brought to death's door, or thou be actually destroyed by excessive affliction.||They said, "By God thou wilt only cease to think of Joseph when thou art at the point of death, or dead."|
|77||86||12||He answered, I only represent my grief, which I am not able to contain, and my sorrow unto GOD, but I know by revelation from GOD that which ye know not.z||z viz., That Joseph is yet alive, of which some tell us he was assured by the angel of death in a dream; though others suppose he depended on the completion of Josephs dream, which must have been frustrated had he died before his brethren had bowed down before him.5
|He said, "I only plead my grief and my sorrow to God: but I know from God what ye know not:22||22 That is, that Joseph was still alive. Thus Midr. Tanchumah on Gen. xlii. 1.|
|77||87||12||O my sons, go and make inquiry after Joseph and his brother; and despair not of the mercy of GOD; for none despaireth of GOD's mercy, except the unbelieving people.||Go, my sons, and seek tidings of Joseph and his brother, and despair not of God's mercy, for none but the unbelieving despair of the mercy of God."|
|77||88||12||Wherefore Joseph's brethren returned into Egypt: and when they came into his presence, they said, Noble lord, the famine is felt by us and our family, and we are come with a small sum of money:a yet give unto us full measure, and bestow corn upon us as alms; for GOD rewardeth the almsgivers.||a Their money being clipped and adulterated. Some, however, imagine they did not bring money, but goods to barter, such as wool and butter, or other commodities of small value.6
|And when they came in to Joseph, they said, "O Prince, distress hath reached us and our family, and little is the money that we have brought. But give us full measure, and bestow it as alms, for God will recompense the almsgivers."|
|77||89||12||Joseph said unto them, Do ye know what ye did unto Joseph and his brother, when ye were ignorant of the consequences thereof?b||b The injury they did Benjamin was the separating him from his brother; after which they kept him in so great subjection, that he durst not speak to them but with the utmost submission. Some say that these words were occasioned by a letter which Josephs brethren delivered to him from their father, requesting the releasement of Benjamin, and by their representing his extreme affliction at the loss of him and his brother. The commentators observe that Joseph, to excuse his brethrens behaviour towards him, attributes it to their ignorance, and the heat of youth.1
|He said, "Know ye what ye did to Joseph and his brother in your ignorance?"|
|77||90||12||They answered, Art thou really Joseph?c He replied, I am Joseph; and this is my brother. Now hath GOD been gracious unto us. For whoso feareth God, and persevereth with patience, shall at length find relief; since GOD will not suffer the reward of the righteous to perish.||c They say this question was not the effect of a bare suspicion that he was Joseph, but that they actually knew him, either by his face and behaviour, or by his foreteeth, which he showed in smiling, or else by putting off his tiara, and discovering a whitish mole on his forehead.2
|They said, "Canst thou indeed be Joseph?" He said, "I am Joseph, and this is my brother. Now hath God been gracious to us. For whoso feareth God and endureth. . . . God verily will not suffer the reward of the righteous to perish!"|
|77||91||12||They said, By GOD, now hath GOD chosen thee above us; and we have surely been sinners.||They said, "By God! now hath God chosen thee above us, and we have indeed been sinners!"|
|77||92||12||Joseph answered, Let there be no reproach cast on you this day. GOD forgiveth you; for he is the most merciful of those who show mercy.||He said, "No blame be on you this day. God will forgive you, for He is the most merciful of those who shew mercy.|
|77||93||12||Depart ye with this my inner garment,d and throw it on my father's face; and he shall recover his sight: and then come unto me with all your family.||d Which the commentators generally suppose to be the same garment with which Gabriel invested him in the well; which having originally come from paradise, had preserved the odour of that place, and was of so great virtue as to cure any distemper in the person who was touched with it.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|Bahíyyih Khánum, V. Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf, no. 52, p. 173
|Go ye with this my shirt and throw it on my father's face, and he shall recover his sight: and bring me all your family."|
|77||94||12||And when the company of travellers was departed from Egypt on their journey towards Canaan, their father said, unto those who were about him, Verily I perceive the smell of Joseph;e although ye think that I dote.||e This was the odour of the garment above mentioned, brought by the wind to Jacob, who smelt it, as is pretended, at the distance of eighty parasangs;4 or, as others will have, three, or eight days journey off.5
|And when the caravan was departed, their father said, "I surely perceive the smell of Joseph:23 think ye that I dote?"||23 Comp. Gen. xxvii. 27.|
|77||95||12||They answered, By GOD, thou art in thy old mistake.f||f Being led into this imagination by the excessive love of Joseph.||They said, "By God, it is thy old mistake."|
|77||96||12||But when the messenger of good tidingsg was come with Joseph's inner garment, he threw it over his face; and he recovered his eyesight.||g viz., Judah, who, as he had formerly grieved his father by bringing him Josephs coat stained with blood, now rejoiced him as much by being the bearer of this vest, and the news of Josephs prosperity.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|And when the bearer of good tidings came, he cast it on his face, and Jacob's eyesight returned."|
|77||97||12||And Jacob said, Did I not tell you that I knew from GOD, that which ye knew not?||Then he said, "Did I not tell you that I knew from God what ye knew not?"|
|77||98||12||They answered, O father, ask pardon of our sins for us, for we have surely been sinners.||They said, "Our father, ask pardon for our crimes for us, for we have indeed been sinners."|
|77||99||12||He replied, I will surely ask pardon for you of my LORD;h for he is gracious and merciful.||h Deferring it, as some fancy, till he should see Joseph, and have his consent.||He said, "I will ask your pardon of my Lord, for he is Gracious, Merciful."|
|77||100||12||And when Jacob and his family arrived in Egypt, and were introduced unto Joseph, he received his parents unto him,i and said, Enter ye into Egypt, by GOD'S favor, in full security.||i viz., His father and Leah, his mothers sister, whom he looked on as his mother after Rachels death.7
Al Beidâwi tells us that Joseph sent carriages and provisions for his father and his family; and that he and the king of Egypt went forth to meet them. He adds that the number of the children of Israel who entered Egypt with him was seventy-two; and that when they were led out thence by Moses, they were increased to six hundred thousand five hundred and seventy men and upwards, besides the old people and children.
7 Idem. See Gen. xxxvii. 10.
|And when they came into Joseph he took his parents24 to him, and said, "Enter ye Egypt, if God will, secure."||24 Joseph's mother had long been dead. See Gen. xxxv. 19. But the object of Muhammad was probably to bring the event into strict accordance with the prediction of the dream. Gen. xxxvii. 10. Some, however, suppose that Bilhah is here meant, and her appearance before Joseph is also asserted to be the fulfilment of the dream by some of the Rabbins. Comp. Raschi on Gen. xxxvii. 10.|
|77||101||12||And he raised his parents to the seat of state, and they, together with his brethren, fell down and did obeisance unto him.k And he said, O my father, this is the interpretation of my vision, which I saw heretofore: now hath my LORD rendered it true. And he hath surely been gracious unto me, since he took me forth from the prison, and hath brought you hither from the desert; after that the devil had sown discord between me any my brethren: for my LORD is gracious unto whom he pleaseth; and he is the knowing, the wise God.||k A transposition is supposed to be in these words, and that he seated his father and mother after they had bowed down to him, and not before.1
|And he raised his parents to the seat of state, and they fell down bowing themselves unto him. Then said he, "O my father, this is the meaning of my dream of old. My Lord hath now made it true, and he hath surely been gracious to me, since he took me forth from the prison, and hath brought you up out of the desert, after that Satan had stirred up strife between me and my brethren; for my Lord is gracious to whom He will; for He is the Knowing, the Wise.|
|77||102||12||O LORD, thou hast given me a part of the kingdom, and hast taught me the interpretation of dark sayings. The Creator of heaven and earth! thou art my protector in this world, and in that which is to come: make me to die a Moslem, and join me with the righteous.l||l The Mohammedan authors write that Jacob dwelt in Egypt twenty-four years, and at his death ordered his body to be buried in Palestine by his father, which Joseph took care to perform; and then returning into Egypt, died twenty-three years after. They add that such high disputes arose among the Egyptians concerning his burial, that they had like to have come to blows; but at length they agreed to put his body into a marble coffin, and to sink it in the Nileout of a superstitious imagination, that it might help the regular increase of the river, and deliver them from famine for the future; but when Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt, he took up the coffin, and carried Josephs bones with him into Canaan, where he buried them by his ancestors.2
|O my Lord, thou hast given me dominion, and hast taught me to expound dark sayings. Marker of the Heavens and of the Earth! My guardian art thou in this world and in the next! Cause thou me to die a Muslim, and join me with the just."|
|77||103||12||This is a secret history which we reveal unto thee, O Mohammed, although thou wast not present with the brethren of Joseph, when they concerted their design, and contrived a plot against him. But the greater part of men, although they earnestly desire it, will not believe.||This is one of the secret histories25 which we reveal unto thee. Thou wast not present with Joseph's brethren when they conceived their design and laid their plot: but the greater part of men, though thou long for it, will not believe.||25 Lit. This is of the announcements of the things unseen (by thee, Muhammad). Compare the manner in which the story of the Creation and of Moses in the mount is introduced. Sura xxxviii. 70; xxviii. 45. Mr. Muir thinks that Muhammad must at this period, while recasting and working up these materials, have entered upon a course of wilful dissimulation and deceit (although the end would justify to him the means employed) in claiming inspiration for them.|
|77||104||12||Thou shalt not demand of them any reward for thy publishing the Koran; it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures.||Thou shalt not ask of them any recompense for this message. It is simply an instruction for all mankind.|
|77||105||12||And how many signs soever there be of the being, unity, and providence of God, in the heavens and the earth; they will pass by them, and will retire afar off from them.||And many as are the signs in the Heavens and on the Earth, yet they will pass them by, and turn aside from them:|
|77||106||12||And the greater part of them believe not in GOD, without being also guilty of idolatry.m||m For this crime Mohammed charges not only on the idolatrous Meccans, but also on the Jews and Christians, as has been already observed more than once.||And most of them believe not in God, without also joining other deities with Him.|
|77||107||12||Do they not believe that some overwhelming affliction shall fall on them, as a punishment from GOD; or that the hour of judgment shall overtake them suddenly, when they consider not its approach?||What! Are they sure that the overwhelming chastisement of God shall not come upon them, or that that Hour shall not come upon them suddenly, while they are unaware?|
|77||108||12||Say unto those of Mecca, This is my way: I invite you unto GOD, by an evident demonstration; both I and he who followeth me; and, praise be unto GOD! I am not an idolater.||SAY: This is my way: resting on a clear proof, I call you to God, I and whoso followeth me: and glory be to God! I am not one of those who add other deities to Him.|
|77||109||12||We sent not any apostles before thee, except men, unto whom we revealed our will, and whom we chose out of those who dwelt in cities.n Will they not go through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who have preceded them? But the dwelling of the next life shall surely be better for those who fear God. Will they not therefore understand?||n And not of the inhabitants of the deserts; because the former are more knowing and compassionate, and the latter more ignorant and hard-hearted.3
3 Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 24.
|Never before thee have we sent any but men, chosen out of the people of the cities, to whom we made revelations. Will they not journey through the land, and see what hath been the end of those who were before them? But the mansions of the next life shall be better for those who fear God. Will they not then comprehend?|
|77||110||12||Their predecessors were borne with for a time, until, when our apostles despaired of their conversion, and they thought that they were liars, our help came unto them, and we delivered whom we pleased; but our vengeance was not turned away from the wicked people.||When at last the Apostles lost all hope, and deemed that they were reckoned as liars, our aid reached them, and we delivered whom we would; but our vengeance was not averted from the wicked.|
|77||111||12||Verily in the histories of the prophets and their people, there is an instructive example unto those who are endued with understanding. The Koran is not a new invented fiction: but a confirmation of those scriptures which have been revealed before it, and a distinct explication of everything necessary in respect either to faith or practice, and a direction and mercy unto people who believe.||Certainly in their histories is an example for men of understanding. This is no new tale of fiction, but a confirmation of previous scriptures, and an explanation of all things, and guidance and mercy to those who believe.|
|90||0||13||CHAPTER XIII.||SURA XIII.THUNDER [XC.]|
|90||0||13||ENTITLED, THUNDER;o REVEALED AT MECCA.p||o This word occurs in the next page.
p Or, according to some copies, at Medina.
|90||0||13||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|90||1||13||AL. M. R.q These are the signs of the book of the Koran: and that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD is the truth; but the greater part of men will not believe.||q The meaning of these letters is unknown. Of several conjectural explications which are given of them, the following is one: I am the most wise and knowing GOD.||ELIF. LAM. MIM. RA.1 These, the signs of the Book! And that which hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord is the very truth: But the greater part of men will not believe.||1 See Sura 1xviii. p. 32.|
|90||2||13||It is GOD who hath raised the heavens without visible pillars; and then ascended his throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to perform their services; every of the heavenly bodies runneth an appointed course. He ordereth all things. He showeth his signs distinctly, that ye may be assured ye must meet your LORD at the last day.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 148, p. 139
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 44, paragraph 59
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (1 Tablets and Addresses, Address to a Muslim Divine, pages 31-35)
|He ordereth all things. He maketh His signs clear, that ye may have firm faith in attaining the presence of your Lord.
BWC: It is God who hath reared the heavens without pillars thou canst behold; then mounted His throne, and imposed laws on the sun and moon: each travelleth to its appointed goal. He ordereth all things. He maketh His signs clear, that ye may have firm faith in the presence of your Lord.
|It is God who hath reared the Heavens without pillars thou canst behold; then mounted his throne, and imposed laws on the sun and moon: each travelleth to its appointed goal. He ordereth all things. He maketh his signs clear, that ye may have firm faith in a meeting with your Lord.|
|90||3||13||It is he who hath stretched forth the earth, and placed therein steadfast mountains, and rivers; and hath ordained therein of every fruit two different kinds.r He causeth the night to cover the day. Herein are certain signs unto people who consider.||r As sweet and sour, black and white, small and large, &c.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And He it is who hath outstretched the earth, and placed on it the firm mountains, and rivers: and of every fruit He hath placed on it two kinds: He causeth the night to enshroud the day. Verily in this are signs for those who reflect.|
|90||4||13||And in the earth are tracts of land of different natures,s though bordering on each other; and also vineyards, and seeds, and palm-trees springing several from the same root, and singly from distinct roots. They are watered with the same water, yet we render some of them more excellent than others to eat. Herein are surely signs unto people who understand.||s Some tracts being fruitful and others barren, some plain and others mountainous, some proper for corn and others for trees, &c.2
|And on the earth hard by each other are its various portions: gardens of grapes and corn, and palm trees single or clustered. Though watered by the same water, yet some make we more excellent as food than other: Verily in all this are signs for those who understand.|
|90||5||13||If thou dost wonder at the infidels denying the resurrection, surely wonderful is their saying, After we shall have been reduced to dust, shall we be restored in a new creature?||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 121, p. 115
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 46, paragraph 62
|If ever thou dost marvel, marvellous surely is their saying, 'What! When we have become dust, shall we be restored in a new creation?'
BWC: If ever thou dost marvel, marvellous surely is their saying, 'What! When we have become dust and mouldering bones, shall we be restored in a new creation.
|If ever thou dost marvel, marvellous surely is their saying, "What! when we have become dust, shall we be restored in a new creation?"|
|90||6||13||These are they who believe not in their LORD: these shall have collars on their necks,t and these shall be the inhabitants of hell fire: therein shall they abide for ever.||t The collar here mentioned is an engine something like a pillory, but light enough for the criminal to walk about with. Besides the hole to fix it on the neck, there is another for one of the hands, which is thereby fastened to the neck.3 And in this manner the Mohammedans suppose the reprobates will appear at the day of judgment.4 Some understand this passage figuratively, of the infidels being bound in the chains of error and obstinacy.5
3 Vide Chardin, Voy. de Perse, tom. ii. p. 220.
4 See cap. 5, p. 81.
5 Al Beidâwi.
|These are they who in their Lord believe not: these! the collars shall be on their necks; and these shall be inmates of the fire, to abide therein for aye.|
|90||7||13||They will ask of thee to hasten evil rather than good:u although there have already been examples of the divine vengeance before them. Thy LORD is surely endued with indulgence towards men, notwithstanding their iniquity; but thy LORD is also severe in punishing.||u Provoking and daring thee to call down the divine vengeance on them for their impenitency.||To hasten evil rather than good will they challenge thee: but, before their time have been like examples. Full, truly, of mercy is thy Lord unto men, despite their sins; but verily, thy Lord is right vehement to punish.|
|90||8||13||The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Thou art commissioned to be a preacher only, and not a worker of miracles: and unto every people hath a director been appointed.||And they who believe not say: "If a sign from his Lord be not sent down to him . . . !" Thou art a warner only. And every people hath its guide.|
|90||9||13||GOD knoweth what every female beareth in her womb; and what the wombs want or exceed of their due time, or number of young. With him is everything regulated according to a determined measure.||God knoweth the burden of every female, and how much their wombs lessen and enlarge: with Him everything is by measure:|
|90||10||13||He knoweth that which is hidden, and that which is revealed. He is the great, the most high.||Knower of the Hidden and the Manifest! the Great! the Most High!|
|90||11||13||He among you who concealeth his words, and he who proclaimeth them in public; he also who seeketh to hide himself in the night, and he who goeth forth openly in the day, is equal in respect to the knowledge of God.||Alike to Him is that person among you who concealeth his words, and he that telleth them abroad: he who hideth him in the night, and he who cometh forth in the day.|
|90||12||13||Each of them hath angels mutually succeeding each other, before him, and behind him; they watch him by the command of GOD.x Verily GOD will not change his grace which is in men, until they change the disposition in their souls by sin. When GOD willeth evil on a people there shall be none to avert it; neither shall they have any protector beside him.||x See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 56.||Each hath a succession of Angels before him and behind him, who watch over him by God's behest. Verily, God will not change his gifts to men, till they change what is in themselves: and when God willeth evil unto men, there is none can turn it away, nor have they any protector beside Him.|
|90||13||13||It is he who causeth the lightning to appear unto you, to strike fear, and to raise hope,y and who formeth the pregnant clouds.||y Thunder and lightning being the sign of approaching rain; a great blessing, in the eastern countries more especially.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Lawh-i-Fuád)
|He it is who maketh the lightning to shine unto you; for fear and hope: and who bringeth up the laden clouds.|
|90||14||13||The thunder celebrateth his praise,z and the angels also, for fear of him. He sendeth his thunderbolts, and striketh therewith whom he pleaseth, while they dispute concerning GOD;a for he is mighty in power.||z Or causeth those who hear it to praise him. Some commentators tell us that by the word thunder, in this place, is meant the angel who presides over the clouds, and drives them forwards with twisted sheets of fire.6
6 Idem, Jallaloddin.
a This passage was revealed on the following occasion: Amer Ebn al Tofail and Arbad Ebn Rabîah, the brother of Labîd, went to Mohammed with an intent to kill him; and Amer began to dispute with him concerning the chief points of his doctrine, while Arbad, taking a compass, went behind him to dispatch him with his sword; but the prophet, perceiving his design, implored GODS protection; whereupon Arbad was immediately struck dead by thunder, and Amer was struck with a pestilential boil, of which he died in a short time, in a miserable condition.7
Jallaloddin, however, tells another story saying that Mohammed, having sent one to invite a certain man to embrace his religion, the person put this question to the missionary, Who is this apostle, and what is God? Is he of gold, or of silver, or of brass? Upon which a thunderbolt struck off his skull, and killed him.
7 Al Beidâwi. Vide Golii. not. in Adagia Arab. adject. ad Gram Erpenii, p. 99.
|And the THUNDER uttereth his praise, and the Angels also, for awe of Him: and he sendeth his bolts and smiteth with them whom he will2 while they are wrangling about God! Mighty is he in prowess.||2 This is said by the traditionists and commentators generally, to refer to Amir and Arbad ben Kais, who in the year 9 or 10 conspired against Muhammad's life, and were struck dead by lightning. See the authorities in Nöld. p. 120: Weil, 256; Caussin, iii. 295. But this explanation may have been suggested by the words of the text, which must, if the comment be correct, have been revealed at Medina.|
|90||15||13||It is he who ought of right to be invoked; and the idols, which they invoke besides him, shall not hear them at all; otherwise than as he is heard, who stretcheth forth his hands to the water that it may ascend to his mouth, when it cannot ascend thither: the supplication of the unbelievers is utterly erroneous.||Prayer is His of right: but these deities to whom they pray beside Him give them no answer, otherwise than as he is answered who stretcheth forth his hands to the water that it may reach his mouth, when it cannot reach it! The prayer of the Infidels only wandereth, and is lost.|
|90||16||13||Whatsoever is in heaven and on earth worshippeth GOD, voluntarily or of force;b and their shadows also, morning and evening.c||b The infidels and devils themselves being constrained to humble themselves before him, though against their will, when they are delivered up to punishment.
c This is an allusion to the increasing and diminishing of the shadows, according to the height of the sun; so that, when they are the longest, which is in the morning and the evening, they appear prostrate on the ground, in the posture of adoration.
|And unto God doth all in the Heavens and on the Earth bow down in worship, willingly or by constraint: their very shadows also morn and even!|
|90||17||13||Say, Who is the LORD of heaven and earth? Answer, GOD. Say, Have ye, therefore, taken unto yourselves protectors beside him, who are unable either to help, or to defend themselves from hurt? Say, Shall the blind and the seeing be esteemed equal? or shall darkness and light be accounted the same? or have they attributed companions unto GOD who have created as he hath created, so that their creation bear any resemblance unto his? Say, GOD is the creator of all things; he is the one, the victorious God.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 33
|MG: is the darkness equal with the light?||SAY: Who is Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth? SAY: God. SAY: Why then have ye taken beside Him protectors, who even for their own selves have no power for help or harm? SAY: What! shall the blind and the seeing be held equal? Shall the darkness and the light be held equal? Or have they given associates to God who have created as He hath created, so that their creation appear to them like His? SAY: God is the Creator of all things! He is the One! the Conquering!|
|90||18||13||He causeth water to descend from heaven, and the brooks flow according to their respective measure, and the floods bear the floating froth: and from the metals which they melt in the fire, seeking to cast ornaments or vessels for use, there ariseth a scum like unto it. Thus GOD setteth forth truth and vanity. But the scum is thrown off, and that which is useful to mankind remaineth on the earth. Thus doth GOD put forth parables. Unto those who obey their LORD shall be given the most excellent reward: but those who obey him not, although they were possessed of whatever is in the whole earth and as much more, they would give it all for their ransom. These will be brought to a terrible account: their abode shall be hell; an unhappy couch shall it be!||BWC: As to the foam, it is quickly gone: and as to what is useful to man, it remaineth on the earth.||Bahíyyih Khánum, V. Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf, no. 33, p. 131
|He sendeth down the rain from Heaven: then flow the torrents in their due measure, and the flood beareth along a swelling foam. And from the metals which are molten in the fire for the sake of ornaments or utensils, a like scum ariseth. In this way doth God depict (set forth) truth and falsehood. As to the foam, it is quickly gone: and as to what is useful to man, it remaineth on the earth. Thus doth God set forth comparisons! To those who respond to their Lord shall be an excellent reward; but those who respond not to his call, had they all that the earth containeth twice over, they would surely give it for their ransom. Evil their reckoning! and Hell their home! And wretched the bed!|
|90||19||13||Shall he, therefore, who knoweth that what hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD, is truth, be rewarded as he who is blind? The prudent only will consider;||Shall he then who knoweth that what hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord is the truth, act like him who is blind? Men of insight only will bear this in mind,|
|90||20||13||who fulfil the covenant of GOD, and break not their contract;||Who fulfil their pledge to God, and break not their compact:|
|90||21||13||and who join that which GOD hath commanded to be joined,d and who fear their LORD, and dread an ill account;||d By believing in all the prophets, without exception, and joining thereto the continual practice of their duty, both towards GOD and man.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin, Yahya.
|And who join together what God hath bidden to be joined, and who fear their Lord, and dread an ill reckoning;|
|90||22||13||and who persevere out of a sincere desire to please their LORD, and observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms out of what we have bestowed on them, in secret and openly, and who turn away evil with good: the reward of these shall be paradise,||And who, from desire to see the face of their Lord, are constant amid trials, and observe prayer and give alms, in secret and openly, out of what we have bestowed upon them, and turn aside evil by good: for these is the recompense of that abode,|
|90||23||13||gardens of eternal abode,e which they shall enter, and also whoever shall have acted uprightly, of their fathers, and their wives, and their posterity: and the angels shall go in unto them by every gate,||e Literally, gardens of Eden. See chapter 9, p. 143.||Gardens of Edeninto which they shall enter together with the just of their fathers, and their wives, and their descendants: and the angels shall go in unto them at every portal:|
|90||24||13||saying, Peace be upon you, because ye have endured with patience; how excellent a reward is paradise!||"Peace be with you!" say they, "because ye have endured all things!" Charming the recompense of their abode!|
|90||25||13||But as for those who violate the covenant of GOD, after the establishment thereof, and who cut in sunder that which GOD hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the earth, on them shall a curse fall, and they shall have a miserable dwelling in hell.||But those who, after having contracted it, break their covenant with God, and cut asunder what God hath bidden to be united, and commit misdeeds on the earth, these, a curse awaiteth them, and an ill abode!|
|90||26||13||GOD giveth provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth. Those of Mecca rejoice in the present life; although the present life, in respect of the future, is but a precarious provision.||God is open-handed with supplies to whom he will, or is sparing. They rejoice in the life that now is, but this present life is but a passing good, in respect of the life to come!3||3 Thus, "one hour of bliss in the world to come is better than all life in this world." Mischnah Aboth, iv. 17. Comp. Sura [cxiii.] ix. 38.|
|90||27||13||The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Verily, GOD will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and will direct unto himself him who repenteth,||And they who believe not say, "Unless a sign be sent down to him from his Lord. . . ." SAY: God truly will mislead whom he will; and He will guide to Himself him who turneth to Him,|
|90||28||13||and those who believe, and whose hearts rest securely in the meditation of GOD; shall not men's hearts rest securely in the meditation of GOD? They who believe and do that which is right shall enjoy blessedness, and partake of a happy resurrection.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 49-54, Nabíl of Qáin)
Memorials of the Faithful (Áqá Ibráhím-i-Isfahani and His Brothers, within pp. 77-81)
Memorials of the Faithful (Áqá Muhammad-Ibrahim, within pp. 81-83)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 148-150, Mírzá Mustafá Naráqí)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 150-154, Zaynul-Muqarrabín)
|MG: Blessedness awaiteth him and a goodly home...
MG: Truly in the remembrance of God are the hearts set at rest.
MG: Blessings be unto him, and a goodly home.
MG: Blessedness be his, and a goodly home.
|Those who believe, and whose hearts rest securely on the thought of God. What! Shall not men's hearts repose in the thought of God? They who believe and do the things that be rightblessedness awaiteth them, and a goodly home.|
|90||29||13||Thus have we sent thee to a nation which other nations have preceded unto whom prophets have likewise been sent, that thou mayest rehearse unto them that which we have revealed unto thee, even while they believe not in the merciful God. Say unto them, He is my LORD; there is no GOD but he: in him do I trust, and unto him must I return.||Thus have we sent thee to a people whom other peoples have preceded, that thou mightest rehearse to them our revelations to thee. Yet they believe not on the God of Mercy.4 SAY: He is my Lord. There is no God but He. In Him do I put my trust. To Him must I return.||4 See Sura xvii. 109. This verse is said to have been occasioned by the refusal of the Meccans at Hudaibiya to adopt the formula prescribed by MuhammadIn the Name of the God of Mercy, the Mercifuldeclaring that they knew not who the God of Mercy (Arrahman) was. This was in Hej. 6. See n. p. 173.|
|90||30||13||Though a Koran were revealed by which mountains should be removed, or the earth cleaved in sunder, or the dead be caused to speak,f it would be in vain. But the matter belongeth wholly unto GOD. Do not, therefore, the believers know, that if GOD pleased, he would certainly direct all men?||f These are miracles which the Koreish required of Mohammed; demanding that he would, by the power of his Korân, either remove the mountains from about Mecca, that they might have delicious gardens in their room, or that he would oblige the wind to transport them, with their merchandise, to Syria (according to which tradition, the words here translated, or the earth cleaved in sunder, should be rendered, or the earth be travelled over in an instant); or else raise to life Kosai Ebn Kelâb,1 and others of their ancestors, to bear witness to him; whereupon this passage was revealed.
1 See cap. 8, p. 128, note f.
|If there were a Koran by which the mountains could be set in motion, or the earth cleft, or the dead be made to speak ! But all sovereignty is in the hands of God. Do then believers doubt5 that had He pleased God would certainly have guided all men aright?||5 Lit. despair.|
|90||31||13||Adversity shall not cease to afflict the unbelievers for that which they have committed, or to sit down near their habitations,g until GOD'S promise come;h for GOD is not contrary to the promise.||g It is supposed by some that these words are spoken to Mohammed, and then they must be translated in the second person, Nor shall thou cease to sit down, &c. For they say this verse relates to the idolaters of Mecca, who were afflicted with a series of misfortunes for their ill-usage of their prophet, and were also continually annoyed and harassed by his parties, which frequently plundered their caravans and drove off their cattle, himself sitting down with his whole army near the city in the expedition of al Hodeibîya.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
h i.e., Till death and the day of judgment overtake them; or, according to the exposition in the preceding note, until the taking of Mecca.3
|Misfortune shall not cease to light on the unbelievers for what they have done, or to take up its abode hard by their dwellings, until the threat of God come to pass. Verily, God will not fail his plighted word.|
|90||32||13||Apostles before thee have been laughed to scorn; and I permitted the infidels to enjoy a long and happy life: but afterwards I punished them; and how severe was the punishment which I inflicted on them!||Before thee indeed have apostles been mocked at; but though I bore long with the unbelievers, at last I seized upon them;and how severe was my punishment!|
|90||33||13||Who is it, therefore, that standeth over every soul, to observe that which it committeth? They attribute companions unto GOD. Say, Name them: will ye declare unto him that which he knoweth not in the earth? or will ye name them in outward speech only?i But the deceitful procedure of the infidels was prepared for them; and they are turned aside from the right path: for he whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have no director.||i That is, calling them the companion of GOD, without being able to assign any reason, or give any proof why they deserve to be sharers in the honour and worship due from mankind to him.4
|Who is it then that is standing over every soul to mark its actions? Yet have they set up associates with God. SAY: Name them. What! Would ye inform God of that which He knoweth not on the Earth? Or are they not a mere empty name? But prepared of old for the infidels was this fraud of theirs; and they are turned aside from the path; and whom God causeth to err, no guide shall there be for him!|
|90||34||13||They shall suffer a punishment in this life; but the punishment of the next shall be more grievous: and there shall be none to protect them against GOD.||Chastisement awaiteth them in this present life, and more grievous shall be the chastisement of the next: and none shall screen them from God.|
|90||35||13||This is the description of paradise, which is promised to the pious. It is watered by rivers; its food is perpetual, and its shade also: this shall be the reward of those who fear God. But the reward of the infidels shall be hell fire.||A picture of the Paradise which God hath promised to them that fear Him. The rivers flow beneath its bowers: its food and its shades are perpetual. This is the reward of those who fear God; but the reward of the unbelievers is the Fire.|
|90||36||13||Those to whom we have given the scriptures, rejoice at what hath been revealed unto thee.k Yet there are some of the confederates who deny part thereof.l Say unto them, Verily I am commanded to worship GOD alone; and to give him no companion: upon him do I call, and unto him shall I return.||k viz., The first proselytes to Mohammedism from Judaism and Christianity; or the Jews and Christians in general, who were pleased to find the Korân so consonant to their own scriptures.5
5 See cap. 3, p. 52.
l That is, such of them as had entered into a confederacy to oppose Mohammed; as did Caab Ebn al Ashraf, and the Jews who followed him, and al Seyid al Najrâni, al Akib, and several other Christians; who denied such parts of the Korân as contradicted their corrupt doctrines and traditions.6
|They to whom we have given the Book rejoice6 in what hath been sent down to thee; yet some are banded together who deny a part of it. SAY: I am commanded to worship God, and not to associate any creature with Him. On Him do I call, and to Him shall I return.||6 That is, the Jews, who at this period of Muhammad's prophetic function, must have been highly gratified at the strong leaning towards, and respect for, their Scriptures and Histories, which shews itself increasingly in the later Meccan Suras.|
|90||37||13||To this purpose have we sent down the Koran a rule of judgment, in the Arabic language. And verily, if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, there shall be none to defend or protect thee against GOD.||Thus, then, as a code in the Arabic tongue have we sent down the Koran; and truly, if after the knowledge that hath reached thee thou follow their desires, thou shalt have no guardian nor protector against God.|
|90||38||13||We have formerly sent apostles before thee, and bestowed on them wives and children;m and no apostle had the power to come with a sign, unless by the permission of GOD. Every age hath its book of revelation:||m As we have on thee. This passage was revealed in answer to the reproaches which were cast on Mohammed, on account of the great number of his wives. For the Jews said that if he was a true prophet, his care and attention would be employed about something else than women and the getting of children.7 It may be observed that it is a maxim of the Jews that nothing is more repugnant to prophecy than carnality.8
7 Jallaloddin, Yahya.
8 Vide Maimon. More Nev. part ii. c. 36, &c.
|Apostles truly have we already sent before thee, and wives and offspring have we given them. Yet no apostle had come with miracles unless by the leave of God. To each age its Book.|
|90||39||13||GOD shall abolish and shall confirm what he pleaseth. With him is the original of the book.n||n Literally, the mother of the book; by which is meant the preserved table, from which all the written revelations which have been from time to time published to mankind, according to the several dispensations, are transcripts.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 155, p. 147
|What He pleaseth will God abrogate or confirm: for with Him is the Source of Revelation.||What He pleaseth will God abrogate or confirm: for with Him is the source of revelation.7||7 Lit. Mother, or Prototype of the Book. Either God's knowledge or Prescience, or the fabled preserved tablet, on which is written the original of the Koran, and all God's decrees. The Jews have a tradition that the Law existed before the Creation. Midr. Jalkut, 7.|
|90||40||13||Moreover, whether we cause thee to see any part of that punishment wherewith we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before it be inflicted on them, verily unto thee belongeth preaching only, but unto us inquisition.||Moreover, whether we cause thee to see the fulfilment of part of our menaces, or whether we take thee hence, verily, thy work is preaching only, and ours to take account.|
|90||41||13||Do they not see that we come into their land, and straighten the borders thereof, by the conquests of the true believers? When GOD judgeth, there is none to reverse his judgment: and he will be swift in taking an account.||See they not that we come into their land and cut short its borders?8 God pronounceth a doom, and there is none to reverse his doom. And swift is He to take account.||8 That is, the progressive conquests of the Muslims trench more and more on the territories of the idolatrous Arabians.|
|90||42||13||Their predecessors formerly devised subtle plots against their prophets; but GOD is master of every subtle device. He knoweth that which every soul deserveth: and the infidels shall surely know, whose will be the reward of paradise.||Those who lived before them made plots: but all plotting is controlled by God: He knoweth the works of every one, and the infidels shall know whose will be the recompense of the abode.|
|90||43||13||The unbelieverso will say, Thou art not sent of God. Answer, GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you, and he who understandeth the scriptures.||o The persons intended in this passage, it is said, were the Jewish doctors.9
9 Al Beidâwi.
|The infidels, moreover, will say; Thou art not sent of God. SAY: God is witness enough betwixt me and you, and, whoever hath knowledge of the Book.|
|76||0||14||CHAPTER XIV.||SURA XIV.ABRAHAM, ON WHOM BE PEACE [LXXVI.]|
|76||0||14||ENTITLED, ABRAHAM;a REVEALED AT MECCA.||a Mention is made of this patriarch towards the end of the chapter.||MECCA.52 Verses|
|76||0||14||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|76||1||14||AL. R.b This book have we sent down unto thee, that thou mayest lead men forth from darkness into light, by the permission of their LORD, into the glorious and laudable way.||b See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III p. 46, &c.||ELIF. LAM. RA. This Book have we sent down to thee that by their Lord's permission thou mayest bring men out of darkness into light, into the path of the Mighty, the Glorious|
|76||2||14||GOD is he unto whom belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: and woe be to the infidels, because a grievous punishment waiteth them;||Of God; to whom belongeth whatever is in the Heavens and whatever is on the Earth: and woe! for their terrible punishment, to the infidels,|
|76||3||14||who love the present life above that which is to come, and turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked: these are in an error far distant from the truth.||Who love the life that now is, above that which is to come, and mislead from the way of God, and seek to make it crooked. These are in a far-gone error.|
|76||4||14||We have sent no apostle but with the language of his people, that he might declare their duty plainly unto them;c for GOD causeth to err whom he pleaseth, and directeth whom he pleaseth; and he is the mighty, the wise.||c That so they might not only perfectly and readily understand those revelations themselves, but might also be able to translate and interpret them unto others.1
|And in order that He might speak plainly to them, we have not sent any Apostle, save with the speech of his own people; but God misleadeth whom He will, and whom He will he guideth: and He is the Mighty, the Wise.|
|76||5||14||We formerly sent Moses with our signs, and commanded him saying, Lead forth thy people from darkness into light, and remind them of the favors of GOD:d verily therein are signs unto every patient and grateful person.||d Literally, the days of GOD; which may also be translated, the battles of GOD (the Arabs using the word day to signify a remarkable engagement, as the Italians do giornata, and the French, journée), or his wonderful acts manifested in the various success of former nations in their wars.2
|Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Tablet of Ishráqát, within pp. 99-134)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, within pp. 256-259
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 62, paragraph 86
|BWC: Bring forth thy people from the darkness into the light and remind them of the days of God.
BWC: Bring forth thy people from the darkness into the light and announce to them the days of God.
BWC: Bring forth thy people from darkness into light and remind them of the days of God.
|Of old did we send Moses with our signs: and said to him, "Bring forth thy people from the darkness into the light, and remind them of the days of God." Verily, in this are signs for every patient, grateful person:|
|76||6||14||And call to mind when Moses said unto his people, Remember the favor of GOD towards you, when he delivered you from the people of Pharaoh: they grievously oppressed you; and they slew your male children, but let your females live:e therein was a great trial from your LORD.||e See chapter 7, p. 117, &c.||When Moses said to his people, "Remember the kindness of God to you, when he rescued you from the family of Pharaoh who laid on you a cruel affliction, slaughtering your male children, and suffering only your females to live." In this was a sore trial from your Lord|
|76||7||14||And when your LORD declared by the mouth of Moses, saying, If ye be thankful, I will surely increase my favors towards you; but if ye be ungrateful, verily my punishment shall be severe.||And when your Lord caused it to be heard that, "If we render thanks then will I surely increase you more and more: but if ye be thankless. . . . Verily, right terrible my chastisement."|
|76||8||14||And Moses said, If ye be ungrateful, and all who are in the earth likewise; verily GOD needeth not your thanks, though he deserveth the highest praise.||And Moses said, "If ye and all who are on the Earth be thankless, yet truly God is passing Rich, and worthy of all praise."|
|76||9||14||Hath not the history of the nations your predecessors reached you; namely, of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of Thamud,f||f See ibid. p. 111, &c.||Hath not the story reached you of those who were before you, the people of Noah, and Ad, and Themoud,|
|76||10||14||and of those who succeeded them; whose number none knoweth except GOD? Their apostles came unto them with evident miracles; but they clapped their hands to their mouths out of indignation, and said, We do not believe the message with which ye pretend to be sent; and we are in a doubt concerning the religion to which ye invite us, as justly to be suspected.||And of those who lived after them? None knoweth them but God. When their prophets came to them with proofs of their mission, they put their hands on their mouths and said, "In sooth, we believe not your message; and in sooth, of that to which you bid us, we are in doubt, as of a thing suspicious."|
|76||11||14||Their apostles answered, Is there any doubt concerning GOD, the creator of heaven and earth? He inviteth you to the true faith that he may forgive you part of your sins,g and may respite your punishment, by granting you space to repent, until an appointed time.||g That is, such of them as were committed directly against GOD, which are immediately cancelled by faith, or embracing Islâm; but not the crimes of injustice, and oppression, which were committed against man:1 for to obtain remission of these last, besides faith, repentance and restitution, according to a mans ability, are also necessary.
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Their prophets said: "Is there any doubt concerning God, maker of the Heavens and of the Earth, who calleth you that He may pardon your sins, and respite you until an appointed time?"|
|76||12||14||They answered, Ye are but men, like unto us: ye seek to turn us aside from the gods which our fathers worshipped: wherefore bring us an evident demonstration by some miracle, that ye speak truth.||They said, "Ye are but men like us: fain would ye turn us from our fathers' worship. Bring us therefore some clear proof."|
|76||13||14||Their apostles replied unto them, We are no other than men like unto you; but GOD is bountiful unto such of his servants as he pleaseth: and it is not in our power to give you a miraculous demonstration of our mission,||Their Apostles said to them, "We are indeed but men like you. But God bestoweth favours on such of his servants as he pleaseth, and it is not in our power to bring you any special proof,|
|76||14||14||unless by the permission of GOD; in GOD therefore let the faithful trust.||But by the leave of God. In God therefore let the faithful trust.|
|76||15||14||And what excuse have we to allege, that we should not put our trust in GOD; since he hath directed us our paths? Wherefore we will certainly suffer with patience the persecution wherewith ye shall afflict us: in GOD therefore let those put their confidence who seek in whom to put their trust.||And why should we not put our trust in God, since He hath already guided us in our ways. We will certainly bear with constancy the harm you would do to us. In God let the trustful trust."|
|76||16||14||And those who believed not said unto their apostles, We will surely expel you out of our land; or ye shall return unto our religion. And their LORD spake unto them by revelation, saying, We will surely destroy the wicked doers;||And they who believed not said to their Apostles, "Forth from our land will we surely drive you, or, to our religion shall ye return." Then their Lord revealed to them, "We will certainly destroy the wicked doers,|
|76||17||14||and we will cause you to dwell in the earth, after them. This shall be granted unto him who shall dread the appearance at my tribunal, and shall fear my threatening.||And we shall certainly cause you to dwell in the land after them. This for him who dreadeth the appearance at my judgment-seat and who dreadeth my menace!"|
|76||18||14||And they asked assistance of God,h and every rebellious perverse person failed of success.||h The commentators are uncertain whether these were the prophets, who begged assistance against their enemies; or the infidels, who called for GODS decision between themselves and them; or both. And some suppose this verse has no connection with the preceding, but is spoken of the people of Mecca, who begged rain in a great drought with which they were afflicted at the prayer of their prophet, but could not obtain it.2
|Then sought they help from God, and every proud rebellious one perished:|
|76||19||14||Hell lieth unseen before him, and he shall have filthy wateri given him to drink:||i Which will issue from the bodies of the damned, mixed with purulent matter and blood.||Hell is before him: and of tainted water shall he be made to drink:|
|76||20||14||he shall sup it up by little and little, and he shall not easily let it pass his throat because of its nauseousness; death also shall come upon him from every quarter, yet he shall not die; and before him shall there stand prepared a grievous torment.||He shall sup it and scarce swallow it for loathing; and Death shall assail him on every side, but he shall not die: and before him shall be seen a grievous torment.|
|76||21||14||This is the likeness of those who believe not in their LORD. Their works are as ashes, which the wind violently scattereth in a stormy day: they shall not be able to obtain any solid advantage from that which they have wrought. This is an error most distant from truth.||A likeness of those who believe not in their Lord. Their works are like ashes which the wind scattereth on a stormy day: no advantage shall they gain from their works. This is the far-gone wandering.|
|76||22||14||Dost thou not see that GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in wisdom? If he please, he can destroy you, and produce a new creature in your stead:||Seest thou not that in truth1 hath God created the Heavens and the Earth? Were such his pleasure He could make you pass away, and cause a new creation to arise.||1 See Sura [lxxxiv.] x. 5.|
|76||23||14||neither will this be difficult with GOD.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 17
|MG: Neither will this be difficult with God.||And this would not be hard for God.|
|76||24||14||And they shall all come forth into the presence of GOD at the last day: and the weak among them shall say unto those who behaved themselves arrogantly,j Verily we were your followers on earth; will ye not therefore avert from us some part of the divine vengeance?||j i.e., The more simple and inferior people shall say to their teachers and princes who seduced them to idolatry, and confirmed them in their obstinate infidelity.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 22, p. 23
|Seest thou not to what God likeneth a good word? To a good tree; its root firmly fixed, and its branches reaching unto heaven: yielding its fruit in all seasons.||All mankind shall come forth before God; and the weak shall say to the men of might, "Verily, we were your followers: will ye not then relieve us of some part of the vengeance of God?"|
|76||25||14||They shall answer, If GOD had directed us aright, we had certainly directed you.k It is equal unto us whether we bear our torments impatiently, or whether we endure them with patience: for we have no way to escape.||k That is, We made the same choice for you, as we did for ourselves: and had not GOD permitted us to fall into error, we had not seduced you.||They shall say, "If God had guided us, we surely had guided you. It is now all one whether we be impatient, or endure with patience. We have no escape."|
|76||26||14||And Satan shall say, after judgment shall have been given, Verily GOD promised you a promise of truth: and I also made you a promise; but I deceived you. Yet I had not any power over you to compel you;||And after doom hath been given, Satan shall say, "Verily, God promised you a promise of truth: I, too, made you a promise, but I deceived you. Yet I had no power over you:|
|76||27||14||but I called you only, and ye answered me: wherefore accuse not me, but accuse yourselves.l I cannot assist you; neither can ye assist me. Verily I do now renounce your having associated me with God heretofore.m A grievous punishment is prepared for the unjust.||l Lay not the blame on my temptations, but blame your own folly in obeying and trusting in me, who had openly professed myself your irreconcilable enemy.
m Or I do now declare myself clear of your having obeyed me, preferably to GOD, and worshipped idols at my instigation. Or the words may be translated, I believed not heretofore in that Being with whom ye did associate me; intimating his first disobedience in refusing to worship Adam at GODS command.1
|But I only called you and ye answered me. Blame not me then, but blame yourselves: I cannot aid you, neither can ye aid me. I never believed that I was His equal with whom ye joined me."2 As for the evil doers, a grievous torment doth await them.||2 Lit. I truly renounce your having associated me (with God) heretofore.|
|76||28||14||But they who shall have believed and wrought righteousness shall be introduced into gardens, wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever, by the permission of their LORD; and their salutation therein shall be, Peace!n||n See chapter 10, p. 151.||But they who shall have believed and done the things that be right, shall be brought into gardens beneath which the rivers flow: therein shall they abide for ever by the permission of their Lord: their greeting therein shall be "Peace."|
|76||29||14||Dost thou not see how GOD putteth forth a parable; representing a good word, as a good tree, whose root is firmly fixed in the earth, and whose branches reach unto heaven;||BWC: its root firmly fixed, and its branches in the heavens.'||Bahíyyih Khánum, V. Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf, no. 33, p. 131
|Seest thou not to what God likeneth a good word?3 To a good tree: its root firmly fixed, and its branches in the Heaven:||3 The preaching and the profession of Islam. Comp. Ps. i. 3, 4.|
|76||30||14||which bringeth forth its fruit in all seasons, by the will of its LORD? GOD propoundeth parables unto men, that they may be instructed.||Yielding its fruit in all seasons by the will of its Lord. God setteth forth these similitudes to men that haply they may reflect.|
|76||31||14||And the likeness of an evil word is as an evil tree; which is torn up from the face of the earth, and hath no stability.o||o What is particularly intended in this passage by the good word, and the evil word, the expositors differ. But the first seems to mean the profession of GODS unity; the inviting others to the true religion, or the Korân itself; and the latter, the acknowledging a plurality of gods, the seducing of others to idolatry, or the obstinate opposition of GODS prophets.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And an evil word is like an evil tree torn up from the face of the earth, and without strength to stand.|
|76||32||14||GOD shall confirm them who believe, by the steadfast word of faith, both in this life and in that which is to come:p but GOD shall lead the wicked into error; for GOD doth that which he pleaseth.||p Jallaloddin supposes the sepulchre to be here understood; in which place when the true believers come to be examined by the two angels concerning their faith, they will answer properly and without hesitation; which the infidels will not be able to do.3
3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 59.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 241)
|doeth as He willeth||Those who believe shall God stablish by his steadfast word both in this life and in that which is to come: but the wicked shall He cause to err: God doth his pleasure.|
|76||33||14||Hast thou not considered those who have changed the grace of GOD to infidelity,q and cause their people to descend into the house of perdition,||q That is, who requite his favours with disobedience and incredulity. Or, whose ingratitude obliged GOD to deprive them of the blessings he had bestowed on them; as he did the Meccans, who though GOD had placed them in the sacred territory, and given them the custody of the Caaba, and abundant provision of all necessaries and conveniences of life, and had also honoured them by the mission of Mohammed, yet in return for all this became obstinate unbelievers, and persecuted his apostle; for which they were not only punished by a famine of seven years, but also by the loss and disgrace they sustained at Bedr; so that they who had before been celebrated for their prosperity, were not stripped of that, and become conspicuous only for their infidelity.4 If this be the drift of the passage, it could not have been revealed at Mecca, as the rest of the chapter is agreed to be; wherefore some suppose this verse and the next to have been revealed at Medina.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Tablet of Ishráqát, within pp. 99-134)
|BWC: those who have bartered away heavenly blessings for disbelief and have chosen for their people the abode of perdition.||Hast thou not beholden those who repay the goodness of God with infidelity, and sink their people into the abode of perdition|
|76||34||14||namely, into hell? They shall be thrown to burn therein; and an unhappy dwelling shall it be.||Hell? Therein shall they be burned; and wretched the dwelling!|
|76||35||14||They also set up idols as co-partners with GOD, that they might cause men to stray from his path. Say, unto them, Enjoy the pleasures of this life for a time; but your departure hence shall be into hell fire.||They set up compeers with God in order to mislead man from his way. SAY: Enjoy your pleasures yet awhile, but assuredly, your going hence shall be into the fire.|
|76||36||14||Speak unto my servants who have believed, that they be assiduous at prayer, and give alms out of that which we have bestowed on them, both privately and in public; before the day cometh, wherein there shall be no buying nor selling, neither any friendship.||Speak to my servants who have believed, that they observe prayer, and give alms of that with which we have supplied them, both privately and openly, ere the day come when there shall be neither traffic nor friendship.|
|76||37||14||It is GOD who hath created the heavens and the earth; and causeth water to descend from heaven, and by means thereof produceth fruits for your sustenance: and by his command he obligethr the ships to sail in the sea for your service; and he also forceth the rivers to supply your uses: he likewise compelleth the sun and the moon, which diligently perform their courses, to serve you; and hath subjected the day and the night to your service. He giveth you of everything which ye ask him; and if ye attempt to reckon up the favors of GOD, ye shall not be able to compute the same. Surely man is unjust and ungrateful.||r The word used here, and in the following sentences, is sakhkhara, which signifies forcibly to press into any service.1
1 See chapter 2, p. 17, note c.
|It is God who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, and sendeth down water from the Heaven, and so bringeth forth the fruits for your food: And He hath subjected to you the ships, so that by His command, they pass through the sea; and He hath subjected the rivers to you: and He hath subjected to you the sun and the moon in their constant courses: and He hath subjected the day and the night to you: of everything which ye ask Him, giveth He to you; and if ye would reckon up the favours of God, ye cannot count them! Surely man is unjust, ungrateful!|
|76||38||14||Remember when Abraham said, O LORD, make this lands a place of security; and grant that I and my childrent may avoid the worship of idols;||s viz., The territory of Mecca. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
t This prayer, it seems, was not heard as to all his posterity, particularly as to the descendants of Ismael; though some pretend that these latter did not worship images, but only paid a superstitious veneration to certain stones, which they set up and compassed, as representations of the Caaba.2
2 Al Beidâwi. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 13-16.
|ABRAHAM said, "O Lord make this land secure, and turn aside me and my children from serving idols:|
|76||39||14||for they, O LORD, have seduced a great number of men. Whoever therefore shall follow me, he shall be of me; and whosoever shall disobey me, verily thou wilt be gracious and merciful.u||u That is, by disposing him to repentance. But Jallaloddin supposes these words were spoken by Abraham before he knew that GOD would not pardon idolatry.||For many men, O my Lord, have they led astray. But whosoever shall follow me, he truly shall be of me; and whosoever shall disobey me. . . . Thou truly art Gracious, Merciful.|
|76||40||14||O LORD, I have caused some of my offspringx to settle in an unfruitful valley, near the holy house, O LORD, that they may be constant at prayer. Grant, therefore, that the hearts of some meny may be affected with kindness toward them; and do thou bestow on them all sorts of fruits,z that they may give thanks.||x i.e., Ismael and his posterity. The Mohammedans say, that Hagar, his mother, belonged to Sarah, who gave her to Abraham; and that, on her bearing him this son, Sarah became so jealous of her, that she prevailed on her husband to turn them both out of doors; whereupon he sent them to the territory of Mecca, where GOD caused the fountain of Zemzem to spring forth for their relief, in consideration of which the Jorhamites, who were the masters of the country, permitted them to settle among them.3
y Had he said the hearts of men, absolutely, the Persians and the Romans would also have treated them as friends; and both the Jews and Christians would have made their pilgrimages to Mecca.4
4 Idem, Jallaloddin.
z This part of the prayer was granted; Mecca being so plentifully supplied, that the fruits of spring, summer, and autumn, are to be found there at one and the same time.5
|O our Lord! verily I have settled some of my offspring in an unfruitful valley, nigh to thy holy house;4 O our Lord, that they may strictly observe prayer! Make thou therefore the hearts of men to yearn toward them, and supply them with fruits that they may be thankful.||4 The Caaba.|
|76||41||14||O LORD, thou knowest whatsoever we conceal, and whatsoever we publish; for nothing is hidden from GOD, either on earth or in heaven. Praise be unto GOD, who hath given me, in my old age, Israel and Isaac: for my LORD is the hearer of supplication.||O our Lord! thou truly knowest what we hide and what we bring to light; nought on earth or in heaven is hidden from God. Praise be to God who hath given me, in my old age, Ismael and Isaac! My Lord is the hearer of prayer.|
|76||42||14||O LORD, grant that I may be an observer of prayer, and a part of my posterity also,a O LORD, and receive my supplication. O LORD, forgive me, and my parents,b and the faithful, on the day whereon an account shall be taken.||a For he knew by revelation that somme of them would be infidels.
b Abraham put up this petition to GOD before he knew that his parents were the enemies of GOD.6 Some suppose his mother was a true believer, and therefore read it in the singular, and my father. Others fancy that by his parents the patriarch here means Adam and Eve.7
6 See chapter 9, p. 148.
7 Jallaloddin, Al Beidâwi.
|Memorials of the Faithful (pp. 180-191, Shamsu'd-Duhá)
|Lord! grant that I and my posterity may observe prayer. O our Lord! and grant this my petition. O our Lord! forgive me and my parents and the faithful, on the day wherein account shall be taken."|
|76||43||14||Think not, O prophet, that GOD is regardless of what the ungodly do. He only deferreth their punishment unto the day whereon men's eyes shall be fixed:||Think thou not that God is regardless of the deeds of the wicked. He only respiteth them to the day on which all eyes shall stare up with terror:|
|76||44||14||they shall hasten forward, at the voice of the angel calling to judgment, and shall lift up their heads; they shall not be able to turn their sight from the object whereon it shall be fixed, and their hearts shall be void of sense, through excessive terror. Wherefore do thou threaten men with the day, whereon their punishment shall be inflicted on them,||They hasten forward in fear; their heads upraised in supplication; their looks riveted; and their hearts a blank. Warn men therefore of the day when the punishment shall overtake them,|
|76||45||14||and whereon those who have acted unjustly shall say, O LORD, give us respite unto a term near at hand;||And when the evil doers shall say, "O our Lord! respite us yet a little while:5||5 Lit. to a term near at hand.|
|76||46||14||and we will obey thy call, and we will follow thy apostles. But it shall be answered unto them, Did ye not swear heretofore, that no reverse should befall you?c||c That is, That ye should not taste of death, but continue in this world for ever; or that ye should not after death be raised to judgment.1
1 Iidem, Al Zamakhshari, Yahya.
|To thy call will we make answer; thine Apostles will we follow." "Did ye not once swear that no change should befal you?|
|76||47||14||yet ye dwelt in the dwellings of those who had treated their own souls unjustly;d and it appeared plainly unto you how we had dwelt with them;e and we propounded their destruction as examples unto you. They employ their utmost subtlety to oppose the truth; but their subtlety is apparent unto GOD, who is able to frustrate their designs; although their subtlety were so great, that the mountains might be moved thereby.||d viz., Of the Adites and Thamûdites.
e Not only by the histories of those people revealed in the Korân, but also by the monuments remaining of them (as the houses of the Thamûdites, and the traditions preserved among you of the terrible judgments which befell them.
|Yet ye dwelt in the dwellings of those6 who were the authors of their undoing7 and it was made plain to you how we had dealt with them; and we held them up to you as examples. They plotted their plots: but God could master their plots, even though their plots had been so powerful as to move the mountains."||6 Of the anciently destroyed cities of Themoud, Ad, etc.
7 Lit. were unjust to their own souls.
|76||48||14||Think not, therefore, O prophet, that GOD will be contrary to his promise of assistance, made unto his apostles; for GOD is mighty, able to avenge.||Think not then that God will fail his promise to his Apostles: aye! God is mighty, and Vengeance is His.|
|76||49||14||The day will come, when the earth shall be changed into another earth, and the heavens into other heavens;f and men shall come forth from their graves to appear before the only, the mighty GOD.||f This the Mohammedans suppose will come to pass at the last day; the earth becoming white and even, or, as some will have it, of silver; and the heavens of gold.2
2 Iidem. Vide Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV, p. 67.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 49, p. 47
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 61, paragraph 85
|On the day when the earth shall be changed into other earth.
BWC: On the day when the earth shall be changed into another earth.
|On the day when the Earth shall be changed into another Earth, and the Heavens also, men shall come forth unto God, the Only, the Victorious.|
|76||50||14||And thou shalt see the wicked on that day bound together in fetters:||And thou shalt see the wicked on that day linked together in chains|
|76||51||14||their inner garments shall be of pitch, and fire shall cover their faces; that GOD may reward every soul according to what it shall have deserved; for GOD is swift in taking an account.||Their garments of pitch, and fire shall enwrap their faces that God may reward every soul as it deserveth; verily God is prompt to reckon.|
|76||52||14||This is a sufficient admonition unto men, that they may be warned thereby, and that they may know that there is but one GOD; and that those who are endued with understanding may consider.||This is a message for mankind, that they may thereby be warned: and that they may know that there is but one God; and that men of understanding may ponder it.|
|57||0||15||CHAPTER XV.||SURA XV.HEDJR1 [LVII.]||1 Hedjr, a valley in the route between Medina and Syria, originally the country of the Themoudites.|
|57||0||15||ENTITLED, AL HEJR;g REVEALED AT MECCA.||g Al Hejr is a territory in the province of Hejaz, between Medina and Syria, where the tribe of Thamûd dwelt;1 and is mentioned towards the end of the chapter.
1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 4.
|57||0||15||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|57||1||15||A. L. R.h These are the signs of the book, and of the perspicuous Koran.||h See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||ELIF. LAM. RA.2 These are the signs of the Book, and of a lucid recital [Koran].||2 See Sura lxviii. p. 32.|
|57||2||15||The time may come when the unbelievers shall wish that they had been Moslems.i||i viz., When they shall see the success and prosperity of the true believers; or when they shall come to die; or at the resurrection.||Many a time will the infidels wish that they had been Muslims.|
|57||3||15||Suffer them to eat, and to enjoy themselves in this world; and let hope entertain them, but they shall hereafter know their folly.||Let them feast and enjoy themselves, and let hope beguile them: but they shall know the truth at last.|
|57||4||15||We have not destroyed any city, but a fixed term of repentance was appointed them.||We never destroyed a city whose term was not perfixed:3||3 Lit. which had not a known writing.|
|57||5||15||No nation shall be punished before their time shall be come; neither shall they be respited after.||No people can forestall or retard its destiny.|
|57||6||15||The Meccans say, O thou to whom the admonitionj hath been sent down, thou art certainly possessed with a devil:||j i.e., The revelations which compose the Korân.||They say: "O thou to whom the warning hath been sent down, thou art surely possessed by a djinn:|
|57||7||15||wouldest thou not have come unto us with an attendance of angels, if thou hadst spoken truth?||Wouldst thou not have come to us with the angels, if thou wert of those who assert the truth?"|
|57||8||15||Answer, We send not down the angels, unless on a just occasion;k nor should they be then respited any longer.||k When the divine wisdom shall judge it proper to use their ministry, as in bearing his revelations to the prophets, and the executing his sentence on wicked people; but not to humour you with their appearance in visible shapes, which, should your demand be complied with, would only increase your confusion, and bring GODS vengeance on you the sooner.||We will not send down the angels without due cause.4 The Infidels would not in that case have been respited.||4 That is, not merely to gratify the curiosity of the doubting, but to execute prompt punishment. It might also be rendered, save with justice|
|57||9||15||We have surely sent down the Koran; and we will certainly preserve the same from corruption.l||l See the Prelim. Disc. IV. p. 57.||Verily, We have sent down the warning, and verily, We will be its guardian;|
|57||10||15||We have heretofore sent apostles before thee among the ancient sects:||And already have We sent Apostles, before thee, among the sects of the ancients;|
|57||11||15||and there came no apostle unto them, but they laughed him to scorn.||A Travelers Narrative, p. 74
|EGB: There came not unto them any apostle but they mocked at him.||But never came Apostles to them whom they did not deride.|
|57||12||15||In the same manner will we put it into the hearts of the wicked Meccans to scoff at their prophet:||In like manner will We put it into the hearts of the sinners of Mecca to do the same:|
|57||13||15||they shall not believe on him; and the sentence of the nations of old hath been executed heretofore.||They will not believe on him though the example of those of old hath gone before.|
|57||14||15||If we should open a gate in the heaven above them, and they should ascend theretom all the day long,||m i.e., The incredulous Meccans themselves; or, as others rather think, the angels in visible forms.||Even were We to open above them a gate in Heaven, yet all the while they were mounting up to it,|
|57||15||15||they should rather say, Our eyes are only dazzled; or rather we are a people deluded by enchantments.||They would surely say: It is only that our eyes are drunken: nay, we are a people enchanted.|
|57||16||15||We have placed the twelve signs in the heaven, and have set them out in various figures, for the observation of spectators:||We have set the signs of the zodiac5 in the Heavens, and adorned and decked them forth for the beholders,||5 Ar. bourdj, Gr. [greek text], towers, i.e. Signs of the Zodiac.|
|57||17||15||and we guard them from every deviln driven away with stones;o||n For the Mohammedans imagine that the devils endeavour to ascend to the constellations, to pry into the actions and overhear the discourse of the inhabitants of heaven, and to tempt them. They also pretend that these evil spirits had the liberty of entering any of the heavens till the birth of JESUS, when they were excluded three of them; but that on the birth of Mohammed they were forbidden the other four.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
o See chapter 3, p. 35, note b.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
|And We guard them from every stoned6 Satan,||6 See Sura xv. 34; and note p. 114.|
|57||18||15||except him who listeneth by stealth, at whom a visible flame is darted.p||p For when a star seems to fall or shoot, the Mohammedans suppose the angels, who keep guard in the constellations, dart them at the devils who approach too near.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 32-36, Nabíl-i-Zarandi)
|Save such as steal a hearing:7 and him doth a visible flame pursue.||7 Comp. Sura xxxvii. 6, p. 79. In Chagiga 16, 1, the Demons (schedim) are said to learn the secrets of the future by listening behind the veil (pargôd).|
|57||19||15||We have also spread forth the earth, and thrown thereon stable mountains, and we have caused every kind of vegetable to spring forth in the same, according to a determinate weight:||And the Earth have We spread forth, and thrown thereon the mountains, and caused everything to spring forth in it in balanced measure:|
|57||20||15||and we have provided therein necessaries of life for you, and for him whom ye do not sustain.q||q viz., Your family, servants, and slaves, whom ye wrongly imagine that ye feed yourselves; though it is GOD who provides for them as well as you:1 or, as some rather think, the animals, of whom men take no care.2
|And We have provided therein sustenance for you, and for the creatures which not ye sustain:|
|57||21||15||There is no one thing but the storehouses thereof are in our hands; and we distribute not the same otherwise than in a determinate measure.||The Seven Valleys (The Valley of True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness)
|MG: And no one thing is there, but with Us are its storehouses; and We send it not down but in settled measure.||And no one thing is there, but with Us are its storehouses; and We send it not down but in settled measure:|
|57||22||15||We also send the winds driving the pregnant clouds, and we send down from heaven water, whereof we give you to drink, and which ye keep not in store.||And We send forth the fertilising winds, and cause the rain to come down from the heaven, and give you to drink of it; and it is not ye who are its storers:|
|57||23||15||Verily we give life, and we put to death: and we are the heirs of all things.r||r i.e., Alone surviving, when all creatures shall be dead and annihilated.||And We cause to live and We cause to die,8 and We are the heir of all things:||8 Compare precisely a similar association of subjects, the Rain, Food, God, as Lord of life and death in Tr. Taanith, fol. 1 a.|
|57||24||15||We know those among you who go before; and we know those who stay behind.s||s What these words particularly drive at is uncertain. Some think them spoken of the different times of mens several entrance into this world, and their departure out of it; others of the respective forwardness and backwardness of Mohammeds men in battle; and a third says, the passage was occasioned by the different behaviour of Mohammeds followers, on seeing a very beautiful woman at prayers behind the prophet; some of them going out of the Mosque before her, to avoid looking on her more nearly, and others staying behind, on purpose to view her.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|We know those of you who flourish first and We know those who come later:|
|57||25||15||And thy LORD shall gather them together at the last day: for he is knowing and wise.||And truly thy Lord will gather them together again, for He is Wise, Knowing.|
|57||26||15||We created man of dried clay, of black mud, formed into shape:t||t See chapter 2, p. 4, &c.||We created man of dried clay, of dark loam moulded;|
|57||27||15||and we had before created the devil of subtle fire.||And the djinn had We before created of subtle fire.|
|57||28||15||And remember when thy LORD said unto the angels, Verily I am about to create man of dried clay, of black mud, wrought into shape;||Remember when thy Lord said to the Angels, "I create man of dried clay, of dark loam moulded:|
|57||29||15||when, therefore, I shall have completely formed him, and shall have breathed of my spirit into him; do ye fall down and worship him.||And when I shall have fashioned him and breathed of my spirit into him, then fall ye down and worship him."|
|57||30||15||And all the angels worshipped Adam together,||And the Angels bowed down in worship, all of them, all together,|
|57||31||15||except Eblis, who refused to be with those who worshipped him.||Save Eblis: he refused to be with those who bowed in worship.|
|57||32||15||And God said unto him, O Eblis, what hindered thee from being with those who worshipped Adam?||"O Eblis,"9 said God, "wherefore art thou not with those who bow down in worship?"||9 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 32. There is much in this dialogue between Eblis and Allah which reminds of the dialogue between Jehovah and Satan in the opening of the Book of Job.|
|57||33||15||He answered, It is not fit that I should worship man, whom thou hast created of dried clay, of black mud, wrought into shape.||He said, "It beseemeth not me to bow in worship to man whom thou hast created of clay, of moulded loam."|
|57||34||15||God said, Get thee therefore hence: for thou shalt be driven away with stones:||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
|He said, "Begone then hence; thou art a stoned one,10||10 That is, accursed. According to the Muhammadan tradition, Abraham drove Satan away with stones when he would have hindered him from sacrificing Ismael. Hence the custom during the pilgrimage of throwing a certain number of stonesthe Shafeis, 49; the Hanafis, 70as if at Satan, in the valley of Mina, near Mecca. The spot where the apparition of Satan to Abraham took place is marked by three small pillars, at which the stones are now thrown. Comp. Gen. xv. II.|
|57||35||15||and a curse shall be on thee, until the day of judgment.||And the curse shall be on thee till the day of reckoning."|
|57||36||15||The devil said, O LORD, Give me respite until the day of resurrection.||He said, "O my Lord! respite me till the day when man shall be raised from the dead."|
|57||37||15||God answered, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited||He said, "One then of the respited shalt thou be|
|57||38||15||until the day of the appointed time.u||u See ibid. and chapter 7, p. 106.||Till the day of the predestined time."|
|57||39||15||The devil replied, O LORD, because thou hast seduced me, I will surely tempt them to disobedience in the earth;||He said, "O my Lord! because thou hast beguiled me, I will surely make all fair seeming to them11 on the earth; I will surely beguile them all;||11 Lit. I will embellish, prepare.|
|57||40||15||and I will seduce such of them as shall be thy chosen servants.||Except such of them as shall be thy sincere servants."|
|57||41||15||God said, This is the right way with me.x||x viz., The saving of the elect, and the utter reprobation of the wicked, according to my eternal decree.||He said, "This is the right way with me;|
|57||42||15||Verily as to my servants, thou shalt have no power over them; but over those only who shall be seduced, and who shall follow thee.||For over none of my servants shalt thou have power, save those beguiled ones who shall follow thee."|
|57||43||15||And hell is surely denounced unto them all:||And verily, Hell is the promise for them one and all.|
|57||44||15||it hath seven gates; unto every gate a distinct company of them shall be assigned.y||y See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 71||It hath seven Portals;12 at each Portal is a separate band of them;||12 Thus, in Sota, 10, David is said to have rescued Absalom from "the seven dwellings of Hell;" in Midr. on Ps. xi. "There are seven houses of abode for the wicked in Hell;" and in Sohar ii. 150, "Hell hath seven gates."|
|57||45||15||But those who fear God shall dwell in gardens, amidst fountains.||But 'mid gardens and fountains shall the pious dwell:|
|57||46||15||The angels shall say unto them, Enter ye therein in peace and security,||Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: Enter therein in peace, secure,||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter III, p. 53
|"Enter ye therein in peace, secure"|
|57||47||15||and we will remove all grudges from their breasts;z they shall be as brethren, sitting over against one anothera on couches;||z That is, all hatred and ill-will which they bore each other in their lifetime; or, as some choose to expound it, all envy or heart-burning on account of the different degrees of honour and happiness to which the blessed will be promoted according to their respective merits.
1 See chapter 7, p. 108, note, 7.
a Never turning their backs to one another;2 which might be construed a sign of contempt.
|And all rancour will We remove from their bosoms: they shall sit as brethren, face to face, on couches:|
|57||48||15||weariness shall not affect them therein, neither shall they be cast out thence forever.||Therein no weariness shall reach them, nor forth from it shall they be cast for ever.|
|57||49||15||Declare unto my servants that I am the gracious, the merciful God;||Announce to my servants that I am the Gracious, the Merciful,|
|57||50||15||and that my punishment is a grievous punishment.||And that my chastisement is the grievous chastisement.|
|57||51||15||And relate unto them the history of Abraham's guests.b||b See chapter 11, p. 165, &c.||And tell them of Abraham's guests.|
|57||52||15||When they went in unto him, and said, Peace be unto thee, he answered, Verily we are afraid of you:c||c What occasioned Abrahams apprehension was, either their sudden entering without leave or their coming at an unseasonable time; or else their not eating with him.||When they entered in unto him, and said, "Peace." "Verily," said he, "We fear you."|
|57||53||15||and they replied, Fear not; we bring thee the promise of a wise son.||They said, "Fear not, for of a sage son we bring thee tidings."|
|57||54||15||He said, Do ye bring me the promise of a son now old age hath overtaken me? what is it therefore that ye tell me?||He said, "Bring ye me such tidings now that old age hath come upon me? What, therefore, are your tidings really?"|
|57||55||15||They said, We have told thee the truth; be not therefore one of those who despair.||They said, "We announce them to thee in very truth. Be not then one of the despairing."|
|57||56||15||He answered, And who despaireth of the mercy of GOD, except those who err?||"And who," said he, "despaireth of the mercy of his Lord, but they who err?"|
|57||57||15||And he said, What is your errand, therefore, O messengers of God?||He said, "What is your business then, O ye Sent Ones?"|
|57||58||15||They answered, Verily we are sent to destroy a wicked people;||They said, "We are sent unto a people who are sinners,|
|57||59||15||but as for the family of Lot, we will save them all,||Except the family of Lot, whom verily we will rescue all,|
|57||60||15||except his wife; we have decreed that she shall be one of those who remain behind to be destroyed with the infidels.||Except his wife. We have decreed that she shall be of those who linger."|
|57||61||15||And when the messengers came to the family of Lot,||And when the Sent Ones came to the family of Lot|
|57||62||15||he said unto them, Verily ye are a people who are unknown to me.||He said, "Yes; are persons unknown to me."|
|57||63||15||They answered, But we are come unto thee to execute that sentence, concerning which your fellow-citizens doubted:||They said, "Yes; but we have come to thee for a purpose about which thy people doubt:|
|57||64||15||we tell thee a certain truth; and we are messengers of veracity.||We have come to thee with very truth, and we are truthful envoys.|
|57||65||15||Therefore lead forth thy family, in some time of the night; and do thou follow behind them, and let none of you turn back; but go whither ye are commanded.d||d Which was into Syria; or into Egypt.||Lead forth therefore thy family in the dead of the night; follow thou on their rear: and let no one of you turn round, but pass ye on whither ye are bidden."|
|57||66||15||And we gave him this command; because the utmost remnant of those people was to be cut off in the morning.||And this command we gave him because to the last man should these people be cut off at morning.|
|57||67||15||And the inhabitants of the city came unto Lot, rejoicing at the news of the arrival of some strangers.||Then came the people of the city rejoicing at the news13||13 At the arrival of strangers.|
|57||68||15||And he said unto them, Verily these are my guests: wherefore do not disgrace me by abusing them;||He said, "These are my guests: therefore disgrace me not.|
|57||69||15||but fear GOD, and put me not to shame.||And fear God and put me not to shame."|
|57||70||15||They answered, Have we not forbidden thee from entertaining or protecting any man?||They said, "Have we not forbidden thee to entertain any one whatever?"14||14 Comp. Midr. Rabbah on Gen. Par. 50.|
|57||71||15||Lot replied, These are my daughters: therefore rather make use of them, if ye be resolved to do what ye purpose.||He said, "Here are my daughters, if ye will thus act."|
|57||72||15||As thou livest they wander in their folly.e||e Some will have these words spoken by the angels to Lot; others, by GOD to Mohammed.
3 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 146, p. 135
|As Thou livest, O Muhammad! they are seized by the frenzy of their vain fancies.||As thou livest, O Muhammad, they were bewildered in the drunkenness of their lust.|
|57||73||15||Wherefore a terrible storm from heaven assailed them at sunrise,||So a tempest overtook them at their sunrise,|
|57||74||15||and we turned the city upside down: and we rained on them stones of baked clay.||And we turned the city upside down, and we rained stones of baked clay upon them.|
|57||75||15||Verily herein are signs unto men of sagacity:||Verily, in this are signs for those who scan heedfully;|
|57||76||15||and those cities were punished, to point out a right way for men to walk in.||And these cities lay on the high road.15||15 From Arabia to Syria. The pronoun in the fem. sing. may refer to the Pentapolis as to a single city, or to Sodom alone.|
|57||77||15||Verily herein is a sign unto the true believers.||Verily, in this are signs for the faithful.|
|57||78||15||The inhabitants of the wood near Midianf were also ungodly.||f To whom Shoaib was also sent, as well as to the inhabitants of Midian. Abulfeda says these people dwelt near Tabûc, and that they were not of the same tribe with Shoaib. See also Geog. Nub. 110.||The inhabitants also of El Aika16 were sinners:||16 See Sura [lvi.] xxvi. 176.|
|57||79||15||Wherefore we took vengeance on them.g And both of them were destroyed, to serve as a manifest rule for men to direct their actions by.||g Destroying them, for their incredulity and disobedience, by a hot suffocating wind.1
|So we took vengeance on them, and they both became a plain example.|
|57||80||15||And the inhabitants of Al Hejrh likewise heretofore accused the messengers of God of imposture:||h Who were the tribe of Thamûd.2
2 See chapter 7, p. 113, &c., and Prel. Disc. p. 5.
|And the people of HEDJR treated God's messengers as liars.|
|57||81||15||and we produced our signs unto them, but they retired afar off from the same.||And we brought forth our signs to them, but they drew back from them:|
|57||82||15||And they hewed houses out of the mountains, to secure themselves.||And they hewed them out abodes in the mountains to secure them:|
|57||83||15||But a terrible noise from heaven assailed them in the morning;||But a tempest surprised them at early morn,|
|57||84||15||neither was what they had wrought of any advantage unto them.||And their labours availed them nothing.|
|57||85||15||We have not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is contained between them, otherwise than in justice: and the hour of judgment shall surely come. Wherefore O Mohammed, forgive thy people with a gracious forgiveness.i||i This verse, it is said, was abrogated by that of the sword.||We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that between them is, but for a worthy end.17 And verily, "the hour" shall surely come. Wherefore do thou, Muhammad, forgive with kindly forgiveness,||17 See Sura [lxxiii.] xvi. 3.|
|57||86||15||Verily thy LORD is the creator of thee and of them, and knoweth what is most expedient.||For thy Lord! He is the Creator, the Wise.|
|57||87||15||We have already brought unto thee seven verses which are frequently to be repeated,j and the glorious Koran.||j That is, the first chapter of the Korân, which consists of so many verses: though some suppose the seven long chapters3 are here intended.
3 See chapter 9, p. 134, note e.
|We have already given thee the seven verses of repetition18 and the glorious Koran.||18 That is, the seven verses of Sura 1, p. 28. Others understand, the seven long Suras; or, the fifteen Suras which make a seventh of the whole; or, this Sura (Hedjr) as originally the seventh. Mathani is an allusion, according to some, to the frequency with which the fatthah is to be repeated; or, to the frequent repetitions of great truths, etc., in order to impress them on the memory of the hearer and reader; or, to the manner in which waid and wa'd, promises and threatenings, alternate and balance each other in the same or subsequent verses and Suras, in pairs. This verse and Sura x. 10 shew that a part at least of the Koran was known under that name and existed as a whole in the time of Muhammad. Geiger's interpretations at pp. 59, 60 (and in the note) seem very forced.|
|57||88||15||Cast not thine eyes on the good things which we have bestowed on several of the unbelievers, so as to covet the same:k neither be thou grieved on their account. Behave thyself with meekness towards the true believers;||k That is, Do not envy or covet their worldly prosperity, since thou hast received, in the Korân, a blessing, in comparison whereof all that we have bestowed on them ought to be contemned as of no value. Al Beidâwi mentions a tradition, that Mohammed meeting at Adhriât (a town of Syria) seven caravans, very richly laden, belonging to some Jews of the tribes of Koreidha and al Nadîr, his men had a great mind to plunder them, saying, That those riches would be of great service for the propagation of GODS true religion. But the prophet represented to them, by this passage, that they had no reason to repine, GOD having given them the seven verses, which were infinitely more valuable than those seven caravans.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 77)
|BWC: Act with humility towards the believers.||Strain not thine eyes after the good things we have bestowed on some of the unbelievers: afflict not thyself on their account, and lower thy wing to the faithful.19||19 Comp. Sura [lvi.] xxvi. 215, i.e. demean thyself gently.|
|57||89||15||and say, I am a public preacher.||And SAY: I am the only plain-spoken warner.|
|57||90||15||If they believe not, we will inflict a like punishment on them, as we have inflicted on the dividers,l||l Some interpret the original word, the obstructers, who hindered men from entering Mecca, to visit the temple, lest they should be persuaded to embrace Islâm: and this, it is said, was done by ten men, who were all slain at Bedr. Others translate the word, who bound themselves by oath; and suppose certain Thamûdites, who swore to kill Saleh by night, are here meant. But the sentence more probably relates to the Jews and Christians, who (say the Mohammedans) receive some part of the scriptures, and reject others; and also approved of some passages of the Korân, and disapproved of others, according to their prejudices; or else to the unbelieving Meccans, some of whom called the Korân a piece of witchcraft; others, flights of divination; others, old stories; and others, a poetical composition.5
5 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|We will punish those who foster divisions,20||20 Lit. as we sent down upon the dividers, i.e. the Jews and Christians, who receive part of the Scriptures and reject part. Others render obstructors and explain the passage of twelve idolaters, who in order to intimidate the Meccans, seized upon the public revenues of Mecca during the pilgrimage.|
|57||91||15||who distinguished the Koran into different parts,||Who break up the Koran into parts:|
|57||92||15||for by thy LORD, we will demand an account from them all||By thy Lord! we will surely take account from them one and all,|
|57||93||15||of that which they have wrought.||Concerning that which they have done.|
|57||94||15||Wherefore publish that which thou hast been commanded, and withdraw from the idolaters.||Profess publicly then what thou hast been bidden,21 and withdraw from those who join gods to God.||21 In this, the fourth year of his mission, Muhammad is said to have hazarded the step of mounting the Safa, a slight eminence in one of the streets of Mecca, and publicly preached to the Koreisch. The authorities are given in Sprenger (Life of M. p. 177, 8).|
|57||95||15||We will surely take thy part against the scoffers,m||m This passage, it is said, was revealed on account of five noble Koreish, whose names were al Walîd Ebn al Mogheira, al As Ebn Wayel, Oda Ebn Kais, al Aswad Ebn Abd Yaghûth, and al Aswad Ebn al Motalleb. These were inveterate enemies of Mohammed, continually persecuting him, and turning him into ridicule; wherefore at length Gabriel came and told him that he was commanded to take his part against them; and on the angels making a sign towards them one after another, al Walîd passing by some arrows, one of them hitched in his garment, and he, out of pride, not stooping to take it off, but walking forward, the head of it cut a vein in his heel, and he bled to death; al As was killed with a thorn, which stuck into the sole of his foot, and caused his leg to swell to a monstrous size; Oda died with violent and perpetual sneezing; al Aswad Ebn Abd Yaghûth ran his head against a thorny tree and killed himself; and al Aswad Ebn al Motalleb was struck blind.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Verily, We will maintain thy cause against those who deride thee,|
|57||96||15||who associate with GOD another god; they shall surely know their folly.||Who set up gods with God: and at last shall they know their folly.|
|57||97||15||And now we well know that thou art deeply concerned on account of that which they say;||Now know We that thy heart is distressed22 at what they say:||22 Lit. contracted.|
|57||98||15||but do thou celebrate the praise of thy LORD; and be one of those who worship;||But do thou celebrate the praise of thy Lord, and be of those who bow down in worship;|
|57||99||15||and serve thy LORD until deathn shall overtake thee.||n Literally, That which is certain.||And serve thy Lord till the certainty23 o'ertake thee.||23 Death.|
|73||0||16||CHAPTER XVI.||SURA XVI.THE BEE [LXXIII.]|
|73||0||16||ENTITLED, THE BEE;o REVEALED AT MECCA.||o This insect is mentioned about the middle of the chapter.
p Except the three last verses.
|73||0||16||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|73||1||16||THE sentence of GOD will surely come to be executed; wherefore do not hasten it. Praise be unto him! and far be that from him which they associate with him!||THE doom of God cometh to pass. Then hasten it not. Glory be to Him! High let Him be exalted above the gods whom they join with Him!|
|73||2||16||He shall cause the angels to descend with a revelation by his command, unto such of his servants as he pleaseth, saying, Preach that there is no GOD, except myself; therefore fear me.||By his own behest will He cause the angels to descend with the Spirit on whom he pleaseth among his servants, bidding them, "Warn that there is no God but me; therefore fear me."|
|73||3||16||He hath created the heavens and the earth, to manifest his justice; far be that from him which they associate with him!||He hath created the Heavens and the Earth to set forth his truth;1 high let Him be exalted above the gods they join with Him!||1 See Sura [lxxxiv.] x. 5, n.|
|73||4||16||He hath created man of seed; and yet behold he is a professed disputer against the resurrection.q||q The person particularly intended in this place was Obba Ebn Khalf, who came to Mohammed with a rotten bone, and asked him whether it was possible for GOD to restore it to life.2
|Man hath He created from a moist germ;2 yet lo! man is an open caviller.||2 Ex gutta spermatis. Pirke Aboth iii. Unde venisti? ex guttá foetidâ. This verse is said to be an allusion to a difficulty proposed by an idolatrous Arab, who brought a carious leg-bone to Muhammad, and asked whether it could be restored to life. Compare a similar argument for the Resurrection, Tr. Sanhedrin, fol. 91 a.|
|73||5||16||He hath likewise created the cattle for you; from them ye have wherewith to keep yourselves warm,r and other advantages; and of them do ye also eat.||r viz., Their skins, wool, and hair, which serve you for clothing.||And the cattle! for you hath He created them: in them ye have warm garments and gainful uses; and of them ye eat:|
|73||6||16||And they are likewise a credit unto you,s when ye drive them home in the evening, and when ye lead them forth to feed in the morning:||s Being a grace to your court-yards, and a credit to you in the eyes of your neighbours.3
|And they beseem you well3 when ye fetch them home and when ye drive them forth to pasture:||3 Lit. there is beauty in them for you, i.e. they win you credit.|
|73||7||16||and they carry your burdens to a distant country, at which ye could not otherwise arrive, unless with great difficulty to yourselves; for your LORD is compassionate and merciful.||And they carry your burdens to lands which ye could not else reach but with travail of soul: truly your Lord is full of goodness, and merciful:|
|73||8||16||and he hath also created horses, and mules, and asses, that ye may ride thereon, and for an ornament unto you; and he likewise created other things which ye know not.||And He hath given you horses, mules, and asses, that ye may ride them, and for your ornament: and things of which ye have no knowledge hath he created.|
|73||9||16||It appertaineth unto GOD to instruct men in the right way; and there is who turneth aside from the same: but if he had pleased, he would certainly have directed you all.||Of God it is to point out "the Way." Some turn aside from it: but had He pleased, He had guided you all aright.|
|73||10||16||It is he who sendeth down from heaven rain water, whereof ye have to drink, and from which plants, whereon ye feed your cattle, receive their nourishment.||It is He who sendeth down rain out of Heaven: from it is your drink; and from it are the plants by which ye pasture.|
|73||11||16||And by means thereof he causeth corn, and olives, and palm-trees, and grapes, and all kinds of fruits, to spring forth for you. Surely herein is a sign of the divine power and wisdom unto people who consider.||By it He causeth the corn, and the olives, and the palm-trees, and the grapes to spring forth for you, and all kinds of fruits: verily, in this are signs for those who ponder.|
|73||12||16||And he hath subjected the night and the day to your service; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, which are compelled to serve by his command. Verily herein are signs unto people of understanding.||And He hath subjected to you the night and the day; the sun and the moon and the stars too are subjected to you by his behest; verily, in this are signs for those who understand:|
|73||13||16||And he hath also given you dominion over whatever he hath created for you in the earth, distinguished by its different colour.t Surely herein is a sign unto people who reflect.||t That is, of every kind; the various colour of things being one of their chief distinctions.1
|And all of varied hues that He hath created for you over the earth: verily, in this are signs for those who remember.|
|73||14||16||It is he who hath subjected the sea unto you, that ye might eat fishu thereout, and take from thence ornamentsx for you to wear; and thou seest the ships ploughing the waves thereof, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance, by commerce; and that ye might give thanks.||u Literally, fresh flesh; by which fish is meant, as being naturally more fresh, and sooner liable to corruption, than the flesh of birds and beasts. The expression is thought to have been made use of here the rather, because the production of such fresh food from salt water is an instance of GODS power.2
x As pearls and coral.
|And He it is who hath subjected the sea to you, that ye may eat of its fresh fish, and take forth from it ornaments to wearthou seest the ships ploughing its billowsand that ye may go in quest of his bounties, and that ye might give thanks.|
|73||15||16||And he hath thrown upon the earth mountains firmly rooted, lest it should move with you,y and also rivers, and paths, that ye might be directed:||y The Mohammedans suppose that the earth, when first created, was smooth and equal, and thereby liable to a circular motion as well as the celestial orbs; and that the angels asking, who could be able to stand on so tottering a frame, God fixed it the next morning by throwing the mountains on it.||And He hath thrown firm mountains on the earth, least it move with you; and rivers and paths for your guidance,|
|73||16||16||and he hath likewise ordained marks whereby men may know their way; and they are directed by the stars.z||z Which are their guides, not only at sea, but also on land, when they travel by night through the deserts. The stars which they observe for this purpose, are either the Pleiades, or some of those near the Pole.||And way marks. By the stars too are men guided.|
|73||17||16||Shall God therefore, who createth, be as he who createth not? Do ye not therefore consider?||Shall He then who hath created be as he who hath not created? Will ye not consider?|
|73||18||16||If ye attempt to reckon up the favors of GOD, ye shall not be able to compute their number; GOD is surely gracious and merciful;||And if ye would reckon up the favours of God, ye could not count them. Aye! God is right Gracious, Merciful!|
|73||19||16||and GOD knoweth that which ye conceal, and that which ye publish.||And God knoweth what ye conceal, and what ye bring to light,|
|73||20||16||But the idols which ye invoke, besides GOD, create nothing, but are themselves created.||While the gods whom they call on beside God, create nothing, but are themselves created:|
|73||21||16||They are dead, and not living; neither do they understand||Dead are they, lifeless! and they know not|
|73||22||16||when they shall be raised.a||a i.e., At what time they or their worshippers shall be raised to receive judgment.||When they shall be raised!|
|73||23||16||Your GOD is one GOD. As to those who believe not in the life to come, their hearts deny the plainest evidence, and they proudly reject the truth.||Your God is the one God: and they who believe not in a future life, have hearts given to denial, and are men of pride:|
|73||24||16||There is no doubt but GOD knoweth that which they conceal and that which they discover.||Beyond a doubt God knoweth what they conceal and what they manifest:|
|73||25||16||Verily he loveth not the proud.||He truly loveth not the men of pride.|
|73||26||16||And when it is said unto them, What hath your LORD sent down unto Mohammed? they answer, Fables of ancient times.||For when it is said to them, "What is this your Lord hath sent down?" they say, "Fables of the ancients,"|
|73||27||16||Thus are they given up to error, that they may bear their own burdens without diminution on the day of resurrection, and also a part of the burdens of those whom they caused to err, without knowledge. Will it not be an evil burden which they shall bear?||That on the day of resurrection they may bear their own entire burden, and the burden of those whom they, in their ignorance, misled. Shall it not be a grievous burden for them?|
|73||28||16||Their predecessors devised plots heretofore: but GOD came into their building, to overthrow it from the foundations; and the roof fell on them from above, and a punishment came upon them, from whence they did not expect.b||b Some understand this passage figuratively, of Gods disappointing their wicked designs; but others suppose the words literally relate to the tower which Nimrod (whom the Mohammedans will have to be the son of Caanan, the son of Ham, and so the nephew of Cush, and not his son) built in Babel, and carried to an immense height (five thousand cubits, say some), foolishly purposing thereby to ascend to heaven and wage war with the inhabitants of that place; but God frustrated his attempt, utterly overthrowing the tower by a violent wind and earthquake.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin. Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Nimrod
|They who were before them did plot of old. But God attacked their building at its foundation the roof fell on them from above; and, whence they looked not for it, punishment overtook them:4||4 In allusion to Gen. xi. 1-10.|
|73||29||16||Also on the day of resurrection he will cover them with shame; and will say, Where are my companions, concerning whom ye disputed? Those unto whom knowledge shall have been given,c shall answer, This day shall shame and misery fall upon the unbelievers.||c viz., The prophets, and the teachers and professors of GODS unity; or, the angels.||On the day of resurrection, too, will He shame them. He will say, "Where are the gods ye associated with me, the subjects of your disputes?" They to whom "the knowledge" hath been given will say, Verily, this day shall shame and evil fall upon the infidels.|
|73||30||16||They whom the angels shall cause to die, having dealt unjustly with their own souls, shall offer to make their peaced in the article of death, saying, We have done no evil. But the angels shall reply. Yea; verily GOD well knoweth that which ye have wrought:||d Making their submission, and humbly excusing their evil actions, as proceeding from ignorance, and not from obstinacy or malice.2
2 Iidem Interp
|The sinners against their own souls whom the angels shall cause to die will proffer the submission, "No evil have we done." Nay! God knoweth what ye have wrought:|
|73||31||16||wherefore enter the gates of hell, therein to remain forever; and miserable shall be the abode of the proud.||Enter ye therefore the gates of Hell to remain therein for ever: and horrid the abiding place of the haughty ones!|
|73||32||16||And it shall be said unto those who shall fear God, What hath your LORD sent down? They shall answer, Good; unto those who do right shall be given an excellent reward in this world; but the dwelling of the next life shall be better; and happy shall be the dwelling of the pious!||But to those who have feared God it shall be said, "What is this that your Lord hath awarded?" They shall say, "That which is best. To those who do good, a good reward in this present world; but better the mansion of the next, and right pleasant the abode of the God-fearing!"|
|73||33||16||namely gardens of eternal abode,e into which they shall enter; rivers shall flow beneath the same; therein shall they enjoy whatever they wish. Thus will GOD recompense the pious.||e Literally, gardens of Eden. See chapter 9, p. 142.||Gardens of Eden into which they shall enter; rivers shall flow beneath their shades; all they wish for shall they find therein! Thus God rewardeth those who fear Him;|
|73||34||16||Unto the righteous, whom the angels shall cause to die, they shall say, Peace be upon you; enter ye into paradise, as a reward for that which ye have wrought.||To whom, as righteous persons, the angels shall say, when they receive their souls, "Peace be on you! Enter Paradise as the meed of your labours."|
|73||35||16||Do the unbelievers expect any other than that the angels come unto them, to part their souls from their bodies; or that the sentence of thy LORD come to be executed on them? So did they act who were before them; and GOD was not unjust towards them in that he destroyed them; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls:||What can the infidels expect but that the angels of death come upon them, or that a sentence of thy Lord take effect? Thus did they who flourished before them. God was not unjust to them, but to their ownselves were they unjust;|
|73||36||16||the evils of that which they committed reached them; and the divine judgment which they scoffed at fell upon them.||And the ill which they had done recoiled upon them, and that which they had scoffed at encompassed them round about.|
|73||37||16||The idolaters say, If GOD had pleased, we had not worshipped anything besides him, neither had our fathers: neither had we forbidden anything, without him.f So did they who were before them. But is the duty of the apostles any other than public preaching?||f This they spoke of in a scoffing manner, justifying their idolatry and superstitious abstaining from certain cattle,3 by pretending, that had these things been disagreeable to GOD, he would not have suffered them to be practised.
3 See chapter 6, p. 102, &c.
|They who have joined other gods with God say, "Had He pleased, neither we nor our fathers had worshipped aught but him; nor should we, apart from him, have forbidden aught." Thus acted they who were before them. Yet is the duty of the apostles other than public preaching?|
|73||38||16||We have heretofore raised up in every nation an apostle to admonish them, saying, Worship GOD, and avoid TAGHUT.g And of them there were some whom GOD directed, and there were others of them who were decreed to go astray. Wherefore go through the earth, O tribe of Koreish, and see what hath been the end of those who accused their apostles of imposture.||g See chapter 2, p. 28.||And to every people have we sent an apostle saying:Worship God and turn away from Taghout.5 Some of them there were whom God guided, and there were others decreed to err. But go through the land and see what hath been the end of those who treated my apostles as liars!||5 An Arabian idol.|
|73||39||16||If thou, O prophet, dost earnestly wish for their direction; verily GOD will not direct him whom he hath resolved to lead into error; neither shall they have any helpers.||If thou art anxious for their guidance, know that God will not guide him whom He would lead astray, neither shall they have any helpers.|
|73||40||16||And they swear most solemnly by GOD, saying, GOD will not raise the dead. Yea; the promise thereof is true: but the greater part of men know it not.||And they swear by God with their most sacred oath that "God will never raise him who once is dead." Nay, but on Him is a promise binding, though most men know it not,|
|73||41||16||He will raise them that he may clearly show them the truth concerning which they now disagree, and that the unbelievers may know that they are liars.||That He may clear up to them the subject of their disputes, and that the infidels may know that they are liars.|
|73||42||16||Verily our speech unto anything, when we will the same, is, that we only say unto it, Be; and it is.||Our word to a thing when we will it, is but to say, "Be," and it is.6||6 Ps. xxxv. 9.|
|73||43||16||As for those who have fled their country for the sake of GOD, after they had been unjustly persecuted;h we will surely provide them an excellent habitation in this world, but the reward of the next life shall be greater; if they knew it.i||h Some suppose the prophet and the companions of his flight in general, are here intended: others suppose that those are particularly meant in this place, who, after Mohammeds departure, were imprisoned at Mecca on account of their having embraced his religion, and suffered great persecution from the Koreish; as, Belâl, Soheib, Khabbab, Ammâr, Abes, Abul Jandal, and Sohail.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
i It is uncertain whether the pronoun they relates to the infidels, or to the true believers. If to the former, the consequence would be, that they they would be desirous of attaining to the happiness of the Mohajerîn, by professing the same faith; if to the latter, the knowledge of this is urged as a motive to patience and perseverance.2
|And as to those who when oppressed have fled their country for the sake of God, we will surely provide them a goodly abode in this world, but greater the reward of the next life, did they but know it|
|73||44||16||They who persevere patiently, and put their trust in their LORD, shall not fail of happiness in this life and in that which is to come.||They who bear ills with patience and put their trust in the Lord!|
|73||45||16||We have not sent any before thee, as our apostles, other than men,j unto whom we spake by revelation. Inquire therefore of those who have the custody of the scriptures, if ye know not this to be truth.||j See chapter 7, p. 110, note r; chapter 12, p. 189, &c.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 212, p. 192
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 20, paragraph 25
|Ask ye, therefore, of them that have the custody of the Scriptures, if ye know it not.
BWC: Ask ye, therefore, of them that have the custody of the Scriptures, if ye know it not.
|None have we sent before thee but men inspired ask of those who have Books of Monition,7 if ye know it not||7 Lit. the family of the admonition, i.e. Jews and Christians versed in the Pentateuch and Gospel.|
|73||46||16||We sent them with evident miracles, and written revelations; and we have sent down unto thee this Korân,k that thou mayest declare unto mankind that which hath been sent down unto them, and that they may consider.||k Literally, this admonition.3
3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 44.
|With proofs of their mission and Scriptures: and to thee have we sent down this Book of Monition that thou mayest make clear to men what hath been sent down to them, and that they may ponder it.|
|73||47||16||Are they who have plotted evil against their prophet secure that GOD will not cause the earth to cleave under them, or that a punishment will not come upon them, from whence they do not expect;||What! Are they then who have plotted mischiefs, sure that God will not cause the earth to cleave under them? or that a chastisement will not come upon them whence they looked not for it?|
|73||48||16||or that he will not chastise them while they are busied in travelling from one place to another, and in traffic? (for they shall not be able to elude the power of God,)||Or that He will not seize upon them in their comings and goings, while they shall not be able to resist him?|
|73||49||16||or that he will not chastise them by a gradual destruction? But your LORD is truly gracious and merciful in granting you respite.||Or that he will not seize them with some slowly wasting scourge? But verily your Lord is Good, Gracious.|
|73||50||16||Do they not consider the things which GOD hath created; whose shadows are cast on the right hand and on the left, worshipping God,l and become contracted?||l See chapter 13, p. 182, note c.||Have they not seen how everything which God hath created turneth its shadow right and left, prostrating itself before God in all abasement?|
|73||51||16||Whatever moveth both in heaven and on earth worshippeth GOD, and the angels also; and they are not elated with pride, so as to disdain his service:||And all in the Heavens and all on the Earth, each thing that moveth, and the very angels, prostrate them in adoration before God, and are free from pride;|
|73||52||16||they fear their LORD, who is exalted above them, and perform that which they are commanded.||They fear their Lord who is above them, and do what they are bidden:|
|73||53||16||GOD said, Take not unto yourselves two gods; for there is but one GOD: and revere me.||For God hath said, "Take not to yourselves two gods, for He is one God: me, therefore! yea, me revere!|
|73||54||16||Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and unto him is obedience eternally due. Will ye therefore fear any besides GOD?||All in the Heavens and in the Earth is His! His due unceasing service! Will ye then fear any other than God?|
|73||55||16||Whatever favors ye have received are certainly from GOD; and when evil afflicteth you, unto him do ye make your supplication;||And all your blessings are assuredly from God: then, when trouble befalleth you, to Him ye turn for help:|
|73||56||16||yet when he taketh the evil from off you, behold, a part of you give a companion unto their LORD,||Then when He relieveth you of the trouble, lo! some of you join associates with your Lord:|
|73||57||16||to show their ingratitude for the favors we have bestowed on them. Delight yourselves in the enjoyments of this life: but hereafter shall ye know that ye cannot escape the divine vengeance.||To prove how thankless are they for our gifts! Enjoy yourselves then: but in the end ye shall know the truth.|
|73||58||16||And they set apart unto idols which have no knowledge,m a part of the food which we have provided for them. By GOD, ye shall surely be called to account for that which ye have falsely devised.||m Or, which they know not; foolishly imagining that they have power to help them, or interest with GOD to intercede for them.
As to the ancient Arabs setting apart a certain portion of the produce of their lands for their idols, and their superstitions abstaining from the use of certain cattle, in honour to the same, see chapter 5, p. 86, and chapter 6, p. 102, and the notes there.
|And for idols, of which they know nothing, they set apart a share of our bounties! By God ye shall be called to account for your devices!|
|73||59||16||They attribute daughters unto GODn (far be it from him!) but unto themselves children of the sex which they desire.o||n See the Prelim. Disc. p. 14. Al Beidâwi says, that the tribes of Khozâah and Kenâna, in particular, used to call the angels the daughters of GOD.
o viz., Sons: for the birth of a daughter was looked on as a kind of misfortune among the Arabs; and they often used to put them to death by burying them alive.1
1 See chapter 81.
|And they ascribe daughters unto God! Glory be to Him! But they desire them not for themselves:8||8 The idolatrous Arabians regarded Angels as females and daughters of God. But their own preference was always for male offspring. Thus Rabbinism teaches that to be a woman is a great degradation. The modern Jew says in his Daily Prayers, fol. 5, 6, "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God! King of the Universe! who hath not made me a woman."|
|73||60||16||And when any of them is told the news of the birth of a female, his face becometh black,p and he is deeply afflicted:||p i.e., Clouded with confusion and sorrow.||For when the birth of a daughter is announced to any one of them, dark shadows settle on his face, and he is sad:|
|73||61||16||he hideth himself from the people, because of the ill tidings which have been told him; considering within himself whether he shall keep it with disgrace, or whether he shall bury it in the dust. Do they not make an ill judgment?||He hideth him from the people because of the ill tidings: shall he keep it with disgrace or bury it in the dust?9 Are not their judgments wrong?||9 See Sura lxxxi. 8, p. 45. It is said that the only occasion on which Othman ever shed a tear was when his little daughter, whom he was burying alive, wiped the dust of the grave-earth from his beard.|
|73||62||16||Unto those who believe not in the next life, the similitude of evil ought to be applied, and unto GOD the most sublime similitude:q for he is mighty and wise.||q This passage condemns the Meccans injudicious and blasphemous application of such circumstances to GOD as were unworthy of him, and not only derogatory to the perfections of the Deity, but even disgraceful to man; while they arrogantly applied the more honourable circumstances to themselves.||To whatever is evil may they be likened who believe not in a future life;10 but God is to be likened to whatever is loftiest: for He is the Mighty, the Wise.||10 Lit. the likeness of evil to those, etc.|
|73||63||16||If GOD should punish men for their iniquity, he would not leave on the earth any moving thing: but he giveth them respite unto an appointed time; and when their time shall come, they shall not be respited an hour, neither shall their punishment be anticipated.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 182, p. 170
The Seven Valleys (Valley of Unity, within pp. 17-29)
|If God should chastise men for their perverse doings, He would not leave upon the earth a moving thing! But to an appointed time doth He respite them.
MG: Should God punish men for their perverse doings, He would not leave on earth a moving thing! But to an appointed term doth He respite them....
|Should God punish men for their perverse doings, he would not leave on earth a moving thing! but to an appointed term doth He respite them; and when their term is come, they shall not delay or advance it an hour.|
|73||64||16||They attribute unto GOD that which they dislike themselves,r and their tongues utter a lie; namely, that the reward of paradise is for them. There is no doubt but that the fire of hell is prepared for them, and that they shall be sent thither before the rest of the wicked.||r By giving him daughters, and associates in power and honour; by disregarding his messengers; and by setting apart the better share of the presents and offerings for their idols, and the worse for him.2
2 Al Beidâwi
|Yet what they loathe themselves do they assign to God; and their tongues utter the lie, that theirs shall be a goodly lot. But beyond a doubt is it that the fire awaiteth them, and that they shall be the first sent into it.|
|73||65||16||By GOD, we have heretofore sent messengers unto the nations before thee: but Satan prepared their works for them; he was their patron in this world,s and in that which is to come they shall suffer a grievous torment.||s Or, He is the patron of them (viz. the Koreish) this day, &c.||By God we have sent Apostles to nations before thee, but Satan prepared their work for them, and this day is he their liege; and a woeful punishment doth await them.|
|73||66||16||We have not sent down the book of the Koran unto thee, for any other purpose, than that thou shouldest declare unto them that truth concerning which they disagree; and for a direction and mercy unto people who believe.||And we have sent down the Book to thee only, that thou mightest clear up to them the subject of their wranglings, and as a guidance and a mercy to those who believe.|
|73||67||16||GOD sendeth down water from heaven, and causeth the earth to revive after it hath been dead. Verily herein is a sign of the resurrection unto people who hearken.||And God sendeth down water from Heaven, and by it giveth life to the Earth after it hath been dead: verily, in this is a sign to those who hearken.|
|73||68||16||Ye have also in cattle an example of instruction: we give you to drink of that which is in their bellies; a liquor between digested dregs, and blood;t namely, pure milk,u which is swallowed with pleasure by those who drink it.||t The milk consisting of certain particles of the blood, supplied from the finer parts of the ailment. Ebn Abbas says, that the grosser parts of the food subside into excrement, and that the finer parts are converted into milk, and the finest of all into blood.
u Having neither the colour of the blood, nor the smell of the excrements.
|Ye have also teaching from the cattle. We give you drink of the pure milk, between dregs and blood, which is in their bellies; the pleasant beverage of them that quaff it.|
|73||69||16||And of the fruits of palm-trees, and of grapes, ye obtain an inebriating liquor, and also good nourishment.x Verily herein is a sign unto people who understand.||x Not only wine, which is forbidden, but also lawful food, as dates, raisins, a kind of honey flowing from the dates, and vinegar.
Some have supposed that these words allow the moderate use of wine; but the contrary is the received opinion.
1 See chapter 2, p. 23.
|And among fruits ye have the palm and the vine, from which ye get wine and healthful nutriment: in this, verily, are signs for those who reflect.|
|73||70||16||Thy LORD spake by inspiration unto the bee, saying, Provide thee housesy in the mountains, and in the trees, and of those materials wherewith men build hives for thee:||y So the apartments which the bee builds are here called, because of their beautiful workmanship, and admirable contrivance, which no geometrician can excel.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|And thy Lord hath taught the BEE, saying: "Provide thee houses in the mountains, and in the trees, and in the hives which men do build thee:|
|73||71||16||then eat of every kind of fruit, and walk in the beaten paths of thy LORD.z There proceedeth from their bellies a liquor of various colours,a wherein is a medicine for men.b Verily herein is a sign unto people who consider.||z i.e., The ways through which, by GODS power, the bitter flowers passing the bees stomach become money; or, the methods of making honey, which he has taught her by instinct; or else the ready way home from the distant places to which that insect flies.3
a viz., Honey; the colour of which is very different, occasioned by the different plants on which the bees feed; some being white, some yellow, some red, and some black.4
b The same being not only good food, but a useful remedy in several distempers, particularly those occasioned by phlegm. There is a story, that a man came once to Mohammed, and told him that his brother was afflicted with a violent pain in his belly: upon which the prophet bade him give him some honey. The fellow took his advice; but soon after coming again, told him that the medicine had done his brother no manner of service: Mohammed answered, Go and give him more honey, for God speaks truth, and thy brothers belly lies. And the dose being repeated, the man, by GODS mercy, was immediately cured.5
|The Seven Valleys (Preamble, part one and part two) (two parts)
|Then feed on every kind of fruit.
walk the beaten paths of thy Lord
|Feed, moreover, on every kind of fruit, and walk the beaten paths of thy Lord." From its belly cometh forth a fluid of varying hues,11 which yieldeth medicine to man. Verily in this is a sign for those who consider.||11 The Arabs are curious in and fond of honey: Mecca alone affords eight or nine varietiesgreen, white, red, and brown. Burton's Pilgr. iii. 110.|
|73||72||16||GOD hath created you, and he will hereafter cause you to die: and some of you shall have his life prolonged to a decrepit age, so that he shall forget whatever he knew; for GOD is wise and powerful.||And God hath created you; by and bye will he take you to himself; and some among you will he carry on to abject old age, when all that once was known is known no longer. Aye, God is Knowing, Powerful.|
|73||73||16||GOD causeth some of you to excel others in worldly possessions: yet they who are caused to excel do not give their wealth unto the slaves whom their right hands possess, that they may become equal sharers therein.c Do they therefore deny the beneficence of GOD?||c These words reprove the idolatrous Meccans, who could admit created beings to a share of the divine honour, though they suffered not their slaves to share with themselves to what GOD had bestowed on them.6
|And God hath abounded to some of you more than to others in the supplies of life; yet they to whom He hath abounded, impart not thereof to the slaves whom their right hands possess, so that they may share alike. What! will they deny, then, that these boons are from God?|
|73||74||16||GOD hath ordained you wives from among yourselves,d and of your wives hath granted you children and grand-children; and hath bestowed on you good things for food. Will they therefore believe in that which is vain, and ungratefully deny the goodness of GOD?||d That is, of your own nations and tribes. Some think the formation of Eve from Adam is here intended.||God, too, hath given you wives of your own race, and from your wives hath He given you sons and grandsons, and with good things hath he supplied you. What, will they then believe in vain idols? For God's boons they are ungrateful!|
|73||75||16||They worship, besides GOD, idols which possess nothing wherewith to sustain them, either in heaven, or on earth; and have no power.||And they worship beside God those who neither out of the Heavens or Earth can provide them a particle of food, and have no power in themselves!|
|73||76||16||Wherefore liken not anything unto GOD:e for GOD knoweth, but ye know not.||e Or propound no similitudes or comparisons between him and his creatures. One argument the Meccans employed in defence of their idolatry, it seems, was, that the worship of inferior deities did honour to GOD; in the same manner as the respect showed to the servants of a prince does honour to the prince himself.7
|Make no comparisons, therefore, with God.12 Verily, God hath knowledge, but ye have not.||12 Ex. xx. 4.|
|73||77||16||GOD propoundeth as a parable a possessed slave, who hath power over nothing, and him on whom we have bestowed a good provision from us, and who giveth alms thereout both secretly and openly:f shall these two be esteemed equal? GOD forbid! But the greater part of men know it not.||f The idols are here likened to a slave, who is so far from having anything of his own, that he is himself in the possession of another; whereas GOD is as a rich free man, who provideth for his family abundantly, and also assisteth others who have need, both in public, and in private.8
8 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|God maketh comparison between a slave13 the property of his lord, who hath no power over anything, and a free man whom we have ourselves supplies, and who giveth alms therefrom both in secret and openly. Shall they be held equal? No: praise be to God! But most men know it not.||13 The slave, and the dumb in verse following, are the idols.|
|73||78||16||GOD also propoundeth as a parable two men; one of them born dumb, who is unable to do or understand anything, but is a burden unto his master; whithersoever he shall send him, he shall not return with any good success: shall this man, and he who hath his speech and understanding, and who commandeth that which is just, and followeth the right way, be esteemed equal?g||g The idol is here again represented under the image of one who, by a defect in his senses, is a useless burthen to the man who maintains him; and GOD, under that of a person completely qualified either to direct or to execute any useful undertaking. Some suppose the comparison is intended of a true believer and an infidel.||God setteth forth also a comparison between two men, one of whom is dumb from his birth, and hath no power over anything, and is a burden to his lord: send him where he will, he cometh not back with success. Shall he and the man who enjoineth what is just, and keepeth in the straight path, be held equal?|
|73||79||16||Unto GOD alone is the secret of heaven and earth known. And the business of the last hourh shall be only as the twinkling of an eye, or even more quick: for GOD is almighty.||h That is, The resurrection of the dead.||God's are the secrets of the Heavens and of the Earth! and the business of the last hour will be but as the twinkling of an eye, or even less. Yes! for all things is God Potent.|
|73||80||16||GOD hath brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers; ye knew nothing, and he gave you the senses of hearing and seeing, and understandings, that ye might give thanks.||God hath brought you out of your mothers' wombs devoid of all knowledge; but hath given you hearing, and sight, and heart, that haply ye might render thanks.|
|73||81||16||Do they not behold the fowls which are enabled to fly in the open firmament of heaven? none supporteth them except GOD. Verily herein are signs unto people who believe.||Have they never looked up at the birds subjected to Him in Heaven's vault? None holdeth them in hand but God! In this are signs for those who believe.|
|73||82||16||GOD hath also provided you houses for habitations for you; and hath also provided you tents of the skins of cattle, which ye find light to be removed on the day of your departure to new quarters, and easy to be pitched on the day of your sitting down therein: and of their wool, and their fur, and their hair, hath he supplied you with furniture and household-stuff for a season.||And God hath given you tents to dwell in: and He hath given you the skins of beasts for tents, that ye may find them light when ye shift your quarters, or when ye halt; and from their wool and soft fur and hair, hath He supplied you with furniture and goods for temporary use.|
|73||83||16||And GOD hath provided for you, of that which he hath created, conveniences to shade you from the sun,i and he hath also provided you places of retreat in the mountains,j and he hath given you garments to defend you from the heat,k and coats of mail to defend you in your wars. Thus doth he accomplish his favor towards you, that ye may resign yourselves unto him.||i As trees, houses, tents, mountains, &c.
j viz., Caves and grottos, both natural and artificial.
k Al Beidâwi says, that one extreme, and that the most insupportable in Arabia, is here put for both; but Jallaloddin supposes that by heat we are in this place to understand cold.
|And from the things which He hath created, hath God provided shade for you, and hath given you the mountains for places of shelter, and hath given you garments to defend you from the heat, and garments to defend you in your wars. Thus doth He fill up the measure of His goodness towards you, that you may resign yourselves to Him.|
|73||84||16||But if they turn back, verily thy duty is public preaching only.||But if they turn their backs, still thy office is only plain spoken preaching.|
|73||85||16||They acknowledge the goodness of GOD, and afterwards they deny the same;l but the greater part of them are unbelievers.m||l Confessing God to be the author of all the blessings they enjoy; and yet directing their worship and thanks to their idols, by whose intercession they imagine blessings are obtained.
m Absolutely denying GODS providence, either through ignorance or perverseness.
|They own the goodness of Godthen they disown itand most of them are infidels.|
|73||86||16||On a certain day we will raise a witness out of every nation:n then they who shall have been unbelievers shall not be suffered to excuse themselves, neither shall they be received into favor.||n See chapter 4, p. 59, note z.||But one day, we will raise up a witness out of every nation: them shall the infidels have no permission to make excuses, and they shall find no favour.|
|73||87||16||And when they who shall have acted unjustly shall see the torment prepared for them; (it shall not be mitigated unto them, neither shall they be respited):||And when they who have acted thus wrongly shall behold their torment, it shall not be made light to them, nor will God deign to look upon them.|
|73||88||16||and when those who shall have been guilty of idolatry shall see their false gods,o they shall say, O LORD, these are our idols which we invoked, besides thee. But they shall return an answer unto them, saying, Verily ye are liars.p||o Literally, Their companions.
p For that we are not the companions of GOD, as ye imagined; neither did ye really serve us, but your own corrupt affections and lusts; nor yet were ye led into idolatry by us, but ye fell into it of your own accord.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And when they who had joined associates with God shall see those their associate-gods, they shall say, "O our Lord! these are our associate-gods whom we called upon beside Thee." But they shall retort on them, "Verily, ye are liars."|
|73||89||16||And on that day shall the wicked offer submission unto GOD; and the false deities which they imagined shall abandon them.||And on that day shall they proffer submission to God; and the deities of their own invention shall vanish from them.|
|73||90||16||As for those who shall have been infidels, and shall have turned aside others from the way of GOD, we will add unto them punishment upon punishment because they have corrupted others.||As for those who were infidels and turned others aside from the way of God, to them we will add punishment on punishment for their corrupt doings.|
|73||91||16||On a certain day we will raise up in every nation a witness against them, from among themselves; and we will bring thee, O Mohammed, as a witness against these Arabians. We have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran, for an explication of everything necessary both as to faith and practice, and a direction, and mercy, and good tidings unto the Moslems.||And one day we will summon up in every people a witness against them from among themselves; and we will bring thee up as a witness against these Meccans: for to thee have we sent down the Book which cleareth up everything, a guidance, and mercy, and glad tidings to those who resign themselves to God (to Muslims).|
|73||92||16||Verily GOD commandeth justice, and the doing of good, and the giving unto kindred what shall be necessary; and he forbiddeth wickedness, and iniquity, and oppression: he admonisheth you that ye may remember.q||q This verse, which was the occasion of the conversion of Othmân Ebn Matûn, the commentators say, containeth the whole which it is a mans duty either to perform or to avoid; and is alone a sufficient demonstration of what is said in the foregoing verse. Under the three things here commanded, they understand the belief of GODS unity, without inclining to atheism, on the one hand, or polytheism, on the other; obedience to the commands of God; and charity towards those in distress. And under the three things forbidden, they comprehend all corrupt and carnal affections; all false doctrines and heretical opinions; and all injustice towards man.2
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 95
|MG: Verily, God enjoineth justice and the doing of good ... and He forbiddeth wickedness and oppression. He warneth you that haply ye may be mindful.||Verily, God enjoineth justice and the doing of good and gifts to kindred, and he forbiddeth wickedness and wrong and oppression. He warneth you that haply ye may be mindful.|
|73||93||16||Perform your covenant with GOD,r when ye enter into covenant with him; and violate not your oaths, after the ratification thereof; since ye have made GOD a witness over you. Verily GOD knoweth that which ye do.||r By persevering in his true religion. Some think that the oath of fidelity taken to Mohammed by his followers is chiefly intended here.||Be faithful in the covenant of God when ye have covenanted, and break not your oaths after ye have pledged them: for now have ye made God to stand surety for you. Verily, God hath knowledge of what ye do.|
|73||94||16||And be not like unto her who undoeth that which she hath spun, untwisting it after she hath twisted it strongly;s taking your oaths between you deceitfully, because one party is more numerous than another party.t Verily GOD only tempteth you therein; and he will make that manifest unto you, on the day of resurrection, concerning which ye now disagree.||s Some suppose that a particular woman is meant in this passage, who used (like Penelope) to undo at night the work that she had done in the day. Her name, they say, was Reita Bint Saad Ebn Teym, of the tribe of Koreish.3
t Of this insincerity in their alliances the Koreish are accused; it being usual with them, when they saw the enemies of their confederates to be superior in force, to renounce their league with their old friends, and strike up one with the others.4
|And, because you are a more numerous people than some other people, be not like her who unravelleth the thread which she had strongly spun, by taking your oaths with mutual perfidy. God is making trial of you in this: and in the day of resurrection he will assuredly clear up to you that concerning which ye are now at variance.|
|73||95||16||If GOD had pleased, he would surely have made you one people:u but he will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and he will direct whom he pleaseth; and ye shall surely give an account of that which ye have done.||u Or, of one religion.||Had God pleased, He could have made you one people: but He causeth whom He will to err, and whom He will He guideth: and ye shall assuredly be called to account for your doings.|
|73||96||16||Therefore take not your oaths between you deceitfully lest your foot slip, after it hath been steadfastly fixed, and ye taste evil in this life, for that ye have turned aside from the way of GOD; and ye suffer a grievous punishment in the life to come.||Therefore take not your oaths with mutual fraud, lest your foot slip after it hath been firmly fixed, and ye taste of evil because ye have turned others aside from the way of God, and great be your punishment.|
|73||97||16||And sell not the covenant of GOD for a small price;x for with GOD is a better recompense prepared for you, if ye be men of understanding.||x That is, Be not prevailed on to renounce your religion, or your engagements with your prophet, by any promises or gifts of the infidels. For, it seems, the Koreish, to tempt the poorer Moslems to apostatize, made them offers, not very considerable indeed, but such as they imagined might be worth their acceptance.5
|And barter not the covenant of God for a mean price; for with God is that which is better for you, if ye do but understand.|
|73||98||16||That which is with you will fail; but that which is with GOD is permanent: and we will surely reward those who shall persevere, according to the utmost merit of their actions.||All that is with you passeth away, but that which is with God abideth. With a reward meet for their best deeds will we surely recompense those who have patiently endured.|
|73||99||16||Whoso worketh righteousness, whether he be male or female, and is a true believer, we will surely raise him to a happy life; and we will give them their reward, according to the utmost merit of their actions.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 48, paragraph 65
|BWC: Him will We surely quicken to a blessed life.||Whoso doeth that which is right, whether male or female, if a believer, him will we surely quicken to a happy life, and recompense them with a reward meet for their best deeds.|
|73||100||16||When thou readest the Koran, have recourse unto GOD, that he may preserve thee from Satan driven away with stones;y||y Mohammed one day reading in the Korân, uttered a horrid blasphemy, to the great scandal of those who were present, as will be observed in another place;1 to excuse which he assured them that those words were put into his mouth by the devil; and to prevent any such accident for the future, he is here taught to beg GODS protection before he entered on that duty.2 Hence the Mohammedans, before they begin to read any part of this book, repeat these words, I have recourse unto God for assistance against Satan driven away with stones.
1 In not. ad cap. 22.
2 Jallaloddin, Al Beidâwi, Yahya, &c.
|When thou readest the Koran, have recourse to God for help against Satan the stoned,14||14 See Sura [xcvii.] iii. 34, and n. 1, p. 114.|
|73||101||16||he hath no power over those who believe, and who put confidence in their LORD;||For no power hath he over those who believe, and put their trust in their Lord,|
|73||102||16||but his power is over those only who take him for their patron, and who give companions unto God.||But only hath he power over those who turn away from God, and join other deities with Him.|
|73||103||16||When we substitute in the Koran an abrogating verse in lieu of a verse abrogated (and GOD best knoweth the fitness of that which he revealeth), the infidels say, Thou art only a forger of these verses: but the greater part of them know not truth from falsehood.||And when we change one (sign) verse for another, and God knoweth best what He revealeth, they say, "Thou art only a fabricator." Nay! but most of them have no knowledge.|
|73||104||16||Say, The holy spiritz hath brought the same down from thy LORD with truth; that he may confirm those who believe, and for a direction and good tidings unto the Moslems.||z viz., Gabriel. See chapter 2, p. 10.||SAY: The Holy Spirit15 hath brought it down with truth from thy Lord, that He may stablish those who have believed, and as guidance and glad tidings to the Muslims.||15 Gabriel.|
|73||105||16||We also know that they say, Verily, a certain man teacheth him to compose the Koran. The tongue of the person unto whom they incline is a foreign tongue; but this, wherein the Koran is written, is the perspicuous Arabic tongue.a||a This was a great objection made by the Meccans to the authority of the Korân; for when Mohammed insisted, as a proof of its divine original, that it was impossible a man so utterly unacquainted with learning as himself could compose such a book, they replied, that he had one or more assistants in the forgery; but as to the particular person or persons suspected of this confederacy, the traditions differ. One says it was Jabar, a Greek, servant to Amer Ebn al Hadrami, who could read and write well;3 another, that they were Jabar and Yesâr, two slaves who followed the trade of sword-cutlers at Mecca, and used to read the pentateuch and gospel, and had often Mohammed for their auditor, when he passed that way.4 Another tells us, it was one Aïsh, or Yâïsh, a domestic of al Haweiteb Ebn Abd al Uzza, who was a man of some learning, and had embraced Mohammedism.5 Another supposes it was one Kais, a Christian, whose house Mohammed frequented;6 another, that it was Addâs, a servant of Otba Ebn Rabîa;7 and another, that it was Salmân the Persian.8
According to some Christian writers,9 Abdallah Ebn Salâm, the Jew who was so intimate with Mohammed (named by one, according to the Hebrew dialect, Abdias Ben Salon and by another, Abdala Celen), was assisting to him in the compiling his pretended revelations. This Jew Dr. Prideaux confounds with Salmân the Persian, who was a very different man, as a late author10 has observed before me; wherefore, and for that we may have occasion to speak of Salmân hereafter, it may be proper to add a brief extract of his story as told by himself. He was of a good family of Ispahan, and, in his younger years, left the religion of his country to embrace Christianity; and travelling into Syria, was advised by a certain monk of Amuria to go into Arabia, where a prophet was expected to arise about that time, who should establish the religion of Abraham; and whom he should know, among other things, by the seal of prophecy between his shoulders. Salmân performed the journey, and meeting with Mohammed at Koba, where he rested in his flight to Medina, soon found him to be the person he sought, and professed Islâm.11
The general opinion of the Christians, however is, that the chief help Mohammed had in the contriving his Korân, was from a Nestorian monk named Sergius, supposed to be the same person with the monk Boheira, with whom Mohammed in his younger years had some conference, at Bosra, a city of Syria Damascena, where that monk resided.12 To confirm which supposition, a passage has been produced from an Arab writer,1 who says that Boheiras name in the books of the Christians, is Sergius; but this is only a conjecture; and another2 tells us, his true name was Saïd, or Felix, and his surname Boheira. But be that as it will, if Boheira and Sergius were the same man, I find not the least intimation in the Mohammedan writers that he ever quitted his monastery to go into Arabia (as is supposed by the Christians); and his acquaintance with Mohammed at Bosra was too early to favour the surmise of his assisting him in the Korân, which was composed long after; though Mohammed might, from his discourse, gain some knowledge of Christianity and of the scriptures, which might be of use to him therein.
From the answer given in this passage of the Korân to the objection of the infidels, viz., that the person suspected by them to have a hand in the Korân spoke a foreign language, and therefore could not, with any face of probability, be supposed to assist in a composition written in the Arabic tongue, and with so great elegance, it is plain this person was no Arabian. The word Ajami, which is here used, signifies any foreign or barbarous language in general; but the Arabs applying it more particularly to the Persian, it has been thence concluded by some that Salmân was the person; however, if it be true that he came not to Mohammed till after the Hejra, either he could not be the man here intended, or else this verse must have been revealed at Medina, contrary to the common opinion.
3 Al Zamakhshari, Al Beidâwi, Yahya.
4 Al Zamakh., Al Beidâwi. See Prid. Life of Mah. p. 32.
7 Al Zamakh., Yahya.
8 Al Zamakh., Al Beidâwi.
9 Ricardi Confut. Legis Saracenicæ, c. 13. Joh. Andreas, de Confus. Sectæ Mahometanæ, c. 2 See Prid. Life of Mah. pp. 33, 34.
10 Gagnier not. in Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 74.
11 Ex Ebn Ishak. Vide Gagnier, ibid
12 See Prid. ubi sup. p. 35, &c. Gagnier, ubi sup. pp. 10, 11. Marrac. de Alcor. p. 37.
1 Al Masudi.
2 Abul Hasan al Becri in Korân.
|We also know that they say, "Surely a certain person teacheth him." But the tongue of him at whom they hint is foreign,16 while this Koran is in the plain Arabic.||16 This passage has been supposed to refer to Salman the Persian. He did not, however, embrace Islam till a much later period, at Medina. Nöld. p. 110. Mr. Muir thinks that it may refer to Suheib, son of Sinan, "the first fruits of Greece," as Muhammad styled him, who, while yet a boy, had been carried off by some Greeks as a slave, from Mesopotamia to Syria, brought by a party of the Beni Kalb, and sold to Abdallah ibn Jodda'ân of Mecca. He became rich, and embraced Islam. Dr. Sprenger thinks the person alluded to may have been Addas, a monk of Nineveh, who had settled at Mecca. Life of M. p. 79.|
|73||106||16||Moreover as for those who believe not the signs of GOD, GOD will not direct them, and they shall suffer a painful torment:||As for those who believe not in the signs of God, God will not guide them, and a sore torment doth await them.|
|73||107||16||verily they imagine a falsehood who believe not in the signs of GOD, and they are really the liars.||Surely they invent a lie who believe not in the signs of Godand they are the liars.|
|73||108||16||Whoever denieth GOD, after he hath believed, except him who shall be compelled against his will, and whose heart continueth steadfast in the faith, shall be severely chastised:b but whoever shall voluntarily profess infidelity, on those shall the indignation of GOD fall, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment.||b These words were added for the sake of Ammâr Ebn Yaser, and some others, who being taken and tortured by the Koreish, renounced their faith out of fear, though their hearts agreed not with their mouths.3 It seems Ammâr wanted the constancy of his father and mother, Yâser, and Sommeya, who underwent the like trial at the same time with their son, and resolutely refusing to recant, were both put to death, the infidels tying Sommeya between two camels, and striking a lance through her privy parts.4 When news was brought to Mohammed, that Ammâr had denied the faith, he said, it could not be, for that Ammâr was full of faith from the crown of his head to the sole of his foot, faith being mixed and incorporated with his very flesh and blood; and when Ammâr himself came weeping to the prophet, he wiped his eyes, saying, What fault was it of thine, if they forced thee?
But though it be here said, that those who apostatize in appearance only, to avoid death or torments, may hope for pardon from GOD, yet it is unanimously agreed by the Mohammedan doctors, to be much more meritorious and pleasing in the sight of GOD, courageously and nobly to persist in the true faith, and rather to suffer death itself than renounce it, even in words. Nor did the Mohammedan religion want its martyrs, in the strict sense of the word; of which I will here give two instances, besides the above-mentioned. One is that of Khobaib Ebn Ada, who being perfidiously sold to the Koreish, was by them put to death in a cruel manner, by mutilation, and cutting off his flesh piecemeal; and being asked, in the midst of his tortures, whether he did not wish Mohammed was in his place, answered I would not wish to be with my family, my substance, and my children, on condition that Mohammed was only to be pricked with a thorn.5 The other is that of a man who was put to death by Moseilama, on the following occasion. That false prophet having taken two of Mohammeds followers, asked one of them, what he said of Mohammed? the man answered, That he was the apostle of God: And what sayest thou of me? added Moseilama; to which he replied, Thou also art the apostle of God; whereupon he was immediately dismissed in safety. But the other, having returned the same answer to the former question, refused to give any to the last, though required to do it three several times, but pretended to be deaf, and was therefore slain. It is related that Mohammed, when the story of these two men was told him, said, The first of them threw himself on Gods mercy; but the latter professed the truth; and he shall find his account in it.6
3 Al Beidâwi, Al Zamakh., Yahya.
4 Al Beidâwi.
5 Ebn Shohnah.
6 Al Beidâwi.
|Whoso, after he hath believed in God denieth him, if he were forced to it and if his heart remain steadfast in the faith, shall be guiltless:17 but whoso openeth his breast to infidelityon such shall be wrath from God, and a severe punishment awaiteth them.||17 This is to be understood of the persecutions endured by the more humble and needy Muslims by their townspeople of Mecca.|
|73||109||16||This shall be their sentence, because they have loved the present life above that which is to come, and for that GOD directeth not the unbelieving people.||This, because they have loved this present life beyond the next, and because God guideth not the unbelievers!|
|73||110||16||These are they whose hearts, and hearing, and sight, GOD hath sealed up; and these are the negligent: there is no doubt but that in the next life they shall perish.||These are they whose hearts and ears and eyes God hath sealed up: these are the careless ones: in the next world shall they perish beyond a doubt.|
|73||111||16||Moreover thy LORD will be favorable unto those who have fled their country, after having suffered persecution,c and had been compelled to deny the faith by violence, and who have since fought in defence of the true religion, and have persevered with patience; verily unto these will thy LORD be gracious and merciful, after they shall have shown their sincerity.||c As did Ammâr, who made one in both the flights. Some, reading the verb with different vowels, render the last words, after having persecuted the true believers; and instance in al Hadrami, who obliged a servant of his to renounce Mohammedism, by force, but afterwards, together with that servant professed the same faith, and fled for it.1
|To those also who after their trials fled their country,18 then fought and endured with patience, verily, thy Lord will in the end be forgiving, gracious.||18 From Mecca to Medina, i.e. the Mohadjers, to whom also verse 43 refers. Both passages, therefore, are of a later date than the rest of this Sura. Thus Nöldeke. Sprenger, however (Life, p. 159), explains this passage of the seven slaves purchased and manumitted by Abu Bekr. They had been tortured for professing Islam, shortly after Muhammad assumed the Prophetic office.|
|73||112||16||On a certain day shall every soul come to plead itself,d and every soul shall be repaid that which it shall have wrought; and they shall not be treated unjustly.||d That is, Every person shall be solicitous for his own salvation, not concerning himself with the condition of another, but crying out, My own soul, my own soul!2
|On a certain day shall every soul come to plead for itself, and every soul shall be repaid according to its deeds; and they shall not be wronged.|
|73||113||16||GOD propoundeth as a parable a citye which was secure and quiet, unto which her provisions came in abundance from every side; but she ungratefully denied the favor of GOD: wherefore GOD caused her to taste the extreme famine, and fear, because of that which they had done.||e This example is applied to every city which having received great blessings from GOD, becometh insolent and unthankful, and is therefore chastised by some signal judgment; or rather to Mecca in particular, on which the calamities threatened in this passage, viz. both famine and sword, were inflicted.3
|God proposeth the instance of a city,19 secure and at ease, to which its supplies come in plenty from every side. But she was thankless for the boons of God; God therefore made her taste the woe20 of famine and of fear, for what they had done.||19 Mecca.
20 Lit. the garment.
|73||114||16||And now is an apostle come unto the inhabitants of Mecca from among themselves; and they accuse him of imposture: wherefore a punishment shall be inflicted on them, while they are acting unjustly.||Moreover, an apostle of their own people came to them, and they treated him as an impostor. So chastisement overtook them because they were evil doers.|
|73||115||16||Eat of what GOD hath given you for food, that which is lawful and good; and be thankful for the favors of GOD, if ye serve him.||Of what God hath supplied you eat the lawful and good, and be grateful for the favours of God, if ye are his worshippers.|
|73||116||16||He hath only forbidden you that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that which hath been slain in the name of any, besides GOD.f But unto him who shall be compelled by necessity to eat of these things, not lusting nor wilfully transgressing, GOD will surely be gracious and merciful.||f See chapter 5, p. 73.||Forbidden to you is that only which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that which hath been slain in the name of any other than God: but if any be forced, and neither lust for it nor wilfully transgress, then verily God is forgiving, gracious.21||21 Comp. Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 119.|
|73||117||16||And say not that wherein your tongues utter a lie; This is lawful, and this is unlawful;g that ye may devise a lie concerning GOD: for they who devise concerning GOD shall not prosper.||g Allowing what GOD hath forbidden, and superstitiously abstaining from what he hath allowed. See chapter 6, p. 101, &c.||And say not with a lie upon your tongue, "This is lawful and this is forbidden:" for so will ye invent a lie concerning God: but they who invent a lie of God shall not prosper:|
|73||118||16||They shall have small enjoyment in this world, and in that which is to come they shall suffer a grievous torment.||Brief their enjoyment, but sore their punishment!|
|73||119||16||Unto the Jews did we forbid that which we have told thee formally:h and we did them no injury in that respect; but they injured their own souls.i||h viz., In the 6th chapter, p. 103.
i i.e., They were forbidden things which were in themselves indifferent, as a punishment for their wickedness and rebellion.
|To the Jews22 we have forbidden that of which we before told thee; we injured them not, but they injured themselves.||22 Comp. Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 147. This verse as well as the following, and verse 125, were probably added at Medina.|
|73||120||16||Moreover thy LORD will be favorable unto those who do evil through ignorance, and afterwards repent and amend: verily unto these will thy LORD be gracious and merciful, after their repentance.||To those who have done evil in ignorance, then afterwards have repented and amended, verily thy Lord is in the end right gracious, merciful.|
|73||121||16||Abraham was a model of true religion, obedient unto GOD, orthodox, and was not an idolater:j||j This was to reprehend the idolatrous Koreish, who pretended that they professed the religion of Abraham.||Verily, Abraham was a leader in religion:23 obedient to God, sound in faith:24 he was not of those who join gods with God.||23 Antistes. Maracci. Or the text may be literally rendered Abraham was a people, i.e. the people of Abraham; from whom the idolatrous Koreisch pretended to derive their origin.
24 Ar. a Hanyf. According to a tradition in Waquidi, fol. 255, Zaid (who died only five years before Muhammad received his first inspiration, and undoubtedly prepared the way for many of his subsequent announcements) adopted this term at the instance of a Christian and a Jew, who exhorted him to become a Hanyf. Zaid having at this time renounced idolatry, and being unable to receive either Judaism or Christianity, "What," said he, "is a Hanyf?" They both told him, it was the religion of Abraham, who worshipped nothing but God. On this Zaid exclaimed, "O God, I bear witness that I follow the religion of Abraham." The root, whence Hanyf is derived, means generally to turn from good to bad, or vice versâ, and is equivalent to the verbs convert and pervert.
|73||122||16||he was also grateful for his benefits: wherefore God chose him, and directed him into the right way.||Grateful was he for His favours: God chose him and guided him into the straight way;|
|73||123||16||And we bestowed on him good in this world; and in the next he shall surely be one of the righteous.||And we bestowed on him good things in this world: and in the world to come he shall be among the just.|
|73||124||16||We have also spoken unto thee, O Mohammed, by revelation, saying, Follow the religion of Abraham, who was orthodox, and was no idolater.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 29
|MG: Follow the religion of Abraham, the sound in faith.||We have moreover revealed to thee that thou follow the religion of Abraham, the sound in faith. He was not of those who join gods with God.|
|73||125||16||The sabbath was only appointed unto those who differed with their prophet concerning it;k and thy LORD will surely judge between them, on the day of resurrection, as to that concerning which they differed.||k These were the Jews; who being ordered by Moses to set apart Friday (the day now observed by the Mohammedans) for the exercise of divine worship, refused it, and chose the sabbath-day, because on that day GOD rested from his works of creation: for which reason they were commanded to keep the day they had chosen in the strictest manner.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|The Sabbath was only ordained for those who differed about it: and of a truth thy Lord will decide between them on the day of resurrection as to the subject of their disputes.|
|73||126||16||Invite men unto the way of thy LORD, by wisdom, and mild exhortation; and dispute with them in the most condescending manner: for thy LORD well knoweth him who strayeth from his path, and he well knoweth those who are rightly directed.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 53
|Debate with them in the kindliest manner.||Summon thou to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and with kindly warning: dispute with them in the kindest manner: thy Lord best knoweth those who stray from his way, and He best knoweth those who have yielded to his guidance.|
|73||127||16||If ye take vengeance on any, take a vengeance proportionable to the wrong which hath been done you;l but if ye suffer wrong patiently, verily this will be better for the patient.m||l This passage is supposed to have been revealed at Medina, on occasion of Hamza, Mohammeds uncle, being slain at the battle of Ohod. For the infidels having abused his dead body, by taking out his bowels, and cutting off his ears and his nose, when Mohammed saw it, he swore that if God granted him success, he would retaliate those cruelties on seventy of the Koreish; but he was by these words forbidden to execute what he had sworn, and he accordingly made void his oath.2 Abulfeda makes the number on which Mohammed swore to reek his vengeance to be but thirty:3 but it may be observed, by the way, that the translator renders the passage in that author, GOD hath revealed unto me that I shall retaliate, &c., instead of, If GOD grant me victory over the Koreish, I will retaliate, &c., reading Laïn adhharni, for adhfarni; GOD, far from putting this design into the prophets head by a revelation, expressly forbidding him to put it in execution.
3 Abulf. Vit. Moh. n. 68.
m Here, says al Beidâwi, the Korân principally points at Mohammed, who was of all men the most conspicuous for meekness and clemency.
|If ye make reprisals,25 then make them to the same extent that ye were injured: but if ye can endure patiently, best will it be for the patiently enduring.||25 All Muhammadan commentators explain this verse as a prohibition to avenge the death of Hamza on the Meccans with too great severity.|
|73||128||16||Wherefore, do thou bear opposition with patience; but thy patience shall not be practicable, unless with GOD'S assistance. And be thou not grieved on account of the unbelievers; neither be thou troubled for that which they subtilely devise; for GOD is with those who fear him, and are upright.||Endure then with patience. But thy patient endurance must be sought in none but God. And be not grieved about the infidels, and be not troubled at their devices; for God is with those who fear him and do good deeds.|
|67||0||17||CHAPTER XVII.||SURA XVII.THE NIGHT JOURNEY [LXVII.]|
|67||0||17||ENTITLED, THE NIGHT JOURNEY;n REVEALED AT MECCA.||n The reason of this inscription appears in the first words. Some entitle the chapter, The children of Israel.
o Some except eight verses, beginning at these words, It wanted little but that the infidels had seduced thee, &c.
|MECCA.1III Verses||1 Verses 12, 23-41, 75-82, 87, are supposed by many commentators to have originated at Medina.|
|67||0||17||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|67||1||17||PRAISE be unto him who transported his servant by night, from the sacred temple of Mecca to the farther temple of Jerusalem,p the circuit of which we have blessed, that we might show some of our signs; for God is he who heareth, and seeth.||p From whence he was carried through the seven heavens to the presence of GOD, and brought back again to Mecca the same night.
This journey of Mohammed to heaven is so well known that I may be pardoned if I omit the description of it. The English reader may find it in Dr. Prideauxs Life of Mahomet,1 and the learned in Abulfeda,2 whose annotator has corrected several mistakes in the relation of Dr. Prideaux, and in other writers.
It is a dispute among the Mohammedan divines, whether their prophets night-journey was really performed by him corporally, or whether it was only a dream or vision. Some think the whole was no more than a vision; and allege and express tradition of Moâwiyoh,3 one of Mohammeds successors, to that purpose. Others suppose he was carried bodily to Jerusalem, but no farther; and that he ascended thence to heaven in spirit only. But the received opinion is, that it was no vision, but that he was actually transported in the body to his journeys end; and if any impossibility be objected, they think it a sufficient answer to say, that it might easily be effected by an omnipotent agent.4
1 Page 43, &c. See also Morgans Mahometism Explained, vol. 2
2 Vit. Moham. cap. 19.
3 Vide ibid, c. 18.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|GLORY be to Him who carried his servant by night2 from the sacred temple of Mecca to the temple3 that is more remote, whose precinct we have blessed, that we might shew him of our signs! for He is the Hearer, the Seer.||2 Waquidy says the night-journey took place on the 17th of Rabhy' 1, a twelvemonth before the Hejira.
3 Of Jerusalem; and thence through the seven heavens to the throne of God on the back of Borak, accompanied by Gabriel, according to some traditions; while others, and those too of early date, regard it as no more than a vision. It was, however, in all probability a dream. Muir ii. 219; Nöld. p. 102, who give the Muhammadan sources of information.
|67||2||17||And we gave unto Moses the book of the law, and appointed the same to be a direction unto the children of Israel, commanding them, saying, Beware that ye take not any other patron besides me.||And4 we gave the Book to Moses and ordained it for guidance to the children of Israel"that ye take no other Guardian than me."||4 It is probable that as this verse has no real or apparent connection with the preceding, a verse may have been lost, and that verse 1 has been placed at the head of the Sura merely because the night-journey is elsewhere alluded to in it.|
|67||3||17||O posterity of those whom we carried in the ark with Noah:q verily he was a grateful servant.||q The commentators are put to it to find out the connection of these words with the foregoing. Some think the accusative case is here put for the vocative, as I have translated it: and others interpret the words thus, Take not for your patrons besides me, the posterity of those, &c., meaning, mortal men.||O posterity of those whom we bare with Noah! He truly was a grateful servant!|
|67||4||17||And we expressly declared unto the children of Israel in the book of the law, saying, Ye will surely commit evil in the earth twice,r and ye will be elated with great insolence.||r Their first transgression was their rejecting the decisions of the law, their putting Isaiah to death,5 and their imprisoning of Jeremiah:6 and the second, was their slaying of Zachariah and John the Baptist, and their imagining the death of JESUS.7 5 Id. m. 6 Jallaloddin. 7 Iidem.||17:4-5
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 79
|MG: And We solemnly declared to the children of Israel in the Book, `Twice surely will ye commit evil in the earth, and with great loftiness of pride will ye surely be uplifted.'||And we solemnly declared to the children of Israel in the Book, "Twice surely will ye enact crimes in the earth, and with great loftiness of pride will ye surely be uplifted."|
|67||5||17||And when the punishment threatened for the first of those transgressions came to be executed, we sent against you our servants,s endued with exceeding strength in war, and they searched the inner apartments of your houses; and the prediction became accomplished.||s These were Jalût, or Goliah, and his forces;8 or Sennacherib the Assyrian; or else Nebuchadnezzar, whom the eastern writers called Bakhtnasr (which was however only his surname, his true name being Gudarz, or Raham), the governor of Babylon under Lohorasp, king of Persia,9 who took Jerusalem, and destroyed the temple.
8 Jallaloddin, Yahya.
9 Al Zamakhshari, Al Beidâwi.
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 79
|MG: And when the menace for the first of the two came to be executed, We sent against you Our servants endowed with terrible prowess; and they searched the inmost part of your abodes, and the menace was accomplished...||So when the menace for the first crime5 came to be inflicted, we sent against you our servants endued with terrible prowess; and they searched the inmost part of your abodes, and the menace was accomplished.||5 According to the commentators the slaughter of Isaiah and the imprisonment of Jeremiah, punished by the invasion of the Assyrians.|
|67||6||17||Afterwards we gave you the victory over them,t in your turn, and we granted you increase of wealth and children, and we made you a more numerous people,||t By permitting David to kill Goliah; or by the miraculous defeat of Sennacheribs army; or for that GOD put it into the heart of Bahman the son of Isfandiyar, when he succeeded his grandfather Lohorasp, to order Kiresh, or Cyrus, then governor of Babylon, to send home the Jews from their captivity, under the conduct of Daniel; which he accordingly did, and they prevailed against those whom Bakhtnasr had left in the land.10
|Then we gave you the mastery over them6 in turn, and increased you in wealth and children, and made you a most numerous host.||6 Over Sennacherib.|
|67||7||17||saying, If ye do well, ye will do well to your own souls; and if ye do evil, ye will do it unto the same. And when the punishment threatened for your latter transgression came to be executed, we sent enemies against you to afflict you,u and to enter the temple, as they entered it the first time, and utterly to destroy that which they had conquered.||u Some imagine the army meant in this place was that of Bakhtnasr;11 but others say the Persians conquered the Jews this second time, by the arms of Gudarz (by whom they seem to intend Antiochus Epiphanes), one of the successors of Alexander at Babylon. It is related that the general in this expedition, entering the temple, saw blood bubbling up on the great altar, and asking the reason of it, the Jews told him it was the blood of a sacrifice which had not been accepted of GOD; to which he replied, that they had not told him the truth, and ordered a thousand of them to be slain on the altar; but the blood not ceasing, he told them that if they would not confess the truth, he would not spare one of them; whereupon they acknowledged it was the blood of John: and the general said, Thus hath your Lord taken vengeance on you; and then cried out, O John, my LORD and thy LORD knoweth what hath befallen thy people for thy sake; wherefore let thy blood stop, by GODS permission, lest I leave not one of them alive; upon which the blood immediately stopped.12
These are the explications of the commentators, wherein their ignorance in ancient history is sufficiently manifest; though perhaps Mohammed himself, in this latter passage, intended the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans.
11 Yahya, Jallaloddin
12 Al Beidâwi.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, pp. 79-80
|Shoghi Effendi in The Dawn-Breakers: If ye do well, it will redound to your own advantage; and if ye do evil, the evil will return upon you.
MG: And when the punishment threatened for your latter transgression came to be inflicted, then We sent an enemy to sadden your faces, and to enter the Temple as they entered it at first, and to destroy with utter destruction that which they had conquered.
|The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XIX, p. 341
|We said, "If ye do well, to your own behoof will ye do well: and if ye do evil, against yourselves will ye do it. And when the menace for your latter crime7 came to be inflicted, then we sent an enemy to sadden your faces, and to enter the temple as they entered it at first, and to destroy with utter destruction that which they had conquered.||7 The slaying Zacharias, John Baptist, and Jesus, punished by the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. Comp. Tr. Gittin, fol. 57, where we read of the sufferings drawn down upon the Jews in consequence of the former of these crimes.|
|67||8||17||Peradventure your LORD will have mercy on you hereafter: but if ye return to transgress a third time, we also will return to chastise you;x and we have appointed hell to be the prison of the unbelievers.||x And this came accordingly to pass; for the Jews being again so wicked as to reject Mohammed, and conspire against his life, God delivered them into his hands; and he exterminated the tribe of Koreidha, and slew the chiefs of al Nadîr, and obliged the rest of the Jewish tribes to pay tribute.1
|Haply your Lord will have mercy on you! but if ye return, we will return:8 and we have appointed Hellthe prison of the infidels.||8 That is, if ye return to sin, we will return to punish.|
|67||9||17||Verily this Koran directeth unto the way which is most right, and declareth unto the faithful,||Verily, this Koran guideth to what is most upright; and it announceth to believers|
|67||10||17||who do good works, that they shall receive a great reward;||Who do the things that are right, that for them is a great reward;|
|67||11||17||and that for those who believe not in the life to come, we have prepared a grievous punishment.||And that for those who believe not in the life to come, we have got ready a painful punishment.|
|67||12||17||Man prayeth for evil, as he prayeth for good;y for man is hasty.z||y Out of ignorance, mistaking evil for good; or making wicked imprecations on himself and others, out of passion and impatience.
z Or inconsiderate, not weighing the consequence of what he asks.
It is said that the person here meant is Adam, who, when the breath of life was breathed into his nostrils, and had reached so far as his navel, though the lower part of his body was, as yet, but a piece of clay, must needs try to rise up, and got an ugly fall by the bargain. But others pretend the passage was revealed on the following occasion. Mohammed committed a certain captive to the charge of his wife, Sawda bint Zamáa, who, moved with compassion at the mans groans, unbound him, and let him escape: upon which the prophet, in the first motions of his anger, wished her hand might fall off; but immediately composing himself, said aloud, O God, I am but a man: therefore turn my curse into a blessing.2
|Man prayeth for evil as he prayeth for good; for man is hasty.|
|67||13||17||We have ordained the night and the day for two signs of our power: afterwards we blot out the sign of the night, and we cause the sign of the day to shine forth, that ye may endeavor to obtain plenty from your LORD by doing your business therein, and that ye may know the number of years, and the computation of time; and everything necessary have we explained by a perspicuous explication.||We have made the night and the day for two signs: the sign of the night do we obscure, but the sign of the day cause we to shine forth, that ye may seek plenty from your Lord, and that ye may know the number of the years and the reckoning of time; and we have made everything distinct by distinctiveness.|
|67||14||17||The fatea of every man have we bound about his neck;b and we will produce unto him, on the day of resurrection, a book wherein his actions shall be recorded: it shall be offered him open,||a Literally, the bird, which is here used to signify a mans fortune or success; the Arabs, as well as the Greeks and Romans, taking omens from the flight of birds, which they supposed to portend good luck, if they flew from the left to the right, but if from the right to the left, the contrary; the like judgment they also made when certain beasts passed before them.
b Like a collar, which he cannot by any means get off. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV p. 80.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 103
|MG: And every man's fate have We fastened about his neck: and on the Day of Resurrection will We bring it forth to him a book which shall be proffered to him wide open.||And every man's fate9 have we fastened about his neck: and on the day of resurrection will we bring forth to him a book which shall be proffered to him wide open:||9 Lit. bird.|
|67||15||17||and the angels shall say unto him, Read thy book; thine own soul will be a sufficient accountant against thee, this day.c||c See ibid. p. 20.||The Four Valleys (First Valley)
|MG: Read thy Book: There needeth none but thyself to make out an account against thee this day.||"Read thy Book:10 there needeth none but thyself to make out an account against thee this day."||10 Comp. Mischnah Aboth, 3, 20.|
|67||16||17||He who shall be rightly directed, shall be directed to the advantage only of his own soul; and he who shall err shall err only against the same: neither shall any laden soul be charged with the burden of another. We did not punish any people, until we had first sent an apostle to warn them.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 237)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 72
|BWC: None shall bear the burden of another.
MG: None shall bear the burden of another.
|For his own good only shall the guided yield to guidance, and to his own loss only shall the erring err; and the heavy laden shall not be laden with another's load. We never punished until we had first sent an apostle:|
|67||17||17||And when we resolved to destroy a city, we commanded the inhabitants thereof, who lived in affluence, to obey our apostle; but they acted corruptly therein: wherefore the sentence was justly pronounced against that city; and we destroyed it with an utter destruction.||And when we willed to destroy a city, to its affluent ones did we address our bidding; but when they acted criminally therein, just was its doom, and we destroyed it with an utter destruction.|
|67||18||17||And how many generations have we consumed since Noah? for thy LORD sufficiently knoweth and seeth the sins of his servants.||And since Noah, how many nations have we exterminated! And of the sins of his servants thy Lord is sufficiently informed, observant.|
|67||19||17||Whosoever chooseth this transitory life, we will bestow on him therein beforehand that which we please; on him, namely, whom we please: afterwards will we appoint him hell for his abode; he shall be thrown into the same to be scorched, covered with ignominy, and utterly rejected from mercy.||Whoso chooseth this quickly passing life, quickly will we bestow therein that which we pleaseeven on him we choose; afterward we will appoint hell for him, in which he shall burndisgraced, outcast:|
|67||20||17||But whosoever chooseth the life to come, and directeth his endeavor towards the same, being also a true believer; the endeavor of these shall be acceptable unto God.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 67-70, Muhammad-Hadiy-i-Sahhaf)
|cf. MG: may all his strivings meet with thanks and be acceptable to God.||But whoso chooseth the next life, and striveth after it as it should be striven for, being also a believer,these! their striving shall be grateful to God:|
|67||21||17||On all will we bestow the blessings of this life, both on these and on those, of the gift of thy LORD; for the gift of thy LORD shall not be denied unto any.||To allboth to these and thosewill we prolong the gifts of thy Lord; for not to any shall the gifts of thy Lord be denied.|
|67||22||17||Behold, how we have caused some of them to surpass others in wealth and dignity: but the next life shall be more considerable in degrees of honour, and greater in excellence.||See how we have caused some of them to excel others! but the next life shall be greater in its grades, and greater in excellence.|
|67||23||17||Set not up another god with the true GOD, lest thou sit down in disgrace, and destitute.||Set not up another god with God, lest thou sit thee down disgraced, helpless.11||11 Comp. in Heb. Isai. liii. 3.|
|67||24||17||Thy LORD hath commanded that ye worship none besides him; and that ye show kindness unto your parents, whether the one of them, or both of them attain to old age with thee.d Wherefore, say not unto them, Fie on you!e neither reproach them, but speak respectfully unto them||d That is, receiving their support and maintenance from thee.
e Literally, Lower the wing of humility, &c.
|Thy Lord hath ordained that ye worship none but him; and, kindness to your parents, whether one or both of them attain to old age with thee: and say not to them, "Fie!" neither reproach them; but speak to them both with respectful speech;|
|67||25||17||and submit to behave humblye towards them, out of tender affection and say, O LORD, have mercy on them both, as they nursed me when I was little.||And defer humbly to them12 out of tenderness; and say, "Lord, have compassion on them both, even as they reared me when I was little."||12 Lit. lower a wing of humility.|
|67||26||17||Your LORD well knoweth that which is in your souls; whether ye be men of integrity:||Your Lord well knoweth what is in your souls; he knoweth whether ye be righteous:|
|67||27||17||and he will be gracious unto those who sincerely return unto him.||And gracious is He to those who return to Him.|
|67||28||17||And give unto him who is of kin to you his due,f and also unto the poor, and the traveller. And waste not thy substance profusely:||f That is, friendship and affection, and assistance in time of need.||And to him who is of kin render his due, and also to the poor and to the wayfarer; yet waste not wastefully,|
|67||29||17||for the profuse are brethren of the devils:g and the devil was ungrateful unto his LORD.||g Prodigality, and squandering away ones substance in folly or luxury, being a very great sin. The Arabs were particularly guilty of extravagance in killing camels, and distributing them by lot, merely out of vanity and ostentation; which they are forbidden by this passage, and commanded to bestow what they could spare on their poor relations, and other indigent people.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|For the wasteful are brethren of the Satans, and Satan was ungrateful to his Lord:|
|67||30||17||But if thou turn from them, in expectation of the mercy which thou hopest from thy LORD;h at least, speak kindly unto them.||h That is, If thy present circumstances will not permit thee to assist others, defer thy charity till GOD shall grant thee better ability.||But if thou turn away from them, while thou thyself seekest boons from thy Lord for which thou hopest, at least speak to them with kindly speech:|
|67||31||17||And let not thy hand be tied up to thy neck; neither open it with an unbounded expansion,i lest thou become worthy of reprehension, and be reduced to poverty.||i i.e., Be neither niggardly nor profuse, but observe the mean between the two extremes, wherein consists true liberality.2
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 109
|MG: And let not thy hand be tied up to thy neck; nor yet open it with all openness ...||And let not thy hand be tied up to thy neck; nor yet open it with all openness, lest thou sit thee down in rebuke, in beggary.|
|67||32||17||Verily thy LORD will enlarge the store of whom he pleaseth, and will be sparing unto whom he pleaseth; for he knoweth and regardeth his servants.||Verily, thy Lord will provide with open hand for whom he pleaseth, and will be sparing. His servants doth he scan, inspect.|
|67||33||17||Kill not your children for fear of being brought to want; we will provide for them and for you; verily the killing them is a great sin.||j See chapter 6, p. 101 and 103, and chapter 81.||Kill not your children for fear of want:13 for them and for you will we provide. Verily, the killing them is a great wickedness.||13 Comp. Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 151; lxxxi. 8, p. 45. Zaid, the sceptical seeker after truth, is reported to have discouraged the killing of daughters, saying, "I will support them." Kitâb al Wackidi, p. 255. See note at Sura [xcvii.] iii. 18.|
|67||34||17||Draw not near unto fornication; for it is wickedness, and an evil way.||Have nought to do with adultery; for it is a foul thing and an evil way:|
|67||35||17||Neither slay the soul which GOD hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause;k and whosoever shall be slain unjustly, we have given his heir power to demand satisfaction;l but let him not exceed the bounds of moderation in putting to death the murderer in too cruel a manner, or by revenging his friend's blood on any other than the person who killed him; since he is assisted by this law.m||k The crimes for which a man may justly be put to death are these: apostasy, adultery and murder.3
l It being at the election of the heir, or next of kin, either to take the life of the murderer or to accept of a fine in lieu of it.4
4 See chapter 2, p. 19.
m Some refer the pronoun he to the person slain, for the avenging whose death this law was made; some to the heir, who has a right granted him to demand satisfaction for his friends blood;1 and others to him who shall be slain by the heir, if he carry his vengeance too far.2
2 Vide Al Beidâwi.
|Neither slay any one whom God hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause: and whosoever shall be slain wrongfully, to his heir14 have we given powers; but let him not outstep bounds in putting the manslayer to death, for he too, in his turn, will be assisted and avenged.||14 Or, next of kin.|
|67||36||17||And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, unless it be to improve it, until he attain his age of strength:n and perform your covenant; for the performance of your covenant shall be inquired into hereafter.||n See chapter 4, p. 53, 54.||And touch not the substance of the orphan, unless in an upright way, till he attain his age of strength: And perform your covenant; verily the covenant shall be enquired of:|
|67||37||17||And give full measure, when you measure aught; and weigh with a just balance. This will be better, and more easy for determining every man's due.o||o Or, more advantageous in the end.3
3 Idem. Al Zamakh.
|And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with just balance. This will be better, and fairest for settlement:|
|67||38||17||And follow not that whereof thou hast no knowledge;p for the hearing, and the sight, and the heart, every of these shall be examined at the last day.||p i.e., Vain and uncertain opinions, which thou hast not good reason to believe true, or at least probable. Some interpret the words, Accuse not another of a crime whereof thou hast no knowledge; supposing they forbid the bearing false witness, or the spreading or giving credit to idle reports of others.4
|And follow not that of which thou hast no knowledge;15 because the hearing and the sight and the heart,each of these shall be enquired of:||15 Or, run not after vain things which will avail nought. Or, accuse not any of a crime if thou art not sure of his guilt.|
|67||39||17||Walk not proudly in the land, for thou canst not cleave the earth, neither shalt thou equal the mountains in stature.||And walk not proudly on the earth, for thou canst not cleave the earth, neither shalt thou reach to the mountains in height:|
|67||40||17||All this is evil, and abominable in the sight of thy LORD.||All this is evil; odious to thy Lord.|
|67||41||17||These precepts are a part of the wisdom which they LORD hath revealed unto thee. Set not up any other god as equal unto GOD, lest thou be cast into hell, reproved and rejected.||This is a part of the wisdom which thy Lord hath revealed to thee. Set not up any other god with God, lest thou be cast into Hell, rebuked, cast away.|
|67||42||17||Hath your LORD preferably granted unto you sons, and taken for himself daughters from among the angels?q Verily in asserting this ye utter a grievous saying.||q See chapter 16, p. 199.||What! hath your Lord prepared sons for you, and taken for himself daughters from among the angels? Indeed, ye say a dreadful saying.|
|67||43||17||And now have we used various arguments and repetitions in this Koran, that they may be warned: yet it only rendereth them more disposed to fly from the truth.||Moreover, for man's warning have we varied16 this Koran: Yet it only increaseth their flight from it.||16 Used a variety of arguments and illustrations.|
|67||44||17||Say unto the idolaters, If there were other gods with him, as ye say, they would surely seek an occasion of making some attempt against the possessor of the throne:r||r i.e., They would in all probability contend with GOD for superiority, and endeavour to dethrone him, in the same manner as princes act with one another on earth.||SAY: If, as ye affirm, there were other gods with Him, they would in that case seek occasion against the occupant of the throne:|
|67||45||17||GOD forbid! and far, very far, be that from him which they utter!||Glory to Him! Immensely high is He exalted above their blasphemies!|
|67||46||17||The seven heavens praise him, and the earth, and all who are therein: neither is there anything which doth not celebrate his praise; but ye understand not their celebration thereof: he is gracious and merciful.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 149, p. 140
|Neither is there aught which doth not celebrate His praise||The seven heavens17 praise him, and the earth, and all who are therein; neither is there aught which doth not celebrate his praise; but their utterances of praise ye understand not. He is kind, indulgent.||17 Thus Tr. Chagiga, fol. 9 b. "There are seven heavens (rakian): the veil, the firmament, the clouds, the habitation, the abode, the fixed seat, the araboth." See Wetst. on 2 Cor. xii. 2.|
|67||47||17||When thou readest the Koran, we place between thee and those who believe not in the life to come a dark veil;||When thou recitest the Koran we place between thee and those who believe not in the life to come, a dark veil;|
|67||48||17||and we put coverings over their hearts, lest they should understand it, and in their ears thickness of hearing.||And we put coverings over their hearts lest they should understand it, and in their ears a heaviness;|
|67||49||17||And when thou makest mention, in repeating the Koran, of thy LORD only,s they turn their backs, flying the doctrine of his unity.||s Not allowing their gods to be his associates, nor praying their intercession with him.||And when in the Koran thou namest thy One Lord, they turn their backs in flight.|
|67||50||17||We well know with what design they hearken, when they hearken unto thee, and when they privately discourse together: when the ungodly say, Ye follow no other than a madman.||We well know why they hearken, when they hearken unto thee, and when they whisper apart; when the wicked say, "Ye follow no other than a man enchanted."|
|67||51||17||Behold! what epithets they bestow on thee. But they are deceived; neither can they find any just occasion to reproach thee.||See what likenesses they strike out for thee! But they are in error, neither can they find the path.|
|67||52||17||They also say, After we shall have become bones and dust, shall we surely be raised a new creature?||They also say, "After we shall have become bones and dust, shall we in sooth be raised a new creation?"|
|67||53||17||Answer, Be ye stones, or iron, or some creature more improbable in your opinions to be raised to life. But they will say, Who shall restore us to life? Answer, He who created you the first time: and they will wag their heads at thee, saying, When shall this be? Answer, Peradventure it is nigh.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 123, p. 117
|Erelong will they wag their heads at Thee, and say, 'When shall this be?' Say: 'Perchance it is nigh.'||SAY: "Yes, though ye were stones, or iron, or any other creature, to your seeming, yet harder to be raised." But they will say, "Who shall bring us back?" SAY: "He who created you at first." And they will wag their heads at thee, and say, "When shall this be?" SAY: "Haply it is nigh."|
|67||54||17||On that day shall GOD call you forth from your sepulchres, and ye shall obey, with celebration of his praise;t and ye shall think that ye tarriedu but a little while.||t The dead, says al Beidâwi, at his call shall immediately rise, and shaking the dust off their heads, shall say, Praise be unto thee, O God.
u viz., In your graves; or in the world.
|On that day shall God call you forth, and ye shall answer by praising Him; and ye shall seem to have tarried but a little while.|
|67||55||17||Speak unto my servants, that they speak mildly unto the unbelievers, lest ye exasperate them; for Satan soweth discord among them, and Satan is a declared enemy unto man.||Enjoin my servants to speak in kindly sort: Verily Satan would stir up strifes among them, for Satan is man's avowed foe.|
|67||56||17||your LORD well knoweth you; if he pleaseth, he will have mercy on you, or, if he pleaseth, he will punish you:x and we have not sent thee to be a steward over them.||x These words are designed as a pattern for the Moslems to follow, in discoursing with the idolaters; by which they are taught to use soft and dubious expressions, and not to tell them directly that they are doomed to hell fire; which, besides the presumption in offering to determine the sentence of others, would only make them more irreconcilable enemies.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Your Lord well knoweth you: if He please He will have mercy on you; or if He please He will chastise you: and we have not sent thee to be a guardian over them.|
|67||57||17||Thy LORD well knoweth all persons in heaven and on earth.y We have bestowed peculiar favors on some of the prophets, preferably to others; and we gave unto David the psalms.z||y And may choose whom he pleases for his ambassador. This is an answer to the objections of the Koreish, that Mohammed was the orphan pupil of Abu Taleb, and followed by a parcel of naked and hungry fellows.2
z Which were a greater honour to him than his kingdom; and wherein Mohammed and his people are foretold by these words, among others:3 The righteous shall inherit the earth.4
3 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 28, &c. Prid. Life of Mah. p. 122.
4 Psal. xxxvii. 28. Al Beid.
|Thy Lord hath full knowledge of all in the heavens and the earth. Higher gifts have we given to some of the prophets than to others, and the Psalter we gave to David.|
|67||58||17||Say, Call upon those whom ye imagine to be gods besides him; yet they will not be able to free you from harm, or to turn it on others.||SAY: Call ye upon those whom ye fancy to be gods beside Him; yet they will have no power to relieve you from trouble, or to shift it elsewhere.|
|67||59||17||Those whom ye invoke,a do themselves desire to be admitted to a near conjunction with their LORD; striving which of them shall approach nearest unto him: they also hope for his mercy, and dread his punishment; for the punishment of thy LORD is terrible.||a viz., The angels and prophets, who are the servants of GOD as well as yourselves.||Those whom ye call on, themselves desire union with their Lord,18 striving which of them shall be nearest to him: they also hope for his mercy and fear his chastisement. Verily the chastisement of thy Lord is to be dreaded.||18 In obvious allusion to the saint-worship of the Christians.|
|67||60||17||There is no city but we will destroy the same before the day of resurrection, or we will punish it with a grievous punishment. This is written in the book of our eternal decrees.||There is no city which we will not destroy before the day of Resurrection, or chastise it with a grievous chastisement. This is written in the Book.|
|67||61||17||Nothing hindered us from sending thee with miracles, except that the former nations have charged them with imposture. We gave unto the tribe of Thamud, at their demand, the she-camel visible to their sight: yet they dealt unjustly with her:b and we send not a prophet with miracles, but to strike terror.||b See chapter 7, p. 112.||Nothing hindered us from sending thee with the power of working miracles, except that the peoples of old treated them as lies. We gave to Themoud19 the she-camel before their very eyes, yet they maltreated her! We send not a prophet with miracles but to strike terror.||19 See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 71.|
|67||62||17||Remember when we said unto thee, Verily thy LORD encompasseth men by his knowledge and power. We have appointed the vision which we showed thee,c and also the treed cursed in the Koran, only for an occasion of dispute unto men, and to strike them with terror; but it shall cause them to transgress only the more enormously.||c Mohammeds journey to heaven is generally agreed to be intended in this place; which occasioned great heats and debates among his followers, till they were quieted by Abu Becrs bearing testimony to the truth of it.5 The word vision, here used, is urged by those who take this journey to have been no more than a dream, as a plain confirmation of their opinion. Some, however, suppose the vision meant in this passage was not the night-journey, but the dream Mohammed saw at al Hodeibiya, wherein he seemed to make his entrance into Mecca;6 or that at Bedr;7 or else a vision he had relating to the family of Ommeya, whom he saw mount his pulpit, and jump about in it like monkeys; upon which he said, This is their portion in this world, which they have gained by their profession of Islâm.1 But if any of these latter expositions be true, the verse must have been revealed at Medina.
5 Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 39, and not. ibid Prideaux, Life of Mah. p. 50, and Prelim. Disc. Sect. II, p. 36. 6 See Kor. chapter 48.
7 See chapter 8, p. 129.
1 Al Beidâwi.
d Called al Zakkûm, which springs from the bottom of hell.2
2 See chapter 37.
|And remember when we said to thee, Verily, thy Lord is round about mankind; we ordained the vision20 which we shewed thee, and likewise the cursed tree of the Koran, only for men to dispute of; we will strike them with terror; but it shall only increase in them enormous wickedness:||20 See note on v. 1. The tree is Zakkoum, Sura [xlv.] lvi. The Rabbins teach that food of the bitterest herbs is one of the punishments of Hell. See Schröder's Rabb. und. Talm. Judenthum, p. 403.|
|67||63||17||And remember when we said unto the angels, Worship Adam; and they all worshipped him except Eblis, who said, Shall I worship him whom thou hast created of clay?||And when we said to the Angels, "Prostrate yourselves before Adam:" and they all prostrated them, save Eblis. "What!" said he, "shall I bow me before him whom thou hast created of clay?|
|67||64||17||And he said, What thinkest thou, as to this man whom thou hast honoured above me? verily, if thou grant me respite until the day of resurrection, I will extirpate his offspring, except a few.||Seest thou this man whom thou hast honoured above me? Verily, if thou respite me till the day of Resurrection, I will destroy his offspring, except a few."|
|67||65||17||God answered, Begone, I grant thee respite: but whosoever of them shall follow thee, hell shall surely be your reward; an ample reward for your demerits!e||e See chapter 2, p. 5, and chapter 7, p. 106, &c.||He said, "Begone; but whosoever of them shall follow thee, verily, Hell shall be your recompense; an ample recompense!|
|67||66||17||And entice to vanity such of them as thou canst, by thy voice; and assault them on all sides with thy horsemen and thy footmen;f and partake with them in their riches, and their children;g and make them promises; (but the devil shall make them no other than deceitful promises:)||f i.e., With all thy forces.
g Instigating them to get wealth by unlawful means, and to spend it in supporting vice and superstition; and tempting them to incestuous mixtures, and to give their children names in honour of their idols, as Abd Yaghuth, Abd al Uzza, &c.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And entice such of them as thou canst by thy voice; assault them with thy horsemen and thy footmen;21 be their partner in their riches and in their children, and make them promises: but Satan shall make them only deceitful promises.||21 That is, with all thy might.|
|67||67||17||as to my servants, thou shalt have no power over them; for thy LORD is a sufficient protector of those who trust in him.||As to my servants, no power over them shalt thou have; And thy Lord will be their sufficient guardian."|
|67||68||17||It is your LORD who driveth forward the ships for you in the sea, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance by commerce; for he is merciful towards you.||It is your Lord who speedeth onward the ships for you in the sea, that ye may seek of his abundance; for he is merciful towards you.|
|67||69||17||When a misfortune befalleth you at sea, the false deities whom ye invoke are forgotten by you, except him alone: yet when he bringeth you safe to dry land, ye retire afar off from him, and return to your idols; for man is ungrateful.h||h See chapter 10, p. 152.||When a misfortune befalleth you out at sea, they whom ye invoke are not to be found: God alone is there: yet when he bringeth you safe to dry land, ye place yourselves at a distance from Him. Ungrateful is man.|
|67||70||17||Are ye therefore secure that he will not cause the dry land to swallow you up, or that he will not send against you a whirlwind driving the sands to overwhelm you? Then shall ye find none to protect you.||What! are ye sure, then, that he will not cleave the sides of the earth for you? or that he will not send against you a whirlwind charged with sands? Then shall ye find no protector.|
|67||71||17||Or are ye secure that he will not cause you again to commit yourselves to the sea another time, and send against you a tempestuous wind, and drown you; for that ye have been ungrateful? then shall ye find none to defend you against us, in that distress.||Or are ye sure that he will not cause you to put back to sea a second time, and send against you a storm blast, and drown you, for that ye have been thankless? Then shall ye find no helper against us therein.|
|67||72||17||And now have we honoured the children of Adam by sundry peculiar privileges and endowments; and we have given them conveniences of carriage by land and by sea, and have provided food for them of good things; and we have preferred them before many of our creatures which we have created, by granting them great prerogatives.||And now have we honoured the children of Adam: by land and by sea have we carried them: food have we provided for them of good things, and with endowments beyond many of our creatures have we endowed them.|
|67||73||17||On a certain day we will call all men to judgment with their respective leader:i and whosoever shall have his book given him into his right hand, they shall read their book with joy and satisfaction;j and they shall not be wronged a hair.k||i Some interpret this of the prophet sent to every people; others, of the heads of sects; others, of the various religions professed in the world; others, of the books which shall be given to every man at the resurrection, containing a register of their good and bad actions.
j See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 70.
k See chapter 4, p. 60, note o.
|One day we will summon all men with their leaders: they whose book shall be given into their right hand, shall read their book, and not be wronged a thread:|
|67||74||17||And whoever hath been blind in this life shall be also blind in the next, and shall wander more widely from the path of salvation.||And he who has been blind here, shall be blind hereafter, and wander yet more from the way.|
|67||75||17||It wanted little but the unbelievers had tempted thee to swerve from the instructions which we had revealed unto thee, that thou shouldest devise concerning us a different thing;l and then would they have taken thee for their friend:||l These are generally supposed to have been the tribe of Thakîf, the inhabitants of al Tâyef, who insisted on Mohammeds granting them several very extraordinary privileges, as the terms of their submission to him; for they demanded that they might be free from the legal contribution of alms, and from observing the appointed times of prayer; that they might be allowed to keep their idol Allât for a certain time,1 and that their territory might be declared a place of security and not be violated, like that of Mecca, &c. And they added, that if the other Arabs asked him the reason of these concessions, he should say, that GOD had commanded him so to do.2 According to which explication it is plain this verse must have been revealed long after the Hejra.
Some, however, will have the passage to have been revealed at Mecca, on occasion of the Koreish; who told Mohammed they would not suffer him to kiss the black stone in the wall of Caaba, unless he also visited their idols, and touched them with his hand, to show his respect.
1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 14.
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moham. p. 126, &c.
|And, verily, they had well nigh beguiled thee from what we revealed to thee, and caused thee to invent some other thing in our name: but in that case they would surely have taken thee as a friend;22||22 Zamakshary relates that this passage was revealed when the Thaqyfites in framing the document of agreement between themselves and Muhammad, required that the words requiring the prostrations in worship should not be added. The writer looked at the prophet, who stood by in silence, when Omar stood up and drew his sword with menacing words. They replied, We speak not thee but to Muhammad. Then this verse was revealed. Thus Dr. Sprenger. Life, p. 186. He renders the last clause, but at the right moment a friend reprehended thee.|
|67||76||17||and unless we had confirmed thee, thou hadst certainly been very near inclining unto them a little.||And had we not settled thee, thou hadst well nigh leaned to them a little:|
|67||77||17||Then would we surely have caused thee to taste the punishment of life, and the punishment of death;m and thou shouldest not have found any to protect thee against us.||m i.e., Both of this life and the next. Some interpret the first of the punishment in the next world, and the latter of the torture of the sepulchre.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|In that case we would surely have made thee taste of woe23 in life and of woe in death: then thou shouldest not have found a helper against us.||23 Lit. weakness, languors.|
|67||78||17||The unbelievers had likewise almost caused thee to depart the land, that they might have expelled thee thence:n but then should they not have tarried therein after thee, except a little while.o||n The commentators differ as to the place where this passage was delivered, and the occasion of it. Some think it was revealed at Mecca, and that it refers to the violent enmity which the Koreish bore Mohammed, and their restless endeavours to make him leave Mecca;4 as he was at length obliged to do. But as the persons here spoken of seem not to have prevailed in their project, others suppose that the verse was revealed at Medina, on the following occasion. The Jews, envious of Mohammeds good reception and stay there, told him, by way of counsel, that Syria was the land of the prophets, and that if he was really a prophet he ought to go thither. Mohammed seriously reflecting on what they had said, began to think they had advised him well; and actually set out, and proceeded a days journey in his way to Syria: whereupon GOD acquainted him with their design by the revelation of this verse; and he returned to Medina.5
5 Idem, Jallaloddin.
o This was fulfilled, according to the former of the above-mentioned explications, by the loss of the Koreish at Bedr; and according to the latter, by the great slaughter of the Jews of Koreidha and al Nadîr.6
|And truly they had almost caused thee to quit the land, in order wholly to drive thee forth from it:24 but then, themselves should have tarried but a little after thee.||24 "The Jews, envious of Muhammad's good reception and stay there, told him, by way of counsel, that Syria was the land of the Prophets, and that if he was really a prophet, he ought to go there." Sale from Djelal Eddin ap. Mar. Geiger, p. 12, quotes a Talmudical saying to the same effect, but without any reference.|
|67||79||17||This is the method of dealing which we have prescribed ourselves in respect to our apostles, whom we have already sent before thee: and thou shalt not find any change in our prescribed method.||This was our way with the Apostles we have already sent before thee, and in this our way thou shalt find no change.|
|67||80||17||Regularly perform thy prayer at the declension of the sun, at the first darkness of the night,q and the prayer of daybreak;r for the prayer of daybreak is borne witness unto by the angels.s||p i.e., At the time of noon prayer, when the sun declines from the meridian; or, as some choose to translate the words, at the setting of the sun, which is the time of the first evening prayer.
q The time of the last evening prayer.
r Literally, the reading of the daybreak; whence some suppose the reading of the Korân at that time is here meant.
s viz., The guardian angels, who, according to some, are relieved at that time; or else the angels appointed to make the change of night into day, &c.7
7 Al Beidâwi.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 199)
|Observe prayer at sunset, till the first darkening of the night, and the daybreak readingfor the daybreak reading hath its witnesses,|
|67||81||17||And watch some part of the night in the same exercise, as a work of supererogation for thee: peradventure thy LORD will raise thee to an honourable station.t||t According to a tradition of Abu Horeira, the honourable station here intended is that of intercessor for others.1
|The Seven Valleys (The Valley of True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness)
|MG: Glorious Station||And watch unto it in the night: this shall be an excess in service:25 it may be that thy Lord will raise thee to a glorious station:||25 A work of supererogation, and therefore doubly meritorious. Thus Tr. Berachoth, fol. 4. The word station (mekam) is still used of the nearness to God, attained in spiritual ecstacies, etc.|
|67||82||17||And say, O LORD, cause me to enter with a favorable entry, and cause me to come forthu with a favorable coming forth; and grant me from thee an assisting power.||u That is, Grant that I may enter my grave with peace, and come forth from it, at the resurrection, with honour and satisfaction. In which sense this petition is the same with that of Balaam, Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his.2
But as the person here spoken to is generally supposed to be Mohammed, the commentators say he was commanded to pray in these words for a safe departure from Mecca, and a good reception at Medina; or for a sure refuge in the cave, where he hid himself when he fled from Mecca;3 or (which is the more common opinion) for a victorious entrance into Mecca, and a safe return thence.4
2 Numb. xxiii. 10.
3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 39.
4 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|And say, "O my Lord, cause me to enter26 with a perfect entry, and to come forth with a perfect forthcoming, and give me from thy presence a helping power:"||26 That is, to enter the Grave or Mecca. Lit. with an entry of truth.|
|67||83||17||And say, Truth is come, and falsehood is vanished: for falsehood is of short continuance.x||x These words Mohammed repeated, when he entered the temple of Mecca, after the taking of that city, and cleansed it of the idols; a great number of which are said to have fallen down on his touching them with the end of the stick he held in his hand.5
5 Iidem. Vide Gagnier, Vie de Mahomet, tom. 2, p. 127.
|And SAY: Truth is come and falsehood is vanished. Verily, falsehood is a thing that vanisheth.|
|67||84||17||We send down of the Koran that which is a medicine and mercy unto the true believers; but it shall only increase the perdition of the unjust.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 73
|MG: And We send down of the Qur'án that which is a healing and a mercy to the faithful: But it shall only add to the ruin of the wicked.||And we send down of the Koran that which is a healing and a mercy to the faithful: But it shall only add to the ruin of the wicked.|
|67||85||17||When we bestow favors on man, he retireth and withdraweth himself ungratefully from us: but when evil toucheth him, he despaireth of our mercy.||When we bestow favours on man, he withdraweth and goeth aside; but when evil toucheth him, he is despairing.|
|67||86||17||Say, Every one acteth after his own manner:y but your LORD best knoweth who is most truly directed in his way.||y i.e., According to his judgment or opinion, be it true or false; or according to the bent of his mind, and the natural constitution of his body.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|SAY: Every one acteth after his own manner: but your Lord well knoweth who is best guided in his path.|
|67||87||17||They will ask thee concerning the spirit:z answer, The spirit was created at the command of my LORD:a but ye have no knowledge given unto you, except a little.b||z Or the soul of man. Some interpret it of the angel Gabriel, or of the divine revelation.7
a viz., By the word Kun, i.e., Be; consisting of an immaterial substance, and not generated, like the body. But, according to a different opinion, this passage should be translated, The spirit is of those things, the knowledge of which thy Lord hath reserved to himself. For it is said that the Jews bid the Koreish ask Mohammed to relate the history of those who slept in the cave,8 and of Dhulkarnein,9 and to give them an account of the soul of man; adding, that if he pretended to answer all the three questions, or could answer none of them, they might be sure he was no prophet; but if he gave an answer to one or two of the questions and was silent as to the other, he was really a prophet. Accordingly, when they propounded the questions to him, he told them the two histories, but acknowledged his ignorance as to the origin of the human soul.10
8 See the next chapter.
9 See ib.
10 Al Beidâwi.
b All your knowledge being acquired from the information of your senses, which must necessarily fail you in spiritual speculations, without the assistance of divine revelation.11
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 201, p. 183
|And they will ask Thee of the Spirit. Say, 'the Spirit proceedeth at My Lord's command.'||And they will ask thee of the Spirit.27 SAY: The Spirit proceedeth at my Lord's command: but of knowledge, only a little to you is given.||27 The word spirit is probably to be understood of the Angel Gabriel. Comp. 1 Kings xxii. 21. Others understand it of the immaterial soul of man. See note on Sura [xci.] ii. 81.|
|67||88||17||If we pleased, we should certainly take away that which we have revealed unto thee;c in such case thou couldst not find any to assist thee therein against us,||c viz., The Korân; by razing it both from the written copies, and the memories of men.||If we pleased, we could take away what we have revealed to thee: none couldst thou then find thee to undertake thy cause with us,|
|67||89||17||unless through mercy from thy LORD; for his favor towards thee hath been great.||Save as a mercy from thy Lord; great, verily, is his favour towards thee.|
|67||90||17||Say, Verily if men and genii were purposely assembled, that they might produce a book like this Koran, they could not produce one like unto it, although the one of them assisted the other.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter II, within pp. 43-44)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LVIII, within pp. 58-59)
|cf. BWC: should all men and spirits combine to compose the like of one chapter of this Book, they would surely fail, even though they were to assist one another.
cf. BWC: Were ye to assemble together in order to produce the like of a single letter of My Works, ye would never be able to do so,
|SAY: Verily, were men and Djinn assembled to produce the like of this Koran, they could not produce its like, though the one should help the other.|
|67||91||17||And we have variously propounded unto men in this Koran every kind of figurative argument; but the greater part of men refuse to receive it, merely out of infidelity.||And of a truth we have set out to men every kind of similitude in this Koran, but most men have refused everything except unbelief.|
|67||92||17||And they say, We will by no means believe on thee, until thou cause a spring of water to gush forth for us out of the earth;d||d This and the following miracles were demanded of Mohammed by the Koreish, as proofs of his mission.||And they say, "By no means will we believe on thee till thou cause a fountain to gush forth for us from the earth;|
|67||93||17||or thou have a garden of palm-trees and vines, and thou cause rivers to spring forth from the midst thereof in abundance;||Or, till thou have a garden of palm-trees and grapes, and thou cause forth-gushing rivers to gush forth in its midst;|
|67||94||17||or thou cause the heaven to fall down upon us, as thou hast given out, in pieces; or thou bring down GOD and the angels to vouch for thee;||Or thou make the heaven to fall on us, as thou hast given out, in pieces; or thou bring God and the angels to vouch for thee;|
|67||95||17||or thou have a house of gold; or thou ascend by a ladder to heaven: neither will we believe thy ascending thither alone,e until thou cause a book to descend unto us, bearing witness of thee, which we may read. Answer My LORD be praised! Am I other than a man, sent as an apostle?||e As thou pretendest to have done in thy night-journey; but of which no man was witness.||Or thou have a house of gold; or thou mount up into Heaven; nor will we believe in thy mounting up, till thou send down to us a book which we may read." SAY: Praise be to my Lord! Am I more than a man, an apostle?|
|67||96||17||And nothing hindereth men from believing, when a direction is come unto them, except that they say, Hath GOD sent a man for his apostle?||And what hindereth men from believing, when the guidance hath come to them, but that they say, "Hath God sent a man as an apostle?"|
|67||97||17||Answer, If the angels had walked on earth as familiar inhabitants thereof, we had surely sent down unto them from heaven an angel for our apostle.||SAY: Did angels walk the earth as its familiars, we had surely sent them an angel-apostle out of Heaven.|
|67||98||17||Say, GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you: for he knoweth and regardeth his servants.||SAY: God is witness enough between you and me. His servants He scanneth, eyeth.|
|67||99||17||Whom GOD shall direct, he shall be the rightly directed; and whom he shall cause to err, thou shalt find none to assist, besides him. And we will gather them together on the day of resurrection, creeping on their faces, blind, and dumb, and deaf:f their abode shall be hell; so often as the fire thereof shall be extinguished, we will rekindle a burning flame to torment them.g||f See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 66.
g i.e., When the fire shall go out or abate for want of fuel, after the consumption of the skins and flesh of the damned, we will add fresh vigour to the flames by giving them new bodies.1
1 Al Beidâwi. See chapter 4, p. 60.
|And He whom God shall guide will be guided indeed; and whom he shall mislead thou shalt find none to assist, but Him: and we will gather them together on the day of the resurrection, on their faces, blind and dumb and deaf: Hell shall be their abode: so oft as its fires die down, we will rekindle the flame.|
|67||100||17||This shall be their reward, because they disbelieve in our signs, and say, When we shall have been reduced to bones and dust, shall we surely be raised new creatures?||This shall be their reward for that they believed not our signs and said, "When we shall have become bones and dust, shall we surely be raised a new creation?"|
|67||101||17||Do they not perceive that GOD, who created the heavens and the earth, is able to create other bodies, like their present? And he hath appointed them a limited term;h there is no doubt thereof: but the ungodly reject the truth, merely out of unbelief.||h Or life, or resurrection.||Do they not perceive that God, who created the Heavens and the Earth, is able to create their like? And he hath ordained them a term; there is no doubt of it: but the wicked refuse everything except unbelief.|
|67||102||17||Say, If ye possessed the treasures of the mercy of my LORD, ye would surely refrain from using them, for fear of spending them;i for man is covetous.||i That is, lest they should be exhausted.||SAY: If ye held the treasures of my Lord's mercy ye would certainly refrain from them through fear of spending them: for man is covetous.|
|67||103||17||We heretofore gave unto Moses the power of working nine evident signs.j And do thou ask the children of Israel, as to the story of Moses;k when he came unto them, and Pharaoh said unto him, Verily I esteemed thee, O Moses, to be deluded by sorcery.||j These were, the changing his rod into a serpent, the making his hand white and shining, the producing locusts, lice, frogs, and blood, the dividing of the Red Sea, the bringing water out of the rock, and the shaking of Mount Sinai over the children of Israel. In lieu of the three last some reckon the inundation of the Nile, the blasting of the corn, and scarcity of the fruits of the earth.2 These words, however, are interpreted by others, not of nine miracles, but of nine commandments, which Moses gave his people, and were thus numbered up by Mohammed himself to a Jew, who asked him the question, viz., That they should not be guilty of idolatry, nor steal, nor commit adultery or murder, nor practise sorcery or usury, nor accuse an innocent man to take away his life, or a modest woman of whoredom, nor desert the army; to which he added the observing of the sabbath, as a tenth commandment, but which peculiarly regarded the Jews: upon which answer, it is said, the Jew kissed the prophets hands and feet.3
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
3 Al Beidâwi.
k Some think these words are directed to Moses, who is hereby commanded to demand the children of Israel of Pharaoh, that he might let them go with him.
|We therefore gave to Moses nine clear signs. Ask thou, therefore, the children of Israel how it was when he came unto them, and Pharaoh said to him, "Verily, I deem thee, O Moses, a man enchanted."|
|67||104||17||Moses answered, Thou well knowest that none hath sent down these evident signs except the LORD of heaven and earth; and I surely esteem thee, O Pharaoh, a lost man.||Said Moses, "Thou knowest that none hath sent down these clear signs but the Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth; and I surely deem thee, O Pharaoh, a person lost."|
|67||105||17||Wherefore Pharaoh sought to drive them out of the land; but we drowned him and all those who were with him.||So Pharaoh sought to drive them out of the land; but we drowned him and all his followers.|
|67||106||17||And we said unto the children of Israel, after his destruction, Dwell ye in the land: and when the promise of the next life shall come to be fulfilled, we will bring you both promiscuously to judgment. We have sent down the Koran with truth, and it hath descended with truth: and we have not sent thee otherwise than to be a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats.||And after his death, we said to the children of Israel, "Dwell ye in the land:" and when the promise of the next life shall come to pass, we will bring you both up together to judgment. In truth have we sent down the Koran, and in truth hath it descended, and we have only sent thee to announce and to warn.|
|67||107||17||And we have divided the Koran, revealing it by parcels, that thou mightest read it unto men with deliberation: and we have sent it down, causing it to descend as occasion required.l||l See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 50.||And we have parcelled out the Koran into sections, that thou mightest recite it unto men by slow degrees, and we have sent it down piecemeal.|
|67||108||17||Say, Whether ye believe therein, or do not believe, verily those who have been favored with the knowledge of the scriptures which were revealed before it, when the same is rehearsed unto them, fall down on their faces,m worshipping, and say, Our LORD be praised, for that the promise of our LORD is surely fulfilled!||m Literally, on their chins.||SAY: Believe ye therein or believe ye not? They verily to whom knowledge had been given previously, fall on their faces worshipping when it is recited to them, and say: "Glory be to God! the promise of our Lord is made good!"|
|67||109||17||and they fall down on their faces, weeping; and the hearing thereof increaseth their humility.||They fall down on their faces weeping, and It increaseth their humility.|
|67||110||17||Say, call upon GOD, or call on the Merciful: by whichsoever of the two names ye invoke him, it is equal; for he hath most excellent names.n Pronounce not thy prayer aloud, neither pronounce it with too low a voice,o but follow a middle way between these:||n The infidels hearing Mohammed say, O GOD, and O Merciful, imagined the Merciful was the name of a deity different from GOD, and that he preached the worship of two; which occasioned this passage. See chapter 7, p. 123.
o Neither so loud, that the infidels may overhear thee, and thence take occasion to blaspheme and scoff; nor so softly as not to be heard by the assistants. Some suppose that by the word prayer, in this place, is meant the reading of the Korân.
|Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 34, paragraph 45
The Seven Valleys (Preamble)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 109
|BWC: Say: Call upon God or call upon the All-Merciful: by whichsoever name ye will, invoke him, for He hath most excellent names.
MG: ...by whichsoever (name) ye will, invoke Him: He hath most excellent names
MG: but between these follow a middle way.
|SAY: Call upon God (Allah),28 or call upon the God of Mercy (Arrahman), by whichsoever ye will invoke him: He hath most excellent names. And be not loud in thy prayer, neither pronounce it too low;29 but between these follow a middle way:||28 The infidels hearing Muhammad say, Ya Allah! Ya Rahman! in his prayers, imagined that he was addressing two Deities; hence this passage. Comp. [lxxiii.] xvi. 52; [lxvi.] xxv. 61. As this title of God (Rahman) disappears from the later Suras, it has been inferred that Muhammad's original intention was to have combined it with Allah, but that through fear lest Allah and Arrahman should be supposed to be two Gods, he dropped the latter.This title was applied to their deities by the Himyarites; and it occurs in Ps. lxxviii. 38, and Ex. xxxiv. 6. The root is not found in Æthiopic.
29 The Talm. Tr. Berachoth, 31, 2, forbids loudness in prayer by the example of Hannah.
|67||111||17||and say, Praise be unto GOD, who hath not begotten any child; who hath no partner in the kingdom, nor hath any to protect him from contempt: and magnify him by proclaiming his greatness.||And SAY: Praise be to God who hath not begotten a son, who hath no partner in the Kingdom, nor any protector on account of weakness. And magnify him by proclaiming His greatness.30||30 Lit. magnify Him by magnifying.|