|Rodwell Suráh #||Verse #||Traditional Suráh #||Sale Translation||Sale's Notes||Bahá'í References (Central Figures)||Bahá'í Translation (Shoghi Effendi unless otherwise noted)||Bahá'í References (Special)||Rodwell Translation||Rodwell's notes|
|69||0||18||CHAPTER XVIII.||SURA XVIII.THE CAVE [LXIX.]|
|69||0||18||ENTITLED, THE CAVE;p REVEALED AT MECCA.q||p The chapter is thus inscribed because it makes mention of the cave wherein the seven sleepers concealed themselves.
q Some except one verse, which begins thus, Behave thyself with constancy, &c.
|69||0||18||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|69||1||18||PRAISE be unto GOD, who hath sent down unto his servant the book of the Korân, and hath not inserted therein any crookedness,||PRAISE be to God, who hath sent down the Book to his servant, and hath not made it tortuous1||1 Lit. hath not put crookedness into it.|
|69||2||18||but hath made it a straight rule: that he should threaten a grievous punishment unto the unbelievers, from his presence; and should bear good tidings unto the faithful, who work righteousness, that they should receive an excellent reward, namely, paradise, wherein they shall remain forever:||But direct; that it may warn of a grievous woe from him, and announce to the faithful who do the things that are right, that a goodly reward, wherein they shall abide for ever, awaiteth them;|
|69||3||18||and that he should warn those who say, GOD hath begotten issue;||And that it may warn those who say, "God hath begotten a Son."|
|69||4||18||of which matter they have no knowledge, neither had their fathers. A grievous saying it is, which proceedeth from their mouths: they speak no other than a lie.||No knowledge of this have either they or their fathers! A grievous saying to come out of their mouths! They speak no other than a lie!|
|69||5||18||Peradventure thou wilt kill thyself with grief after them, out of thy earnest zeal for their conversion, if they believe not in this new revelation of the Koran.||And haply, if they believe not in this new revelation, thou wilt slay thyself, on their very footsteps, out of vexation.|
|69||6||18||Verily we have ordained whatsoever is on the earth for the ornament thereof, that we might make trial of men, and see which of them excelleth in works:||Verily, we have made all that is on earth as its adornment, that we might make trial who among mankind would excel in works:|
|69||7||18||and we will surely reduce whatever is thereon to dry dust.||But we are surely about to reduce all that is thereon to dust!|
|69||8||18||Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave,r and Al Rakim,s were one of our signs, and a great miracle?||r These were certain Christian youths, of a good family in Ephesus, who, to avoid the persecution of the emperor Decius, by the Arab writers called Decianus, hid themselves in a cave, where they slept for a great number of years.1
This apocryphal story (for Baronius2 treats it as no better, and Father Marracci3 acknowledges it to be partly false, or at least doubtful, though he calls Hottinger a monster of impiety, and the off-scum of heretics, for terming it a fable4), was borrowed by Mohammed from the Christian traditions,5 but has been embellished by him and his followers with several additional circumstances.6
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c.
2 In Martyrol. ad 27 Julii.
3 In Alcor. p. 425. et in Prodr. part. 4, p. 103.
4 Hotting. Hist. Orient. p. 40.
5 Vide Greg. Turon. et Simeon. Metaphrast.
6 Vide DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 189.
s What is meant by this word the commentators cannot agree. Some will have it to be the name of the mountain, or the valley, wherein the cave was; some say it was the name of their dog; and others (who seem to come nearest the true signification) that it was a brass plate, or stone table, placed near the mouth of the cave, on which the names of the young men were written.
There are some, however, who take the companions of al Rakîm to be different from the seven sleepers; for they say the former were three men who were driven by ill weather into a cave for shelter, and were shut in there by the falling down of a vast stone, which stopped the caves mouth; but on their begging GODS mercy, and their relating each of them a meritorious action which they hoped might entitle them to it, were miraculously delivered by the rocks rending in sunder to give them passage.7
7 Al Beidâwi, ex trad Noomân Ebn Bashir.
|Hast thou reflected that the Inmates of THE CAVE and of Al Rakim2 were on our wondrous signs?||2 The valley, or mountain, in which the Cave of the Seven Sleepers was situated. Comp. Fundgreiben des Orients, iii. 347-381. Gibbon's Decline and Fall, ch. xxxiii., especially the concluding sentences.|
|69||9||18||When the young men took refuge in the cave, they said, O LORD, grant us mercy from before thee, and dispose our business for us to a right issue.||When the youths betook them to the cave they said, "O our Lord! grant us mercy from before thee, and order for us our affair aright."|
|69||10||18||Wherefore we struck their ears with deafness, so that they slept without disturbance in the cave for a great number of years:||Then struck we upon their ears with deafness in the cave for many a year:|
|69||11||18||then we awaked them, that we might know which of the two partiest was more exact in computing the space which they had remained there.||t viz., Of the sleepers themselves, or others, who were divided in opinion as to the length of their stay in the cave.||Then we awaked them that we might know which of the two parties could best reckon the space of their abiding.|
|69||12||18||We will relate unto thee their history with truth. Verily they were young men who had believed in their LORD: and we had abundantly directed them:||We will relate to thee their tale with truth. They were youths who had believed in their Lord, and in guidance had we increased them;|
|69||13||18||and we fortified their hearts with constancy when they stood before the tyrant; and they said, Our LORD is the LORD of heaven and earth: we will by no means call on any god besides him; for then should we surely utter an extravagance.||And we had made them stout of heart, when they stood up and said, "Our Lord is Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth: we will call on no other God than Him; for in that case we had said a thing outrageous.|
|69||14||18||These our fellow people have taken other gods, besides him; although they bring no demonstrative argument for them: and who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning GOD?||These our people have taken other gods beside Him, though they bring no clear proof for them; but, who more iniquitous than he who forgeth a lie of God?|
|69||15||18||And they said the one to the other, When ye shall separate yourselves from them, and from the deities which they worship, except GOD,u fly into the cave: your LORD will pour his mercy on you abundantly, and will dispose your business for you to advantage.||u For they, like other idolaters, worshipped the true GOD and idols also.8
|So when ye shall have separated you from them and from that which they worship beside God, then betake you to the cave: Your Lord will unfold his mercy to you, and will order your affairs for you for the best."|
|69||16||18||And thou mightest have seen the sun, when it had risen, to decline from their cave towards the right hand, and when it went down, to leave them on the left hand:x and they were in the spacious part of the cave.y This was one of the signs of GOD. Whomsoever GOD shall direct, he shall be rightly directed: and whomsoever he shall cause to err, thou shalt not find any to defend, or to direct.||x Lest it should be offensive to them, the cave opening towards the south.1
y i.e., In the midst of it, where they were incommoded neither by the heat of the sun nor the closeness of the cave.2
|And thou mightest have seen the sun when it arose, pass on the right of their cave, and when it set, leave them on the left, while they were in its spacious chamber. This is one of the signs of God. Guided indeed is he whom God guideth; but for him whom He misleadeth, thou shalt by no means find a patron, director.|
|69||17||18||And thou wouldest have judged them to have been awake,z while they were sleeping; and we caused them to turn themselves to the right hand, and to the left.a And their dogb stretched forth his forelegs in the mouth of the cave: if thou hadst come suddenly upon them, verily thou wouldest have turned thy back and fled from them, and thou wouldest have been filled with fear at the sight of them.c||z Because of their having their eyes open, or their frequent turning themselves from one side to the other.3
a Lest their lying so long on the ground should consume their flesh.4
4 Idem, Jallaloddin.
b This dog had followed them as they passed by him when they fled to the cave, and they drove him away; whereupon GOD caused him to speak, and he said, I love those who are dear unto God; go to sleep therefore, and I will guard you. But some say, it was a dog belonging to a shepherd who followed them, and that the dog followed the shepherd; which opinion is supported by reading, as some do, câlebohom, their dogs master instead of calbohom, their dog.5 Jallaloddin adds, that the dog behaved as his masters did, in turning himself, in sleeping, and in waking.
The Mohammedans have a great respect for this dog, and allow him a place in paradise with some other favourite brutes; and they have a sort of proverb which they use in speaking of a covetous person, that he would not throw a bone to the dog of the seven sleepers; nay, it is said that they have the superstition to write his name, which they suppose to be Katmîr (though some, as is observed above, think he was called al Rakîm), on their letters which go far, or which pass the sea, as a protection, or kind of talisman, to preserve them from miscarriage.6
6 La Roque, Voy. de lArabie Heur. p. 74. Vide DHerbel. ubi sup.
c For that GOD had given them terrible countenances; or else because of the largeness of their bodies, or the horror of the place.
It is related that the Khalif Moâwiyah, in an expedition he made against Natolia, passed by the cave of the seven sleepers, and would needs send somebody into it, notwithstanding Ebn Abbâs remonstrated to him the danger of it, saying, That a better man than him (meaning the prophet) had been forbidden to enter it, and repeated this verse; but the men the Khaliff sent in had no sooner entered the cave, than they were struck dead by a burning wind.7
7 Al Beidâwi.
|And thou wouldst have deemed them awake,3 though they were sleeping: and we turned them to the right and to the left. And in the entry lay their dog with paws outstretched.4 Hadst thou come suddenly upon them, thou wouldst surely have turned thy back on them in flight, and have been filled with fear at them.||3 Because they slept with their eyes open. Beidh.
4 The Muhammadans believe that this dog will be admitted into Paradise. One of its traditional names is Katmir, a word whose letters, it should be observed, are with one exception identical with Rakim.
|69||18||18||And so we awaked them from their sleep, that they might ask questions of one another. One of them spake and said, How long have ye tarried here? They answered, We have tarried a day, or part of a day. The others said, Your LORD best knoweth the time ye have tarried:d and now send one of you with this your money into the city;e and let him see which of its inhabitants hath the best and cheapest food, and let him bring you provision from him; and let him behave circumspectly, and not discover you to any one.||d As they entered the cave in the morning, and waked about noon, they at first imagined they had slept half a day, or a day and a half at most; but when they found their nails and hair grown very long, they used these words.8
e Which some commentators suppose was Tarsus.
|So we awaked them that they might question one another. Said one of them, "How long have ye tarried here?" They said, "We have tarried a day or part of day." They said, "Your Lord knoweth best how long ye have tarried: Send now one of you with this your coin into the city, and let him mark who therein hath purest food, and from him let him bring you a supply: and let him be courteous, and not discover you to any one.|
|69||19||18||Verily if they come up against you, they will stone you, or force you to return to their religion; and then shall ye not prosper forever.||For they, if they find you out, will stone you or turn you back to their faith, and in that case it will fare ill with you for ever."|
|69||20||18||And so we made their people acquainted with what had happened to them; that they might know that the promise of GOD is true, and that there is no doubt of the last hour;f when they disputed among themselves concerning their matter.g And they said, Erect a building over them: their LORD best knoweth their condition. Those who prevailed in their affair answered, We will surely build a chapel over them.h||f The long sleep of these young men, and their waking after so many years, being a representation of the state of those who die, and are afterwards raised to life.
g i.e., Concerning the resurrection; some saying that the souls only should be raised, others, that they should be raised with the body; or, concerning the sleepers, after they were really dead; one saying, that they were dead, and another, they were only asleep: or else concerning the erecting a building over them, as it follows in the next words; some advising a dwelling-house to be built there, and others a temple.1
h When the young man who was sent into the city, went to pay for the provision he had bought, his money was so old, being the coin of Decianus, that they imagined he had found a treasure, and carried him before the prince, who was a Christian, and having heard his story, sent some with him to the cave, who saw and spoke to the others: after which they fell asleep again and died; and the prince ordered them to be buried in the same place, and built a chapel over them.
|And thus made we their adventure known to their fellow citizens, that they might learn that the promise of God is true, and that as to "the Hour" there is no doubt of its coming. When they disputed among themselves concerning what had befallen them, some said, "Build a building over them; their Lord knoweth best about them." Those who prevailed in the matter said, "A place of worship will we surely raise over them."|
|69||21||18||Some say, The sleepers were three; and their dog was the fourth;i and others say, They were five; and their dog was the sixth;j guessing at a secret matter: and others say, They were seven; and their dog was the eighth.k Say, My LORD best knoweth their number: none shall know them, except a few.||i This was the opinion of al Seyid, a Jacobite Christian of Najrân.
j Which was the opinion of certain Christians, and particularly of a Nestorian prelate.
k And this is the true opinion.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|Some say, "They were three; their dog the fourth:" others say, "Five; their dog the sixth," guessing at the secret: others say, "Seven; and their dog the eighth." SAY: My Lord best knoweth the number: none, save a few, shall know them.|
|69||22||18||Wherefore dispute not concerning them, except with a clear disputation, according to what hath been revealed unto thee: and ask not any of the Christians concerning them.||Therefore be clear in they discussions about them,5 and ask not any Christian concerning them.||5 Lit. dispute not about them unless with clear disputation.|
|69||23||18||Say not of any matter, I will surely do this to-morrow; unless thou add, If GOD please.l And remember thy LORD, when thou forgettest,m and say, My LORD is able to direct me with ease, that I may draw near unto the truth of this matter rightly.||l It is said, that when the Koreish, by the direction of the Jews, put the three questions above mentioned to Mohammed, he bid them come to him the next day, and he would give them an answer, but added not, if it please God; for which reason he had the mortification to wait above ten days before any revelation was vouchsafed him concerning those matters, so that the Koreish triumphed, and bitterly reproached him as a liar: but at length Gabriel brought him directions what he should say; with this admonition, however, that he should not be so confident for the future.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
m i.e., Give the glory to him, and ask pardon for thy omission, in case thou forget to say, If it please God.
|Say not thou of a thing, " I will surely do it to-morrow;" without , "If God will."6 And when thou hast forgotten, call thy Lord to mind; and say, "Haply my Lord will guide me, that I may come near to the truth of this story with correctness."||6 Muhammad had omitted to use the qualifying phrase when, in reply to the Jews who asked for the History of the Seven Sleepers, he simply promised to give it on the morrow; hence, this verse. Comp. James iv. 13-15.|
|69||24||18||And they remained in their cave three hundred years, and nine years over.n||n Jallaloddin supposes the whole space was three hundred solar years, and that the odd nine are added to reduce them to lunar years.
Some think these words are introduced as spoken by the Christians, who differed among themselves about the time; one saying it was three hundred years, and another, three hundred and nine years.4 The interval between the reign of Decius, and that of Theodosius the younger, in whose time the sleepers are said to have awaked, will not allow them to have slept quite two hundred years; though Mohammed is somewhat excusable, since the number assigned by Simeon Metaphrastes5 is three hundred and seventy-two years.
5 Ubi sup.
|And they tarried in their cave 300 years, and 9 years over.7||7 They entered the cavern under Decius and awoke in the time of Theodosius, according to the tradition; which cannot be reconciled with the number of years given in the text.|
|69||25||18||Say, GOD best knoweth how long they continued there: unto him are the secrets of heaven and earth known; do thou make him to see and to hear.o The inhabitants thereof have no protector besides him; neither doth he suffer any one to have a share in the establishment or knowledge of his decree.||o This is an ironical expression, intimating the folly and madness of mans presuming to instruct GOD.6
6 Al Beidâwi. Jallaloddin
|SAY: God best knoweth how long they tarried: With Him are the secrets of the Heavens and of the Earth: Look thou and hearken unto Him alone.8 Man hath no guardian but Him, and none may bear part in his judgments:||8 Thus Ullm. But the words may be taken with Beidh. and Sale, as ironical. Make thou him to see and hear.|
|69||26||18||Read that which hath been revealed unto thee, of the book of thy LORD, without presuming to make any change therein:p there is none who hath power to change his words; and thou shalt not find any to fly to, besides him, if thou attempt it.||p As the unbelievers would persuade thee to do.1
|And publish what hath been revealed to thee of the Book of thy Lordnone may change his words,and thou shalt find no refuge beside Him.|
|69||27||18||Behave thyself with constancy towards those who call upon their LORD morning and evening, and who seek his favor; and let not thine eyes be turned away from them, seeking the pomp of this life;q neither obey him whose heart we have caused to neglect the remembrance of us,r and who followeth his lusts, and leaveth the truth behind him.||q That is, Despise not the poor believers because of their meanness, nor honour the rich because of their wealth and grandeur.
r The person more particularly intended here, it is said, was Ommeya Ebn Khalf, who desired Mohammed to discard his indigent companions, out of respect to the Koreish. See chapter 6 p. 93.
|Be patient with those who call upon their Lord at morn and even, seeking his face: and let not thine eyes be turned away from them in quest of the pomp of this life;9 neither obey him10 whose heart we have made careless of the remembrance of Us, and who followeth his own lusts, and whose ways are unbridled.||9 Said to have been promulgated at Medina. Nöld. p. 106
10 Omaya Ibn Chalf, who advised Muhammad to cast off all his poorer followers, out of respect to the Koreisch.
|69||28||18||And say, The truth is from your LORD; wherefore let him who will, believe, and let him who will, be incredulous. We have surely prepared for the unjust hell fire, the flame and smoke whereof shall surround him like a pavilion: and if they beg relief, they shall be relieved with water like molten brass, which shall scald their faces: O how miserable a potion, and how unhappy a couch!||And SAY: the truth is from your Lord: let him then who will, believe; and let him who will, be an infidel. But for the offenders we have got ready the fire whose smoke shall enwrap them: and if they implore help, helped shall they be with water like molten brass which shall scald their Wretched the drink! and an unhappy couch!|
|69||29||18||As to those who believe, and do good works, we will not suffer the reward of him who shall work righteousness to perish;||But as to those who have believed and done the things that are right,Verily we will not suffer the reward of him whose works were good, to perish!|
|69||30||18||for them are prepared gardens of eternal abode,s which shall be watered by rivers; they shall be adorned therein with bracelets of gold, and they shall be clothed in green garments of fine silk and brocades, reposing themselves therein on thrones. O how happy a reward, and how easy a couch!||s Literally of Eden. See chapter 9, p. 142, 143.||For them, the gardens of Eden, under whose shades shall rivers flow: decked shall they be therein with bracelets of gold, and green robes of silk and rich brocade shall they wear, reclining them therein on thrones. Blissful the reward! and a pleasant couch!11||11 It is probable that this and the numerous similar descriptions of the enjoyments in Paradise are based upon Muhammad's knowledge, or possibly personal observation, of the luxurious habits of the Persians, to whom many Arabian tribes owed allegiance, and with whom they had mercantile transactions by means of caravans. The word Paradise, the names of cups and brocade in Sura lvi. pp. 66, 67, and the word sundus in this passage, are all Persian.|
|69||31||18||And propound unto them as a parable two men:t on the one of whom we had bestowed two vineyards, and had surrounded them with palm-trees, and had caused corn to grow between them. Each of the gardens brought forth its fruit every season, and failed not at all;||t Though these seem to be general characters only, designed to represent the different end of the wicked, and of the good; yet it is supposed, by some, that two particular persons are here meant. One says they were two Israelites and brothers, who had a considerable sum left them by their father, which they divided between them; and that one of them, being an unbeliever, bought large fields and possessions with his portion, while the other, who was a true believer, disposed of his to pious uses; but that in the end, the former was ruined, and the latter prospered. Another thinks they were two men of the tribe of Makhzûm: the one named al Aswad Ebn Abdal Ashadd, an infidel; and the other Abu Salma Ebn Abdallah, the husband of Omm Salma (whom the prophet married after his death), and a true believer.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|And set forth to them as a parable two men; on one of whom we bestowed two gardens of grape vines, and surrounded both with palm trees, and placed corn fields between them: Each of the gardens did yield its fruit, and failed not thereof at all:|
|69||32||18||and we caused a river to flow in the midst thereof: and he had great abundance. And he said unto his companion by way of debate, I am superior to thee in wealth, and have a more powerful family.||And we caused a river to flow in their midst: And this man received his fruit, and said, disputing with him, to his companion, "More have I than thou of wealth, and my family is mightier."|
|69||33||18||And he went into his garden,u being guilty of injustice against his own soul, and said, I do not think that this garden will decay forever;||u Carrying his companion with him, out of ostentation, and to mortify him with the view of his large possessions.3
|And he went into his gardento his own soul unjust. He said, "I do not think that this will ever perish:|
|69||34||18||neither do I think that the last hour will come: and although I should return unto my LORD, verily I shall find a better garden than this in exchange.u||x Vainly imagining that his prosperity was not so much the free gift of GOD, as due to his merit.4
|And I do not think that 'the Hour' will come: and even if I be taken back to my Lord, I shall surely find a better than it in exchange."|
|69||35||18||And his companion said unto him, by way of debate, Dost thou not believe in him who created thee of the dust, and afterwards of seed; and then fashioned thee into a perfect man?||His fellow said to him, disputing with him, "What ! hast thou no belief in him who created thee of the dust, then of the germs of life,12 then fashioned thee a perfect man?||12 Lit ex spermate.|
|69||36||18||But as for me, GOD is my LORD; and I will not associate any other deity with my LORD.||But God is my Lord; and no other being will I associate with my Lord.|
|69||37||18||And when thou enterest thy garden, wilt thou not say, What GOD pleaseth shall come to pass; there is no power but in GOD alone? Although thou seest me to be inferior to thee in wealth and number of children,||The Four Valleys (The Third Valley, within pp. 54-57)
The Seven Valleys (Valley of Unity, within pp. 17-29)
|MG: There is no power or might save in God,
MG: There is no power or might but in God.
|And why didst thou not say when thou enteredst thy garden, 'What God willeth! There is no power but in God.' Though thou seest that I have less than thou of wealth and children,|
|69||38||18||my LORD is well able to bestow on me a better gift than thy garden, and to shoot his arrows against the same from heaven, so that it shall become barren dust;||Yet haply my Lord may bestow on me better than thy garden, and may send his bolts upon it out of Heaven, so that the next dawn shall find it barren dust;|
|69||39||18||or its water may sink deep into the earth, that thou canst not draw thereof.||Or its water become deep sunk, so that thou art unable to find it."|
|69||40||18||And his possessions were encompassed with destruction, as his companion had forewarned him; wherefore he began to turn down the palms of his hands out of sorrow and regret for that which he had expended thereon; for the vines thereof were fallen down on their trails: and he said, Would to GOD that I had not associated any other deity with my LORD!||And his fruits were encompassed by destruction. Then began he to turn down the palms of his hands at what he had spent on it; for its vines were falling down on their trellises, and he said, "Oh that I had not joined any other god to my Lord!"|
|69||41||18||And he had no party to assist him besides GOD, neither was he able to defend himself against his vengeance.||And he had no host to help him instead of God, neither was he able to help himself.|
|69||42||18||In such case protection belongeth of right unto GOD alone; he is the best rewarder, and the best giver of success.||Protection in such a case is of Godthe Truth: He is the best rewarder, and He bringeth to the best issue.|
|69||43||18||And propound to them a similitude of the present life. It is like water which we send down from heaven; and the herb of the earth is mixed therewith, and after it hath been green and flourishing, in the morning it becometh dry stubble, which the winds scatter abroad: and GOD is able to do all things.||And set before them a similitude of the present life. It is as water which we send down from Heaven, and the herb of the Earth is mingled with it, and on the morrow it becometh dry stubble which the winds scatter: for God hath power over all things.|
|69||44||18||Wealth and children are the ornament of this present life: but good works, which are permanent, are better in the sight of thy LORD, with respect to the reward, and better with respect to hope.||Wealth and children are the adornment of this present life: but good works, which are lasting, are better in the sight of thy Lord as to recompense, and better as to hope.|
|69||45||18||On a certain day we will cause the mountains to pass away,y and thou shalt see the earth appearing plain and even; and we will gather mankind together, and we will not leave any one of them behind.||y For being torn up by the roots, they shall fly in the air, and be reduced to atoms.1
1 Idem. See Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 64.
|And call to mind the day when we will cause the mountains to pass away,13 and thou shalt see the earth a levelled plain, and we will gather mankind together, and not leave of them any one.||13 Comp. Isai. xl. 4, etc.|
|69||46||18||And they shall be set before thy LORD in distinct order, and he shall say unto them, Now are ye come unto us naked, as we created you the first time: but ye thought that we should not perform our promise unto you.||And they shall be set before thy Lord in ranks:"Now are ye come unto us as we created you at first: but ye thought that we should not make good to you the promise."|
|69||47||18||And the book wherein every one's actions are recorded shall be put into his hand; and thou shalt see the wicked in great terror, because of that which is written therein, and they shall say, Alas for us! what meaneth this book? it omitteth neither a small action nor a great one, but it compriseth the same; and they shall find that which they have wrought, present before their eyes: and thy LORD will not deal unjustly with any one.||And each shall have his book put into his hand: and thou shalt see the wicked in alarm at that which is therein: and they shall say, "O woe to us! what meaneth this Book? It leaveth neither small nor great unnoted down!" And they shall find all that they have wrought present to them, and thy Lord will not deal unjustly with any one.|
|69||48||18||Remember when we said unto the angels, Worship ye Adam: and they all worshipped him, except Eblis,z who was one of the genii,a and departed from the command of his LORD. Will ye therefore take him and his offspring for your patrons besides me, notwithstanding they are your enemies? Miserable shall such a change be to the ungodly!||z See chapter 2, p. 5, and chapter 7, p. 105, &c.
a Hence some imagine the genii are a species of angels: others suppose the devil to have been originally a genius, which was the occasion of his rebellion, and call him the father of the genii, whom he begat after his fall;2 it being a constant opinion among the Mohammedans, that the angels are impeccable, and do not propagate their species.3
2 Jallaloddin, &c.
3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 56, &c.
|When we said to the angels, "Prostrate yourselves before Adam," they all prostrated them save Eblis, who was of the Djinn,14 and revolted from his Lord's behest. behest.What! will ye then take him and his offspring as patrons rather than Me? and they your enemies? Sad exchange for the ungodly!||14 Muhammad appears, according to this text, to have considered Eblis not only as the father of the Djinn, but as one of their number. The truth appears to be that Muhammad derived his doctrines of the Genii from the Persian and Indian mythology, and attempted to identify them with the Satan and demons of the Semitic races. Both the Satans and Djinn represent in the Koran the principle of Evil. See Sura [xci.] ii. 32, n.|
|69||49||18||I called not them to be present at the creation of the heavens and of the earth, nor at the creation of themselves, neither did I take those seducers for my assistants.||I made them not witnesses of the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth, nor of their own creation, neither did I take seducers as my helpers.|
|69||50||18||On a certain day, God shall say unto the idolaters, Call those whom ye imagined to be my companions, to protect you: and they shall call them, but they shall not answer them; and we will place a valley of destruction between them:b||b i.e., Between the idolaters and their false gods. Some suppose the meaning is no more than that GOD will set them at variance and division.||On a certain day, God shall say, "Call ye on the companions ye joined with me, deeming them to be gods:" and they shall call on them, but they shall not answer them: then will we place a valley of perdition between them:|
|69||51||18||and the wicked shall see hell fire: and they shall know that they shall be thrown into the same, and they shall find no way to avoid it.||And the wicked shall see the fire, and shall have a foreboding that they shall be flung into it, and they shall find no escape from it.|
|69||52||18||And now have we variously propounded unto men, in this Koran, a parable of every kind; but man cavilleth at most things therein.||And now in this Koran we have presented to man similitudes of every kind: but, at most things is man a caviller.|
|69||53||18||Yet nothing hindereth men from believing, now a direction is come unto them, and from asking pardon of their LORD, excepting that they wait until the punishment of their predecessors come to be inflicted on them, or that the chastisement of the next life come upon them publicly.||And what, now that guidance is come to them, letteth men from believing and from asking forgiveness of their Lordunless they wait till that the doom of the ancients overtake them, or the chastisement come upon them in the sight of the universe?|
|69||54||18||We send not our messengers, but to bear good tidings, and to denounce threats. Those who believe not dispute with vain arguments, that they may thereby render the truth of no effect; and they hold my signs, and the admonitions which have been made them, in derision.||We send not our Sent Ones but to announce and to warn: but the infidels cavil with vain words in order to refute the truth; and they treat my signs and their own warnings with scorn.|
|69||55||18||And who is more unjust than he who hath been acquainted with the signs of his LORD, and retireth afar off from the same, and forgetteth that which his hands have formerly committed? Verily we have cast veils over their hearts, lest they should understand the Koran, and into their ears thickness of hearing:||But who is worse than he who when told of the signs of his Lord turneth him away and forgetteth what in time past his hands have wrought? Truly we have thrown veils over their hearts lest they should understand this Koran, and into their ears a heaviness:|
|69||56||18||if thou invite them to the true direction, yet will they not therefore be directed forever.||And if thou bid them to "the guidance" yet will they not even then be guided ever.|
|69||57||18||Thy LORD is gracious, endued with mercy; if he would have punished them for that which they have committed, he would doubtless have hastened their punishment: but a threat hath been denounced against them,c and they shall find no refuge, besides him.||c viz., Of their calamity at Bedr (for the Koreish are the infidels here intended), or their punishment at the resurrection.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|The gracious one, full of compassion, is thy Lord! if he would have chastised them for their demerits he would have hastened their chastisement. But they have a time fixed for the accomplishment of our menaces: and beside God they shall find no refuge.|
|69||58||18||And those former citiesd did we destroy, when they acted unjustly; and we gave them previous warning of their destruction.||d That is, the towns of the Adites, Thamûdites, Sodomites, &c.||And those cities did we destroy when they became impious; and of their coming destruction we gave them warning.|
|69||59||18||And remember when Moses said unto his servant Joshua the son of Nun, I will not cease to go forward, until I come to the place where the two seas meet; or I will travel for a long space of time.e||e The original word properly signifies the space of eighty years and upwards. To explain this long passage the commentators tell the following story: They say that Moses once preaching to the people, they admired his knowledge and eloquence so much, that they asked him whether he knew any man in the world who was wiser than himself; to which he answered in the negative: whereupon GOD, in a revelation, having reprehended him for his vanity (though some pretend that Moses asked GOD the question of his own accord), acquainted him that his servant al Khedr was more knowing than he; and, at Moses request told him he might find that person at a certain rock, where the two seas met; directing him to take a fish with him in a basket, and that where he missed the fish, that was the place. Accordingly Moses set out, with his servant Joshua, in search of al Khedr; which expedition is here described.2
2 Idem, Al Zamakhshari, Al Bokhari, in Sonna, &c.
|Remember when Moses said to his servant, "I will not stop till I reach the confluence of the two seas,15 or for years will I journey on."||15 The sea of Greece and the sea of Persia. But as no literal interpretation of the passage seems satisfactory, the Commentators have devised a spiritual or metaphorical one, and explain it of the two oceans of natural and supernatural knowledge. There is no trace of this legend in the Rabbinic writings.|
|69||60||18||But when they were arrived at the meeting of the two seas,f they forgot their fish, which they had taken with them;g and the fish took its way freely in the sea.h||f viz., Those of Persia and Greece. Some fancy that the meeting of Moses and al Khedr is here intended, as of the two seas of knowledge.3
g Moses forgot to inquire concerning it, and Joshua forgot to tell him when he missed it. It is said that when they came to the rock, Moses falling asleep, the fish, which was roasted, leaped out of the basket into the sea; some add, that Joshua making the ablution at the fountain of life (of which immediately), some of the water happened to be sprinkled on the fish, which immediately restored it to life.1
h The word here translated freely, signifying also a pipe or arched canal for conveyance of water, some have imagined that the water of the sea was miraculously kept from touching the body of the fish, which passed through it as under an arch.2
|But when they reached their confluence, they forgot their fish, and it took its way in the sea at will.|
|69||61||18||And when they had passed beyond that place, Moses said unto his servant, Bring us our dinner; for now are we fatigued with this our journey.||And when they had passed on, said Moses to his servant, "Bring us our morning meal; for now have we incurred weariness from this journey."|
|69||62||18||His servant answered, Dost thou know what has befallen me? When we took up our lodging at the rock, verily I forgot the fish: and none made me to forget it, except Satan, that I should not remind thee of it. And the fish took its way into the sea, in a wonderful manner.||He said, "What thinkest thou? When we repaired to the rock for rest I forgot the fish; and none but Satan made me forget it, so as not to mention it; and it hath taken its way in the sea in a wondrous sort."|
|69||63||18||Moses said, This is what we sought after. And they both went back, returning by the way they came.||He said, "It is this we were in quest of."16 And they both went back retracing their footsteps.||16 The loss of our fish is a sign to us of our finding him whom we seek, namely, El-Khidr, or El-Khadir, the reputed vizier of Dhoulkarnain, and said to have drunk of the fountain of life, by virtue of which he still lives, and will live till the day of judgment. He is also said to appear, clad in green robes, to Muslims in distress, whence his name. Perhaps the name Khidr is formed from Jethro.|
|69||64||18||And coming to the rock they found one of our servants,i unto whom we had granted mercy from us, and whom we had taught wisdom from before us.||i This person, according to the general opinion, was the prophet al Khedr; whom the Mohammedans usually confound with Phineas, Elias, and St. George, saying that his soul passed by a metempsychosis successively through all three. Some, however, say his true name was Balya Ebn Malcân, and that he lived in the time of Afridûn, one of the ancient kings of Persia, and that he preceded Dhulkarnein, and lived to the time of Moses. They suppose al Khedr, having found out the fountain of life and drunk thereof, became immortal; and that he had therefore this name from his flourishing and continual youth.3
Part of these fictions they took from the Jews, some of whom also fancy Phineas was Elias.4
3 Idem. Vide DHerbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Khedher, Septemcastrens. de Turcar. Moribus. Busbeq. Epist. I, p. 93, &c. Hotting. Hist. Orient. p. 58, &c., 99, &c., 292, &c.
4 R. Levi Ben Gerson in Append. l. I, Reg. I, 27.
|Then found they one of our servants to whom we had vouchsafed our mercy, and whom we had instructed with our knowledge.|
|69||65||18||And Moses said unto him, Shall I follow thee, that thou mayest teach me part of that which thou hast been taught, for a direction unto me?||And Moses said to him, "Shall I follow thee that thou teach me, for guidance, of that which thou too hast been taught?"|
|69||66||18||He answered, Verily thou canst not bear with me:||He said, "Verily, thou canst not have patience with me;|
|69||67||18||for how canst thou patiently suffer those things, the knowledge whereof thou dost not comprehend?||How canst thou be patient in matters whose meaning thou comprehendest not?"|
|69||68||18||Moses replied, Thou shalt find me patient, if GOD please; neither will I be disobedient unto thee in anything.||He said, "Thou shalt find me patient if God please, nor will I disobey thy bidding."|
|69||69||18||He said, If thou follow me, therefore, ask me not concerning anything, until I shall declare the meaning thereof unto thee.||He said, "Then, if thou follow me, ask me not of aught until I have given thee an account thereof."|
|69||70||18||So they both went on by the sea-shore, until they went up into a ship; and he made a hole therein.j And Moses said unto him, Hast thou made a hole therein, that thou mightest drown those who are on board? now hast thou done a strange thing.||j For al Khedr took an axe, and knocked out two of her planks.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
|So they both went on, till they embarked in a ship, and hethe unknownstaved it in. "What!" said Moses, "hast thou staved it in that thou mayest drown its crew? a strange thing now hast thou done!"|
|69||71||18||He answered, Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not bear with me?||He said, "Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not have patience with me?"|
|69||72||18||Moses said, Rebuke me not, because I did forget; and impose not on me a difficulty in what I am commanded.||He said, "Chide me not that I forgat, nor lay on me a hard command."|
|69||73||18||Wherefore they left the ship and proceeded, until they met with a youth; and he slew him.k Moses said, Hast thou slain an innocent person, without his having killed another? now hast thou committed an unjust action.||k By twisting his neck round, or dashing his head against a wall, or else by throwing him down and cutting his throat.6
|Then went they on till they met a youth, and he slew him. Said Moses, "Hast thou slain him who is free from guilt of blood? Now hast thou wrought a grievous thing!"|
|69||74||18||(XVI.) He answered, Did I not tell thee that thou couldest not bear with me?||He said, "Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not have patience with me?"|
|69||75||18||Moses said, If I ask thee concerning anything hereafter, suffer me not to accompany thee: now hast thou received an excuse from me.||Moses said, "If after this I ask thee aught, then let me be thy comrade no longer; but now hast thou my excuse."|
|69||76||18||They went forwards, therefore, until they came to the inhabitants of a certain city:l and they asked food of the inhabitants thereof; but they refused to receive them. And they found therein a wall, which was ready to fall down; and he set it upright.m Whereupon Moses said unto him, If thou wouldest thou mightest doubtless have received a reward for it.||l This city was Antioch; or, as some rather think, Obollah, near Basra, or else Bâjirwân in Armenia.1
m By only stroking it with his hand; though others say he threw it down and rebuilt it.2
|They went on till they came to the people of a city. Of this people they asked food, but they refused them for guests. And they found in it a wall that was about to fall, and he set it upright. Said Moses, "If thou hadst wished, for this thou mightest have obtained pay."|
|69||77||18||He answered, This shall be a separation between me and thee; but I will first declare unto thee the signification of that which thou couldest not bear with patience.||He said, "This is the parting point between me and thee. But I will first tell thee the meaning of that which thou couldst not await with patience.|
|69||78||18||The vessel belonged to certain poor men,n who did their business in the sea: and I was minded to render it unserviceable, because there was a kingo behind them, who took every sound ship by force.||n They were ten brothers, five of whom were past their labour by reason of their age.3
o Named Jaland Ebn Karkar, or Minwâr Ebn Jaland al Azdi.4
|"As to the vessel, it belonged to poor men who toiled upon the sea, and I was minded to damage it, for in their rear was a king who seized every ship by force.|
|69||79||18||As to the youth, his parents were true believers; and we feared, lest he, being an unbeliever, should oblige them to suffer his perverseness and ingratitude:||As to the youth his parents were believers, and we feared lest he should trouble them by error and infidelity.|
|69||80||18||wherefore we desired that their LORD might give them a more righteous child in exchange for him, and one more affectionate towards them.p||p It is said that they had afterwards a daughter, who was the wife and the mother of a prophet; and that her son converted a whole nation.5
|And we desired that their Lord might give them in his place a child, better than he in virtue, and nearer to filial piety.|
|69||81||18||And the wall belonged to two orphan youthsq in the city, and under it was a treasure hidden which belonged to them; and their father was a righteous man: and thy LORD was pleased that they should attain their full age, and take forth their treasure, through the mercy of thy LORD, and I did not what thou hast seen of mine own will, but by God's direction. This is the interpretation of that which thou couldest not bear with patience.||q Their names were Asram and Sarim.6
|And as to the wall, it belonged to two orphan youths in the city, and beneath it was their treasure: and their father was a righteous man: and thy Lord desired that they should reach the age of strength, and take forth their treasure through the mercy of thy Lord. And not of mine own will have I done this. This is the interpretation of that which thou couldst not bear with patience."|
|69||82||18||The Jews will ask thee concerning Dhu'lkarnein.r Answer I will rehearse unto you an account of him.||r Or, the two-horned. The generality of the commentators7 suppose the person here meant to be Alexander the Great, or, as they call him, Iscander al Rûmi, king of Persia and Greece; but there are very different opinions as to the reason of this surname. Some think it was given him because he was king of the East and of the West, or because he had made expeditions to both those extreme parts of the earth; or else because he had two horns on his diadem, or two curls of hair, like horns, on his forehead; or, which is most probable, by reason of his great valour. Several modern writers8 rather suppose the surname was occasioned by his being represented in his coins and statues with horns, as the son of Jupiter Ammon; or else by his being compared by the prophet Daniel to a he-goat;9 though he is there represented with but one horn.10
There are some good writers, however, who believe the prince intended in this passage of the Korân was not Alexander the Grecian, but another great conqueror, who bore the same name and surname, and was much more ancient than he, being contemporary with Abraham, and one of the kings of Persia of the first race;11 or, as others suppose, a king of Yaman, named Asaab Ebn al Râyesh.12
They all agree he was a true believer, but whether he was a prophet or no, is a disputed point.
7 Idem, Al Zamakhshari, Jallaloddin, Yahya.
8 Scaliger, de Emend. temp. LEmpereur, not. in Jachiad. Dan. viii. 5. Gol. in Alfrag. p. 58, &c.
9 Schickard. Tarikh Reg. Pers. p. 73.
10 See Dan. viii.
11 Abulfeda, Khondemir, Tarikh Montakhab, &c. Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Escander.
12 Ex trad. Ebn Abbas. Vide Poc. Spec. p. 58.
|They will ask thee of Dhoulkarnain [the two-horned17]. SAY: I will recite to you an account of him.||17 Probably Alexander the Greatso called from his expeditions to the East and West. He seems to be regarded in this passage as invested with a divine commission for the extirpation of impiety and idolatry. Comp. Dan. viii. and Tr. Tanith, fol. 32. Hottinger Bibl. Orient. 109.|
|69||83||18||We made him powerful in the earth, and we gave him means to accomplish everything he pleased. And he followed his way,||We stablished his power upon the earth, and made for him a way to everything. And a route he followed,|
|69||84||18||until he came to the place where the sun setteth; and he found it to set in a spring of black mud;s and he found near the same a certain people.t||s That is, it seemed so to him, when he came to the ocean, and saw nothing but water.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
t An unbelieving nation, who were clothed in the skins of wild beasts, and lived upon what the sea cast on shore.2
|Until when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it to set in a miry fount; and hard by he found a people.|
|69||85||18||And we said, O Dhu'lkarnein, either punish this people, or use gentleness towards them.u||u For GOD gave Dhulkarnein his choice, either to destroy them for their infidelity, or to instruct them in the true faith; or, according to others, either to put them to the sword, or to take them captives: but the words which follow confirm the former interpretation, by which it appears he chose to invite them to the true religion, and to punish only the disobedient and incredulous.||We said, "O Dhoulkarnain! either chastise or treat them generously."|
|69||86||18||He answered, Whosoever of them shall commit injustice, we will surely punish him in this world; afterwards shall he return unto his LORD, and he shall punish him with a severe punishment.||"The impious," said he, "will we surely chastise;" then shall he be taken back to his Lord, and he will chastise him with a grievous chastisement.|
|69||87||18||But whosoever believeth, and doth that which is right, shall receive the most excellent reward, and we will give him in command that which is easy.||But as to him who believeth and doeth that which is right, he shall have a generous recompense, and we will lay on them our easy behests.|
|69||88||18||Then he continued his way,||Then followed he a route,|
|69||89||18||until he came to the place where the sun riseth;x and he found it to rise on certain people, unto whom we had not given anything wherewith to shelter themselves therefrom.y||x i.e., That part of the habitable world on which the sun first rises.
y Who had neither clothes nor houses, their country not bearing any buildings, but dwelt in holes underground, into which they retreated from the heat of the sun.3 Jallaloddin says they were the Zenj, a black nation lying south-west of Ethiopia. They seem to be the Troglodytes of the ancients.
|Until when he reached the rising of the sun he found it to rise on a people to whom we had given no shelter from it.|
|69||90||18||Thus it was; and we comprehended with our knowledge the forces which were with him.||Thus it was. And we had full knowledge of the forces that were with him.|
|69||91||18||And he prosecuted his journey from south to north,||Then followed he a route|
|69||92||18||until he came between the two mountains;z beneath which he found certain people, who could scarce understand what was said.a||z Between which Dhulkarnein built the famous rampart, mentioned immediately, against the irruptions of Gog and Magog. These mountains are situate in Armenia and Adherbijân, or, according to others, much more northwards, on the confines of Turkestan.4 The relation of a journey taken to this rampart, by one who was sent on purpose to view it by the Khalîf al Wathec, may be seen in DHerbelot.5
4 Al Beidâwi.
5 Bibl. Orient. Art. Jagiouge.
a By reason of the strangeness of their speech and their slowness of apprehension; wherefore they were obliged to make use of an interpreter.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|Until he came between the two mountains, beneath which he found a people who scarce understood a language.|
|69||93||18||And they said, O Dhu'lkarnein, verily, Gog and Magog waste the land;b shall we therefore pay thee tribute, on condition that thou build a rampart between us and them?||b The Arabs call them Yajûi and Majûj, and say they are two nations or tribes descended from Japhet the son of Noah, or, as others write, Gog are a tribe of the Turks, and Magog of those of Gilân,7 the Geli and Gelæ of Ptolemy and Strabo.8
It is said these barbarous people made their irruptions into the neighbouring countries in the spring, and destroyed and carried off all the fruits of the earth; and some pretend they were man-eaters.9
7 Idem. Vide DHerbel. ubi supra.
8 V. Gol. in Alfrag. p. 207.
9 Al Beidâwi.
|BWC: Verily, Gog and Magog waste this land ...||Bahíyyih Khánum, V. Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf, no. 33, p. 131, footnote no. 1
|They said, "O Dhoulkarnain! verily, Gog and Magog18 waste this land; shall we then pay thee tribute, so thou build a rampart19 between us and them?"||18 Ar. Yadjoudj and Madjoudjthe barbarous people of E. Asia. See Ibn Batoutah's Travels, iv. p. 274 (Par.ed.)
19 This rampart has been identified with fortifications which extended from the W. shore of the Caspian Sea to the Pontus Euxinus, made, as it is said, by Alexander, and repaired by Yezdegird II. Caussin de Perceval, vol.i.p. 66. See Sura [lxv.] xxi. 96
|69||94||18||He answered, The power wherewith my LORD has strengthened me is better than your tribute: but assist me strenuously, and I will set a strong wall between you and them.||He said, "Better than your tribute is the might wherewith my Lord hath strengthened me; but help me strenuously, and I will set a barrier between you and them.|
|69||95||18||Bring me iron in large pieces, until it fill up the space between the two sides of these mountains. And he said to the workmen, Blow with your bellows, until it make the iron red hot as fire. And he said further, Bring me molten brass, that I may pour upon it.||Bring me blocks of iron,"until when it filled the space between the mountain sides"Ply," said he, "your bellows,"until when he had made it red with heat (fire), he said,"Bring me molten brass that I may pour upon it."|
|69||96||18||Wherefore, when this wall was finished, Gog and Magog could not scale it, neither could they dig through it.c||c The commentators say the wall was built in this manner. They dug till they found water, and having laid the foundation of stone and melted brass, they built the super-structure of large pieces of iron, between which they laid wood and coals, till they equalled the height of the mountains; and then setting fire to the combustibles, by the help of large bellows, they made the iron red hot, and over it poured melted brass, which filling up the vacancies between the pieces of iron, rendered the whole work as firm as a rock. Some tell us that the whole was built of stones joined by cramps of iron, on which they poured melted brass to fasten them.1
1 Idem, &c.
|And Gog and Magog were not able to scale it, neither were they able to dig through it.|
|69||97||18||And Dhu'lkarnein said, This is a mercy from my LORD:||"This," said he, "is a mercy from my Lord:|
|69||98||18||but when the prediction of my LORD shall come to be fulfilled,d he shall reduce the wall to dust; and the prediction of my LORD is true.||d That is, when the time shall come for Gog and Magog to break forth from their confinement; which shall happen sometime before the resurrection.2
2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 63.
|But when the promise of my Lord shall come to pass, he will turn it to dust; and the promise of my Lord is true."|
|69||99||18||On that day we will suffer some of them to press tumultuously like waves on others:e and the trumpet shall be sounded, and we will gather them in a body together.||e These words represent either the violent irruption of Gog and Magog, or the tumultuous assembly of all creatures, men, genii, and brutes, at the resurrection.3
3 See ib. p. 67.
|On that day we will let them dash like billows one over another; and there shall be a blast on the trumpet, and we will gather them together in a body.|
|69||100||18||And we will set hell on that day before the unbelievers;||And we will set Hell on that day close before the infidels,|
|69||101||18||whose eyes have been veiled from my remembrance, and who could not hear my words.||Whose eyes were veiled from my warning, and who had no power to hear.|
|69||102||18||Do the unbelievers think that I will not punish them, for that they take my servants for their protectors besides me? Verily we have prepared hell for the abode of the infidels.||What! do the infidels think that they can take my servants as their patrons, beside Me? Verily, we have got Hell ready as the abode of the infidels.|
|69||103||18||Say, Shall we declare unto you those whose works are vain,||SAY: Shall we tell you who they are that have lost their labour most?|
|69||104||18||whose endeavor in the present life hath been wrongly directed, and who think they do the work which is right?||Whose aim in the present life hath been mistaken, and who deem that what they do is right?|
|69||105||18||These are they who believe not in the signs of their LORD, or that they shall be assembled before him; wherefore their works are vain, and we will not allow them any weight on the day of resurrection.||They are those who believe not in the signs of the Lord, or that they shall ever meet him. Vain, therefore, are their works; and no weight will we allow them on the day of resurrection.|
|69||106||18||This shall be their reward, namely, hell; for that they have disbelieved, and have held my signs and apostles in derision.||This shall be their rewardHell.20 Because they were unbelievers, and treated my signs and my Apostles with scorn.||20 The form of this word in the Arabic, with the h in the second syllable and the final m, shews that the word was borrowed from the Hebrew, and not from the Greek or Syriac.|
|69||107||18||But as for those who believe and do good works, they shall have the gardens of paradise for their abode:||But as for those who believe and do the things that are right, they shall have the gardens of Paradise21 for their abode:||21 Observe in this expression the same admixture of the Semitic and Indo-Persian elements as was noticed above in the identification of Satans and Djinn, verse 48.|
|69||108||18||they shall remain therein forever; they shall wish for no change therein.||They shall remain therein for ever: they shall wish for no change from it.|
|69||109||18||Say, If the sea were ink to write the words of my LORD, verily the sea would fail, before the words of my LORD would fail; although we added another sea like unto it as a further supply.||SAY: Should the sea become ink, to write the words of my Lord, the sea would surely fail ere the words of my Lord would fail, though we brought its like in aid.|
|69||110||18||Say, Verily I am only a man as ye are. It is revealed unto me that your GOD is one only GOD: let him therefore who hopeth to meet his LORD work a righteous work; and let him not make any other to partake in the worship of his LORD.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 148, p. 139
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 194, p. 178
|Let him then who hopeth to attain the presence of his Lord work a righteous work.
I am but a man like you.
|SAY: In sooth I am only a man like you. It hath been revealed to me that your God is one only God: let him then who hopeth to meet his Lord work a righteous work: nor let him give any other creature a share in the worship of his Lord.|
|58||0||19||CHAPTER XIX.||SURA XIX.1MARY [LVIII.]||1 Comp. the first 37 verses of this Sura with Sura iii. 35-57 with reference to the different style adopted by Muhammad in the later Suras, probably for the purpose of avoiding the imputation of his being merely a poet, a sorcerer, or person possessed. Sura lii. 29, 30; xxi. 5; lxviii. 2, 51. This Sura is one of the fullest and earliest Koranic Gospel Histories, and was recited to the Nagash or King of Æthiopia, in the presence of the ambassadors of the Koreisch. His. 220; Caussin, i. 392; Sprenger (Life of M.) p. 193.|
|58||0||19||ENTITLED, MARY;g REVEALED AT MECCA.g||f Several circumstances relating to the Virgin Mary being mentioned in this chapter, her name was pitched upon for the title.
g Except the verse of Adoration.
|58||0||19||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|58||1||19||C. H. Y. A. S.h A COMMEMORATION of the mercy of thy LORD towards his servant Zacharias.i||h See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, 47.
i See chapter 3. p. 36, &c.
|KAF. HA. YA. AIN. SAD.2 A recital of thy Lord's mercy to his servant Zachariah;||2 See Sura lxviii. I, p. 32. Golius conjectured that these letters represent coh ya'as, thus he counselled, and that they were added by some Jewish scribe. Sprenger (Journ. of As. Soc. of Bengal, xx. 280) arranges them as Ain, Sad, Kaf, Ha, Ya, and supposes them to be taken from the Arabic words for Aisa (Jesus) of the Nazarenes, King of the Jews. But we can hardly imagine that Muhammad would ascribe such a title to our Lord, and the word which Dr. Sprenger uses for Jews is not the form peculiar to the Koran.|
|58||2||19||When he called upon his LORD, invoking him in secret,||When he called upon his Lord with secret calling,|
|58||3||19||and said, O LORD, verily my bones are weakened, and my head is become white with hoariness,||And said: "O Lord, verily my bones are weakened, and the hoar hairs glisten on my head,|
|58||4||19||and I have never been unsuccessful in my prayers to thee, O LORD.||And never, Lord, have I prayed to thee with ill success.|
|58||5||19||But now I fear my nephews, who are to succeed after me, for my wife is barren:||j These were his brothers sons, who were very wicked men, and Zacharias was apprehensive lest, after his death, instead of confirming the people in the true religion, they should seduce them to idolatry.1 And some commentators imagine that he made this prayer in private, lest his nephews should overhear him.
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|But now I have fears for my kindred after me;3 and my wife is barren:||3 Lest they should desert the worship of the God of Israel.|
|58||6||19||wherefore, give me a successor of my own body from before thee; who may be my heir, and may be an heir of the family of Jacob;k and grant, O LORD, that he may be acceptable unto thee.||k viz., In holiness and knowledge; or in the government and superintendence of the Israelites. There are some who suppose it is not the patriarch who is here meant, but another Jacob, the brother of Zacharias, or of Imrân Ebn Mâthân, of the race of Solomon.2
|Give me, then, a successor as thy special gift, who shall be my heir and an heir of the family of Jacob: and make him, Lord, well pleasing to thee."|
|58||7||19||And the angel answered him, O Zacharias, verily we bring thee tidings of a son, whose name shall be John;||"O Zachariah! verily we announce to thee a son,his name John:|
|58||8||19||we have not caused any to bear the same name before him.l||l For he was the first who bore the name of John, or Yahya (as the Arabs pronounce it); which fancy seems to be occasioned by the words of St. Luke misunderstood, that none of Zachariass kindred was called by that name:3 for otherwise John, or, as it is written in Hebrew, Johanan, was a common name among the Jews.
Some expositors avoid this objection, by observing that the original word samiyyan signifies, not only one who is actually called by the same name, but also one who by reason of his possessing the like qualities and privileges, deserves, or may pretend to the same name.
3 Luke i. 61.
|That name We have given to none before him."4||4 Ar. Yahia. It may be true that the name in this form had never been given. Otherwise, we have in this passage a misunderstanding of Luke i. 61, as well as ignorance of the Jewish Scriptures. Comp. 2 Kings xxv. 23; 1 Chron. iii. 16; Ezra viii. 12; Jerem. xl. 8. Some commentators try to avoid the difficulty by rendering samiyan, deserving of the name.|
|58||9||19||Zacharias said, LORD, how shall I have a son, seeing my wife is barren, and I am now arrived at a great age,m and am decrepit?||m The Mohammedan traditions greatly differ as to the age of Zacharias at this time; we have mentioned one already:4 Jallaloddin says, he was an hundred and twenty, and his wife ninety-eight; and the Sonna takes notice of several other opinions.||He said: "O my Lord! how when my wife is barren shall I have a son, and when I have now reached old age, failing in my powers?"|
|58||10||19||The angel said, So shall it be: thy LORD saith, This is easy with me; since I created thee heretofore, when thou wast nothing.||He said: So shall it be. Thy Lord hath said, Easy is this to me, for I created thee aforetime when thou wast nothing."|
|58||11||19||Zacharias answered, O LORD, give me a sign. The angel replied, Thy sign shall be that thou shalt not speak to men for three nights, although thou be in perfect health.||He said: "Vouchsafe me, O my Lord! a sign." He said: "Thy sign shall be that for three nights, though sound in health, thou speakest not to man."|
|58||12||19||And he went forth unto his people, from the chamber, and he made signs unto them,n as if he should say, Praise ye God in the morning and in the evening.||n Some say he wrote the following words on the ground.||And he came forth from the sanctuary to his people, and made signs to them to sing praises morn and even.|
|58||13||19||And we said unto his son, O John, receive the book of the law, with a resolution to study and observe it. And we bestowed on him wisdom, when he was yet a child,||We said: "O John! receive the Book with purpose of heart:"5and We bestowed on him wisdom while yet a child;||5 Or, with firm resolve. See Sura [xcvii.] iii. 36. The speaker is God.|
|58||14||19||and mercy from us, and purity of life;o and he was a devout person, and dutiful towards his parents, and was not proud or rebellious.||o Or, as the word also signifies, The love of alms-deeds.||And mercifulness from Ourself, and purity; and pious was he, and duteous to his parents; and not proud, rebellious.|
|58||15||19||Peace be on him the day whereon he was born, and the day whereon he shall die, and the day whereon he shall be raised to life.||And peace was on him on the day he was born, and the day of his death, and shall be on the day when he shall be raised to life!|
|58||16||19||And remember in the book of the Koran the story of Mary; when she retired from her family to a place towards the east,p||p viz., To the eastern part of the temple; or to a private chamber in the house, which opened to the east: whence, says al Beidâwi, the Christians pray towards that quarter.
There is a tradition, that when the virgin was grown to years of puberty, she used to leave her apartment in the temple, and retire to Zachariass house to her aunt, when her courses came upon her; and so soon as she was clean, she returned again to the temple: and that at the time of the angels visiting her, she was at her aunts on the like occasion, and was sitting to wash herself, in an open place, behind a veil to prevent her being seen.1 But others more prudently suppose the design of her retirement was to pray.2
1 Yahya, Al Beidâwi.
2 Al Zamakh.
|And make mention in the Book, of Mary, when she went apart from her family, eastward,6||6 To an eastern chamber in the temple to pray. Or it may mean, to some place eastward from Jerusalem, or from the house of her parents.|
|58||17||19||and took a veil to conceal herself from them; and we sent our spirit Gabriel unto her, and he appeared unto her in the shape of a perfect man.q||q Like a full-grown but beardless youth. Al Beidâwi, not contented with having given one good reason why he appeared in that form, viz., to moderate her surprise, that she might hear his message with less shyness, adds, that perhaps it might be to raise an emotion in her, and assist her conception.||Some Answered Questions (Chapter 17, within pp. 87-89)
|LCB: And We sent Our Spirit unto her, and He appeared unto her in the shape of a perfect man,||And took a veil to shroud herself from them:7 and we sent our spirit8 to her, and he took before her the form of a perfect man.9||7 Thus the Protev. Jac. c. 12 says that Mary, although at a later period, [greek text] But Wahl, she laid aside her veil.
9 See Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 9.
|58||18||19||She said, I fly for refuge unto the merciful God, that he may defend me from thee: if thou fearest him, thou wilt not approach me.||She said: "I fly for refuge from thee to the God of Mercy! If thou fearest Him, begone from me."|
|58||19||19||He answered, Verily I am the messenger of thy LORD, and am sent to give thee a holy son.||He said: "I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a holy son."|
|58||20||19||She said, How shall I have a son, seeing a man hath not touched me, and I am no harlot?||She said: "How shall I have a son, when man hath never touched me? and I am not unchaste."|
|58||21||19||Gabriel replied, So shall it be: thy LORD saith, This is easy with me; and we will perform it, that we may ordain him for a sign unto men, and a mercy from us: for it is a thing which is decreed.||He said: "So shall it be. Thy Lord hath said: 'Easy is this with me;' and we will make him a sign to mankind, and a mercy from us. For it is a thing decreed."|
|58||22||19||Wherefore she conceived him;r and she retired aside with him in her womb to a distant place;s||r For Gabriel blew into the bosom of her shift, which he opened with his fingers,3 and his breath reaching her womb, caused the conception.4 The age of the Virgin Mary at the time of her conception was thirteen, or, as others say, ten; and she went six, seven, eight, or nine months with him, according to different traditions; though some say the child was conceived at its full growth of nine months, and that she was delivered of him within an hour after.5
4 Jallaloddin, Al Beidâwi.
5 Al Beidâwi, Yahya.
s To conceal her delivery, she went out of the city by night, to a certain mountain.
|And she conceived him,10 and retired with him to a far-off place.||10 It is quite clear from this passage, and from verse 36, that Muhammad believed Jesus to have been conceived by an act of the divine will. Comp. Sura [xcvii.] iii. 52; see also note at Sura [xci.] ii. 81.|
|58||23||19||and the pains of child-birth came upon her near the trunk of a palm-tree.t She said, Would to GOD I had died before this, and had become a thing forgotten, and lost in oblivion.||t The palm to which she fled, that she might lean on it in her travail, was a withered trunk, without any head or verdure, and this happened in the winter season; notwithstanding which it miraculously supplied her with fruits for her refreshment;6 as is mentioned immediately.
It has been observed, that the Mohammedan account of the delivery of the Virgin Mary very much resembles that of Latona, as described by the poets,7 not only in this circumstance of their laying hold on a palm-tree8 (though some say Latona embraced an olive-tree, or an olive and a palm, or else two laurels), but also in that of their infants speaking; which Apollo is fabled to have done in the womb.9
6 Iidem, Al Zamakh.
7 Vide Sikii not. in Evang. Infant. p. 9, 21, &c.
8 Homer. Hymn. in Apoll. Callimach. Hymn. in Delum.
9 Callimach. ibid. See Kor. chapter 3, p. 57.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 59, p. 56
|O would that I had died ere this, and been a thing forgotten, forgotten quite!||And the throes came upon her11 by the trunk of a palm. She said: "Oh, would that I had died ere this, and been a thing forgotten, forgotten quite!"||11 Or, the throes urged her to the trunk of, etc.|
|58||24||19||And he who was beneath her called to her,u saying, be not grieved; now hath GOD provided a rivulet under thee;||u This some imagine to have been the child himself; but others suppose it was Gabriel who stood somewhat lower than she did.10 According to a different reading this passage may be rendered, And he called to her from beneath her, &c. And some refer the pronoun, translated her, to the palm-tree; and then it should be beneath it, &c.
10 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|And one cried to her from below her:12 "Grieve not thou, thy Lord hath provided a streamlet at thy feet:||12 This was either the Infant which spoke as soon as born, or Gabriel. Comp. Thilo Cod. Apoc. 136-139 on this passage. Beidhawi explains: from behind the palm tree.|
|58||25||19||and do thou shake the body of the palm-tree, and it shall let fall ripe dates upon thee ready gathered.x||x And accordingly she had no sooner spoken it than the dry trunk revived, and shot forth green leaves, and a head loaded with ripe fruit.||And shake the trunk of the palm-tree toward thee:13 it will drop fresh ripe dates upon thee.||13 See Thilo Cod. Apoc. N. T. p. 138, and the Hist. Nat. Mar. c. 20, which connects similar incidents with the flight into Egypt. Thus also Latona, [greek text], Call. H. in Apoll. and [greek text], H. in Delum.|
|58||26||19||And eat, and drink, and calm thy mind.y Moreover, if thou see any man, and he question thee,||y Literally, thine eye.||Eat then and drink, and be of cheerful eye:14 and shouldst thou see a man,||14 Or, settle, calm thine eye, refresh thine eye. The birth of a son is still called korrat ol ain.|
|58||27||19||say, Verily I have vowed a fast unto the Merciful: wherefore I will by no means speak to a man this day.z||z During which she was not to speak to anybody, unless to acquaint them with the reason of her silence: and some suppose she did that by signs.||Say,Verily, I have vowed abstinence to the God of mercy.To no one will I speak this day."|
|58||28||19||So she brought the child to her people, carrying him in her arms. And they said unto her, O Mary, now hast thou done a strange thing:||Then came she with the babe to her people, bearing him. They said, "O Mary! now hast thou done a strange thing!|
|58||29||19||O sister of Aaron,a thy father was not a bad man, neither was thy mother a harlot.||a Several Christian writers think the Korân stands convicted of a manifest falsehood in this particular, but I am afraid the Mohammedans may avoid the charge;1 as they do by several answers. Some say the Virgin Mary had really a brother named Aaron, who had the same father, but a different mother; others suppose Aaron the brother of Moses is here meant, but say Mary is called his sister, either because she was of the Levitical race (as by her being related to Elizabeth, it should seem she was), or by way of comparison; others say that it was a different person of that name who was contemporary with her, and conspicuous for his good or bad qualities, and that they likened her to him either by way of commendation of of reproach,2 &c.
1 See chapter 3, p. 34, 35.
2 Al Zamakh., Al Beidâwi. Jallaloddin, Yahya, &c.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 59, p. 57
|O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a man of wickedness, nor unchaste thy mother.||O sister of Aaron!15 Thy father was not a man of wickedness, nor unchaste thy mother."||15 The anachronism is probably only apparent. See Sura iii. 1, n. Muhammad may have supposed that this Aaron (or Harun) was the son of Imran and Anna. Or, if Aaron the brother of Moses be meant Mary may be called his sister, either because she was of the Levitical race, or by way of comparison.|
|58||30||19||But she made signs unto the child to answer them; and they said, How shall we speak to him, who is an infant in the cradle?||And she made a sign to them, pointing towards the babe. They said, "How shall we speak with him who is in the cradle, an infant?"|
|58||31||19||Whereupon the child said, Verily I am the servant of GOD;b he hath given me the book of the gospel, and hath appointed me a prophet.||b These were the first words which were put into the mouth of JESUS, to obviate the imagination of his partaking of the divine nature, or having a right to the worship of mankind, on account of his miraculous speaking so soon after his birth.3
3 Al Beidâwi, &c.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 194, p. 178
|I am the servant of God.||It said,16 "Verily, I am the servant of God; He hath given me the Book, and He hath made me a prophet;||16 See Sura [cxiv.] v. 109.|
|58||32||19||And he hath made me blessed, wheresoever I shall be; and hath commanded me to observe prayer, and to give alms, so long as I shall live;||And He hath made me blessed wherever I may be, and hath enjoined me prayer and almsgiving so long as I shall live;|
|58||33||19||and he hath made me dutiful towards my mother, and hath not made me proud or unhappy.||And to be duteous to her that bare me: and he hath not made me proud, depraved.|
|58||34||19||And peace be on me the day whereon I was born, and the day whereon I shall die, and the day whereon I shall be raised to life.||And the peace of God was on me the day I was born, and will be the day I shall die, and the day I shall be raised to life."|
|58||35||19||This was JESUS, the son of Mary; the Word of truth,c concerning whom they doubt.||c This expression may either be referred to JESUS, as the Word of GOD; or to the account just given of him.||This is Jesus, the son of Mary; this is a statement of the truth concerning which they doubt.|
|58||36||19||It is not meet for GOD, that he should have any son; GOD forbid! When he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be; and it is.||It beseemeth not God to beget a son. Glory be to Him! when he decreeth a thing, He only saith to it, Be, and it Is.17||17 From the change in the rhyme, and from the more polemical tone of the following five verses, it may be inferred that they were added at a somewhat later period.|
|58||37||19||And verily GOD is my LORD and your LORD; wherefore, serve him: this is the right way.||And verily, God is my Lord and your Lord; adore Him then. This is the right way.|
|58||38||19||Yet the sectaries differ among themselves concerning Jesus; but woe be unto those who are unbelievers, because of their appearance at the great day.||But the Sects have fallen to variance among themselves about Jesus: but woe, because of the assembly of a great day, to those who believe not!|
|58||39||19||Do thou cause them to hear, and do thou cause them to see,d on the day whereon they shall come unto us to be judged: but the ungodly are this day in a manifest error.||d These words are variously expounded; some taking them to express admiration4 at the quickness of those senses in the wicked, at the day of judgment, when they shall plainly perceive the torments prepared for them, though they have been deaf and blind in this life; and others supposing the words contain a threat to the unbelievers, of what they shall then hear and see; or else a command to Mohammed to lay before them the terrors of that day.5
4 See chapter 18, p. 220.
5 Al Beidâwi.
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|Make them hear, make them behold the day when they shall come before us! But the offenders this day are in a manifest error.|
|58||40||19||And do thou forewarn them of the day of sighing, when the matter shall be determined, while they are now sunk in negligence, and do not believe.||19:39-40 (cont.)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|Warn them of the day of sighing when the decree shall be accomplished, while they are sunk in heedlessness and while they believe not.|
|58||41||19||Verily we will inherit the earth, and whatever creatures are therein;e and unto us shall they all return.||e i.e., Alone surviving, when all creatures shall be dead and annihilated. See chapter 15, p. 192.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter I, within pp. 42-43)
|cf BWC: ...We, by the leave of God, the All-Wise, inherit the earth and all who are upon it,||Verily, we will inherit the earth and all who are upon it. To us shall they be brought back.|
|58||42||19||And remember Abraham in the book of the Koran; for he was one of great veracity, and a prophet.||Make mention also in the Book of Abraham; for he was a man of truth, a Prophet.18||18 The title Nabi, prophet, is used of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as depositaries of the worship of the one true God, but with a mission restricted to their own families; whereas Houd, Saleh, Shoaib, etc., are designated as (Resoul) apostles and envoys, charged with a more extended mission to the tribes of Arabia. In Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, etc., are united the office and gift both of prophet (nabi) and apostle (resoul).|
|58||43||19||When he said unto his father, O my father,f why dost thou worship that which heareth not, neither seeth, nor profiteth thee at all?||f See chapter 6, p. 95, &c.||When he said to his Father, "O my Father! why dost thou worship that which neither seeth nor heareth, nor profiteth thee aught?|
|58||44||19||O my father, verily a degree of knowledge hath been bestowed on me, which hath not been bestowed on thee: wherefore follow me; I will lead thee into an even way.||O my Father! verily now hath knowledge come to me which hath not come to thee. Follow me thereforeI will guide thee into an even path.|
|58||45||19||O my father, serve not Satan; for Satan was rebellious unto the Merciful.||O my Father! worship not Satan, for Satan is a rebel against the God of Mercy.|
|58||46||19||O my father, verily I fear lest a punishment be inflicted on thee from the Merciful, and thou become a companion of Satan.||O my Father! indeed I fear lest a chastisement from the God of Mercy light upon thee, and thou become Satan's vassal."|
|58||47||19||His father answered, Dost thou reject my gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear not, I will surely stone thee: wherefore leave me for a long time.||He said, "Castest thou off my Gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear not, I will surely stone thee. Begone from me for a length of time."|
|58||48||19||Abraham replied, Peace be on thee: I will ask pardon for thee of my LORD; for he is gracious unto me.||He said, "Peace be on thee! I will pray my Lord for thy forgiveness, for he is gracious to me:|
|58||49||19||And I will separate myself from you, and from the idols which ye invoke besides GOD; and I will call upon my LORD; it may be that I shall not be unsuccessful in calling on my LORD, as ye are in calling upon them.||But I will separate myself from you, and the gods ye call on beside God, and on my Lord will I call. Haply, my prayers to my Lord will not be with ill success."|
|58||50||19||And when he had separated himself from them, and from the idols which they worshipped besides GOD,g we gave him Isaac and jacob; and we made each of them a prophet,||g By flying to Harrân, and thence to Palestine.||And when he had separated himself from them and that which they worshipped beside God, we bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, and each of them we made a prophet:|
|58||51||19||and we bestowed on them, through our mercy, the gift of prophecy, and children and wealth; and we caused them to deserve the highest commendations.h||h Literally, We granted them a lofty tongue of truth.||And we bestowed gifts on them in our mercy, and gave them the lofty tongue of truth."19||19 Made them to be highly praised. Beidh.|
|58||52||19||And remember Moses in the book of the Koran: for he was sincerely upright, and was an apostle and a prophet.||And commemorate Moses in "the Book;" for he was a man of purity: moreover he was an Apostle, a Prophet:|
|58||53||19||And we called unto him from the right side of Mount Sinai, and caused him to draw near, and to discourse privately with us.i||i Or, as some expound it, And we raise him on high; for, say they, he was raised to so great an elevation, that he heard the creaking of the pen writing on the table of GODS decrees.1
|From the right side of the mountain we called to him, and caused him to draw nigh to us for secret converse:|
|58||54||19||And we gave him, through our mercy, his brother Aaron a prophet, for his assistant.||And we bestowed on him in our mercy his brother Aaron, a Prophet.|
|58||55||19||Remember also Ismael in the same book; for he was true to his promise,j and was an apostle, and a prophet.||j Being celebrated on that account; and particularly for his behaving with that resignation and constancy which he had promised his father, on his receiving GODS command to sacrifice him;2 for the Mohammedans say it was Ismael, and not Isaac, whom he was commanded to offer.
|And commemorate Ismael in "the Book;" for he was true to his promise, and was an Apostle, a Prophet;|
|58||56||19||And he commanded his family to observe prayer, and to give alms; and he was acceptable unto his LORD.||And he enjoined prayer and almsgiving on his people, and was well pleasing to his Lord.|
|58||57||19||And remember Edrisk in the same book; for he was a just person, and a prophet:||k Or Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, who had that surname from his great knowledge; for he was favoured with no less than thirty books of divine revelations, and was the first who wrote with a pen, and studied the sciences of astronomy and arithmetic, &c.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin, &c.
The learned Bartolocci endeavours to show, from the testimonies of the ancient Jews, that Enoch, surnamed Edris, was a very different person from the Enoch of Moses, and many ages younger.4
4 Bartol. Bibl. Rabb. part 2, p. 845. 5 Iidem, Abulfeda.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom), within pp. 135-152)
|BWC: And commemorate Ídrís in the Book; for he was a man of truth, a Prophet;||And commemorate Edris20 in "the Book;" for he was a man of truth, a Prophet:||20 Enoch. Beidhawi derives the name Edris from the Ar. darasa, to search out, with reference to his knowledge of divine mysteries. The Heb. Enoch, in like manner, means initiated.|
|58||58||19||and we exalted him to a high place.l||l Some understand by this the honour of the prophetic office, and his familiarity with GOD; but others suppose his translation is here meant: for they say that he was taken up by GOD into heaven at the age of three hundred and fifty, having first suffered death, and been restored to life; and that he is now alive in one of the seven heavens, or in paradise.5
5 Iidem, Abulfeda.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom), within pp. 135-152)
|BWC: And we uplifted him to a place on high.||And we uplifted him to a place on high.21||21 Comp. Gen. v. 24, and the tract Derek Erez in Midr. Jalkut, c. 42, where Enoch is reckoned among the nine according to other Talmudists, thirteen (Schroeder's Talm. und Rabb. Judenthum)individuals who were exempted from death and taken straight to Paradise. It should be observed that both here and Sura xxi. 85, Edris is named after Ismael.|
|58||59||19||These are they unto whom GOD hath been bounteous, of the prophets of the posterity of Adam, and of those whom we carried in the ark with Noah; and of the posterity of Abraham, and of Israel, and of those whom we have directed and chosen. When the signs of the Merciful were read unto them, they fell down, worshipping, and wept:||These are they among the prophets of the posterity of Adam, and among those whom we bare with Noah, and among the posterity of Abraham and Israel, and among those whom we have guided and chosen, to whom God hath shewed favour. When the signs of the God of Mercy were rehearsed to them, they bowed them down worshipping and weeping.|
|58||60||19||but a succeeding generation have come after them, who neglect prayer, and follow their lusts; and they shall surely fall into evil:||But others have come in their place after them: they have made an end of prayer, and have gone after their own lusts; and in the end they shall meet with evil:|
|58||61||19||except him who repenteth, and believeth, and doth that which is right; these shall enter paradise, and they shall not in the least be wronged:||Save those who turn and believe and do that which is right, these shall enter the Garden, and in nought shall they be wronged:|
|58||62||19||gardens of perpetual abode shall be their reward, which the Merciful hath promised unto his servants, as an object of faith; for his promise will surely come to be fulfilled.||The Garden of Eden, which the God of Mercy hath promised to his servants, though yet unseen:22 for his promise shall come to pass:||22 Maracci and Beidhawi, in absentid. Sale, as an object of faith. Beidhawi ad f. in reward for their secret faith. Ullmann für die verborgene Zukunft.|
|58||63||19||Therein shall they hear no vain discourse, but peace;m and their provision shall be prepared for them therein morning and evening.||m i.e., Words of peace and comfort; or the salutations of the angels,1 &c.
1 See chapter 10, p. 151.
|No vain discourse shall they hear therein, but only "Peace;" and their food shall be given them at morn and even:|
|58||64||19||This is paradise, which we will give for an inheritance unto such of our servants as shall be pious.||This is the Paradise which we will make the heritage of those our servants who fear us.|
|58||65||19||We descend not from heaven, unless by the command of thy LORD: unto him belongeth whatsoever is before us, and whatsoever is behind us, and whatsoever is in the intermediate space; neither is thy LORD forgetful of thee.n||n These are generally supposed to have been the words of the angel Gabriel, in answer to Mohammeds complaint for his long delay of fifteen, or, according to another tradition, of forty days, before he brought him instructions what solution he should give to the questions which had been asked him concerning the sleepers, Dhulkarnein, and the spirit.2
Others, however, are of opinion that they are the words which the godly will use at their entrance into paradise; and that their meaning is, We take up our abode here at the command and through the mercy of God alone, who ruleth all things, past, future, and present; and who is not forgetful of the works of his servants.3
2 See before, p. 118, 119.
3 Al Beidâwi.
|We23 come not down from Heaven but by thy Lord's command. His, whatever is before us and whatever is behind us, and whatever is between the two! And thy Lord is not forgetful,||23 This verse is to be understood as an answer on the part of Gabriel to Muhammad's complaints of the long intervals between the revelations.|
|58||66||19||He is the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatsoever is between them: wherefore worship him, and be constant in his worship. Dost thou know any named like him?o||o That is, Deserving, or having a right to the name and attributes of GOD.||Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them! Worship Him, then, and abide thou steadfast in his worship. Knowest thou any other of the same name?24||24 The idolaters called their deities Gods, but as Polytheists were unused to the singular Allah, God.|
|58||67||19||Man saith,p After I shall have been dead, shall I really be brought forth alive from the grave?||p Some suppose a particular person is here meant, namely, Obba Ebn Khalf.4
4 See chapter 16, p. 195.
|Man saith: "What! after I am dead, shall I in the end be brought forth alive?"|
|58||68||19||Doth not man remember that we created him heretofore, when he was nothing?||Doth not man bear in mind that we made him at first, when he was nought?|
|58||69||19||But by thy LORD we will surely assemble them and the devils to judgment;q then will we set them round about hell on their knees:||q It is said that every infidel will appear, at the day judgment, chained to the devil who seduced him.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
|And I swear by thy Lord, we will surely gather together them and the Satans: then will we set them on their knees round Hell:|
|58||70||19||afterwards we will draw forth from every sect such of them as shall have been a more obstinate rebel against the Merciful;r||r Hence, says al Beidâwi, it appears that GOD will pardon some of the rebellious people. But perhaps the distinguishing the unbelievers into different classes, in order to consign them to different places and degrees of torment, is here meant.||Then will we take forth from each band those of them who have been stoutest in rebellion against the God of Mercy:|
|58||71||19||and we best know which of them are more worthy to be burned therein.s||s viz., The more obstinate and perverse, and especially the heads of sects, who will suffer double punishment for their own errors and their seducing of others.||Then shall we know right well to whom its burning is most due:|
|58||72||19||There shall be none of you but shall approach near the same:t this is an established decree with thy LORD.||t For the true believers must also pass by or through hell, but the fire will be damped and the flames abated, so as not to hurt them, though it will lay hold on the others. Some, however, suppose that the words intend no more than the passage over the narrow bridge, which is laid over hell.6
6 Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 71.
|No one is there of you who shall not go down unto it25This is a settled decree with thy Lord||25 Even the pious on their way to Paradise are to pass the confines of Hell.|
|58||73||19||Afterwards we will deliver those who shall have been pious, but we will leave the ungodly therein on their knees.||Then will we deliver those who had the fear of God, and the wicked will we leave in it on their knees.|
|58||74||19||When our manifest signs are read unto them, the infidels say unto the true believers, Which of the two parties is in the more eligible condition, and formeth the more excellent assembly?u||u viz., Of us, or of you. When the Koreish were unable to produce a composition to equal the Korân, they began to glory in their wealth and nobility, valuing themselves highly on that account, and despising the followers of Mohammed.||And when our clear signs are rehearsed to them, the infidels say to those who believe: "Which of the two parties26 is in the best plight? and which is the most goodly company?"||26 The Koreisch, or the Muslims.|
|58||75||19||But how many generations have we destroyed before them, which excelled them in wealth, and in outward appearance?||But how many generations have we brought to ruin before them, who surpassed them in riches and in splendour!|
|58||76||19||Say, Whosoever is in error, the Merciful will grant him a long and prosperous life,||SAY: As to those who are in error, the God of Mercy will lengthen out to them a length of days|
|58||77||19||until they see that with which they are threatened, whether it be the punishment of this life, or that of the last hour; and hereafter they shall know who is in the worse condition, and the weaker in forces.||Until they see that with which they are threatened, whether it be some present chastisement, or whether it be "the Hour," and they shall then know which is in the worse state, and which the more weak in forces:|
|58||78||19||GOD shall more fully direct those who receive direction;||But God will increase the guidance of the already guided.|
|58||79||19||and the good works which remain forever are better in the sight of thy LORD than worldly possessions, in respect to the reward, and more eligible in respect to the future recompense.||And good works which abide, are in thy Lord's sight better in respect of guerdon, and better in the issue than all worldly good.|
|58||80||19||Hast thou seen him who believeth not in our signs, and saith, I shall surely have riches and children bestowed on me?x||x This passage was revealed on account of al As Ebn Wayel, who being indebted to Khabbâb, when he demanded the money, refused to pay it, unless he would deny Mohammed; to which proposal Khabbâb answered, that he would never deny that prophet, neither alive, nor dead, nor when he should be raised to life at the last day; therefore replied al As, when thou art raised again, come to me, for I shall then have abundance of riches, and children, and I will pay you.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|Hast thou marked him who believeth not in our signs, and saith, "I shall surely have riches and children bestowed upon me?"|
|58||81||19||Is he acquainted with the secrets of futurity; or hath he received a covenant from the Merciful that it shall be so?||Hath he mounted up into the secrets of God? Hath he made a compact with the God of Mercy?|
|58||82||19||By no means. We will surely write down that which he saith; and increasing we will increase his punishment;||No! we will certainly write down what he saith, and will lengthen the length of his chastisement:|
|58||83||19||and we will be his heir as to that which he speaketh of,y and on the last day he shall appear before us alone and naked.||y i.e., He shall be obliged to leave all his wealth and his children behind him at his death.||And we will inherit what he spake of, and he shall come before us all alone.|
|58||84||19||They have taken other gods, besides GOD, that they may be a glory unto them.||They have taken other gods beside God to be their help.27||27 Or, glory, strength.|
|58||85||19||By no means. Hereafter shall they deny their worship;z and they shall become adversariesa unto them.||z viz., At the resurrection; when the idolaters shall disclaim their idols, and the idols their worshippers, and shall mutually accuse one another.2
2 See chapter 6, p. 90; chapter 10, p. 152, 153, &c.
a Or, the contrary; that is to say, a disgrace instead of an honour.
|But it shall not be. Those gods will disavow their worship and will become their enemies.|
|58||86||19||Dost thou not see that we send the devils against the infidels, to incite them to sin by their instigations?||Seest thou not that we send the Satans against the Infidels to urge them into sin?|
|58||87||19||Wherefore be not in haste to call down destruction upon them; for we number unto them a determined number of days of respite.||Wherefore be not thou in haste with them;28 for a small number of days do we number to them.||28 To call down judgments upon them.|
|58||88||19||On a certain day we will assemble the pious before the Merciful in an honourable manner, as ambassadors come into the presence of a prince:||One day we will gather the God-fearing before the God of Mercy with honours due:29||29 As ambassadors come into the presence of a prince. Sale. This is implied in the original.|
|58||89||19||but we will drive the wicked into hell, as cattle are driven to water:||But the sinners will we drive unto Hell, like flocks driven to the watering.|
|58||90||19||they shall obtain no intercession, except he only who hath received a covenant from the Merciful.b||b That is, except he who shall be a subject properly disposed to receive that favour, by having possessed Islâm. Or, the words may also be translated, according to another exposition, They shall not obtain the intercession of any, except the intercession of him, &c. Or else, None shall be able to make intercession for others, except he who shall have received a covenant (or permission) from God; i.e., who shall be qualified for that office by faith, and good works, according to GODs promise, or shall have special leave given him by GOD for that purpose.3
3 Al Beidâwi. See chapter 2, p. 28, &c.
|None shall have power to intercede, save he who hath received permission at the hands of the God of Mercy.|
|58||91||19||They say, The Merciful hath begotten issue. Now have ye uttered an impious thing:||They say: "The God of Mercy hath gotten offspring." Now have ye done a monstrous thing!|
|58||92||19||it wanteth little but that on occasion thereof the heavens be rent, and the earth cleave in sunder, and the mountains be overthrown and fall,||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (3 Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, II. 6, pp. 102-103)
|BWC: Almost might the heavens be rent and the earth be cleft asunder and the mountains fall down in fragments.||Almost might the very Heavens be rent thereat, and the Earth cleave asunder, and the mountains fall down in fragments,|
|58||93||19||for that they attribute children unto the Merciful; whereas it becometh not GOD to beget children.||That they ascribe a son to the God of Mercy, when it beseemeth not the God of Mercy to beget a son!|
|58||94||19||Verily there is none in heaven or on earth but shall approach the Merciful as his servant. He encompasseth them by his knowledge and power, and numbereth them with an exact computation:||Verily there is none in the Heavens and in the Earth but shall approach the God of Mercy as a servant. He hath taken note of them, and numbered them with exact numbering:|
|58||95||19||and they shall all come unto him on the day of resurrection, destitute both of helpers and followers.||And each of them shall come to Him, on the day of Resurrection, singly:|
|58||96||19||But as for those who believe and do good works, the Merciful will bestow on them love.c||c viz., The love of GOD and all the inhabitants of heaven. Some suppose this verse was revealed to comfort the Moslems who were hated and despised at Mecca, on account of their faith, by the promise of their gaining the love and esteem of mankind in a short time.||But love will the God of Mercy vouchsafe to those who believe and do the things that be right.|
|58||97||19||Verily we have rendered the Koran easy for thy tongue, that thou mayest thereby declare our promises unto the pious, and mayest thereby denounce threats unto contentious people.||Verily we have made this Koran easy and in thine own tongue, that thou mayest announce glad tidings by it to the God-fearing, and that thou mayest warn the contentious by it.|
|58||98||19||And how many generations have we destroyed before them? Dost thou find one of them remaining? Or dost thou hear so much as a whisper concerning them?||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 9-13, Mullá Alí-Akbar)
|cf. MG: No cry shalt thou hear from them, nor a whisper even.||How many generations have we destroyed before them! Canst thou search out one of them? or canst thou hear a whisper from them?|
|55||0||20||CHAPTER XX.||SURA XX.1TA. HA. [LV.]||1 The first 14 or 16 verses of this Sura are said to have induced Omar to embrace Islam (His. 226. Ibn Sâd, i. and v. Comp. Weil, p. 60. Causs. i. 396 ff.) in the sixth year before the Hejira.|
|55||0||20||ENTITLED, T. H.;d REVEALED AT MECCA.||d The signification of these letters, which being prefixed to the chapter are therefore taken for the title, is uncertain.1 Some, however, imagine they stand for Ya rajol, i.e. O man! which interpretation, seeming not easily to be accounted for from the Arabic, is by a certain tradition deduced from the Ethiopic:2 or for Ta, i.e. tread; telling us that Mohammed, being employed in watching and prayer the night this passage was revealed, stood on one foot only, but was hereby commanded to ease himself by setting both feet to the ground. Others fancy the first letter stands for Tûba, beatitude; and the latter for Hawiyat, the name of the lower apartment of hell. Tah is also an interjection commanding silence, and may properly enough be used in this place.
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.
2 Moham. Ebn Abd al Baki, ex trad. Acremæ Ebn Abi Sofian.
|55||0||20||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|55||1||20||T. H. WE have not sent down the Koran unto thee, that thou shouldest be unhappy;e||e Either by reason of thy zealous solicitude for the conversion of the infidels, or thy fatiguing thyself by watching and other religious exercises; for, it seems, the Koreish urged the extraordinary fatigues he underwent in those respects, as the consequence of his having left their religion.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|TA. HA.2 Not to sadden thee have we sent down this Koran to thee,||2 Freytag supposes these letters to mean, Hush! but see Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.|
|55||2||20||but for an admonition unto him who feareth God:||But as a warning for him who feareth;|
|55||3||20||being sent down from him who created the earth, and the lofty heavens.||It is a missive from Him who hath made the earth and the lofty heavens!|
|55||4||20||The Merciful sitteth on his throne:||The God of Mercy sitteth on his throne:|
|55||5||20||unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and whatsoever is between them, and whatsoever is under the earth.||His, whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and whatsoever is between them both, and whatsoever is beneath the humid soil!|
|55||6||20||If thou pronounce thy prayers with a loud voice, know that it is not necessary in respect to God; for he knoweth that which is secret, and what is yet more hidden.||Thou needest not raise thy voice:3 for He knoweth the secret whisper, and the yet more hidden.||3 Lit. if thou raise thy voice.|
|55||7||20||GOD! there is no GOD but he, he hath most excellent names.f||f See chapter 7, p. 123, and chapter 17, p. 216.||God! There is no God but He! Most excellent His titles!|
|55||8||20||Hast thou been informed of the history of Moses?g||g The relation of the story of Moses, which takes up the greatest part of this chapter, was designed to encourage Mohammed, by his example, to discharge the prophetic office with firmness of mind, as being assured of receiving the like assistance from GOD: for it is said this chapter was one of the first that were revealed.4
|Hath the history of Moses reached thee?|
|55||9||20||When he saw fire, and said unto his family, Tarry ye here; for I perceive fire:||When he saw a fire, and said to his family, "Tarry ye here, for I perceive a fire:|
|55||10||20||peradventure I may bring you a brand thereout, or may find a direction in our way by the fire.h||h The commentators say, that Moses having obtained leave of Shoaib, or Jethro, his father-in-law, to visit his mother, departed with his family from Midian towards Egypt; but coming to the valley of Towa, wherein Mount Sinai stands, his wife fell in labour, and was delivered of a son, in a very dark and snowy night; he had also lost his way, and his cattle were scattered from him; when on a sudden he saw a fire by the side of a mountain, which on his nearer approaching he found burning in a green bush.1
|Haply I may bring you a brand from it, or find at the fire a guide."4||4 Lit. guidance. Moses had lost his way, say the Commentators, when journeying to Egypt to visit his mother.|
|55||11||20||And when he was come near unto it, a voice called unto him, saying, O Moses,||And when he came to it, he was called to, "O Moses!|
|55||12||20||verily I am thy LORD: wherefore put off thy shoes;i for thou art in the sacred valley Towa.||i This was a mark of humility and respect: though some fancy there was some uncleanness in the shoes themselves, because they were made of the skin of an ass not dressed.2
|Verily, I am thy Lord:. therefore pull off thy shoes: for thou art in the holy valley of Towa.|
|55||13||20||And I have chosen thee; therefore hearken with attention unto that which is revealed unto thee.||And I have chosen thee: hearken then to what shall be revealed.|
|55||14||20||Verily I am GOD; there is no god besides me; wherefore worship me, and perform thy prayer in remembrance of me.||Verily, I am God: there is no God but me: therefore worship me, and observe prayer for a remembrance of me.|
|55||15||20||Verily the hour cometh: I will surely manifest the same,||Verily the hour is coming:I all but manifest it|
|55||16||20||that every soul may receive its reward for that which it hath deliberately done.||That every soul may be recompensed for its labours.|
|55||17||20||Let not him who believeth not therein, and who followeth his lust, prevent thee from believing in the same, lest thou perish.||Nor let him who believeth not therein and followeth his lust, turn thee aside from this truth, and thou perish.|
|55||18||20||Now what is that in thy right hand, O Moses?||Now, what is that in thy right hand, O Moses?"|
|55||19||20||He answered, It is my rod whereon I lean, and with which I beat down leaves for my flock; and I have other uses for it.j||j As to drive away wild beasts from my flock, to carry my bottle of water on, to stick up and hang my upper garment on to shade me from the sun; and several other uses enumerated by the commentators.||Said he, "It is my staff on which I lean, and with which I beast down leaves for my sheep, and I have other uses for it."|
|55||20||20||God said unto him, Cast it down, O Moses.||He said, "Cast it down, O Moses!"|
|55||21||20||And he cast it down, and behold, it became a serpent,k which ran about.||k Which was at first no bigger than the rod, but afterwards swelled to a prodigious size.3
|So he cast it down, and lo! it became a serpent that ran along.|
|55||22||20||God said, Take hold on it, and fear not:l we will reduce it to its former condition.||l When Moses saw the serpent move about with great nimbleness, and swallow stones and trees, he was greatly terrified, and fled from it; but recovering his courage at these words of GOD, he had the boldness to take the serpent by the jaws.4
|He said, "Lay hold on it, and fear not: to its former state will we restore it."|
|55||23||20||And put thy right hand under thy left arm: it shall come forth white,m without any hurt. This shall be another sign:||m See chapter 7, p. 116.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 51
|"Now place thy right hand to thy arm-pit: it shall come forth white, but unhurt:another sign!|
|55||24||20||that we may show thee some of our greatest signs.||That We may shew thee the greatest of our signs.|
|55||25||20||Go unto Pharaoh: for he is exceedingly impious.||Go to Pharaoh, for he hath burst all bounds."|
|55||26||20||Moses answered, LORD, enlarge my breast,||He said, "O my Lord! enlarge my breast for me,|
|55||27||20||and make what thou hast commanded me easy unto me:||And make my work easy for me,|
|55||28||20||and loose the knot of my tongue,||And loose the knot of my tongue,5||5 The Muhammadan Commentators tell how Moses when a child burnt his tongue with a live coal. The same story is found in Midr. Jalkut on Ex. c. 166, and in Shalsheleth Hakabalah, p. 5, b. Ed. Amsterd.|
|55||29||20||that they may understand my speech.n||n For Moses had an impediment in his speech, which was occasioned by the following accident. Pharaoh one day carrying him in his arms, when a child, he suddenly laid hold of his bear, and plucked it in a very rough manner, which put Pharaoh into such a passion, that he ordered him to be put to death: but Asia, his wife, representing to him that he was but a child, who could not distinguish between a burning coal and a ruby, he ordered the experiment to be made; and a live coal and a ruby being set before Moses, he took the coal and put it into his mouth, and burnt his tongue; and thereupon he was pardoned. This is a Jewish story a little altered.5
5 Vide Shalsh. Hakkab, p. 11.
|That they may understand my speech.|
|55||30||20||And give me a counselloro of my family,||o The Arabic word is Wazîr, which signifies one who has the chief administration of affairs under a prince.||And give me a counsellor6 from among my family,||6 Lit vizir.|
|55||31||20||namely, Aaron my brother.||Aaron my brother;|
|55||32||20||Gird up my loins by him,||By him gird up my loins,7||7 Or, strengthen my back.|
|55||33||20||and make him my colleague in the business:||And make him a colleague in my work,|
|55||34||20||that we may praise thee greatly, and may remember thee often;||That we may praise thee oft and oft remember thee,|
|55||35||20||for thou regardest us.||For thou regardest us."|
|55||36||20||God replied, Now hast thou obtained thy request, O Moses:||He said, "O Moses, thou hast obtained thy suit:|
|55||37||20||and we have heretofore been gracious unto thee, another time;||Already, at another time, have we showed thee favour,|
|55||38||20||when we revealed unto thy mother that which was revealed unto her,p||p The commentators are not agreed by what means this revelation was made; whether by private inspiration, by a dream, by a prophet, or by an angel.||When we spake unto thy mother what was spoken:|
|55||39||20||saying, Put him into the ark, and cast him into the river and the river shall throw him on the shore; and my enemy and his enemy shall take him and bring him up;q and I bestowed on thee love from me,r||q The commentators say, that his mother accordingly made an ark of the papyrus, and pitched it, and put in some cotton; and having laid the child therein, committed it to the river, a branch of which went into Pharaohs garden: that the stream carried the ark thither into a fishpond, at the head of which Pharaoh was then sitting, with his wife Asia, the daughter of Mozahem; and that the king, having commanded it to be taken up and opened, and finding in it a beautiful child, took a fancy to it, and ordered it to be brought up.1
Some writers mention a miraculous preservation of Moses before he was put into the ark; and tell us, that his mother having hid him from Pharaohs officers in an oven, his sister, in her mothers absence, kindled a large fire in the oven to heat it, not knowing the child was there, but that he was afterwards taken out unhurt.2
1 Al Beidâwi.
2 Abulfeda, &c.
r That is, I inspired the love of thee into the hearts of those who saw thee, and particularly into the heart of Pharaoh.
|'Cast him into the ark:8 then cast him on the sea [the river], and the sea shall throw him on the shore: and an enemy to me and an enemy to him shall take him up.' And I myself have made thee an object of love,||8 The form of the word in the original is not the pure Hebraic, but the later Rabbinic form.|
|55||40||20||that thou mightest be bred up under my eye.||That thou mightest be reared in mine eye.|
|55||41||20||When thy sister went and said, Shall I bring you unto one who will nurse the child?s So we returned thee unto thy mother, that her mind might be set at ease, and that she might not be afflicted. And thou slewest a soul, and we delivered thee from trouble;t and we proved thee by several trials:u||s The Mohammedans pretend that several nurses were brought, but the child refused to take the breast of any, till his sister Miriam, who went to learn news of him, told them she would find a nurse, and brought his mother.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
t Moses killed an Egyptian, in defence of an Israelite, and escaped the danger of being punished for it, by flying to Midian, which was eight days journey distant from Mesr.4
The Jews pretend he was actually imprisoned for the fact, and condemned to be beheaded, but that, when he should have suffered, his neck became as hard as ivory, and the sword rebounded on the executioner.5
5 Shalsh Hakkab. p. 11.
u For he was obliged to abandon his country and his friends, and to travel several days, in great terror and want of necessary provisions, to seek a refuge among strangers; and was afterwards forced to serve for hire, to gain a livelihood.
|When thy sister went and said, 'Shall I shew you one who will nurse him?'9 Then We returned thee to thy mother that her eye might be cheered, and that she might not grieve. And when thou slewest a person, We delivered thee from trouble, and We tried thee with other trial.||9 See Sura [lxxix.] xxviii. 11, 12.|
|55||42||20||and afterwards thou didst dwell some yearsx among the inhabitants of Madian. Then thou camest hither according to our decree, O Moses;||x i.e., Ten.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|For years didst thou stay among the people of Midian; then camest thou hither by my decree, O Moses:|
|55||43||20||and I have chosen thee for myself;||And I have chosen thee for Myself.|
|55||44||20||wherefore go thou and thy brothery with my signs; and be not negligent in remembering me.||y Aaron being by this time come out to meet his brother, either by divine inspiration, or having notice of his design to return to Egypt.7
|Go thou and thy brother with my signs and be not slack to remember me.|
|55||45||20||Go ye unto Pharaoh, for he is excessively impious:||Go ye to Pharaoh, for he hath burst all bounds:|
|55||46||20||and speak mildly unto him; peradventure he will consider, or will fear our threats.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 53
|Speak ye to him with gentle speech.||But speak ye to him with gentle speech; haply he will reflect or fear."|
|55||47||20||They answered, O LORD, verily we fear lest he be precipitately violent against us, or lest he transgress more exorbitantly.||They said, "O our Lord! truly we fear lest he break forth against us, or act with exceeding injustice."|
|55||48||20||God replied, Fear not; for I am with you: I will hear and will see.||He said, "Fear ye not, for I am with you both. I will hearken and I will behold.|
|55||49||20||Go ye therefore unto him, and say, Verily we are the messengers of thy LORD: wherefore send the children of Israel with us, and do not afflict them. Now are we come unto thee with a sign from thy LORD: and peace be upon him who shall follow the true direction.||Go ye then to him and say, 'Verily we are Sent ones of thy Lord; send therefore the children of Israel with us and vex them not: now are we come to thee with signs from thy Lord, and, Peace shall be on him who followeth the right guidance.|
|55||50||20||Verily it hath been revealed unto us, that a punishment shall be inflicted on him who shall charge us with imposture, and shall turn back.||For now hath it been revealed to us, that chastisement shall be on him who chargeth with falsehood, and turneth him away."'|
|55||51||20||And when they had delivered their message, Pharaoh said, Who is your LORD, O Moses?||And he said, "Who is your Lord, O Moses?"|
|55||52||20||He answered, Our LORD is he who giveth all things: he hath created them, and directeth them by his providence.||He said, "Our Lord is He who hath given to everything its form and then guideth it aright."|
|55||53||20||Pharaoh said, What therefore is the condition of the former generations?z||z viz., As to happiness or misery after death.||"But what," said he, "was the state of generations past?"10||10 What is their condition after their death as to happiness or misery. Beidh. whom Sale follows. But the word state, which Mar. renders mens, refers rather to their creed. "How," enquires Pharaoh, "do you explain the fact that the generations of men have always practised a different worship?"|
|55||54||20||Moses answered, The knowledge thereof is with my LORD, in the book of his decrees: my LORD erreth not, neither doth he forget.||He said, "The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in the Book of his decrees. My Lord erreth not, nor forgetteth.|
|55||55||20||It is he who hath spread the earth as a bed for you, and hath made you paths therein; and who sendeth down rain from heaven, whereby we cause various kinds of vegetables to spring forth:||He hath spread the earth as a bed, and hath traced out paths for you therein, and hath sent down rain from Heaven, and by it we bring forth the kinds11 of various herbs:||11 Lit. pairs.|
|55||56||20||saying, Eat of part, and feed your cattle with other part thereof. Verily herein are signs unto those who are endued with understanding.||'Eat ye, and feed your cattle.' Of a truth in this are signs unto men endued with understanding.|
|55||57||20||Out of the ground have we created you; and to the same will we cause you to return, and we will bring you forth from thence another time.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 107)
|From it (earth) have We created you, and unto it will We return you, and out of it will We bring you forth a second time.||From it have we created you, and into it will we return you, and out of it will we bring you forth a second time."12||12 The Midrasch Tanchumah on Ex. vii. gives a very similar dialogue between Pharaoh and Moses.|
|55||58||20||And we showed Pharaoh all our signs which we had empowered Moses to perform: but he accused him of imposture, and refused to believe;||And we shewed him all our signs: but he treated them as falsehoods, and refused to believe.|
|55||59||20||and he said, Art thou come unto us that thou mayest dispossess us of our land by the enchantments, O Moses?||He said, "Hast thou come, O Moses, to drive us from our land by thine enchantments?|
|55||60||20||Verily we will meet thee with the like enchantments; wherefore fix an appointment between us and thee; we will not fail it, neither shalt thou, in an equal place.||Therefore will we assuredly confront thee with like enchantments: so appoint a meeting between us and youwe will not fail it, we, and do not thouin a place alike for both."|
|55||61||20||Moses answered, Let your appointment be on the day of your solemn feast;a and let the people be assembled in open day.||a Which was probably the first day of their new year.||He said, "On the feast day13 be your meeting, and in broad daylight let the people be assembled."||13 Lit. the day of ornament.|
|55||62||20||And Pharaoh turned away from Moses, and gathered together the most expert magicians to execute his stratagem; and then came to the appointment.||And Pharaoh turned away, and collected his craftsmen and came.|
|55||63||20||Moses said unto them, Woe be unto you! do not devise a lie against GOD,b||b By saying the miracles performed in his name are the effects of magic.||Said Moses to them, "Woe to you! devise not a lie against God:|
|55||64||20||lest he utterly destroy you by some judgment: for he shall not prosper who deviseth lies.||For then will he destroy you by a punishment. They who have lied have ever perished."|
|55||65||20||And the magicians disputed concerning their affair among themselves, and discoursed in private:||And the magicians discussed their plan, and spake apart in secret:|
|55||66||20||and they said, These two are certainly magicians: they seek to dispossess you of your land by their sorcery; and to lead away with them your chiefest and most considerable men.||They said, "These two are surely sorcerers: fain would they drive you from your land by their sorceries, and lead away in their paths your chiefest men:|
|55||67||20||Wherefore collect all your cunning, and then come in order: for he shall prosper this day, who shall be superior.||So muster your craft: then come in order: well this day shall it be for him, who shall gain the upper hand."|
|55||68||20||They said, O Moses, whether wilt thou cast down thy rod first, or shall we be the first who cast down our rods?||They said, "O Moses, wilt thou first cast down thy rod, or shall we be the first who cast?"|
|55||69||20||He answered, Do ye cast down your rods first. And behold, their cords and their rods appeared unto him, by their enchantment, to run about like serpents;c||c They rubbed them over with quicksilver, which being wrought upon by the heat of the sun, caused them to move.1 See chapter 7, p. 116.
|He said, "Yes, cast ye down first." And lo! by their enchantment their cords and rods seemed to him as if they ran.|
|55||70||20||wherefore Moses conceived fear in his heart.||And Moses conceived a secret fear within him.|
|55||71||20||But we said unto him, Fear not; for thou shalt be superior:||We said, "Fear not, for thou shalt be the uppermost:|
|55||72||20||therefore cast down the rod which is in thy right hand; and it shall swallow up the seeming serpents which they have made: for what they have made is only the deceit of an enchanter; and an enchanter shall not prosper, withersoever he cometh.||Cast forth then what is in thy right hand: it shall swallow up what they have produced: they have only produced the deceit of an enchanter: and come where he may, ill shall an enchanter fare."|
|55||73||20||And the magicians, when they saw the miracle which Moses performed, fell down and worshipped, saying, We believe in the LORD of Aaron and of Moses.||And the magicians fell down and worshipped. They said, "We believe in the Lord of Aaron and of Moses."|
|55||74||20||Pharaoh said unto them, Do ye believe in him before I give you permission? Verily this is your master, who hath taught you magic. But I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on the opposite sides; and I will crucify you on trunks of palm-trees:d and ye shall know which of us is more severe in punishing, and can longer protract your pains.||d See Ibid.||Said Pharaoh, "Believe ye on him ere I give you leave? He, in sooth, is your Master who hath taught you magic. I will therefore cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you on trunks of the palm, and assuredly shall ye learn which of us is severest in punishing, and who is the more abiding."14||14 In punishing. Beidh.|
|55||75||20||They answered, We will by no means have greater regard unto thee than unto those evident miracles which have been shown us, or than unto him who hath created us. Pronounce therefore that sentence against us which thou art about to pronounce: for thou canst only give sentence as to this present life. Verily we believe in our LORD, that he may forgive us our sins, and the sorcery which thou hast forced us to exercise: for GOD is better to reward, and more able to prolong punishment than thou.||They said, "We will not have more regard to thee than to the clear tokens which have come to us, or than to Him who hath made us: doom the doom thou wilt: Thou canst only doom as to this present life: of a truth we have believed on our Lord that he may pardon us our sins and the sorcery to which thou hast forced us, for God is better, and more abiding than thou.15||15 To recompense. Beidh.|
|55||76||20||Verily whosoever shall appear before his LORD on the day of judgment, polluted with crimes, shall have hell for his reward; he shall not die therein, neither shall he live.||As for him who shall come before his Lord laden with crimefor him verily is Hell: he shall not die in it and he shall not live.|
|55||77||20||But whoever shall appear before him, having been a true believer, and shall have worked righteousness, for these are prepared the highest degrees of happiness;||But he who shall come before Him, a believer, with righteous works,these! the loftiest grades await them:|
|55||78||20||namely, gardens of perpetual abode,e which shall be watered by rivers; they shall remain therein forever: and this shall be the reward of him who shall be pure.||e Literally, gardens of Eden; see chapter 9, p. 142, 143.||Gardens of Eden, beneath whose trees16 the rivers flow: therein shall they abide for ever. This, the reward of him who hath been pure."||16 As the garden is said in Sura lxxxviii. to be lofty in point of situation, this frequently recurring phrase may mean that rivers run at its base. The Commentators, however, generally understand it to imply that the rivers flow beneath its shades or pavilions.|
|55||79||20||And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying, Go forth with my servants out of Egypt by night; and smite the waters with thy rod, and make them a dry path through the sea:f||f The expositors add, that the sea was divided into twelve separate paths, one for each tribe:1 a fable borrowed from the Jews.2
1 Idem, Abulfed. in Hist.
2 Vide R. Eliezer, Pirke, chapter 42.
|Then revealed we to Moses, "Go forth by night with my servants and cleave for them a dry path in the sea;|
|55||80||20||be not apprehensive of Pharaoh's overtaking thee; neither be thou afraid.||Fear not thou to be overtaken, neither be thou afraid."|
|55||81||20||And when Moses had done so, Pharaoh followed them with his forces; and the waters of the sea overwhelmed them. And Pharaoh caused his people to err, neither did he direct them aright.||And Pharaoh followed them with his hosts, and the whelming billows of the sea overwhelmed them,17 for Pharaoh misled his people, and did not guide them.||17 Lit. and there overwhelmed them of the sea that which overwhelmed them.|
|55||82||20||Thus, O children of Israel, we delivered you from your enemy; and we appointed you the right side of Mount Sinai to discourse with Moses and to give him the law; and we caused manna and quails to descend upon you,g||g See chapter 2, p. 7.||O children of Israel! we rescued you from your foes; and We appointed a meeting with you on the right side of the mountain; and We caused the manna and the quail to descend upon you:|
|55||83||20||saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food; and transgress not therein,h lest my indignation fall on you; and on whomsoever my indignation shall fall, he shall go down headlong into perdition.||h By ingratitude, excess, or insolent behaviour.||"Eat," said We, "of the good things with which we have supplied you; but without excess, lest my wrath fall upon you; for on whom my wrath doth fall, he perisheth outright.|
|55||84||20||But I will be gracious unto him who shall repent and believe, and shall do that which is right; and who shall be rightly directed.||Surely however will I forgive him who turneth to God and believeth, and worketh righteousness, and then yieldeth to guidance.|
|55||85||20||What hath caused thee to hasten from thy people, O Moses, to receive the law?i||i For Moses, it seems, outwent the seventy elders, who had been chosen, in obedience to the divine command, to accompany him to the mount,3 and appeared before GOD while they were at some, though no great, distance behind him.
3 See chapter 2, p. 6, 7; chapter 7, p. 120, &c.
|But what hath hastened thee on apart from thy people,18 O Moses?"||18 The 70 elders who were to have accompanied him.|
|55||86||20||He answered, These follow close on my footsteps; but I have hastened unto thee, O LORD, that thou mightest be well pleased with me.||He said, "They are hard on my footsteps: but to thee, O Lord, have I hastened, that thou mightest be well pleased with me."|
|55||87||20||God said, We have already made a trial of thy people, since thy departure;j and al Sâmerik hath seduced them to idolatry.||j They continued in the worship of the true GOD for the first twenty days of Mosess absence, which, by taking the nights also into their reckoning, they computed to be forty, and at their expiration concluded they had stayed the full time which Moses had commanded them, and so fell into the worship of the golden calf.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
k This was not his proper name, but he had this appellation because he was of a certain tribe among the Jews called Samaritans (wherein the Mohammedans strangely betray their ignorance in history); though some say he was a proselyte, but a hypocritical one, and originally of Kirmân, or some other country. His true name was Moses, or Mûsa, Ebn Dhafar.5
Selden is of opinion that this person was no other than Aaron himself, (who was really the maker of the calf), and that he is here called al Sâmeri, from the Hebrew verb shamar, to keep;1 because he was the Keeper or Guardian of the children of Israel during his brothers absence in the mount; which is a very ingenious conjecture, not absolutely inconsistent with the text of the Korân (though Mohammed seems to have mistaken al Sâmeri for the name of a different person), and offers a much more probable origin of that appellation, than to derive it, as the Mohammedans do, from the Samaritans, who were not formed into a people, nor bore that name till many ages after.
1 Selden, de Diis Syris, Synt. I, chapter 4.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|He said, "Of a truth now have we proved thy people since thou didst leave them, and Samiri19 had led them astray."||19 That is, the Samaritan. This rendering, which is probably the true explanation of the word Samiri, involves a grievous ignorance of history on the part of Muhammad. Selden (de diis Syr. Syn. i. ch. 4) supposes that Samiri is Aaron himself, the Shomeer, or keeper of Israel during the absence of Moses. Many Arabians identify him with the Micha of Judges xvii. who is said to have assisted in making the calf (Raschi, Sanhedr. 102, 2 Hottinger Hist. Orient. p. 84). Geiger suggests that Samiri may be a corruption of Samael. See next note. But it is probable that the name and its application in the present instance, is to be traced to the old national feud between the Jews and Samaritans. See De Sacy, Chrestom. i. p. 189, who quotes Abu Rihan Muhammad as stating that the Samaritans were called Al-limsahsit, the people who say, "Touch me not" (v. 97, below), and Juynboll Chron. Sam. (Leid. 1848) p. 113. Sale also mentions a similar circumstance of a tribe of Samaritan Jews dwelling on one of the islands in the Red Sea.|
|55||88||20||Wherefore Moses returned unto his peoplel in great wrath, and exceedingly afflicted.||l viz., After he had completed his forty days stay in the mount, and had received the law.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|And Moses returned to his people, angered, sorrowful.|
|55||89||20||And he said, O my people, had not your LORD promised you a most excellent promise?m Did the time of my absence seem long unto you? Or did ye desire that indignation from your LORD should fall on you, and therefore failed to keep the promise which ye made me?||m i.e., The law, containing a light and certain direction to guide you in the right way.||20:87-98 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|He said, "O my people! did not your Lord promise you a good promise? Was the time of my absence long to you? or desired ye that wrath from your Lord should light upon you, that ye failed in your promise to me?"|
|55||90||20||They answered, We have not failed in what we promised thee of our own authority; but we were made to carry in several loads of gold and silver, of the ornaments of the people,n and we cast them into the fire; and in like manner al Sâmeri also cast in what he had collected, and he produced unto them a corporeal calf,o which lowed. And al Sâmeri and his companions said, This is your god, and the god of Moses; but he hath forgotten him, and is gone to seek some other.||n These ornaments were rings, bracelets, and the like, which the Israelities had borrowed of the Egyptians, under pretence of decking themselves out for some feast, and had not returned to them; or, as some think, what they had stripped from the dead bodies of the Egyptians, cast on shore by the sea: and al Sameri, conceiving them unlawful to be kept, and the occasion of much wickedness, persuaded Aaron to let him collect them from the people; which being done, he threw them all into the fire, to melt them down into one mass.3
It is observable, that the Mohammedans generally suppose the cast metals coming forth in the shape of a calf, was beside the expectation of al Sameri, who had not made a mould of that figure: and that when Aaron excuses himself to his brother, in the pentateuch, he seems as if he would persuade him it was an accident.4
3 Idem. Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 650, and Kor. chapter 2, p. 6, &c.
4 See Exod. xxxii. 24.
o See chapter 7, p. 119, note n.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|They said, 'Not of our own accord have we failed in the promise to thee, but we were made to bring loads of the people's trinkets, and we threw them into the fire and Samiri likewise cast them in, and brought forth to them a corporeal lowing20 calf: and they said, "This is your God and the God of Moses, whom he hath forgotten."'||20 "The calf came forth (Ex. xxxii. 24) lowing and the Israelites beheld it. R. Jehuda saith, Samuel entered into it and lowed in order to mislead Israel." Pirke R. Eliezer, § 45.|
|55||91||20||Did they not therefore see that their idol returned them no answer, and was not able to cause them either hurt or profit?||20:87-98 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|What! saw they not that it returned them no answer, and could neither hurt nor help them?|
|55||92||20||And Aaron had said unto them before, O my people, verily ye are only proved by this calf; for your LORD is the Merciful: wherefore, follow me, and obey my command.||20:87-98 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|And Aaron had before said to them, "O my people! by this calf are ye only proved: surely your Lord is the God of Mercy: follow me therefore and obey my bidding."|
|55||93||20||They answered, We will by no means cease to be devoted to its worship, until Moses return unto us.||20:87-98 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|They said, "We will not cease devotion to it, till Moses come back to us."|
|55||94||20||And when Moses was returned, he said, O Aaron, what hindered thee, when thou sawest that they went astray, that thou didst not follow me?p Hast thou, therefore, been disobedient to my command?||p By these words Moses reprehends Aaron for not seconding his zeal in taking arms against the idolaters; or for not coming after him to the mountain, to acquaint him with their rebellion.||20:87-98 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|He said, "O Aaron! when thou sawest that they had gone astray, what hindered thee from following me? Hast thou then disobeyed my command?"|
|55||95||20||Aaron answered, O son of my mother, drag me not by the beard, nor by the hair of my head. Verily I feared lest thou shouldest say, Thou hast made a division among the children of Israel, and thou hast not observed my saying.q||q i.e., Lest if I had taken arms against the worshippers of the calf, thou shouldest say that I had raised a sedition; or if I had gone after thee, thou shouldest blame me for abandoning my charge, and not waiting thy return to rectify what was amiss.||20:87-98 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|He said, 'O Son of my mother! seize me not by my beard, nor by my head: indeed I feared lest thou shouldst say, "Thou hast rent the children of Isreal asunder, and hast not observed my orders."'|
|55||96||20||Moses said unto al Sâmeri, What was thy design, O Sâmeri? He answered, I saw that which they saw not;r wherefore I took a handful of dust from the footsteps of the messenger of God, and I cast it into the molten calf;s for so did my mind direct me.||r Or, I knew that which they knew not; viz., That the messenger sent to thee from GOD was a pure spirit, and that his footsteps gave life to whatever they touched; being no other than the angel Gabriel, mounted on the horse of life: and therefore I made use of the dust of his feet to animate the molten calf. It is said al Sâmeri knew the angel, because he had saved and taken care of him when a child and exposed by his mother for fear of Pharaoh.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
s See chapter 2, p. 6.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|He said, "And what was thy motive, O Samiri?" He said, "I saw what they saw not: so I took a handful of dust from the track21 of the messenger of God, and flung it into the calf, for so my soul prompted me."||21 From the track of Gabriel's horse, or of Gabriel himself.|
|55||97||20||Moses said, Get thee gone; for thy punishment in this life shall be, that thou shalt say unto those who shall meet thee, Touch me not;t and a threat is denounced against thee of more terrible pains, in the life to come, which thou shalt by no means escape. And behold now thy god, to whose worship thou hast continued assiduously devoted; verily we will burn it;u and we will reduce it to powder, and scatter it in the sea.||t Lest they infect thee with a burning fever: for that was the consequence of any mans touching him, and the same happened to the persons he touched; for which reason he was obliged to avoid all communication with others, and was also shunned by them, wandering in the desert like a wild beast.2
Hence, it is concluded that a tribe of Samaritan Jews, said to inhabit a certain isle in the Red Sea, are the descendants of our al Sâmeri; because it is their peculiar mark of distinction, at this day, to use the same words, viz., La mesâs, i.e., Touch me not, to those they meet.3 It is not improbable that this story may owe its rise to the known hatred borne by the Samaritans to the Jews, and their superstitiously avoiding to have any commerce with them, or any other strangers.4
3 Vide Geogr. Nub. p. 45.
4 Vide Selden, ubi sup.
u Or, as the word may also be translated, We will file it down; but the other is the more received interpretation.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 78, within pp. 159-191)
|He said, "Begone then: verily thy doom even in this life shall be to say, 'Touch me not.'22 And there is a threat against thee, which thou shalt not escape hereafter. Now look at thy god to which thou hast continued so devoted: we will surely burn it and reduce it to ashes, which we will cast into the sea.||22 Lit. no touch.|
|55||98||20||Your GOD is the true GOD, besides whom there is no other god: he comprehendeth all things by his knowledge.||Your God is God, beside whom there is no God: In his knowledge he embraceth all things."|
|55||99||20||Thus do we recite unto thee, O Mohammed, relations of what hath passed heretofore; and we have given thee an admonition from us.||Thus do We recite to thee histories of what passed of old; and from ourself have we given thee admonition.|
|55||100||20||He who shall turn aside from it shall surely carry a load of guilt on the day of resurrection:||Whoso shall turn aside from it shall verily carry a burden on the day of Resurrection:|
|55||101||20||they shall continue thereunder forever; and a grievous burden shall it be unto them on the day of resurrection;x||x See chapter 6, p. 91.||Under it shall they remain: and grievous, in the day of Resurrection, shall it be to them to bear.|
|55||102||20||On that day the trumpet shall be sounded; and we will gather the wicked together on that day, having grey eyes.y||y For this, with the Arabs, is one mark of an enemy, or a person they abominate; to say a man has a black liver (though I think we express our aversion by the term white-livered), reddish whiskers and grey eyes, being a periphrasis for a foe, and particularly a Greek, which nation were the most inveterate enemies of the Arabs, and have usually hair and eyes of those colours.5 The original word, however, signifies also those who are squint-eyed, or even blind of a suffusion.
5 Al Beidâwi, Jawhari, in Lex.
|On that day there shall be a blast on the trumpet, and We will gather the wicked together on that day with leaden23 eyes:||23 I have adopted the word leaden as expressive of the idea implied in the original word, viz. grey or greyish blue; hence, dulled, dimmed. The Arabians have a great aversion to blue and grey eyes as characteristic of their enemies the Greeks. The word, however, may also mean blind. Comp. v. 124, 5.|
|55||103||20||They shall speak with a low voice to one another, saying, Ye have not tarriedz above ten days.||They shall say in a low voice, one to another,"Ye tarried but ten days on earth."|
|55||104||20||We well know what they will say; when the most conspicuous among them for behavior shall say, Ye have not tarried above one day.||z viz., In the world; or, in the grave.||We are most knowing with respect to that which they will say when the most veracious24 of them will say. "Ye have not tarried above a day."||24 Lit. the most excellent or just of them in his way: dignitate, Mar. But Kam. in Freyt. (iii. 150) justissimus eorum, simillimus veracibus. The sense of the last clause is, "Yes have not tarried even so much as ten days, such, now that we look back upon it, is the brevity of life." See Sura [lxiv.] xxiii. 115.|
|55||105||20||They will ask thee concerning the mountains: Answer, My LORD will reduce them to dust, and scatter them abroad;a||a See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 64.||Tablets of Baháulláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Maqsúd, paragraph 3, within pp. 159-191)
|BWC: Thou shall see in it no hollows or rising hills.||And they will ask thee of the mountains: SAY: scattering my Lord will scatter them in dust;|
|55||106||20||and he will leave them a plain equally extended: thou shalt see no part of them higher or lower than another.||And he will leave them a level plain: thou shalt see in it no hollows or jutting hills.|
|55||107||20||On that day mankind shall follow the angel who will call them to judgment,b none shall have power to turn aside from him; and their voices shall be low before the Merciful, neither shalt thou hear any more than the hollow sound of their feet.||b See ibid. p. 56.||On that day shall men follow their summoner25he marcheth straight on: and low shall be their voices before the God of Mercy, nor shalt thou hear aught but the light footfall.||25 The angel Israfil.|
|55||108||20||On that day, the intercession of none shall be of advantage unto another, except the intercession of him to whom the Merciful shall grant permission,c and who shall be acceptable unto him in what he saith.||c Or, Except unto him, &c. See chapter 19, p. 232.||No intercession shall avail on that day, save his whom the God of Mercy shall allow to intercede, and whose words he shall approve.|
|55||109||20||God knoweth that which is before them, and that which is behind them; but they comprehend not the same by their knowledge:||He knoweth their future and their past; but in their own knowledge they comprehend it not:|
|55||110||20||and their faces shall be humbledd before the living, the self-subsisting God; and he shall be wretched who shall bear his iniquity.||d The original word properly expresses the humility and dejected looks of captives in the presence of their conqueror.||And humble shall be their faces before Him that Liveth, the Self-subsisting: and undone he, who shall bear the burden of iniquity;|
|55||111||20||But whosoever shall do good works, being a true believer, shall not fear any injustice, or any diminution of his reward from God.||But he who shall have done the things that are right and is a believer, shall fear neither wrong nor loss.|
|55||112||20||And thus have we sent down this book, being a Koran in the Arabic tongue; and we have inserted various threats and promises therein, that men may fear God, or that it may awaken some consideration in them:||Thus have We sent down to thee an Arabic Koran, and have set forth menaces therein diversely, that haply they may fear God, or that it may give birth to reflection in them.|
|55||113||20||wherefore, let GOD be highly exalted, the King, the Truth! Be not over-hasty in receiving or repeating the Koran before the revelation thereof be completed unto thee;e and say, LORD, increase my knowledge.||e Mohammed is here commanded not to be impatient at any delay in Gabriels bringing the divine revelations, or not to repeat it too fast after the angel, so as to overtake him before he had finished the passage. But some suppose the prohibition relates to the publishing any verse before the same was perfectly explained to him.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin
|Exalted then be God, the King, the Truth! Be not hasty in its recital26 while the revelation of it to thee is incomplete. Say rather, "O my Lord, increase knowledge unto me."||26 Compare Sura lxxv. 16-19, p. 56.|
|55||114||20||We heretofore gave a command unto Adam; but he forgot the same,f and ate of the forbidden fruit; and we found not in him a firm resolution.||f Adams so soon forgetting the divine command, has occasioned some Arab etymologists to derive the word Insân, i.e., man, from nasiya, to forget; and has also given rise to the following proverbial saying, Awwalo nâsin awwalo nnâsi, that is, The first forgetful person was the first of men; alluding to the like sound of the words||And of old We made a covenant with Adam; but he forgat it; and we found no firmness of purpose in him.|
|55||115||20||And remember when we said unto the angels, Worship ye Adam; and they worshipped him: but Eblis refused.g And we said, O Adam, verily this is an enemy unto thee, and thy wife: wherefore, beware lest he turn you out of paradise; for then shalt thou be miserable.||g See chapter 2, p. 4, &c.; chapter 7, p. 105, &c.||And when We said to the angels, "Fall down and worship Adam," they worshipped all, save Eblis, who refused: and We said, "O Adam! this truly is a foe to thee and to thy wife. Let him not therefore drive you out of the garden, and ye become wretched;|
|55||116||20||Verily we have made a provision for thee, that thou shalt not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be naked:||For to thee is it granted that thou shalt not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be naked;|
|55||117||20||and there is also a provision made for thee, that thou shalt not thirst therein, neither shalt thou be incommoded by heat.||And that thou shalt not thirst therein, neither shalt thou parch with heat;"|
|55||118||20||But Satan whispered evil suggestions unto him, saying, O Adam, shall I guide thee to the tree of eternity, and a kingdom which faileth not?||But Satan whispered him: said he, "O Adam! shall I shew thee the tree of Eternity,27 and the Kingdom that faileth not?"||27 It should be observed that here and in Sura vii. 19, Muhammad seems unaware of the distinction between the tree of knowledge, and the tree of life, as given in Gen. ii. 9, and iii. 5.|
|55||119||20||And they both ate thereof: and their nakedness appeared unto them; and they began to sew together the leaves of paradise, to cover themselves.h And thus Adam became disobedient unto his LORD, and was seduced.||h See chapter 7, p. 106.||And they both ate thereof, and their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew of the leaves of the Garden to cover them, and Adam disobeyed his Lord and went astray.|
|55||120||20||Afterwards his LORD accepted him, on his repentance, and was turned unto him, and directed him.||Afterwards his Lord chose him for himself, and was turned towards him, and guided him.|
|55||121||20||And God said, Get ye down hence, all of you: the one of you shall be an enemy unto the other. But hereafter shall a direction come unto you from me:i||i See chapter 2, p. 5.||And God said, "Get ye all down hence, the one of you a foe unto the other. Hereafter shall guidance come unto you from me;|
|55||122||20||and whosoever shall follow my direction shall not err, neither shall he be unhappy;||And whoso followeth my guidance shall not err, and shall not be wretched:|
|55||123||20||but whosoever shall turn aside from my admonition, verily he shall lead a miserable life,||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 286, p. 257
|And whoso turneth away from My remembrance, truly his shall be a life of misery.||But whoso turneth away from my monition, his truly shall be a life of misery:|
|55||124||20||and we will cause him to appear before us on the day of resurrection, blind.j||j See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 66.||And We will assemble him with others on the day of Resurrection, blind."28||28 From the intensity of the light, mentioned Sura [1xxx.] xxxix. 69.|
|55||125||20||And he shall say, O LORD, why hast thou brought me before thee blind, whereas before I saw clearly?||He will say, "O my Lord! why hast thou assembled me with others, blind? whereas I was endowed with sight."|
|55||126||20||God shall answer, Thus have we done, because our signs came unto thee, and thou didst forget them; and in the same manner shalt thou be forgotten this day.||He will answer, "Thus is it, because our signs came unto thee and thou didst forget them, and thus shalt thou be forgotten this day."|
|55||127||20||And thus will we reward him who shall be negligent, and shall not believe in the signs of his LORD: and the punishment of the life to come shall be more severe, and more lasting, than the punishment of this life.||Even thus will We recompense him who hath transgressed and hath not believed in the signs of his Lord; and assuredly the chastisement of the next world will be more severe and more lasting.|
|55||128||20||Are not the Meccans, therefore, acquainted how many generations we have destroyed before them; in whose dwellings they walk?k Verily herein are signs unto those who are endued with understanding.||k Seeing the footsteps of their destruction; as of the tribes of Al, and Thamûd.||Are not they, who walk the very places where they dwelt, aware how many generations we have destroyed before them? Verily in this are signs to men of insight.|
|55||129||20||And unless a decree had previously gone forth from thy LORD for their respite, verily their destruction had necessarily followed: but there is a certain time determined by God for their punishment.||And had not a decree of respite from thy Lord first gone forth, their chastisement had at once ensued. Yet the time is fixed.|
|55||130||20||Wherefore, do thou, O Mohammed, patiently bear that which they say; and celebrate the praise of thy LORD before the rising of the sun, and before the setting thereof, and praise him in the hours of the night, and in the extremities of the day,l that thou mayest be well-pleased with the prospect of receiving favor from God.||l i.e., Evening and morning; which times are repeated as the principal hours of prayer. But some suppose these words intend the prayer of noon; the first half of the day ending, and the second half beginning at that time.1
|Put up then with what they say; and celebrate the praise of thy Lord before the sunrise, and before its setting; and some time in the night do thou praise him, and in the extremes29 of the day, that thou haply mayest please Him.||29 In order to reconcile this passage with the prescribed hours, some understand the extremes to mean the mid-day, when the day is as it were divided.|
|55||131||20||And cast not thine eyes on that which we have granted divers of the unbelievers to enjoy, namely, the splendor of this present life,m that we may prove them thereby; for the provision of thy LORDn is better, and more permanent.||m That is, do not envy or covet their pomp and prosperity in this world.2
2 See chapter 15, p. 194.
n viz., The reward laid up for thee in the next life: or the gift of prophecy, and the revelations with which GOD had favoured thee.
|And strain not thine eye after what We have bestowed on divers of themthe braveries of this worldthat we may thereby prove them. The portion which thy Lord will give, is better and more lasting.|
|55||132||20||Command thy family to observe prayer; and do thou persevere therein. We require not of thee that thou labor to gain necessary provisions for thyself and family; we will provide for thee; for the prosperous issue shall attend on piety.o||o It is said that when Mahommeds family were in any strait or affliction, he used to order them to go to prayers, and to repeat this verse.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|Enjoin prayer on thy family, and persevere therein. We ask not of thee to find thine own provisionwe will provide for thee, and a happy issue shall there be to piety.|
|55||133||20||The unbelievers say, Unless he come unto us with a sign from his LORD, we will not believe on him. Hath not a plain declaration come unto them, of that which is contained in the former volumes of scripture, by the revelation of the Koran?||But they say, "If he come not to us with a sign from his Lord . . .!"30 But have not clear proofs for the Koran come to them, in what is in the Books of old?||30 Supply, we will not believe.|
|55||134||20||if we had destroyed them by a judgment before the same had been revealed, they would have said, at the resurrection, O LORD, how could we believe since thou didst not send unto us an apostle, that we might follow thy signs, before we were humbled and covered with shame?||And had We destroyed them by a chastisement before its time, they would surely have said, "O our Lord! How could we believe if thou didst not send unto us an Apostle that we might follow thy signs ere that we were humbled and disgraced."|
|55||135||20||Say, Each of us wait the issue: wait, therefore; for ye shall surely know hereafter who have been the followers of the even way, and who hath been rightly directed.||SAY: Each one of us awaiteth the end. Wait ye then, and ye shall know which of us have been followers of the even way, and who hath been the rightly guided.|
|65||0||21||CHAPTER XXI.||SURA XXI.THE PROPHETS [LXV.]|
|65||0||21||ENTITLED, THE PROPHETS;p REVEALED AT MECCA.||p The chapter bears this title, because some particular relating to several of the ancient prophets are here recited.||MECCA.112 Verses|
|65||0||21||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|65||1||21||(XVII.) THE time of giving up their account draweth nigh unto the people of Mecca; while they are sunk in negligence, turning aside from the consideration thereof.||THIS people's reckoning hath drawn nigh, yet, sunk in carelessness, they turn aside.|
|65||2||21||No admonition cometh unto them from their LORD, being lately revealed in the Koran, but when they hear it,||Every fresh warning that cometh to them from their Lord they only hear to mock it,|
|65||3||21||they turn it to sport: their hearts are taken up with delights. And they who act unjustly discourse privately together, saying, Is this Mohammed any more than a man like yourselves? Will ye therefore come to hear a piece of sorcery, when ye plainly perceive it to be so?||Their hearts set on lusts: and they who have done this wrong say in secret discourse, "Is He more than a man like yourselves? What! will ye, with your eyes open,1 accede to sorcery?"||1 Lit. while ye see it to be such.|
|65||4||21||Say, My LORD knoweth whatever is spoken in heaven and on earth: it is he who heareth and knoweth.||SAY: "My Lord knoweth what is spoken in the heaven and on the earth: He is the Hearer, the Knower."|
|65||5||21||But they say, The Koran is a confused heap of dreams: nay, he hath forged it; nay, he is a poet: let him come unto us therefore with some miracle, in like manner as the former prophets were sent.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 60
|MG: a confused medley of dreams,||"Nay," say they, "it is the medley of dreams: nay, he hath forged it: nay, he is a poet: let him come to us with a sign as the prophets of old were sent."|
|65||6||21||None of the cities which we have destroyed believed the miracles which they saw performed before them: will these therefore believe, if they see a miracle?||Before their time, none of the cities which we have destroyed, believed: will these men, then, believe?|
|65||7||21||We sent none as our apostles before them, other than men, unto whom we revealed our will. Ask those who are acquainted with the scripture, if ye know not this.||And we sent none, previous to thee, but men to whom we had revealed ourselves. Ask ye the people who are warned by Scriptures,2 if ye know it not.||2 Lit. the people or family of the admonition. Itq. 34 considers this verse to have been revealed at Medina.|
|65||8||21||We gave them not a body which could be supported without their eating food; neither were they immortal.||We gave them not bodies which could dispense with food: and they were not to live for ever.|
|65||9||21||But we made good our promise unto them: wherefore we delivered them, and those whom we pleased; but we destroyed the exorbitant transgressors.||Then made we good our promise to them; and we delivered them and whom we pleased, and we destroyed the transgressors.|
|65||10||21||Now have we sent down unto you, O Koreish, the book of the Koran; wherein there is honourable mention of you: will ye not therefore understand?||And now have we sent down to you "the book," in which is your warning: What, will ye not then understand?|
|65||11||21||And how many cities have we overthrown, which were ungodly; and caused other nations to rise up after them?||And how many a guilty city have we broken down, and raised up after it other peoples:|
|65||12||21||And when they felt our severe vengeance, behold, they fled swiftly from those cities.||And when they felt our vengeance, lo! they fled from it.|
|65||13||21||And the angels said scoffingly unto them, Do not fly; but return to that wherein ye delighted, and to your habitations; peradventure ye will be asked.q||q i.e., Concerning the present posture of affairs, by way of consultation: or, that ye may be examined as to your deeds, that ye may receive the reward thereof.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin, al Zamakh.
|"Flee not," said the angels in mockery, "but come back to that wherein ye revelled, and to your abodes! Questions will haply be put to you."|
|65||14||21||They answered, Alas for us! verily we have been unjust.r||r It is related that a prophet was sent to the inhabitants of certain towns in Yaman, but instead of hearkening to his remonstrances, they killed him: upon which GOD delivered them into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, who put them to the sword: a voice at the same time crying from heaven, Vengeance for the blood of the prophets! Upon which they repented, and used the words of this passage.||They said, "Oh, woe to us! Verily we have been evil doers."|
|65||15||21||And this their lamentation ceased not, until we had rendered them like corn which is mown down and utterly extinct.||And this ceased not to be their cry, until we made them like reaped corn, extinct.|
|65||16||21||We created not the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, by way of sport.s||s But for the manifestation of our power and wisdom to people of understanding, that they may seriously consider the wonders of the creation, and direct their actions to the attainment of future happiness, neglecting the vain pomp and fleeting pleasures of this world.||We created not the heaven and the earth, and what is between them, for sport:|
|65||17||21||If we had pleased to take diversion, verily we had taken it with that which beseemeth us;t if we had resolved to have done this.||t viz., We had sought our pleasure in our own perfections; or, in the spiritual beings which are in our immediate presence; and not in raising of material buildings, with painted roofs, and fine floors, which is the diversion of man.
Some think the original word, translated diversion, signifies in this place a wife, or a child; and that the passage is particularly levelled against the Christians.1
|Had it been our wish to find a pastime, we had surely found it in ourselves;if to do so had been our will.|
|65||18||21||But we will oppose truth to vanity, and it shall confound the same; and behold, it shall vanish away. Woe be unto you, for that which ye impiously utter concerning God!||Nay, we will hurl the truth at falsehood, and it shall smite it, and lo! it shall vanish. But woe be to you for what ye utter of God!|
|65||19||21||since whoever is in heaven and on earth is subject unto him; and the angels who are in his presence do not insolently disdain his service, neither are they tired therewith.||All beings in the heaven and on the earth are His: and they who are in his presence disdain not his service, neither are they wearied:|
|65||20||21||They praise him night and day; they faint not.||They praise Him night and day: they rest not.3||3 Or, they invent not (concerning Him). Comp. Rev. iv. 8.|
|65||21||21||Have they taken gods from the earth? Shall they raise the dead to life?||Have they taken gods from the earth who can quicken the dead?|
|65||22||21||If there were either in heaven or on earth gods besides GOD, verily both would be corrupted.u But far be that which they utter from GOD, the LORD of the throne!||u That is, the whole creation would necessarily fall into confusion and be overturned, by the competition of such mighty antagonists.||Had there been in either heaven or earth gods besides God, both surely had gone to ruin. But glory be to God, the Lord of the throne, beyond what they utter!|
|65||23||21||No account shall be demanded of him for what he shall do; but an account shall be demanded of them.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 182, p. 171
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Tablet of Ishráqát, within pp. 99-134)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 63, paragraph 86
|He shall not be asked of His doings?
cf. BWC: Verily He shall not be asked of His doings but all others shall be asked of their doings.
cf. BWC: Nor shall He be asked of His doings, whilst all men will be asked of their every deed.
|He shall not be asked of his doings, but they shall be asked.|
|65||24||21||Have they taken other gods besides him! Say, Produce your proof thereof. This is the admonition of those who are contemporary with me, and the admonition of those who have been before me:x but the greater part of them know not the truth, and turn aside from the same.||x i.e., This is the constant doctrine of all the sacred books; not only of the Korân, but of those which were revealed in former ages; all of them bearing witness to the great and fundamental truth of the unity of God.||Have they taken other gods beside Him? SAY; Bring forth your proofs that they are gods. This is the warning of those who are with me, and the warning of those who were before me: but most of them know not the truth, and turn aside.|
|65||25||21||We have sent no apostle before thee, but we revealed unto him that there is no god beside myself, wherefore serve me.||No apostle have we sent before thee to whom we did not reveal that "Verily there is no God beside me: therefore worship me."|
|65||26||21||They say, The Merciful hath begotten issue; and the angels are his daughters.y GOD forbid! They are his honoured servants,||y This passage was revealed on account of the Khozâites, who held the angels to be the daughters of GOD.||Yet they say, "The God of Mercy hath begotten issue from the angels." Glory be to Him! Nay, they are but His honoured servants:|
|65||27||21||they prevent him not in anything which they say;z and they execute his command.||z i.e., They presume not to say anything, until he hath spoken it; behaving as servants who know their duty.||The Four Valleys (The Third Valley, within pp. 54-57)
|They speak not till He hath spoken; and they do His bidding.||They speak not till He hath spoken;4 and they do His bidding.||4 Lit. they precede him not in speech.|
|65||28||21||He knoweth that which is before them, and that which is behind them; they shall not intercede for any,||He knoweth what is before them and what is behind them; and no plea shall they offer|
|65||29||21||except for whom it shall please him; and they tremble for fear of him.||Save for whom He pleaseth; and they tremble for fear of Him.|
|65||30||21||Whoever of them shall say, I am a god besides him; that angel will we reward with hell: for so will we reward the unjust.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 52)
|And that angel among them who saith "I am a god beside Him," will we recompense with hell: in such sort will we recompense the offenders.|
|65||31||21||Do not the unbelievers therefore know, that the heavens and the earth were solid, and we clave the same in sunder;a and made every living thing of water? Will they not therefore believe?||a That is, They were one continued mass of matter, till we separated them, and divided the heaven into seven heavens, and the earth into as many stories; and distinguished the various orbs of the one, and the different climates of the other, &c. Or, as some choose to translate the words, The heavens and the earth were shut up, and we opened the same; their meaning being, that the heavens did not rain, nor the earth produce vegetables, till GOD interposed his power.2
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|Do not the infidels see that the heavens and the earth were both a solid mass, and that we clave them asunder, and that by means of water we give life to everything? Will they not then believe?|
|65||32||21||And we placed stable mountains on the earth, lest it should move with them;b and we made broad passages between them for paths, that they might be directed in their journeys:||b See chapter 16, p. 196.||And we set mountains on the earth lest it should move with them, and we made on it broad passages between them as routes for their guidance;|
|65||33||21||and we made the heaven a roof well supported. Yet they turn aside from the signs thereof, not considering that they are the workmanship of God.||And we made the heaven a roof strongly upholden; yet turn they away from its signs.|
|65||34||21||It is he who hath created the night, and the day, and the sun, and the moon; all the celestial bodies move swiftly, each in its respective orb.||And He it is who hath created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each moving swiftly in its sphere.|
|65||35||21||We have not granted unto any man before thee eternal permanency in this world; if thou die, therefore, will they be immortal?c||c This passage was revealed when the infidels said, We expect to see Mohammed die, like the rest of mankind.||At no time5 have we granted to man a life that shall last for ever: if thou then die, shall they live for ever?||5 Lit. before thee, which might seem to imply that the grant of immortality had been made to Muhammad. I have therefore rendered, as in the text, to avoid the ambiguity. Comp. Suras [xcvii.] iii. 182; [lxxxi.] xxix. 57, and Weil's Life of Mohammad, p. 350.|
|65||36||21||Every soul shall taste of death: and we will prove you with evil, and with good, for a trial of you; and unto us shall ye return.||Every soul shall taste of death:6 and for trial will we prove you with evil and with good; and unto Us shall ye be brought back.||6 Comp. Matt. xvi. 28; Heb. ii. 9. Hist. Josephi Fabr. Lign. c. 22 at the end.|
|65||37||21||When the unbelievers see thee, they receive thee only with scoffing, saying, Is this he who mentioneth your gods with contempt? Yet themselves believe not what is mentioned to them of the Merciful.d||d Denying his unity; or rejecting his apostles and the scriptures which were given for their instruction, and particularly the Korân.||And when the infidels see thee they receive thee only with scoffs:"What! is this he who maketh such mention of your gods?" Yet when mention is made to them of the God of Mercy, they believe not.|
|65||38||21||Man is created of precipitation.e Hereafter will I show you my signs, so that ye shall not wish them to be hastened.||e Being hasty and inconsiderate.1 It is said this passage was revealed on account of al Nodar Ebn al Hareth, when he desired Mohammed to hasten the divine vengeance with which he threatened the unbelievers.2
1 See chapter 17, p. 208, &c.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|"Man," say they, "is made up of haste."7 But I will shew you my signs:8 desire them not then to be hastened.||7 See the index under the word Man. The Rabbins teach that man was created with innate evil propensities. See Schr der's Talm. Rabb.- Judenthum, p. 378.
8 That is, my teaching as to the future lot of the infidels, etc.
|65||39||21||They say, When will this threat be accomplished, if ye speak truth?||They say, "When will this threat be made good? Tell us, if ye be men of truth?"|
|65||40||21||If they who believe not knew that the time will surely come, when they shall not be able to drive back the fire of hell from their faces, nor from their backs, neither shall they be helped, they would not hasten it.||Did the infidels but know the time when they shall not be able to keep the fire of hell from their faces or from their backs, neither shall they be helped!|
|65||41||21||But the day of vengeance shall come upon them suddenly, and shall strike them with astonishment: they shall not be able to avert it, neither shall they be respited.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LIX, within pp. 59-60)
|cf. BWC: God grant, He Who is the sovereign Truth will suddenly appear amongst you, invested with the power of the mighty Word, and ye shall then be confounded by the Truth itself, and ye shall have no power to ward it off;||But it shall come on them suddenly and shall confound them; and they shall not be able to put it back, neither shall they be respited.|
|65||42||21||Other apostles have been mocked before thee; but the punishment which they scoffed at fell upon such of them as mocked.||Other apostles have been scoffed at before thee: but that doom at which they mocked encompassed the scoffers.|
|65||43||21||Say unto the scoffers, Who shall save you by night and by day from the Merciful? Yet they utterly neglect the remembrance of their LORD.||SAY: Who shall protect you by night and by day from the God of Mercy? Yet turn they away from the warning of their Lord.|
|65||44||21||Have they gods who will defend them, besides us? They are not able to help themselves; neither shall they be assisted against us by their companions,||Have they gods beside Us who can defend them? For their own succour have they no power; neither shall the gods they join with God screen them from Us.|
|65||45||21||But we have permitted these men and their fathers to enjoy worldly prosperity, so long as life was continued unto them. Do they not perceive that we come unto the land of the unbelievers, and straiten the borders thereof? Shall they therefore be the conquerors?||Yes! we have given these men and their fathers enjoyments so long as their life lasted. What! see they not that we come to a land and straiten its borders9 Is it they who are the conquerors?||9 Muhammad appeals to the rapid progress of Islam as a proof of his divine mission.|
|65||46||21||Say, I only preach unto you the revelation of God: but the deaf will not hear thy call, whenever they are preached unto.||SAY: I only warn you of what hath been revealed to me: but the deaf will not hear the call, whenever they are warned;|
|65||47||21||Yet if the least breath of the punishment of thy LORD touch them, they will surely say, Alas for us! verily we have been unjust.||Yet if a breath of thy Lord's chastisement touch them, they will assuredly say, "Oh! woe to us! we have indeed been offenders."|
|65||48||21||We will appoint just balances for the day of resurrection; neither shall any soul be injured at all: although the merit or guilt of an action be of the weight of a grain of mustard-seed only, we will produce it publicly; and there will be sufficient accountants with us.||Memorials of the Faithful (pp. 180-191, Shamsu'd-Duhá)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|Just balances will we set up for the day of the resurrection, neither shall any soul be wronged in aught; though, were a work but the weight of a grain of mustard seed, we would bring it forth to be weighed: and our reckoning will suffice.|
|65||49||21||We formerly gave unto Moses and Aaron the law, being a distinctionf between good and evil, and a light and admonition unto the pious;||f Arab. al Forkân. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 44.||We gave of old to Moses and Aaron the illumination,10 and a light and a warning for the God-fearing,||10 Ar. furquana derived by Muhammad from the Jews, constantly used in the Talmud, and meaning as in Syr. and Æth. deliverance, liberation. Thus, Sura viii. 29, 42, and hence, illumination, revelation, generally. The usual interpretation here and in other passages is the distinction, i.e. between good and evil, lawful and unlawful. The title is applied to the Koran and Pentateuch alike.|
|65||50||21||who fear their LORD in secret, and who dread the hour of judgment.||Who dread their Lord in secret, and who tremble for "the Hour."|
|65||51||21||And this book also is a blessed admonition, which we have sent down from heaven: will ye therefore deny it?||And this Koran which we have sent down is a blessed warning: will ye then disown it?|
|65||52||21||And we gave unto Abraham his directiong heretofore, and we knew him to be worthy of the revelations wherewith he was favored.||g viz., The ten books of divine revelations which were given him.1
1 See the Prel. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 57.
|Of old we gave unto Abraham his direction,11 for we knew him worthy.||11 This story is taken in part verbatim from Midr. Rabbah on Gen. par. 17. See also Schalscheleth Hakabala, 2; Maimon de Idol. ch. 1; and Yad Hachazakah, vii. 6, who makes Abrahamin his 40th yearrenounce star-worship, break images, escape the wrath of the king by a miracle, and preach that there is one God of the whole universe.|
|65||53||21||Remember when he said unto his father, and his people, What are these images, to which ye are so entirely devoted?h||h See chapter 6, p. 95, &c., chapter 19, p. 230, and chapter 2, p. 28.||When he said to his Father and to his people, "What are these images to which ye are devoted?"|
|65||54||21||They answered, We found our fathers worshipping them.||They said, "We found our fathers worshipping them."|
|65||55||21||He said, Verily both ye and your fathers have been in a manifest error.||He said, "Truly ye and your fathers have been in a plain mistake."|
|65||56||21||They said, Dost thou seriously tell us the truth, or art thou one who jestest with us?||They said, "Hast thou come unto us in earnest? or art thou of those who jest?"|
|65||57||21||He replied, Verily your LORD is the LORD of the heavens and the earth; it is he who hath created them: and I am one of those who bear witness thereof.||He said, "Nay, your Lord is Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, who hath created them both; and to this am I one of those who witness:|
|65||58||21||By GOD, I will surely devise a plot against your idols, after ye shall have retired from them, and shall have turned your backs.||And, by God, I will certainly lay a plot against your idols, after ye shall have retired and turned your backs."|
|65||59||21||And in the people's absence he went into the temple where the idols stood, and he brake them all in pieces, except the biggest of them; that they might lay the blame upon that.i And when they were returned, and saw the havoc which had been made,||i Abraham took his opportunity to do this while the Chaldeans were abroad in the fields, celebrating a great festival; and some say he hid himself in the temple: and when he had accomplished his design, that he might the more evidently convince them of their folly in worshipping them, he hung the axe, with which he had hewn and broken down the images, on the neck of the chief idol, named by some writers, Baal; as if he had been the author of all the mischief.2 For this story, which, though it be false, is not ill invented, Mohammed stands indebted to the Jews; who tell it with a little variation: for they say Abraham performed this exploit in his fathers shop, during his absence; that Terah, on his return, demanding the occasion of the disorder, his son told him that the idols had quarrelled and fallen together by the ears about an offering of fine flour, which had been brought them by an old woman; and that the father, finding he could not insist on the impossibility of what Abraham pretended, without confessing the impotence of his gods, fell into a violent passion and carried him to Nimrod that he might be exemplarily punished for his insolence.3
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c. Vide Hyde, de Rel. vet. Pers. c. 2.
3 R. Gedal. in Shalshel. hakkab. p. 8 Vide Maimon. Yad hazzaka, c. I, de idol.
|So, he broke them all in pieces, except the chief of them, that to it they might return, inquiring.|
|65||60||21||they said, Who hath done this to our gods? He is certainly an impious person.||They said, "Who hath done this to our gods? Verily he is one of the unjust."|
|65||61||21||And certain of them answered, We heard a young man speak reproachfully of them: he is named Abraham.||They said, "We heard a youth make mention of them: they call him Abraham."|
|65||62||21||They said, Bring him therefore before the people, that they may bear witness against him.||They said, "Then bring him before the people's eyes, that they may witness against him."|
|65||63||21||And when he was brought before the assembly, they said unto him, Hast thou done this unto our gods, O Abraham?||They said, "Hast thou done this to our gods, O Abraham?"|
|65||64||21||He answered, Nay, that biggest of them hath done it: but ask them, if they can speak.||He said, "Nay, that their chief hath done it: but ask ye them, if they can speak."|
|65||65||21||And they returned unto themselves,j and said the one to the other, Verily ye are the impious persons.||j That is, They became sensible of their folly.||So they turned their thoughts upon themselves, and said, "Ye truly are the impious persons:"|
|65||66||21||Afterwards they relapsed into their former obstinacy,k and said, Verily thou knowest that these speak not.||k Literally, They were turned down upon their heads.||Then became headstrong in their former error12 and exclaimed,"Thou knowest that these speak not."||12 Lit. sie neigten sich nach ihren Kopfen. They were turned down upon their heads. Ullm. and Sale in notes. But Ullm. in the text, verfielen sie wieder in ihren Aberglauben.|
|65||67||21||Abraham answered, Do ye therefore worship, besides GOD, that which cannot profit you at all, neither can it hurt you? Fie on you: and upon that which ye worship besides GOD! Do ye not understand?||He said, "What! do ye then worship, instead of God, that which doth not profit you at all, nor injure you? Fie on you and on that ye worship instead of God! What! do ye not then understand?"|
|65||68||21||They said, Burn him, and avenge your gods: if ye do this it will be well.l||l Perceiving they could not prevail against Abraham by dint of argument, says al Beidâwi, they had recourse to persecution and torments. The same commentator tells us the person who gave this counsel was a Persian Curd,4 named Heyyûn, and that the earth opened and swallowed him up alive: some, however, say it was Andeshân, a Magian priest;5 and others, that it was Nimrod himself.
4 Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Dhokak. et Schultens, Indic. Geogr. in Vit. Saladini, voce Curdi.
5 Vide DHerbel. p. 115.
|They said:13 "Burn him, and come to the succour of your gods: if ye will do anything at all."||13 The Rabbins make Nimrod to have been the persecutor of Abraham. Comp. Targ. Jon. on Gen. xv. 7. Tr. Bava Bathra, fol. 91 a. Maimon. More Nevochim, iii. 29. Weil, Legenden, p. 74.|
|65||69||21||And when Abraham was cast into the burning pile, we said, O fire, be thou cold, and a preservation unto Abraham.m||m The commentators relate that, by Nimrods order, a large space was enclosed at Cûtha, and filled with a vast quantity of wood, which being set on fire burned so fiercely, that none dared to venture near it: then they bound Abraham, and putting him into an engine (which some suppose to have been of the devils invention), shot him into the midst of the fire; from which he was preserved by the angel Gabriel who was sent to his assistance; the fire burning only the cords with which he was bound.1 They add that the fire having miraculously lost its heat, in respect to Abraham, became an odoriferous air, and that the pile changed to a pleasant meadow; though it raged so furiously otherwise, that, according to some writers, about two thousand of the idolaters were consumed by it.2
This story seems to have had no other foundation than that passage of Moses, where GOD is said to have brought Abraham out of Ur, of the Chaldees,3 misunderstood: which words the Jews, the most trifling interpreters of scripture, and some moderns who have followed them, have translated, out of the fire of the Chaldees; taking the word Ur, not for the proper name of a city, as it really is, but for an appellative, signifying fire.4 However, it is a fable of some antiquity, and credited, not only by the Jews, but by several of the eastern Christians; the twenty-fifth of the second Canûn, or January, being set apart in the Syrian calendar, for the commemoration of Abrahams being cast into the fire.5
The Jews also mention some other persecutions which Abraham underwent on account of his religion, particularly a ten years imprisonment;6 some saying he was imprisoned by Nimrod;7 and others, by his father Terah.8
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c. Vide Morgans Mahometism Expl. v. I, chapter 4.
2 The MS Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 28.
3 Genes. xv. 7.
4 Vide Targ. Jonath. et Hierosol. in Genes. c. II et 15; et Hyde, de Rel. vet. Pers. p. 74, &c.
5 Vide Hyde, ibid., p. 73.
6 R. Eliez. Pirke, c. 26, &c. Vide Maim. More Nev. l. 3, c. 29.
7 Glossa Talmud. in Gemar. Bava bathra, 91, I.
8 In Aggada.
|Shoghi Effendi in The Dawn-Breakers: O fire! Be thou cold, and to Abraham a safety!||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XXVI, p. 619
|We said, "O fire! be thou cold, and to Abraham a safety!"14||14 Or, let peace be upon Abraham. Comp. Targ. Jon. on Gen. xi. 28, from the mistranslation of which this legend took its rise, the word ur in Heb. meaning fire. See also Targ. Jon. on. Gen. xv. 7. The legend was adopted by some of the Eastern Christians; and commemorated in the Syrian Calendar on Jan. 29. (Hyde de Rel. V. Pers. 74). Comp. the Abyssinian Calendar on Jan. 25. (Ludolf. Hist. p. 409).|
|65||70||21||And they sought to lay a plot against him: but we caused them to be the sufferers.n||n Some tell us that Nimrod, on seeing this miraculous deliverance from his palace, cried out, that he would make an offering to the GOD of Abraham; and that he accordingly sacrificed four thousand kine.9 But, if he ever relented, he soon relapsed into his former infidelity: for he built a tower that he might ascend to heaven to see Abrahams GOD; which being overthrown,10 still persisting in his design, he would be carried to heaven in a chest borne by four monstrous birds; but after wandering for some time through the air, he fell down on a mountain with such a force, that he made it shake, whereto (as some fancy) a passage in the Korân11 alludes, which may be translated, although their contrivances be such as to make the mountains tremble.
Nimrod, disappointed in his design of making war with GOD, turned his arms against Abraham, who, being a great prince, raised forces to defend himself; but GOD, dividing Nimrods subjects, and confounding their language, deprived him of the greater part of his people, and plagued those who adhered to him by swarms of gnats, which destroyed almost all of them: and one of those gnats having entered into the nostril, or ear, of Nimrod, penetrated to one of the membranes of his brain, where, growing bigger every day, it gave him such intolerable pain, that he was obliged to cause his head to be beaten with a mallet, in order to procure some ease, which torture he suffered four hundred years; GOD being willing to punish, by one of the smallest of his creatures, him who insolently boasted himself to be lord of all.12 A Syrian calendar places the death of Nimrod, as if the time were well known, on the eighth of Thamûz, or July.13
9 Al Beidâwi.
10 See chapter 16, p. 196.
11 Chapter 14, p. 190.
12 Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Nemrod. Hyde, ubi supra.
13 Vide Hyde, ibid. p. 74.
|And they sought to lay a plot against him, but we made them the sufferers.|
|65||71||21||And we delivered him, and Lot, by bringing them into the land wherein we have blessed all creatures.o||o i.e., Palestine; in which country the greater part of the prophets appeared.||And we brought him and Lot in safety to the land which we have blessed for all human beings:|
|65||72||21||And we bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, as an additional gift: and we made all of them righteous persons.||And we gave him Isaac and Jacob as a farther gift, and we made all of them righteous:|
|65||73||21||We also made them models of religion,p that they might direct others by our command: and we inspired into them the doing of good works, and the observance of prayer, and the giving of alms; and they served us.||p See chapter 2, p. 14.||We also made them models who should guide others by our command, and we inspired them with good deeds and constancy in prayer and almsgiving, and they worshipped us.|
|65||74||21||And unto Lot we gave wisdom and knowledge, and we delivered him out of the city which committed filthy crimes; for they were a wicked and insolent people;q||q See chapter 7, p. 113, &c., and chapter II, p. 166.||And unto Lot we gave wisdom, and knowledge; and we rescued him from the city which wrought filthiness; for they were a people, evil, perverse:|
|65||75||21||and we led him into our mercy; for he was an upright person.||And we caused him to enter into our mercy, for he was of the righteous.|
|65||76||21||And remember Noah, when he called for destruction on his people,r before the prophets above mentioned: and we heard him, and delivered him and his family from a great strait:||r See chapter 8, p. 132, note z.||And remember Noah when aforetime he cried to us and we heard him, and delivered him and his family from the great calamity;|
|65||77||21||and we protected him from the people who accused our signs of falsehood; for they were a wicked people, wherefore we drowned them all.||And we helped him against the people who treated our signs as impostures. An evil people verily were they, and we drowned them all.|
|65||78||21||And remember David and Solomon, when they pronounced judgment concerning a field, when the sheep of certain people had fed therein by night, having no shepherd; and we were witnesses of their judgment:||And David and Solomon; when they gave judgment concerning a field when some people's sheep had caused a waste therein; and we were witnesses of their judgment.|
|65||79||21||and we gave the understanding thereof unto Solomon.s And on all of them we bestowed wisdom, and knowledge. And we compelled the mountains to praise us, with David; and the birds also:t and we did this.||s Some sheep, in their shepherds absence, having broken into another mans field (or vineyard, say others), by night, and eaten up the corn, a dispute arose thereupon: and the cause being brought before David and Solomon, the former said, that the owner of the land should take the sheep, in compensation of the damage which he had sustained; but Solomon, who was then but eleven years old, was of opinion that it would be more just for the owner of the field to take only the profit of the sheep, viz., their milk, lambs, and wool, till the shepherd should, by his own labour and at his own expense, put the field into as good condition as when the sheep entered it; after which the sheep might be returned to their master. And this judgment of Solomon was approved by David himself as better than his own.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c.
t Mohammed, it seems, taking the visions of the Talmudists for truth, believed that when David was fatigued with singing psalms, the mountains, birds, and other parts of the creation, both animate and inanimate, relieved him in chanting the divine praises. This consequence the Jews draw from the words of the psalmist, when he calls on the several parts of nature to join with him in celebrating the praise of GOD;2 it being their perverse custom to expound passages in the most literal manner, which cannot bear a literal sense without a manifest absurdity; and, on the contrary, to turn the plainest passages into allegorical fancies.
2 See Psalm cxlviii
|And we gave Solomon insight into the affair; and on both of them we bestowed wisdom and knowledge. And we constrained the mountains and the birds to join with David in our praise: Our doing was it!|
|65||80||21||And we taught him the art of making coats of mail for you,u that they may defend you in your wars: will ye therefore be thankful?||u Men, before his inventing them, used to arm themselves with broad plates of metal. Lest this fable should want something of the marvellous, one writer tells us, that the iron which David used became soft in his hands like wax.3
3 Tarikh Montakkab. Vide DHerbel. p. 284.
|And we taught David the art of making mail15 for you, to defend you from each other's violence: will ye therefore be thankful?||15 It has been observed that the blacksmith has ever been looked upon with awe by barbarians on the same principle that made Vulcan a deity. In Abyssinia all artisans are Budah, sorcerers, especially the blacksmith, and he is a social outcast, as among the Somal; Throughout the rest of El-Islam, the blacksmith is respected as treading in the path of David, the father of the craft. Burton. First Footsteps in E. Africa, p. 33. The numerous wars in which David was engaged, may have given rise to the myth of his being the inventor of mail.|
|65||81||21||And unto Solomon we subjected a strong wind:x it ran at his command to the land whereon we had bestowed our blessing:y and we knew all things.||x Which transported his throne with prodigious swiftness. Some say, this wind was violent or gentle, just as Solomon pleased.4
4 See chapter 27.
y viz., Palestine: whither the wind brought back Solomons throne in the evening, after having carried it to a distant country in the morning.
|And to Solomon we subjected we subjected the strongly blowing wind; it sped at his bidding to the land we had blessed; for we know all things:|
|65||82||21||And we also subjected unto his command divers of the devils, who might dive to get pearls for him, and perform other work besides this;z and we watched over them.a||z Such as the building of cities and palaces, the fetching of rare pieces of art from foreign countries, and the like.
a Lest they should swerve from his orders, or do mischief according to their natural inclinations. Jallaloddin says, that when they had finished any piece of building, they pulled it down before night, if they were not employed in something new.
|And sundry Satans16 who should dive for him and perform other work beside: and we kept watch over them.||16 See Sura xxxviii. 37, p. 127.|
|65||83||21||And remember Job;b when he cried unto his LORD, saying, Verily evil hath afflicted me: but thou art the most merciful of those who show mercy.||b The Mohammedan writers tell us, that Job was of the race of Esau, and was blessed with a numerous family, and abundant riches; but that GOD proved him, by taking away all that he had, even his children, who were killed by the fall of a house; notwithstanding which he continued to serve GOD, and to return him thanks, as usual; that he was then struck with a filthy disease, his body being full of worms, and so offensive, that as he lay on the dunghill none could bear to come near him: that his wife, however (whom some call Rahmat the daughter of Ephraim the son of Joseph, and others Makhir the daughter of Manasses), attended him with great patience, supporting him with what she earned by her labour; but that the devil appeared to her one day, after having reminded her of her past prosperity, promised her that if she would worship him, he would restore all they had lost; whereupon she asked her husbands consent, who was so angry at the proposal, that he swore, if he recovered, to give his wife a hundred stripes: that Job having pronounced the prayer recorded in this passage, GOD sent Gabriel, who taking him by the hand raised him up; and at the same time a fountain sprang up at his feet, of which having drank, the worms fell off his body, and washing therein he recovered his former health and beauty: that GOD then restored all to him double; his wife also becoming young and handsome again, and bearing him twenty-six sons; and that Job, to satisfy his oath, was directed by GOD to strike her one blow with a palm-branch having a hundred leaves.1 Some, to express the great riches which were bestowed on Job after his sufferings, say he had two threshing-floors, one for wheat, and the other for barley, and that GOD sent two clouds which rained gold on the one, and silver on the other, till they ran over.2 The traditions differ as to the continuance of Jobs calamities; one will have it to be eighteen years, another thirteen, another three, and another exactly seven years seven months and seven hours.
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, Abulfeda, &c. See DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Aicub.
|And remember Job: When he cried to his Lord, "Truly evil hath touched me: but thou art the most merciful of those who shew mercy."|
|65||84||21||Wherefore we heard him, and relieved him from the evil which was upon him: and we restored unto him his family, and as many more with them, through our mercy, and for an admonition unto those who serve God.||So we heard him, and lightened the burden of his woe; and we gave him back his family, and as many more with them,a mercy from us, and a memorial for those who serve us:|
|65||85||21||And remember Ismael, and Edris,c and Dhu'lkefl.d All these were patient persons;||c See chapter 19, p. 230.
d Who this prophet was is very uncertain. One commentator will have him to be Elias, or Joshua, or Zacharias:3 another supposes him to have been the son of Job, and to have dwelt in Syria; to which some add, that he was first a very wicked man, but afterwards repenting, died; upon which these words appeared miraculously written over his door, Now hath God been merciful unto Dhulkefl:4 and a third tells us he was a person of great strictness of life, and one who used to decide causes to the satisfaction of all parties, because he was never in a passion: and that he was called Dhulkefl from his continual fasting, and other religious exercises.5
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And Ismael, and Edris17 and Dhoulkefl18all steadfast in patience.||17 See Sura xix. 55, 6, p. 121.
18 The man of the lot or portion. Or, of care, support. According to some Elias, as others say, Isaiah. It is more probable, however, that he is he Obadiah of 1 Kings xviii. 4, who supported 100 prophets in the cave, or Ezechiel, who is called Kephil by the Arabs. See Niebuhr, Travels, ii. 265.
|65||86||21||wherefore we led them into our mercy; for they were righteous doers.||And we caused them to enter into our mercy; for they were of the righteous:|
|65||87||21||And remember Dhu'lnun,e when he departed in wrath,f and thought that we could not exercise our power over him. And he cried out in the darkness,g saying, There is no GOD, besides thee: praise be unto thee! Verily I have been one of the unjust.||e This is the surname of Jonas; which was given him because he was swallowed by the fish. See chapter 10, p. 157.
f Some suppose Jonass anger was against the Ninevites, being tired with preaching to them for so long a time, and greatly disgusted at their obstinacy and ill usage of him; but others, more agreeably to scripture, say the reason of his ill humour was GODS pardoning of that people on their repentance, and averting the judgment which Jonas had threatened them with, so that he thought he had been made a liar.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
g i.e., Out of the belly of the fish.
|And Dhoulnoun;19 when he went on his way in anger, and thought that we had no power over him. But in the darkness he cried "There is no God but thou: Glory be unto Thee! Verily, I have been one of the evil doers:"||19 The man of the fishJonah.|
|65||88||21||Wherefore we heard him, and delivered him from affliction;h for so do we deliver the true believers.||h See chapter 37.||So we heard him and rescued him from misery: for thus rescue we the faithful:|
|65||89||21||And remember Zacharias, when he called upon his LORD, saying, O LORD, leave me not childless: yet thou art the best heir.||And Zacharias; when he called upon his Lord saying, "O my Lord, leave me not childless: but there is no better heir than Thyself."20||20 See Suras [xcvii.] iii. 33; xix. p. 117, for the story of Zacharias in full. The concluding sentence of this clause is obscure. It probably means that even if no heir were vouchsafed to Zacharias, yet since God will be the heir of all things he would take Zacharias to himself and thus abundantly recompense him. See Sura [lxxix.] xxviii. 58.|
|65||90||21||Wherefore we heard him, and we gave him John; and we rendered his wife fit for bearing a child unto him. These strove to excel in good works, and called upon us with love, and with fear; and humbled themselves before us.||So we heard him, and gave him John, and we made his wife fit for child-bearing. Verily, these vied in goodness, and called upon us with love and fear, and humbled themselves before us:|
|65||91||21||And remember her who preserved her virginity,i and into whom we breathed of our spirit; ordaining her and her son for a sign unto all creatures.||i Namely, the Virgin Mary||And her who kept her maidenhood, and into whom21 we breathed of our spirit, and made her and her son a sign to all creatures.||21 See Sura [cix.] lxvi. 12. It is quite clear from these two passages that Muhammad believed in the Immaculate and miraculous conception of Jesus.|
|65||92||21||Verily this your religion is one religion,j and I am your LORD; wherefore serve me.||j Being the same which was professed by all the prophets, and holy men and women, without any fundamental difference or variation.||Of a truth, this, your religion, is the one22 Religion, and I your Lord; therefore serve me:||22 That is, identical with that of the previous prophets, etc.|
|65||93||21||But the Jews and Christians have made schisms in the affair of their religion among themselves; but all of them shall appear before us.||But they have rent asunder this their great concern among themselves into sects. All of them shall return to us.|
|65||94||21||Whosoever shall do good works, being a true believer, there shall be no denial of the reward due to his endeavors; and we will surely write it down unto him.||And whoso shall do the things that are right, and be a believer, his efforts shall not be disowned: and surely will we write them down for him.|
|65||95||21||An inviolable prohibition is laid on every city which we shall have destroyed; for that they shall not return any more into the world,||There is a ban on every city which we shall have destroyed, that they shall not rise again,|
|65||96||21||until Gog and Magog shall have a passage opened for them,k and they shall hasten from every high hill,l||k i.e., Until the resurrection; one sign of the approach whereof will be the eruption of those barbarians.1
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 63.
l In this passage some copies, instead of hadabin, i.e., an elevated part of the earth, have jadathin, which signifies a grave; and if we follow the latter reading, the pronoun they must not refer to Gog and Magog, but to mankind in general.
|Until a way is opened for Gog and Magog,23 and they shall hasten from every high land,||23 See Sura [lxix.] xviii. 93. Thus, the ancient Jewish and Christian legend connects Gog and Magog with the end of the world. Rev. xx. 8. Pseudojon on Lev. xxvi. 44. Comp. Numb. xi. 27. Gog, however, is probably the mountain Ghef or Ghogh (see Reinegg's Beschreib. der Caucasus, ii. 79) and the syllable Ma in Magog, the Sanscrit mah, maha great.|
|65||97||21||and the certain promise shall draw near to be fulfilled: and behold, the eyes of the infidels shall be fixed with astonishment, and they shall say, Alas for us! we were formerly regardless of this day; yea, we were wicked doers.||And this sure promise shall draw on. And lo! the eyes of the infidels shall stare amazedly; and they shall say, "Oh, our misery! of this were we careless! yea, we were impious persons."|
|65||98||21||Verily both ye, O men of Mecca, and the idols which ye worship besides GOD, shall be cast as fuel into hell fire: ye shall go down into the same.||Verily, ye, and what ye worship beside God,24 shall be fuel for hell: ye shall go down into it.||24 "Whenever a people is punished (for idolatry) the beings honoured by them as gods, shall also be punished, for so it is written, on all the gods also of Egypt will I inflict judgments." (Sakkah, 29.)|
|65||99||21||If these were really gods, they would not go down into the same: and all of them shall remain therein forever.||Were these gods, they would not go down into it; but they shall all abide in it for ever.|
|65||100||21||In that place shall they groan for anguish; and they shall not hear ought therein.m||m Because of their astonishment and the insupportable torments they shall endure; or, as others expound the words, They shall not hear therein anything which may give them the least comfort.||Therein shall they groan; but nought therein shall they hear to comfort them.|
|65||101||21||As for those unto whom the most excellent reward of paradise hath been predestinated by us, they shall be transported far off from the same;n||n One Ebn al Zabári objected to the preceding words, Both ye and that which ye worship besides GOD, shall be cast into hell, because, being general , they asserted an absolute falsehood; some of the objects of idolatrous worship being so far from any danger of damnation, that they were in the highest favour with GOD, as JESUS, Ezra, and the angels: wherefore this passage was revealed, excepting those who were predestined to salvation.2
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|But they for whom we have before ordained good things, shall be far away from it:|
|65||102||21||they shall not hear the least sound thereof: and they shall continue forever in the felicity which their souls desire.||Its slightest sound they shall not hear: in what their souls longed for, they shall abide for ever:|
|65||103||21||The greatest terror shall not trouble them; and the angels shall meet them to congratulate them, saying, This is your day which ye were promised.||The great terror shall not trouble them; and the angel shall meet them with, "This is your day which ye were promised."|
|65||104||21||On that day we will roll up the heavens, as the angel al Sijilo rolleth up the book wherein every man's actions are recorded. As we made the first creature out of nothing, so we will also reproduce it at the resurrection. This is a promise which it lieth on us to fulfil: we will surely perform it.||o Whose office it is to write down the actions of every mans life, which, at his death, he rolls up, as completed. Some pretend one of Mohammeds scribes is here meant: and others take the word Sijil, or, as it is also written, Sijjill, for an appellative, signifying a book or written scroll; and accordingly render the passage, as a written scroll is rolled up.3
3 Iidem, &c.
|On that day we will roll up the heaven as one rolleth up25 written scrolls. As we made the first creation, so will we bring it forth again. This promise bindeth us; verily, we will perform it.||25 Ar. Sidjill, which is supposed by some to be the name of the angel who writes down the actions of every man's life upon a scroll, which is rolled up at his death (comp. Isai. xxxiv. 4); by others, to be the name of one of Muhammad's secretaries.|
|65||105||21||And now have we written in the psalms, after the promulgation of the law, that my servants the righteous shall inherit the earth.p||p These words are taken from Psalm xxxvii. v. 29.||And now, since the Law was given, have we written in the Psalms that "my servants, the righteous, shall inherit the earth."26||26 Ps. xxxvii. 29. This is the only text quoted in the Koran.|
|65||106||21||Verily in this book are contained sufficient means of salvation, unto people who serve God.||Verily, in this Koran is teaching for those who serve God.|
|65||107||21||We have not sent thee, O Mohammed, but as a mercy unto all creatures.||We have not sent thee otherwise than as mercy unto all creatures.|
|65||108||21||Say, No other hath been revealed unto me, than that your GOD is one GOD: will ye therefore be resigned unto him?||SAY: Verily it hath been revealed to me that your God is one God; are ye then resigned to Him? (Muslims.)|
|65||109||21||But if they turn their backs to the confession of God's unity, say, I proclaim war against you all equally:q but I know not whether that which ye are threatened withr be nigh, or whether it be far distant.||q Or, I have publicly declared unto you what I was commanded.
r viz., The losses and disgraces which ye shall suffer by the future successes of the Moslems; or, the day of judgment.
|But if they turn their backs, then SAY: I have warned you all alike; but I know not whether that with which ye are threatened be nigh or distant.|
|65||110||21||Verily God knoweth the discourse which is spoken in public; and he also knoweth that which ye hold in private.||God truly knoweth what is spoken aloud, and He also knoweth that which ye hide.|
|65||111||21||I know not but peradventure the respite granted you is for a trial of you; and that he may enjoy the prosperity of this world for a time.||And I know not whether haply this delay be not for your trial, and that ye may enjoy yourselves for a time.|
|65||112||21||Say, LORD, judge between me and my adversaries with truth. Our LORD is the Merciful; whose assistance is to be implored against the blasphemies and calumnies which ye utter.||My Lord saith: Judge ye with truth; for our Lord is the God of Mercywhose help is to be sought against what ye utter.|
|107||0||22||CHAPTER XXII.||SURA XXII.THE PILGRIMAGE [CVII.]|
|107||0||22||ENTITLED, THE PILGRIMAGE;s REVEALED AT MECCA.t||s Some ceremonies used at the pilgrimage of Mecca being mentioned in this chapter, gave occasion to the inscription.
t Some1 except two verses, beginning at these words, There are some men who serve GOD, in a wavering manner, &c. And others2 six verses, beginning at, These are two opposite parties, &c.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|MEDINA.178 Verses||1 This Sura is generally said to have been revealed at Mecca,but this is probably only the case with verses 1-24; 43-56; 60-65; 67-75. Mr. Muir places it at the close of the Meccan Suras of the fifth period. See Nöld, p. 158.|
|107||0||22||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|107||1||22||O MEN of Mecca, fear your LORD. Verily the shock of the last houru will be a terrible thing.||u Or, the earthquake which, some say, is to happen a little before the sun rises from the west; one sign of the near approach of the day of judgment.3
3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 61, &c.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 53, footnote 32
|MG: the earthquake of the Hour||O MEN of Mecca, fear your Lord. Verily, the earthquake of the last Hour will be a tremendous thing!|
|107||2||22||On the day whereon ye shall see it, every woman who giveth suck shall forget the infant which she suckleth,x and every female that is with young shall cast her burden; and thou shalt see men seemingly drunk, yet they shall not be really drunk: but the punishment of GOD will be severe.||x See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 64.||Shoghi Effendi in The Dawn-Breakers: every suckling woman shall forsake her sucking babe; and every woman that hath a burden in her womb shall cast her burden. And thou shalt see men drunken, yet they are not drunken; but it is the mighty chastisement of God!||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XXIV, p. 567
|On the day when ye shall behold it, every suckling woman shall forsake her sucking babe; and every woman that hath a burden in her womb shall cast her burden; and thou shalt see men drunken, yet are they not drunken: but it is the mighty chastisement of God!|
|107||3||22||There is a man who disputeth concerning GOD without knowledge,y and followeth every rebellious devil:||y This passage was revealed on account of al Nodar Ebn al Hareth, who maintained that the angels were the daughters of GOD, that the Korân was a fardel of old fables, and denied the resurrection.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|There is a man2 who, without knowledge, wrangleth about God, and followeth every rebellious Satan;||2 Said to be Abu Jahl. See Sura xcvi. p. 20, n. 2.|
|107||4||22||against whom it is written, that whoever shall take him for his patron, he shall surely seduce him, and shall lead him into the torment of hell.||Concerning whom it is decreed, that he shall surely beguile and guide into the torment of the Flame, whoever shall take him for his Lord.|
|107||5||22||O men, if ye be in doubt concerning the resurrection, consider that we first created you of the dust of the ground; afterwards, of seed; afterwards, of a little coagulated blood;z afterwards, of a piece of flesh, perfectly formed in part, and in part imperfectly formed; that we might make our power manifest unto you: and we caused that which we please to rest in the wombs, until the appointed time of delivery. Then we bring you forth infants; and afterwards we permit you to attain your age of full strength: and one of you dieth in his youth, and another of you is postponed to a decrepit age, so that he forgetteth whatever he knew. Thou seest the earth sometimes dried up and barren: but when we send down rain thereon, it is put in motion and swelleth, and produceth every kind of luxuriant vegetables.||z See chapter 96.||Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 3-9, 1 To the Baháís of the Northeastern States)
|O: The soil was black and dried. Then we caused the rain to descend upon it and immediately it became green, verdant, and every kind of plant sprouted up luxuriantly.||O men! if ye doubt as to the resurrection, yet, of a truth, have We created you of dust, then of the moist germs of life, then of clots of blood, then of pieces of flesh shapen and unshapen, that We might give you proofs of our power! And We cause one sex or the other, at our pleasure, to abide in the womb until the appointed time; then We bring you forth infants; then permit you to reach your age of strength; and one of you dieth, and another of you liveth on to an age so abject that all his former knowledge is clean forgotten!3 And thou hast seen the earth dried up and barren: but when We send down the rain upon it, it stirreth and swelleth, and groweth every kind of luxuriant herb.||3 Lit. so that after knowledge he knoweth not aught.|
|107||6||22||This showeth that GOD is the truth, and that he raiseth the dead to life, and that he is almighty;||This, for that God is the Truth, and that it is He who quickeneth the dead,-and that He hath power over everything:|
|107||7||22||and that the hour of judgment will surely come (there is no doubt thereof), and that GOD will raise again those who are in the graves.||And that "the Hour" will indeed comethere is no doubt of itand that God will wake up to life those who are in the tombs.|
|107||8||22||There is a man who disputeth concerning GOD without either knowledge, or a direction, or an enlightening book;a||a The person here meant, it is said, was Abu Jahl,1 a principal man among the Koreish, and a most inveterate enemy of Mohammed and his religion. His true name was Amru Ebn Heshâm, of the family of Makhzûm; and he was surnamed Abulhocm, i.e., the father of wisdom, which was afterwards changed into Abu Jahl, or the father of folly. He was slain in the battle of Bedr.2
2 See chapter 8, p. 132.
|A man there is who disputeth about God without knowledge or guidance or enlightening Book,|
|107||9||22||proudly turning his side, that he may seduce men from the way of GOD. Ignominy shall attend him in this world; and on the day of resurrection we will make him taste the torment of burning,||Turning aside in scorn to mislead others from the way of God! Disgrace shall be his in this world; and on the day of the resurrection, We will make him taste the torment of the burning:|
|107||10||22||when it shall be said unto him. This thou sufferest because of that which thy hands have formerly committed; for GOD is not unjust towards mankind.||"This, for thy handywork of old! for God is not unjust to His servants."|
|107||11||22||There are some men who serve GOD in a wavering manner, standing, as it were, on the vergeb of the true religion. If good befall one of them, he resteth satisfied therein; but if any tribulation befall him, he turneth himself round, with the loss both of this world, and of the life to come. This is manifest perdition.||b This expression alludes to one who being posted in the skirts of an army, if he sees the victory inclining to his own side, stands his ground, but if the enemy is likely to prevail, takes to his heels.
The passage, they say, was revealed on account of certain Arabs of the desert, who came to Medina, and having professed Mohammedism, were well enough pleased with it so long as their affairs prospered, but if they met with any adversity, were sure to lay the blame on their new religion. A tradition of Abu Saïd mentions another accident as the occasion of this passage, viz., that a certain Jew embraced Islâm, but afterwards taking a dislike to it, on account of some misfortune which had befallen him, went to Mohammed, and desired he might renounce it, and be freed from the obligation of it: but the prophet told him that no such thing was allowed in his religion.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|BWC: this verily is utter perdition||Bahíyyih Khánum, V. Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf, no. 33, p. 138
|There are some who serve God in a single point. If good come upon one of them, he resteth in it; but if trial come upon him, he turneth him round (to infidelity) with the loss both of this world and of the next! This same is the clear ruin!|
|107||12||22||He will call upon that, besides GOD, which can neither hurt him, nor profit him. This is an error remote from truth.||He calleth upon that beside God which can neither hurt him nor profit him. This same is the far-gone error!|
|107||13||22||He will invoke him who will sooner be of hurt to his worshipper than of advantage. Such is surely a miserable patron, and a miserable companion.||He calleth on him who would sooner hurt than profit him. Surely, bad the lord, and, surely, bad the vassal!|
|107||14||22||But GOD will introduce those who shall believe, and do righteous works, into gardens through which rivers flow; for GOD doth that which he pleaseth.||A Travelers Narrative, p. 73
|cf. EGB: doing what He pleaseth and ordering what He willeth.||But God will bring in those who shall believe and do the things that are right, into gardens 'neath which the rivers flow: for God doth that which He pleaseth.|
|107||15||22||Whoso thinketh that GOD will not assist his apostle in this world, and in the world to come, let him strain a rope towards heaven, then let him put an end to his life, and see whether his devices can render that ineffectual, for which he was angry.c||c Or, Let him tie a rope to the roof of his house, and hang himself; that is, let him carry his anger and resentment to ever so great a height, even to be driven to the most desperate extremities, and see whether with all his endeavours he will be able to intercept the divine assistance.4
|Let him who thinketh that God will not help His Apostle in this world and in the next, stretch a cord aloft as if to destroy himself; then let him cut it, and see whether his devices can bring that4 to nought at which he was angry!||4 The teachings and progress of Islam.|
|107||16||22||Thus do we send down the Koran, being evident signs: for GOD directeth whom he pleaseth.||Thus send we down the Koran with its clear signs (verses): and because God guideth whom He pleaseth.|
|107||17||22||As to the true believers, and those who Judaize, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Magians, and the idolaters; verily GOD shall judge between them on the day of resurrection; for GOD is witness of all things.||As to those who believe, and the Jews, and the Sabeites,5 and the Christians, and the Magians, and those who join other gods with God, of a truth, God shall decide between them on the day of resurrection: for God is witness of all things.||5 See Sura [xci.] ii. 59. The Sabeites were probably Hanyfs. See Pref.|
|107||18||22||Dost thou not perceive that all creatures both in heaven and on earth adore GOD;d and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the beasts, and many men? but many are worthy of chastisement:||d Confessing his power, and obeying his supreme command.||Seest thou not that all in the Heavens and all on the Earth adoreth God? the sun and the moon and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the beasts, and many men? But of many is chastisement the due:|
|107||19||22||and whomsoever GOD shall render despicable, there shall be none to honour; for GOD doth that which he pleaseth.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 241)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 63
A Travelers Narrative, p. 73
|BWC: doeth as He willeth
EGB: He doeth what He will
cf. EGB: doing what He pleaseth and ordering what He willeth.
|And whom God shall disgrace there shall be none to honour: God doth that which pleaseth Him.|
|107||20||22||These are two opposite parties, who dispute concerning their LORD.e And they who believe not shall have garments of fire fitted unto them: boiling water shall be poured on their heads;||e viz., The true believers, and the infidels. The passage is said to have been revealed on occasion of a dispute between the Jews and the Mohammedans; the former insisting that they were in greater favour with GOD, their prophet and revelations being prior to those of the latter; and these replying, that they were more in GODS favour, for that they believed not only in Moses but also in Mohammed, and in all the scriptures without exception; whereas the Jews rejected Mohammed, though they knew him to be a prophet, out of envy.1
|These, the Faithful and the Infidels, are the two disputants who dispute concerning their Lord: but for those who have disbelieved, garments of fire shall be cut out; the boiling water shall be poured down upon their heads:|
|107||21||22||their bowels shall be dissolved thereby, and also their skins; and they shall be beaten with maces of iron.||All that is in their bowels, and their skins, shall be dissolved: and there are maces of iron for them!|
|107||22||22||So often as they shall endeavor to get out of hell, because of the anguish of their torments, they shall be dragged back into the same; and their tormentors shall say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning.||So oft as they, for very anguish, would fain come forth thence, back shall they be turned into it: and"Taste ye the torment of the burning."|
|107||23||22||GOD will introduce those who shall believe, and act righteously, into gardens through which rivers flow: they shall be adorned therein with bracelets of gold, and pearls; and their vestures therein shall be silk.||But God will bring in those who shall have believed, and done the things that are right, into gardens 'neath which the rivers flow. Adorned shall they be therein with golden bracelets and with pearls, and their raiment therein shall be of silk;|
|107||24||22||They are directed unto a good saying;f and are directed into the honourable way.||f viz., The profession of GODS unity; or these words, which they shall use at their entrance into paradise, Praise be unto GOD, who hath fulfilled his promise unto us.2
|For they were guided to the best of words; guided to the glorious path!|
|107||25||22||But they who shall disbelieve, and obstruct the way of GOD, and hinder men from visiting the holy temple of Mecca, which we have appointed for a place of worship unto all men: the inhabitant thereof, and the stranger have an equal right to visit it:||But those who believe not, and seduce others from the way of God, and from the Holy Mosque which we have appointed to all men, alike for those who abide therein, and for the stranger;|
|107||26||22||and whosoever shall seek impiously to profane it, we will cause him to taste a grievous torment.||And those who seek impiously to profane it, we will cause to taste a grievous punishment.|
|107||27||22||Call to mind when we gave the site of the house of the Caaba for an abode unto Abraham,g saying, Do not associate anything with me; and cleanse my house for those who compass it, and who stand up, and who bow down to worship.||g i.e., For a place of religious worship; showing him the spot where it had stood, and also the model of the old building, which had been taken up to heaven at the flood.3
3 See the Prelim. Disc., Sect. IV.
|And call to mind when we assigned the site of the House6 to Abraham and said: "Unite not aught with Me in worship, and cleanse My House for those who go in procession round it, and who stand or bow in worship:"||6 The Kaaba. Sharastani informs us that there was an opinion prevalent among the Arabs, that the walking round the Kaaba, and other ceremonies, were symbolic of the motion of the planets and of other astronomical facts. Watwat, Mabahij al Fikr., Lib. i., c. 2, says that "most Arabic tribes were originally star-worshippers, Sabeans. The people of Saba worshipped the Sun, the tribes of Asad and Kaninah the Moon, etc. etc. At a later period they all sunk into idolatry, and in the time of Muhammad, the idols round the Kaaba amounted to 360."|
|107||28||22||And proclaim unto the people a solemn pilgrimage;h let them come unto thee on foot, and on every lean camel, arriving from every distant road;||h It is related that Abraham, in obedience to this command, went up to Mount Abu kobeis, near Mecca, and cried from thence, O men, perform the pilgrimage to the house of your LORD; and that GOD caused those who were then in the loins of their fathers, and the wombs of their mothers, from east to west, and who, he knew beforehand, would perform the pilgrimage, to hear his voice. Some say, however, that these words were directed to Mohammed, commanding him to proclaim the pilgrimage of valediction:4 according to which exposition the passage must have been revealed at Medina.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|And proclaim to the peoples a PILGRIMAGE: Let them come to thee on foot and on every fleet7 camel, arriving by every deep defile:||7 Lit. thin, with the implied sense of fleet.|
|107||29||22||that they may be witnesses of the advantages which accrue to them from the visiting this holy place,i and may commemorate the name of GOD on the appointed days,j in gratitude for the brute cattle which he hath bestowed on them. Wherefore eat thereof, and feed the needy, and the poor.||i viz., The temporal advantage made by the great trade driven at Mecca during the pilgrimage, and the spiritual advantage of having performed so meritorious a work.
j Namely, The ten first days of Dhulhajja; or the tenth day of the same month, on which they slay the sacrifices, and the three following days.5
5 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|That they may bear witness of its benefits to them, and may make mention of God's name on the appointed days,8 over the brute beasts with which He hath supplied them for sustenance: Therefore eat thereof yourselves, and feed the needy, the poor:||8 The ten first days of the Dhu'lhajja. For the ceremonies, see Freytag's Einleitung, p. 418; Burton's Pilgrimage, vol. iii.; Sale's Notes and Prelim. Disc.|
|107||30||22||Afterwards let them put an end to the neglect of their persons;k and let them pay their vows,l and compass the ancient house.m||k By shaving their heads, and other parts of their bodies, and cutting their beards and nails in the valley of Mina; which the pilgrims are not allowed to do from the time they become Mohrims, and have solemnly dedicated themselves to the performance of the pilgrimage, till they have finished the ceremonies, and slain their victims.6
6 Iidem. See chapter 2, p. 14, chapter 5, p. 85, and Bobov. de Peregr. Meccana, p. 15, &c.
l By doing the good works which they have vowed to do in their pilgrimage. Some understand the words only of the performance of the requisite ceremonies.
m i.e., The Caaba; which the Mohammedans pretend was the first edifice built and appointed for the worship of GOD.1 The going round this chapel is a principal ceremony of the pilgrimage, and is often repeated; but the last time of their doing it, when they take their farewell of the temple, seems to be more particularly meant in this place.
1 See chapter 3, p. 42, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
|Then let them bring the neglect of their persons to a close,9 and let them pay their vows, and circuit the ancient House.||9 That is, the uncut beards, nails, etc.|
|107||31||22||This let them do. And whoever shall regard the sacred ordinances of GOD;n this will be better for him in the sight of his LORD. All sorts of cattle are allowed you to eat, except what hath been read unto you, in former passages of the Koran, to be forbidden. But depart from the abomination of idols, and avoid speaking that which is false:o||n By observing what he has commanded, and avoiding what he has forbidden, or, as the words also signify, Whoever shall honour what GOD hath sanctified, or commanded not to be profaned; as the temple and territory of Mecca, and the sacred months, &c.
o Either by asserting wrong and impious things of the Deity; or by bearing false witness against your neighbours.
|This do. And he that respecteth the sacred ordinances of God, this will be best for him with his Lord. The flesh of cattle is allowed you, save of those already specified to you. Shun ye, therefore, the pollutions of idols; and shun ye the word of falsehood;|
|107||32||22||being orthodox in respect to GOD, associating no other god with him; for whoever associateth, any other with GOD is like that which falleth from heaven, and which the birds snatch away, or the wind bloweth to a far distant place.p||p Because he who falls into idolatry, sinketh from the height of faith into the depth of infidelity, has his thoughts distracted by wicked lusts, and is hurried by the devil into the most absurd errors.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Sound in faith Godward, uniting no god with Him; for whoever uniteth gods with God, is like that which falleth from on high, and the birds snatch it away, or the wind wafteth it to a distant place.|
|107||33||22||This is so. And whoso maketh valuable offerings unto GOD;q verily they proceed from the piety of men's hearts.||q By choosing a well-favoured and costly victim, in honour of him to whom it is destined. They say Mohammed once offered a hundred fat camels, and among them one which had belonged to Abu Jahl, having in his nose a ring of gold: and that Omar offered a noble camel, for which he had been bid three hundred dinârs.3
The original may also be translated generally, Whoso regardeth the rites of the pilgrimage, &c. But the victims seem to be more particularly intended in this place.
|This do. And they who respect the rites of God, perform an action which proceedeth from piety of heart.|
|107||34||22||Ye receive various advantages from the cattle designed for sacrifices, until a determined time for slaying them: then the place of sacrificing them is at the ancient house.||Ye may obtain advantages from the cattle up to the set time for slaying them: then, the place for sacrificing them is at the ancient House.|
|107||35||22||Unto the professors of every religionr have we appointed certain rites, that they may commemorate the name of GOD on slaying the brute cattle which he hath provided for them. Your GOD is one GOD: wherefore resign yourselves wholly unto him. And do thou bear good tidings unto those who humble themselves;||r Jallaloddin understands this passage in a restrained sense, of the former nations who were true believers; to whom God appointed a sacrifice, and a fixed place and proper ceremonies for the offering of it.||A Travelers Narrative, p. 92
|EGB: To every [people] We have appointed a [separate] rite||And to every people have we appointed rites, that they may commemorate the name of God over the brute beasts which He hath provided for them. And your God is the one God. To Him, therefore, surrender yourselves: and bear thou good tidings to those who humble them,|
|107||36||22||whose hearts, when mention is made of GOD, are struck with fear; and unto those who patiently endure that which befalleth them; and who duly perform their prayers, and give alms out of what we have bestowed on them.||Whose hearts, when mention is made of God, thrill with awe; and to those who remain steadfast under all that be-falleth them, and observe prayer, and give alms of that with which we have supplied them.|
|107||37||22||The camels slain for sacrifice have we appointed for you as symbols of your obedience unto GOD: ye also receive other advantages from them. Wherefore commemorate the name of GOD over them, when ye slay them, standing on their feet disposed in right order:s and when they are fallen down dead, eat of them; and give to eat thereof both unto him who is content with what is given him, without asking, and unto him who asketh.t Thus have we given you dominion over them, that ye might return us thanks.||s That is, as some expound the word, standing on three feet, having one of their fore feet tied up, which is the manner of tying camels to prevent their moving from the place. Some copies instead of sawâffa, read sawâffena, from the verb safana, which properly signifies the posture of a horse, when he stands on three feet, the edge of the fourth only touching the ground.
t Or, as the words may also be rendered, Unto him who asketh in a modest and humble manner, and unto him who wanteth but dareth not ask.
|And the camels have we appointed you for the sacrifice to God: much good have ye in them. Make mention, therefore, of the name of God over them when ye slay them, as they stand in a row; and when they are fallen over on their sides, eat of them, and feed him who is content and asketh not, and him who asketh. Thus have We subjected them to you, to the intent ye should be thankful.10||10 Offerings of animals are by no means confined to Mecca and the Pilgrimage. "It is not uncommon," says Mr. Lane, "without any definite view but that of obtaining general blessings, to make vows (of animals): and sometimes a peasant vows that he will sacrifice, for the sake of a saint, a calf which he possesses, as soon as it is grown and fatted. It is let loose, by consent of all his neighbours, to pasture where it will, even in fields of young wheat; and at last, after it has been sacrificed, a public feast is made of its meat. Many a large bull is thus given away." Modern Egyptians, i. 307. Compare Dr. Gobat's Abyssinia, p. 294, 7, for similar customs among Christians of probably Arabian extraction. Five or six thousand animals are said to have been slain in the valley of Mina by the pilgrims of the year 1854. (See Lieut. Burton's Pilgrimage, iii. p. 313.) The victim is considered by the devout as an expression of their conviction that death is their desert at the hands of God.|
|107||38||22||Their flesh is not accepted of GOD, neither their blood; but your piety is accepted of him. Thus have we given you dominion over them, that ye might magnify GOD, for the revelations whereby he hath directed you. And bear good tidings unto the righteous,||By no means can their flesh reach unto God, neither their blood; but piety on your part reacheth Him. Thus hath He subjected them to you, that ye might magnify God for His guidance: moreover, announce to those who do good deeds|
|107||39||22||that GOD will repel the ill designs of the infidels from the true believers; for GOD loveth not every perfidious unbeliever.||That God will ward off mischief from believers: for God loveth not the false, the Infidel.|
|107||40||22||Permission is granted unto those who take arms against the unbelievers, for that they have been unjustly persecuted by them (and GOD is certainly able to assist them):||A sanction is given to those who, because they have suffered outrages, have taken up arms; and verily, God is well able to succour them:|
|107||41||22||who have been turned out of their habitations injuriously, and for no other reason than because they say, Our LORD is GOD.u And if GOD did not repel the violence of some men by others, verily monasteries, and churches, and synagogues, and the temples of the Moslems, wherein the name of GOD is frequently commemorated, would be utterly demolished.x And GOD will certainly assist him who shall be on his side: for GOD is strong and mighty.||u This was the first passage of the Korân which allowed Mohammed and his followers to defend themselves against their enemies by force, and was revealed a little before the flight to Medina; till which time the prophet had exhorted his Moslems to suffer the injuries offered them with patience, which is also commanded in above seventy different places of the Korân.1
1 Al Beidâwi, &c. Vide the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 38, &c.
x That is, The public exercise of any religion, whether true or false, is supported only by force; and therefore, as Mohammed would argue, the true religion must be established by the same means.
|Those who have been driven forth from their homes wrongfully, only because they say "Our Lord is the God." And if God had not repelled some men by others, cloisters, and churches, and oratories, and mosques, wherein the name of God is ever commemorated, would surely have been destroyed. And him who helpeth God will God surely help:11 for God is right Strong, Mighty:||11 See Ibn Batoutah, iv. 106. (Par. ed.)|
|107||42||22||And he will assist those who, if we establish them in the earth, will observe prayer, and give alms, and command that which is just, and forbid that which is unjust. And unto GOD shall be the end of all things.||Those who, if we establish them in this land, will observe prayer, and pay the alms of obligation, and enjoin what is right, and forbid what is evil. And the final issue of all things is unto God.|
|107||43||22||If they accuse thee, O Mohammed, of imposture; consider that, before them, O Mohammed, of imposture; consider that, before them, the people of Noah, and the tribes of Ad and Thamud, and the people of Abraham, and the people of Lot, and the inhabitants of Madian, accused their prophets of imposture: and Moses was also charged with falsehood. And I granted a long respite unto the unbelievers: but afterwards I chastised them; and how different was the change I made in their condition!||Moreover, if they charge thee with imposture, then already, before them, the people of Noah, and Ad and Themoud, and the people of Abraham, and the people of Lot, and the dwellers in Madian, have charged their prophets with imposture! Moses, too, was charged with imposture! And I bore long with the unbelievers; then seize on them: and how great was the change I wrought!|
|107||44||22||How many cities have we destroyed, which were ungodly, and which are now fallen to ruin on their roofs? And how many wells have been abandoned,y and lofty castles?||y That is, How many spots in the deserts, which were formerly inhabited, are now abandoned? a neglected well being the proper sign of such a deserted dwelling in those parts, as ruins are of a demolished town.
Some imagine that this passage intends more particularly a well at the foot of a certain hill in the province of Hadramaut, and a castle built on the top of the same hill, both belonging to the people of Handha Ebn Safwân, a remnant of the Thamudites, who having killed their prophet, were utterly destroyed by GOD, and their dwelling abandoned.2
|And how many cities which had been ungodly, and whose roofs are now laid low in ruin, have We destroyed! And wells have been abandoned and lofty castles!|
|107||45||22||Do they not therefore journey through the land? And have they not hearts to understand with, or ears to hear with? Surely as to these things their eyes are not blind, but the hearts are blind which are in their breasts.||Have they not journeyed through the land? Have they not hearts to understand with, or ears to hear with? It is not that to these sights their eyes are blind, but the hearts in their breasts are blind!|
|107||46||22||They will urge thee to hasten the threatened punishment; but GOD will not fail to perform what he hath threatened: and verily one day with thy LORD is as a thousand years, of those which ye compute.z||z See 2 Pet. iii. 8.||And they will bid thee to hasten the chastisement. But God cannot fail His threat. And verily, a day with thy Lord is as a thousand years,12 as ye reckon them!||12 Comp. Sur. xxxii. 4, p. 190.|
|107||47||22||Unto how many cities have I granted respite, though they were wicked? Yet afterwards I chastised them: and unto me shall they come to be judged at the last day.||How many cities have I long borne with, wicked though they were, yet then laid hold on them to chastise them! Unto Me shall all return.|
|107||48||22||Say, O men, verily I am only a public preacher unto you.||SAY: O men! I am only your open warner:|
|107||49||22||And they who believe, and do good works, shall obtain forgiveness and an honourable provision.||And they who believe and do the things that are right, shall have forgiveness and an honourable provision;|
|107||50||22||But those who endeavor to make our signs of none effect shall be the inhabitants of hell.||But those who strive to invalidate our signs shall be inmates of Hell.|
|107||51||22||We have sent no apostle, or prophet, before thee, but, when he read, Satan suggested some error in his reading.a But GOD shall make void that which Satan hath suggested: then shall GOD confirm his signs; for GOD is knowing and wise.||a The occasion of the passage is thus related. Mohammed one day reading the 53rd chapter of the Korân, when he came to this verse, What think ye of Allât, and al Uzza, and of Manâh, the other third goddess? the devil put the following words into his mouth, which he pronounced through inadvertence, or, as some tell us, because he was then half asleep.1 viz., These are the most high and beauteous damsels, whose intercession is to be hoped for. The Koreish, who were sitting near Mohammed, greatly rejoiced at what they had heard, and when he had finished the chapter, joined with him and his followers in making their adoration: but the prophet, being acquainted by the angel Gabriel with the reason of their compliance, and with what he had uttered, was deeply concerned at his mistake, till this verse was revealed for his consolation.2
We are told however by Al Beidâwi, that the more intelligent and accurate persons reject the aforesaid story; and the verb, here translated read, signifying also to wish for anything, interpret the passage of the suggestions of the devil to debauch the affections of those holy persons, or to employ their minds in vain wishes and desires.
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, Yahya, &c. See chapter 16, p. 203.
|We have not sent any apostle or prophet before thee, among whose desires Satan injected not some wrong desire, but God shall bring to nought that which Satan had suggested. Thus shall God affirm His revelations13 for God is Knowing, Wise!||13 The ayats, signs or verses of the Koran. It is said by tradition that Muhammad was consoled by this revelation for the Satanic suggestion mentioned Sur. liii. 20, p. 70 (n.). But in this view of the text, for among whose desires, or affections, we should render when he recited.|
|107||52||22||But this he permitteth, that he may make that which Satan hath suggested, a temptation unto those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, and whose hearts are hardened (for the ungodly are certainly in a wide disagreement from the truth):||That He may make that which Satan hath injected, a trial to those in whose hearts is a disease, and whose hearts are hardened.Verily, the wicked are in a far-gone severance from the truth!|
|107||53||22||and that they on whom knowledge hath been bestowed may know that this book is the truth from thy LORD, and may believe therein; and that their hearts may acquiesce in the same: for GOD is surely the director of those who believe, into the right way.||And that they to whom "the Knowledge" hath been given, may know that the Koran is the truth from thy Lord, and may believe in it, and their hearts may acquiesce in it: for God is surely the guider of those who believe, into the straight path.|
|107||54||22||But the infidels will not cease to doubt concerning it, until the hour of judgment cometh suddenly upon them; or until the punishment of a grievous dayb overtake them.||b Or, a day which maketh childless; by which some great misfortune in war is expressed: as the overthrow the infidels received at Bedr. Some suppose the resurrection is here intended.||But the Infidels will not cease to doubt concerning it, until "the Hour" come suddenly upon them, or until the chastisement of the day of desolation come upon them.|
|107||55||22||On that day the kingdom shall be GOD'S: he shall judge between them. And they who shall have believed, and shall have wrought righteousness, shall be in gardens of pleasure;||On that day the Kingdom shall be God's: He shall judge between them: and they who shall have believed and done the things that are right, shall be in gardens of delight:|
|107||56||22||but they who shall have disbelieved, and shall have charged our signs with falsehood, those shall suffer a shameful punishment.||But they who were Infidels and treated our signs as liesthese thentheir's a shameful chastisement!|
|107||57||22||And as to those who shall have fled their country for the sake of GOD'S true religion, and afterwards shall have been slain, or shall have died; on them will GOD bestow an excellent provision; and GOD is the best provider.||And as to those who fled their country for the cause of God, and were afterwards slain, or died, surely with goodly provision will God provide for them! for verily, God! He, surely, is the best of providers!|
|107||58||22||He will surely introduce them with an introduction with which they shall be well pleased; for GOD is knowing and gracious.||He will assuredly bring them in with an in-bringing that shall please them well: for verily, God is right Knowing, Gracious.|
|107||59||22||This is so. Whoever shall take a vengeance equal to the injury which hath been done him,c and shall afterwards be unjustly treated;d verily GOD will assist him: for GOD is merciful, and ready to forgive.||c And shall not take a more severe revenge than the fact deserves.
d By the aggressors seeking to revenge himself again of the person injured, by offering him some further violence.
The passage seems to relate to the vengeance which the Moslems should take of the infidels, for their unjust persecution of them.
|So shall it be. And whoever in making exact reprisal for injury done him, shall again be wronged, God will assuredly aid him: for God is most Merciful, Gracious.|
|107||60||22||This shall be done, for that GOD causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night; and for that GOD both heareth and seeth.||So shall it be; for that God causeth the night to enter in upon the day, and He causeth the day to enter in upon the night: and for that God Heareth, Seeth.|
|107||61||22||This, because GOD is truth, and because what they invoke besides him is vanity; and for that GOD is the high, the mighty.||So shall it be, for that God is the truth; and because what they call on beside Him is vanity: and because God is the Lofty, the Mighty!|
|107||62||22||Dost thou not see that GOD sendeth down water from heaven, and the earth becometh green? for GOD is gracious and wise.||Seest thou not that God sendeth down water from Heaven, and that on the morrow the earth is clad with verdure? for God is benignant, cognisant of all.|
|107||63||22||Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: and GOD is self-sufficient, worthy to be praised.||His, all in the Heavens and all on Earth: and verily, God! He assuredly is the Rich, the Praiseworthy!|
|107||64||22||Dost thou not see that GOD hath subjected whatever is in the earth to your service, and also the ships which sail in the sea, by his command? And he withholdeth the heaven that it fall not on the earth, unless by his permission:e for GOD is gracious unto mankind, and merciful.||e Which it will do at the last day.||Seest thou not that God hath put under you whatever is in the earth; and the ships which traverse the sea at His bidding? And He holdeth back the heaven that it fall not on the earth, unless He permit it! for God is right Gracious to mankind, Merciful.|
|107||65||22||It is he who hath given you life, and will hereafter cause you to die; afterwards he will again raise you to life, at the resurrection: but man is surely ungrateful.||And He it is who hath given you life, then will cause you to die, then will give you lifeof a truth man is all ungrateful.|
|107||66||22||Unto the professors of every religion have we appointed certain rites, which they observe. Let them not therefore dispute with thee concerning this matter: but invite them unto thy LORD: for thou followest the right direction.||To every people have we appointed observances which they observe. Therefore, let them not dispute this matter with thee, but bid them to thy Lord, for thou art on the right way:|
|107||67||22||But if they enter into debate with thee, answer, GOD well knoweth that which ye do:||But if they debate with thee, then Say: God best knoweth what ye do!|
|107||68||22||GOD will judge between you on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein ye now disagree.||God will judge between you on the day of resurrection, as to the matters wherein ye differ.|
|107||69||22||Dost thou not know that GOD knoweth whatever is in heaven and on earth? Verily this is written in the book of his decrees: this is easy with GOD.||Knowest thou not that God knoweth whatever is in the Heaven and on the Earth? This truly is written in the Book: this truly is easy for God.|
|107||70||22||They worship, besides GOD, that concerning which he hath sent down no convincing proof, and concerning which they have no knowledge: but the unjust doers shall have none to assist them.||They worship beside God, that for which He hath sent down no warranty, and that of which they have no knowledge: but for those who commit this wrong, no helper!|
|107||71||22||And when our evident signs are rehearsed unto them, thou mayest perceive, in the countenances of the unbelievers, a disdain thereof: it wanteth little but that they rush with violence on those who rehearse our signs unto them. Say, Shall I declare unto you a worse thing than this? The fire of hell, which GOD hath threatened unto those who believe not, is worse; and an unhappy journey shall it be thither.||And when our clear signs are rehearsed to them, thou mayst perceive disdain in the countenances of the Infidels. Scarce can they refrain from rushing to attack those who rehearse our signs to them! SAY: Shall I tell you of worse than this? The fire which God hath threatened to those who believe not! Wretched the passage thither!|
|107||72||22||O men, a parable is propounded unto you; wherefore hearken unto it. Verily the idols which ye invoke, besides GOD, can never create a single fly, although they were all assembled for that purpose: and if the fly snatch anything from them, they cannot recover the same from it.f Weak is the petitioner, and the petitioned.||f The commentators say, that the Arabs used to anoint the images of their gods with some odoriferous composition, and with honey, which the flies eat, though the doors of the temple were carefully shut, getting in at the windows or crevices.
Perhaps Mohammed took this argument from the Jews, who pretend that the temple of Jerusalem, and the sacrifices there offered to the true GOD, were never annoyed by flies;1 whereas swarms of those insects infested the heathen temples, being drawn thither by the steam of the sacrifices.2
1 Pirke Aboth c. 5, Sect. 6, 7.
2 Vide Selden, de Diis Syris, Synt. 2, c. 6.
|O men! a parable is set forth to you, wherefore hearken to it. Verily, they on whom ye call beside God, cannot create a fly, though they assemble for it; and if the fly carry off aught from them, they cannot take it away from it! Weak the suppliant and the supplicated!|
|107||73||22||They judge not of GOD according to his due estimation: for GOD is powerful and mighty.||Unworthy the estimate they form of God!14 for God is right Powerful, Mighty!||14 Lit. they measure not God with truth of His measurement.|
|107||74||22||GOD chooseth messengers from among the angels,g and from among men: for GOD is he who heareth and seeth.||g Who are the bearers of the divine revelations to the prophets; but ought not to be the objects of worship.||God chooseth messengers from among the angels and from among men: verily, God Heareth, Seeth.|
|107||75||22||He knoweth that which is before them, and that which is behind them: and unto GOD shall all things return.||He knoweth what is before them and what is behind them; and unto God shall all things return.|
|107||76||22||O true believers, bow down, and prostrate yourselves, and worship your LORD; and work righteousness, that ye may be happy:||Believers! bow down and prostrate yourselves and worship your Lord, and work righteousness that you may fare well.|
|107||77||22||and fight in defence of GOD'S true religion, as it behooveth you to fight for the same. He hath chosen you, and hath not imposed on you any difficulty in the religion which he hath given you, the religion of your father Abraham: he hath named you Moslems||And do valiantly in the cause of God as it behoveth you to do for Him. He hath elected you, and hath not laid on you any hardship in religion, the Faith of your father Abraham. He hath named you the Muslims|
|107||78||22||heretofore, and in this book; that our apostle may be a witness against you at the day of judgment, and that ye may be witnesses against the rest of mankind. Wherefore be ye constant at prayer; and give alms: and adhere firmly unto GOD. He is your master; and he is the best master, and the best protector.||Heretofore and in this Book, that the Apostles may be a witness against you, and that ye may be witnesses against the rest of mankind. Therefore observe prayer, and pay the legal impost, and cleave fast to God. He is your liege Lorda goodly Lord, and a goodly Helper!|
|64||0||23||CHAPTER XXIII.||SURA XXIII.THE BELIEVERS [LXIV.]|
|64||0||23||ENTITLED, THE TRUE BELIEVERS; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.1118 Verses||1 This Sura is said by Wahidi Intr, and by Assuyûti, 55, to be the last Meccan revelation. But there seems to be no reason for this opinion.|
|64||0||23||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|64||1||23||(XVIII.) NOW are the true believers happy:||HAPPY now the BELIEVERS,|
|64||2||23||who humble themselves in their prayer,||Who humble them in their prayer,|
|64||3||23||and who eschew all vain discourse,||And who keep aloof from vain words,2||2 In prayer. Eccl. v. I; Matt. vi. 7. But it may be understood of idle talk generally.|
|64||4||23||and who are doers of alms-deeds;||And who are doers of alms deeds,|
|64||5||23||and who keep themselves from carnal knowledge of any women||And who restrain their appetites,|
|64||6||23||except their wives, or the captives which their right hands possess (for as to them they shall be blameless:||(Save with their wives, or the slaves whom their right hands possess: for in that case they shall be free from blame:|
|64||7||23||but whosoever coveteth any woman beyond these, they are transgressors):||But they whose desires reach further than this are transgressors:)|
|64||8||23||and who acquit themselves faithfully of their trust, and justly perform their covenant;||And who tend well their trusts and their covenants,|
|64||9||23||and who observe their appointed times of prayer:||And who keep them strictly to their prayers:|
|64||10||23||these shall be the heirs,||These shall be the heritors,|
|64||11||23||who shall inherit paradise; they shall continue therein forever.||Who shall inherit the paradise, to abide therein for ever.|
|64||12||23||We formerly created man in a finer sort of clay;||Now of fine clay have we created man:|
|64||13||23||afterwards we placed him in the form of seed in a sure receptacle:h||h viz., The womb.||Then we placed him, a moist germ,3 in a safe abode;||3 See Sura xxii. 5, n.|
|64||14||23||afterwards we made the seed coagulated blood; and we formed the coagulated blood into a piece of flesh: then we formed the piece of flesh into bones: and we clothed those bones with flesh: then we produced the same by another creation.i Wherefore blessed be GOD, the most excellent Creator!j||i i.e., Producing a perfect man, composed of soul and body.
j See chapter 6, p. 97, note d.
|Compilation on Women (V. Fostering the Development of Women, quotation 99, by Abdul-Bahá)
Some Answered Questions (Chapter 47, within pp. 180-185)
Some Answered Questions (Chapter 60, within pp. 223-227)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 107 (and footnote 66)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 33
|BWC: Hallowed be the Lord, the Most Excellent of all creators.
LCB: Blessed, therefore, be God, the most excellent of Makers.
LCB: Blessed, therefore, be God, the most excellent of Makers.
MG: Blessed therefore be God, the most excellent of Makers.
EGB: blessed be God, the Best of Creators.
|Then made we the moist germ a clot of blood: then made the clotted blood into a piece of flesh; then made the piece of flesh into bones: and we clothed the bones with flesh: then brought forth man of yet another make4Blessed therefore be God, the most excellent of Makers5||4 That is, a perfect man at last, composed of soul and body. The verb halaka, to create, is used throughout, for which I have necessarily substituted to make, in order to retain the same word throughout the verse.
5 These words are said by most commentators on Sura vi. 93, to have been uttered by Muhammad's scribe, Abdallah, on hearing the previous part of this verse, and to have been adopted by the prophet, at the same moment, as identical with his own inspirations.
|64||15||23||After this shall ye die:||Then after this ye shall surely die:|
|64||16||23||and afterwards shall ye be restored to life, on the day of resurrection.||Then shall ye be waked up on the day of resurrection.|
|64||17||23||And we have created over you seven heavens:k and we are not negligent of what we have created.||k Literally, seven paths; by which the heavens are meant, because, according to some expositors they are the paths of the angels and of the celestial bodies: though the original word also signifies things which are folded or placed like stories one above another, as the Mohammedans suppose the heavens to be.||And we have created over you seven heavens:6and we are not careless of the creation.||6 Lit. seven pathsa Talmudic expression.|
|64||18||23||And we send down rain from heaven, by measure; and we cause it to remain on the earth: we are also certainly able to deprive you of the same.||And we send down water from the Heaven in its due degree, and we cause it to settle on the earth;and we have power for its withdrawal:|
|64||19||23||And we cause gardens of palm-trees, and vineyards, to spring forth for you by means thereof; wherein ye have many fruits, and whereof ye eat.||And by it we cause gardens of palm trees, and vineyards to spring forth for you, in which ye have plenteous fruits, and whereof ye eat;|
|64||20||23||And we also raise for you a tree springing from Mount Sinai;l which produceth oil, and a sauce for those who eat.||l viz., The olive. The gardens near this mountain are yet famous for the excellent fruit-trees of almost all sorts which grow there.1
1 Vide Voyages de Thevenot, liv. 2, ch. 9.
|And the tree that groweth up on Mount Sinai; which yieldeth oil and a juice for those who eat.|
|64||21||23||Ye have likewise an instruction in the cattle; we give you to drink of the milk which is in their bellies, and ye receive many advantages from them; and of them do ye eat:||And there is a lesson for you in the cattle: We give you to drink of what is in their bellies, and many advantages do ye derive from them, and for food they serve you;|
|64||22||23||and on them, and on ships, are ye carried.m||m The beast more particularly meant in this place is the camel, which is chiefly used for carriage in the east; being called by the Arabs, the land ship, on which they pass those seas of sand, the deserts.||And on them and on ships are ye borne.|
|64||23||23||We sent Noah heretofore unto his people, and he said, O my people, serve GOD: ye have no GOD besides him; will ye therefore not fear the consequence of your worshipping other gods?||We sent Noah heretofore unto his people, and he said, "O my people! serve God: ye have no other God than He: will ye not therefore fear Him?|
|64||24||23||And the chiefs of his people, who believed not, said, This is no other than a man, as ye are: he seeketh to raise himself to a superiority over you. If GOD had pleased to have sent a messenger unto you, he would surely have sent angels: we have not heard this of our fore-fathers.||But the chiefs of the people who believed not said, "This is but a man like yourselves: he fain would raise himself above you: but had it pleased God to send, He would have sent angels: We heard not of this with our sires of old;|
|64||25||23||Verily he is no other than a man disturbed with frenzy: wherefore wait concerning him for a time.||Verily he is but a man possessed; leave him alone therefore for a time."|
|64||26||23||Noah said, O LORD, do thou protect me; for that they accuse me of falsehood.||He said, "O my Lord! help me against their charge of imposture."|
|64||27||23||And we revealed our orders unto him, saying, Make the ark in our sight; and according to our revelation. And when our decree cometh to be executed, and the oven shall boil and pour forth water,||So we revealed unto him, "Make the ark under our eye, and as we have taught, and when our doom shall come on, and the earth's surface shall boil up,7||7 See Sura [lxxv.] xi. 42, n.|
|64||28||23||carry into it of every species of animals one pair; and also thy family, except such of them on whom a previous sentence of destruction hath passed:n and speak not unto me in behalf of those who have been unjust; for they shall be drowned.||n See chapter 11, p. 160, &c.||Carry into it of every kind a pair, and thy family, save him on whom sentence hath already passed: and plead not with me for the wicked, for they shall be drowned.|
|64||29||23||And when thou and they who shall be with thee shall go up into the ark, say Praise be unto GOD, who hath delivered us from the ungodly people!||And when thou, and they who shall be with thee, shall go up into the ark; say, 'Praise be unto God, who hath rescued us from the wicked folk.'|
|64||30||23||And say, O LORD, cause me to come down from this ark with a blessed descent; for thou art the best able to bring me down from the same with safety.||And say, 'O my Lord! disembark me with a blessed disembarking: for thou art the best to disembark."'|
|64||31||23||Verily herein were signs of our omnipotence; and we proved mankind thereby.||Verily in this were signs, and verily we made proof of man.|
|64||32||23||Afterwards we raised up another generationo after them;||o Namely, the tribe of Ad, or of Thamud.||We then raised up other generations after them;|
|64||33||23||and we sent unto them an apostle from among them,p who said, Worship GOD: ye have no GOD besides him; will ye therefore not fear his vengeance?||p viz., The prophet Hûd, or Sâleh.||And we sent among them an apostle from out themselves, with, "Worship ye God! ye have no other God than He: will ye not therefore fear Him?"|
|64||34||23||And the chiefs of his people, who believed not, and who denied the meeting of the life to come, and on whom we had bestowed affluence in this present life, said, This is no other than a man, as ye are; he eateth of that whereof ye eat,||And the chiefs of His people who believed not, and who deemed the meeting with us in the life to come to be a lie, and whom we had richly supplied in this present life, said, "This is but a man like yourselves; he eateth of what ye eat,|
|64||35||23||and he drinketh of that whereof ye drink:||And he drinketh of what ye drink:|
|64||36||23||and if ye obey a man like unto yourselves, ye will surely be sufferers.||And if ye obey a man like yourselves, then ye will surely be undone.|
|64||37||23||Doth he threaten you that after ye shall be dead, and shall become dust and bones, ye shall be brought forth alive from your graves?||What! doth he foretell you, that after ye shall be dead and become dust and bones, ye shall be brought forth?|
|64||38||23||Away, away with that ye are threatened with!||Away, away with his predictions!|
|64||39||23||There is no other life besides our present life: we die, and we live; and we shall not be raised again.||There is no life beyond our present life; we die, and we live, and we shall not be quickened again!|
|64||40||23||This is no other than a man, who deviseth a lie concerning GOD: but we will not believe him.||This is merely a man who forgeth a lie about God: and we will not believe him."|
|64||41||23||Their apostle said, O LORD, defend me; for that they have accused me of imposture.||He said, "O my Lord! help me against this charge of imposture."|
|64||42||23||God answered, After a little while they shall surely repent their obstinacy.||He said, "Yet a little, and they will soon repent them!"|
|64||43||23||Wherefore a severe punishment was justly inflicted on them, and we rendered them like the refuse which is carried down by a stream. Away therefore with the ungodly people!||Then did the shout of the destroying angel in justice surprise them, we made them like leaves swept down by a torrent. Away then with the wicked people!|
|64||44||23||Afterwards we raised up other generationsq after them.||q As the Sodomites, Midianites, &c.||Then raised we up other generations after them|
|64||45||23||No nation shall be punished before their determined time;||Neither too soon, nor too late, shall a people reach its appointed time|
|64||46||23||neither shall they be respited after. Afterwards we sent our apostles, one after another. So often as their apostle came unto any nation, they charged him with imposture: and we caused them successively to follow one another to destruction; and we made them only subjects of traditional stories. Away therefore with the unbelieving nations!||Then sent we our apostles one after another. Oft as their apostle presented himself to a nation, they treated him as a liar; and we caused one nation to follow another; and we made them the burden of a tale. Away then with the people who believe not!|
|64||47||23||Afterwards we sent Moses, and Aaron his brother, with our signs and manifest power,||Then sent we Moses and his brother Aaron, with our signs and manifest power,|
|64||48||23||unto Pharaoh and his princes: but they proudly refused to believe on him; for they were a haughty people.||To Pharaoh and his princes; but they behaved them proudly, for they were a haughty people.|
|64||49||23||And they said, Shall we believe on two men like unto ourselves; whose people are our servants?||And they said, "Shall we believe on two men like ourselves, whose people are our slaves?"|
|64||50||23||And they accused them of imposture: wherefore they became of the number of those who were destroyed.||And they treated them both as impostors; wherefore they became of the destroyed.|
|64||51||23||And we heretofore gave the book of the law unto Moses, that the children of Israel might be directed thereby.||And we gave Moses the Book for Israel's guidance.|
|64||52||23||And we appointed the son of Mary, and his mother, for a sign: and we prepared an abode for them in an elevated part of the earth,r being a place of quiet and security, and watered with running springs.||r The commentators tell us the place here intended is Jerusalem, or Damascus, or Ramlah, or Palestine, or Egypt.1
But perhaps the passage means the hill to which the Virgin Mary retired to be delivered, according to the Mohammedan tradition.2
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
2 See chapter 19, p. 228.
|And we appointed the Son of Mary, and His mother for a sign; and we prepared an abode for both in a lofty spot,8 quiet, and watered with springs.||8 Comp. Sura xix. 22 ff., p. 119. Wahl understands this passage of Paradise.|
|64||53||23||O apostles, eat of those things which are good;s and work righteousness: for I well know that which ye do.||s These words are addressed to the apostles in general, to whom it was permitted to eat of all clean and wholesome food; and were spoken to them severally at the time of their respective mission. Some, however, think them directed particularly to the Virgin Mary and JESUS, or singly to the latter (in which case the plural number must be used out of respect only), proposing the practice of the prophets for their imitation. Mohammed probably designed in this passage to condemn the abstinence observed by the Christian monks.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|"O ye apostles! eat of things that are good: and do that which is right: of your doings I am cognisant.|
|64||54||23||This your religion is one religion;t and I am your LORD: wherefore fear me.||t See chapter 21, p. 248.||And truly this your religion is the one religion;9 and I am your Lord: therefore fear me."||9 Comp. Sura xxi. 92, p. 157.|
|64||55||23||But men have rent the affair of their religion into various sects: every party rejoiceth in that which they follow.||But men have rent their great concern, one among another, into sects; every party rejoicing in that which is their own;|
|64||56||23||Wherefore leave them in their confusion, until a certain time.u||u i.e., Till they shall be slain, or shall die a natural death.||Wherefore leave them till a certain time, in their depths of error.|
|64||57||23||Do they think that we hasten unto them the wealth and children which we have abundantly bestowed on them,||What! think they that what we largely, bestow on them of wealth and children,|
|64||58||23||for their good? But they do not understand.||We hasten to them for their good? Nay, they have no knowledge.|
|64||59||23||Verily they who stand in awe, for fear of their LORD,||But they who are awed with the dread of their Lord,|
|64||60||23||and who believe in the signs of their LORD,||And who believe in the signs of their Lord,|
|64||61||23||and who attribute not companions unto their LORD;||And who join no other gods with their Lord,|
|64||62||23||and who give that which they give in alms, their hearts being struck with dread, for that they must return unto their LORD:||And who give that which they give with hearts thrilled with dread because they must return unto their Lord,|
|64||63||23||these hasten unto good, and are foremost to obtain the same.||These hasten after good, and are the first to win it.|
|64||64||23||We will not impose any difficulty on a soul, except according to its ability; with us is a book, which speaketh the truth; and they shall not be injured.||We will not burden a soul beyond its power: and with us is a book, which speaketh the truth; and they shall not be wronged:|
|64||65||23||But their hearts are drowned in negligence, as to this matter: and they have works different from those we have mentioned; which they will continue to do,||But as to this Book, their hearts are plunged in error, and their works are far other than those of Muslims, and they will work those works,|
|64||66||23||until when we chastise such of them as enjoy an affluence of fortune, by a severe punishment,x behold, they cry aloud for help:||x By which is intended either the overthrow at Bedr, where several of the chief Korashites lost their lives; or the famine with which the Meccans were afflicted, at the prayer of the prophet, conceived in these words, O GOD, set thy foot strongly on Modar (an ancestor of the Koreish), and give them years like the years of Joseph: whereupon so great a dearth ensued, that they were obliged to feed on dogs, carrion, and burnt bones.4
|Until when we lay hold on their affluent ones with punishment; lo! they cry for help:|
|64||67||23||but it shall be answered them, Cry not for help to-day: for ye shall not be assisted by us.||"Cry not for help this day, for by Us ye shall not be succoured:|
|64||68||23||My signs were read unto you, but ye turned back on your heels:||Long since were my signs rehearsed to you, but ye turned back on your heels,|
|64||69||23||proudly elating yourselves because of your possessing the holy temple; discoursing together by night, and talking foolishly.||Puffed up with pride, discoursing foolishly by night."|
|64||70||23||Do they not therefore attentively consider that which is spoken unto them; whether a revelation is come unto them which came not unto their fore-fathers?||Do they not then heed the things spokenwhether that hath come to them which came not to their fathers of old?|
|64||71||23||Or do they not know their apostle; and therefore reject him?||Or do they not recognise their apostle; and therefore disavow him?|
|64||72||23||Or do they say, He is a madman? Nay, he hath come unto them with the truth; but the greater part of them detest the truth.||Or say they, "A Djinn is in him?" Nay! he hath come to them with the truth; but the truth do most of them abhor.|
|64||73||23||If the truth had followed their desires, verily the heavens and the earth, and whoever therein is, had been corrupted.y But we have brought them their admonition; and they turn aside from their admonition.||y That is, If there had been a plurality of gods, as the idolaters contend:1 or, if the doctrine taught by Mohammed had been agreeable to their inclinations, &c.
1 See chapter 21, p. 243.
|But if the truth had followed in the train of their desires, the heavens and the earth, and all that therein is, had surely come to ruin! But we have brought them their warning; and from their warning they withdraw.|
|64||74||23||Dost thou ask of them any maintenance for thy preaching? since the maintenance of thy LORD is better; for he is the most bounteous provider.||Dost thou ask them for remuneration? But, remuneration from thy Lord is best; and He is the best provider.|
|64||75||23||Thou certainly invitest them to the right way:||And thou indeed biddest them to the right path;|
|64||76||23||and they who believe not in the life to come, do surely deviate from that way.||But verily they who believe not in the life to come, from that path do surely wander!|
|64||77||23||If we had had compassion on them, and taken off from them the calamity which had befallen them,z they would surely have more obstinately persisted in their error, wandering in confusion.||z viz., The famine. It is said that the Meccans being reduced to eat ilhiz, which is a sort of miserable food made of blood and camels hair, used by the Arabs in time of scarcity, Abu Sofiân came to Mohammed, and said, Tell me, I adjure thee by God and the relation that is between us, dost thou think thou art sent as a mercy unto all creatures; since thou hast slain the fathers with the sword and the children with hunger?2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|And if we had taken compassion on them, and relieved them from their trouble, they would have plunged on in their wickedness, wildly wandering.10||10 There is no reliable tradition as to the nature of the visitation here alluded to.|
|64||78||23||We formerly chastised them with a punishment:a yet they did not humble themselves before their LORD, neither did they make supplications unto him;||a Namely, the slaughter at Bedr.||We formerly laid hold on them with chastisement, yet they did not humble them to their Lord, nor did they abase them;|
|64||79||23||until, when we have opened upon them a door, from which a severe punishmentb hath issued, behold they are driven to despair thereat.||b viz., Famine; which is more terrible than the calamities of war.3
According to these explications, the passage must have been revealed at Medina; unless it be taken in a prophetical sense.
|Until, when we have opened upon them the door of a severe punishment, lo! they are in despair at it.|
|64||80||23||It is God who hath created in you the senses of hearing and of sight, that ye may perceive our judgments, and hearts, that ye may seriously consider them: yet how few of you give thanks!||It is He who hath implanted in you hearing, and sight, and heart; how few of you give thanks!|
|64||81||23||It is he who hath produced you in the earth; and before him shall ye be assembled.||It is He who hath caused you to be born on the earth: and unto Him shall ye be gathered.|
|64||82||23||It is he who giveth life, and putteth to death; and to him is to be attributed the vicissitude of night and day: do ye not therefore understand?||And it is He who maketh alive and killeth, and of Him is the change of the night and of the day: Will ye not understand?|
|64||83||23||But the unbelieving Meccans say as their predecessors said:||But they say, as said those of old:|
|64||84||23||they say, When we shall be dead, and shall have become dust and bones, shall we really be raised to life?||They say,"What! When we shall be dead, and have become dust and bones, shall we, indeed, be waked to life?|
|64||85||23||We have already been threatened with this, and our fathers also heretofore: this is nothing but fables of the ancients.||This have we been promised, we and our fathers aforetime: but it is only fables of the ancients."|
|64||86||23||Say, Whose is the earth, and whoever therein is, if ye know?||SAY: Whose is the earth, and all that is therein;if ye know?|
|64||87||23||They will answer, GOD'S. Say, Will ye not therefore consider?||They will answer, "God's." SAY: Will ye not, then reflect?|
|64||88||23||Say, Who is the LORD of the seven heavens, and the LORD of the magnificent throne?||SAY: Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the glorious throne?|
|64||89||23||They will answer, They are GOD'S. Say, Will ye not therefore fear him?||They will say, "They are God's". SAY: Will ye not, then, fear Him?|
|64||90||23||Say, In whose hand is the kingdom of all things; who protecteth whom he pleaseth, but is himself protected of none; if ye know?||SAY: In whose hand is the empire of all things, who protecteth but is not protected? if ye know:|
|64||91||23||They will answer, In GOD'S. Say, How therefore are ye bewitched?||They will answer, "In God's." SAY: How, then, can ye be so spell-bound?|
|64||92||23||Yea, we have brought them the truth; and they are certainly liars in denying the same.||Yea, we have brought them the truth; but they are surely liars:|
|64||93||23||GOD hath not begotten issue; neither is there any other god with him: otherwise every god had surely taken away that which he had created;c and some of them had exalted themselves above the others.d Far be that from GOD, which they affirm of him!||c And set up a distinct creation and kingdom of his own.
d See chapter 17, p. 210.
|God hath not begotten offspring; neither is there any other God with Him: else had each god assuredly taken away that which he had created,11 and some had assuredly uplifted themselves above others! Far from the glory of God, be what they affirm of Him!||11 That is, each would have formed a separate and independent kingdom.|
|64||94||23||He knoweth that which is concealed, and that which is made public: wherefore far be it from him to have those sharers in his honour which they attribute to him!||He knoweth alike the unseen and the seen: far be He uplifted above the gods whom they associate with Him!|
|64||95||23||Say, O LORD, If thou wilt surely cause me to see the vengeance with which they have been threatened;||SAY: O my Lord! If thou wilt let me witness the infliction of that with which they have been threatened!|
|64||96||23||O LORD, set me not among the ungodly people:||O my Lord! place me not among the ungodly people.|
|64||97||23||for we are surely able to make thee see that with which we have threatened them.||Verily, we are well able to make thee see the punishment with which we have threatened them.|
|64||98||23||Turn aside evil with that which is better:e we well know the calumnies which they utter against thee.||e That is, By forgiving injuries, and returning of good for them: which rule is to be qualified, however, with this proviso; that the true religion receive no prejudice by such mildness and clemency.1
|Turn aside evil with that which is better: we best know what they utter against thee.|
|64||99||23||And say, O LORD I fly unto thee for refuge, against the suggestions of the devils||And SAY: "O my Lord! I betake me to Thee, against the promptings of the Satans:|
|64||100||23||and I have recourse unto thee, O LORD, to drive them away, that they be not present with me.f||f To besiege me: or, as it may also be translated, That they hurt me not.||And I betake me to Thee, O my Lord! that they gain no hurtful access to me."|
|64||101||23||The gainsaying of the unbelievers ceaseth not until, when death overtaketh any of them, he saith, O LORD, suffer me to return to life,||When death overtaketh one of the wicked, he saith, "Lord, send me back again,|
|64||102||23||that I may do that which is right; in professing the true faith which I have neglected.g By no means. Verily these are the words which ye shall speak:||g Or, as the word may also import, In the world which I have left; that is, during the further term of life which shall be granted me, and from which I have been cut off.2
|That I may do the good which I have left undone."12 "By no means." These are the very words which he shall speak: But behind them shall be a barrier, until the day when they shall be raised again.||12 Or, in the (world) which I have left.|
|64||103||23||but behind them there shall be a bar,h until the day of resurrection.||h The original word barzakh, here translated bar, primarily signifies any partition, or interstice, which divides one thing from another; but is used by the Arabs not always in the same, and sometimes in an obscure sense. They seem generally to express by it what the Greeks did by the word Hades; one while using it for the place of the dead, another while for the time of their continuance in that state, another while for the state itself. It is defined by their critics to be the interval or space between this world and the next, or between death and the resurrection; every person who dies being said to enter into al barzakh; or, as the Greek expresses it, [Greek text].3 One lexicographer4 tells us that in the Korân it denotes the grave; but the commentators on this passage expound it a bar, or invincible obstacle, cutting off all possibility of return into the world, after death. See chapter 25, where the word again occurs.
Some interpreters understand the words we have rendered behind them, to mean before them (it being one of those words, of which there are several in the Arabic tongue, that have direct contrary significations), considering al Barzakh as a future space, and lying before, and not behind them.
3 Vide Pocock. not. in Port. Mosis, p. 248, &c., and the Prelim Disc. Sect. IV. p. 60.
4 Ebn Maruf, apud Gol. Lex. Arab. col. 254.
|And when the trumpet shall be sounded, the ties of kindred between them shall cease on that day; neither shall they ask each other's help.|
|64||104||23||When therefore the trumpet shall be sounded, there shall be no relation between them which shall be regarded on that day; neither shall they ask assistance of each other.||They whose balances shall be heavy, shall be the blest.|
|64||105||23||They whose balances shall be heavy with good works shall be happy; but they whose balances shall be light are those who shall lose their souls, and shall remain in hell for ever.i||i See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV., p. 69.||But they whose balances shall be light,these are they who shall lose their souls, abiding in hell for ever:|
|64||106||23||The fire shall scorch their faces, and they shall writhe their mouths therein for anguish:||The fire shall scorch their faces, and their lips shall quiver therein:|
|64||107||23||and it shall be said unto them, Were not my signs rehearsed unto you; and did ye not charge them with falsehood?||"What! Were not my signs rehearsed unto you? and did ye not treat them as lies?"|
|64||108||23||They shall answer, O LORD, our unhappiness prevailed over us, and we were people who sent astray.||They shall say, "O our Lord! our ill-fortune prevailed against us, and we became an erring people.|
|64||109||23||O LORD, take us forth from this fire: if we return to our former wickedness, we shall surely be unjust.||O our Lord! Bring us forth hence: if we go back again to our sins, we shall indeed be evil doers."|
|64||110||23||God will say unto them, Be ye driven away with ignominy thereinto: and speak not unto me to deliver you.||He will say; "Be ye driven down into it; and, address me not."|
|64||111||23||Verily there were a party of my servants, who said, O LORD, we believe: wherefore forgive us, and be merciful unto us; for thou art the best of those who show mercy.||A part truly of my servants was there, who said, "O our Lord! we believe: forgive us, then, and be merciful to us, for of the merciful art thou the best."|
|64||112||23||But ye received them with scoffs, so that they suffered you to forget my admonition,j and ye laughed them to scorn.||j Being unable to prevail on you by their remonstrances, because of the contempt wherein ye held them.||But ye received them with such scoffs that they suffered you to forget my warning, and ye laughed them to scorn.|
|64||113||23||I have this day rewarded them, for that they suffered the injuries ye offered them with patience: verily they enjoy great felicity.||Verily this day will I reward then, for their patient endurance: the blissful ones shall they be!|
|64||114||23||God will say, What number of years have ye continued on earth?||He will say, "What number of years tarried ye on earth?"|
|64||115||23||They will answer, We have continued there a day, or part of a day:k but ask those who keep account.l||k The time will seem thus short to them in comparison to the eternal duration of their torments, or because the time of their living in the world was the time of their joy and pleasure; it being usual for the Arabs to describe what they like as of short, and what they dislike, as of long continuance.
l That is, the angels, who keep account of the length of mens lives and of their works, or any other who may have leisure to compute; and not us, whose torments distract our thoughts and attention.
|They will say, "We tarried a day, or part of a day;13 but ask the recording angels."14||13 That is, our past life seems brevity itself in comparison with eternal torment.
14 Lit. those who number, or keep account, i.e. our torments distract us too much to allow us to compute.
|64||116||23||God will say, Ye have tarried but a while, if ye knew it.||God will say, "Short indeed was the time ye tarried, if that ye knew it.|
|64||117||23||Did ye think that we had created you in sport, and that ye should not be brought again before us? Wherefore let GOD be exalted, the King, the Truth! There is no GOD besides him, the LORD of the honourable throne. Whoever together with the true GOD shall invoke another god, concerning whom he hath no demonstrative proof, shall surely be brought to an account for the same before his LORD. Verily the infidels shall not prosper.||What! Did ye then think that we had created you for pastime, and that ye should not be brought back again to us?" Wherefore let God be exalted, the King, the Truth! There is no god but He! Lord of the stately throne! And whoso, together with God, shall call on another god, for whom he hath no proof, shall surely have to give account to his Lord. Aye, it shall fare ill with the infidels.|
|64||118||23||Say, O LORD, pardon, and show mercy; for thou art the best of those who show mercy.||And SAY: "O my Lord, pardon, and have mercy; for of those who show mercy, art thou the best."|
|105||0||24||CHAPTER XXIV.||SURA XXIV.LIGHT [CV.]|
|105||0||24||ENTITLED, LIGHT;m REVEALED AT MEDINA.||m This title is taken from an allegorical comparison made between light and GOD, or faith in him, about the middle of the chapter.||MEDINA.64 Verses|
|105||0||24||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|105||1||24||THIS Sura have we sent down from heaven; and have ratified the same; and we have revealed evident signs, that ye may be warned.||A SURA which we have sent down and sanctioned! Clear signs have we sent down therein, that ye may take warning.|
|105||2||24||The whore, and the whoremonger, shall ye scourge with a hundred stripes.n And let not compassion towards them prevent you from executing the judgment of GOD;o if ye believe in GOD and the last day: and let some of the true believers be witnesses of their punishment.p||n This law is not to be understood to relate to married people, who are of free condition; because adultery in such, according to the Sonna, is to be punished by stoning.1
1 See chapter 4, p. 55 and 57.
o i.e., Be not moved by pity, either to forgive the offenders, or to mitigate their punishment. Mohammed was for so strict and impartial an execution of the laws, that he is reported to have said, If Fâtema the daughter of Mohammed steal, let her hand be struck off.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
p That is, Let the punishment be inflicted in public, and not in private; because the ignominy of it is more intolerable than the smart, and more likely to work a reformation on the offender. Some say there ought to be three persons present at the least; but others think two, or even one, to be sufficient.1
|The whore and the whoremongerscourge each of them with an hundred stripes; and let not compassion keep you from carrying out the sentence of God, if ye believe in God and the last day: And let some of the faithful witness their chastisement.1||1 With this verse commences the reference to the scandal against Ayesha, to which verses 6-9 read like a later addition. See His. 731 ff. Albuhari, passim. Muslim ii. 628 ff. Tirm. 524. Tabari and Weil, p. 151.|
|105||3||24||The whoremonger shall not marry any other than a harlot, or an idolatress. And a harlot shall no man take in marriage, except a whoremonger, or an idolater. And this kind of marriage is forbidden the true believers.q||q The preceding passage was revealed on account of the meaner and more indigent Mohâjerins, or refugees, who sought to marry the whores of the infidels, taken captives in war, for the sake of the gain which they made by prostituting themselves. Some think the prohibition was special, and regarded only the Mohâjerins before mentioned; and others are of opinion it was general; but it is agreed to have been abrogated by the words which follow in this chapter, Marry the single women among you; harlots being comprised under the appellation of single women.2
It is supposed by some that not marriage, but unlawful commerce with such women is here forbidden.
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|The whoremonger shall not marry other than a whore or an idolatress; and the whore shall not marry other than a whoremonger or an idolater. Such alliances are forbidden to the faithful.|
|105||4||24||But as to those who accuse women of reputation of whoredom,r and produce not four witnesses of the fact,s scourge them with fourscore stripes, and receive not their testimony forever; for such are infamous prevaricators;||r The Arabic word, mohsinât, properly signifies women of unblamable conduct; but to bring the chastisement after mentioned on the calumniator, it is also requisite that they be free women, of ripe age, having their understandings perfect, and of the Mohammedan religion. Though the word be of the feminine gender, yet men are also supposed to be comprised in this law.
Abu Hanîfa was of opinion that the slanderer ought to be scourged in public, as well as the fornicator; but the generality are against him.3
s See chapter 4, p. 55.
|They who defame virtuous women,2 and bring not four witnesses, scourge them with fourscore stripes, and receive ye not their testimony for ever, for these are perverse persons||2 Said to refer to Hilal ben Umaiya (Muslim i. 886. Tirm. 523. Annasai, 409 f. Assamarq.) who had accused his wife of adultery. Two of these commentators, however, give the name of another Muslim as the person intended.|
|105||5||24||excepting those who shall afterwards repent, and amend; for unto such will GOD be gracious and merciful.||Save those who afterwards repent and live virtuously; for truly God is Lenient, Merciful!|
|105||6||24||They who shall accuse their wives of adultery, and shall have no witnesses thereof, besides themselves; the testimony which shall be required of one of them shall be, that he swear four times by GOD that he speaketh the truth:||And they who shall accuse their wives, and have no witnesses but themselves, the testimony of each of them shall be a testimony by God four times repeated, that he is indeed of them that speak the truth.3||3 Comp. Numb. v. ii, 31, with which Muhammad must have been acquainted.|
|105||7||24||and the fifth time that he imprecate the curse of GOD on him if he be a liar.||And the fifth time that the malison of God be upon him, if he be of them that lie.|
|105||8||24||And it shall avert the punishment from the wife, if she swear four times by GOD that he is a liar;||But it shall avert the chastisement from her if she testify a testimony four times repeated, by God, that he is of them that lie;|
|105||9||24||and if the fifth time she imprecate the wrath of GOD on her, if he speaketh the truth.t||t In case both swear, the mans oath discharges him from the imputation and penalty of slander, and the womans oath frees her from the imputation and penalty of adultery: but though the woman do swear to her innocence, yet the marriage is actually void, or ought to be declared void by the judge: because it is not fit they should continue together after they have come to these extremities.4
|And a fifth time to call down the wrath of God on her, if he have spoken the truth.|
|105||10||24||If it were not for the indulgence of GOD towards you, and his mercy, and that GOD is easy to be reconciled, and wise, he would immediately discover your crimes.||And but for the goodness and mercy of God towards you, and that God is He who loveth to turn, Wise . . . . !|
|105||11||24||As to the party among you who have published the falsehood concerning Ayesha,u think it not to be an evil unto you: on the contrary, it is better for you.x Every man of them shall be punished according to the injustice of which he hath been guilty;y and he among them who hath undertaken to aggravate the samez shall suffer a grievous punishment.||u For the understanding of this passage, it is necessary to relate the following story:
Mohammed having undertaken an expedition against the tribe of Mostalak, in the sixth year of the Hejra, took his wife Ayesha with him, to accompany him. In their return, when they were not far from Medina, the army removing by night, Ayesha, on the road, alighted from her camel, and stepped aside on a private occasion: but, on her return, perceiving she had dropped her necklace, which was of onyxes of Dhafâr, she went back to look for it; and in the meantime her attendants, taking it for granted, that she was got into her pavilion (or little tent surrounded with curtains, wherein women are carried in the east) set it again on the camel, and led it away. When she came back to the road, and saw her camel was gone, she sat down there, expecting that when she was missed some would be sent back to fetch her; and in a little time she fell asleep. Early in the morning, Safwân Ebn al Moattel, who had stayed behind to rest himself, coming by, and perceiving somebody asleep, went to see who it was and knew her to be Ayesha; upon which he waked her, by twice pronouncing with a low voice these words, We are Gods, and unto him must we return. Then Ayesha immediately covered herself with her veil; and Safwân set her on his own camel, and led her after the army, which they overtook by noon, as they were resting.
This accident had like to have ruined Ayesha, whose reputation was publicly called in question, as if she had been guilty of adultery with Safwân; and Mohammed himself knew not what to think, when he reflected on the circumstances of the affair, which were improved by some malicious people very much to Ayeshas dishonour; and notwithstanding his wifes protestations of her innocence, he could not get rid of his perplexity, nor stop the mouths of the censorious, till about a month after, when this passage was revealed, declaring the accusation to be unjust.1
1 Al Bokhari in Sonna, Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 82, &c., and Gagnier, Vie de Mahomet, lib. 4. c. 7.
x The words are directed to the prophet, and to Abu Becr, Ayesha, and Safwân, the persons concerned in this false report; since, besides the amends they might expect in the next world, GOD had done them the honour to clear their reputations by revealing eighteen verses expressly for that purpose.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
y The persons concerned in spreading the scandal were Abdallah Ebn Obba (who first raised it, and inflamed the matter to the utmost, out of hatred to Mohammed), Zeid Ebn Refâa, Hassân Ebn Thabet, Mestah Ebn Othâtha, a great-grandson of Abdalmotallebs, and Hamna Bint Jahash: and every one of them received fourscore stripes, pursuant to the law ordained in this chapter, except only Abdallah, who was exempted, being a man of great consideration.3
It is said that, as a farther punishment, Hassân and Mestah became blind, and that the former of them also lost the use of both his hands.4
3 Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 83.
4 Al Beidâwi.
z viz., Abdallah Ebn Obba , who had not the grace to become a true believer, but died an infidel.5
5 See chapter 9, p. 144.
|Of a truth, they who advanced that lie4 were a large number of you; but regard it not as an evil to you. No, it is an advantage to you.5 To every man among them shall it be done according to the offence he hath committed; and as to that person6 among them who took on himself to aggravate it, a sore punishment doth await him.||4 The rumour of improper intimacy between Ayesha and Safwan Ibn El Moattal, during Muhammad's return from the expedition against the tribe of Mostaliq (an. Hej. 9), in which he was separated from her for an entire day, which she passed in the company of Safwan, who had found her when accidentally left behind. Verses 4-26 were revealed shortly after the return.
5 Whose characters are cleared.
6 Abdallah Ibn Obba. (Abulf. p. 83.)
|105||12||24||Did not the faithful men, and the faithful women, when ye heard this, judge in their own minds for the best; and say, This is a manifest falsehood?||Did not the faithful of both sexes, when ye heard of this, form a favourable judgment in their own minds, and say, "This is a manifest lie?"|
|105||13||24||Have they produced four witnesses thereof? wherefore since they have not produced the witnesses, they are surely liars in the sight of GOD.||Have they brought four witnesses of the fact? If they cannot produce the witnesses, they are the liars in the sight of God.|
|105||14||24||Had it not been for the indulgence of GOD towards you, and his mercy, in this world and in that which is to come, verily a grievous punishment had been inflicted on you, for the calumny which ye have spread: when ye published that with your tongues, and spoke that with your mouths, of which ye had no knowledge; and esteemed it to be light, whereas it was a matter of importance in the sight of GOD.||And but for the goodness of God towards you, and His mercy in this world and in the next, a severe punishment had come upon you for that which ye spread abroad, when ye uttered with your tongues, and spake with your mouths that of which ye had no knowledge. Ye deemed it to be a light matter, but with God it was a grave one.|
|105||15||24||When ye heard it, did ye say, It belongeth not unto us, that we should talk of this matter: GOD forbid! this is a grievous calumny.||And did ye say when ye heard it, "It is not for us to talk of this affair! O God! By thy Glory, this is a gross calumny?"|
|105||16||24||GOD warneth you, that ye return not to the like crime forever; if ye be true believers.||God hath warned you that ye go not back to the like of this for ever, if ye be believers:|
|105||17||24||And GOD declareth unto you his signs; for GOD is knowing and wise.||And God maketh His signs clear to you: for God is Knowing, Wise.|
|105||18||24||Verily they who love that scandal be published of those who believe, shall receive a severe punishment||But as for those who love that foul calumnies should go forth against those who believe, a grievous chastisement awaits them|
|105||19||24||both in this world and in the next. GOD knoweth, but ye know not.||In this world and in the next. And God hath knowledge, but ye have not.|
|105||20||24||Had it not been for the indulgence of GOD towards you and his mercy, and that GOD is gracious and merciful, ye had felt his vengeance.||And but for the goodness of God towards you and His Mercy, and that God is Kind, Merciful . . . !|
|105||21||24||O true believers, follow not the steps of the devil: for whosoever shall follow the steps of the devil, he will command them filthy crimes, and that which is unlawful. If it were not for the indulgence of GOD, and his mercy towards you, there had not been so much as one of you cleansed from his guilt forever: but GOD cleanseth whom he pleaseth; for GOD both heareth and knoweth.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XXIV, within pp. 50-51)
|BWC: and but for the outpouring of the grace of God and Thy mercy unto them, no one could purge even a single soul for evermore.||O ye who believe! follow not the steps of Satan, for whosoever shall follow the steps of Satan, he will enjoin on him what is base and blameworthy; and but for the goodness of God towards you,7 and His mercy, no one of you had been cleansed for ever: but God maketh whom He will to be clean, and God Heareth, Knoweth.||7 Comp. verse 10, 11 (n.).|
|105||22||24||Let not those among you, who possess abundance of wealth and have ability, swear that they will not give unto their kindred, and the poor, and those who have fled their country for the sake of GOD'S true religion: but let them forgive, and act with benevolence towards them. Do ye not desire that GOD should pardon you?a And GOD is gracious and merciful.||a This passage was revealed on account of Abu Becr: who swore that he would not for the future bestow anything on Mestah, though he was his mothers sisters son, and a poor Mohâjer or refugee, because he had joined in scandalizing his daughter Ayesha. But on Mohammeds reading this verse to him, he continued Mestahs pension.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|And let not persons of wealth and means among you swear that they will not give to their kindred, to the poor, and to those who have fled their homes in the cause of God; let them rather pardon and pass over the offence.8 Desire ye not that God should forgive you? And God is Gracious, Merciful!||8 Abubekr had been desirous to punish one of his relatives, Mestah, who had propagated the scandal against Ayesha, by refusing him gifts or alms.|
|105||23||24||Moreover they who falsely accuse modest women, who behave in a negligent manner,b and are true believers, shall be cursed in this world, and in the world to come; and they shall suffer a severe punishment.c||b i.e., Who may be less careful in their conduct, and more free in their behaviour, as being conscious of no ill.
c Though the words be general, yet they principally regard those who should calumniate the prophets wives. According to a saying of Ebn Abbas, if the threats contained in the whole Korân be examined, there are none so severe as those occasioned by the false accusation of Ayesha; wherefore he thought even repentance would stand her slanderers in no stead.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Verily, they who throw out charges against virtuous but careless women, who yet are believers, shall be cursed in this world and in the world to come; and a terrible punishment doth await them.|
|105||24||24||One day their own tongues shall bear witness against them, and their hands, and their feet, concerning that which they have done.||Their own tongues, and hands, and feet, shall one day bear witness against them of their own doings.9||9 "The very members of a man shall testify against him, for thus we read (Jer. xliii. 12), Ye are yourselves my witnesses saith the Lord." Chagiga, 16. Thaanith, 11a.|
|105||25||24||On that day shall GOD render unto them their just due; and they shall know that GOD is the evident truth.||On that day will God pay them their just due, and they shall know that God is the clear Truth itself.|
|105||26||24||The wicked women should be joined to the wicked men, and the wicked men to the wicked women; but the good women should be married to the good men, and the good men to the good women. These shall be cleared from the calumnies which slanderers speak of them;d they shall obtain pardon, and an honourable provision.||d Al Beidâwi observes, on this passage, that GOD cleared four persons, by four extraordinary testimonies: for he cleared Joseph by the testimony of a child in his mistresss family;3 Moses, by means of the stone which fled away with his garments;4 Mary, by the testimony of her infant;5 and Ayesha, by these verses of the Korân.
3 See chapter 12, p. 172.
4 See chapter 2, p. 7, and chapter 33.
5 See chapter 19, p. 229.
|Bad women for bad men, and bad men for bad women; but virtuous women for virtuous men, and virtuous men for virtuous women! These shall be cleared from calumnies; theirs shall be forgiveness and an honourable provision.|
|105||27||24||O true believers, enter not any houses, besides your own houses, until ye have asked leave, and have saluted the family thereof:e this is better for you; peradventure ye will be admonished.||e To enter suddenly or abruptly into any mans house or apartment, is reckoned a great incivility in the east; because a person may possibly be surprised in an indecent action or posture, or may have something discovered which he would conceal. It is said, that a man came to Mohammed, and wanted to know whether he must ask leave to go in to his sister; which being answered in the affirmative, he told the prophet that his sister had nobody else to attend upon her, and it would be troublesome to ask leave every time he went in to her. What, replied Mohammed, wouldest thou see her naked?6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|O ye who believe! enter not into other houses10 than your own, until ye have asked leave, and have saluted its inmates. This will be best for you: haply ye will bear this in mind.||10 It was the custom in Arabia, before Islam, to enter houses without permission. Freyt. Einl. p. 216.|
|105||28||24||And if ye shall find no person in the houses, yet do not enter them, until leave be granted you: and if it be said unto you, Return back, do ye return back. This will be more decent for you:f and GOD knoweth that which ye do.||f Than to be importunate for admission, or to wait at the door.||And if ye find no one therein, then enter it not till leave be given you; and if it be said to you, "Go ye back," then go ye back. This will be more blameless in you, and God knoweth what ye do.|
|105||29||24||It shall be no crime in you, that ye enter uninhabited houses,g wherein ye may meet with a convenience. GOD knoweth that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal.||g i.e., Which are not the private habitation of a family; such as public inns, shops, sheds, &c.||There shall be no harm in your entering houses in which no one dwelleth, for the supply of your needs: and God knoweth what ye do openly and what ye hide.|
|105||30||24||Speak unto the true believers, that they restrain their eyes, and keep themselves from immodest actions: this will be more pure for them; for GOD is well acquainted with that which they do.||Speak unto the believers that they restrain their eyes and observe continence. Thus will they be more pure. God is well aware of what they do.|
|105||31||24||And speak unto the believing women, that they restrain their eyes, and preserve their modesty, and discover not their ornaments,h except what necessarily appeareth thereof;i and let them throw their veils over their bosoms,j and not show their ornaments, unless to their husbands,k or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons,l or their women,m or the captives which their right hands shall possess,n or unto such men as attend them, and have no need of women,o or unto children, who distinguish not the nakedness of women. And let them not make a noise with their feet, that their ornaments which they hide may thereby be discovered.p And be ye all turned unto GOD, O true believers, that ye may be happy.||h As their clothes, jewels, and the furniture of their toilet; much less such parts of their bodies as ought not be seen.
i Some think their outward garments are here meant; and others their hands and faces: it is generally held, however, that a free woman ought not to discover even those parts, unless to the persons after excepted, or on some unavoidable occasion, as their giving evidence in public, taking advice or medicines in case of sickness, &c.
j Taking care to cover their heads, necks, and breasts.
k For whose sake it is that they adorn themselves, and who alone have the privilege to see their whole body.
l These near relations are also excepted, because they cannot avoid seeing them frequently, and there is no great danger to be apprehended from them. They are allowed, therefore, to see what cannot well be concealed in so familiar an intercourse,1 but no other part of their body, particularly whatever is between the navel and the knees.2
Uncles not being here particularly mentioned, it is a doubt whether they may be admitted to see their nieces. Some think they are included under the appellation of brothers: but others are of opinion that they are not comprised in this exception; and give this reason for it, viz., lest they should describe the persons of their nieces to their sons.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
m That is, such as are of the Mohammedan religion; it being reckoned by some unlawful, or, at least, indecent, for a woman, who is a true believer, to uncover herself before one who is an infidel, because she will hardly refrain describing her to the men: but others suppose all women in general are here excepted; for, in this particular, doctors differ.4
4 Idem, Jallaloddin.
n Slaves of either sex are included in this exception, and, as some think, domestic servants who are not slaves; as those of a different nation. It is related, that Mohammed once made a present of a man-slave to his daughter Fâtema; and when he brought him to her, she had on a garment which was so scanty that she was obliged to leave either her head or her feet uncovered: and that the prophet, seeing her in great confusion on that account, told her, she need be under no concern, for that there was none present besides her father and her slave.5
o Or have no desire to enjoy them; such as decrepit old men, and deformed or silly persons, who follow people as hangers-on, for their spare victuals, being too despicable to raise either a womans passion, or a mans jealousy. Whether eunuchs are comprehended under this general designation, is a question among the learned.6
6 Idem, Yahya, &c.
p By shaking the rings, which the women in the east wear about their ankles, and are usually of gold or silver.7 The pride which the Jewish ladies of old took in making a tinkling with these ornaments of their feet, is (among other things of that nature) severely reproved by the prophet Isaiah.8
8 Isaiah iii. 16 and 18.
|And speak to the believing women that they refrain their eyes, and observe continence; and that they display not their ornaments, except those which are external; and that they throw their veils over their bosoms, and display not their ornaments, except to their husbands or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male domestics who have no natural force, or to children who note not women's nakedness. And let them not strike their feet together, so as to discover their hidden ornaments.11 And be ye all turned to God, O ye Believers! that it may be well with you.||11 That is, the anklets. Comp. Isai. iii. 16, 18|
|105||32||24||Marry those who are singleq among you, and such as are honest of your men-servants and your maid-servants: if they be poor, GOD will enrich them of his abundance; for GOD is bounteous and wise.||q i.e., Those who are unmarried of either sex; whether they have been married before or not.||And marry those among you who are single, and your good servants, and the handmaidens. If they are poor, God of His bounty will enrich them. God is all-bounteous, Knowing.|
|105||33||24||And let those who find not a match, keep themselves from fornication, until GOD shall enrich them of his abundance. And unto such of your slavesr as desire a written instrument allowing them to redeem themselves on paying a certain sum,s write one, if ye know good in them;t and give them of the riches of GOD, which he hath given you.u And compel not your maid-servants to prostitute themselves, if they be willing to live chastely; that ye may seek the casual advantage of this present life;x but whoever shall compel them thereto, verily GOD will be gracious and merciful unto such women after their compulsion.||r Of either sex.
s Whereby the master obliges himself to set his slave at liberty, on receiving a certain sum of money, which the slave undertakes to pay.
t That is, if ye have found them faithful, and have reason to believe they will perform their engagement.
u Either by bestowing something on them of your own substance, or by abating them a part of their ransom. Some suppose these words are directed, not to the masters only, but to all Moslems in general; recommending it to them to assist those who have obtained their freedom, and paid their ransom, either out of their own stock, or by admitting them to have a share in the public alms.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
x It seems Abdallah Ebn Obba had six women-slaves, on whom he laid a certain tax, which he obliged them to earn by the prostitution of their bodies: and one of them made her complaint to Mohammed, which occasioned the revelation of this passage.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin
|And let those who cannot find a match12 live in continence till God of His bounty shall enrich them. And to those of your slaves who desire a deed of manumission, execute it for them, if ye know good in them, and give them a portion of the wealth of God which He hath given you.13 Force not your female slaves into sin, in order that ye may gain the casual fruitions of this world, if they wish to preserve their modesty. Yet if any one compel them, then Verily to them, after their compulsion, will God be Forgiving, Merciful.||12 On account of poverty.
13 Comp. Deut. xv. 12 15.
|105||34||24||And now have we revealed unto you evident signs, and a history like unto some of the histories of those who have gone before you,y and an admonition unto the pious.||y i.e., The story of the false accusation of Ayesha, which resembles those of Joseph and the Virgin Mary.3
|And now have we sent down to you clear signs, and an instance from among those who flourished before you, and a caution for the God-fearing.14||14 The meaning probably is, that the scandal raised against Ayesha resembled the scandal in the case of Joseph in Egypt, and of the Virgin Mary, detailed in previous suras.|
|105||35||24||GOD is the light of heaven and earth: the similitude of his light is as a niche in a wall, wherein a lamp is placed, and the lamp enclosed in a case of glass; the glass appears as it were a shining star. It is lighted with the oil of a blessed tree, an olive neither of the east, nor of the west:z it wanteth little but that the oil thereof would give light, although no fire touched it. This is light added unto light:a GOD will direct unto his light whom he pleaseth. GOD propoundeth parables unto men; for GOD knoweth all things.||z But of a more excellent kind. Some think the meaning to be that the tree grows neither in the eastern nor the western parts, but in the midst of the world, namely, in Syria, where the best olives grow.4
a Or a light whose brightness is doubly increased by the circumstances above mentioned.
The commentators explain this allegory, and every particular of it, with great subtlety; interpreting the light here described to be the light revealed in the Korân, or Gods enlightening grace in the heart of man; and in divers other manners.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 99, p. 90
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 57, p. 54
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 7, paragraph 7
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 53
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 76
Tablets of the Divine Plan (9 Tablet to the Baháís of the Northeastern States, within pp. 59-67)
Baháí Prayers (6th prayer under Triumph of the Cause) by Abdul-Bahá
Memorials of the Faithful (Áqá Ibráhím-i-Isfahani and His Brothers, within pp. 77-81)
Compilation on Hidden Words, Persian no. 19 by Abdul-Bahá
|God is the light of the heavens and of the earth
Tree that belongeth neither to the East nor to the West.
cf. BWC: Fire that blazeth in the Tree which is neither of the East nor of the West.
MG: neither of the East nor of the West
MG: neither of the East nor of the West,
O: God is the light of heaven and earth: the similitude of His light is a niche in a wall, wherein a lamp is placed, and the lamp enclosed in a case of glass; the glass appears as if it were a shining star. It is lighted with the oil of a Blessed Tree, an olive neither of the East, nor of the West; it wanteth little but that the oil thereof would give light, although no fire touched it. This is the light added unto light. God will direct unto His light whom He pleaseth
O: neither of the East nor of the West,
MG: ...whose oil would well nigh shine out, even though fire touched it not! It is light upon light.
BWC: the Olive that belongeth neither to the East nor to the West, whose oil would well nigh shine out even though fire touched it not
|God is the LIGHT of the Heavens and of the Earth. His Light is like a niche in which is a lampthe lamp encased in glassthe glass, as it were, a glistening star. From a blessed tree is it lighted, the olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would well nigh shine out, even though fire touched it not! It is light upon light. God guideth whom He will to His light, and God setteth forth parables to men, for God knoweth all things.|
|105||36||24||In the houses which GOD hath permitted to be raised,b and that his name be commemorated therein! men celebrate his praise in the same, morning and evening,||b The connection of these words is not very obvious. Some suppose they ought to be joined with the preceding words, Like a niche, or It is lighted in the houses, &c., and that the comparison is more strong and just, by being made to the lamps in Mosques, which are larger than those in private houses. Some think they are rather to be connected with the following words, Men praise, &c. And others are of opinion they are an imperfect beginning of a sentence, and that the words, Praise ye God, or the like, are to be understood. However, the houses here intended are those set apart for divine worship; or particularly the three principal temples of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem.5
4 Al Beidâwi.
|In the temples which God hath allowed to be reared, that His name may therein be remembered, do men praise Him morn and even.|
|105||37||24||whom neither merchandising nor selling diverteth from the remembering of GOD, and the observance of prayer, and the giving of alms; fearing the day whereon men's hearts and eyes shall be troubled;||Men whom neither merchandise nor traffic beguile from the remembrance of God, and from the observance of prayer, and the payment of the stated alms, through fear of the day when hearts shall throb and eyes shall roll:|
|105||38||24||that GOD may recompense them according to the utmost merit of what they shall have wrought, and may add unto them of his abundance a more excellent reward; for GOD bestoweth on whom he pleaseth without measure.||That for their most excellent works may God recompense them, and of His bounty increase it to them more and more: for God maketh provision for whom He pleaseth without measure.|
|105||39||24||But as to the unbelievers, their works are like the vapor in a plain,c which the thirsty traveller thinketh to be water, until, when he cometh thereto, he findeth it to be nothing; but he findeth GOD with him,d and he will fully pay him his account; and GOD is swift in taking an account;||c The Arabic word Serâb signifies that false appearance which, in the eastern countries, is often seen in sandy plains about noon, resembling a large lake of water in motion, and is occasioned by the reverberation of the sunbeams. It sometimes tempts thirsty travellers out of their way, but deceives them when they come near, either going forward (for it always appears at the same distance), or quite vanishing.1
1 Vide Q. Curt. de rebus Alex. lib. 7, et Gol. in Alfrag. p. 111, et in Adag. Arab. ad calcem Gram. Erp. p. 93.
d That is, He will not escape the notice or vengeance of GOD.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 61
|like a vapor in the desert which the thirsty dreameth to be water.||But as to the infidels, their works are like the vapour in a plain which the thirsty dreameth to be water, until when he cometh unto it, he findeth it not aught, but findeth that God is with him; and He fully payeth him his account: for swift to take account is God:|
|105||40||24||or, as the darkness in a deep sea, covered by waves riding on waves, above which are clouds, being additions of darkness one over the other; when one stretcheth forth his hand, he is far from seeing it. And unto whomsoever GOD shall not grant his light, he shall enjoy no light at all.||Or like the darkness on the deep sea when covered by billows riding upon billows, above which are clouds: darkness upon darkness. When a man reacheth forth his hand, he cannot nearly see it! He to whom God shall not give light, no light at all hath he!|
|105||41||24||Dost thou not perceive that all creatures both in heaven and earth praise GOD: and the birds also, extending their wings? Every one knoweth his prayer, and his praise: and GOD knoweth that which they do.||Hast thou not seen how all in the Heavens and in the Earth uttereth the praise of God?the very birds as they spread their wings? Every creature knoweth its prayer and its praise! and God knoweth what they do.|
|105||42||24||Unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth; and unto GOD shall be the return at the last day.||God's, the Kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth: and unto God the final return!|
|105||43||24||Dost thou not see that GOD gently driveth forward the clouds, and gathereth them together, and then layeth them on heaps? Thou also seest the rain, which falleth from the midst thereof; and God sendeth down from heaven as it were mountains, wherein there is hail; he striketh therewith whom he pleaseth, and turneth the same away from whom he pleaseth: the brightness of his lightning wanteth but little of taking away the sight.||Hast thou not seen that God driveth clouds lightly forward, then gathereth them together, then pileth them in masses? And then thou seest the rain forthcoming from their midst; and He causeth clouds like mountains charged with hail, to descend from the heaven, and He maketh it to fall on whom He will, and from whom He will He turneth it aside.The brightness of His lightning all but taketh away the sight!|
|105||44||24||GOD shifteth the night, and the day: verily herein is an instruction unto those who have sight. And GOD hath created every animal of water;e one of them goeth on his belly, and another of them walketh upon two feet, and another of them walketh upon four feet: GOD createth that which he pleaseth; for GOD is almighty.||e This assertion, which has already occurred in another place,2 being not true in strictness, the commentators suppose that by water is meant seed; or else that water is mentioned only as the chief cause of the growth of animals, and a considerable and necessary constituent part of their bodies.
2 Chapter 21, p. 243.
|God causeth the day and the night to take their turn. Verily in this is teaching for men of insight. And God hath created every animal of water.15 Some go upon the belly; some go upon two feet; some go upon four feet. God hath created what He pleased. Aye, God hath power over all things.||15 An idea perhaps derived from Gen. i. 20, 21. Comp. Tr. Cholin, fol. 27a.|
|105||45||24||Now have we sent down evident signs: and GOD directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 52)
|Now have we sent down distinct signs.And God guideth whom He will into the right path:|
|105||46||24||The hypocrites say, We believe in GOD, and on his apostle; and we obey them: yet a part of them turneth back, after this; but these are not really believers.||For there are who say "We believe on God and on the Apostle, and we obey;" yet, after this, a part of them turn back.16 But these are not of the faithful.||16 Verses 46-56 obviously refer to a period, perhaps that between the battle of Ohod and the end of the war of the Ditch, when Muhammad's prospects were overclouded and the confidence of his followers shaken.|
|105||47||24||And when they are summoned before GOD and his apostle, that he may judge between them; behold, a part of them retire:||And when they are summoned before God and His Apostle that He may judge between them, lo! a part of them withdraw:|
|105||48||24||but if the right had been on their side, they would have come and submitted themselves unto him.||But had the truth been on their side, they would have come to Him, obedient.|
|105||49||24||Is there an infirmity in their hearts? Do they doubt? Or do they fear lest GOD and his apostle act unjustly towards them? But themselves are the unjust doers.f||f This passage was occasioned by Bashir the hypocrite, who, having a controversy with a Jew, appealed to Caab Ebn al Ashraf, whereas the Jew appealed to Mohammed;3 or, as others tell us, by Mogheira Ebn Wayel, who refused to submit a dispute he had with Al. to the prophets decision.4
3 See chapter 4, p. 61.
4 Al Beidâwi
|What! are they diseased of heart? Do they doubt? Are they afraid that God and His Apostles will deal unfairly with them? Nay, themselves are the unjust doers.|
|105||50||24||The saying of the true believers, when they are summoned before GOD and his apostle, that he may judge between them, is no other than that they say, We have heard, and do obey: and these are they who shall prosper.||The words of the believers, when called to God and His Apostle that He may judge between them, are only to say, "We have heard, and we obey:" these are they with whom it shall be well.|
|105||51||24||Whoever shall obey GOD and his apostle, and shall fear GOD, and shall be devout towards him; these shall enjoy great felicity.||And whoso shall obey God, and His Apostle, and shall dread God and fear Him, these are they that shall be the blissful.|
|105||52||24||They swear by GOD, with a most solemn oath, that if thou commandest them, they will go forth from their houses and possessions. Say, Swear not to a falsehood: obedience is more requisite: and GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.||And they have sworn by God, with a most solemn oath, that if thou give them the word, they will certainly march forth. Say: swear ye not: of more worth is obedience. Verily, God is well aware of what ye do.|
|105||53||24||Say, Obey GOD, and obey the apostle: but if ye turn back, verily it is expected of him that he perform his duty, and of you that ye perform your duty; and if ye obey him, ye shall be directed, but the duty of our apostle is only public preaching.||SAY: Obey God and obey the Apostle. Suppose that ye turn back, still the burden of his duty is on him only, and the burden of your duty rests on you. If ye obey Him, ye shall have guidance: but plain preaching is all that devolves upon the Apostle.|
|105||54||24||GOD promiseth unto such of you as believe, and do good works, that he will cause them to succeed the unbelievers in the earth, as he caused those who were before you to succeed the infidels of their time;g and that he will establish for them their religion which pleaseth them, and will change their fear into security. They shall worship me; and shall not associate any other with me. But whoever shall disbelieve after this, they will be the wicked doers.||g i.e., As he caused the Israelites to dispossess the Canaanites, &c.||God hath promised to those of you who believe and do the things that are right, that He will cause them to succeed others in the land, as He gave succession to those who were before them, and that He will establish for them that religion which they delight in, and that after their fears He will give them security in exchange. They shall worship Me: nought shall they join with Me: And whoso, after this, believe not, they will be the impious.|
|105||55||24||Observe prayer, and give alms, and obey the apostle; that ye may obtain mercy.||But observe prayer, and pay the stated alms, and obey the Apostle, that haply ye may find mercy.|
|105||56||24||Think not that the unbelievers shall frustrate the designs of God on earth: and their abode hereafter shall be hell fire; a miserable journey shall it be thither!||Let not the Infidels think that they can weaken God on His own Earth: their dwelling place shall be the Fire! and right wretched the journey!|
|105||57||24||O true believers, let your slaves and those among you who shall not have attained the age of puberty, ask leave of you, before they come into your presence, three times in the day;h namely, before the morning prayer,i and when ye lay aside your garments at noon,j and after the evening prayer.k These are the three times for you to be private: it shall be no crime in you, or in them, if they go in to you without asking permission after these times, while ye are in frequent attendance, the one of you on the other. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you; for GOD is knowing and wise.||h Because there are certain times when it is not convenient, even for a domestic, or a child, to come in to one without notice. It is said this passage was revealed on account of Asma Bint Morthed, whose servant entered suddenly upon her, at an improper time; but others say, it was occasioned by Modraj Ebn Amru, then a boy, who, being sent by Mohammed to call Omar to him, went directly into the room where he was, without giving notice, and found him taking his noons nap, and in no very decent posture; at which Omar was so ruffled, that he wished GOD would forbid even their fathers, and children, to come in to them abruptly, at such times.1
i Which is the time of peoples rising from their beds, and dressing themselves for the day.
j That is, when ye take off your upper garments to sleep at noon; which is a common custom in the east, and all warm countries.
k When ye undress yourselves to prepare for bed. Al Beidâwi adds a fourth season, when permission to enter must be asked, viz., at night: but this follows of course.
|O ye who believe! let your slaves, and those of you who have not come of age, ask leave of you, three times a day, ere they come into your presence;before the morning prayer, and when ye lay aside your garments at mid-day, and after the evening prayer. These are your three times of privacy. No blame shall attach to you or to them, if after these times, when ye go your rounds of attendance on one another, they come in without permission. Thus doth God make clear to you His signs: and God is Knowing, Wise!|
|105||58||24||And when your children attain the age of puberty, let them ask leave to come into your presence at all times, in the same manner as those who have attained that age before them, ask leave. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you; and GOD is knowing and wise.||And when your children come of age, let them ask leave to come into your presence, as they who were before them asked it. Thus doth God make clear to you his signs: and God is Knowing, Wise.|
|105||59||24||As to such women as are past child-bearing, who hope not to marry again, because of their advanced age; it shall be no crime in them, if they lay aside their outer garments, not showing their ornaments; but if they abstain from this, it will be better for them.l GOD both heareth and knoweth.||l See before, p. 266.||As to women who are past childbearing, and have no hope of marriage, no blame shall attach to them if they lay aside their outer garments, but so as not to shew their ornaments. Yet if they abstain from this, it will be better for them: and God Heareth, Knoweth.|
|105||60||24||It shall be no crime in the blind, nor shall it be any crime in the lame, neither shall it be any crime in the sick, or in yourselves, that ye eat in your houses,m or in the houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers, or in the houses of your brothers, or the houses of your sisters, or the houses of your uncles on the father's side, or the houses of your aunts on the father's side, or the houses of your uncles on the mother's side, the houses of your aunts on the mother's side, or in those houses the keys whereof ye have in your possession, or in the house of your friend. It shall not be any crime in you whether ye eat together, or separately.n||m i.e., Where your wives or families are; or in the houses of your sons, which may be looked on as your own.
This passage was designed to remove some scruples or superstitions of the Arabs in Mohammeds time; some of whom thought their eating with maimed or sick people defiled them; others imagined they ought not to eat in the house of another, though ever so nearly related to them, or though they were entrusted with the key and care of the house in the masters absence, and might therefore conclude it would be no offence; and others declined eating with their friends though invited, lest they should be burthensome.1 The whole passage seems to be no more than a declaration that the things scrupled were perfectly innocent; however, the commentators say it is now abrogated, and that it related only to the old Arabs, in the infancy of Mohammedism.
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
n As the tribe of Leith thought it unlawful for a man to eat alone; and some of the Ansârs, if they had a guest with them, never ate but in his company; so there were others who refused to eat with any, out of a superstitious caution lest they should be defiled, or out of a hoggish greediness.2
|No crime17 shall it be in the blind, or in the lame, or in the sick, to eat at your tables: or in yourselves, if ye eat in your own houses, or in the houses of your fathers, or of your mothers, or of your brothers, or of your sisters, or of your uncles on the father's side, or of your aunts on the father's side, or of your uncles on the mother's side, or of your aunts on the mother's side, or in those of which ye possess the keys, or in the house of your friend. No blame shall attach to you whether ye eat together or apart.||17 This verse was intended to relieve the scruples of the Muslims, who. following the superstitious customs of the Arabs, thought that they ought not to admit the blind, etc. to their tables, to eat alone, or in a house of which they were entrusted with the key, etc.|
|105||61||24||And when ye enter any houses, salute one anothero on the part of GOD, with a blessed and a welcome salutation. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may understand.||o Literally yourselves; that is, according to al Beidâwi, the people of the house, to whom ye are united by the ties of blood, and by the common bond of religion. And if there be nobody in the house, says Jallaloddin, salute yourselves, and say, Peace be on us, and on the righteous servants of God: for the angels will return your salutation.||And when ye enter houses, salute one another with a good and blessed greeting as from God. Thus doth God make clear to you His signs, that haply ye may comprehend them.|
|105||62||24||Verily they only are true believers, who believe in GOD and his apostle, and when they are assembled with him on any affair,p depart not, until they have obtained leave of him. Verily they who ask leave of thee are those who believe in GOD and his apostle. When therefore they ask leave of thee to depart, on account of any business of their own, grant leave unto such of them as thou shalt think fit, and ask pardon for them of GOD;q for GOD is gracious and merciful.||p As, at public prayers, or a solemn feast, or at council, or on a military expedition.
q Because such departure, though with leave, and on a reasonable excuse, is a kind of failure in the exact performance of their duty; seeing they prefer their temporal affairs to the advancement of the true religion.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|Verily, they only are believers who believe in God and His Apostle, and who, when they are with him upon any affair of common interest, depart not until they have sought his leave. Yes, they who ask leave of thee, are those who believe in God and His Apostle. And when they ask leave of Thee on account of any affairs of their own, then grant it to those of them whom thou wilt, and ask indulgence for them of God: for God is Indulgent, Merciful.|
|105||63||24||Let not the calling of the apostle be esteemed among you, as your calling the one to the other.r GOD knoweth such of you as privately withdraw themselves from the assembly, taking shelter behind one another. But let those who withstand his command take heed, lest some calamity befall them in this world, or a grievous punishment be inflicted on them in the life to come.||r These words are variously interpreted; for their meaning may be, either, Make not light of the apostles summons, as ye would of another persons of equal condition with yourselves, by not obeying it, or by departing out of, or coming into, his presence without leave first obtained; or, Think not that when the apostle calls upon God in prayer, it is with him, as with you, when ye prefer a petition to a superior, who sometimes grants, but as often denies, your suit; or, Call not to the apostle, as ye do to one another, that is, by name, or familiarly and with a loud voice; but make use of some honourable compellation, as, O apostle of GOD, or, O prophet of GOD, and speak in an humble modest manner.4
4 Idem, Jallaloddin, &c.
|Address not the Apostle as ye address one another.18 God knoweth those of you who withdraw quietly from the assemblies, screening themselves behind others. And let those who transgress his command beware, lest some present trouble befall them, or a grievous chastisement befall them, hereafter.||18 Lit. make not the calling of the Apostle among you, like the calling of some of you to others, i.e., address him by some respectful and honourable title. Thus in the Talmud, "It is forbidden to a disciple to call his Rabbi by name even when he is not in his presence;" and again: "Neither is he to salute his Rabbi, nor to return his salutation, in the same way that salutations are given and returned among friends." "Whoever despises the wise men hath no portion in the world to come." See Hilchoth Torah, c.5.|
|105||64||24||Doth not whatever is in heaven and on earth belong unto GOD? He well knoweth what ye are about: and on a certain day they shall be assembled before him; and he shall declare unto them that which they have done; for GOD knoweth all things.||Is not whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth God's? He knoweth your state; and one day shall men be assembled before Him, and He will tell them of what they have done: for God knoweth all things.|
|66||0||25||CHAPTER XXV.||SURA XXV.AL FURKAN [LXVI.]|
|66||0||25||ENTITLED, AL FORKAN; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.77 Verses|
|66||0||25||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|66||1||25||BLESSED be he who hath revealed the Forkans unto his servant, that he may be a preacher to all creatures:||s Which is one of the names of the Korân. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 44.||BLESSED be He who hath sent down AL FURKAN1 (the illumination) on his servant, that to all creatures he may be a warner.||1 See Sura [lxv.] xxi. 49.|
|66||2||25||unto whom belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth: who hath begotten no issue; and hath no partner in his kingdom: who hath created all things, and disposed the same according to his determinate will.||His the Kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth! No son hath He begotten! No partner hath He in his Empire! All things hath He created, and decreeing hath decreed their destinies.|
|66||3||25||Yet have they taken other gods besides him; which have created nothing, but are themselves created:t||t Being either the heavenly bodies, or idols, the works of mens hands.||Yet have they adopted gods beside Him which have created nothing, but were themselves created:|
|66||4||25||and are able neither to avert evil from, nor to procure good unto themselves; and have not the power of death, or of life, or of raising the dead.||And no power have they over themselves for evil or for good, nor have they power of death, or of life, or of raising the dead.|
|66||5||25||And the unbelievers say, This Koran is no other than a forgery which he hath contrived; and other people have assisted him therein:u but they utter an unjust thing, and a falsehood.||u See chapter 16, p. 203. It is supposed the Jews are particularly intended in this place; because they used to repeat passages of ancient history to Mohammed, on which he used to discourse and make observations.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And the infidels say, "This Koran is a mere fraud of his own devising, and others have helped him with it,2 who had come hither by outrage and lie."3||2 Comp. Sura [lxxiii.] xvi. 105. The frequency with which Muhammad feels it necessary to rebut this charge by mere denial is strongly indicative of its truth.
3 "The meaning may possibly be that the teachers of Muhammad were persons who had taken refuge in Arabia for offences and heresies." Sprenger, Life of M. p. 96, n. Or, but they utter an injustice and a falsehood. Nöldeke combats Dr. Sprenger's supposition that "Tales of the ancients" (verse 6) is a book. Hist. of Qoran, p. 13.
|66||6||25||They also say, These are fables of the ancients, which he hath caused to be written down; and they are dictated unto him morning and evening.||And they say, "Tales of the ancients that he hath put in writing! and they were dictated to him morn and even."|
|66||7||25||Say, He hath revealed it, who knoweth the secrets in heaven and earth: verily he is gracious and merciful.||SAY: He hath sent it down who knoweth the secrets of the Heavens and of the Earth. He truly is the Gracious, the Merciful.|
|66||8||25||And they say, What kind of apostle is this? He eateth food, and walketh in the streets,x as we do: unless an angel be sent down unto him, and become a fellow preacher with him;||x Being subject to the same wants and infirmities of nature, and obliged to submit to the same low means of supporting himself and his family, with ourselves. The Meccans were acquainted with Mohammed, and with his circumstances and way of life, too well to change their old familiarity into the reverence due to the messenger of GOD; for a prophet hath no honour in his own country.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 80, p. 72
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 88, p. 81
|And they have said: 'What manner of apostle is this? He eateth food, and walketh the streets. Unless an angel be sent down and take part in His warnings, we will not believe.'
Why hath not an angel been sent down to him, so that he should have been a warner with him?
|And they say, "What sort of apostle is this? He eateth food and he walketh the streets! Unless an angel be sent down and take part in his warnings,|
|66||9||25||or unless a treasure be cast down unto him; or he have a garden, of the fruit whereof he may eat; we will not believe. The ungodly also say, Ye follow no other than a man who is distracted.||Or a treasure be thrown down to him, or he have a garden that supplieth him with food . . ."4 and those unjust persons say, "Ye follow but a man enchanted."||4 Supply, we will not believe.|
|66||10||25||Behold what they liken thee unto. But they are deceived; neither can they find a just occasion to reproach thee.||See what likenesses they strike out for thee! But they err, and cannot find their way.|
|66||11||25||Blessed be he, who, if he pleaseth, will make for thee a better provision than this which they speak of; namely, gardens through which rivers flow: and he will provide thee palaces.||Blessed be He who if he please can give thee better than that of which they speakGardens, 'neath which the rivers flow: and pavilions will He assign thee.|
|66||12||25||But they reject the belief of the hour of judgment, as a falsehood: and we have prepared for him, who shall reject the belief of that hour, burning fire;||Aye, they have treated the coming of "the Hour" as a lie. But a flaming fire have we got ready for those who treat the coming of the Hour as a lie.|
|66||13||25||when it shall see them from a distant place, they shall hear it furiously raging and roaring.||When it shall see them from afar, they shall hear its raging and roaring,|
|66||14||25||And when they shall be cast, bound together, into a strait place thereof, they shall there call for death;||And when they shall be flung into a narrow space thereof bound together, they shall invoke destruction on the spot:|
|66||15||25||but it shall be answered them, Call not this day for one death, but call for many deaths.||"Call not this day for one destruction, but call for destructions many."|
|66||16||25||Say, Is this better, or a garden of eternal duration, which is promised unto the pious? It shall be given unto them for a reward, and a retreat:||SAY: Is this, or the Paradise of Eternity which was promised to the God-fearing, best? Their recompense shall it be and their retreat;|
|66||17||25||therein shall they have whatever they please, continuing in the same forever. This is a promise to be demanded at the hands of thy LORD.||Abiding therein for ever, they shall have in it all that they desire! It is a promise to be claimed of thy Lord.|
|66||18||25||On a certain day he shall assemble them, and whatever they worship, besides GOD; and shall say unto the worshipped, Did ye seduce these my servants; or did they wander of themselves from the right way?||And on the day when he shall gather them together, and those whom they worshipped beside God, he will say, "Was it ye who led these my servants astray, or of themselves strayed they from the path?"|
|66||19||25||They shall answer, GOD forbid! It was not fitting for us, that we should take any protectors besides thee: but thou didst permit them and their fathers to enjoy abundance; so that they forgot thy admonition, and became lost people.||They will say, "Glory be to thee! It beseemed not us to take other lords than thee. But thou gavest them and their fathers their fill of good things, till they forgat the remembrance of thee, and became a lost people."|
|66||20||25||And God shall say unto their worshippers, Now have these convinced you of falsehood, in that which ye say: they can neither avert your punishment, nor give you any assistance.||Then will God say to the Idolaters, "Now have they made you liars in what ye say,5 and they have no power to avert your doom, or to succour you."||5 In your ascriptions of divinity to them. Beidh.|
|66||21||25||And whoever of you shall be guilty of injustice, him will we cause to taste a grievous torment.||And whosoever of you thus offendeth, we will make him taste a great punishment.|
|66||22||25||We have sent no messengers before thee, but they ate food, and walked through the streets: and we make some of you an occasion of trial unto others.y Will ye persevere with patience? since the LORD regardeth your perseverance.||y Giving occasion of envy, repining, and malice; to the poor, mean, and sick, for example, when they compare their own condition with that of the rich, the noble, and those who are in health: and trying the people to whom prophets are sent, by those prophets.1
1 Idem, Jallal.
|Never have we sent Apostles before thee who ate not common food, and walked not the streets. And we test you by means of each other. Will ye be steadfast? Thy Lord is looking on!|
|66||23||25||(XIX.) They who hope not to meet us at the resurrection say, Unless the angels be sent down unto us, or we see our LORD himself, we will not believe. Verily they behave themselves arrogantly; and have transgressed with an enormous transgression.||They who look not forward to meet Us say, "If the angels be not sent down to us, or unless we behold our Lord. . . . Ah! they are proud of heart, and exceed with great excess!|
|66||24||25||The day whereon they shall see the angels,z there shall be no glad tidings on that day for the wicked; and they shall say, Be this removed far from us?||z viz., At their death, or at the resurrection.||On the day when they shall see the angels, no good news shall there be for the guilty ones, and they shall cry out, "A barrier that cannot be passed!"6||6 Or, far, far be they removed. The same words occur at the end of verse 55. The Commentators doubt whether they are spoken by the wicked of the impossibility of their attaining Paradise, or by the angels to the wicked.|
|66||25||25||and we will come unto the work which they shall have wrought, and we will make it as dust scattered abroad.||Then will we proceed to the works which they have wrought, and make them as scattered dust.|
|66||26||25||On that day shall they who are destined to paradise be more happy in an abode, and have a preferable place of repose at noon.a||a For the business of the day of judgment will be over by that time; and the blessed will pass their noon in paradise, and the damned in hell.2
|Happier, on that day, the inmates of the Garden as to abode, and better off as to place of noontide slumber!|
|66||27||25||On that day the heaven shall be cloven in sunder by the clouds, and the angels shall be sent down, descending visibly therein.b||b i.e., They shall part and make way for the clouds which shall descend with the angels, bearing the books wherein every mans actions are recorded.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 80, p. 72
|On that day shall the heaven be cloven by the clouds.||On that day shall the heaven with its clouds be cleft, and the angels shall be sent down, descending:|
|66||28||25||On that day the kingdom shall of right belong wholly unto the Merciful; and that day shall be grievous for the unbelievers.||On that day shall all empire be in very deed with the God of Mercy, and a hard day shall it be for the Infidels.|
|66||29||25||On that day the unjust personc shall bite his hand for anguish and despair, and shall say, Oh that I had taken the way of truth with the apostle!||c It is supposed by some that these words particularly relate to Okba Ebn Abi Moait, who used to be much in Mohammeds company, and having once invited him to an entertainment, the prophet refused to taste of his meat unless he would profess Islâm; which accordingly he did. Soon after, Okba, meeting Obba Ebn Khalf, his intimate friend, and being reproached by him for changing his religion, assured him that he had not, but had only pronounced the profession of faith to engage Mohammed to eat with him, because he could not for shame let him go out of his house without eating. However, Obba protested that he would not be satisfied, unless he went to Mohammed, and set his foot on his neck, and spit in his face: which Okba, rather than break with his friend, performed in the public hall, where he found Mohammed sitting; whereupon the prophet told him that if ever he met him out of Mecca, he would cut off his head. And he was as good as his word: for Okba, being afterwards taken prisoner at the battle of Bedr, had his head struck off by Ali at Mohammeds command. As for Obba, he received a wound from the prophets own hand, at the battle of Ohod, of which he died at his return to Mecca.3
3 Al Beidâwi. Vide Gagnier, Vie de Mahom. vol. I, p. 362.
|And on that day shall the wicked one7 bite his hands, and say, "Oh! would that I had taken the same path with the Apostle!||7 Said by Beidh. to be the polytheist Okbeh, the son of Abu Mo'eyt, who by Muhammad's persuasion professed Islam, but afterwards retracted to please Ubei ben Khalaf. See Gagnier's Vie de Mahom. i. 362.|
|66||30||25||Alas for me! Oh that I had not taken such a oned for my friend!||d According to the preceding note, this was Obba Ebn Khalf.||"Oh! woe is me! would that I had not taken such an one8 for my friend!|
|66||31||25||He seduced me from the admonition of God, after it had come unto me: for the devil is the betrayer of man.||It was he who led me astray from the Warning which had reached me! and Satan is man's betrayer."9||9 Or, abandoner.|
|66||32||25||And the apostle shall say, O LORD, verily my people esteemed this Korân to be a vain composition.||Then said the Apostle, "O my Lord! truly my people have esteemed this Koran to be vain babbling."|
|66||33||25||In like manner did we ordain unto every prophet an enemy from among the wicked: but thy LORD is a sufficient director and defender.||Thus have we given to every Prophet an enemy from among the wicked onesBut thy Lord is a sufficient guide and helper.|
|66||34||25||The unbelievers say, Unless the Koran be sent down unto him entire at once,e we will not believe. But in this manner have we revealed it, that we might confirm thy heart thereby,f and we have dictated it gradually, by distinct parcels.||e As were the Pentateuch, Psalms, and Gospel, according to the Mohammedan notion whereas it was twenty-three years before the Korân was completely revealed.1
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 50, &c.
f Both to infuse courage and constancy into thy mind, and to strengthen thy memory and understanding. For, say the commentators, the prophets receiving the divine direction, from time to time, how to behave, and to speak, on any emergency, and the frequent visits of the angel Gabriel, greatly encouraged and supported him under all his difficulties: and the revealing of the Korân by degrees was a great, and, to him, a necessary help for his retaining and understanding it; which it would have been impossible for him to have done with any exactness, had it been revealed at once; Mohammeds case being entirely different from that of Moses, David, and JESUS, who could all read and write, whereas he was perfectly illiterate.2
2 Al Beidâwi, &c.
|And the infidels say, "Unless the Koran be sent down to him all at once. . . ." But in this way would we stablish thy heart by it; in parcels have we parcelled it out to thee;10||10 This verse shews that the Koran was of gradual growth in the time of Muhammad himself.|
|66||35||25||They shall not come unto thee with any strange question; but we will bring thee the truth in answer, and a most excellent interpretation.||Nor shall they come to thee with puzzling questions,11 but we will come to thee with the truth, and their best solution.||11 Lit. parables.|
|66||36||25||They who shall be dragged on their faces into hell shall be in the worst condition, and shall stray most widely from the way of salvation.||They who shall be gathered upon their faces into hell, shall have the worst place, and be farthest from the path of happiness.|
|66||37||25||We heretofore delivered unto Moses the book of the law; and we appointed him Aaron his brother for a counsellor.||Heretofore we gave the law to Moses, and appointed his brother Aaron to be his counsellor:12||12 Lit. vizier.|
|66||38||25||And we said unto them, Go ye to the people who charge our signs with falsehood. And we destroyed them with a signal destruction.||And we said, "Go ye to the people who treat our signs as lies." And them destroyed we with utter destruction.|
|66||39||25||And remember the people of Noah, when they accused our apostles of imposture: we drowned them, and made them a sign unto mankind. And we have prepared for the unjust a painful torment.||And as to the people of Noah! when they treated their Apostles as impostors, we drowned them; and we made them a sign to mankind:A grievous chastisement have we prepared for the wicked!|
|66||40||25||Remember also Ad, and Thamud, and those who dwelt at al Rass;g and many other generations within this period.||g The commentators are at a loss where to place al Rass. According to one opinion it was the name of a well (as the word signifies) near Midian, about which some idolaters having fixed their habitations, the prophet Shoaib was sent to preach to them; but they not believing on him, the well fell in, and they and their houses were all swallowed up. Another supposes it to have been in a town in Yamâma, where a remnant of the Thamûdites settled, to whom a prophet was also sent; but they slaying him, were utterly destroyed. Another thinks it was a well near Antioch, where Habîb al Najjâr (whose tomb is still to be seen there, beige frequently visited by Mohammedans) was martyred.3 And a fourth takes al Rass to be a well in Hadramaut, by which dwelt some idolatrous Thamûdites, whose prophet was Handha, or Khantala (for I find the name written both ways) Ebn Safwân.4 These people were first annoyed by certain monstrous birds, called Ankâ, which lodged in the mountain above them, and used to snatch away their children, when they wanted other prey; but this calamity was so far from humbling them, that on their prophets calling down a judgment upon them, they killed him, and were all destroyed.5
3 Abulf. Geog. Vide Vit. Saladini, p. 86.
4 See chapter 22, p. 254, note y.
5 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|And Ad and Themoud, and the men of Rass,13 and divers generations between them:||13 It is uncertain whether Rass is the name of a city in Yemama; or merely, as some interpret it, of a well near Midian; or, according to others, in the territory of Hadramont.|
|66||41||25||Unto each of them did we propound examples for their admonition; and each of them did we destroy with an utter destruction.||Unto each of them did we set forth parables for warnings, and each of them did we utterly exterminate.|
|66||42||25||The Koreish have passed frequently near the city which was rained on by a fatal rain;h have they not seen where it once stood? Yet have they not dreaded the resurrection.||h viz., Sodom; for the Koreish often passed by the place where it once stood, in the journeys they took to Syria for the sake of trade.||Oft are this have the unbelieving Meccans passed by the city on which was rained a fatal rain. What! Have they not seen it? Yet have they no hope of a resurrection!|
|66||43||25||When they see thee, they will receive thee only with scoffing, saying, Is this he whom GOD hath sent as his apostle?||And when they see thee, they do but take thee as the subject of their railleries. "What! Is this he whom God has sent as an Apostle?|
|66||44||25||Verily he had almost drawn us aside from the worship of our gods, if we had not firmly persevered in our devotion towards them. But they shall know hereafter, when they shall see the punishment prepared for them, who hath strayed more widely from the right path.||Indeed he had well nigh led us astray from our gods, had we not persevered steadfastly in their service." But in the end they shall know, when they shall see the punishment, who hath most strayed from the path.|
|66||45||25||What thinkest thou? He who taketh his lust for his god; canst thou be his guardian?i||i i.e., Dost thou expect to reclaim such a one from idolatry and infidelity?||What thinkest thou? He who hath taken his passions as a godwilt thou be a guardian over him?|
|66||46||25||Dost thou imagine that the greater part of them hear, or understand? They are no other than like the brute cattle; yea, they stray more widely from the true path.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 272, p. 244
|Thinkest thou that the greater part of them hear or understand? They are even like unto the brutes! yea, they stray even further from the path!||Thinkest thou that the greater part of them hear or understand? They are just like the brutes! Yes! they stray even further from the right way.|
|66||47||25||Dost thou not consider the works of thy LORD, how he stretcheth forth the shadow before sunrise? If he had pleased, he would have made it immovable forever. Then we cause the sun to rise, and to show the same;||Hast thou not seen how thy Lord lengtheneth out the shadow?14 Had He pleased he had made it motionless.15 But we made the sun to be its guide;||14 Geiger is mistaken in supposing that this passage alludes to 2 Kings xx. 9 12, and his translation is inaccurate.
15 Lit. quiescent, i.e. always the same.
|66||48||25||and afterwards we contract it by an easy and gradual contraction.||Then draw it in unto Us with easy indrawing.|
|66||49||25||It is he who hath ordained the night to cover you as a garment; and sleep to give you rest; and hath ordained the day for waking.||He it is who ordaineth the night as a garment, and sleep for rest, and ordaineth the day for waking up to life:|
|66||50||25||It is he who sendeth the winds, driving abroad the pregnant clouds, as the forerunners of his mercy:j and we send down pure waterk from heaven,||j See chapter 7, p. 110. There is the same various reading here as is mentioned in the notes to that passage.
k Properly, purifying water; which epithet may perhaps refer to the cleansing quality of that element, of so great use both on religious and on common occasions.
|Selections from the Writings of Abdul-Bahá, no. 129, within pp. 146-150
|BWC: And pure water send We down from Heaven,||He it is who sendeth the winds as the forerunner of his mercy (rain); and pure water send we down from Heaven,|
|66||51||25||that we may thereby revive a dead country, and give to drink thereof unto what we have created, both of cattle and men, in great numbers;l||l That is, To such as live in the dry deserts, and are obliged to drink rain-water; which the inhabitants of towns, and places well-watered, have no occasion to do.||That we may revive by it a dead land: and we give it for drink to our creation, beasts and men in numbers;|
|66||52||25||and we distribute the same among them at various times, that they may consider: but the greater part of men refuse to consider, only out of ingratitude.m||m Or, out of infidelity: for the old Arabs used to think themselves indebted for their rains, not to GOD, but to the influence of some particular stars.
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 24.
|And we distribute it among them on all sides, that they may reflect: but most men refuse to be aught but thankless.|
|66||53||25||If we had pleased, we had sent a preacher unto every city:n||n And had not given thee, O Mohammed, the honour and trouble of being a preacher to the whole world in general.||Had we pleased, we had raised up a warner in every city.|
|66||54||25||wherefore, do not thou obey the unbelievers; but oppose them herewith, with a strong opposition.||Give not way therefore to the Infidels, but by means of this Koran strive against them with a mighty strife.|
|66||55||25||It is he who hath let loose the two seas; this fresh and sweet, and that salt and bitter; and hath placed between them a bar,o and a bound which cannot be passed.||o To keep them asunder, and prevent their mixing with each other. The original word is barzakh; which has been already explained.2
2 In not. ad cap. 23, p. 261.
|And He it is who hath let loose the two seas,16 the one sweet, fresh; and the other salt, bitter; and hath put an interspace between them, and a barrier that cannot be passed.||16 According to some commentators, Muhammad here speaks of the waters of the Tigris, which do not mingle with the salt water of the sea till they have reached a considerable distance from the river-mouth. See Zech. xiv. 8.|
|66||56||25||It is he who hath created man of water,p and hath made him to bear the double relation of consanguinity and affinity; for thy LORD is powerful.||p With which Adams primitive clay was mixed; or, of seed. See chapter 24, p. 268.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 52)
|And it is He who hath created man of water,17 and established between them the ties of kindred and affinity: and potent is thy Lord.||17 See Sura [cv.] xxiv. 44, n.|
|66||57||25||They worship, besides GOD, that which can neither profit them nor hurt them: and the unbeliever is an assistant of the devil against his LORD.q||q Joining with him in his rebellion and infidelity. Some think Abu Jahl is particularly struck at in this passage. The words may also be translated, The unbeliever is contemptible in the sight of his Lord.||Yet beside God do they worship what can neither help nor hurt them: and the Infidel is Satan's helper against his Lord:|
|66||58||25||We have sent thee to be no other than a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats.||Still we have sent thee only as a herald and a warner.|
|66||59||25||Say, I ask not of you any reward for this my preaching; besides the conversion of him who shall desire to take the way unto his LORD.a||a Seeking to draw near unto him, by embracing the religion taught by me his apostle; which is the best return I expect from you for my labours.1 The passage, however, is capable of another meaning, viz., that Mohammed desires none to give, but him who shall contribute freely and voluntarily towards the advancement of GODS true religion.
1 Al Beidâwi.
|SAY: I ask of you no recompense for it,18 except from him who is willing to take the way to his Lord.||18 "Thou art taught that whoever would make a profit by the Law depriveth himself of life." Pirke Aboth, i. 4. This precept is of frequent occurrence in the Talmud.|
|66||60||25||And do thou trust in him who liveth, and dieth not; and celebrate his praise: (he is sufficiently acquainted with the faults of his servants): who hath created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in six days; and then ascended his throne: the Merciful. Ask now the knowing concerning him.||And put thou thy trust in Him that liveth and dieth not, and celebrate his praise; (He fully knoweth the faults of his servants) who in six days created the Heavens and the Earth, and whatever is between them, then mounted his Throne: the God of Mercy! Ask now of the Wise concerning Him.|
|66||61||25||When it is said unto the unbelievers, Adore the Merciful; they reply, And who is the Merciful?b Shall we adore that which thou commandest us? And this precept causeth them to fly the faster from the faith.||b See chapter 17, p. 237.||But when it is said to them, "Bow down before the God of Mercy," they say, "Who is the God of Mercy? Shall we bow down to what thou biddest?" And they fly from thee the more.|
|66||62||25||Blessed be he who hath placed the twelve signs in the heavens; and hath placed therein a lamp by day,c and the moon which shineth by night!||c i.e., The sun.||Blessed be He who hath placed in the Heaven the sign of the Zodiac!19 who hath placed in it the Lamp of the Sun, and the light-giving Moon!||19 Comp. Sura [xc.] xiii. 29; and the following Sura xvii. 109, n.|
|66||63||25||It is he who hath ordained the night and the day to succeed each other, for the observation of him who will consider, or desireth to show his gratitude.||And it is He who hath ordained the night and the day to succeed one another for those who desire to think on God or desire to be thankful.|
|66||64||25||The servants of the Merciful are those who walk meekly on the earth, and when the ignorant speak unto them, answer, Peace:d||d This is intended here not as a salutation, but as a waiving all farther discourse and communication with the idolaters.||And the servants of the God of Mercy are they who walk upon the Earth softly; and when the ignorant20 address them, they reply, "Peace!"||20 The idolaters.|
|66||65||25||and who pass the night adoring their LORD, and standing up to pray unto him;||They that pass the night in the worship of their lord prostrate and standing:|
|66||66||25||and who say, O LORD, avert from us the torment of hell, for the torment thereof is perpetual; verily the same is a miserable abode and a wretched station:||And that say, "O our Lord! turn away from us the torment of Hell, for its torment is endless: it is indeed an ill abode and resting place!|
|66||67||25||and who, when they bestow, are neither profuse nor niggardly; but observe a just medium between these;e||e See chapter 17, p. 230.||Those who when they spend are neither lavish nor niggard, but keep the mean:|
|66||68||25||and who invoke not another god together with the true GOD; neither slay the soul which GOD hath forbidden to be slain, unless for a just cause: and who are not guilty of fornication. But he who shall do this shall meet the reward of his wickedness:||Those who call on no other gods with God, nor slay whom God hath forbidden to be slain, except for a just cause, and who commit not fornication (for he who doth this shall meet the reward of his wickedness:|
|66||69||25||his punishment shall be doubled unto him on the day of resurrection; and he shall remain therein, covered with ignominy, forever:||Doubled to him shall be the torment on the day of Resurrection; and in it shall he remain, disgraced, for ever:|
|66||70||25||except him who shall repent and believe, and shall work a righteous work; unto them will GOD change their former evils into good;f for GOD is ready to forgive, and merciful.||f Blotting out their former rebellion, on their repentance, and confirming and increasing their faith and obedience.2
|Save those who shall repent and believe and do righteous worksfor them God will change their evil things into good things, for God is Gracious, Merciful|
|66||71||25||And whoever repenteth, and doth that which is right; verily he turneth unto GOD with an acceptable conversion.||And whose turneth to God and doeth what is right, he verily will convert with a true conversion):|
|66||72||25||And they who do not bear false witness; and when they pass by vain discourse, pass by the same with decency;||And they who bear not witness to that which is false, and when they pass by frivolous sport, pass on with dignity:|
|66||73||25||and who, when they are admonished by the signs of their LORD, fall not down as if they were deaf and blind, but stand up and are attentive thereto:||And they who, when monished by the signs of their Lord, fall not down thereat, as if deaf and blind:|
|66||74||25||and who say, O LORD, grant us of our wives and our offspring such as may be the satisfaction of our eyes; and make us patterns unto those who fear thee.||And who say, "O our Lord! give us in our wives and offspring the joy of our eyes, and make us examples to those who fear thee:"|
|66||75||25||These shall be rewarded with the highest apartments in paradise, because they have persevered with constancy; and they shall meet therein with greeting and salutation;||These shall be rewarded with the High Places of Paradise for their steadfast endurance, and they shall meet therein withWelcome and Salutation:|
|66||76||25||they shall remain in the same forever: it shall be an excellent abode, and a delightful station.||For ever shall they remain therein: a fair abode and resting-place!|
|66||77||25||Say, My LORD is not solicitous on your account, if ye do not invoke him: ye have already charged his apostle with imposture; but hereafter shall there be a lasting punishment inflicted on you.||SAY: Not on your account doth my Lord care if ye call not on Him! ye have treated his Apostle as an impostor: but bye and bye a punishment shall cleave to them.|