|Rodwell Suráh #||Verse #||Traditional Suráh #||Sale Translation||Sale's Notes||Bahá'í References (Central Figures)||Bahá'í Translation (Shoghi Effendi unless otherwise noted)||Bahá'í References (Special)||Rodwell Translation||Rodwell's notes|
|56||0||26||CHAPTER XXVI.||SURA XXVI.THE POETS1 [LVI.]||1 This Sura belongs to about the seventh year of Muhammad's prophetic life.|
|56||0||26||ENTITLED, THE POETS;g REVEALED AT MECCA.h||g The chapter bears this inscription because at the conclusion of it the Arabian poets are severely censured.
h The five last verses, beginning at these words, And those who err follow the poets, &c., some take to have been revealed at Medina.
|56||0||26||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|56||1||26||T. S. M.i THESE are the signs of the perspicuous book.||i See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||Ta. Sin. Mim.2 These are the signs of the lucid Book.||2 See Sura 1xviii. I, p. 32.|
|56||2||26||Peradventure thou afflictest thyself unto death, lest the Meccans become not believers.||Haply thou wearest thyself away with grief because they will not believe.|
|56||3||26||If we pleased, we could send down unto them a convincing sign from heaven, unto which their necks would humbly submit.||Were it our will we could send down to them a sign from Heaven, before which they would humbly bow.3||3 Lit. to which their necks would humble themselves.|
|56||4||26||But there cometh unto them no admonition from the Merciful, being newly revealed as occasions require, but they turn aside from the same;||But from each fresh warning that cometh to them from the God of Mercy they have only turned aside,|
|56||5||26||and they have charged it with falsehood: but a message shall come unto them, which they shall not laugh to scorn.||And treated it as a lie: But tidings shall reach them which they shall not laugh to scorn.|
|56||6||26||Do they not behold the earth, how many vegetables we cause to spring up therein, of every noble species?||Have they not beheld the earthhow we have caused every kind of noble plant to spring up therein?|
|56||7||26||Verily herein is a sign: but the greater part of them do not believe.||Verily, in this is a sign: but most of them believe not.|
|56||8||26||Verily thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful God.||And assuredly, thy Lord!He is the Mighty, the Merciful.|
|56||9||26||Remember when thy LORD called Moses, saying, Go to the unjust people,||And remember when thy Lord called to Moses, "Go to the wicked people,|
|56||10||26||the people of Pharaoh; will they not dread me?||The people of Pharaoh. What! will they not fear me?"|
|56||11||26||Moses answered, O LORD, verily I fear lest they accuse me of falsehood,||He said, "My Lord, in sooth I fear lest they treat me as a liar:|
|56||12||26||and lest my breast become straitened, and my tongue be not ready in speaking:k send therefore unto Aaron, to be my assistant.||k See chap. 20, p. 257.||And my breast is straitened, and I am slow of speech:4 send therefore to Aaron to be my helpmate.||4 Lit. my tongue is not free. This verse appears to be a studied simplification of Ex. iv. 10-13.|
|56||13||26||Also they have a crime to object against me:l and I fear they will put me to death.||l viz., The having killed an Egyptian.1
1 See cap. 28.
|For they have a charge5 against me, and I fear lest they put me to death."||5 The murder of the Egyptian. See Geiger, 159.|
|56||14||26||God said, They shall by no means put thee to death: wherefore go ye with our signs; for we will be with you, and will hear what passes between you and them.||He said, "Surely not. Go ye therefore with our signs: we will be with you and will hearken.|
|56||15||26||Go ye therefore unto Pharaoh, and say, Verily we are the apostlem of the LORD of all creatures:||m The word is in the singular number in the original; for which the commentators give several reasons.||And go to Pharaoh and say: 'Verily we are the messengers of the Lord of the worlds|
|56||16||26||send away with us the children of Israel.||Send forth with us the children of Israel."'|
|56||17||26||And when they had delivered their message, Pharaoh answered, Have we not brought thee up, among us,||He said, "Did we not rear thee among us when a child? And hast thou not passed years of thy life among us?|
|56||18||26||when a child; and hast thou not dwelt among us for several years of thy life?n Yet hast thou done thy deed which thou hast done, and thou art an ungrateful person.||n It is said that Moses dwelt among the Egyptians thirty years, and then went to Midian, where he stayed ten years; after which he returned to Egypt, and spent thirty years in endeavouring to convert them; and that he lived after the drowning of Pharaoh fifty years.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 57, p. 55
|What a deed is that which Thou hast done! Thou art one of the ungrateful.||And yet what a deed is that which thou hast done!6 Thou art one of the ungrateful."||6 Lit. and thou hast done thy deed which thou hast done. See xxviii. 15.|
|56||19||26||Moses replied, I did it indeed, and I was one of those who erred;o||o Having killed the Egyptian undesignedly.||26:18-20 (cont.)
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 57, p. 55
|He said: 'I did it indeed, and I was one of those who erred.||He said, "I did it indeed, and I was one of those who erred:|
|56||20||26||wherefore I fled from you, because I feared you: but my LORD hath bestowed on me wisdom, and hath appointed me one of his apostles.||26:18-20 (cont.)
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 57, p. 55
|And I fled from you when I feared you, but My Lord hath given Me wisdom, and hath made Me one of His Apostles.'||And I fled from you because I feared you; but my Lord hath given me wisdom and hath made me one of his Apostles.|
|56||21||26||And this is the favor which thou hast bestowed on me, that thou hast enslaved the children of Israel.||And is this the favour thou hast conferred on me, that thou hast enslaved the children of Israel?"|
|56||22||26||Pharaoh said, And who is the LORD of all creatures?||Said Pharaoh, "Who then is the Lord of the Worlds?"|
|56||23||26||Moses answered, The LORD of heaven and earth, and whatever is between them: if ye are men of sagacity.||He said, "The Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth and of all that is between them, if only ye believe it."|
|56||24||26||Pharaoh said unto those who were about him, Do ye not hear?||Said Pharaoh to those around him, "Hear ye this?"|
|56||25||26||Moses said, Your LORD, and the LORD of your forefathers.||"Your Lord," said Moses, "and the Lord of your sires of old."|
|56||26||26||Pharaoh said unto those who were present, Your apostle, who is sent unto you, is certainly distracted.p||p Pharaoh, it seems, thought Moses had given but wild answers to his question; for he wanted to know the person and true nature of the GOD whose messenger Moses pretended to be; whereas he spoke of his works only. And because this answer gave so little satisfaction to the king, he is therefore supposed by some to have been a Dahrite, or one who believed the eternity of the world.3
|"In sooth, your Apostle whom He hath sent to you," said Pharaoh, "is certainly possessed."|
|56||27||26||Moses said, The LORD of the east, and of the west, and of whatever is between them; if ye are men of understanding.||He said, "Lord is He of the East and of the West, and of all that is between them, if ye can understand."|
|56||28||26||Pharaoh said unto him, Verily if thou take any god besides me,q I will make thee one of those who are imprisoned.r||q From this and a parallel expression in the twenty-eighth chapter, it is inferred that Pharaoh claimed the worship of his subjects, as due to his supreme power.
r These words, says al Beidâwi, were a more terrible menace than if he had said I will imprison thee; and gave Moses to understand that he must expect to keep company with those wretches whom the tyrant had thrown, as was his custom, into a deep dungeon, where they remained till they died.
|He said, "If ye take any God beside me, I will surely put thee in ward."|
|56||29||26||Moses answered, What, although I come unto you with a convincing miracle?||Said Moses, "What! if I shew thee that which shall be a proof of my mission?"|
|56||30||26||Pharaoh replied, Produce it therefore, if thou speakest truth.||He said, "Forth with it then, if thou speakest truth."|
|56||31||26||And he cast down his rod, and behold, it became a visible serpent:||Then threw he down his staff, and lo! an undoubted serpent:|
|56||32||26||and he drew forth his hand out of his bosom; and behold, it appeared white unto the spectators.||And he drew out his hand, and lo! it was white7 to the beholders.||7 Thus Pirke R. Elieser § 48. "He placed his hand in his bosom, and drew it forth, white as snow with leprosy."|
|56||33||26||Pharaoh said unto the princes who were about him, Verily this man is a skilful magician:||He said to his nobles around him. "This truly is a right cunning sorcerer:|
|56||34||26||he seeketh to dispossess you of your land by his sorcery; what therefore do ye direct?||Fain would he drive you out of your land by his Sorcery. But what do ye suggest?"|
|56||35||26||They answered , Delay him and his brother by good words for a time; and send through the cities men to assemble||They said, "Put him and his brother off awhile, and send summoners to all the cities,|
|56||36||26||and bring unto thee every skilful magician.||Who shall bring to thee every cunning magician."|
|56||37||26||So the magicians were assembled at an appointed time, on a solemn day.||So the magicians were mustered at a set time, on a solemn day:|
|56||38||26||And it was said unto the people, Are ye assembled together?||And it was said to the people, "Are ye all assembled?"|
|56||39||26||Perhaps we may follow the magicians, if they do get the victory.||"Yes! and we will follow the magicians if they gain the day."|
|56||40||26||And when the magicians were come, they said unto Pharaoh, Shall we certainly receive a reward, if we do get the victory?||And when the magicians were arrived they said to Pharaoh, "Shall we have a reward if we gain the day?"|
|56||41||26||He answered, Yea; and ye shall surely be of those who approach my person.||He said, "Yes. And verily in that case ye shall be of those who are near my person."|
|56||42||26||Moses said unto them, Cast down what ye are about to cast down.||Moses said to them, "Throw down what ye have to throw."|
|56||43||26||Wherefore they cast down their ropes and their rods, and said, By the might of Pharaoh, verily we shall be the conquerors.||So they cast down their ropes and rods, and said, "By Pharaoh's might we shall surely win."|
|56||44||26||And Moses cast down his rod, and behold, it swallowed up that which they had caused falsely to appear changed into serpents.||Then Moses threw down his rod, and lo! it swallowed up their cheating wonders.|
|56||45||26||Whereupon the magicians prostrated themselves, worshipping,||Then the magicians threw themselves down in worship:|
|56||46||26||and said, We believe in the LORD of all creatures,||They said, "We believe on the Lord of the Worlds,|
|56||47||26||the LORD of Moses and of Aaron.||The Lord of Moses and of Aaron."|
|56||48||26||Pharaoh said unto them, Have ye believed on him, before I have given you permission? Verily he is your chief who hath taught you magic:s but hereafter ye shall surely know my power.||s But has reserved the most efficacious secrets to himself.4
|Said Pharaoh, "Have ye then believed on him ere I gave you leave? He truly is your master who hath taught you magic.8 But bye and bye ye shall surely know my power.||8 "The Pharaoh who lived in the days of Moses was a great magician." Mid. Jalkut, c. 182. Comp. Sura xxviii. 38, where, in accordance with the Rabbinic traditions Pharaoh claims to be a God.|
|56||49||26||I will cut off your hands and your feet, on the opposite sides, and I will crucify you all.||I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will have you all crucified."|
|56||50||26||They answered, It will be no harm unto us; for we shall return unto our LORD.||They said, "It cannot harm us, for to our Lord shall we return:|
|56||51||26||We hope that our LORD will forgive us our sins, since we are the first who have believed.t||t See chapter 7, p. 116, &c.||Assuredly we trust that our Lord will forgive us our sins, since we are of the first who believe."|
|56||52||26||And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying, March forth with my servants by night; for ye will be pursued.||Then revealed we this order to Moses: "Go forth by night with my servants, for ye will be pursued."|
|56||53||26||And Pharaoh sent officers through the cities to assemble forces, saying,||And Pharaoh sent summoners through the cities:|
|56||54||26||Verily these are a small company;||"These Israelites," said they, "are a scanty band;|
|56||55||26||and they are enraged against us:||Yet are they enraged against us|
|56||56||26||but we are a multitude well provided.||But we truly are numerous, wary."|
|56||57||26||So we caused them to quit their gardens, and fountains,||Thus we caused them to quit gardens and fountains,|
|56||58||26||and treasures, and fair dwellings:||And treasures and splendid dwellings;|
|56||59||26||thus did we do; and we made the children of Israel to inherit the same.u||u Hence some suppose the Israelites, after the destruction of Pharaoh and his host, returned to Egypt, and possessed themselves of the riches of that country.5 But others are of opinion that the meaning is no more than that GOD gave them the like possessions and dwellings in another country.6
5 Jallaloddin, Yahya.
6 Al Zamakh. See cap. 7, p. 118.
|So was it; and we gave them to the children of Israel for an heritage.9||9 See ii. 58, and Midr. Jalkut on Ex. xii. c. 208.|
|56||60||26||And they pursued them at sunrise.||Then at sunrise the Egyptians followed them:|
|56||61||26||And when the two armies were come in sight of each other, the companions of Moses said, We shall surely be overtaken.||And when the hosts came in view of one another, the comrades of Moses said, "We are surely overtaken."|
|56||62||26||Moses answered, By no means; for my LORD is with me, who will surely direct me.||He said, "By no means:for my Lord is with meHe will guide me."|
|56||63||26||And we commanded Moses by revelation, saying, Smite the sea with thy rod. And when he had smitten it, it became divided into twelve parts, between which were as many paths, and every part was like a vast mountain.||And we revealed this order to Moses, "Strike the sea with thy rod." And it clave asunder, and each part became like a huge mountain.|
|56||64||26||And we drew thither the others;||Then made we the others to draw on;|
|56||65||26||and we delivered Moses and all those who were with him:||And we saved Moses, and those who were with him, all;|
|56||66||26||then we drowned the others.||But we drowned the others.|
|56||67||26||Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe.||Truly in this was a sign; but most of them did not believe.|
|56||68||26||Verily thy LORD is the mighty and the merciful.||But verily thy Lord,He is the Mighty, the Merciful!|
|56||69||26||And rehearse unto them the story of Abraham:||And recite to them the story of Abraham|
|56||70||26||when he said unto his father, and his people, What do ye worship?||When he said to his Father and to his people, "What worship ye?"|
|56||71||26||They answered, We worship idols; and we constantly serve them all the day long.||They said, "We worship idols, and constant is our devotion to them."|
|56||72||26||Abraham said, Do they hear you, when ye invoke them?||He said, "Can they hear you when ye cry to them?|
|56||73||26||Or do they either profit you, or hurt you?||Or help you or do you harm?"|
|56||74||26||They answered, But we found our fathers do the same.||They said, "But we found our Fathers do the like."|
|56||75||26||He said, What think ye? The gods which ye worship,||He said, "How think ye? They whom ye worship,|
|56||76||26||and your forefathers worshipped,||Ye and your fathers of early days,|
|56||77||26||are my enemy: except only the LORD of all creatures,||Are my foes: but not so10 the Lord of the Worlds,||10 Lit. except.|
|56||78||26||who hath created me, and directeth me;||Who hath created me, and guideth me,|
|56||79||26||and who giveth me to eat, and to drink,||Who giveth me food and drink;|
|56||80||26||and when I am sick, healeth me;||And when I am sick, he healeth me,|
|56||81||26||and who will cause me to die, and will afterwards restore me to life;||And who will cause me to die and again quicken me,|
|56||82||26||and who, I hope, will forgive my sins on the day of judgment.||And who, I hope, will forgive me my sins in the day of reckoning.|
|56||83||26||O LORD, grant me wisdom; and join me with the righteous:||My Lord! bestow on me wisdom and join me to the just,|
|56||84||26||and grant that I may be spoken of with honourx among the latest posterity;||x Literally, Grant me a tongue of truth, that is, a high encomium. The same expression is used in c. 19, p. 252.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 116
|And grant that I be spoken of with honor by posterity.||And give me a good name11 among posterity,||11 Lit. a tongue of truth, i.e. high repute. Or, grant that my words may be believed among posterity. See [lviii.] xix. 47.|
|56||85||26||and make me an heir of the garden of delight:||And make me one of the heirs of the garden of delight,|
|56||86||26||and forgive my father, for that he hath been one of those who go astray.y||y By disposing him to repentance, and the receiving of the true faith. Some suppose Abraham pronounced this prayer after his fathers death, thinking that possibly he might have been inwardly a true believer, but have concealed his conversion for fear of Nimrod, and before he was forbidden to pray for him.7
7 See cap. 9, p. 148, and c. 14, p. 209.
|And forgive my father, for he was one of the erring,|
|56||87||26||And cover me not with shame on the day of resurrection;||And put me not to shame on the day when mankind shall be raised up,|
|56||88||26||on the day in which neither riches nor children shall avail,||The day when neither wealth nor children shall avail,|
|56||89||26||unless unto him who shall come unto GOD with a sincere heart:||Save to him who shall come to God with a sound heart:|
|56||90||26||when paradise shall be brought near to the view of the pious,||When Paradise shall be brought near the pious,|
|56||91||26||and hell shall appear plainly to those who shall have erred:||And Hell shall lay open for those who have gone astray.|
|56||92||26||and it shall be said unto them, Where are your deities which ye served||And it shall be said to them, 'Where are they whom ye worshipped|
|56||93||26||besides GOD? will they deliver you from punishment, or will they deliver themselves?||Beside God? Can they harm you or help themselves?'|
|56||94||26||And they shall be cast into the same, both they,z and those who have been seduced to their worship;||z See chapter 21, p. 273.||And they shall be cast into itthe seducers and the seduced,|
|56||95||26||and all the host of Eblis.||And all the host of Eblis.|
|56||96||26||The seduced shall dispute therein with their false gods,||They shall say, as they wrangle therein together,|
|56||97||26||saying, By GOD, we were in a manifest error,||'By God, we were in a plain error,|
|56||98||26||when we equalled you with the LORD of all creatures:||When we equalled you with the Lord of the Worlds:|
|56||99||26||and none seduced us but the wicked.||And none misled us but the wicked,|
|56||100||26||We have now no intercessors,||And we have none to plead for us,|
|56||101||26||nor any friend who careth for us.||Nor friend who careth for us.|
|56||102||26||If we were allowed to return once more into the world, we would certainly become true believers.||Could we but return, we would be of the believers."'|
|56||103||26||Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them believed not.||Verily, in this was a sign: but most of them believed not.|
|56||104||26||The LORD is the mighty, the merciful.||And truly thy Lord!He is the Mighty, the Merciful!|
|56||105||26||The people of Noah accused God's messengers of imposture:||The people of Noah gainsaid the Apostles,|
|56||106||26||when their brother Noah said unto them, Will ye not fear God?||When their brother Noah said to them, "Will ye not fear God?|
|56||107||26||Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you;||Of a truth am I your faithful Apostle;|
|56||108||26||wherefore fear GOD, and obey me.||Fear God then and obey me.|
|56||109||26||I ask no reward of you for my preaching unto you; I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures:||I ask of you no reward for this, for my reward is of the Lord of the Worlds alone:|
|56||110||26||wherefore fear GOD, and obey me.||Fear God then and obey me."|
|56||111||26||They answered, Shall we believe on thee, when only the most abject persons have followed thee?||They said, "Shall we believe on thee when the meanest only are thy followers?"|
|56||112||26||Noah said, I have no knowledge of that which they did;a||a i.e., Whether they have embraced the faith which I have preached, out of the sincerity of their hearts, or in prospect of some worldly advantage.||He said, "But I have no knowledge of that they did:12||12 Of their motives in embracing Islam.|
|56||113||26||it appertaineth unto my LORD alone to bring them to account, if ye understand;||To my Lord only must their account be given: would that ye understood this!|
|56||114||26||wherefore I will not drive away the believers:b||b See chapter 11, p. 161.||And I will not thrust away those who believe,|
|56||115||26||I am no more than a public preacher.||For I am only one charged with plain warnings."|
|56||116||26||They replied, Assuredly, unless thou desist, O Noah, thou shalt be stoned.||They said, "Now unless thou desist, O Noah, one of the stoned shalt thou surely be."|
|56||117||26||He said, O LORD, verily my people take me for a liar;||He said, "Lord! my people treat me as a liar:|
|56||118||26||wherefore judge publicly between me and them; and deliver me and the true believers who are with me.||Decide thou therefore a decision between me and them, and rescue me and the faithful who are with me."|
|56||119||26||Wherefore we delivered him, and those who were with him, in the ark filled with men and animals;||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 156-159, Mirzá Jafar-i-Yazdi)
|MG: fully-laden Ark||So we saved him and those who were with him in the fully-laden ark,|
|56||120||26||and afterwards we drowned the rest.||And afterwards we drowned the rest.|
|56||121||26||Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them believed not.||Herein truly was a sign, but most of them believed not.|
|56||122||26||Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful.||But thy Lord!He is the Mighty, the Merciful.|
|56||123||26||The tribe of Ad charged God's messengers with falsehood:||The Adites13 treated their Apostles as liars,||13 The Adites are mentioned in vii. and xi.|
|56||124||26||when their brother Hud said unto them, Will ye not fear God?||When their brother Houd said to them, "Will ye not fear God?|
|56||125||26||Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you;||I am your Apostle, worthy of all credit;|
|56||126||26||wherefore fear GOD, and obey me.||Fear God then and obey me:|
|56||127||26||I demand not of you any reward for my preaching unto you: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures.||I ask for no reward for this; for my reward is of the Lord of the Worlds alone.|
|56||128||26||Do ye build a landmark on every high place, to divert yourselves?c||c Or to mock the passengers; who direct themselves in their journeys by the stars, and have no need of such buildings?1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|What! build ye landmarks on all heights in mere pastime?|
|56||129||26||And do ye erect magnificent works, hoping that ye may continue in their possession forever?||And raise ye structures to be your lasting abodes?14||14 This is to be understood of the small forts erected by the nomades of the Hejaz along the route of the caravans to guarantee their safety. Comp. Gen. xi. 1-10, and Sura lxxxix. 6, p. 54.|
|56||130||26||And when ye exercise your power, do ye exercise it with cruelty and rigour?d||d Putting to death, and inflicting other corporal punishments without mercy, and rather for the satisfaction of your passion than the amendment of the sufferer.2
|And when ye put forth your power do ye put it forth with harshness?|
|56||131||26||Fear GOD, by leaving these things; and obey me.||Fear ye God then and obey me;|
|56||132||26||And fear him who hath bestowed on you that which ye know:||And fear ye Him who hath plenteously betowed on you ye well know what:|
|56||133||26||he hath bestowed on you cattle, and children,||Plenteously bestowed on you flocks and children,|
|56||134||26||and gardens, and springs of water.||And gardens and fountains;|
|56||135||26||Verily I fear for you the punishment of a grievous day.||Indeed I fear for you the punishment of a tremendous day."|
|56||136||26||They answered, It is equal unto us whether thou admonish us, or dost not admonish us:||They said, "It is the same to us whether thou warn or warn us not.|
|56||137||26||this which thou preachest is only a device of the ancients;||This is but a tale of the ancients,|
|56||138||26||neither shall we be punished for what we have done.||And we are not they who shall be punished."|
|56||139||26||And they accused him of imposture: wherefore we destroyed them. Verily herein was a sign: but the greater part of them believed not.||And they charged him with imposture; and we destroyed them. In this was a sign: but most of them believed not.|
|56||140||26||Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful.||But thy Lord!He is the Mighty, the Merciful!|
|56||141||26||The tribe of Thamud also charged the messengers of God with falsehood.||The Themoudites also treated their Apostles as liars,|
|56||142||26||When their brother Saleh said unto them, Will ye not fear God?||When their brother Saleh said to them, "Will ye not fear God?|
|56||143||26||Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you:||I am your Apostle worthy of all credit:|
|56||144||26||wherefore fear GOD, and obey me.||Fear God, then, and obey me.|
|56||145||26||I demand no reward of you for my preaching unto you: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures.||I ask of you no reward for this: my reward is of the Lord of the Worlds alone.|
|56||146||26||Shall ye be left forever secure in the possession of the things which are here;||Shall ye be left secure amid these things here?|
|56||147||26||among gardens, and fountains,||Amid gardens and fountains,|
|56||148||26||and corn, and palm-trees, whose branches sheathe their flowers.||And corn-fields and palm-trees, with flower-sheathing branches?|
|56||149||26||And will ye continue to cut habitations for yourselves out of the mountains, behaving with insolence?e||e Or, as the original word may also be rendered, showing art and ingenuity in your work.||And, insolent that ye are, will ye hew out your dwellings in the mountains?|
|56||150||26||Fear GOD, and obey me;||But fear God and obey me,|
|56||151||26||and obey not the command of the transgressors,||And obey not the bidding of those who commit excess,|
|56||152||26||who act corruptly in the earth, and reform not the same.||Who act disorderly on the earth and reform it not."|
|56||153||26||They answered, Verily thou art distracted:||They said, "Certainly thou art a person bewitched;|
|56||154||26||thou art no other than a man like unto us: produce now some sign, if thou speakest truth.||Thou art only a man like us: produce now a sign if thou art a man of truth."|
|56||155||26||Saleh said, This she-camel shall be a sign unto you: she shall have her portion of water, and ye shall have your portion of water alternately, on a several day appointed for you;f||f That is, they were to have the use of the water by turns, the camel drinking one day, and the Thamudites drawing the other day; for when this camel drank, she emptied the wells or brooks for that day. See chapter 7, p. 112.||He said, "This she-camel, thendrink shall there be for her, and drink shall there be for you, on a several day for each.|
|56||156||26||and do her no hurt, lest the punishment of a terrible day be inflicted on you.||But harm her not, lest the punishment of a tremendous day overtake you."|
|56||157||26||But they slew her; and were made to repent of their impiety:||But they ham-strung her, and repented of it on the morrow;|
|56||158||26||for the punishment which had been threatened overtook them. Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe.||For the punishment overtook them. In this truly was a sign, but most of them believed not.|
|56||159||26||Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful.||But thy Lord!He is the Powerful, the Merciful!|
|56||160||26||The people of Lot likewise accused God's messengers of imposture.||The people of Lot treated their apostles as liars,|
|56||161||26||When their brother Lot said unto them, Will ye not fear God?||When their brother Lot said to them, "Will ye not fear God?|
|56||162||26||Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you:||I am your Apostle worthy of all credit:|
|56||163||26||wherefore fear GOD, and obey me.||Fear God, then, and obey me.|
|56||164||26||I demand no reward of you for my preaching: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures.||For this I ask you no reward: my reward is of the Lord of the worlds alone.|
|56||165||26||Do ye approach unto the males among mankind,||What! with men, of all creatures, will ye have commerce?|
|56||166||26||and leave your wives which your LORD hath created for you. Surely ye are people who transgress.||And leave ye your wives whom your Lord hath created for you? Ah! ye are an erring people!"|
|56||167||26||They answered, Unless thou desist, O Lot, thou shalt certainly be expelled our city.||They said, "O Lot, if thou desist not, one of the banished shalt thou surely be."|
|56||168||26||He said, Verily I am one of those who abhor your doings:||He said, "I utterly abhor your doings:|
|56||169||26||O LORD, deliver me, and my family, from that which they act.||My Lord! deliver me and my family from what they do."|
|56||170||26||Wherefore we delivered him, and all his family,||So we delivered him and his whole family|
|56||171||26||except an old woman, his wife, who perished among those who remained behind;||Save an aged one among those who tarried|
|56||172||26||then we destroyed the rest;||Then we destroyed the rest|
|56||173||26||and we rained on them a shower of stones; and terrible was the shower which fell on those who had been warned in vain.||And we rained a rain upon them, and fatal was the rain to those whom we had warned.|
|56||174||26||Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe.||In this truly was a sign; but most of them did not believe.|
|56||175||26||Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful.||But thy Lord! He is the Powerful, the Merciful!|
|56||176||26||The inhabitants of the woodg also accused GOD'S messengers of imposture.||g See chapter 15, p. 213. Shoaib being not called the brother of these people, which would have preserved the conformity between this passage and the preceding, it has been thought they were not Midianites, but of another race; however, we find the prophet taxes them with the same crimes as he did those of Midian.1
1 See cap. 7, p. 113.
|The dwellers in the forest of Madian15 treated the Apostles as liars.||15 The Madian and the El-Aika of other Suras are unquestionably one and the same place, as they have the same prophet Shoaib (or Sho'eyb), the Jethro of Scripturea name perhaps altered from Hobab (Numb. x. 29)and because the same sin is laid to the charge of both. See Winer's Realwrterbuch on Jethro. The Midr. Rabbah on Ex. ii. I6, Par. I, makes Jethro renounce idolatry, and his office of Priest, and undergo banishment from the Midianites.|
|56||177||26||When Shoaib said unto him, Will ye not fear God?||When Shoaib their brother said to them, "Will ye not fear God?|
|56||178||26||Verily I am a faithful messenger unto you:||I truly am your trustworthy Apostle.|
|56||179||26||wherefore fear GOD, and obey me.||Fear God, then, and obey me:|
|56||180||26||I ask no reward of you for my preaching: I expect my reward from no other than the LORD of all creatures.||No reward ask I of you for this: my reward is of the Lord of the Worlds alone.|
|56||181||26||Give just measure, and be not defrauders;||Fill the measure, and be not of those who minish:|
|56||182||26||and weigh with an equal balance;||Weigh with exact balance:|
|56||183||26||and diminish not unto men aught of their matters; neither commit violence in the earth, acting corruptly.||And defraud not men in their substance, and do no wrong on the earth by deeds of licence;|
|56||184||26||And fear him who hath created you, and also the former generations.||And fear Him who made you and the races of old."|
|56||185||26||They answered, Certainly thou art distracted;||They said, "Certainly thou art a person bewitched.|
|56||186||26||thou art no more than a man, like unto us; and we do surely esteem thee to be a liar.||Thou art but a man like us, and we deem thee liar|
|56||187||26||Cause now a part of the heaven to fall upon us, if thou speakest truth.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 230, p. 207
|Make now a part of the heaven to fall down upon us;||Make now a part of the heaven to fall down upon us, if thou art a man of truth."|
|56||188||26||Shoaib said, My LORD best knoweth that which ye do.||He said, "My Lord best knoweth your doings."|
|56||189||26||And they charged him with falsehood: wherefore the punishment of the day of the shadowing cloudh overtook them; and this was the punishment of a grievous day.||h GOD first plagued them with such intolerable heat for seven days that all their waters were dried up, and then brought a cloud over them, under whose shade they ran, and were all destroyed by a hot wind and fire which proceeded from it.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|And when they treated him as a liar, the chastisement of the day of cloud overtook them. This truly was the chastisement of a dreadful day!|
|56||190||26||Verily herein was a sign; but the greater part of them did not believe.||In this was a sign, but most of them believed not.|
|56||191||26||Thy LORD is the mighty, the merciful.||But thy Lord!He is the Mighty, the Merciful!|
|56||192||26||This book is certainly a revelation from the LORD of all creatures,||Verily from the Lord of the Worlds hath this Book come down;|
|56||193||26||which the faithful spiriti hath caused to descend||i i.e., Gabriel, who is entrusted with the divine secrets and revelations.||The faithful spirit16 hath come down with it||16 Gabriel. See Sura lxxxi. 19, p. 46.|
|56||194||26||upon thy heart, that thou mightest be a preacher to thy people,||Upon thy heart, that thou mightest become a warner|
|56||195||26||in the perspicuous Arabic tongue;||In the clear Arabic tongue:|
|56||196||26||and it is borne witness to in the scriptures of former ages.||And truly it is foretold in the Scriptures of them of yore.17||17 See Sura xiii. 36. This verse is said to have been revealed at Medina by Itq. 34.|
|56||197||26||Was it not a sign unto them, that the wise men among the children of Israel knew it?||Was it not a sign to them18 that the learned among the children of Israel recognised it?||18 The unbelieving Meccans. Lit. that the knowing (Doctors, Uhlemas) knew it.|
|56||198||26||Had we revealed it unto any of the foreigners,||If we had sent it down unto any foreigner,|
|56||199||26||and he had read the same unto them, yet they would not have believed therein.||And he had recited it to them, they had not believed.|
|56||200||26||Thus have we caused obstinate infidelity to enter the hearts of the wicked:||In such sort have we influenced19 the heart of the wicked ones,||19 Lit. have introduced it, i.e. infidelity; or, the Koran. Beidh. The latter interpretation seems most accordant with the context.|
|56||201||26||they shall not believe therein, until they see a painful punishment.||That they will not believe it till they see the grievous chastisement?|
|56||202||26||It shall come suddenly upon them, and they shall not foresee it:||And it shall come upon them on a sudden when they look not for it:|
|56||203||26||and they shall say, Shall we be respited?||And they will say, "Can we be respited?"|
|56||204||26||Do they therefore desire our punishment to be hastened?k||k The infidels were continually defying Mohammed to bring some signal and miraculous destruction on them, as a shower of stones, &c.||What! will they seek to hasten on our chastisement?|
|56||205||26||What thinkest thou? If we suffer them to enjoy the advantage of this life for several years,||How thinkest thou? If after we have given them their fill for years,|
|56||206||26||and afterwards that with which they are threatened come upon them;||That with which they are menaced come upon them at last,|
|56||207||26||what will that which they have enjoyed profit them?||Of what avail will their enjoyments be to them?|
|56||208||26||We have destroyed no city, but preachers were first sent unto it,||We never destroyed a city which had not first its warners|
|56||209||26||to admonish the inhabitants thereof; neither did we treat them unjustly.||With admonition; nor did we deal unjustly.|
|56||210||26||The devils did not descend with the Koran, as the infidels give out:||The Satans were not sent down with this Koran:|
|56||211||26||it is not for their purpose, neither are they able to produce such a book;||It beseemed them not, and they had not the power,|
|56||212||26||for they are far removed from hearing the discourse of the angels in heaven.l||l See chapter 15, p. 211.||For they are far removed from hearing it.20||20 Comp. Sura xxxvii. 7, 8, p. 79.|
|56||213||26||Invoke no other god with the true GOD, lest thou become one of those who are doomed to punishment.||Call not thou on any other god but God, lest thou be of those consigned to torment:|
|56||214||26||And admonish thy more near relations.m||m The commentators suppose the same command to have been virtually contained in the 74th chapter, which is prior to this in point of time.3 It is said that Mohammed, on receiving the passage before us, went up immediately to Mount Safâ, and having called the several families to him, one by one, when they were all assembled, asked them whether, if he should tell them that mountain would bring forth a smaller mountain, they would believe him; to which they answering in the affirmative, Verily, says he, I am a warner sent unto you, before a severe chastisement.4
3 See the notes thereon, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 34.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|But warn thy relatives of nearer kin,21||21 It is probable that within three or four years from his entry upon the prophetic office, Muhammad had made about 40 converts. Some biographers refer to this passage, and not to Sura lxiv. I, as the first call to preach. But this Sura is itself late, and bears evidence of the opposition to which the prophet had become exposed, and of adherents to his cause, now become numerous. The diffuseness and feeblenss of the style clearly point to a late origin.|
|56||215||26||And behave thyself with meeknessn towards the true believers who follow thee:||n Literally, lower thy wing.||And kindly lower thy wing over the faithful who follow thee.|
|56||216||26||and if they be disobedient unto thee, say, Verily, I am clear of that which ye do.||And if they disobey thee, then say: "I will not be answerable for your doings;"|
|56||217||26||And trust in the most mighty, the merciful God;||And put thy trust in Him that is the Mighty, the Merciful,|
|56||218||26||who seeth thee when thou risest up,||Who seeth thee when thou standest in prayer,|
|56||219||26||and thy behavior among those who worship;o||o i.e., Who seeth thee when thou risest up to watch and spend the night in religious exercises, and observeth thy anxious care for the Moslems exact performance of their duty. It is said that the night on which the precept of watching was abrogated. Mohammed went privately from one house to another, to see how his companions spent the time; and that he found them so intent in reading the Korân, and repeating their prayers, that their houses, by reason of the humming noise they made, seemed to be so many nests of hornets.5 Some commentators, however, suppose that by the prophets behaviour, in this place, are meant the various postures he used in praying at the head of his companions; as standing, bowing, prostration, and sitting.6
6 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And thy demeanour amongst those who worship;|
|56||220||26||for he both heareth and knoweth.||For He heareth, knoweth all.|
|56||221||26||Shall I declare unto you upon whom the devils descend?||Shall I tell you on whom Satan descend?|
|56||222||26||They descend upon every lying and wicked person:p||p The prophet, having vindicated himself from the charge of having communication with the devils, by the opposition between his doctrine and their designs, and their inability to compose so consistent a book as the Korân, proceeds to show that the persons most likely to a correspondence with those evil spirits were liars and slanderers, that is, his enemies and opposers.||They descend on every lying, wicked person:|
|56||223||26||they learn what is heard;q but the greater part of them are liars.||q i.e., They are taught by the secret inspiration of the devils, and receive their idle and inconsistent suggestions for truth. It being uncertain whether the slanderers or the devils be the nominative case to the verb, the words may also be rendered, They impart what they hear; that is, The devils acquaint their correspondents on earth with such incoherent scraps of the angels discourse as they can hear by stealth.7
|They impart what they have heard;22but most of them are liars.||22 They impart to their votaries on earth what they have learned by stealth and partially, in heaven.|
|56||224||26||And those who err follow the steps of the poets:||It is the POETS23 whom the erring follow:||23 Muhammad found it necessary to employ the pens of certain poets to defend himself and his religion from the ridicule and satire of other poets, whose productions were recited at the great annual fair held at Okatz, the Olympus of the Hejaz. The poems which were judged the best were written up in letters of gold, or suspended (hence called Moallakat) in the Caaba. These poetical contests were subsequently suppressed by Muhammad, as offering openings for discussions which might prove inconvenient, and dangerous to his rising claims.|
|56||225||26||dost thou not see that they rove as bereft of their senses through every valley;||Seest thou not how they rove distraught in every valley?|
|56||226||26||and that they say that which they do not?r||r Their compositions being as wild as the actions of a distracted man: for most of the ancient poetry was full of vain imaginations; as fabulous stories and descriptions, love verses, flattery, excessive commendations of their patrons, and as excessive reproaches of their enemies, incitements to vicious actions, vainglorious vauntings, and the like.8
|And that they say that which they do not?|
|56||227||26||except those who believe, and do good works, and remember GOD frequently;||Save those who believe and do good works, and oft remember God;|
|56||228||26||and who defend themselves, after they have been unjustly treated.s And they who act unjustly shall know hereafter with what treatment they shall be treated.||s That is, such poets as had embraced Mohammedism; whose works, free from the profaneness of the former, run chiefly on the praises of GOD, and the establishing his unity, and contain exhortations to obedience and other religious and moral virtues, without any satirical invectives, unless against such as have given just provocations, by having first attacked them, or some others of the true believers, with the same weapons. In this last case Mohammed saw it was necessary for him to borrow assistance from the poets of his party, to defend himself and religion from the insults and ridicule of the others, for which purpose he employed the pens of Labid Ebn Rabîa,1 Abdallah Ebn Rawâha, Hassân Ebn Thabet, and the two Caabs. It is related that Mohammed once said to Caab Ebn Malec, Ply them with satires; for, by him in whose hand my soul is, they wound more deeply than arrows.2
1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 47.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 251, p. 227
|And they who act unjustly shall soon know what lot awaiteth them!||And who defend themselves when unjustly treated. But they who treat them unjustly shall find out what a lot awaiteth them.|
|68||0||27||CHAPTER XXVII.||SURA XXVII.THE ANT [LXVIII.]|
|68||0||27||ENTITLED, THE ANT;t REVEALED AT MECCA.||t In this chapter is related, among other strange things, an odd story of the ant, which has therefore been pitched on for the title.||MECCA.95 Verses|
|68||0||27||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|68||1||27||T. S. THESE are the signs of the Koran, and of the perspicuous book:||TA. SAD.1 These are the signs (verses) of the Koran and of the lucid Book;||1 See Sura lxviii., p. 32, n.|
|68||2||27||a direction, and good tidings unto the true believers? who regularly perform their prayer, and give alms, and firmly believe in the life to come.||Guidance and glad tidings to the believers who observe prayer and pay the stated alms, and believe firmlydo theyin the life to come.|
|68||3||27||As to those who believe not in the life to come, we have prepared their works for them;u and they shall be struck with astonishment at their disappointment, when they shall be raised again:||u By rendering them pleasing and agreeable to their corrupt natures and inclinations.||As to those who believe not in the life to come, we have made their own doings fair seeming to them, and they are bewildered therein.|
|68||4||27||these are they whom an evil punishment awaiteth in this life; and in that which is to come they shall be the greatest losers.||These are they whom the woe of chastisement awaiteth; and in the next life they shall sufferyes shall theygreatest loss;|
|68||5||27||Thou hast certainly received the Koran from the presence of a wise, a knowing God.||But thou hast certainly received the Koran from the Wise, the Knowing.|
|68||6||27||Remember when Moses said unto his family, Verily I perceive fire;||Bear in mind when Moses said to his family, "I have perceived a fire;|
|68||7||27||I will bring you tidings thereof, or I will bring you a lighted brand, that ye may be warmed.x||x See chapter 20, p. 234.||I will bring you tidings from it, or will bring you a blazing brand, that ye may warm you."|
|68||8||27||And when he was come near unto it, a voice cried unto him, saying, Blessed be he who is in the fire, and whoever is about it;y and praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!||y Some suppose GOD to be intended by the former words, and by the latter, the angels who were present;1 others think Moses and the angels are here meant, or all persons in general in this holy plain, and the country round it.2
2 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|And when he came to it, he was called to, "Blessed, He who is in the fire, and He who is about it; and glory be to God, the Lord of the worlds!|
|68||9||27||O Moses, verily I am GOD, the mighty, the wise:||O Moses! verily, I am God, the Mighty, the Wise!|
|68||10||27||cast down now thy rod. And when he saw it, that it moved, as though it had been a serpent, he retreated, and fled, and returned not. And God said, O Moses, fear not; for my messengers are not disturbed with fear in my sight:||Throw down now thy staff." And when he saw that it moved itself as though it were a serpent, he retreated backward and returned not. "O Moses, fear not; for the Sent Ones fear not in my presence,|
|68||11||27||except he who shall have done amiss, and shall have afterwards substituted good in lieu of evil; for I am gracious and merciful.z||z This exception was designed to qualify the preceding assertion, which seemed too general; for several of the prophets have been subject to sins, though not great ones, before their mission, for which they had reason to apprehend GODS anger, though they are here assured that their subsequent merits entitle them to his pardon. It is supposed that Mosess killing the Egyptian undesignedly is hinted at.3
|Save he who having done amiss shall afterwards exchange the evil for good; for I am Forgiving, Merciful.|
|68||12||27||Moreover put thy hand into thy bosom; it shall come forth white, without hurt: this shall be one among the nine signsa unto Pharaoh and his people: for they are a wicked people.||a See chapter 17, p. 215.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 51, footnote 27
|MG: Put now thy hand into thy bosom: it shall come forth white ... one of nine signs to Pharaoh and his people....||Put now thy hand into thy bosom: it shall come forth white, yet free from hurt:2 one of nine signs to Pharaoh and his people; for a perverse people are they."||2 Not really leprous.|
|68||13||27||And when our visible signs had come unto them, they said, This is a manifest sorcery.||And when our signs were wrought in their very sight,3 they said, "This is plain magic."||3 Lit. when our visible signs came to them.|
|68||14||27||And they denied them, although their souls certainly knew them to be from God, out of iniquity and pride: but behold what was the end of the corrupt doers.||And though in their souls they knew them to be true, yet in their wickedness and pride they denied them. But see what was the end of the corrupt doers!|
|68||15||27||We heretofore bestowed knowledge on David and Solomon; and they said, Praise be unto GOD, who hath made us more excellent than many of his faithful servants!||And of old we gave knowledge to David and Solomon: and they said, "Praise be to God, who hath made us to excel many of his believing servants!"|
|68||16||27||And Solomon was David's heir;b and he said, O men, we have been taught the speech of birds,c and have had all things bestowed on us; this is manifest excellence.||b Inheriting not only his kingdom, but also the prophetical office, preferably to his other sons, who were no less than nineteen.4
c That is, the meaning of their several voices, though not articulate; of Solomons interpretation whereof the commentators give several instances.5
5 See Maracc. not. in loc. p. 511.
|And in knowledge Solomon was David's heir. And he said, "O men, we have been taught the speech of birds,4 and are endued with everything. This is indeed a clear boon from God."||4 This tradition may be derived from 1 Kings iv. 33. Comp. Geiger, p. 185. The legend of Solomon's power over the Genii originates in a mistranslation of Eccl. ii. 8. Comp. also for other points in this story Prov. vi. 6; 1 Kings x. 1-10.|
|68||17||27||And his armies were gathered together unto Solomon, consisting of genii,d and men, and birds; and they were led in distinct bands,||d For this fancy, as well as the former, Mohammed was obliged to the Talmudists,6 who, according to their manner, have interpreted the Hebrew words of Solomon,7 which the English version renders, I gat men-singers and women-singers, as if that prince had forced demons or spirits to serve him at his table, and in other capacities; and particularly in his vast and magnificent buildings, which they could not conceive he could otherwise have performed.
6 Vide Midrash, Yalkut Shemuni, p. 11, f. 29, et Millium, de Mohammedismo ante Mohammed. p. 232. 7 Eccles. ii. 8
|And to Solomon were gathered his hosts of Djinn5 and men and birds, and they were marched on in bands,||5 "Demons obeyed him (Solomon) . . . and evil spirits were subjected to him." Targ. 2. on Esther 1, 2. From the same source Muhammad has adopted, with slight variations, the whole story of Solomon's intercourse with the Queen of Saba. Comp. also Tr. Gittin, fol. 68, and Midr. Jalkut on 1 Kings vi. ch. 182.|
|68||18||27||until they came unto the valley of ants.e And an ant, seeing the hosts approaching, said, O ants, enter ye into your habitations, lest Solomon and his army tread you under foot, and perceive it not.||e The valley seems to be so called from the great numbers of ants which are found there. Some place it in Syria, and others in Tâyef.8
8 Al Beidâwi. Jallaloddin.
|Till they reached the Valley of Ants. Said AN ANT, "O ye ants, enter your dwellings, lest Solomon and his army crush you and know it not."|
|68||19||27||And Solomon smiled, laughing at her words, and said, O LORD, excite me that I may be thankful for thy favor, wherewith thou hast favored me, and my parents; and that I may do that which is right, and well-pleasing unto thee: and introduce me, through thy mercy, into paradise, among thy servants the righteous.||Then smiled Solomon, laughing at her words, and he said, "Stir me up, O Lord, to be thankful for thy favour which thou hast shewed upon me and upon my parents, and to do righteousness that shall be well pleasing to thee, and bring me in, by thy mercy, among thy servants the righteous."|
|68||20||27||And he viewed the birds, and said, What is the reason that I see not the lapwing?f Is she absent?||f The Arab historians tell us that Solomon, having finished the temple of Jerusalem, went in pilgrimage to Mecca, where, having stayed as long as he pleased, he proceeded toward Yaman; and leaving Mecca in the morning, he arrived by noon at Sanaa, and being extremely delighted with the country, rested there; but wanting water to make the ablution, he looked among the birds for the lapwing, called by the Arabs al Hudbud, whose business it was to find it; for it is pretended she was sagacious or sharp-sighted enough to discover water underground, which the devils used to draw, after she had marked the place by digging with her bill: they add, that this bird was then taking a tour in the air, whence, seeing one of her companions alighting, she descended also, and having had a description given her by the other of the city of Saba, whence she was just arrived, they both went together to take a view of the place, and returned soon after Solomon had made the inquiry which occasioned what follows.1
It may be proper to mention her what the eastern writers fable of the manner of Solomons travelling. They say that he had a carpet of green silk, on which his throne was placed, being of a prodigious length and breadth, and sufficient for all his forces to stand on, the men placing themselves on his right hand, and the spirits on his left; and that when all were in order, the wind, at his command, took up the carpet, and transported it, with all that were upon it, wherever he pleased;2 the army of birds at the same time flying over their heads, and forming a kind of canopy, to shade them from the sun.
2 See cap. 21, p. 247.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 58
|And he reviewed the birds, and said, "How is it that I see not the lapwing? Is it one of the absent?|
|68||21||27||Verily I will chastise her with a severe chastisement,g or I will put her to death; unless she bring me a just excuse.||g By plucking off her feathers, and setting her in the sun, to be tormented by the insects; or by shutting her up in a cage.3
3 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|Surely, with a severe chastisement will I chastise it, or I will certainly slaughter it, unless it bring me a clear excuse."|
|68||22||27||And she tarried not long before she presented herself unto Solomon, and said, I have viewed a country which thou hast not viewed; and I come unto thee from Saba, with a certain piece of news.||A Travelers Narrative, p. 59
|Nor tarried it long ere it came and said, "I have gained the knowledge that thou knowest not, and with sure tidings have I come to thee from Saba:|
|68||23||27||I found a womanh to reign over them, who is provided with everything requisite for a prince, and hath a magnificent throne.i||h This queen the Arabs name Balkîs: some make her the daughter of al Hodhâd Ebn Sharhabil,4 and others of Sharahîl Ebn Malec;5 but they all agree she was a descendant of Yárab Ebn Kahtân. She is placed the twenty-second in Dr. Pococks list of the kings of Yaman.6
4 Vide Pocock. Spec. p. 59.
5 Al Beidâwi, &c. Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 182.
6 Ubi sup.
i Which the commentators say was made of gold and silver, and crowned with precious stones. But they differ as to the size of it; one making it fourscore cubits long, forty broad, and thirty high; while some say it was fourscore, and others thirty cubits every way.
|I found a woman reigning over them, gifted with everything, and she hath a splendid throne;|
|68||24||27||I found her and her people to worship the sun, besides GOD: and Satan hath prepared their works for them, and hath turned them aside from the way of truth (wherefore they are not rightly directed),||And I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of God; and Satan hath made their works fair seeming to them, so that he hath turned them from the Way: wherefore they are not guided,|
|68||25||27||lest they should worship GOD, who bringeth to light that which is hidden in heaven and earth, and knoweth whatever they conceal, and whatever they discover.||To the worship of God, who bringeth to light the secret things of heaven and earth, and knoweth what men conceal and what they manifest:|
|68||26||27||GOD! there is no GOD but he; the LORD of the magnificent throne.||God! there is no god but He! the lord of the glorious throne!"|
|68||27||27||Solomon said, We shall see whether thou hast spoken the truth, or whether thou art a liar.||He said, "We shall see whether thou hast spoken truth, or whether thou art of them that lie.|
|68||28||27||Go with this my letter, and cast it down unto them; then turn aside from them, and wait to know what answer they will return.||Go with this my letter and throw it down to them: then turn away from them and await their answer."|
|68||29||27||And when the Queen of Saba had received the letter,k she said, O nobles, verily an honourable letter hath been delivered unto me;||k Jallaloddin says that the queen was surrounded by her army when the lapwing threw the letter into her bosom; but al Beidâwi supposes she was in an apartment of her palace, the doors of which were shut, and that the bird flew in at the window. The former commentator gives a copy of the epistle somewhat more full than that in the text; viz., From the servant of GOD, Solomon, the son of David, unto Balkîs queen of Saba. In the name of the most merciful GOD. Peace be on him who followeth the true direction. Rise not up against me, but come and surrender yourselves unto me. He adds that Solomon perfumed this letter with musk, and sealed it with his signet.||She said, "O my nobles! an honourable letter hath been thrown down to me:|
|68||30||27||it is from Solomon, and this is the tenor thereof: In the name of the most merciful GOD,||It is from Solomon; and it is this: 'In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful!|
|68||31||27||Rise not up against me: but come and surrender yourselves unto me.l||l Or, Come unto me and resign yourselves unto the divine direction, and profess the true religion which I preach.||Set not up yourselves against me, but come to me submitting (Muslims).' "|
|68||32||27||She said, O nobles, advise me in my business: I will not resolve on anything, until ye be witnesses and approve thereof.||She said, "O my nobles, advise me in mine affair: I decide it not without your concurrence."6||6 Lit. unless ye bear me witness.|
|68||33||27||The nobles answered, We are endued with strength, and are endued with great prowess in war; but the command appertaineth unto thee: see therefore what thou wilt command.m||m i.e., Whether thou wilt obey the summons of Solomon, or give us orders to make head against him.||They said, "We are endued with strength and are endued with mighty valour.But to command is thine: See therefore what thou wilt command us."|
|68||34||27||She said, Verily kings, when they enter a city by force, waste the same, and abase the most powerful of the inhabitants hereof: and so will these do with us.||She said, "Kings when they enter a city spoil it, and abase the mightiest of its people: and in like manner will these also do.|
|68||35||27||But I will send gifts unto them; and will wait for what further information those who shall be sent shall bring back.||But I will send to them with a gift, and await what my envoys bring back."|
|68||36||27||And when the queen's ambassador came unto Solomon,n that prince said, Will ye present me with riches? Verily that which GOD hath given me is better than what he hath given you: but ye do glory in your gifts.||n Bearing the presents, which they say were five hundred young slaves of each sex, all habited in the same manner, five hundred bricks of gold, a crown enriched with precious stones, besides a large quantity of musk, amber, and other things of value.1 Some add that Balkîs, to try whether Solomon was a prophet or no, dressed the boys like girls, and the girls like boys, and sent him in a casket, a pearl not drilled, and an onyx drilled with a crooked hole; and that Solomon distinguished the boys from the girls by the different manner of their taking water, and ordered one worm to bore the pearl, and another to pass a thread through the onyx.2 They also tell us that Solomon, having notice of this embassy, by means of the lapwing, even before they set out, ordered a large square to be enclosed with a wall built of gold and silver bricks, wherein he ranged his forces and attendants to receive them.3
2 Al Beidâwi.
|And when the messenger came to Solomon, he said, "Aid ye me with riches? But what God hath given to me is better than what he hath given you: yet ye glory in your gifts:|
|68||37||27||Return unto the people of Saba. We will surely come unto them with forces, which they shall not be able to withstand; and we will drive them out from their city, humbled; and they shall become contemptible.||Return to them: for we will surely come to them with forces which they cannot withstand, and we will drive them from their land humbled and contemptible."|
|68||38||27||And Solomon said, O nobles, which of you will bring unto me her throne, before they come and surrender themselves unto me?||Said he, "O nobles, which of you will bring me her throne before they come to me, submitting? (Muslims)."|
|68||39||27||A terrible geniuso answered, I will bring it unto thee, before thou arise from thy place:q for I am able to perform it, and may be trusted.||o This was an Ifrît, or one of the wicked and rebellious genii; and his name, says al Beidâwi, was Dhacwân or Sakhr.
p i.e., From thy seat of justice. For Solomon used to sit in judgment every day till noon.4
4 Idem interp.
|An Efreet7 of the Djinn said: "I will bring it thee ere thou risest from thy place: I have power for this and am trusty."||7 That is, malignant. "The efreets are generally believed to differ from the other djinn in being very powerful and always malicious; but to be in other respects of a similar nature" (Lane's Modern Egyptians, i. 285). "The ghosts of dead persons are also called by this name" (ib. 289).|
|68||40||27||And one with whom was the knowledge of the scripturesq said, I will bring it unto thee, in the twinkling of an eye.r And when Solomon saw the throne placed before him, he said, This is a favor of my LORD, that he may make trial of me, whether I will be grateful, or whether I will be ungrateful; and he who is grateful is grateful to his own advantage, but if any shall be ungrateful, verily my LORD is self-sufficient and munificent.||q This person, as is generally supposed, was Asaf the son of Barachia, Solomons Wazir (or Visir), who knew the great or ineffable name of GOD, by pronouncing of which he performed this wonderful exploit.5 Others, however, suppose it was al Khedr, or else Gabriel, or some other angel; and some imagine it to have been Solomon himself.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
r The original is, Before thou canst look at any object, and take thy eye off it. It is said that Solomon, at Asafs desire, looked up to heaven, and before he cast his eye downwards, the throne made its way underground, and appeared before him.
|And one who had the knowledge of Scripture said, "I will bring it to thee in the twinkling of an eye."8 And when he saw it set before him, he said, "This is of the favour of my Lord, to try me whether I will be thankful or unthankful. And he who is thankful is thankful to his own behoof; and as for him who is unthankfultruly my Lord is self-sufficient, bounteous!"||8 Or, before thy glance can be withdrawn from an object.|
|68||41||27||And Solomon said unto his servants, Alter her throne, that she may not know it, to the end we may see whether she be rightly directed, or whether she be one of those who are not rightly directed.||Said he, "Make her throne so that she know it not: we shall see whether she hath or not guidance."|
|68||42||27||And when she was come unto Solomon,s it was said unto her, is thy throne like this? She answered, As though it were the same. And we have had knowledge bestowed on us before this, and have been resigned unto God.t||s For, on the return of her ambassador, she determined to go and submit herself to that prince; but before her departure, she secured her throne, as she thought, by locking it up in a strong castle, and setting a guard to defend it; after which she set out, attended by a vast army.7
t It is uncertain whether these be the words of Balkîs, acknowledging her conviction by the wonders she had already seen; or of Solomon and his people, acknowledging the favour of GOD, in calling them to the true faith before her.
|And when she came he said, "Is thy throne like this?" She said, "As though it were the same." "And we," said he, "have had knowledge given us before her, and have been Muslims."|
|68||43||27||But that which she worshipped, besides GOD, had turned her aside from the truth; for she was of an unbelieving people.||But the gods she had worshipped instead of God had led her astray: for she was of a people who believe not.|
|68||44||27||It was said unto her, Enter the palace.u And when she saw it, she imagined it to be a great water; and she discovered her legs, by lifting up her robe to pass through it.x Whereupon Solomon said unto her, Verily this is a palace evenly floored with glass.||u Or, as some understand the word, the court before the palace, which Solomon had commanded to be built against the arrival of Balkîs; the floor or pavement being of transparent glass, laid over running water, in which fish were swimming. Fronting this pavement was placed the royal throne, on which Solomon sat to receive the queen.8
8 Idem, al Beidâwi
x Some Arab writers tell us Solomon had been informed that Balkîss legs and feet were covered with hair, like those of an ass, of the truth of which he had hereby an opportunity of being satisfied by ocular demonstration.
|It was said to her,"Enter the Palace:" and when she saw it, she thought it a lake of water, and bared her legs. He said, "It is a palace paved with glass."|
|68||45||27||Then said the queen, O LORD, verily I have dealt unjustly with my own soul; and I resign myself, together with Solomon, unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures.y||y The queen of Saba having by these words professed Islâm, and renounced idolatry, Solomon had thoughts of making her his wife; but could not resolve to do it; till the devils had by a depilatory taken off the hair from her legs.9 Some,10 however, will have it that she did not marry Solomon, but a prince of the tribe of Hamdân.
10 Apud al Beidâwi
|She said, "O my Lord! I have sinned against my own soul, and I resign myself, with Solomon, to God the Lord of the Worlds."|
|68||46||27||Also we heretofore sent unto the tribe of Thamud their brother Saleh; who said unto them, Serve ye GOD. And behold, they were divided into two parties, who disputed among themselves.z||z Concerning the doctrine preached by Saleh; one party believing on him, and the other treating him as an impostor.||And of old we sent to Themoud their brother Saleh, with "Serve ye God:"but lo! they became two sets of disputants wrangling with each other.|
|68||47||27||Saleh said, O my people why do ye hasten evil rather than good?a Unless ye ask pardon of GOD, that ye may obtain mercy, ye are lost.||a i.e., Why do ye urge and defy the divine vengeance with which ye are threatened, instead of averting it by repentance?||He said, "O my people, why, if ye ask not pardon of God that ye may find mercy, hasten ye on evil rather than good?"|
|68||48||27||They answered, We presage evil from thee, and from those who are with thee. Saleh replied, The evil which ye presage is with GOD:b but ye are a people who are proved by a vicissitude of prosperity and adversity.||b See chapter 7, p. 117, where the Egyptians in the same manner accuse Moses as the cause of their calamities.||They said,"We augur9 ill concerning thee and those who are with thee." He said, "The ills of which ye augur10 depend on God. But ye are a people on your trial."||9 Lit. we have consulted the flight of birds: hence presage.
10 Lit. your bird, augury.
|68||49||27||And there were nine men in the city, who acted corruptly in the earth, and behaved not with integrity.||And there were in the city nine persons who committed excesses in the land and did not that which is right.|
|68||50||27||And they said unto one another, Swear ye reciprocally by GOD, that we will fall upon Saleh and his family by night: and afterwards we will say unto him who hath right to avenge his blood, We were not so much as present at the destruction of his family; and we certainly speak the truth.||They said, "Swear ye to one another by God that we will surely fall on him and on his family by night: then will be say to the avenger of blood, we witnessed not the destruction of his family: and verily we speak the truth."|
|68||51||27||And they devised a plot against him: but we devised a plot against them; and they perceived it not.||And they devised a device, and we devised a device, and they were not aware of it|
|68||52||27||And see what was the issue of their plot:c we utterly destroyed them and their whole people;||c It is related that Saleh, and those who believed on him, usually meeting to pray in a certain narrow place between the mountains, the infidels said, He thinks to make an end of us after three days,1 but we will be beforehand with him; and that a party of them went directly to the straits above mentioned, thinking to execute their design, but were terribly disappointed; for, instead of catching the prophet, they were caught themselves, their retreat being cut off by a large piece of rock, which fell down at the mouth of the straits, so that they perished there in a miserable manner.
1 See cap. 7, p. 113, note m.
|And see what was the end of their device! We destroyed them and their whole people:|
|68||53||27||and these their habitations remain empty, because of the injustice which they committed. Verily herein is a sign unto people who understand.||And for their sin these their houses are empty ruins: Verily in this is a sign to those who understand;|
|68||54||27||And we delivered those who believed, and feared God.||And we delivered those who believed and feared.|
|68||55||27||And remember Lot; when he said unto his people, Do ye commit a wickedness, though ye see the heinousness thereof?||And Lot, when he said to his people, "What! proceed ye to such filthiness with your eyes open?|
|68||56||27||Do ye approach lustfully unto men, leaving the women? Ye are surely an ignorant people.||What! come ye with lust unto men rather than to women? Surely ye are an ignorant people."|
|68||57||27||(XX.) But the answer of his people was no other than that they said, Cast the family of Lot out of your city: for they are men who preserve themselves pure from the crimes of which ye are guilty.||And the answer of his people was but to say, "Cast out the family of Lot from your city: they, forsooth, are men of purity!"|
|68||58||27||Wherefore we delivered him and his family, except his wife, whom we decreed to be one of those who remained behind to be destroyed.||So we rescued him and his family: but as for his wife, we decreed her to be of them that lingered:|
|68||59||27||And we rained on them a shower of stones: and dreadful was the shower which fell on those who had been warned in vain.d||d See chapter 7, p. 113, and chapter 11, p. 166.||And we rained a rain upon them, and fatal was the rain to those who had had their warning.|
|68||60||27||Say, Praise be unto GOD; and peace be upon his servants whom he hath chosen! Is GOD more worthy, or the false gods which they associate with him?||SAY: Praise be to God and peace be on His servants whom He hath chosen! Is God the more worthy or the gods they join with Him?|
|68||61||27||Is not he to be preferred, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and sendeth down rain for you from heaven, whereby we cause delicious groves to spring up? It is not in your power to cause the trees thereof to shoot forth. Is there any other god partner with the true GOD? Verily these are a people who deviate from the truth.||Is not He who hath made the Heavens and the Earth, and hath sent down rain to you from Heaven, by which we cause the luxuriant groves to spring up! It is not in your power to cause its trees to spring up! What! A god with God? Yet they find equals for Him!|
|68||62||27||Is not he more worthy to be adored, who hath established the earth, and hath caused rivers to flow through the midst thereof, and placed thereon immovable mountains, and set a bar between the two seas?e Is there any other god equal with the true GOD? Yet the greater part of them know it not.||e See chapter 25, p. 274. The word barzakh is not used here, but another of equivalent import.||Is not He, who hath set the earth so firm, and hath made rivers in its midst, and hath placed mountains upon it, and put a barrier between the two seas?11 What! a god with God? Yet the greater part of them have no knowledge!||11 Comp. Sura [lxvi.] xxv. 55.|
|68||63||27||Is not he more worthy who heareth the afflicted,f when he calleth upon him, and taketh off the evil which distressed him: and who hath made you the successors of your forefathers in the earth? Is there any other god who can be equalled with the true GOD? How few consider these things!||f Literally, Him who is driven by distress to implore GODS assistance.||Is not He the more worthy who answereth the oppressed when they cry to him, and taketh off their ills, and maketh you to succeed your sires on the earth? What! a god with God? How few bear these things in mind!|
|68||64||27||Is not he more worthy who directeth you in the dark paths of the land and of the sea; and who sendeth the winds driving abroad the clouds, as the forerunners of his mercy!g Is there any other god who can be equalled with the true God? Far be GOD from having those partners in his power, which ye associate with him.||g See chapter 7, p. 110, and chapter 25, p. 274.||Is not He, who guideth you in the darkness of the land and of the sea, and who sendeth forth the winds as the forerunners of His mercy? What! a god with God? Far from God be what ye join with Him!|
|68||65||27||Is not he more worthy, who produceth a creature, and after it hath been dead restoreth it to life; and who giveth you food from heaven and earth? Is there any other god with the true GOD, who doth this? Say, Produce your proof thereof, if ye speak truth.||Is not He, who created a Being, then reneweth it, and who supplieth you out of the Heaven and the Earth? What! a god with God? SAY: Bring forth your proofs if you speak the truth.|
|68||66||27||Say, None either in heaven or earth knoweth that which is hidden, besides GOD: neither do they understand||SAY: None either in the Heavens or in the Earth knoweth the unseen but God. And they know not|
|68||67||27||when they shall be raised.||When they shall be raised.|
|68||68||27||However, their knowledge attaineth some notion of the life to come:h yet they are in an uncertainty concerning the same; yea, they are blind as to the real circumstances thereof.||h Or the words may be translated thus: Yea, their knowledge faileth as to the life to come: yea, &c.||Yet they have attained to a knowledge of the life to come:12yet are they in doubt about it:yet are they blind about it!||12 Lit. their knowledge attaineth to the next life.|
|68||69||27||And the unbelievers say, When we and our fathers shall have been reduced to dust, shall we be taken forth from the grave?||And the unbelievers say: "When we and our fathers have been dead shall we be taken forth?|
|68||70||27||Verily we have been threatened with this, both we and our fathers, heretofore. This is no other than fables of the ancients.||Of old have we been promised this, we and our sires of old it is but fables of the ancients."|
|68||71||27||Say unto them, pass through the earth, and see what hath been the end of the wicked.||SAY: Go ye through the land, and see what hath been the end of the wicked.|
|68||72||27||And be not thou grieved for them; neither be thou in any concern on account of the plots which they are contriving against thee.||And grieve not thou for them, nor be in distress at their devisings.|
|68||73||27||And they say, When will this threat be accomplished, if ye speak true?||And they say, "When will this promise be made good, if ye speak true?"|
|68||74||27||Answer, Peradventure some part of that punishment, which ye desire to be hastened may follow close behind you:||SAY: Haply a part of what ye desire to be hastened may be close behind you.|
|68||75||27||verily thy LORD is endued with indulgence towards mankind; but the greater part of them are not thankful.||And truly thy Lord is full of goodness towards men: But most of them are not thankful.|
|68||76||27||Verily thy LORD knoweth what their breasts conceal, and what they discover:||And thy Lord knoweth well what their breasts enshroud, and what they bring to light,|
|68||77||27||and there is nothing hidden in heaven or on earth, but it is written in a clear book.||And there is no secret thing in the Heaven or on the Earth, but it is in the clear Book.|
|68||78||27||Verily this Koran declareth unto the children of Israel most of those points concerning which they disagree:i||i Such as the comparing of GOD to sensible things, or to created beings: the removing all imperfections from the description of the Divine Being; the state of paradise and hell; the stories of Ezra and Jesus Christ, &c.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Truly this Koran declareth to the children of Israel most things wherein they disagree:|
|68||79||27||and it is certainly a direction, and a mercy unto the true believers.||And it is certainly guidance and a mercy to the faithful.|
|68||80||27||Thy LORD will decide the controversy between them, by his definitive sentence: and he is the mighty, the wise.||Verily, by his wisdom will thy Lord decide between them: for He is the Mighty, the Knowing.|
|68||81||27||Therefore, put thy trust in GOD; for thou art in the manifest truth.||Put thou then thy trust in God: for thou hast clear truth on thy side.13||13 Lit. art on clear truth.|
|68||82||27||Verily thou shalt not make the dead to hear, neither shalt thou make the deaf to hear thy call to the true faith, when they retire and turn their backs:||Thou shalt not make the dead to hear; neither shalt thou make the deaf to hear the call, when they turn away backward;|
|68||83||27||neither shalt thou direct the blind to extricate themselves out of their error. Thou shalt make none to hear thee, except him who shall believe in our signs: and they are wholly resigned unto us.||Neither art thou the guide of the blind out of their errors: none truly shalt thou make to hear but those who believe our signs: and they are Muslims.|
|68||84||27||When the sentence shall be ready to fall upon them, we will cause a beastk to come forth unto them from out of the earth, which shall speak unto them:l verily men do not firmly believe in our signs.||k The Mohammedans call this beast, whose appearance will be one sign of the approach of the day of judgment, al Jassâsa, or the Spy. I have given the description of her elsewhere;2 to which should be added that she is to have two wings.
2 Prelim. Disc. Sec. IV. p. 62, &c.
l Or, according to a different reading, viz., taclimohom instead of tocallimohom, who shall wound them.3
3 Vide ibid.
|When the doom shall be ready to light upon them, we will cause a monster14 to come forth to them out of the earth, and cry to them "Verily men have not firmly believed our signs."||14 Al Jassaca, the Spy.|
|68||85||27||On the day of resurrection we will assemble, out of every nation, a company of those who shall have charged our signs with falsehood; and they shall be prevented from mixing together,||And on that day shall be gathered out of every nation a company of those who have gainsaid our signs, in separate bands;|
|68||86||27||until they shall arrive at the place of judgment. And God shall say unto them, Have ye charged my signs with falsehood, although ye comprehended them not with your knowledge. Or what is it that ye were doing?||Till they come before God, who will say, "Treated ye my signs as impostures, although ye embraced them not in your knowledge? or what is it that ye were doing?|
|68||87||27||And the sentence of damnation shall fall on them, for that they have acted unjustly: and they shall not speak in their own excuse.||And doom shall light upon them for their evil deeds, and nought shall they have to plead.|
|68||88||27||Do they not see that we have ordained the night, that they may rest therein, and the day giving open light? Verily herein are signs unto people who believe.||See they not that we have ordained the night that they may rest in it, and the day with its gift of light? Of a truth herein are signs to people who believe.|
|68||89||27||On that day the trumpet shall be sounded; and whoever are in heaven and on earth shall be struck with terror, except those whom GOD shall please to exempt therefrom:m and all shall come before him in humble guise.||m See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 65, &c. Some say the persons exempted from this general consternation will be the angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil, and Izraël;1 others suppose them to be the virgins of paradise, and the angels who guard that place, and carry GODS throne;2 and others will have them to be the martyrs.3
1 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
3 Ebn Abbas.
|On that day there shall be a blast on the trumpet, and all that are in the heavens, and all that the on the earth shall be terror-stricken, save him whom God pleaseth to deliver; and all shall come to him in humble guise.|
|68||90||27||And thou shalt see the mountains, and shalt think them firmly fixed; but they shall pass away, even as the clouds pass away. This will be the work of GOD, who hath rightly disposed all things: and he is well acquainted with that which ye do.||A Travelers Narrative, p. 33
|EGB: thou shalt see the mountains which thou thinkest so solid passing away like the passing of the clouds||And thou shalt see the mountains, which thou thinkest so firm, pass away with the passing of a cloud! 'Tis the work of God, who ordereth all things! of all that ye do is He well aware.|
|68||91||27||Whoever shall have wrought righteousness, shall receive a reward beyond the desert thereof; and they shall be secure from the terror of that day;n||n That is, from the fear of damnation, and the other terrors which will disturb the wicked; not from the general terror or consternation before mentioned.||To him who shall present himself with good works, shall be a reward beyond their desert,15 and they shall be secure from the terror on that day;||15 Or, shall derive advantage from them.|
|68||92||27||but whoever shall have wrought evil, shall be thrown on their faces into hell fire. Shall ye receive the reward of any other than of that which ye shall have wrought?||And they who shall present themselves with evil shall be flung downward on their faces into the fire. Shall ye be rewarded but as ye have wrought?|
|68||93||27||Verily I am commanded to worship the LORD of this territory of Mecca, who hath sanctified the same: unto him belong all things. And I am commanded to be a Moslem,||SAY: Specially am I commanded to worship the Lord of this land, which He hath sanctified. All things are His: and I am commanded to be one of those who surrender them to God (a Muslim)|
|68||94||27||and to rehearse the Koran: he who shall be directed thereby will be directed to his own advantage;||And to recite the Koran: and whoever is rightly guided, assuredly will be rightly guided to his own behoof.|
|68||95||27||and to him who shall go astray, say, Verily I am a warner only. And say, Praise be unto GOD! he will show you his signs,o and ye shall know them: and thy LORD is not regardless of that which they do.||o viz., The successes of the true believers against the infidels, and particularly the victory of Bedr||And as to him who erreth, SAY, I truly am a warner only.And SAY, Praise be to God! He will shew you His signs, and ye shall acknowledge them: and of what ye do, thy Lord is not regardless.|
|79||0||28||CHAPTER XXVIII.||SURA XXVIII.THE STORY [LXXIX.]|
|79||0||28||ENTITLED, THE STORY;p REVEALED AT MECCA.q||p The title is taken from the 26th verse, where Moses is said to have related the story of his adventures to Shoaib.
q Some except a verse towards the latter end, beginning with these words: He who hath given thee the Korân for a rule of faith and practice, &c.
|79||0||28||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|79||1||28||T. S. M.r THESE are the signs of the perspicuous book.||r See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46.||TA. SIN. MIM.1 These are the signs of the lucid Book.||1 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.|
|79||2||28||We will dictate unto thee, O Mohammed, some parts of the history of Moses and Pharaoh, with truth; for the sake of people who believe.||We will recite to thee portions of the History of Moses and Pharaoh with truth, for the teaching of the faithful.|
|79||3||28||Now Pharaoh lifted himself up in the land of Egypt; and he caused his subjects to be divided into parties;s he weakened one party of them,t by slaying their male children, and preserving their females alive; for he was an oppressor.||s i.e., Either into companies, that they might the better attend his order and perform the services he exacted of them; or into opposite factions, to prevent their attempting anything against them, to deliver themselves from his tyranny.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
t viz., The Israelites.
|Now Pharaoh lifted himself up in the earth, and divided his people into parties: one portion of them he brought lowHe slew their male children, and let their females only live; for he was one of those who wrought disorders.|
|79||4||28||And we were minded to be gracious unto those who were weakened in the land, and to make them models of religion; and to make them the heirs of the wealth of Pharaoh and his people,u||u See chapter 26, p. 278.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 155, p. 146
Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 29-37, 6 To the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada)
|And We desire to show favour to those who were brought low in the land, and to make them spiritual leaders among men, and to make of them Our heirs.
O: And We desire to show favor to those who were brought low in the land, and to make them spiritual leaders among men, and to make of them Our heirs.
|And we were minded to shew favour to those who were brought low in the land, and to make them spiritual chiefs,2 and to make them Pharaoh's heirs,||2 Lit. Imâms.|
|79||5||28||and to establish a place for them in the earth; and to show Pharaoh and Haman,x and their forces, that destruction of their kingdom and nation by them, which they sought to avoid.y||x This name is given to Pharaohs chief minister; from whence it is generally inferred that Mohammed has here made Haman, the favourite of Ahasuerus king of Persia, and who indisputably lived many ages after Moses, to be that prophets contemporary. But how probable soever this mistake may seem to us, it will be very hard, if not impossible, to convince a Mohammedan of it; for, as has been observed in a parallel case,2 two very different persons may bear the same name.3
2 See p. 34, note x.
3 Vide Reland. de Rel Moham. p. 217.
y For Pharaoh had either dreamed, or been told by some diviners, that one of the Hebrew nation should be the ruin of his kingdom; which prophecy is supposed to have been the occasion of his cruelty to them.4 This circumstance is owing to the invention of the Jews.5
4 See cap. 7, p. 117.
5 Vide Shalshel. hakkab, p. 11. et R. Eliez. pirke, c. 48
|And to stablish them in the land;3 and to make Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts, the eye-witnesses of what they dreaded from them.||3 Comp. [xci.] ii. 58.|
|79||6||28||And we directed the mother of Moses by revelation, saying, give him suck: and if thou fearest for him, cast him into the river; and fear not, neither be afflicted; for we will restore him unto thee, and will appoint him one of our apostles.z||z It is related that the midwife appointed to attend the Hebrew women, terrified by a light which appeared between the eyes of Moses at his birth, and touched with an extraordinary affection for the child, did not discover him to the officers, so that his mother kept him in her house, and nursed him three months; after which it was impossible for her to conceal him any longer, the king then giving orders to make the searches more strictly.6
6 Al Beidâwi. See the notes to cap. 20, p. 235.
|And we said by revelation to the mother of Moses, "Give him suck; and if thou fearest for him, launch him on the sea; and fear not, neither fret; for we will restore him to thee, and make him one of the apostles."|
|79||7||28||And when she had put the child in the ark, and had cast it into the river, the family of Pharaoh took him up; providence designing that he should become an enemy, and a sorrow unto them. Verily Pharaoh and Haman, and their forces were sinners.||And Pharaoh's family took him up to be a foe and a sorrow to them, for sinners were Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts!|
|79||8||28||And the wife of Pharaoh said, This child is a delight of the eye to me, and to thee:a kill him not; peradventure it may happen that he may be serviceable unto us; or we may adopt him for our son. And they perceived not the consequence of what they were doing.||a This sudden affection or admiration was raised in them either by his uncommon beauty, or by the light which shone on his forehead, or because, when they opened the ark, they found him sucking his thumb, which supplied him with milk.7
7 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And Pharaoh's wife said, "Joy of the eye4 to me and thee! put him not to death: haply he will be useful to us, or we may adopt him as a son." But they knew not what they did.||4 That is, This child will be a comfort to us. See Sura [lviii.] xix. 26.|
|79||9||28||And the heart of the mother of Moses became oppressed with fear; and she had almost discovered him, had we not armed her heart with constancy, that she might be one of those who believe the promises of God.||And the heart of Moses' mother became a blank through fear: and almost had she discovered him, but that we girt up her heart with constancy, in order that she might be one of those who believe.|
|79||10||28||And she said unto his sister, Follow him. And she watched him at a distance; and they perceived it not.||She said to his sister, "Follow him." And she watched him from afar: and they perceived it not.|
|79||11||28||And we suffered him not to take the breasts of the nurses who were provided before his sister came up;b and she said, Shall I direct you unto some of his nation, who may nurse him for you, and will be careful of him?||b See chapter 20, p. 235.||And we caused him to refuse the nurses,5 until his sister came and said, Shall I point out to you the family of a house that will rear him for you, and will be careful of him?||5 "Why must the nurse be a Hebrew woman? (Ex. ii. 7.) This shews that he refused the breast of all the Egyptian women. For the Holy, blessed be He, had said, Shall the mouth that is to speak with me suck an unclean thing?" Sotah. xii. 2.|
|79||12||28||And, at their desire, she brought his mother to them. So we restored him to his mother, that her mind might be set at ease, and that she might not be afflicted; and that she might know that the promise of GOD was true: but the greater part of mankind know not the truth.||So we restored him to his mother, to be the joy of her eyes, and that she might not fret, and that she might know that the promise of God was true. But most men knew it not.|
|79||13||28||And when Moses had attained his age of full strength, and was become a perfect man, we bestowed on him wisdom and knowledge: and thus do we reward the upright.||And when he had reached his age of strength, and had become a man, we bestowed on him wisdom and knowledge; for thus do we reward the righteous.|
|79||14||28||And he went into the city, at a time when the inhabitants thereof observed not what passed in the streets:c and he found therein two men fighting; the one being of his own party, and the other of his enemies.d And he who was of his party begged his assistance against him who was of the contrary party; and Moses struck him with his fist, and slew him: but being sorry for what had happened, he said, This is of the work of the devil;e for he is a seducing and an open enemy.||c viz., At noon; at which time it is usual in those countries for people to retire to sleep; or, as others rather suppose, a little within night.
d i.e., The one being an Israelite of his own religion and nation, and the other an idolatrous Egyptian.
e Mohammed allows that Moses killed the Egyptian wrongfully; but, to excuse it, supposes that he struck him without designing to kill him.
|And he entered a city at the time when its inhabitants would not observe him,6 and found therein two men fighting: the one, of his own people; the other, of his enemies. And he who was of his own people asked his help against him who was of his enemies. And Moses smote him with his fist and slew him. Said he, "This is a work of Satan; for he is an enemy, a manifest misleader."||6 Lit. in the time of neglect on the part of its people, i.e. at the hour of the noon sleep.|
|79||15||28||And he said, O LORD, verily I have injured my own soul: wherefore forgive me. So God forgave him; for he is ready to forgive, and merciful.||He said, "O my Lord, I have sinned to mine own hurt:7 forgive me." So God forgave him; for He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.||7 Lit. I have acted unjustly to my soul.|
|79||16||28||He said, O LORD, by the favors with which thou hast favored me, I will not be an assistant to the wicked for the future.||He said, "Lord, because thou hast showed me this grace, I will never again be the helper of the wicked."|
|79||17||28||And the next morning he was afraid in the city, and looked about him, as one apprehensive of danger: and behold, he whom he had assisted the day before cried out unto him for help a second time. But Moses said unto him, Thou art plainly a quarrelsome fellow.||And in the city at noon he was full of fear, casting furtive glances round him: and lo! the man whom he had helped the day before, cried out to him again for help. Said Moses to him, "Thou art plainly a most depraved person."|
|79||18||28||And when he sought to lay hold on him who was an enemy unto them both, he said, O Moses, dost thou intend to kill me, as thou killedst a man yesterday?f Thou seekest only to be an oppressor in the earth, and seekest not to be a reconciler of quarrels.||f Some suppose these words to have been spoken by the Israelite, who, because Moses had reprimanded him, imagined he was going to strike him; and others, by the Egyptian, who either knew or suspected that Moses had killed his countryman the day before.||And when he would have laid violent hands on him who was their common foe, he said to him, "O Moses, dost thou desire to slay me, as thou slayedst a man yesterday? Thou desirest only to become a tyrant in this land, and desirest not to become a peacemaker."|
|79||19||28||And a certain mang came from the farther part of the city, running hastily, and said, O Moses, verily the magistrates are deliberating concerning thee, to put thee to death: depart therefore; I certainly advise thee well.||g This person, says the tradition, was an Egyptian, and Pharaohs uncles son, but a true believer; who, finding that the king had been informed of what Moses had done, and designed to put him to death, gave him immediate notice to provide for his safety by flight.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 57, p. 54
|O Moses! of a truth, the chiefs take counsel to slay Thee||But a man came running up from the city's end. He said, "O Moses, of a truth, the nobles consult to slay theeBegone thenI counsel thee as a friend."|
|79||20||28||Wherefore he departed out of the city in great fear, looking this way and that, lest he should be pursued. And he said, O LORD, deliver me from the unjust people.||So forth he went from it in fear, looking warily about him. He said, "O Lord, deliver me from the unjust people."|
|79||21||28||And when he was journeying towards Madian, he said, Peradventure my LORD will direct me in the right way.h||h For Moses knew not the way, and coming to a place where three roads met, committed himself to the guidance of GOD, and took the middle road, which was the right; providence likewise so ordering it, that his pursuers took the other two roads, and missed him.1 Some say he was led by an angel in the appearance of a traveller.2
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And when he was journeying toward Madian, he said, "Haply my Lord will direct me in an even path."|
|79||22||28||And when he arrived at the water of Madian, he found about the well a company of men, who were watering their flocks.||And when he arrived at the water of Madian, he found at it a company of men watering.|
|79||23||28||And he found, besides them, two women, who kept off their sheep at a distance. And he said unto them, What is the matter with you? They answered, We shall not water our flock, until the shepherds shall have driven away theirs; for our father is an old man, stricken in years.||And he found beside them, two women8 keeping back their flock: "Why do ye," said he, "thus?" They said "We shall not water till the shepherds shall have driven off; for our father is very aged."||8 Comp. Ex. ii. 16, 17, where the daughters are said to be seven.|
|79||24||28||So Moses watered their sheep for them;i and afterwards retired to the shade, saying, O LORD, verily I stand in need of the good which thou shalt send down unto me.||i By rolling away a stone of a prodigious weight, which had been laid over the mouth of the well by the shepherds, and required no less than seven men (though some name a much larger number) to remove it.1
1 Idem, interp. Yahya.
|So he watered for themthen retired to the shade and said, "O my Lord, of the good thou hast caused me to meet with I stand in need."9||9 That is, of a wife.|
|79||25||28||And one of the damselsk came unto him, walking bashfully, and said, My father calleth thee, that he may recompense thee for the trouble which thou hast taken in watering our sheep for us. And when he was come unto Shoaib, and had told him the story of his adventures, he said unto him, Fear not: thou hast escaped from unjust people.||k This was Sefûra (or Zipporah) the elder, or, as others suppose, the younger daughter of Shoaib, whom Moses afterwards married.||And one of them came to him, walking bashfully. Said she, "My father calleth thee, that he may pay thee wages for thy watering for us." And when he came to him and had told him his STORY, "Fear not," said he, "thou hast escaped from an unjust people."|
|79||26||28||And one of the damsels said, My father, hire him for certain wages: the best servant thou canst hire is an able and trusty person.l||l The girl, being asked by her father how she knew Moses deserved this character, told him that he had removed the vast stone above mentioned without any assistance, and that he looked not in her face, but held down his head till he heard her message, and desired her to walk behind him, because the wind ruffled her garments a little, and discovered some part of her legs.2
|One of them said, "O my father, hire him: for the best thou canst hire is the strong, the trusty."|
|79||27||28||And Shoaib said unto Moses, Verily I will give thee one of these my two daughters in marriage, on condition that thou serve me for hire eight years; and if thou fulfil ten years, it is in thine own breast; for I seek not to impose a hardship on thee: and thou shalt find me, if GOD please, a man of probity.||He said, "Truly to one of these my two daughters I desire to marry thee, if for eight years thou wilt be my hired servant:10 and if thou fulfil ten, it shall be of thine own accord, for I wish not to deal hardly with thee. Thou wilt find me, if God will, one of the upright."||10 The compact (Gen. xxix. 15-39) between Laban and Jacob must have been present to the mind of Muhammad when composing this tale.|
|79||28||28||Moses answered, Let this be the covenant between me and thee: whichsoever of the two terms I shall fulfil let it be no crime in me if I then quit thy service; and GOD is witness of that which we say.||He said, "Be it so between me and thee: Whichever of the two terms I fulfil, there will be no injustice to me. And God is witness of what we say."|
|79||29||28||And when Moses had fulfilled the term,m and was journeying with his family towards Egypt, he saw fire on the side of Mount Sinai. And he said unto his family, Tarry ye here; for I see fire: peradventure I may bring you thence some tidings of the way,n or at least a brand out of the fire, that ye may be warmed.||m viz., The longest terms of ten years. The Mohammedans say, after the Jews,3 that Moses received from Shoaib the rod of the prophets (which was a branch of a myrtle of paradise, and had descended to him from Adam) to keep off the wild beasts from his sheep; and that this was the rod with which he performed all those wonders in Egypt.
3 Vide Shals. hakkab. p. 12. R. Eliez. pirke, c. 40, &c.
n See chapter 20, p. 234.
|Baháí Prayers (6th prayer under Triumph of the Cause) by Abdul-Bahá
|cf. O: Verily have we perceived a fire on the slope of Mount Sinai.||And when Moses had fulfilled the term, and was journeying with his family, he perceived a fire on the mountain side. He said to his family, "Wait ye, for I perceive a fire. Haply I may bring you tidings from it, or a brand from the fire to warm you."|
|79||30||28||And when he was come thereto, a voice cried unto him from the right side of the valley, in the sacred bottom, from the tree, saying, O Moses, verily I am GOD, the LORD of all creatures:||And when he came up to it, a Voice cried to him11 out of the bush from the right side of the valley in the sacred hollow, "O Moses, I truly am God, the Lord of the Worlds:||11 Lit. he was cried to. According to Muhammad, Moses had resolved to quit Madian previously to the Vision of the Bush, which, according to Ex. iii., was the real occasion.|
|79||31||28||cast down now thy rod. And when he saw it that it moved, as though it had been a serpent, he retreated and fled, and returned not. And God said unto him, O Moses, draw near, and fear not; for thou art safe.||Throw down now thy rod." And when he saw it move as though it were a serpent, he retreated and fled and returned not. "O Moses," cried the Voice, "draw near and fear not, for thou art in safety.|
|79||32||28||Put thy hand into thy bosom, and it shall come forth white, without any hurt: and draw back thy hando unto thee which thou stretchest forth for fear. These shall be two evident signs from thy LORD, unto Pharaoh and his princes; for they are a wicked people.||o LIterally, thy wing: the expression alludes to the action of birds, which stretch forth their wings to fly away when they are frighted, and fold them together again when they think themselves secure.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 51
|Put thy hand into thy bosom; it shall come forth white, but unharmed: and draw back thy hand12 to thee without fear. These shall be two signs from thy Lord to Pharaoh and his nobles; for they are a perverse people."||12 Lit. thy wing.|
|79||33||28||Moses said, O LORD, verily I have slain one of them; and I fear they will put me to death:||He said, "O my Lord! truly I have slain one of them, therefore fear I lest they slay me.|
|79||34||28||but my brother Aaron is of a more eloquent tongue than I am; wherefore send him with me for an assistant, that he may gain me credit; for I fear lest they accuse me of imposture.||My brother Aaron is clearer of speech than I. Send him, therefore, with me as a help, and to make good my cause, for I fear lest they treat me as an impostor."|
|79||35||28||God said, We will strengthen thine arm by thy brother, and we will give each of you extraordinary power, so that they shall not come up to you, in our signs. Ye two, and whoever shall follow you, shall be the conquerors.||He said, "We will strengthen thine arm with thy brother, and we will give power unto you both, and they shall not equal you in our signs. Ye twain and they who shall follow you, shall gain the day."|
|79||36||28||And when Moses came unto them with our evident signs, they said, This is no other than a deceitful piece of sorcery: neither have we heard of anything like this among our forefathers.||And when Moses came to him with our demonstrative signs they said, "This is nought but magical device. We never heard the like among our sires of old."|
|79||37||28||And Moses said, My LORD best knoweth who cometh with a direction from him; and who shall have success in this life, as well as the next: but the unjust shall not prosper.||And Moses said, "My Lord best knoweth on whom He hath bestowed His guidance, and whose shall be the recompense of the abode of Paradise. Verily, the wicked shall not prosper."|
|79||38||28||And Pharaoh said, O princes, I did not know that ye had any other god besides me.p Wherefore do thou, O Haman, burn me clay into bricks; and build me a high tower,q that I may ascend unto the GOD of Moses: for I verily believe him to be a liar.||p See chapter 26, p. 277.
q It is said that Haman, having prepared bricks and other materials, employed no less than fifty thousand men, besides labourers, in the building; which they carried to so immense a height that the workmen could no longer stand on it: that Pharaoh, ascending this tower, threw a javelin towards heaven, which fell back again stained with blood, whereupon he impiously boasted that he had killed the GOD of Moses; but at sunset GOD sent the angel Gabriel, who, with one stroke of his wing, demolished the tower, a part whereof, falling on the kings army, destroyed a million of men.5
5 Al Zamakhshari.
|And Pharaoh said, "O ye nobles, ye have no other God that I know of but myself. Burn me then, Haman, bricks of clay,13 and build me a tower that I may mount up to the God of Moses, for in sooth, I deem him a liar."||13 Lit. kindle upon the clay. Comp. [lxxviii.] xl. 38-49. "He (Pharaoh) said to them: From the first have ye spoken an untruth, for Lord of the Worlds am I. I created myself and the Nile, as it is said (Ez. xxix. 3), 'My river is mine own and I have made it for myself."' (E.T.) Mid. Rab. on Ex. Par. 5.|
|79||39||28||And both he and his forces behaved themselves insolently and unjustly in the earth; and imagined that they should not be brought before us to be judged.||And he and his hosts behaved themselves proudly and unjustly on the earth, and thought that they should never be brought back to us.|
|79||40||28||Wherefore we took him and his forces, and cast them into the sea. Behold, therefore, what was the end of the unjust.||But we seized on him and his hosts and cast them into the sea: Behold, then, the end of the wrongful doers:|
|79||41||28||And we made them deceitful guides, inviting their followers to hell fire; and on the day of resurrection they shall not be screened from punishment.||And we made them imâms who invite to the fire of hell, and on the day of Resurrection they shall not be helped.|
|79||42||28||We pursued them with a curse in this life; and on the day of resurrection they shall be shamefully rejected.||We followed them with a curse in this world, and covered shall they be with shame on the day of Resurrection.|
|79||43||28||And we gave the book of the law unto Moses, after he had destroyed the former generations, to enlighten the minds of men, and for a direction, and a mercy; that peradventure they might consider.||And after we had destroyed the former generations, we gave the book of the Law to Moses for man's enlightening, and a guidance and a mercy, that haply they might reflect.|
|79||44||28||Thou, O prophet, wast not on the west side of Mount Sinai, when we delivered Moses his commission: neither wast thou one of those who were present at his receiving it:||And thou wast not on the western slope of Sinai when we laid his charge on Moses, nor wast thou one of the witnesses;|
|79||45||28||but we raised up several generations after Moses; and life was prolonged unto them. Neither didst thou dwell among the inhabitants of Madian, rehearsing unto them our signs; but we have sent thee fully instructed in every particular.||But we raised up generations after Moses, men whose days were lengthened;14 neither didst thou dwell among the inhabitants of Madian to rehearse to them our signs, but we sent Apostles to them.15||14 So that the oral traditions would be easily handed down.
15 Or, yet have we sent thee as an Apostle to them.
|79||46||28||Nor wast thou present on the side of the mount, when we called unto Moses; but thou art sent as a mercy from thy LORD; that thou mightest preach unto a people to whom no preacher hath come before thee,r that peradventure they may be warned;||r That is, to the Arabians; to whom no prophet had been sent, at least since Ismael.||Nor wast thou on the slope of Sinai when we called to Moses, but it is of the mercy of thy Lord that thou warnest a people, to whom no warner had come before thee, to the intent that they should reflect:|
|79||47||28||and lest, if a calamity had befallen them, for that which their hands had previously committed, they should have said, O LORD, since thou hast not sent an apostle unto us, that we might follow thy signs, and become true believers, are we not excusable?||And that they should not say when a calamity shall befal them for their previous handy work, "O our Lord! why hast thou not sent an Apostle to us? Then we should have followed thy signs and have been of the believers."|
|79||48||28||Yet when the truth is come unto them from before us, they say, Unless he receive the same power to work miracles as Moses received, we will not believe. Have they not likewise rejected the revelation which was heretofore given unto Moses? They say, Two cunning imposturess have mutually assisted one another: and they say, Verily we reject them both.||s viz., The Pentateuch and the Korân. Some copies read, Two impostors, meaning Moses and Mohammed.||Yet when the truth came to them from our very presence, they said, "Unless the like powers be given to him that were given to Moses. . . ."16 But did they not disbelieve in what of old was given to Moses? They said, "Two works of sorcery17 have helped each other;" and they said, "We disbelieve them both."||16 Supply, we will not believe.
17 That is, the Pentateuch and the Koran.
|79||49||28||Say, Produce therefore a book from GOD, which is more right than these two, that I may follow it; if ye speak truth.||SAY: Bring then a Book from before God which shall be a better guide than these, that I may follow it; if ye speak the truth.|
|79||50||28||But if they return thee no answer, know that they only follow their own desires: and who erreth more widely from the truth than he who followeth his own desire, without a direction from GOD? Verily GOD directeth not the unjust people.||And if they answer thee not, then know that verily they are following their own caprices: and who goeth more widely astray than he who followeth his own caprice without guidance from God? for God guideth not the wicked.|
|79||51||28||And now have we caused our word to come unto them, that they may be admonished.||And now have we caused our word to come unto them, that they may be warned:|
|79||52||28||They unto whom we have given the scriptures which were revealed before it, believe in the same;||They18 to whom we gave the Scriptures before IT, do in IT believe.||18 The Meccan Jews and Christians who had formerly embraced Islam, and could now affirm that they had always held the same faith. This passage could not have been written after Muhammad's experience of Jewish unbelief at Medina.|
|79||53||28||and when it is read unto them, say, We believe therein; it is certainly the truth from our LORD: verily we were Moslems before this.t||t Holding the same faith in fundamentals, before the revelation of the Korân, which we receive because it is consonant to the scriptures, and attested to by them. The passage intends those Jews and Christians who had embraced Mohammedism.||And when it is recited to them they say, "We believe in it, for it is the truth from our Lord. We were Muslims before it came."|
|79||54||28||These shall receive their reward twice,u because they have persevered, and repel evil by good, and distribute alms out of that which we have bestowed on them;||u Because they have believed both in their own scriptures and in the Korân.||Twice shall their reward be given them, for that they suffered with patience, and repelled evil with good, and gave alms out of that with which we provided them.|
|79||55||28||and when they hear vain discourse, avoid the same, saying, We have our works, and ye have your works; peace be on you;x we covet not the acquaintance of the ignorant.||x See chap. 25, p. 275, note d.||And when they hear light discourse they withdraw from it, and say, "Our works for us and your works for you! Peace be on you! We are not in quest of fools!"|
|79||56||28||Verily thou canst not direct whom thou wilt: but GOD directeth whom he pleaseth; and he best knoweth those who will submit to be directed.||Thou truly canst not guide whom thou desirest; but God guideth whom He will; and He best knoweth those who yield to guidance.|
|79||57||28||The Meccans say, If we follow the same direction with thee, we shall be forcibly expelled our land.y Have we not established for them a secure asylum,z to which fruits of every sort are brought, as a provision for our bounty? but the greater part of them do not understand.||y This objection was made by Al Hareth Ebn Othmân Ebn Nawfal Ebn Abd Menâf, who came to Mohammed and told him that the Koreish believed he preached the truth, but were apprehensive that if they made the Arabs their enemies by quitting their religion, they would be obliged likewise to quit Mecca, being but a handful of men, in comparison to the whole nation.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
z By giving them for their habitation the sacred territory of Mecca, a place protected by GOD, and reverenced by man.
|But they say, "If we follow the way in which thou art guided,19 we shall be driven from our country." But have we not established for them a sacred secure precinct, to which fruits of every kind, our gift for their support, are gathered together? But most of them have no knowledge.||19 Lit. the guidance with thee.|
|79||58||28||How many cities have we destroyed, whose inhabitants lived in ease and plenty? and these their dwellings are not inhabited after them, unless for a little while;a and we were the inheritors of their wealth.b||a That is, for a day, or a few hours only, while travellers stay there to rest and refresh themselves; or, as the original may also signify, unless by a few inhabitants: some of those ancient cities and dwellings being utterly desolate, and others thinly inhabited.
b There being none left to enjoy it after them.
|And how many cities have we destroyed that flourished in wanton ease! And these their dwellings have not been inhabited since their time save by a few, and it is we who became their heirs.|
|79||59||28||But thy LORD did not destroy those cities, until he had sent unto their capital an apostle, to rehearse our signs unto them: neither did we destroy those cities, unless their inhabitants were injurious to their apostle.||But thy Lord did not destroy the cities till He had sent an apostle to their mother-city to rehearse our signs to its people: nor did we destroy the cities unless its people were unjust.|
|79||60||28||The things which are given you are the provisions of this present life, and the pomp thereof; but that which is with GOD is better and more durable: will ye not therefore understand?||And all that hath been bestowed on you is merely for enjoyment and pomp of this life present: but that which is with God is better and more lasting. Will ye not be wise?|
|79||61||28||Shall he then, unto whom we have promised an excellent promise of future happiness, and who shall attain the same, be as he on whom we have bestowed the provision of this present life, and who, on the day of resurrection, shall be one of those who are delivered up to eternal punishment?||Shall he then to whom we have promised a goodly promise and who obtaineth it, be as he on whom we have bestowed the enjoyments of this life present, and who on the day of Resurrection shall be brought up for punishment?|
|79||62||28||On that day God shall call unto them, and shall say, Where are my partners, which ye imagined to be so?||On that day will God cry to them and say, "Where are my companions, as ye supposed them?"|
|79||63||28||And they upon whom the sentence of damnation shall be justly pronounced shall answer, These, O LORD, are those whom we seduced: but now we clearly quit them, and turn unto thee. They did not worship us, but their own lusts.c||c See chap. 10, p. 153.||They on whom doom shall be justly pronounced will say, "O our Lord! these are they whom we led astray: we led them astray even as we had been led astray ourselves: Thou hast no cause of blame against us: It was not we whom they worshipped.20||20 But their own imaginations and passions.|
|79||64||28||And it shall be said unto the idolaters, Call now upon those whom ye associated with God: and they shall call upon them, but they shall not answer them; and they shall see the punishment prepared for them, and shall wish that they had submitted to be directed.||And it shall be said, "Call now on those whom ye made God's companions:" and they shall call on them, but they will not answer them. And they shall see the punishment, and wish that they had been guided aright.|
|79||65||28||On that day, God shall call unto them, and shall say, What answer did ye return to our messengers?||And on that day shall God call to them and say, "How answered ye the apostles?"|
|79||66||28||But they shall not be able to give an account thereof on that day;d neither shall they ask one another for information.||d Literally, The account thereof shall be dark unto them; for the consternation they shall then be under, will render them stupid, and unable to return an answer.
||But on that day they shall be too blinded with confusion to give an account,21 nor shall they ask it of one another.||21 Lit. the account shall be blind or dark to them. Sie werden vor Bestürzung keine Rechenschaft geben. Ullm.|
|79||67||28||Howbeit whoso shall repent and believe, and shall do that which is right, may expect to be happy.||Yet as to him who shall turn to God and believe and do the thing that is right, it may come to pass that he shall be among the happy.|
|79||68||28||Thy LORD createth what he pleaseth; and chooseth freely: but they have no free choice. Praise be unto GOD; and far be he removed from the idols which they associate with him!||And thy Lord createth what he will and hath a free choice. But they, the false gods, have no power to choose. Glory be to God! and high let him be exalted above those whom they associate with him.|
|79||69||28||Thy LORD knoweth both the secret malice which their breasts conceal, and the open hatred which they discover.||And thy Lord knoweth what their breasts conceal and what they bring to light.|
|79||70||28||He is GOD; there is no GOD but he. Unto him is the praise due, both in this life and in that which is to come: unto him doth judgment belong; and before him shall ye be assembled at the last day.||And He is God! There is no god but He! His, all praise in this life and in the next, and His the power supreme,22 and to Him shall ye be brought back!||22 Potestas judiciaria. Mar. Richteramt. Ullm.|
|79||71||28||Say, What think ye? If GOD should cover you with perpetual night, until the day of resurrection; what god, besides GOD, would bring you light? Will ye not therefore hearken?||SAY: What think ye? If God should enshroud you with a long night until the day of resurrection, what god beside God would bring you light? Will ye not then hearken?|
|79||72||28||Say, What think ye? If GOD should give you continual day, until the day of resurrection; what god, besides GOD, would bring you night, that ye might rest therein? Will ye not therefore consider?||SAY: What think ye? If God should make it one long day for you until the day of resurrection, what god but God could bring you the night in which to take your rest? Will ye not then see?|
|79||73||28||Of his mercy he hath made for you the night and the day, that ye may rest in the one, and may seek to obtain provision for yourselves of his abundance, by your industry, in the other; and that ye may give thanks.||Of His mercy he hath made for you the night that ye may take your rest in it; and the day that ye may seek what ye need out of his bounteous supplies, and that ye may give thanks.|
|79||74||28||On a certain day God shall call unto them, and shall say, Where are my partners, which ye imagined to share the divine power with me?||One day God will call to them and say, "Where are my companions as ye supposed them?|
|79||75||28||And we will produce a witness out of every nation,e and will say, Bring hither your proof of what ye have asserted. And they shall know that the right is GOD'S alone; and the deities which they have devised shall abandon them.||e viz., The prophet who shall have been sent to each nation.||And we will bring up a witness out of every nation and say, "Bring your proofs." And they shall know that the truth is with God alone, and the gods of their own devising shall desert them.|
|79||76||28||Karûn was of the people of Moses;f but he behaved insolently towards them: for we had given him so much treasure, that his keys would have loaded several strong men.g When his people said unto him, Rejoice not immoderately; for GOD loveth not those who rejoice in their riches immoderately:||f The commentators say, Karûn was the son of Yeshar (or Izhar), the uncle of Moses, and, consequently, make him the same with the Korah of the scriptures. This person is represented by them as the most beautiful of the Israelites, and so far surpassing them all in opulency that the riches of Karûn have become a proverb. The Mohammedans are indebted to the Jews for this last circumstance, to which they have added several other fables; for they tell us that he built a large palace overlaid with gold, the doors whereof were of massy gold; that he became so insolent because of his immense riches, as to raise a sedition against Moses, though some pretend the occasion of his rebellion to have been his unwillingness to give alms, as Moses had commanded; that one day, when that prophet was preaching to the people, and, among other laws which he published, declared that adulterers should be stoned, Karûn asked him what if he should be found guilty of the same crime? To which Moses answered, that in such case he would suffer the same punishment; and thereupon Karûn produced a harlot, whom he had hired to swear that Moses had lain with her, and charged him publicly with it; but on Moses adjuring the woman to speak the truth, her resolution failed her, and she confessed that she was suborned by Karûn to accuse him wrongfully; that then God directed Moses, who had complained to him of this usage, to command the earth what he pleased, and it should obey him; whereupon he said, O earth swallow them up! and that immediately the earth opened under Karûn and his confederates, and swallowed them up, with his palace and all his riches.1 There goes a tradition, that as Karûn sank gradually into the ground, first to his knees, then to his waist, then to his neck, he cried out four several times, O Moses, have mercy on me! but that Moses continued to say, O earth, swallow them up, till at last he wholly disappeared; upon which GOD said to Moses, Thou hast no mercy on Karûn, though he asked pardon of thee four times; but I would have had compassion on him if he had asked pardon of me but once.2
1 Abulfeda, Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi, &c.
2 Al Beidâwi. Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Carun.
g The original word properly signifies any number of persons from ten to forty. Some pretend these keys were a sufficient load for seventy men; and Abulfeda says forty mules used to be employed to carry them.
|Now Korah23 was of the people of Moses: but he behaved haughtily toward them; for we had given him such treasure that its keys would have burdened a company of men of strength. When his people said to him, "Exult not, for God loveth not those who exult;||23 Ar. Karun. "Joseph concealed three treasures in Egypt, one of which became known to Korah . . . the keys of Korah's treasure chambers were a burden for 300 white mules." Midr. Jalkut on Eccl. v. 12, "Riches kept for the owners thereof to their hurt,"which may have furnished Muhammad with the nucleus of this story. Compare also Tract. Psachim. fol. 119 a.|
|79||77||28||but seek to attain by means of the wealth which GOD hath given thee, the future mansion of paradise.h And forget not thy portion in this world; but be thou bounteous unto others, as GOD hath been bounteous unto thee; and seek not to act corruptly in the earth; for GOD loveth not the corrupt doers.||h This passage is parallel to that in the New Testament, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.3
3 Luke xvi. 9.
|But seek, by means of what God hath given thee, to attain the future Mansion; and neglect not thy part in this world, but be bounteous to others as God hath been bounteous to thee, and seek not to commit excesses on the earth; for God loveth not those who commit excesses:"|
|79||78||28||He answered, I have received these riches, only because of the knowledge which is with me.i Did he not know that GOD had already destroyed, before him, several generations, who were mightier than he in strength, and had amassed more abundance of riches? And the wicked shall not be asked to discover their crimes.||i For some say he was the most learned of all the Israelites, and the best versed in the law, after Moses and Aaron; others pretend he was skilled in chemistry, or in merchandising, or other arts of gain, and others suppose (as the Jews also fable4) that he found out the treasures of Joseph in Egypt.5
4 Vide R. Ghedal, Shalsh. hakkab. p. 13.
|He said, "It hath been given me only on account of the knowledge that is in me." Did he not know that God had destroyed before him generations that were mightier than he in strength and had amassed more abundant wealth? But the wicked shall not be asked of their crimes.|
|79||79||28||And Karûn went forth unto his people, in his pomp.k And they who loved this present life said, Oh that we had the like wealth, as hath been given unto Karûn? verily he is master of a great fortune.||k It is said he rode on a white mule adorned with trappings of gold, and that he was clothed in purple, and attended by four thousand men, all well mounted and richly dressed.||Memorials of the Faithful (Mirzá Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
|And Korah went forth to his people in his pomp. Those who were greedy for this present life said, "Oh that we had the like of that which hath been bestowed on Korah! Truly he is possessed of great good fortune."|
|79||80||28||But those on whom knowledge had been bestowed answered, Alas for you! the reward of GOD in the next life will be better unto him who shall believe and do good works; but none shall attain the same, except those who persevere with constancy.||But they to whom knowledge had been given said, "Woe to you! the reward of God is better for him who believeth and worketh righteousness, and none shall win it but those who have patiently endured."|
|79||81||28||And we caused the ground to cleave in sunder, and to swallow up him and his palace: and he had no forces to defend him, besides GOD; neither was he rescued from punishment.||And we clave the earth for him and for his palace, and he had no forces, in the place of God,24 to help him, nor was he among those who are succoured.||24 Or, against God.|
|79||82||28||And the next morning, those who had coveted his condition the day before said, Aha! verily GOD bestoweth abundant provision on such of his servants as he pleaseth; and he is sparing unto whom he pleaseth. Unless GOD had been gracious unto us, certainly the earth had swallowed us up also. Aha! the unbelievers shall not prosper.||And in the morning those who the day before had coveted his lot said, "Aha! God enlargeth supplies to whom he pleaseth of his servants, or is sparing. Had not God been gracious to us, He had caused it to cleave for us. Aha! the ungrateful can never prosper."|
|79||83||28||As to this future mansion of paradise, we will give it unto them who seek not to exalt themselves in the earth, or to do wrong; for the happy issue shall attend the pious.||As to this future mansion, we will bestow it on those who seek not to exalt them in the earth or to do wrong: And there is a happy issue for the God-fearing.|
|79||84||28||Whoso doth good shall receive a reward which shall exceed the merit thereof: but as to him who doth evil, they who work evil shall be rewarded according to the merit only of that which they shall have wrought.||Whoso doeth good shall have reward beyond its merits, and whoso doeth evil, they who do evil shall be rewarded only as they shall have wrought.|
|79||85||28||Verily he who hath given thee the Koran for a rule of faith and practice will certainly bring thee back home unto Mecca.l Say, My LORD best knoweth who cometh with a true direction, and who is in a manifest error.||l This verse, some say, was revealed to Mohammed when he arrived at Johsa, in his flight from Mecca to Medina, to comfort him and still his complaints.||He who hath sanctioned the Koran to thee will certainly bring thee to thy home.25 SAY: My Lord best knoweth who hath guidance, and who is in undoubted error.||25 Probably to Paradise, according to others to Mecca, as a conqueror. But this latter interpretation involves the revelation of this verse at least, at Medina.|
|79||86||28||Thou didst not expect that the book of the Koran should be delivered unto thee: but thou hast received it through the mercy of thy LORD. Be not therefore assisting to the unbelievers;||Thou didst never expect that the Book would be given thee. Of thy Lord's mercy only hath it been sent down. Be not thou helpful then to the unbelievers:|
|79||87||28||neither let them turn thee aside from the signs of GOD, after they have been sent down unto thee: and invite men unto thy LORD. And be not thou an idolater;||Neither let them turn thee aside from the signs of God after they have been sent down to thee, but bid men to thy Lord; and be not among those who add gods to God:|
|79||88||28||neither invoke any other god, together with the true GOD: there is no god but he. Everything shall perish, except himself: unto him belongeth judgment: and before him shall ye be assembled at the last day.||And call not on any other god with God. There is no god but He! Everything shall perish except Himself! Judgment is His, and to Him shall ye return!|
|81||0||29||CHAPTER XXIX.||SURA XXIX.THE SPIDER [LXXXI.]|
|81||0||29||ENTITLED, THE SPIDER;m REVEALED AT MECCA.n||m Transient mention is made of this insect towards the middle of the chapter.
n Some think the first ten verses, ending with these words, And he well knoweth the hypocrites, were revealed at Medina, and the rest at Mecca; and others believe the reverse.
|81||0||29||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|81||1||29||A. L. M.o Do men imagine that it shall be sufficient for themp to say, We believe; will they not be proved?q||o See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.
p Literally, That they shall be let alone, &c.
q This passage reprehends the impatience of some of the prophets companions, under the hardships which they sustained in defence of their religion, and the losses which they suffered from the infidels; representing to them that such trials and afflictions were necessary to distinguish the sincere person from the hypocrite, and the steady from the wavering. Some suppose it to have been occasioned by the death of Mahja, Omars slave, killed by an arrow at the battle of Bedr, which was deeply lamented and laid to heart by his wife and parents.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 8, p. 9
|Do men think when they say 'We believe' they shall be let alone and not be put to proof?||ELIF. LAM. MIM.1 Think men that when they say, "We believe," they shall be let alone and not be put to proof?||1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32. The first ten verses of this Sura were revealed at Medina, after the battles of Bedr and Ohod. Nöld. p. 115.|
|81||2||29||We heretofore proved those who were before them; for GOD will surely know them who are sincere, and he will surely know the liars.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 25, paragraph 32
The Secret of Divine Civilization, pp. 26-27
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: Think men that when they say, `We believe,' they shall be let alone and not be put to the proof?
BWC from Bahíyyih Khánum: Do men think when they say 'We believe' they shall be let alone and not be put to proof?'
BWC: Do men think when they say 'We believe' they shall be let alone and not be put to proof?
MG: Do men think when they say `We believe' they shall be let alone and not be put to proof?
|Bahíyyih Khánum, V. Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf, no. 57, pp.180-181
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XVIII, p. 311
|We put to proof those who lived before them; for God will surely take knowledge of those who are sincere, and will surely take knowledge of the liars.|
|81||3||29||Do they who work evil think that they shall prevent us from taking vengeance on them? An ill judgment do they make.||Think they who work evil that they shall escape Us? Ill do they judge.|
|81||4||29||Whoso hopeth to meet GOD, verily GOD'S appointed time will certainly come; and he both heareth and knoweth.||To him who hopeth to meet God, the set time of God will surely come. The Hearer, the Knower, He!|
|81||5||29||Whoever striveth to promote the true religion, striveth for the advantage of his own soul; for GOD needeth not any of his creatures:||Whoso maketh efforts for the faith, maketh them for his own good only. Verily God is rich enough to dispense with all creatures.|
|81||6||29||and as to those who believe and work righteousness, we will expiate their evil deeds from them; and we will give them a reward according to the utmost merit of their actions.||And as to those who shall have believed and done the things that are right, their evil deeds will we surely blot out from them, and according to their best actions will we surely reward them.|
|81||7||29||We have commanded man to show kindness towards his parents: but if they endeavor to prevail with thee to associate with me that concerning which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not.r Unto me shall ye return; and I will declare unto you what ye have done.||r That is, If they endeavour to pervert thee to idolatry. The passage is said to have been revealed on account of Saad Ebn Abi Wakkâs, and his mother Hamna, who, when she heard that her son had embraced Mohammedism, swore that she would neither eat nor drink till he returned to his old religion, and kept her oath for three days.2
|Moreover we have enjoined on man to shew kindness to parents: but if they strive with thee that thou join that with Me of which thou hast no knowledge,2 obey them not. To me do ye return, and then will I tell you of your doings:||2 Deities for whose worship thou canst shew no authority. Comp. Tr. Jebhamoth, fol. 6. If a father saith to his son, "Defile thyself," or saith, "Make not restitution," shall he obey him? It is said (Lev. xix. 3), Let every man reverence his father and mother, but keep my Sabbaths all of you: ye are all bound to honour me. Thus also Midr. Jalkut, 604. Comp. next Sura, v. 13.|
|81||8||29||Those who shall believe, and shall work righteousness, we will surely introduce into paradise, among the upright.||And those who shall have believed and done the things that are right, we will surely give them an entering in among the just.|
|81||9||29||There are some men who say, We believe in GOD: but when such a one is afflicted for GOD'S sake, he esteemeth the persecution of men to be as grievous as the punishment of GOD. Yet if success cometh from thy LORD, they say, Verily we are with you. Doth not GOD well know that which is in the breasts of his creatures?||But some men say, "We believe in God," yet when they meet with sufferings in the cause of God, they regard trouble from man as chastisement from God. Yet if a success come from thy Lord they are sure to say, "We were on your side!" Doth not God well know what is in the breasts of his creatures?|
|81||10||29||Verily GOD well knoweth the true believers, and he well knoweth the hypocrites.||Yes, and God well knoweth those who believe, and He well knoweth the Hypocrites.|
|81||11||29||The unbelievers say unto those who believe, Follow our way, and we will bear your sins. Howbeit they shall not bear any part of their sins; for they are liars:||The unbelievers say to the faithful, "Follow ye our way, and we will surely bear your sins." But not aught of their sins will they bearverily they are liars!|
|81||12||29||but they shall surely bear their own burdens, and other burdens besides their own burdens;s and they shall be examined, on the day of resurrection, concerning that which they have falsely devised.||s viz., The guilt of seducing others, which shall be added to the guilt of their own obstinacy without diminishing the guilt of such as shall be seduced by them.||But their own burdens, and burdens beside their own burdens shall they surely bear: and inquisition shall be made of them on the day of Resurrection as to their false devices.|
|81||13||29||We heretofore sent Noah unto his people; and he tarried among them one thousand years, save fifty years:t and the deluge took them away, while they were acting unjustly;||t This is true, if the whole life of Noah be reckoned; and accordingly Abulfeda says he was sent to preach in his two hundred and fiftieth year, and that he lived in all nine hundred and fifty: but the text seeming to speak of those years only which he spent in preaching to the wicked antediluvians, the commentators suppose him to have lived much longer. Some say the whole length of his life was a thousand and fifty years; that his mission happened in the fortieth year of his age, and that he lived after the Flood sixty years;1 and others give different numbers; one, in particular, pretending that Noah lived near sixteen hundred years.2
This circumstance, says al Beidâwi, was mentioned to encourage Mohammed, and to assure him that God, who supported Noah so many years against the opposition and plots of the antediluvian infidels, would not fail to defend him against all attempts of the idolatrous Meccans and their partisans.
1 Idem, al Zamakh.
2 Caab, apud Yahyam.
|Of old sent we Noah to his people: a thousand years save fifty did he tarry among them; and the flood overtook them in their wrongful doings:|
|81||14||29||but we delivered him and those who were in the ark, and we made the sameu a sign unto all creatures.||u i.e., The ark.||But we rescued him and those who were in the vessel; and we made it a sign to all men:|
|81||15||29||We also sent Abraham; when he said unto his people, Serve GOD, and fear him; this will be better for you; if ye understand.||And Abraham; when he said to his people, "Worship God and fear Him. This will be best for you, if ye have knowledge;"|
|81||16||29||Ye only worship idols besides GOD, and forge a lie. Verily those which ye worship, besides GOD, are not able to make any provision for you: seek therefore your provision from GOD; and serve him, and give thanks unto him; unto him shall ye return.||Ye only worship idols beside God, and are the authors of a lie. Those whom ye worship beside God can give you no supplies: seek, then, your supplies from God; and serve Him and give Him thanks. To Him shall ye return.|
|81||17||29||If he charge me with imposture,x verily sundry nations before you likewise charged their prophets with imposture: but public preaching only is incumbent on an apostle.||x This seems to be part of Abrahams speech to his people: but some suppose that GOD here speaks, by way of apostrophe, first to the Koreish, and afterwards to Mohammed; and that the parenthesis is continued to these words, And the answer of his people was no other, &c. In which case we should have said, If ye charge Mohammed your apostle with imposture, &c.||Suppose that ye treat me as a liar! nations before you have treated God's messenger as a liar; but open preaching is his only duty.|
|81||18||29||Do they not see how GOD produceth creatures, and afterwards restoreth them?y Verily this is easy with GOD.||y The infidels are bid to consider how GOD causeth the fruits of the earth to spring forth, and reneweth them every year, as in the preceding; which is an argument of his power to raise man, whom he created at first, to life again after death, at his own appointed time.||See they not how God bringeth forth creation? and then causeth it to return again? This truly is easy for God.|
|81||19||29||Say, go through the earth, and see how he originally produceth creatures: afterwards will GOD reproduce another production; for GOD is almighty.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 84-86, Hájí Mullá Mihdíy-i-Yazdí)
|SAY,3 Go through the earth, and see how he hath brought forth created beings. Hereafter, with a second birth will God cause them to be born again; for God is Almighty.||3 The word SAYthe usual address of God or Gabriel to Muhammadmust either be considered as spoken by God to Abraham, in which case we have a curious instance of the manner in which Muhammad identifies himself with Abraham, and makes Abraham speak in words which he constantly elsewhere uses himself; or, with Wahl, we must suppose that from v. 17 to v. 22 are misplaced.|
|81||20||29||He will punish whom he pleaseth, and he will have mercy on whom he pleaseth. Before him shall ye be brought at the day of judgment:||Whom He pleaseth will He chastise, and on whom He pleaseth will He have mercy, and to Him shall ye be taken back.|
|81||21||29||and ye shall not escape his reach, either in earth, or in heaven:z neither shall ye have any patron or defender besides GOD.||z See Psalm cxxxix. 7, &c.||And ye shall not invalidate his power either in the Earth or in the Heaven:4 and, save God, ye shall have neither patron nor helper.||4 Comp. Ps. cxxxix. 7.|
|81||22||29||As for those who believe not in the signs of GOD, or that they shall meet him at the resurrection, they shall despair of my mercy, and for them is a painful punishment prepared.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 148, p. 138
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 234, p. 211
|As for those who believe not in the signs of God, or that they shall ever meet Him, these of My mercy shall despair, and for them doth a grievous chastisement await.||As for those who believe not in the signs of God, or that they shall ever meet him, these of my mercy shall despair, and these doth a grievous chastisement await."|
|81||23||29||And the answer of his people was no other than that they said, Slay him, or burn him. But GOD saved him from the fire.a Verily herein were signs unto people who believed.||a See chapter 21.||And the only answer of his people was to say, "Slay him or burn him." But from the fire did God save him! Verily, herein are signs to those who believe.|
|81||24||29||And Abraham said, Ye have taken idols, besides GOD, to cement affection between you in this life: but on the day of resurrection, the one of you shall deny the other, and the one of you shall curse the other; and your abode shall be hell fire, and there shall be none to deliver you.||And Abraham said, "Of a truth ye have taken idols along with God as your bond of union5 in this life present; But on the day of resurrection some of you shall deny the others, and some of you shall curse the others; and your abode shall be the fire, and ye shall have none to help."||5 Lit. for love among yourselves, or as an object of love, i.e. devout worship.|
|81||25||29||And Lot believed on him. And Abraham said, Verily I fly from my people, unto the place which my LORD hath commanded me; or he is the mighty, the wise.||But Lot believed on him,6 and said, "I betake me to my Lord, for He truly is the Mighty, the Wise."||6 Thus Sura [lxv.] xxi. 71. The Midr. Rabbah on Gen. Par. 18, says that Haran, the father of Lot, was brought by Abraham's deliverance from the furnace to the adoption of his doctrines. Muhammad may have transferred this idea to Lot.|
|81||26||29||And we gave him Isaac and Jacob; and we placed among his descendants the gift of prophecy and the scriptures: and we gave him his reward in this world; and in the next he shall be one of the righteous.||And we bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob,7 and placed the gift of prophecy and the Scripture among his posterity; And we gave him his reward in this world, and in the next he shall be among the just.||7 The following passages deserve to be compared, as shewing the loose way in which Muhammad could speak of the relationship subsisting between Abraham and the other Patriarchs. See 38 below. Sura [xci.] ii. 127; [lxxxix.] vi. 84; [lviii.] xix. 50; [lxv.] xxi. 72; [lxxvii.] xii. 6. It is a curious coincidence that in the Sonna 398, 400, Joseph is said to be the Grandson, and Jacob the Son, of Abraham.|
|81||27||29||We also sent Lot; when he said unto his people, Do ye commit filthiness which no creature hath committed before you?||We sent also Lot: when he said to his people, "Proceed ye to a filthiness in which no people in the world hath ever gone before you?|
|81||28||29||Do ye approach lustfully unto men, and lay wait in the highways,b and commit wickedness in your assembly?c And the answer of his people was no other than that they said, Bring down the vengeance of GOD upon us, if thou speakest truth.||b Some suppose the Sodomites robbed and murdered the passengers; others, that they unnaturally abused their bodies.
c Their meetings being scenes of obscenity and riot.
|Proceed ye even to men? attack ye them on the highway? and proceed ye to the crime in your assemblies?" But the only answer of his people was to say, "Bring God's chastisement upon us, if thou art a man of truth."|
|81||29||29||Lot said, O LORD, defend me against the corrupt people.||He cried: My Lord! help me against this polluted people.|
|81||30||29||And when our messengers came unto Abraham with good tidings,d they said, We will surely destroy the inhabitants of this city: for the inhabitants thereof are unjust doers.||d See chapter 11, p. 165, &c.||And when our messengers came to Abraham with the tidings of a son, they said, "Of a truth we will destroy the in-dwellers in this city, for its in-dwellers are evil doers."|
|81||31||29||Abraham answered, Verily Lot dwelleth there. They replied, We well know who dwelleth therein: we will surely deliver him and his family, except his wife; she shall be one of those who remain behind.||He said, "Lot is therein." They said, "We know full well who therein is. Him and his family will we save, except his wife; she will be of those who linger.|
|81||32||29||And when our messengers came unto Lot, he was troubled for them, and his arm was straitened concerning them.e But they said, Fear not, neither be grieved; for we will deliver thee and thy family, except thy wife; for she shall be one of those who remain behind.||e See ibid. p. 166.||And when our messengers came to Lot, he was troubled for them, and his arm was too weak8 to protect them; and they said, "Fear not, and distress not thyself, for thee and thy family will we save, except thy wife; she will be of those who linger.9||8 Lit. was straitened in regard to them.
9 See [lxxv.] xi. 83.
|81||33||29||We will surely bring down upon the inhabitants of this city vengeance from heaven, for that they have been wicked doers;||We will surely bring down upon the dwellers in this city vengeance from Heaven for the excesses they have committed."|
|81||34||29||and we have left thereof a manifest signf unto people who understand.||f viz., The story of its destruction, handed down by common tradition; or else its ruins, or some other footsteps of this signal judgment; it being pretended that several of the stones, which fell from heaven on those cities, are still to be seen, and that the ground where they stood appears burnt and blackish.||And in what we have left of it is a clear sign to men of understanding.|
|81||35||29||And unto the inhabitants of Madian we sent their brother Shoaib; and he said unto them, O my people, serve GOD, and expect the last day; and transgress not, acting corruptly in the earth.||And to Madian we sent their brother Shoaib. And he said, "Oh! my people! worship God, and expect the latter day, and enact not in the land deeds of harmful excess."|
|81||36||29||But they accused him of imposture; wherefore a storm from heaveng assailed them, and in the morning they were found in their dwellings dead and prostrate.||g See chapter 7, p. 114.||But they treated him as an impostor: so an earthquake assailed them; and at morn they were found prostrate and dead in their dwellings.|
|81||37||29||And we also destroyed the tribes of Ad, and Thamud; and this is well known unto you from what yet remains of their dwellings. And Satan prepared their works for them, and turned them aside from the way of truth, although they were sagacious people.||And we destroyed Ad and Themoud. Already is this made plain to you in the ruins of their dwellings. For Satan had made their own works fair seeming to them, and drew them from the right path, keen-sighted though they were.|
|81||38||29||And we likewise destroyed Karûn, and Pharaoh, and Haman. Moses came unto them with evident miracles, and they behaved themselves insolently in the earth: but they could not escape our vengeance.||And Corah and Pharaoh and Haman. With proofs of his mission did Moses come to them, and they behaved proudly on the earth; but us they could not outstrip;10||10 So as to fly from our vengeance.|
|81||39||29||Every of them did we destroy in his sin. Against some of them we sent a violent wind:h some of them did a terrible noise from heaven destroy:i some of them did we cause the earth to swallow up:k and some of them we drowned.l Neither was GOD disposed to treat them unjustly; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls.||h The original word properly signifies a wind that drives the gravel and small stones before it; by which the storm, or shower of stones, which destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, seems to be intended.
i Which was the end of Ad and Thamud.
k As it did Karûn.
l As the unbelievers in Noahs time, and Pharaoh and his army
|For, every one of them did we seize in his sin. Against some of them did wesend a stone-charged wind: Some of them did the terrible cry of Gabriel surprise: for some of them we cleaved the earth; and some of them we drowned. And it was not God who would deal wrongly by them, but they wronged themselves.|
|81||40||29||The likeness of those who take other patrons besides GOD is as the likeness of the spider, which maketh herself a house: but the weakest of all houses surely is the house of the spider; if they knew this.||The likeness for those who take to themselves guardians instead of God is the likeness of the SPIDER who buildeth her a house: But verily, frailest of all houses surely is the house of the spider. Did they but know this!|
|81||41||29||Moreover GOD knoweth what things they invoke, besides him; and he is the mighty, the wise.||God truly knoweth all that they call on beside Him; and He is the Mighty, the Wise.|
|81||42||29||These similitudes do we propound unto men: but none understand them, except the wise.||These similitudes do we set forth to men: and none understand them except the wise.|
|81||43||29||GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in truth; verily herein is a sign unto the true believers.||God hath created the Heavens and the Earth for a serious end.11 Verily in this is a sign to those who believe.||11 Lit. in truth.|
|81||44||29||Rehearse that which hath been revealed unto thee of the book of the Koran: and be constant at prayer; for prayer preserveth a man from filthy crimes, and from that which is blamable; and the remembering of GOD is surely a most important duty. GOD knoweth that which ye do.||Recite the portions of the Book which have been revealed to thee and discharge the duty of prayer: for prayer restraineth from the filthy and the blame-worthy. And the gravest duty is the remembrance of God; and God knoweth what ye do.|
|81||45||29||Dispute not against those who have received the scriptures, unless in the mildest manner;m except against such of them as behave injuriously towards you: and say, We believe in the revelation which hath been sent down unto us, and also in that which hath been sent down unto you; our GOD and your GOD is one, and unto him are we resigned.||m i.e., Without ill language or passion. This verse is generally supposed to have been abrogated by that of the sword; though some think it relates only to those who are in alliance with the Moslems.||Dispute not, unless in kindly sort, with the people of the Book;12 save with such of them as have dealt wrongfully with you: And say ye, "We believe in what hath been sent down to us and hath been sent down to you. Our God and your God is one, and to him are we self-surrendered" (Muslims).||12 With the Jews. This passage is quoted by modern Muslims in justification of their indifference with respect to the propagation of their religion. "The number of the faithful," said one of them to Mr. Lane, "is decreed by God, and no act of man can increase or diminish it." Mod. Egypt. i. p. 364. Nöldeke supposes this verse to have been revealed at Medina, and renders, Contend not except in the best way, i.e. not by words but by force.|
|81||46||29||Thus have we sent down the book of the Koran unto thee: and they unto whom we have given the former scriptures believe therein; and of these Arabians also there is who believeth therein: and none reject our signs, except the obstinate infidels.||Thus have we sent down the Book of the Koran to thee: and they to whom we have given the Book of the law believe in it: and of these Arabians there are those who believe in it: and none, save the Infidels, reject our signs.|
|81||47||29||Thou couldest not read any book before this; neither couldest thou write it with thy right hand: then had the gainsayers justly doubted of the divine original thereof.||Thou didst not recite any book (of revelation) before it: with that right hand of thine thou didst not transcribe one: else might they who treat it as a vain thing have justly doubted:|
|81||48||29||But the same is evident signs in the breasts of those who have received understanding: for none reject our signs except the unjust.||But it is a clear sign in the hearts of those whom "the knowledge" hath reached. None except the wicked reject our signs.|
|81||49||29||They say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Signs are in the power of GOD alone; and I am no more than a public preacher.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 100, p. 91
|Is it not enough for them that We have sent down unto Thee the Book?
Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: Is it not enough for them that We have sent down to Thee the Book?
|And they say, "Unless a sign be sent down to him from his Lord. . . ." SAY: Signs are in the power of God alone. I am only a plain spoken warner.|
|81||50||29||Is it not sufficient for them that we have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran, to be read unto them? Verily herein is a mercy, and an admonition unto people who believe.||The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter XVIII, p. 317
|Is it not enough for them that we have sent down to thee the Book to be recited to them? In this verily is a mercy and a warning to those who believe.|
|81||51||29||Say GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you:||SAY: God is witness enough between me and you.|
|81||52||29||he knoweth whatever is in heaven and earth; and those who believe in vain idols, and deny GOD, they shall perish.||He knoweth all that is in the Heavens and the Earth, and they who believe in vain things13 and disbelieve in Godthese shall be the lost ones.||13 Idols.|
|81||53||29||They will urge thee to hasten the punishment which they defy thee to bring down upon them:n if there had not been a determined time for their respite, the punishment had come upon them before this; but it shall surely overtake them suddenly, and they shall not foresee it.||n See chapter 6, p. 93||They will challenge thee to hasten the punishment: but had there not been a season fixed for it, that punishment had already come upon them. But it shall overtake them suddenly when they look not for it.|
|81||54||29||They urge thee to bring down vengeance swiftly upon them: but hell shall surely encompass the unbelievers.||They will challenge thee to hasten the punishment: but verily Hell shall be round about the infidels.|
|81||55||29||On a certain day their punishment shall suddenly assail them, both from above them, and from under their feet; and God shall say, Taste ye the reward of that which ye have wrought.||One day the punishment shall wrap them round, both from above them and from beneath their feet; and God will say, "Taste ye your own doings."|
|81||56||29||O my servants who have believed, verily my earth is spacious: wherefore serve me.o||o That is, If ye cannot serve me in one city or country, fly unto another, where ye may profess the true religion in safety; for the earth is wide enough, and ye may easily find places of refuge. Mohammed is said to have declared, That whoever flies for the sake of his religion, though he stir but the distance of a span, merits paradise, and shall be the companion of Abraham and of himself.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|O my servants who have believed! Vast truly is my Earth:14 me, therefore! yea worship me.||14 That is, you may find places of refuge where you may worship the true God in some other parts of the earth, if driven forth from your native city. This verse is very indicative of a late Meccan origin. Flight from Mecca must have been imminent when Muhammad could thus write.|
|81||57||29||Every soul shall taste death: afterwards shall ye return unto us;||Every soul shall taste of death. Then to us shall ye return.|
|81||58||29||and as for those who shall have believed, and wrought righteousness, we will surely lodge them in the higher apartments of paradise; rivers shall flow beneath them, and they shall continue therein forever. How excellent will be the reward of the workers of righteousness;||But those who shall have believed and wrought righteousness will we lodge in gardens with palaces, beneath which the rivers flow. For ever shall they abide therein. How goodly the reward of those who labour,|
|81||59||29||who persevere with patience, and put their trust in their LORD!||Who patiently endure, and put their trust in their Lord!|
|81||60||29||How many beasts are there, which provide not their food? It is GOD who provideth for them, and for you; and he both heareth and knoweth.||How many animals are there which provide not15 their own food! God feedeth them and you. He Heareth, Knoweth all things.||15 Lit. carry not. Comp. Matth. vi. 26; Luke xii. 24.|
|81||61||29||Verily, if thou ask the Meccans, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and hath obliged the sun and the moon to serve in their courses? they will answer, GOD. How therefore do they lie, in acknowledging of other gods?||If thou ask them who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, and hath imposed laws on the sun and on the moon, they will certainly say, "God." How then can they devise lies?|
|81||62||29||GOD maketh abundant provision for such of his servants as he pleaseth; and is sparing unto him, if he pleaseth: for GOD knoweth all things.p||p And particularly who will make a good, and who will make a bad use of their riches.||God lavisheth supplies on such of his servants as He pleaseth or giveth to them by measure. God knoweth all things.|
|81||63||29||Verily if thou ask them, who sendeth rain from heaven, and thereby quickeneth the earth, after it hath been dead? they will answer, GOD. Say, GOD be praised! But the greater part of them do not understand.||If thou ask them who sendeth rain from heaven, and by it quickeneth the earth, after it hath been dead, they will certainly answer, "God." SAY: Praise be to God! Yet most of them do not understand.|
|81||64||29||This present life is no other than a toy, and a plaything; but the future mansion of paradise is life indeed: if they knew this they would not prefer the former to the latter.||This present life is no other than a pastime and a disport: but truly the future mansion is life indeed! Would that they knew this!|
|81||65||29||When they sail in a ship, they call upon GOD, sincerely exhibiting unto him the true religion: but when he bringeth them safe to land, behold, they return to their idolatry;||Lo! when they embark on shipboard, they call upon God, vowing him sincere worship, but when He bringeth them safe to land, behold they join partners with Him.|
|81||66||29||to show themselves ungrateful for that which we have bestowed on them, and that they may enjoy the delights of this life; but they shall hereafter know the issue.||In our revelation they believe not, yet take their fill of good things. But in the end they shall know their folly.|
|81||67||29||Do they not see that we have made the territory of Mecca an inviolable and secure asylum, when men are spoiled in the countries round about them? Do they therefore believe in that which is vain, and acknowledge not the goodness of GOD?||Do they not see that we have established a safe precinct16 while all around them men are being spoiled? Will they then believe in vain idols, and not own the goodness of God?||16 At Mecca.|
|81||68||29||But who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD, or denieth the truth, when it hath come unto him? Is there not in hell an abode for the unbelievers?||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 215, p. 195 (2 parts)
The Seven Valleys (Valley of Search)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 28, paragraph 36
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: Whoso maketh efforts for Us, in Our ways will We guide them
Whoso maketh efforts for Us,
In Our ways shall We assuredly guide him
MG: And whoso maketh efforts for Us, in Our ways will We guide them.
BWC: Whoso maketh efforts for Us, in Our ways shall We assuredly guide him.
|The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter III, p. 48
|But who acteth more wrongly than he who deviseth a lie against God, or calls the truth when it hath come to him, a lie? Is there not an abode for the infidels in Hell?|
|81||69||29||Whoever do their utmost endeavor to promote our true religion, we will direct them into our ways; for GOD is with the righteous.||And whoso maketh efforts for us, in our ways will we guide them: for God is assuredly with those who do righteous deeds.|
|74||0||30||CHAPTER XXX.||SURA XXX.THE GREEKS [LXXIV.]|
|74||0||30||ENTITLED, THE GREEKS;q REVEALED AT MECCA.r||q The original word is al Rûm; by which the later Greeks, or subjects of the Constantinopolitan empire, are here meant; though the Arabs give the same name also to the Romans, and other Europeans.
r Some except the verse beginning at these words, Praise be unto GOD.
|74||0||30||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|74||1||30||A. L. M.s THE Greeks have been overcome by the Persians,t||s The Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.
t The accomplishment of the prophecy contained in this passage, which is very famous among the Mohammedans, being insisted on by their doctors as a convincing proof that the Korân really came down from heaven, it may be excusable to be a little particular.
The passage is said to have been revealed on occasion of a great victory obtained by the Persians over the Greeks, the news whereof coming to Mecca, the infidels became strangely elated, and began to abuse Mohammed and his followers, imagining that this success of the Persians, who, like themselves, were idolaters, and supposed to have no scriptures, against the Christians, who pretended as well as Mohammed to worship one GOD, and to have divine scriptures, was an earnest of their own future successes against the prophet and those of his religion: to check which vain hopes, it was foretold, in the words of the text, that how improbable soever it might seem, yet the scale should be turned in a few years, and the vanquished Greeks prevail as remarkably against the Persians.
That this prophecy was exactly fulfilled the commentators fail not to observe, though they do not exactly agree in the accounts they give of its accomplishment; the number of years between the two actions being not precisely determined. Some place the victory gained by the Persians in the fifth year before the Hejra, and their defeat by the Greeks in the second year after it, when the battle of Bedr was fought:1 others place the former in the third or fourth year before the Hejra, and the latter in the end of the sixth or beginning of the seventh year after it, when the expedition of al Hodeibiyah was undertaken.2
The date of the victory gained by the Greeks, in the first of these accounts, interferes with a story which the commentators tell, of a wager laid by Abu Becr with Obba Ebn Khalf, who turned this prophecy into ridicule. Abu Becr at first laid ten young camels that the Persians should receive an overthrow within three years; but on his acquainting Mohammed with what he had done, that prophet told him that the word bed, made use of in this passage, signified no determinate number of years, but any number from three to nine (though some suppose the tenth year is included), and therefore advised him to prolong the time, and to raise the wager; which he accordingly proposed to Obba, and they agreed that the time assigned should be nine years, and the wager a hundred camels. Before the time was elapsed, Obba died of a wound he had received at Ohod, in the third year of the Hejra;3 but the event afterwards showing that Abu Becr had won, he received the camels of Obbas heirs, and brought them in triumph to Mohammed.4
History informs us that the successes of Khosru Parviz, king of Persia, who carried on a terrible war against the Greek empire, to revenge the death of Maurice, his father-in-law, slain by Phocas, were very great, and continued in an uninterrupted course for two and twenty years. Particularly in the year of Christ 615, about the beginning of the sixth year before the Hejra the Persians, having the preceding year conquered Syria, made themselves masters of Palestine, and took Jerusalem; which seems to be that signal advantage gained over the Greeks mentioned in this passage, as agreeing best with the terms here used, and most likely to alarm the Arabs by reason of their vicinity to the scene of action: and there was so little probability, at that time, of the Greeks being able to retrieve their losses, much less to distress the Persians, that in the following years the arms of the latter made still farther and more considerable progresses, and at length they laid siege to Constantinople itself. But in the year 625, in which the fourth year of the Hejra began, about ten years after the taking of Jerusalem, the Greeks, when it was least expected, gained a remarkable victory over the Persians, and not only obliged them to quit the territories of the empire, by carrying the war into their own country, but drove them to the last extremity, and spoiled the capital city al Madâyen; Heraclius enjoying thenceforward a continued series of good fortune, to the deposition and death of Khosru. For more exact information in these matters, and more nicely fixing the dates, either so as to correspond with or to overturn this pretended prophecy (neither of which is my business here), the reader may have recourse to the historians and chronologers.5
1 Jallaloddin, &c.
2 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi.
3 See p. 272, note h.
4 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c.
5 Vide etiam Asseman, Bibl. Orient. t. 3, part i. p. 411, &c. et Boulainy. Vie de Mahom. p. 333, &c.
|ELIF. LAM. MIM.1 THE GREEKS have been defeated2||1 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.
2 By the Persians; probably in Palestine in the 6th year before the Hejira, under Khosrou Parviz. (Ann. 615. See Gibbon's Decline and Fall, ch. xlvi.) The sympathies of Muhammad would naturally be enlisted on the side of the Christians rather than on that of the idolatrous fire-worshippers, with whom Islam had nothing in common.
|74||2||30||in the nearest part of the land;u but after their defeat, they shall overcome the others in their turn,||u Some interpreters, supposing that the land here meant is the land of Arabia, or else that of the Greeks, place the scene of action in the confines of Arabia and Syria, near Bostra and Adhraât;6 others imagine the land of Persia is intended, and lay the scene in Mesopotamia, on the frontiers of that kingdom;7 but Ebn Abbas, with more probability, thinks it was in Palestine.
6 Yahya, al Beidâwi.
7 Mojahed, apud Zamakh. Jallaloddin.
|In a land hard by: But after their defeat they shall defeat their foes,|
|74||3||30||within a few years. Unto GOD belongeth the disposal of this matter, both for what is past, and for what is to come: and on that day shall the believers rejoice||In a few years.3 First and last is the affair with God. And on that day shall the faithful rejoice||3 This alludes to the defeat of the Persians by Heraclius, ann. 625. The Muhammadans appeal to this passage as a clear proof of the inspiration of their prophet. But it should be borne in mind that the vowel points of the consonants of the Arabic word for defeated in verse 1, not being originally written, and depending entirely on the speaker or reader, would make the prophecy true in either event, according as the verb received an active or passive sense in pronunciation. The whole passage was probably constructed with the view of its proving true in any event.|
|74||4||30||in the success granted by GOD; for he granteth success unto whom he pleaseth, and he is the mighty, the merciful.||In the aid of their God: He aideth whom He will; and He is the Mighty, the Merciful.|
|74||5||30||This is the promise of GOD: GOD will not act contrary to his promise: but the greater part of men know not the veracity of God.||It is the promise of God: To his promise God will not be untrue: but most men know it not.|
|74||6||30||They know the outward appearance of this present life; but they are careless as to the life to come.||They know the outward shews of this life present, but of the next life are they careless.|
|74||7||30||Do they not consider within themselves that GOD hath not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, otherwise than in truth, and hath set them a determined period? Verily a great number of men reject the belief of their future meeting their LORD at the resurrection.||Have they not considered within themselves that God hath not created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them but for a serious end, and for a fixed term? But truly most men believe not that they shall meet their Lord.|
|74||8||30||Do they not pass through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who were before them? They excelled the Meccans in strength, and broke up the earth,x and inhabited it in greater affluence and prosperity than they inhabit the same: and their apostles came unto them with evident miracles; and GOD was not disposed to treat them unjustly, but they injured their own souls by their obstinate infidelity;||x To dig for water and minerals, and to till the ground for seed, &c.8
8 Al Beidâwi.
|Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 83-91, 12 To the Bahá'ís of the Western States)
|O: Do ye not travel through the land?||Have they never journeyed through the land, and seen what hath been the end of those who were before them? Mightier were they than these in strength; and they broke up the land, and dwelt in it in greater numbers than they who dwell there now; and their apostles came to them with proofs of their mission: and it was not God who would wrong them, but they wronged themselves.|
|74||9||30||and the end of those who had done evil was evil, because they charged the signs of God with falsehood, and laughed the same to scorn.||Then evil was the end of the evil doers; because they had treated our signs as lies, and laughed them to scorn.|
|74||10||30||God produceth creatures, and will hereafter restore them to life: then shall ye return unto him.||God bringth forth the creationthen causeth it to return againthen to Him shall ye come back.4||4 Comp. Psalm xc. 30, in the Arabic version.|
|74||11||30||And on the day whereon the hour shall come, the wicked shall be struck dumb for despair;||And on the day when the hour shall arrive, the guilty shall be struck dumb for despair,|
|74||12||30||and they shall have no intercessors from among the idols which they associated with God. And they shall deny the false gods which they associated with him.||And they shall have no intercessors from among the gods whom they have joined with God, and they shall deny the gods they joined with Him.|
|74||13||30||On the day whereon the hour shall come, on that day shall the true believers and the infidels be separated:||And on that day when the Hour shall arrive, shall men be separated one from another;|
|74||14||30||and they who shall have believed, and wrought righteousness, shall take their pleasure in a delightful meadow;||And as for those who shall have believed and done the things that are right, they shall enjoy themselves in a flowery mead;|
|74||15||30||but as for those who shall have disbelieved, and rejected our signs, and the meeting of the next life, they shall be delivered up to punishment.||But as for those who shall not have believed, but treated our signs and the meeting of the next life as lies, they shall be given over to the torment.|
|74||16||30||Wherefore glorify GOD, when the evening overtaketh you, and when ye rise in the morning:||Glorify God therefore when ye reach the evening, and when ye rise at morn:|
|74||17||30||and unto him be praise in heaven and earth; and at sunset, and when ye rest at noon.y||y Some are of opinion that the five times of prayer are intended in this passage; the evening including the time both of the prayer of sunset, and of the evening prayer properly so called, and the word I have rendered at sunset, marking the hour of afternoon prayer, since it may be applied also to the time a little before sunset.||And to Him be praise in the Heavens and on the Earth; and at twilight, and when ye rest at noon.|
|74||18||30||He bringeth forth the living out of the dead, and he bringeth forth the dead out of the living;z and he quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead: and in like manner shall ye be brought forth from your graves.||z See chapter 3, p. 34.||He bringeth forth the living out of the dead, and He bringeth forth the dead out of the living: and He quickeneth the earth when dead. Thus is it that ye too shall be brought forth.5||5 The Talmudists apply the description of God of the sender of the rain to the divine command which shall cause the dead to arise. Taanith (init.).|
|74||19||30||Of his signs one is, that he hath created you of dust; and behold, ye are become men, spread over the face of the earth.||And one of his signs it is that He hath created you out of dust; then lo! ye become men who spread themselves far and wide:|
|74||20||30||And of his signs another is, that he hath created you, out of yourselves, wives, that ye may cohabit with them; and hath put love and compassion between you: verily herein are signs unto people who consider.||And one of his signs it is, that He hath created wives for you of your own species,6 that ye may dwell with them, and hath put love and tenderness between you. Herein truly are signs for those who reflect.||6 Lit. from yourselves, i.e. either from the side of Adam or of human, and of no other kind of being. Beidh.|
|74||21||30||And of his signs are also the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variety of your languages, and of your complexions:z verily herein are signs unto men of understanding.||z Which are certainly most wonderful, and, as I conceive, very hard to be accounted for, if we allow the several nations in the world to be all the offspring of one man, as we are assured by scripture they are, without having recourse to the immediate omnipotency of GOD.||And among his signs are the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth, and your variety of tongues and colour. Herein truly are signs for all men.|
|74||22||30||And of his signs are your sleeping by night and by day, and your seeking to provide for yourselves of his abundance: verily herein are signs unto people who hearken.||And of his signs are your sleep by night and by day, and your goings in quest of his bounties. Herein truly are signs to those who hearken.|
|74||23||30||Of his signs others are, that he showeth you the lightning, to strike terror, and to give hope of rain, and that he sendeth down water from heaven, and quickeneth thereby the earth, after it hath been dead; verily herein are signs unto people who understand.||And of his signs are, that He sheweth you the lightning, a source of awe and hope; and that He sendeth down rain from the heaven and giveth life by it to the earth when dead. Herein truly are signs to those who understand.|
|74||24||30||And of his signs this also is one, namely, that the heaven and the earth stand firm at command: hereafter, when he shall call you out of the earth at one summons, behold, ye shall come forth.||And of his signs also one is that the Heaven and the Earth stand firm at his bidding: hereafter, when with one summons He shall summon you out of the earth,lo! forth shall ye come.|
|74||25||30||Unto him are subject whosoever are in the heavens and on earth: all are obedient unto him.||His, whatsoever is in the Heavens and on the Earth: all are obedient to him.|
|74||26||30||It is he who originally produceth a creature, and afterwards restoreth the same to life: and this is most easy with him. He justly challengeth the most exalted comparison, in heaven and earth;a and he is the mighty, the wise.||a That is, in speaking of him we ought to make use of the most noble and magnificent expressions we can possibly devise.||And He it is who bringeth a creature forth, then causeth it to return again; and to him is this most easy. To whatever is loftiest in heaven and earth is He to be likened; and He is the Mighty, the Wise.|
|74||27||30||He propoundeth unto a comparison taken from yourselves. Have ye, among the slaves whom your right hands possess, any partner in the substance which we have bestowed on you, so that ye become equal sharers therein with them, or that ye fear them as ye fear one another?b Thus we distinctly explain our signs, unto people who understand.||b See chapter 16, p. 200||He setteth forth to you an instance drawn from yourselves. Have ye among the slaves whom your right hands have won, any partner in what we have bestowed on you, so that ye share alike? Fear ye them as ye fear each other? (Thus make we our signs clear to men of understanding.)|
|74||28||30||But those who act unjustly, by attributing companions unto God, follow their own lusts, without knowledge: and who shall direct him whom GOD shall cause to err? They shall have none to help them.||No, ye do not. But the wicked, devoid of knowledge, follow their own desires:7 and those whom God shall mislead, who shall guide, and who shall be their protector?||7 By worshipping idols conjointly with God.|
|74||29||30||Wherefore be thou orthodox, and set thy face towards the true religion, the institution of GOD, to which he hath created mankind disposed: there is no change in what GOD hath created.c This is the right religion; but the greater part of men know it not.||c i.e., The immutable law, or rule, to which man is naturally disposed to conform, and which every one would embrace, as most fit for a rational creature, if it were not for the prejudices of education. The Mohammedans have a tradition that their prophet used to say, That every person is born naturally disposed to become a Moslem; but that a mans parents make him a Jew, a Christian, or a Magian.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 32, paragraph 42
|BWC: No change is there in God's creation||Set thou thy face then, as a true convert,8 towards the Faith which God hath made, and for which He hath made man. No change is there in the creation of God. This is the right Faith, but the greater part of men know it not.||8 Lit. as a Hanyf. See note on the preceding Sura, 121, p. 209.|
|74||30||30||And be ye turned unto him, and fear him, and be constant at prayer, and be not idolaters.||And be ye turned to Him, and fear Him, and observe prayer, and be not of those who unite gods with God:|
|74||31||30||Of those who have made a schism in their religion, and are divided into various sects, every sect rejoice in their own opinion.||Of those who have split up their religion, and have become sects, where every party rejoices in what is their own.9||9 Peculiar to and distinctive of themselves. Muhammad had a just appreciation of that narrowness of mind which is the characteristic of sectarians in every age, who seize upon some one point of truth, through inability to grasp the whole in its due proportions and bearing, and glory in it, as if the fragment were the whole.|
|74||32||30||When adversity befalleth men, they call upon their LORD, turning unto him: afterwards, when he hath caused them to taste of his mercy, behold, a part of them associate other deities with their LORD:||When some evil toucheth men, they turn to their Lord and call upon him: then when he hath made them taste his mercy, lo, a part of them join other gods with their Lord,|
|74||33||30||to show themselves ungrateful for the favors which we have bestowed on them. Enjoy therefore the vain pleasures of this life; but hereafter shall ye know the consequence.||Ungrateful for our favours! Enjoy yourselves then. But in the end ye shall know your folly.|
|74||34||30||Have we sent down unto them any authority, which speaketh of the false gods which they associate with him?d||d That is, Have we either by the mouth of any prophet, or by any written revelation, commanded or encouraged the worship of more gods than one?||Have we sent down to them any mandate which speaketh in favour of what they join with God?|
|74||35||30||When we cause men to taste mercy, they rejoice therein; but if evil befalleth them, for that which their hands have before committed, behold, they despair.e||e And seek not to regain the favour of GOD by timely repentance.||When we cause men to taste mercy they rejoice in it; but if, for that which their hands have aforetime wrought, evil befall them, they despair.|
|74||36||30||Do they not see that GOD bestoweth provision abundantly on whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth? Verily herein are signs unto people who believe.||See they not that God bestoweth full supplies on whom He pleaseth and giveth sparingly to whom He pleaseth? Signs truly are there herein to those who believe.|
|74||37||30||Give unto him who is of kin to thee his reasonable due; and also to the poor, and the stranger: this is better for those who seek the face of GOD; and they shall prosper.||To him who is of kin to thee give his due, and to the poor and to the wayfarer: this will be best for those who seek the face of God; and with them it shall be well.|
|74||38||30||Whatever ye shall give in usury,f to be an increase of men's substance, shall not be increased by the blessing of GOD: but whatever ye shall give in alms, for GOD'S sake, they shall receive a twofold reward.||f Or by way of bribe. The word may include any sort of extortion or illicit gain.||Whatever ye put out at usury to increase it with the substance of others shall have no increase from God:10 but whatever ye shall give in alms, as seeking the face of God, shall be doubled to you.||10 Comp. Ps. xv. 5.|
|74||39||30||It is GOD who hath created you, and hath provided food for you: hereafter will he cause you to die; and after that will he raise you again to life. Is there any of your false gods, who is able to do the least of these things? Praise be unto him; and far be he removed from what they associate with him!||It is God who created youthen fed youthen will cause you to diethen will make you alive. Is there any of your companion-gods who can do aught of these things? Praise be to Him! and far be He exalted above the gods they join with Him.|
|74||40||30||Corruptiong hath appeared by land and by sea, for the crimes which men's hands have committed; that it might make them to tasteh a part of the fruits of that which they have wrought, that peradventure they might turn from their evil ways.||g viz., Mischief and public calamities, such as famine, pestilence, droughts, shipwrecks, &c. or erroneous doctrines, or a general depravity of manners.
h Some copies read in the first person plural, That we might cause them to taste &c.
|Destruction hath appeared by land and by sea on account of what men's hands have wrought, that it might make them taste somewhat of the fruit of their doings, that haply they might turn to God.|
|74||41||30||Say, Go through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who have been before you: the greater part of them were idolaters.||SAY: Journey through the land, and see what hath been the end of those who were before you! The greater part of them joined other gods with God.|
|74||42||30||Set thy face therefore towards the right religion, before the day cometh, which none can put back from GOD. On that day shall they be separated into two companies:||Set thy face then towards the right faith, ere the day come which none can hinder God from bringing on.11 On that day shall they be parted in twain:||11 Lit. which none can put back from God.|
|74||43||30||whoever shall have been an unbeliever, on him shall his unbelief be charged; and whoever shall have done that which is right, shall spread themselves couches of repose in paradise;||Unbelievers on whom shall be their unbelief; and they who have wrought righteousness, and prepared for themselves couches of repose:|
|74||44||30||that he may reward those who shall believe, and work righteousness, of his abundant liberality; for he loveth not the unbelievers.||That of his bounty He may reward those who have believed and wrought righteousness; for the unbelievers He loveth not.|
|74||45||30||Of his signs one is, that he sendeth the winds, bearing welcome tidings of rain, that he may cause you to taste of his mercy; and that ships may sail at his command, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance by commerce; and that ye may give thanks.||And one of his signs is that He sendeth the winds with glad tidings of rain, both that He may cause you to taste his mercy, and that ships may sail at his command, that out of his bounties ye may seek wealth, and that haply ye may render thanks.|
|74||46||30||We sent apostles, before thee, unto their respective people, and they came unto them with evident proofs: and we took vengeance on those who did wickedly; and it was incumbent on us to assist the true believers.||We have sent apostles before thee to their peoples, and they presented themselves to them with clear proofs of their mission; and while it behoved us to succour the faithful, we took vengeance on the guilty.|
|74||47||30||It is GOD who sendeth the winds, and raiseth the clouds, and spreadeth the same in the heaven, as he pleaseth; and afterwards disperseth the same: and thou mayest see the rain issuing from the midst thereof; and when he poureth the same down on such of his servants as he pleaseth, behold, they are filled with joy;||It is God who sendeth the winds and uplifteth the clouds, and, as He pleaseth, spreadeth them on high, and breaketh them up; and thou mayest see the rain issuing from their midst; and when He poureth it down on such of his servants as He pleaseth, lo! they are filled with joy,|
|74||48||30||although before it was sent down unto them, before such relief, they were despairing.||Even they who before it was sent down to them, were in mute despair.|
|74||49||30||Consider therefore the traces of GOD'S mercy; how he quickeneth the earth, after its state of death: verily the same will raise the dead; for he is almighty.||Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 83-91, 12 To the Bahá'ís of the Western States)
|O: Behold the traces of the Mercy of God!||Look then at the traces of God's mercyhow after its death he quickeneth the earth! This same God will surely quicken the dead, for to all things His might is equal.|
|74||50||30||Yet if we should send a blasting wind, and they should see their corn yellow and burnt up, they would surely become ungrateful, after our former favors.||Yet should we send a blast, and should they see their harvest turn yellow, they would afterwards shew themselves ungrateful.|
|74||51||30||Thou canst not make the dead to hear, neither canst thou make the deaf to hear thy call, when they retire and turn their backs;||Thou canst not make the dead to hear, neither canst thou make the deaf to hear the call, when they withdraw and turn their backs:|
|74||52||30||neither canst thou direct the blind out of their error: thou shalt make none to hear, except him who shall believe in our signs; for they are resigned unto us.||Neither canst thou guide the blind out of their error: in sooth, none shalt thou make to hear, save him who shall believe in our signs: for they are resigned to our will (Muslims).|
|74||53||30||It is GOD who created you in weakness, and after weakness hath given you strength; and after strength, he will again reduce you to weakness, and gray hairs: he createth that which he pleaseth; and he is the wise, the powerful.||It is God who hath created you in weakness, then after weakness hath given you strength: then after strength, weakness and grey hairs: He createth what He will; and He is the Wise, the Powerful.|
|74||54||30||On the day whereon the last hour shall come, the wicked will swear||And on the day whereon the Hour shall arrive, the wicked will swear|
|74||55||30||that they have not tarriedi above an hour: in like manner did they utter lies in their lifetime.||i viz., In the world or in their graves. See chapter 23, p. 262.||That not above an hour have they waited: Even so did they utter lies on earth:|
|74||56||30||But those on whom knowledge hath been bestowed, and faith, will say, Ye have tarried, according to the book of GOD,k until the day of resurrection; for this is the day of resurrection; but ye knew it not.||k That is, according to his foreknowledge and decree in the preserved table; or according to what is said in the Korân, where the state of the dead is expressed by these words:1 Behind them there shall be a bar until the day of resurrection.2
1 Cap. 23, p. 261.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|But they to whom knowledge and faith have been given will say, "Ye have waited, in accordance with the book of God, till the day of Resurrection: for this is the day of the Resurrectionbut ye knew it not."|
|74||57||30||On that day their excuse shall not avail those who have acted unjustly; neither shall they be invited any more to make themselves acceptable unto God.||On that day their plea shall not avail the wicked, neither shall they again be bidden to seek acceptance with God.|
|74||58||30||And now have we propounded unto men, in this Koran, parables of every kind: yet if thou bring them a verse thereof, the unbelievers will surely say, Ye are no other than publishers of vain falsehoods.||And now have we set before men, in this Koran, every kind of parable: yet if thou bring them a single verse of it, the infidels will surely say, "Ye are only utterers of vain things."|
|74||59||30||Thus hath GOD sealed up the hearts of those who believe not:||It is thus that God hath sealed up the hearts of those who are devoid of knowledge.|
|74||60||30||But do thou, O Mohammed, persevere with constancy, for GOD is true; and let not those induce thee to waver, who have no certain knowledge.||But do thou, Muhammad, bear with patience, for true is the promise of God; and let not those who have no firm belief, unsettle thee.|
|82||0||31||CHAPTER XXXI.||SURA XXXI.LOKMAN1 [LXXXII.]||1 Nothing certain is known concerning the history of this fabulist and philosopher. The opinion most generally received is that Lokman is the same person whom the Greeks, not knowing his real name, have called Æsop, i.e., Æthiops. This Sura shews the high degree of respect entertained for Lokman in Arabia at the time of Muhammad, who doubtless aimed to promote the interests of his new religion by connecting the Koran with so celebrated a name.|
|82||0||31||ENTITLED, LOKMÂN;l REVEALED AT MECCA.m||l The chapter is so entitled from a person of this name mentioned therein, of whom more immediately.
m Some except the fourth verse, beginning at these words, Who observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms, &c. And others three verses, beginning at these words, If all the trees in the earth were pens, &c.
|82||0||31||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|82||1||31||A. L. M.n THESE are the signs of the wise book,||n See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||ELIF. LAM. MIM.2 These are the verses (signs) of the wise Book,||2 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.|
|82||2||31||a direction, and a mercy unto the righteous;||A guidance and a mercy to the righteous,|
|82||3||31||who observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms, and have firm assurance in the life to come:||Who observe prayer, and pay the impost,3 and believe firmly in the life to come:||3 Beidh. and Itq. suppose this verse to have been revealed at Medina, on account of the precept to pay the impost, required by Muhammad of his followers as a religious duty, and different from the alms. The former is usually coupled with the duty of observing prayer. Mar. renders, sacrum censum in marg.|
|82||4||31||these are directed by their LORD, and they shall prosper.||These rest on guidance from their Lord, and with these it shall be well.|
|82||5||31||There is a man who purchaseth a ludicrous story,o that he may seduce men from the way of GOD, without knowledge, and may laugh the same to scorn: these shall suffer a shameful punishment.||o i.e., Vain and silly fables. The passage was revealed, it is said, on occasion of al Nodar Ebn al Hareth, who, having brought from Persia the romance of Rostam and Isfandiyar, the two heroes of that country, recited it in the assemblies of the Koreish, highly extolling the power and splendour of the ancient Persian kings, and preferring their stories to those of Ad and Thamud, David and Solomon, and the rest which are told in the Korân. Some say that al Nodar bought singing girls, and carried them to those who were inclined to become Moslems to divert them from their purpose by songs and tales.3
|But a man there is4 who buyeth an idle tale, that in his lack of knowledge he may mislead others from the way of God, and turn it to scorn. For such is prepared a shameful punishment!||4 Nodhar Ibn El Hareth, who had purchased in Persia the romance of Roustem and Isfendiar, two of the most famous heroes of that land, which he recited to the Koreisch as superior to the Koran.|
|82||6||31||And when our signs are rehearsed unto him, he disdainfully turneth his back as though he heard them not, as though there were a deafness in his ears: wherefore denounce unto him a grievous punishment.||And when our signs are rehearsed to him, he turneth away disdainfully, as though he heard them not,as though his ears were heavy with deafness. Announce to him therefore tidings of an afflictive punishment!|
|82||7||31||But they who shall believe and work righteousness, shall enjoy gardens of pleasure:||But they who shall have believed and wrought good works, shall enjoy the gardens of delight:|
|82||8||31||they shall continue therein forever: this is the certain promise of GOD; and he is the mighty, the wise.||For ever shall they dwell therein: it is God's true promise! and He is the Mighty, the Wise.|
|82||9||31||He hath created the heavens without visible pillars to sustain them, and thrown on the earth mountains firmly rooted, lest it should move with you;p and he hath replenished the same with all kinds of beasts; and we send down rain from heaven, and cause every kind of noble vegetable to spring forth therein.||p See chapter 16, p. 196. A learned writer,1 in his notes on this passage, says the original word rawâsiya, which the commentators in general will have to signify stable mountains, seems properly to express the Hebrew word mechonim, i.e., bases or foundations; and therefore he thinks the Korân has here translated that passage of the Psalms, He laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be moved for ever.2 This is not the only instance which might be given that the Mohammedan doctors are not always the best interpreters of their own scriptures.
1 Gol. in Append. ad Erpenii Gram. p. 187.
2 Ps. civ. 5.
|Without pillars that can be seen hath He created the heavens, and on the earth hath thrown mountains lest it should move with you;5 and He hath scattered over it animals of every sort: and from the Heaven we send down rain and cause every kind of noble plant to grow up therein.||5 Comp. Ps. civ. 5.|
|82||10||31||This is the creation of GOD: show me now what they have created, who are worshipped besides him? verily the ungodly are in a manifest error.||This is the creation of God: Shew me now what others than He have created. Ah! the ungodly are in a manifest delusion.|
|82||11||31||We heretofore bestowed wisdom on Lokmân,q and commanded him, saying, Be thou thankful unto GOD: for whoever is thankful, shall be thankful to the advantage of his own soul; and if any shall be unthankful, verily GOD is self-sufficient, and worthy to be praised.||q The Arab writers say, that Lokmân was the son of Baûra who was the son or grandson of a sister or aunt of Job; and that he lived several centuries, and to the time of David, with whom he was conversant in Palestine. According to the description they give of his person, he must have been deformed enough; for they say he was of a black complexion (whence some call him an Ethiopian), with thick lips and splay feet: but in return he received from GOD wisdom and eloquence in a great degree, which some pretend were given him in a vision, on his making choice of wisdom preferably to the gift of prophecy, either of which were offered him. The generality of the Mohammedans, therefore, hold him to have been no prophet, but only a wise man. As to his condition, they say he was a slave, but obtained his liberty on the following occasion: His master having one day given him a bitter melon to eat, he paid him such exact obedience as to eat it all; at which his master being surprised, asked him how he could eat so nauseous a fruit? To which he replied, it was no wonder that he should for once accept a bitter fruit from the same hand from which he had received so many favours.3 The commentators mention several quick repartees of Lokmân, which, together with the circumstances above mentioned, agree so well with what Maximus Planudes has written of Esop, that from thence, and from the fables attributed to Lokmân by the orientals, the latter has been generally thought to have been no other than the Esop of the Greeks. However, that be (for I think the matter will bear a dispute), I am of opinion that Planudes borrowed great part of his life of Esop from the traditions he met with in the east concerning Lokmân, concluding them to have been the same person, because they were both slaves, and supposed to be the writers of those fables which go under their respective names, and bear a great resemblance to one another; for it has long since been observed by learned men that the greater part of that monks performance is an absurd romance, and supported by no evidence of the ancient writers.4
3 Al Zamakh, al Beidâwi, &c. Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 516, et Marracc. in Alc. p. 547.
4 Vide la Vie dEsope, par M. de Meziriac, et Bayle, Dict. Hist. Art. Esope. Rem. B.
|Of old we bestowed wisdom upon LOKMAN, and taught him thus"Be thankful to God: for whoever is thankful, is thankful to his own behoof; and if any shall be thankless . . . God truly is self-sufficient, worthy of all praise!"|
|82||12||31||And remember when Lokmân said unto his son,r as he admonished him, Oh my son, give not a partner unto GOD; for polytheism is a great impiety.||r Whom some name Anám (which comes pretty near the Ennus of Planudes), some Ashcam, and others Mathan.||And bear in mind when Lokman said to his son by way of warning, "O my son! join not other gods with God, for the joining gods with God is the great impiety."|
|82||13||31||We have commanded man concerning his parents,s (his mother carrieth him in her womb with weakness and faintness, and he is weaned in two years), saying, Be grateful unto me, and to thy parents. Unto me shall all come to be judged.||s The two verses which begin at these words, and end with the following, viz., And then will I declare unto you that which ye have done, are no part of Lokmâns advice to his son, but are inserted by way of parenthesis, as very pertinent and proper to be repeated here, to show the heinousness of idolatry; they are to be read (excepting some additions) in the twenty-ninth chapter, and were originally revealed on account of Saad Ebn Abi Wakkâs, as has been already observed.5
5 See cap. 29, p. 297, and the notes thereon.
|(We have commanded6 man concerning his parents. His mother carrieth him with weakness upon weakness; nor until after two years is he weaned.7 Be grateful to me, and to thy parents. Unto me shall all come.||6 This verse and the verse following would seem more naturally to follow verse 18, where Wahl has placed them. See preceding Sura, v. 7.
7 Comp. Talm. Kethuboth, 60, 1, "A woman is to suckle her child two years." Comp. Jos. Ant. ii. 9, 6.
|82||14||31||But if thy parents endeavor to prevail on thee to associate with me that concerning which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not: bear them company in this world in what shall be reasonable;t but follow the way of him who sincerely turneth unto me.u Hereafter unto me shall ye return, and then will I declare unto you that which ye have done.||t That is, show them all deference and obedience, so far as may be consistent with thy duty towards GOD.
u The person particularly meant here was Abu Becr, at whose persuasion Saad had become a Moslem.
|But if they importune thee to join that with Me of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not: comport thyself towards them in this world as is meet and right; but follow the way of him who turneth unto me. Unto me shall ye return at last, and then will I tell you of your doings;)|
|82||15||31||Oh my son, verily every matter, whether good or bad, though it be of the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, and be hidden in a rock, or in the heavens, or in the earth, GOD will bring the same to light; for GOD is clear-sighted and knowing.||"O my son! verily God will bring everything to light, though it were but the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, and hidden in a rock or in the heavens or in the earth; for, God is subtile, informed of all.|
|82||16||31||Oh my son, be constant at prayer, and command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil: and be patient under the afflictions which shall befall thee; for this is a duty absolutely incumbent on all men.||O my son! observe prayer, and enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, and be patient under whatever shall betide thee: for this is a bounden duty.|
|82||17||31||Distort not thy face out of contempt to men, neither walk in the earth with insolence; for GOD loveth no arrogant, vain-glorious person.||And distort not thy face at men; nor walk thou loftily on the earth; for God loveth no arrogant vain-glorious one.|
|82||18||31||And be moderate in thy pace; and lower thy voice; for the most ungrateful of all voices surely is the voice of asses.x||x To the braying of which animal the Arabs liken a loud and disagreeable voice.||But let thy pace be middling; and lower thy voice: for the least pleasing of voices is surely the voice of asses."|
|82||19||31||Do ye not see that GOD hath subjected whatever is in heaven and on earth to your service, and hath abundantly poured on you his favors, both outwardly and inwardly?y There are some who dispute concerning GOD without knowledge, and without a direction, and without an enlightening book.||y i.e., All kinds of blessings, regarding as well the mind as the body.||See ye not how that God hath put under you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and hath been bounteous to you of his favours, both for soul and body.8 But some are there who dispute of God without knowledge, and have no guidance and no illuminating Book:||8 Or, the seen and unseen, lit., outwardly and inwardly.|
|82||20||31||And when it is said unto them, Follow that which GOD hath revealed, they answer, Nay, we will follow that which we found our fathers to practise. What, though the devil invite them to the torment of hell?||And when it is said to them, Follow ye what God hath sent down, they say, "Nay; that religion in which we found our fathers will we follow." What! though Satan bid them to the torment of the flame?|
|82||21||31||Whosoever resigneth himself unto GOD, being a worker of righteousness, taketh hold on a strong handle; and unto GOD belongeth the issue of all things.||A Travelers Narrative, p. 76
|EGB: Most Firm Handle||But whoso setteth his face toward God with self-surrender, and is a doer of that which is good, hath laid hold on a sure handle; for unto God is the issue of all things.|
|82||22||31||But whoever shall be an unbeliever, let not his unbelief grieve thee: unto us shall they return; then will we declare unto them that which they have done, for GOD knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men.||But let not the unbelief of the unbelieving grieve thee: unto us shall they return: then will we tell them of their doings; for God knoweth the very secrets of the breast.|
|82||23||31||We will suffer them to enjoy this world for a little while: afterwards we will drive them to a severe punishment.||Yet a little while will we provide for them: afterwards will we force them to a stern punishment.|
|82||24||31||If thou ask them who hath created the heavens and the earth, they will surely answer, GOD. Say, GOD be praised! but the greater part of them do not understand.||If thou ask them who hath created the heavens and the earth, they will certainly reply, "God." SAY: God be praised! But most of them have no knowledge.|
|82||25||31||Unto GOD belongeth whatever is in heaven and earth: for GOD is the self-sufficient, the praiseworthy.||God's, whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth! for God, He is the Rich,9 the Praiseworthy.||9 Or as rendered in verse 11, "the self-sufficient."|
|82||26||31||If whatever trees are in the earth were pens, and he should after that swell the sea into seven seas of ink, the words of GOD would not be exhausted;z for GOD is mighty and wise.||z This passage is said to have been revealed in answer to the Jews, who insisted that all knowledge was contained in the law.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|If all the trees that are upon the earth were to become pens, and if God should after that swell the sea into seven seas of ink, His words would not be exhausted: for God is Mighty, Wise.10||10 Wah. Omar ben Muhammad, Zam. and Beidh. suppose this and the three following verses to have been revealed at Medina, in answer to the Jews, who had affirmed that all knowledge was contained in their own Law. But the accuracy of this supposition is very doubtful, if considered with regard to the preceding and following context.|
|82||27||31||Your creation and your resuscitation are but as the creation and resuscitation of one soul: verily GOD both heareth and seeth.||a GOD being able to produce a million of worlds by the single word Kun, i.e., Be, and to raise the dead in general by the single word Kum, i.e., Arise.||Your creation and your quickening hereafter, are but as those of a single individual. Verily, God Heareth, Seeth!|
|82||28||31||Dost thou not see that GOD causeth the night to succeed the day, and causeth the day to succeed the night, and compelleth the sun and the moon to serve you? Each of those luminaries hasteneth in its course to a determined period: and GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.||Seest thou not that God causeth the night to come in upon the day, and the day to come in upon the night? and that he hath subjected the sun and the moon to laws by which each speedeth along to an appointed goal? and that God therefore is acquainted with that which ye do?|
|82||29||31||This is declared concerning the divine knowledge and power, for that GOD is the true Being, and for that whatever ye invoke, besides him is vanity; and for that GOD is the high, the great God.||This, for that God is the truth; and that whatever ye call upon beside Him is a vain thing; and that GodHe is the High, the Great.|
|82||30||31||Dost thou not see that the ships run in the sea, through the favor of GOD, that he may show you of his signs? Verily herein are signs unto every patient, grateful person.||Seest thou not how the ships speed on in the sea, through the favour of God, that he may shew you of his signs? for herein are signs to all patient, grateful ones.|
|82||31||31||When waves cover them, like overshadowing clouds, they call upon GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him; but when he bringeth them safe to land, there is of them who halteth between the true faith and idolatry. Howbeit, none rejecteth our signs, except every perfidious, ungrateful person.||When the waves cover them like dark shadows they call upon God as with sincere religion; but when He safely landeth them, some of them there are who halt between two opinions.11 Yet none reject our signs but all deceitful, ungrateful ones.||11 Between idolatry and Islam.|
|82||32||31||O men, fear your LORD, and dread the day whereon a father shall not make satisfaction for his father at all:||O men! fear ye your Lord, and dread the day whereon father shall not atone for son, neither shall a son in the least atone for his father.|
|82||33||31||the promise of GOD is assuredly true. Let not this present life, therefore, deceive you; neither let the deceiverb deceive you concerning GOD.||b viz., The devil.||Aye! the promise of God is a truth. Let not this present life then deceive you; neither let the deceiver deceive you concerning God.|
|82||34||31||Verily the knowledge of the hour of judgment is with GOD; and he causeth the rain to descend at his own appointed time; and he knoweth what is in the wombs of females. No soul knoweth what it shall gain on the morrow; neither doth any soul know in what land it shall die;c but GOD is knowing and fully acquainted with all things.||c In this passage five things are enumerated which are known to GOD alone, viz., The time of the day of judgment; the time of rain; what is forming in the womb, as whether it be male or female, &c.; what shall happen on the morrow; and where any person shall die. These the Arabs, according to a tradition of their prophet, call the five keys of secret knowledge. The passage, it is said, was occasioned by al Hareth Ebn Amru, who propounded questions of this nature to Mohammed.
As to the last particular, al Beidâwi relates the following story: The angel of death passing once by Solomon in a visible shape, and looking at one who was sitting with him, the man asked who he was, and upon Solomons acquainting him that it was the angel of death, said, He seems to want me; wherefore order the wind to carry me from hence into India; which being accordingly done, the angel said to Solomon, I looked so earnestly at the man out of wonder; because I was commanded to take his soul in India, and found him with thee in Palestine.
|Aye! God!with Him is the knowledge of the Hour: and He sendeth down the rainand He knoweth what is in the wombsbut no soul knoweth what it shall have gotten on the morrow: neither knoweth any soul in what land it shall die. But God is knowing, informed of all.|
|70||0||32||CHAPTER XXXII.||SURA XXXII.ADORATION [LXX.]|
|70||0||32||ENTITLED, ADORATION;d REVEALED AT MECCA.||d The title is taken from the middle of the chapter, where the believers are said to fall down adoring||MECCA.30 Verses|
|70||0||32||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.|
|70||1||32||A. L. M.e THE revelation of this book, there is no doubt thereof, is from the LORD of all creatures.||e See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III p. 46, &c.||ELIF. LAM. MIM.1 This Book is without a doubt a Revelation sent down from the Lord of the Worlds.||1 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.|
|70||2||32||Will they say, Mohammed hath forged it? Nay it is the truth from thy LORD, that thou mayest preach to a people, unto whom no preacher hath come before thee;f peradventure they will be directed.||f See chapter 28, p. 293.||Will they say, He hath forged it? Nay, it is the truth from thy Lord that thou mayest warn a people to whom no warner hath come before thee, that haply they may be guided.|
|70||3||32||It is GOD who hath created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in six days; and then ascended his throne. Ye have no patron or intercessor besides him. Will ye not therefore consider?||God it is who hath created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them in six days; then ascended his throne. Save Him ye have no patron, and none to plead for you. Will ye not then reflect?|
|70||4||32||He governeth all things from heaven even to the earth: hereafter shall they return unto him, on the day whose length shall be a thousand years,g of those which ye compute.||g As to the reconciliation of this passage with another,1 which seems contradictory, see the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 65.
Some, however, do not interpret the passage before us of the resurrection, but suppose that the words here describe the making and executing of the decrees of GOD, which are sent down from heaven to earth, and are returned (or ascend, as the verb properly signifies) back to him, after they have been put in execution; and present themselves, as it were, so executed, to his knowledge, in the space of a day with GOD, but with man, of a thousand years. Others imagine this space to be the time which the angels, who carry the divine decrees, and bring them back executed, take in descending and reascending, because the distance from heaven to earth is a journey of five hundred years: and others fancy that the angels bring down at once decrees for a thousand years to come, which being expired, they return back for fresh orders, &c.2
1 Cap. 20.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|The Dawn-Breakers (Chapter XIII, p. 248, footnote 3) (repeat of Rodwells translation)
|From the Heaven to the Earth He governeth all things: hereafter shall they come up to him on a day whose length shall be a thousand of such years as ye reckon.2||2 Comp. Sura [cvii.] xxii. 46, and Ps. xc. 4, which is taken literally by many of the Talmudists. Comp. e.g. Sanhed. 96, 2.|
|70||5||32||This is he who knoweth the future, and the present; the mighty, the merciful.||This is He who knoweth the unseen and the seen; the Mighty, the Merciful,|
|70||6||32||It is he who hath made everything which he hath created exceeding good; and first created man of clay,||Who hath made everything which he hath created most good; and began the creation of man with clay;|
|70||7||32||and afterwards made his posterity of an extract of despicable water;h||h i.e., Seed.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 151)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 77)
|Then ordained his progeny from germs of life,3 from sorry water:||3 Lit. ex spermate genitali.|
|70||8||32||and then formed him into proper shape, and breathed of his spirit into him; and hath given you the senses of hearing and seeing, and hearts to understand. How small thanks do ye return!||Then shaped him, and breathed of His Spirit into him, and gave you hearing and seeing and hearts: what little thanks do ye return!|
|70||9||32||And they say, When we shall lie hidden in the earth, shall we be raised thence a new creature?||And they say, "What! when we shall have lain hidden in the earth, shall we become a new creation?"|
|70||10||32||Yea, they deny the meeting of their LORD at the resurrection.||Yea, they deny that they shall meet their Lord.|
|70||11||32||Say, The angel of death,i who is set over you, shall cause you to die: then shall ye be brought back unto your LORD.||i See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 56.||SAY: The angel of death who is charged with you shall cause you to die: then shall ye be returned to your Lord.|
|70||12||32||If thou couldest see, when the wicked shall bow down their heads before their LORD, saying, O LORD, we have seen, and have heard: suffer us therefore to return into the world, and we will work that which is right; since we are now certain of the truth of what hath been preached to us: thou wouldest see an amazing sight.||Couldst thou but see when the guilty shall droop their heads before their Lord, and cry, "O our Lord! we have seen and we have heard: return us then to life: we will do that which is right. Verily we believe firmly!"|
|70||13||32||If we had pleased we had certainly given unto every soul its direction: but the word which hath proceeded from me must necessarily be fulfilled, when I said, Verily I will fill hell with genii and men, altogether.k||k See chapter 7, p. 106, and chapter 11, p. 169.||(Had we pleased we had certainly given to every soul its guidance. But true shall be the word which hath gone forth from meI will surely fill hell with Djinn and men together.)|
|70||14||32||Taste therefore the torment prepared for you, because ye have forgotten the coming of this your day: we also have forgotten you; taste therefore the punishment of eternal duration, for that which ye have wrought.||"Taste then the recompense of your having forgotten the meeting with this your day. We, too, we have forgotten you: taste then an eternal punishment for that which ye have wrought."|
|70||15||32||Verily they only believe in our signs, who, when they are warned thereby, fall down adoring, and celebrate the praise of their LORD, and are not elated with pride;||They only believe in our signs, who, when mention is made of them, fall down in ADORATION, and celebrate the praise of their Lord, and are not puffed up with disdain:|
|70||16||32||their sides are raised from their beds, calling on their LORD with fear and with hope; and they distribute alms out of what we have bestowed on them.||Who, as they raise them4 from their couches, call on their Lord with fear and desire, and give alms of that with which we have supplied them.||4 Lit. their sides are raised.|
|70||17||32||No soull knoweth the complete satisfactionm which is secretly prepared for them, as a reward for that which they have wrought.||l Not even an angel of those who approach nearest GODS throne, nor any prophet who hath been sent by him.3
m Literally, The joy of the eyes. The commentators fail not, on occasion of this passage, to produce that saying of their prophet, which was originally none of his own; GOD saith, I have prepared for my righteous servants, what eye hath not seen, nor hath ear heard, nor hath entered into the heart of man to conceive.
|No soul knoweth what joy of the eyes is reserved for the good in recompense of their works.|
|70||18||32||Shall he, therefore, who is a true believer, be as he who is an impious transgressor? They shall not be held equal.||Shall he then who is a believer be as he who sinneth grossly? they shall not be held alike.|
|70||19||32||As to those who believe and do that which is right, they shall have gardens of perpetual abode, an ample recompense for that which they shall have wrought:||As to those who believe and do that which is right, they shall have gardens of eternal abode as the meed of their works:|
|70||20||32||but as for those who impiously transgress, their abode shall be hell fire; so often as they shall endeavor to get thereout, they shall be dragged back into the same, and it shall be said unto them, Taste ye the torment of hell fire, which ye rejected as a falsehood.||But as for those who grossly sin, their abode shall be the fire: so oft as they shall desire to escape out of it, back shall they be turned into it. And it shall be said to them, Taste ye the torment of the fire, which ye treated as a lie.|
|70||21||32||And we will cause them to taste the nearer punishment of this world, besides the more grievous punishment of the next; peradventure they will repent.||And we will surely cause them to taste a punishment yet nearer at hand, besides the greater punishment, that haply they may turn to us in penitence.|
|70||22||32||Who is more unjust than he who is warned by the signs of his LORD, and then turneth aside from the same? We will surely take vengeance on the wicked.||Who acteth worse than he who is warned by the signs of his Lord, then turneth away from them? We will surely take vengeance on the guilty ones.|
|70||23||32||We heretofore delivered the book of the law unto Moses; wherefore be not thou in doubt as to the revelation thereof:n and we ordained the same to be a direction unto the children of Israel;||n Or, as some interpret it, of the revelation of the Korân to thyself; since the delivery of the law to Moses proves that the revelation of the Korân to thee is not the first instance of the kind. Others think the words should be translated thus: Be thou not in doubt as to thy meeting of that prophet; supposing that the interview between Moses and Mohammed in the sixth heaven, when the latter took his night journey thither, is here intended.4
|We heretofore gave the Book of the law to Moses: have thou no doubt as to our meeting with him:5 and we appointed it for the guidance of the children of Israel.||5 Nöldeke thinks that the word for meeting is used here in the same sense as in v. 10 above and Sura [lxxi.] xli. 54, and that the clause does not belong to this verse, p. 108, n.|
|70||24||32||and we appointed teachers from among them, who should direct the people at our command, when they had persevered with patience, and had firmly believed in our signs.||And we appointed Imâms from among them who should guide after our command when they had themselves endured with constancy, and had firmly believed in our signs.|
|70||25||32||Verily thy LORD will judge between them, on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein they have disagreed.||Now thy Lord! He will decide between them on the day of resurrection as to the subject of their disputes.|
|70||26||32||Is it not known unto them how many generations we have destroyed before them, through whose dwellings they walk?o Verily herein are signs: will they not therefore hearken?||o The Meccans frequently passing by the places where the Adites, Thamudites, Midianites, Sodomites, &c., once dwelt.||Is it not notorious to them how many generations, through whose abodes they walk, we have destroyed before them? Truly herein are sings: will they not then hear?|
|70||27||32||Do they not see that we drive rain unto a land bare of grass and parched up, and thereby produce corn, of which their cattle eat, and themselves also? Will they not therefore regard?||See they not how we drive the rain to some parched land and thereby bring forth corn of which their cattle and themselves do eat? Will they not then behold?|
|70||28||32||The infidels say to the true believers, When will this decision be made between us, if ye speak truth?||They say, "When will this decision take place? Tell us, if ye are men of truth?"|
|70||29||32||Answer, On the day of that decision,p the faith of those who shall have disbelieved shall not avail them; neither shall they be respited any longer.||p That is, on the day of judgment; though some suppose the day here intended to be that of the victory at Bedr, or else that of the taking of Mecca, when several of those who had been proscribed were put to death without remission.5
5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 42.
|SAY: On the day of that decision, the faith of infidels shall not avail them, and they shall have no further respite.|
|70||30||32||Wherefore avoid them, and expect the issue: verily they expect to obtain some advantage over thee.||Stand aloof from them then, and wait thou, for they too wait.6||6 Wait thou for their punishment as they wait for thy downfall.|
|103||0||33||CHAPTER XXXIII.||SURA XXXIII.THE CONFEDERATES1 [CIII.]||1 Medina was besieged, when this Sura was revealed, by certain confederate tribes at the instigation of the Jews, an. Hej. 5. The first nine verses, however, have no immediate reference to this event, but to Muhammad's cotemporary marriage with Zeinab. See below, verse 37.|
|103||0||33||ENTITLED, THE CONFEDERATES;q REVEALED AT MEDINA.||q Part of this chapter was revealed on occasion of the war of the ditch, which happened in the fifth year of the Hejra, when Medina was besieged, for above twenty days, by the joint and confederate forces of several Jewish tribes, and of the inhabitants of Mecca, Najd, and Tehâma, at the instigation of the Jews of the tribe of Nadhîr, who had been driven out of their settlement near Medina, by Mohammed, the year before.1||MEDINA.73 Verses|
|103||0||33||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|103||1||33||O PROPHET, fear GOD, and obey not the unbelievers and the hypocrites:r verily GOD is knowing and wise.||r It is related that Abu Sofiân, Acrema Ebn Abi Jahl, and Abul A war al Salami, having an amicable interview with Mohammed, at which were present also Abdallah Ebn Obba, Moatteb Ebn Kosheir, and Jadd Ebn Kais, they proposed to the prophet that if he would leave off preaching against the worship of their gods, and acknowledge them to be mediators, they would give him and his LORD no farther disturbance; upon which these words were revealed.2
1 Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 73, et Gagnier, Vie de Mahomet, l. 4, c. I
2 Al Beidâwi
|O PROPHET, fear thou God, and obey not the unbelievers and the hypocrites;Truly God is Knowing, Wise:|
|103||2||33||But follow that which is revealed unto thee from thy LORD; for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do;||But follow what is revealed to thee from thy Lord: Cognisant truly is He of all your actions|
|103||3||33||and put thy trust in GOD; for GOD is a sufficient protector.||And put thou thy trust in God, for a sufficient guardian is God.|
|103||4||33||GOD hath not given a man two hearts within him; neither hath he made your wives (some of whom ye divorce, regarding them thereafter as your mothers) your true mothers; not hath he made your adopted sons your true sons.s This is your saying in your mouths: but GOD speaketh the truth; and he directed the right way.||s This passage was revealed to abolish two customs among the old Arabs. The first was their manner of divorcing their wives, when they had no mind to let them go out of their house, or to marry again; and this the husband did by saying to the woman, Thou art henceforward to me as the back of my mother; after which words pronounced he abstained from her bed, and regarded her in all respects as his mother, and she became related to all his kindred in the same degree as if she had been really so. The other custom was the holding their adopted sons to be as as nearly related to them as their natural sons, so that the same impediments of marriage arose from that supposed relation, in the prohibited degrees, as it would have done in the case of a genuine son. The latter Mohammed had a peculiar reason to abolishviz., his marrying the divorced wife of his freedman Zeid, who was also his adopted son, of which more will be said by-and-bye. By the declaration which introduces this passage, that GOD has not given a man two hearts, is meant, that a man cannot have the same affection for supposed parents and adopted children, as for those who are really so. They tell us the Arabs used to say, of a prudent and acute person, that he had two hearts; whence one Abu Mámer, or, as others write, Jemîl Ebn Asad al Fihri, was surnamed Dhulkalbein, or the man with two hearts.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin, &c.
|God hath not given a man two hearts within him; neither hath he made your wives whom ye divorce2 to be as your mothers; nor hath he made your adopted sons to be as your own sons. Such words are indeed in your mouths; but God speaketh the truth, and in the right way He guideth.||2 The Arabians had been accustomed, before the time of Muhammad, to divorce their wives with the words,thy back be to me as the back of my mother. The drift and motive of this passage is explained by verse 37 below. It had also been the custom to hold adopted sons to be as nearly related to them as their natural ones. See Sura lviii. 2, p. 451.|
|103||5||33||Call such as are adopted, the sons of their natural fathers: this will be more just in the sight of GOD. And if ye know not their fathers, let them be as your brethren in religion, and your companions: and it shall be no crime in you, that ye errt in this matter; but that shall be criminal which your hearts purposely design; for GOD is gracious and merciful.||t Through ignorance or mistake; or, that ye have erred for the time past.||Name them after their fathers: this will be more right before God. But if ye know not who their fathers are, then let them be your brethren in the faith, and your comrades. And unless made with intent of heart, mistakes in this matter shall be no crime in you: for God is Lenient, Merciful.|
|103||6||33||The prophet is nigher unto the true believers than their own souls;u and his wives are their mothers.x Those who are related by consanguinity are nigher of kin the one of them unto the others, according to the book of GOD, than the other true believers, and the Mohâjerûn:y unless that ye do what is fitting and reasonable to your relations in general. This is written in the book of God.z||u Commanding them nothing but what is for their interest and advantage, and being more solicitous for their present and future happiness even than themselves; for which reason he ought to be dear to them, and deserves their utmost love and respect. In some copies these words are added, And he is a father unto them; every prophet being the spiritual father of his people, who are therefore brethren. It is said that this passage was revealed on some of Mohammeds followers telling him, when he summoned them to attend him in the expedition of Tabûc,4 that they would ask leave of their fathers and mothers.5
4 See cap. 9, p. 139.
5 Al Beidâwi.
x Though the spiritual relation between Mohammed and his people, declared in the preceding words, created no impediment to prevent his taking to wife such women among them as he thought fit; yet the commentators are of opinion that they are here forbidden to marry any of his wives.6
6 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VI.
y These words, which also occur, excepting the latter part of the sentence, in the eighth chapter, abrogate that law concerning inheritances, published in the same chapter, whereby the Mohâjerûn and Ansârs were to be the heirs of one another, exclusive of their nearer relations, who were infidels.7
7 See cap. 8, p. 133.
z i.e., In the preserved table, or the Korân; or, as others suppose, in the Pentateuch.
|Nearer of kin to the faithful is the Prophet, than they are to their own selves. His wives are their mothers. According to the Book of God, they who are related by blood, are nearer the one to the other than other believers, and than those who have fled their country3 for the cause of God: but whatever kindness ye shew to your kindred, shall be noted down in the Book.||3 The Mohadjersthose who had emigrated with Muhammad from Mecca. This verse abrogates Sura [xcv.] viii. 73.|
|103||7||33||Remember when we accepted their covenant from the prophets,a and from thee, O Mohammed, and from Noah, and Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus the son of Mary, and received from them a firm covenant;b||a Jallaloddin supposes this covenant was made when Adams posterity were drawn forth from his loins, and appeared before GOD like small ants:8 but Marracci conjectures that the covenant here meant was the same which the Talmudists pretend all the prophets entered into with GOD on Mount Sinai, where they were all assembled in person with Moses.9
8 See cap. 7, p. 122.
9 See cap. 3, p. 41.
b Whereby they undertook to execute their several commissions, and promised to preach the religion commanded them by GOD.
|And remember that we have entered into covenant with the Prophets, and with thee, and with Noah, and Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus, Son of Mary: and we formed with them a strict covenant,|
|103||8||33||that God may examine the speakers of truth concerning their veracity:c and he hath prepared a painful torment for the unbelievers.||c i.e., That he may at the day of judgment demand of the prophets in what manner they executed their several commissions, and how they were received by their people; or, as the words may also import, that he may examine those who believed on them, concerning their belief, and reward them accordingly.||That God may question the men of truth as to their truth.4 But a sore torment hath He prepared for the unbelievers.||4 How they have discharged their prophetic functions.|
|103||9||33||O true believers, remember the favor of GOD towards you, when armies of infidels came against you,d and we sent against them a wind, and hosts of angels which ye saw not:e and GOD beheld that which ye did.||d These were the forces of the Koreish and the tribe of Ghatfân, confederated with the Jews of al Nadhîr and Koreidha, who besieged Medina to the number of twelve thousand men, in the expedition called the war of the ditch.
e On the enemies approach, Mohammed, by the advice of Salmân, the Persian, ordered a deep ditch or entrenchment to be dug round Medina, for the security of the city, and went out to defend it with three thousand men. Both sides remained in their camps near a month, without any other acts of hostility than shooting of arrows and slinging of stones; till, in a winters night, GOD sent a piercing cold east wind, which benumbed the limbs of the confederates, blew the dust in their faces, extinguished their fires, overturned their tents, and put their horses in disorder, the angels at the same time crying, Allah acbar! round about their camp; whereupon Toleiha Ebn Khowailed, the Asadite, said aloud, Mohammed is going to attack you with enchantments, wherefore provide for your safety by flight: and accordingly the Koreish first, and afterward the Ghatfânites, broke up the siege, and returned home; which retreat was also not a little owing to the dissensions among the confederate forces, the raising and fomenting whereof the Mohammedans also ascribe to GOD. It is related that when Mohammed heard that his enemies were retired, he said, I have obtained success by means of the east wind; and Ad perished by the west wind.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 77, &c.
|O believers!5 remember the goodness of God towards you, when the armies came against you, and we sent against them a blast, and hosts that ye saw not; for the eye of God was upon your doings:||5 Verses 9-33 have reference to the events of the year Hej. 5, towards the close. See next note. His. 688; Waq. 4 f.|
|103||10||33||When they came against you from above you, and from below you,f and when your sight became troubled, and your hearts came even to your throats for fear, and ye imagined of GOD various imaginations.g||f The Ghatfânites pitched on the east side of the town, on the higher part of the valley; and the Koreish on the west side, on the lower part of the valley.2
g The sincere and those who were more firm of heart fearing they should not be able to stand the trial; and the weaker-hearted and hypocrites thinking themselves delivered up to slaughter and destruction
|When they assailed you from above you, and from below you,6 and when your eyes became distracted, and your hearts came up into your throat, and ye thought divers thoughts of God:||6 In the engagement which took place under the walls of Medina, some of the enemy were posted on a height to the east of the city, others in a valley on the west. The besiegers were 12,000, the Muslims 3,000 strong, when a violent storm, which upset the tents, put out the camp fires, and blinded the eyes of the confederates with sand, turned the scale of victory against them. Muhammad ascribes the storm to angelic agency.|
|103||11||33||There were the faithful tried, and made to tremble with a violent trembling.||Then were the faithful tried, and with strong quaking did they quake:|
|103||12||33||And when the hypocrites, and those in whose heart was an infirmity, said, GOD and his apostle have made you no other than a fallacious promise.h||h The person who uttered these words, it is said, was Moatteb Ebn Kosheir, who told his fellows that Mohammed had promised them the spoils of the Persians and the Greeks, whereas now not one of them dared to stir out of their entrenchment.3
3 Idem. Vide Abulf. ubi sup. p. 76.
|And when the disaffected and the diseased7 of heart said, "God and his Apostle have made us but a cheating promise:"||7 That is, with infidelity.|
|103||13||33||And when a party of themi said, O inhabitants of Yathreb,k there is no place of security for you here; wherefore return home. And a part of them asked leave of the prophet to depart, saying, Verily our houses are defenceless and exposed to the enemy: but they were not defenceless; and their intention was no other than to fly.||i viz., Aws Ebn Keidhi and his adherents.
k This was the ancient and proper name of Medina, or of the territory wherein it stands. Some suppose the town was so named from its founder, Yathreb, the son of Kâbiya, the son of Mahlayel, the son of Aram, the son of Sem, the son of Noah; though others tell us it was built by the Amalekites.4
4 Ahmed Ebn Yusof. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 4
|And when a party of them said, "O people of Yathrib!8 there is no place of safety for you here;9 therefore return into the city." And another party of you asked the prophet's leave to return, saying, "Our houses are left defenceless." No! they were not left defenceless: but their sole thought was to flee away.||8 The ancient name of El-Medina.
9 In the trenches which had been dug around the city by the advice of Salmân, the Persian.
|103||14||33||If the city had been entered upon them by the enemy from the parts adjacent, and they had been asked to desert the true believers, and to fight against them; they had surely consented thereto: but they had not, in such case, remained in the samel but a little while.||l i.e., In the city; or, in their apostasy and rebellion, because the Moslems would surely succeed at last.||If the enemy had effected an entry at all points, and they (the disaffected) had been asked to promote confusion, they would have done so; but only a short time would they have remained in it.(Medina).10||10 They would speedily have quitted the city to attack the faithful in the trenches.|
|103||15||33||They had before made a covenant with GOD, that they would not turn their backs:m and the performance of their covenant with GOD shall be examined into hereafter.||m The persons meant here were Banu Haretha, who having behaved very ill and run away on a certain occasion, promised they would do so no more.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
|They had before pledged themselves to God that they would not turn their backs; and a pledge given to God must be enquired of.|
|103||16||33||Say, Flight shall not profit you, if ye fly from death or from slaughter: and if it would, yet shall ye not enjoy this world but a little.||SAY: Flight shall not profit you; if ye have fled the death or the slaughter, yet even then, but a little while shall ye enjoy your good things!|
|103||17||33||Say, Who is he who shall defend you against GOD, if he is pleased to bring evil on you, or is pleased to show mercy towards you? They shall find none to patronize or protect them, besides GOD.||SAY: Who is he that will screen you from God, whether He choose to bring evil on you, or to shew you mercy? None beside God shall they find to be their patron or helper.|
|103||18||33||GOD already knoweth those among you who hinder others from following his apostle, and who say unto their brethren, Come hither unto us; and who come not to battle, except a little:n||n Either coming to the army in small numbers, or staying with them but a little while, and then returning on some feigned excuse; or behaving ill in time of action. Some expositors take these words to be part of the speech of the hypocrites, reflecting on Mohammeds companions for lying idle in the trenches, and not attacking the enemy.||God well knoweth those among you who cause hindrances, and those who say to their brethren, "Come hither to us;" and who come not to the fight except a little.|
|103||19||33||being covetous towards you:o but when fear cometh on them, thou seest them look unto thee for assistance, their eyes rolling about like the eyes of him who fainteth by reason of the agonies of death: yet when their fear is past they inveigh against you with sharp tongues; being covetous of the best and most valuable part of the spoils. These believe not sincerely; wherefore GOD hath rendered their works of no avail; and this is easy with GOD.||o i.e., Sparing of their assistance either in person or with their purse; or being greedy after the booty.||It is out of covetousness in your regard: for when an alarm cometh, thou mayest see them look to thee, and roll their eyes like him on whom the shadows of death have fallen! Yet, when the alarm is passed, with sharp tongues will they assail you, covetous of the best of the spoil. No faith have these! God will make their doings of no avail! And easy is this with God.|
|103||20||33||They imagined that the confederates would not depart and raise the siege: and if the confederates should come another time, they would wish to live in the deserts among the Arabs who dwell in tents,p and there to inquire after news concerning you; and although they were with you this time, yet they fought not, except a little.||p That they might be absent, and not obliged to go to war.||They thought that the CONFEDERATES would never retire:11 and were the confederates to come again, they would fain be dwelling among the Arabs of the desert, and there ask news about you! for though they were with you, they fought not except a little.||11 That is, raise the siege.|
|103||21||33||Ye have in the apostle of GOD an excellent example,q unto him who hopeth in GOD, and the last day, and remembereth GOD frequently.||q viz., Of firmness in time of danger, of confidence in the divine assistance, and of piety by fervent prayer for the same.||A noble pattern had ye in God's Apostle, for all who hope in God, and in the latter day, and oft remember God!|
|103||22||33||When the true believers saw the confederates, they said, This is what GOD and his apostle have foretold us;r and GOD and his apostle have spoken the truth: and it only increased their faith and resignation.||r Namely, That we must not expect to enter paradise without undergoing some trials and tribulations.1 There is a tradition that Mohammed actually foretold this expedition of confederates some time before, and the success of it.2
1 See cap. 2, p. 22; cap. 3, p. 46; cap. 29, p. 298, &c.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|And when the faithful saw the confederates, they said, "This is what God and His Apostle promised us,12 and God and His Apostle spoke truly:" and it only increased their faith and self-devotion.||12 That is, that through trials we should attain to Paradise, v. 29.|
|103||23||33||Of the true believers some men justly performed what they had promised unto GOD;s and some of them have finished their course,t and some of them wait the same advantage;u and they changed not their promise by deviating therefrom in the least:||s By standing firm with the prophet, and strenuously opposing the enemies of the true religion, according to their engagement.
t Or, as the words may be translated, have fulfilled their vow, or paid their debt to nature, by falling martyrs in battle; as did Hamza, Mohammeds uncle, Masab Ebn Omair, and Ans Ebn al Nadr,3 who were slain at the battle of Ohod. The martyrs at the war of the ditch were six, including Saad Ebn Moadh, who died of his wound about a month after.4
4 Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 79.
u As Othmân and Telha.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
|Some were there among the faithful who made good what they had promised to God. Some have fulfilled their course, and others await its fulfilment, and have not been changelings who change|
|103||24||33||that GOD may reward the just performers of their covenant for their fidelity; and may punish the hypocritical, if he pleaseth, or may be turned unto them; for GOD is ready to forgive, and merciful.||That God may reward the faithful for their faithfulness, and may punish the hypocrites, if He so please, or be turned unto them: for God is Forgiving, Merciful.|
|103||25||33||GOD hath driven back the infidels in their wrath: they obtained no advantage; and GOD was a sufficient protector unto the faithful in battle; for GOD is strong and mighty.||And God drove back the infidels in their wrath; they won no advantage; God sufficed the faithful in the fight: for God is Strong, Mighty!|
|103||26||33||And he hath caused such of those who have received the scriptures, as assisted the confederates, to come down out of their fortresses,x and he cast into their hearts terror and dismay:z a part of them ye slew, and a part ye made captives;||x These were the Jews of the tribe of Koreidha, who, though they were in league with Mohammed, had, at the incessant persuasion of Caab Ebn Asad, a principal man among them, perfidiously gone over to his enemies in this war of the ditch, and were severely punished for it. For the next morning, after the confederate forces had decamped, Mohammed and his men returned to Medina, and, laying down their arms, began to refresh themselves after their fatigue; upon which Gabriel came to the prophet and asked him whether he had suffered his people to lay down their arms, when the angels had not laid down theirs; and ordering him to go immediately against the Koradhites, assuring him that himself would lead the way. Mohammed, in obedience to the divine command, having caused public proclamation to be made that every one should pray that afternoon for success against the sons of Koreidha, set forward upon the expedition without loss of time; and being arrived at the fortress of the Koradhites, besieged them for twenty-five days, at the end of which those people, being in great terror and distress, capitulated, and at length, not daring to trust to Mohammeds mercy, surrendered at the discretion of Saad Ebn Moadh,6 hoping that he, being the prince of the tribe of Aws, their old friends and confederates, would have some regard for them. But they were deceived: for Saad, being greatly incensed at their breach of faith, had begged of GOD that he might not die of the wound he had received at the ditch till he saw vengeance taken on the Koradhites, and therefore adjudged that the men should be put to the sword, the women and children made slaves, and their goods be divided among the Moslems; which sentence Mohammed had no sooner heard than he cried out, That Saad had pronounced the sentence of GOD: and the same was accordingly executed, the number of men who were slain amounting to six hundred, or, as others say, to seven hundred, or very near, among whom were Hoyai Ebn Akhtab, a great enemy of Mohammeds, and Caab Ebn Asad, who had been the chief occasion of the revolt of their tribe: and soon after Saad, who had given judgment against them, died, his wound, which had been skinned over, opening again.7
6 See cap. 8, p. 128.
7 Al Beidâwi, Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 77, &c. Vide Gagnier, Vie de Mah. l. 4, c. 2.
z This was the work of Gabriel, who, according to his promise, went before the army of Moslems. It is said that Mohammed, a little before he came to the settlement of the Koradhites, asking some of his men whether anybody had passed them, they answered, that Dohya Ebn Kholeifa, the Calbite, had just passed by them, mounted on a white mule, with housings of satin: to which he replied, That person was the angel Gabriel, who is sent to the sons of Koreidha to shake their castles, and to strike their hearts with fear and consternation.8
8 Ebn Ishak.
|And He caused those of the people of the Book (the Jews), who had aided the confederates, to come down out of their fortresses, and cast dismay into their hearts: some ye slew, others ye took prisoners.13||13 After the siege of Medina had been raised, Muhammad made a successful expedition against the Jews of Koreidha, for their treason and violation of treaties.|
|103||27||33||and God hath caused you to inherit their land, and their houses, and their wealth,a and a land on which ye have not trodden;b for GOD is almighty.||a Their immovable possessions Mohammed gave to the Mohâjerin, saying, that the Ansârs were in their own houses, but that the others were destitute of habitations. The movables were divided among his followers, but he remitted the fifth part, which was usual to be taken in other cases.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
b By which some suppose Persia and Greece are meant; others, Khaibar; and others, whatever lands the Moslems may conquer till the day of judgment.2
|And He gave you their land, and their dwellings, and their wealth, for an heritageeven a land on which ye had never set foot: for the might of God is equal to all things.|
|103||28||33||O prophet, say unto thy wives, If ye seek this present life, and the pomp thereof, come, I will make a handsome provision for you, and I will dismiss you with an honourable dismission;c||c This passage was revealed on Mohammeds wives asking for more sumptuous clothes, and an additional allowance for their expenses; and he had no sooner received it than he gave them their option, either to continue with him or to be divorced, beginning with Ayesha, who chose GOD and his apostle, and the rest followed her example; upon which the prophet thanked them, and the following words were revealed, viz., It shall not be lawful for thee to take other women to wife hereafter,3 &c. From hence some have concluded that wife who has her option given her, and chooses to stay with her husband, shall not be divorced, though others are of a contrary opinion.4
3 See after, in this chapter, p. 310.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|O Prophet! say to thy wives,14 If ye desire this present life and its braveries, come then, I will provide for you, and dismiss you with an honourable dismissal.||14 Muhammad's wives having caused him much annoyance by demands of rich dresses, etc., he gave them the choice of continuing with him as before, or of divorce. They chose the former. See Abulfeda's Hist. Moh. p. 77, and Gagnier's Vie de Moh. i. 4, chap. ii.|
|103||29||33||but if ye seek GOD and his apostle, and the life to come, verily GOD hath prepared for such of you as work righteousness a great reward.||But if ye desire God and His Apostle, and a home in the next life, then, truly, hath God prepared for those of you who are virtuous, a great reward.|
|103||30||33||O wives of the prophet, whosoever of you shall commit a manifest wickedness, the punishment thereof shall be doubled unto her twofold;d and this is easy with GOD:||d For the crime would be more enormous and unpardonable in them, because of their superior condition, and the grace which they have received from GOD; whence it is that the punishment of a free person is ordained to be double to that of a slave,5 and prophets are more severely reprimanded for their faults than other men.6
5 See cap 4, p. 57.
6 Al Beidâwi.
|O wives of the Prophet! should any of you be guilty of a proven lewdness, doubly shall her chastisement be doubled: and with God this is easy.|
|103||31||33||(XXII.) but whosoever of you shall be obedient unto GOD and his apostle, and shall do that which is right, we will give her her reward twice,e and we have prepared for her an honourable provision in paradise.||e viz., Once for her obedience, and a second time for her conjugal affection to the prophet, and handsome behaviour to him.||But whoever of you shall obey God and His Apostle, and shall do that which is right, twice over will we give her her reward, and we have prepared for her a noble provision.|
|103||32||33||O wives of the prophet, ye are not as other women: if ye fear God, be not too complaisant in speech, lest he should covet, in whose heart is a disease of incontinence; but speak the speech which is convenient.||O wives of the Prophet! ye are not as other women. If ye fear God, be not too complaisant of speech, lest the man of unhealthy heart should lust after you, but speak with discreet speech.|
|103||33||33||And sit still in your houses; and set not out yourselves with the ostentation of the former time of ignorance:f and observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms; and obey GOD, and his apostle; for GOD desireth only to remove from you the abomination of vanity, since ye are the household of the prophet, and to purify you by a perfect purification.g||f That is, in the old time of idolatry. Some suppose the times before the Flood, or the time of Abraham, to be here intended, when women adorned themselves with all their finery, and went abroad into the streets to show themselves to the men.7
g The pronouns of the second person in this part of the passage being of the masculine gender, the Shiites pretend the sentence has no connection with the foregoing or the following words; and will have it that by the household of the prophet are particularly meant Fâtema and Ali, and their two sons, Hasan and Hosein, to whom these words are directed.8
|And abide still in your houses, and go not in public decked as in the days of your former ignorance,15 but observe prayer, and pay the impost, and obey God and the Apostle: for God only desireth to put away filthiness from you16 as his household, and with cleansing to cleanse you.||15 That is, Idolatry. Acts xvii. 30. Freytag (Einl. p. 453) thinks that previous to Islam, the Arabian women went in public unveiled.
16 The pronoun is in the pl. masc., whereas the pl. fem. is used in the previous part of the verse. The partisans of Ali quote this passage to prove the intimate union of Ali and his posterity with the Prophet.
|103||34||33||And remember that which is read in your houses, of the signs of GOD, and of the wisdom revealed in the Koran; for GOD is clear-sighted, and well acquainted with your actions.||And recollect what is rehearsed to you in your houses of the Book of God, and of wisdom: for God is keen-sighted, cognisant of all.|
|103||35||33||Verily the Moslems of either sex, and the true believers of either sex, and the devout men, and the devout women, and the men of veracity, and the women of veracity, and the patient men, and the patient women, and the humble men, and the humble women, and the alms-givers of either sex, and the men who fast, and the women who fast, and the chaste men, and the chaste women, and those of either sex who remember GOD frequently; for them hath GOD prepared forgiveness, and a great reward.||Truly the men who resign themselves to God (Muslims), and the women who resign themselves, and the believing men and the believing women, and the devout men and the devout women, and the men of truth, and the women of truth, and the patient men and the patient women, and the humble men and the humble women, and the men who give alms and the women who give alms, and the men who fast and the women who fast, and the chaste men and the chaste women, and the men and the women who oft remember God: for them hath God prepared forgiveness and a rich recompense.|
|103||36||33||It is not fit for a true believer of either sex, when GOD and his apostle have decreed a thing, that they should have the liberty of choosing a different matter of their own:h and whoever is disobedient unto GOD and his apostle surely erreth with a manifest error.||h This verse was revealed on account of Zeinab (or Zenobia), the daughter of Jahash, and wife of Zeid, Mohammeds freedman, whom the prophet sought in marriage, but received a repulse from the lady and her brother Abdallah, they being at first averse to the match: for which they are here reprehended. The mother of Zeinab, it is said, was Amîma, the daughter of Abdalmotalleb, and aunt to Mohammed.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|And it is not for a believer, man or woman, to have any choice in their affairs, when God and His Apostle have decreed a matter: and whoever disobeyeth God and His Apostle, erreth with palpable error.|
|103||37||33||And remember when thou saidst to him unto whom GOD had been gracious,i and on whom thou also hadst conferred favours,k Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear GOD: and thou didst conceal that in thy mind which GOD had determined to discover,l and didst fear men; whereas it was more just that thou shouldest fear GOD. But when Zeidm had determined the matter concerning her, and had resolved to divorce her, we joined her in marriage unto thee;n lest a crime should be charged on the true believers, in marrying the wives of their adopted sons, when they have determined the matter concerning them;o and the command of GOD is to be performed.||i viz., Zeid Ebn Haretha, on whom GOD had bestowed the grace early to become a Moslem.
k By giving him his liberty, and adopting him for thy son, &c.
Zeid was of the tribe of Calb, a branch of the Khodaites, descended from Hamyar, the son of Saba; and being taken in his childhood by a party of freebooters, was bought by Mohammed, or, as others say, by his wife Khadijah before she married him. Some years after, Haretha, hearing where his son was, took a journey to Mecca, and offered a considerable sum for his ransom; whereupon, Mohammed said, Let Zeid come hither: and if he chooses to go with you, take him without ransom: but if it be his choice to stay with me, why should I not keep him? And Zeid being come, declared that he would stay with his master, who treated him as if he were his only son. Mohammed no sooner heard this, but he took Zeid by the hand, and led him to the black stone of the Caaba, where he publicly adopted him for his son, and constituted him his heir, with which the father acquiesced, and returned home well satisfied. From this time Zeid was called the son of Mohammed, till the publication of Islâm, after which the prophet gave him to wife Zeinab.2
2 Al Jannabi. Vide Gagnier, Vie de Moh. l. 4. c. 3.
l Namely, thy affection to Zeinab. The whole intrigue is artfully enough unfolded in this passage. The story is as follows:
Some years after his marriage, Mohammed, going to Zeids house on some affair, and not finding him at home, accidentally cast his eyes on Zeinab, who was then in a dress which discovered her beauty to advantage, and was so smitten at the sight, that he could not forbear crying out, GOD be praised, who turneth the hearts of men as he pleaseth! This Zeinab failed not to acquaint her husband with on his return home; whereupon, Zeid, after mature reflection, thought he could do no less than part with his wife in favour of his benefactor, and therefore resolved to divorce her, and acquainted Mohammed with his resolution; but he, apprehending the scandal it might raise, offered to dissuade him from it, and endeavoured to stifle the flames which inwardly consumed him; but at length, his love for her being authorized by this revelation, he acquiesced, and after the term of her divorce was expired, married her in the latter end of the fifth year of the Hejra.3
3 Al Beidâwi, al Jannabi, &c.
m It is observed that this is the only person, of all Mohammeds companions, whose name is mentioned in the Korân.
n Whence Zeinab used to vaunt herself above the prophets other wives, saying that GOD had made the match between Mohammed and herself, whereas their matches were made by their relations.4
o For this feigned relation, as has been observed, created an impediment of marriage among the old Arabs within the prohibited degrees, in the same manner as if it had been real; and therefore Mohammeds marrying Zeinab, who had been his adopted sons wife, occasioned great scandal among his followers, which was much heightened by the Jews and hypocrites: but the custom is here declared unreasonable, and abolished for the future.
|And, remember, when thou saidst to him unto whom God had shewn favour,17 and to whom thou also hadst shewn favour, "Keep thy wife to thyself, and fear God;" and thou didst hide in thy mind what God would bring to light.18 and thou didst fear man; but more right had it been to fear God. And when Zaid had settled concerning her to divorce her, we married her to thee, that it might not be a crime in the faithful to marry the wives of their adopted sons, when they have settled the affair concerning them. And the behest of God is to be performed.||17 That is, to Zaid. The favour of God to Zaid consisted in having caused him to become a Muslim: the favour of Muhammad in adopting him as his son. Zaid and Abu Lahab (Sura cxi. p. 29) are the only contemporaries of Muhammad mentioned by name in the Koran.
18 Thy plan to obtain Zeinab, or Zenobia, Zaid's wife, as thy wife.
|103||38||33||No crime is to be charged on the prophet, as to what GOD hath allowed him, conformable to the ordinance of GOD with regard to those who preceded him (for the command of GOD is a determinate decree),||No blame attacheth to the prophet where God hath given him a permission. Such was the way of God with those prophets who flourished before thee; for God's behest is a fixed decree|
|103||39||33||who brought the messages of GOD, and feared him, and feared none besides GOD: and GOD is a sufficient accountant.||Who fulfilled the mission with which God had charged them,19 and feared Him, and feared none but God. And God taketh a sufficient account.||19 Lit, who brought the messages of God.|
|103||40||33||Mohammed is not the father of any man among you; but the apostle of GOD, and the seal of the prophets: and GOD knoweth all things.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 196, p. 179
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 181, p. 169
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 43, paragraph 58
|Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but He is the Messenger of God.
Muhammad is the Apostle of God and the Seal of the Prophets,
BWC: but He is the Apostle of God and the Seal of the Prophets
|Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of God, and the seal of the prophets: and God knoweth all things.|
|103||41||33||O true believers, remember GOD with a frequent remembrance, and celebrate his praise morning and evening.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (3 Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, VIII, 19, within pp. pp. 80-81)
|BWC: Verily, make ye mention of God||O Believers! remember God with frequent remembrance, and praise Him morning and evening.|
|103||42||33||It is he who is gracious unto you, and his angels intercede for you, that he may lead you forth from darkness into light; and he is merciful towards the true believers.||He blesseth you, and His angels intercede for you, that He may bring you forth out of darkness into light: and Merciful is He to the Believers.|
|103||43||33||Their salutation, on the day whereon they shall meet him, shall be, Peace! and he hath prepared for them an honourable recompense.||Their greeting on the day when they shall meet Him shall be "Peace!" And He hath got ready for them a noble recompense.|
|103||44||33||O prophet, verily we have sent thee to be a witness, and a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats,||O Prophet ! we have sent thee to be a witness, and a herald of glad tidings, and a warner;|
|103||45||33||and an inviter unto GOD, through his good pleasure, and a shining light.||And one who, through His own permission, summoneth to God, and a light-giving torch.|
|103||46||33||Bear good tidings therefore unto the true believers, that they shall receive great abundance from GOD.||Announce, therefore, to believers, that great boons do await them from God;|
|103||47||33||And obey not the unbelievers, and the hypocrites, and mind not their evil treatment: but trust in GOD; and GOD is a sufficient protector.||And obey not the Infidels and Hypocritesyet abstain from injuring them: and put thou thy trust in God, for God is a sufficient guardian.|
|103||48||33||O true believers, when ye marry women who are believers, and afterwards put them away, before ye have touched them, there is no term prescribed you to fulfil towards themp after their divorce: but make them a present,q and dismiss them freely with an honourable dismission.||p That is, Ye are not obliged to keep them any certain time before ye dismiss them, as ye are those with whom the marriage has been consummated. See chap. 2, p. 24.
q i.e., If no dower has been assigned them: for if a dower has been assigned, the husband is obliged, according to the Sonna, to give the woman half the dower agreed on, besides a present.1 This is still to be understood of such women with whom the marriage has not been consummated.
|O Believers! when ye marry believing women, and then divorce them before ye have consummated the marriage, ye have no term prescribed you, which ye must fulfil towards them: provide for them, and dismiss them with a reputable dismissal.|
|103||49||33||O prophet, we have allowed thee thy wives unto whom thou hast given their dower, and also the slaves which thy right hand possesseth, of the booty which GOD hath granted thee;r and the daughters of thy uncle, and the daughters of thy aunts, both on thy father's side, and on thy mother's side, who have fled with thee from Mecca,s and any other believing woman, if she give herself unto the prophet;t in case the prophet desireth to take her to wife. This is a peculiar privilege granted unto thee above the rest of the true believers.u||r It is said, therefore, that the women slaves which he should buy are not included in this grant.
s But not the others. It is related of Omm Hâni, the daughter of Abu Taleb, that she should say, The apostle of GOD courted me for his wife, but I excused myself to him, and he accepted of my excuse: afterwards this verse was revealed; but he was not thereby allowed to marry me, because I fled not with him.2
It may be observed that Dr. Prideaux is much mistaken when he asserts that Mohammed, in this chapter, brings in GOD exempting him from the law in the fourth chapter,3 whereby the Moslems are forbidden to marry within certain degrees, and giving him an especial privilege to take to wife the daughter of his brother, or the daughter of his sister.4
3 Page 56.
4 See Prid. Life of Mahomet, p. 116.
t Without demanding any dower. According to a tradition of Ebn Abbas, the prophet, however, married no woman without assigning her a dower. The commentators are not agreed who was the woman particularly meant in this passage; but they name four who are supposed to have thus given themselves to the prophet, viz., Maimûna Bint al Hareth, Zeinab Bint Khozaima, Ghozîa Bint Jâber, surnamed Omm Shoraic (which three he actually married), and Khawla Bint Hakim, whom, as it seems, he rejected.
u For no Moslem can legally marry above four wives, whether free women or slaves; whereas Mohammed is, by the preceding passage, left at liberty to take as many as he pleased, though with some restrictions.
|O Prophet! we allow thee thy wives whom thou hast dowered, and the slaves whom thy right hand possesseth out of the booty which God hath granted thee, and the daughters of thy uncle, and of thy paternal and maternal aunts who fled with thee to Medina, and any believing woman who hath given herself up to the Prophet, if the Prophet desired to wed hera Privilege for thee above the rest of the Faithful.|
|103||50||33||We know what we have ordained them concerning their wives, and the slaves which their right hands possess: lest it should be deemed a crime in thee to make use of the privilege granted thee; for GOD is gracious and merciful.||We well know what we have settled for them, in regard to their wives and to the slaves whom their right hands hold, that there may be no fault on thy part:20 and God is Indulgent, Merciful!||20 If thou makest use of the special prerogative (conferred in verse 49).|
|103||51||33||Thou mayest postpone the turn of such of thy wives as thou shalt please, in being called to thy bed; and thou mayest take unto thee her whom thou shalt please, and her whom thou shalt desire of those whom thou shalt have before rejected: and it shall be no crime in thee.x This will be more easy, that they may be entirely content, and may not be grieved, but may be well pleased with what thou shalt give every of them: GOD knoweth whatever is in your hearts; and GOD is knowing and gracious.||x By this passage some farther privileges were granted unto Mohammed; for, whereas other men are obliged to carry themselves equally towards their wives,1 in case they had more than one, particularly as to the duties of the marriage bed, to which each has a right to be called in her turn (which right was acknowledged in the most early ages),2 and cannot take again a wife whom they have divorced the third time, till she has been married to another and divorced by him,3 the prophet was left absolutely at liberty to deal with them in these and other respects as he thought fit.
1 See Kor. c. 4, p. 53, &c.
2 See Gen. xxx. 14, &c
3 See cap. 2, p. 24.
|Thou mayst decline for the present whom thou wilt of them, and thou mayest take to thy bed her whom thou wilt, and whomsoever thou shalt long for of those thou shalt have before neglected; and this shall not be a crime in thee. Thus will it be easier to give them the desire of their eyes, and not to put them to grief, and to satisfy them with what thou shalt accord to each of them. God knoweth what is in your hearts, and God is Knowing, Gracious.|
|103||52||33||It shall not be lawful for thee to take other women to wife hereafter,z nor to exchange any of thy wives for them,a although their beauty please thee; except the slaves whom thy right hand shall possess: and GOD observeth all things.||z The commentators differ as to the express meaning of these words. Some think Mohammed was thereby forbidden to take any more wives than nine, which number he then had, and is supposed to have been his stint, as four was that of other men; some imagine that after this prohibition, though any of the wives he then had should die or be divorced, yet he could not marry another in her room: some think he was only forbidden from this time forward to marry any other woman than one of the four sorts mentioned in the preceding passage; and others4 are of opinion that this verse is abrogated by the two preceding verses, or one of them, and was revealed before them, though it be read after them.5
4 As Abul Kasem Hebatallah.
5 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c.
a By divorcing her and marrying another. Al Zamakhshari tells us that some are of opinion this prohibition is to be understood of a particular kind of exchange used among the idolatrous Arabs, whereby two men made a mutual exchange of their wives without any other formality.
|It is not permitted thee to take other wives hereafter,21 nor to change thy present wives for other women, though their beauty charm thee, except slaves whom thy right hand shall possess.22 And God watcheth all things.||21 He had nine wives at this period, beside slaves. The number of wives allowed to the faithful is four. See note, p. 411.
22 The first slave whom Muhammad took to wife was Raihana, at the conquest of the Banu Koreidha. His. 693. Weil, 170.
|103||53||33||O true believer, enter not the houses of the prophet, unless it be permitted you to eat meat with him, without waiting his convenient time; but when ye are invited, then enter. And when ye shall have eaten, disperse yourselves; and stay not to enter into familiar discourse: for this incommodeth the prophet. He is ashamed to bid you depart; but GOD is not ashamed of the truth. And when ye ask of the prophet's wives what ye may have occasion for, ask it of them from behind a curtain.b This will be more pure for your hearts and their hearts. Neither is it fit for you to give any uneasiness to the apostle of GOD, or to marry his wives after him for ever:c for this would be a grievous thing in the sight of GOD.||b That is, let there be a curtain drawn between you, or let them be veiled while ye talk with them. As the design of the former precept was to prevent the impertinence of troublesome visitors, the design of this was to guard against too near an intercourse or familiarity between his wives and his followers; and was occasioned, it is said, by the hand of one of his companions accidentally touching that of Ayesha, which gave the prophet some uneasiness.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
c i.e., Either such as he shall divorce in his lifetime, or his widows after his death. This was another privilege peculiar to the prophet.
It is related that, in the Khalifat of Omar, Ashath Ebn Kais married the woman whom Mohammed had dismissed without consummating his marriage with her;7 upon which the Khalîf at first was thinking to stone her, but afterwards changed his mind, on its being represented to him that this prohibition related only to such women to whom the prophet had gone in.8
7 See before, p. 318, note t.
8 Al Beidâwi.
|O Believers! enter not into the houses of the Prophet,23 save by his leave, for a meal, without waiting his time. When ye are invited then enter, and when ye have eaten then disperse at once.24 And engage not in familiar talk, for this would cause the Prophet trouble, and he would be ashamed to bid you go; but God is not ashamed to say the truth. And when ye would ask any gift of his wives, ask it from behind a veil. Purer will this be for your hearts and for their hearts. And ye must not trouble the Apostle of God, nor marry his wives, after him, for ever. This would be a grave offence with God.||23 Verses 53-55 refer to the conduct of the guests at Muhammad's house after his marriage with Zeinab. Albuhari passim. Muslim i. 824 ff. Wah. Comp. Caussir, iii. 151.
24 Ullmann, p. 263, quotes a similar precept from the Talmud, "Do all that the master of the house biddeth, but wait not to be asked to depart."
|103||54||33||Whether ye divulge a thing or conceal it, verily GOD knoweth all things.||Whether ye bring a matter to the light or hide it, God truly hath knowledge of all things.|
|103||55||33||It shall be no crime in them, as to their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves which their right hands possess, if they speak to them unveiled:d and fear ye GOD;e for GOD is witness of all things.||d See chapter 24, p. 264.
e The words are directed to the prophets wives.
|No blame shall attach to them (your wives) for speaking to their fathers unveiled, or to their sons, or to their brothers, or to their brothers' sons, or to their sisters' sons, or to their women, or to the slaves whom their right hands hold. And fear ye God: for God witnesseth all things.|
|103||56||33||Verily GOD and his angels bless the prophet. O true believers, do ye also bless him, and salute him with a respectful salutation.f||f Hence the Mohammedans seldom mention his name without adding, On whom be the blessing of GOD and peace! or the like words.||Verily, God and His Angels bless the Prophet! Bless ye Him, O Believers, and salute Him with salutations of Peace.|
|103||57||33||As to those who offend GOD and his apostle, GOD shall curse them in this world and in the next; and he hath prepared for them a shameful punishment.||Verily, they who affront God and His Apostle, the curse of God is on them in this world, and in the world to come: and He hath prepared for them a shameful chastisement.|
|103||58||33||And they who shall injure the true believers of either sex, without their deserving it, shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and a manifest injustice.g||g This verse was revealed, according to some, on occasion of certain hypocrites who had slandered Ali; or, according to others, on occasion of those who falsely accused Ayesha,9 &c.
9 See cap. 24.
|And they who shall affront believing men and believing women, for no fault of theirs, they shall surely bear the guilt of slander, and of a clear wrong.|
|103||59||33||O prophet, speak unto thy wives, and thy daughters, and the wives of the true believers, that they cast their outer garmentsh over them when they walk abroad; this will be more proper, that they may be known to be matrons of reputation, and may not be affronted by unseemly words or actions. GOD is gracious and merciful.||h The original word properly signifies the large wrappers, usually of white linen, with which the women in the east cover themselves from head to foot when they go abroad.||O Prophet! speak to thy wives and to thy daughters,25 and to the wives of the Faithful, that they let their veils fall low. Thus will they more easily be known, and they will not be affronted. God is Indulgent, Merciful!||25 This verse cannot be of later date than Hej. 8, when Muhammad's daughter Omm Kulthum died. leaving only Fatima.|
|103||60||33||Verily if the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is an infirmity, and they who raise disturbances in Medina, do not desist, we will surely stir thee up against them, to chastise them: henceforth they shall not be suffered to dwell near thee therein, except for a little time,||If the Hypocrites, and the men of tainted heart, and the stirrers of sedition in Medina desist not, we will surely stir thee up against them. Then shall they not be suffered to dwell near thee therein, but a little while:|
|103||61||33||and being accursed; wherever they are found they shall be taken, and killed with a general slaughter,||Cursed wherever they are found; they shall be seized and slain with slaughter!|
|103||62||33||according to the sentence of GOD concerning those who have been before; and thou shalt not find any change in the sentence of GOD.||Such hath been the way of God with those who lived before them; and no change canst thou find in the way of God.|
|103||63||33||Men will ask thee concerning the approach of the last hour; answer, Verily the knowledge thereof is with GOD alone; and he will not inform thee: peradventure the hour is nigh at hand.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 53, footnote 32
|MG: Men will ask Thee of the Hour.||Men will ask thee of "the Hour." SAY: The knowledge of it is with God alone: and who can tell thee whether haply the Hour be not nigh at hand?|
|103||64||33||Verily GOD hath cursed the infidels, and hath prepared for them a fierce fire,||Verily, God hath cursed the Infidels, and hath got ready for them the flame:|
|103||65||33||wherein they shall remain forever: they shall find no patron or defender.||For aye shall they abide therein; none to befriend them, no helper shall they find!|
|103||66||33||On the day whereon their faces shall be rolled in hell fire, they shall say, Oh that we had obeyed GOD, and had obeyed his apostle!||On the day when their faces shall be rolled in the fire, they shall cry: "Oh! would that we had obeyed God, and obeyed the Apostle!"|
|103||67||33||And they shall say, O LORD, verily we have obeyed our lords, and our great men; and they have seduced us from the right way.||And they shall say: "Oh our Lord! indeed we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way of God|
|103||68||33||O LORD, give them the double of our punishment; and curse them with a heavy curse!||O our Lord! give them a double chastisement, and curse them with a heavy curse."|
|103||69||33||O true believers, be not as those who injured Moses; but GOD cleared him from the scandal which they had spoken concerning him;i and he was of great consideration in the sight of GOD.k||i The commentators are not agreed what this injury was. Some say that Moses using to wash himself apart, certain malicious people gave out that he had a rupture (or, say others, that he was a leper, or an hermaphrodite), and for that reason was ashamed to wash with them; but GOD cleared him from this aspersion by causing the stone on which he had laid his clothes while he washed to run away with them into the camp, whither Moses followed it naked; and by that means the Israelites, in the midst of whom he was gotten ere he was aware, plainly perceived the falsehood of the report. Others suppose Karûns accusation of Moses is here intended,1 or else the suspicion of Aarons murder, which was cast on Moses because he was with him when he died on Mount Hor; of which latter he was justified by the angels bringing his body and exposing it to public view, or, say some, by the testimony of Aaron himself, who was raised to life for that purpose.2
The passage is said to have been occasioned by reflections which were cast on Mohammed, on his dividing certain spoils; and that when they came to his ear, he said, GOD be merciful unto my brother Moses: he was wronged more than this, and bore it with patience.3
1 See cap. 28, p. 295.
2 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
3 Al Bokhari.
k Some copies for inda read abda, according to which the words should be translated, And he was an illustrious servant of GOD.1
|O Believers! be not like those who affronted Moses.26 But God cleared him from what they said of him, and of God was he highly esteemed.||26 This may refer to the charge of adultery said by the Rabbins to have been brought by Korah against Moses. Comp. Tr. Sanhedrin, fol. 110a. and Numbers xii. 1. The verse is said to have been revealed on account of aspersions thrown on Muhammad for unfairly dividing spoils, whereupon he said, "God be merciful to my brother Moses. He was wronged more than this, and bore it with patience."|
|103||70||33||O true believers, fear GOD, and speak words well directed:||O Believers! fear God, and speak with well-guided speech.|
|103||71||33||that God may correct your works for you, and may forgive you your sins: and whoever shall obey GOD and his apostle shall enjoy great felicity.||That God may bless your doings for you, and forgive you your sins. And whoso obeyeth God and His Apostle with great bliss shall be blessed.|
|103||72||33||We proposed the faith unto the heavens, and the earth, and the mountains: and they refused to undertake the same, and were afraid thereof; but man undertook it:l verily he was unjust to himself, and foolish;m||l By faith is here understood entire obedience to the law of GOD, which is represented to be of so high concern (no less than eternal happiness or misery depending on the observance or neglect thereof), and so difficult in the performance, that if GOD should propose the same on the conditions annexed, to the vaster parts of the creation, and they had understanding to comprehend the offer, they would decline it, and not dare to take on them a duty, the failing wherein must be attended with so terrible a consequence; and yet man is said to have undertaken it, notwithstanding his weakness and the infirmities of his nature. Some imagine this proposal is not hypothetical, but was actually made to the heavens, earth, and mountains, which at their first creation were endued with reason, and that GOD told them he had made a law, and had created paradise for the recompense of such as were obedient to it, and hell for the punishment of the disobedient; to which they answered they were content to be obliged to perform the services for which they were created, but would not undertake to fulfil the divine law on those conditions, and therefore desired neither reward nor punishment; they add that when Adam was created, the same offer was made to him, and he accepted it.4 The commentators have other explications of this passage, which it would be too prolix to transcribe.
4 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
m Unjust to himself in not fulfilling his engagements and obeying the law he had accepted; and foolish in not considering the consequence of his disobedience and neglect.
|Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XII, p. 70)
|cf. BWC: in truth, proposed Our Mission unto the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to bear it and were afraid thereof.||Verily, we proposed to the Heavens, and to the Earth, and to the Mountains to receive the Faith, but they refused the burden, and they feared to receive it. Man undertook to bear it, but hath proved unjust, senseless!|
|103||73||33||that GOD may punish the hypocritical men, and the hypocritical women, and the idolaters, and the idolatresses; and that GOD may be turned unto the true believers, both men and women; for GOD is gracious and merciful.||Therefore will God punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women, and the men and the women who join gods with God; but to the believing men and women will God turn him: for God is Indulgent, Merciful!|
|85||0||34||CHAPTER XXXIV.||SURA XXXIV.SABA1 [LXXXV.]||1 In Arabia Felix, three days' journey from Sanaa.|
|85||0||34||ENTITLED, SABA;n REVEALED AT MECCA.||n Mention is made of the people of Saba in the fifteenth verse.||MECCA.54 Verses|
|85||0||34||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|85||1||34||PRAISE be unto GOD, unto whom belongeth whatever is in the heavens and on earth: and unto him be praise in the world to come; for he is wise and intelligent.||PRAISE be to God! to whom belongeth all that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth; and to Him be praise in the next world: for he is the All-wise, the All-informed!|
|85||2||34||He knoweth whatsoever entereth into the earth,o and whatsoever cometh out of the same,p and whatsoever descendeth from heaven,q and whatsoever ascendeth thereto:r and he is merciful and ready to forgive.||o As the rain, hidden treasures, the dead, &c.
p As animals, plants, metals, spring-water, &c.
q As the angels, scriptures, decrees of GOD, rain, thunder and lightning, &c.
r As the angels, mens works, vapours, smoke, &c.5
5 Al Beidâwi.
|He knoweth what entereth into the earth, and what proceedeth from it; and what cometh down from heaven, and what goeth up into it: and He is the Merciful, the Forgiving!|
|85||3||34||The unbelievers say, The hour of judgment will not come unto us. Answer, Yea, by my LORD, it will surely come unto you; it is he who knoweth the hidden secret: the weight of an ant, either in heaven or in earth, is not absent from him, nor anything lesser than this or greater, but the same is written in the perspicuous book of his decrees;||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 68, paragraph 96
|BWC: Naught in the heavens or on the earth can escape His knowledge,||"Never," say the unbelievers, "will the Hour come upon us!" SAY: Yea, by my Lord who knoweth the unseen, it will surely come upon you! not the weight of a mote either in the Heavens or in the Earth escapeth him; nor is there aught less than this or aught greater, which is not in the clear Book;|
|85||4||34||that he may recompense those who shall have believed, and wrought righteousness: they shall receive pardon, and an honourable provision.||To the intent that God may reward those who have believed and done the things that are right: Pardon and a noble provision shall they receive:|
|85||5||34||But they who endeavor to render our signs of none effect shall receive a punishment of painful torment.||But as for those who aim to invalidate our signs,a chastisement of painful torment awaiteth them!|
|85||6||34||Those unto whom knowledge hath been given, see that the book which hath been revealed unto thee from thy LORD is the truth, and directeth into the glorious and laudable way.||And they to whom knowledge hath been given see that what hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord is the truth, and that it guideth into the way of the Glorious one, the Praiseworthy.|
|85||7||34||The unbelievers say to one another, Shall we show you a man who shall prophesy unto you, that when ye shall have been dispersed with a total dispersion, ye shall be raised a new creature?||But the unbelievers say to those whom they fall in with, "Shall we shew you a man who will foretell you that when ye shall have been utterly torn and rent to pieces, ye shall be restored in a new form?|
|85||8||34||He hath forged a lie concerning GOD, or rather he is distracted. But they who believe not in the life to come shall fall into punishment and a wide error.||He deviseth a lie about God, or there is a djinn in him," but they who believe not in the next life, shall incur the chastisement, and be lost in the mazes of estrangement from God.|
|85||9||34||Have they not therefore considered what is before them, and what is behind them, of the heaven and the earth? If we please, we will cause the earth to open and swallow them up, or will cause a piece of the heaven to fall upon them: verily herein is a sign unto every servant, who turneth unto God.||What! have they never contemplated that which is before them and behind them, the Heaven and the Earth? If such were our pleasure, we could sink them into that Earth, or cause a portion of that Heaven to fall upon them! herein truly is a sign for our every returning servant.|
|85||10||34||We heretofore bestowed on David excellence from us: and we said, O mountains, sing alternate praises with him; and we obliged the birds also to join therein.s And we softened the iron for him, saying, Make thereof complete coats of mail,t and rightly dispose the small plates which compose the same: and work ye righteousness, O family of David; for I see that which ye do.||s See chapter 21, p. 247
t See ibid.
|Of old bestowed we on David a gift, our special boon:"Ye mountains and ye birds answer his songs of praise." And we made the iron soft for him:"Make coats of mail, and arrange its plates; and work ye righteousness; for I behold your actions."|
|85||11||34||And we made the wind subject unto Solomon:u it blew in the morning for a month, and in the evening for a month. And we made a fountain of molten brass to flow for him.x And some of the genii were obliged to work in his presence, by the will of his LORD; and whoever of them turned aside from our command, we will cause him to taste the pain of hell fire.y||u See ibid. and chapter 27, p. 284.
x This fountain they say was in Yaman, and flowed three days in a month.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
y Or, as some expound the words, We caused him to taste the pain of burning; by which they understand the correction the disobedient genii received at the hands of the angel set over them, who whipped them with a whip of fire.
|And unto Solomon did we subject the wind, which travelled in the morning a month's journey, and a month's journey in the evening. And we made a fountain of molten brass to flow for him. And of the Djinn were some who worked in his presence, by the will of his Lord; and such of them as swerved from our bidding will we cause to taste the torment of the flame.|
|85||12||34||They made for him whatever he pleased of palaces, and statues,z and large dishes like fishponds,a and caldrons standing firm on their trevets;b and we said, Work righteousness, O family of David, with thanksgiving; for few of my servants are thankful.||z Some suppose these were images of the angels and prophets, and that the making of them was not then forbidden; or else that they were not such images as were forbidden by the law. Some say these spirits made him two lions, which were placed at the foot of his throne, and two eagles, which were set above it; and that when he mounted it the lions stretched out their paws, and when he sat down the eagles shaded him with their wings.2
a Being so monstrously large that a thousand men might eat out of each of them at once.
b These cauldrons, they say, were cut out of the mountains of Yaman, and were so vastly big that they could not be moved; and people went up to them by steps.3
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 255, p. 229
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (KALÍMÁT-I-FIRDAWSÍYYIH (Words of Paradise), within pp. 55-80)
|And few of My servants are the thankful.
BWC: Few of My servants are truly thankful.
|They made for him whatever he pleased, of lofty halls, and images, and dishes large as tanks for watering camels, and cooking pots that stood firmly. "Work," said we, "O family of David with thanksgiving:" But few of my servants are the thankful!|
|85||13||34||And when we had decreed that Solomon should die, nothing discovered his death unto them, except the creeping thing of the earth, which gnawed his staff.c And when his body fell down, the genii plainly perceived that if they had known that which is secret, they had not continued in a vile punishment.d||c The commentators, to explain this passage, tell us that David, having laid the foundations of the temple of Jerusalem, which was to be in lieu of the tabernacle of Moses, when he died, left it to be finished by his son Solomon, who employed the genii in the work: that Solomon, before the edifice was quite completed, perceiving his end drew nigh, begged of GOD that his death might be concealed from the genii till they had entirely finished it; that GOD therefore so ordered it, that Solomon died as he stood at his prayers, leaning on his staff, which supported the body in that posture a full year; and the genii, supposing him to be alive, continued their work during that term, at the expiration whereof the temple being perfectly completed, a worm, which had gotten into the staff, ate it through, and the corpse fell to the ground and discovered the kings death.4
Possibly this fable of the temples being built by genii, and not by men, might take its rise from what is mentioned in scripture, that the house was built of stone made ready before it was brought thither; so that there was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any tool of iron heard in the house while it was building;5 the Rabbins indeed, tell us of a worm, which might assist the workmen, its virtue being such as to cause the rocks and stones to fly in sunder.6 Whether the worm which gnawed Solomons staff were of the same breed with this other, I know not; but the story has perfectly the air of a Jewish invention.
4 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
5 I Kings vi. 7.
6 Vide Kimhi, in loc. Buxt. Lex. Talm. p. 2456, et Schickardi Tarich reg. Pers. p. 62.
d i.e., They had not continued in servile subjection to the command of Solomon, nor had gone on with the work of the temple.
|And when we decreed the death of Solomon, nothing shewed them that he was dead but a reptile of the earth that gnawed the staff which supported his corpse.2 And when it fell, the Djinn perceived that if they had known the things unseen, they had not continued in this shameful affliction.3||2 The Talmud mentions the worm Shameer, used by Solomon to cut the stones for building the temple. Pirke Aboth. v. See Buxt. Lex. Talmud, p. 2456. Tr. Gittin, fol. 68; and Midr. Jalkut on 1 Kings, vi. 7. This passage of Scripture may have suggested the idea that Solomon built, etc., by the aid of Spirits.
3 That is, in their difficult toils.
|85||14||34||The descendants of Sabae had heretofore a sign in their dwelling; namely, two gardens on the right hand and on the left,f and it was said unto them, Eat ye of the provision of your LORD, and give thanks unto him; ye have a good country, and a gracious LORD.||e Saba was the son of Yashhab, the son of Yárab, the son of Kahtân, whose posterity dwelt in Yaman, in the city of Mâreb, called also Saba, about three days journey from Sanaa.
f That is, two tracts of land, one on this side of their city, and the other on that, planted with trees, and made into gardens, which lay so thick and close together, that each tract seemed to be one continued garden: or, it may be, every house had a garden on each hand of it.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 83-91, 12 To the Bahá'ís of the Western States)
|O: It is a good City and the Lord is the Forgiver!||A sign there was to SABA, in their dwelling places:two gardens, the one on the right hand and the other on the left:"Eat ye of your Lord's supplies, and give thanks to him: Goodly is the country, and gracious is the Lord!"|
|85||15||34||But they turned aside from what we had commanded them; wherefore we sent against them the inundation of al Arem,g and we changed their two gardens for them into two gardens producing bitter fruit, and tamarisks,h and some little fruit of the lote-tree.||g The commentators set down several significations of the word al Arem, which are scarce worth mentioning: it most properly signifies mounds or dams for the stopping or containing of water, and is here used for that stupendous mound or building which formed the vast reservoir above the city of Saba, described in another place,2 and which, for the great impiety, pride, and insolence of the inhabitants, was broken down in the night by a mighty flood, and occasioned a terrible destruction.3 Al Beidâwi supposes this mound was the work of queen Balkîs, and that the above-mentioned catastrophe happened after the time of Jesus Christ; wherein he seems to be mistaken.
2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 8.
3 See ibid.
h A low shrub bearing no fruit, and delighting in saltish and barren ground.
|But they turned aside: so we sent upon them the flood of Irem;4 and we changed them their gardens into two gardens of bitter fruit and tamarisk and some few jujube trees.||4 See M. Caussin de Perceval Hist. des Arabes, vol. iii., who, as well as M. de Sacy, fix this event in the second century of our era.|
|85||16||34||This we gave them in reward, because they were ungrateful: is any thus rewarded except the ungrateful?||Such was our retribution on them for their ingratitude: but do we thus recompense any except the ungrateful?|
|85||17||34||And we placed between them and the cities which we have blessed,i cities situated near each other; and we made the journey easy between them,k saying, Travel through the same by night and by day, in security.||i viz., The cities of Syria.
k By reason of their near distance, so that during the whole journey a traveller might rest in one town during the heat of the day, and in another at night; nor was he obliged to carry provisions with him.4
4 Jallal., al Beidâwi.
|And we placed between them and the cities which we have blessed, conspicuous cities, and we fixed easy stages: "Travel ye through them by night and day, secure."|
|85||18||34||But they said, O LORD, put a greater distance between our journeys:l and they were unjust unto themselves; and we made them the subject of discourse, and dispersed them with a total dispersion.m Verily, herein are signs unto every patient, grateful person.||l This petition they made out of covetousness, that the poor being obliged to be longer on the road, they might make greater advantages in letting out their cattle, and furnishing the travellers with provision: and GOD was pleased to punish them by granting them their wish, and permitting most of the cities, which were between Saba and Syria, to be ruined and abandoned.5
m For the neighbouring nations justly wondered at so sudden and unforeseen a revolution in the affairs of this once flourishing people: whence it became a proverbial saying, to express a total dispersion, that they were gone and scattered like Saba.6
Of the descendants of Saba, who quitted their country and sought new settlements on this inundation, the tribe of Ghassân went into Syria, the tribe of Anmâr to Yathreb, the tribe of Jodhâm to Tehâmah, the tribe of al Azd to Omân,1 the tribe of Tay to Najd, the tribe of Khozaah to Batan Marr near Mecca, Banu Amela to a mountain, thence called the Mountain of Amela, near Damascus, and others went to Hira in Irâk,2 &c.
6 Al Beidâwi. Vide Gol. not. in Alfrag. p. 87
1 Al Beidâwi.
2 Vide Poc. Spec. p. 42, 45, and 66.
|But they said, "O Lord! make the distance between our journeys longer,"5and against themselves did they act unjustly: so we made them a tale, and scattered them with an utter scattering. Truly herein are signs to everyone that is patient, grateful.||5 The Saba, of verse 14 formed an important branch of the trading population of Yemen. This whole passage, 14-18, alludes to the cessation of traffic between them and Syria, which led to the desire to lengthen the stages and diminish the expense of the journey. See Muir's Life of Muhammad, i. p. cxxxix. Muhammad attributes this desire to covetousness.|
|85||19||34||And Eblis found his opinion of them to be true:n and they followed him, except a party of the true believers:o||n Either his opinion of the Sabeans, when he saw them addicted to pride and ingratitude, and the satisfying their lusts; or else the opinion he entertained of all mankind at the fall of Adam, or at his creation, when he heard the angels say, Wilt thou place in the earth one who will do evil therein, and shed blood?3
3 See cap. 2, p. 4; cap. 7, p. 106; and cap. 15, p. 192, &c.
o Who were saved from the common destruction.
|And Eblis found that he had judged truly of them: and they all except a remnant of the faithful, followed him:|
|85||20||34||and he had no power over them, unless to tempt them, that we might know him who believed in the life to come, from him who doubted thereof. Thy LORD observeth all things.||Yet no power had he over them. Only we would discern him who believed in the life to come, from him who doubted of it; for thy Lord watcheth all things.|
|85||21||34||Say unto the idolaters, Call upon those whom ye imagine to be gods, besides GOD: they are not masters of the weight of an ant in heaven or on earth, neither have they any share in the creation or government of the same; nor is any of them assistant to him therein.||SAY: Call ye upon those whom ye deem gods, beside God: their power in the Heavens and in the Earth is not the weight of an atomneither have they any share in either; nor hath He a helper from among them.|
|85||22||34||No intercession will be of service in his presence, except the intercession of him to whom he shall grant permission to intercede for others:p and they shall wait in suspense until, when the terror shall be taken off from their hearts,q they shall say to one another: What doth your LORD say? They shall answer, That which is just: and he is the high, the great God.||p See chapter 19, p. 232.
q i.e., From the hearts of the intercessors, and of those for whom GOD shall allow them to intercede, by the permission which he shall then grant them; for no angel or prophet shall dare to speak at the last day without the divine leave.
|No intercession shall avail with Him but that which He shall Himself allow. Until when at last their hearts shall be relieved from terror, they shall say, "What saith your Lord?" they shall say, "The Truth; and He is the High, the Great."|
|85||23||34||Say, Who provideth food for you from heaven and earth? Answer, GOD: and either we, or ye, follow the true direction, or are in a manifest error.||SAY: Who supplieth you out of the Heavens and the Earth? SAY: God. And either we or ye have guidance, or are in palpable error!|
|85||24||34||Say, Ye shall not be examined concerning what we shall have committed: neither shall we be examined concerning what ye shall have done.||SAY: Not as to our faults shall ye be questioned; neither shall we be questioned as to your actions.|
|85||25||34||Say, Our LORD will assemble us together at the last day: then he will judge between us with truth; and he is the judge, the knowing.||SAY: Our Lord will gather us together: then will He judge between us in justice; for He is the Judge, the Knowing!|
|85||26||34||Say, Show me those whom ye have joined as partners with him? Nay; rather he is the mighty, the wise GOD.||SAY: Shew me those whom ye have united with Him as associates: Nay, rather, He is God, the Mighty, the Wise!|
|85||27||34||We have not sent thee otherwise than unto mankind in general, a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats; but the greater part of men do not understand.||And we have sent thee to mankind at large, to announce and to threaten. But most men understand not.|
|85||28||34||And they say, When will this threat be fulfilled, if ye speak truth?||And they say, "When will this threat come to pass? Tell us, if ye be men of truth."|
|85||29||34||Answer, A threat is denounced unto you of a day which ye shall not retard one hour, neither shall ye hasten.||SAY: Ye are menaced with a day, which not for an hour shall ye retard or hasten on.|
|85||30||34||The unbelievers say, We will by no means believe in this Koran, nor in that which hath been revealed before it.r But if thou couldest see when the unjust doers shall be set before their LORD! They will iterate discourse with one another: those who were esteemed weak shall say unto those who behaved themselves arrogantly,s Had it not been for you, verily we had been true believers.||r It is said that the infidels of Mecca, having inquired of the Jews and Christians concerning the mission of Mohammed, were assured by them that they found him described as the prophet who should come, both in the Pentateuch and in the Gospel; at which they were very angry, and broke out into the words here recorded.4
4 Al Beidâwi
s See chapter 14, p. 187, note
|The unbelievers say, "We will not believe in this Koran, nor in the Books which preceded it." But couldst thou see when the wicked shall be set before their Lord! With reproaches will they answer one another. The weak shall say to the mighty ones, "But for you we had been believers:"|
|85||31||34||They who behaved themselves arrogantly shall say unto those who were esteemed weak, Did we turn you aside from the true direction, after it had come unto you? On the contrary, ye acted wickedly of your own free choice.||Then shall the mighty ones say to the weak, "What! was it we who turned you aside from the guidance which had reached you? Nay, but ye acted wickedly yourselves."|
|85||32||34||And they who were esteemed weak shall say unto those who behaved with arrogance, Nay, but the crafty plot which ye devised by night and by day, occasioned our ruin: when ye commanded us that we should not believe in GOD, and that we should set up other gods as equals unto him. And they shall conceal their repentance,t after they shall have seen the punishment prepared for them. And we will put yokes on the necks of those who shall have disbelieved: shall they be rewarded any otherwise than according to what they shall have wrought?||t See chapter 10, p. 154, note y.||And the weak shall say to the mighty ones, "Nay, but there was a plot by night and by day, when ye bad us believe not in God, and gave him peers." And they shall proclaim their repentance after they have seen the punishment! And yokes will we place on the necks of those who have not believed! Shall they be rewarded but as they have wrought?|
|85||33||34||We have sent no warner unto any city, but the inhabitants thereof who lived in affluence said, Verily we believe not that with which ye are sent.||And never have we sent a warner to any city whose opulent men did not say, "In sooth we disbelieve your message."|
|85||34||34||And those of Mecca also say, We abound in riches and children, more than ye; and we shall not be punished hereafter.||And they said, "We are the more abundant in riches and in children, nor shall we be among the punished."|
|85||35||34||Answer, Verily my LORD will bestow provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth, and will be sparing unto whom he pleaseth: but the greater part of men know not this.||SAY: Of a truth my Lord will be liberal or sparing in his supplies to whom he pleaseth: but the greater part of men acknowledge it not.|
|85||36||34||Neither your riches nor your children are the things which shall cause you to draw nigh unto us with a near approach: only whoever believeth, and worketh righteousness, they shall receive a double reward for that which they shall have wrought: and they shall dwell in security, in the upper apartments of paradise.||Neither by your riches nor by your children shall you bring yourselves into nearness with Us; but they who believe and do the thing that is right shall have a double reward for what they shall have done: and in the pavilions of Paradise shall they dwell secure!|
|85||37||34||But they who shall endeavor to render our signs of none effect shall be delivered up to punishment.||But they who shall aim to invalidate our signs, shall be consigned to punishment.|
|85||38||34||Say, Verily my LORD will bestow provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth of his servants, and will be sparing unto whom he pleaseth: and whatever thing ye shall give in alms, he will return it; and he is the best provider of food.||SAY: Of a truth my Lord will be liberal in supplies to whom he pleaseth of his servants, or will be sparing to him: and whatever ye shall give in alms he will return; and He is the best dispenser of gifts.|
|85||39||34||On a certain day he shall gather them altogether: then shall he say unto the angels, Did these worship you?||One day he will gather them all together: then shall he say to the angels, "Did these worship you?"|
|85||40||34||And the angels shall answer, GOD forbid! thou art our friend, and not these: but they worshipped devils; the greater part of them believed in them.||They shall say, "Glory be to thee! Thou art our master, not these! But they worshipped the Djinn: it was in them that most of them believed.|
|85||41||34||On this day the one of you shall not be able either to profit or to hurt the other. And we will say unto those who have acted unjustly, Taste ye the pain of hell fire, which ye rejected as a falsehood.||On this day the one of you shall have no power over others for help or hurt. And we will say to the evil doers, "Taste ye the torment of the fire, which ye treated as a delusion."|
|85||42||34||When our evident signs are read unto them, they say of thee, O Mohammed, This is no other than a man who seeketh to turn you aside from the gods which your fathers worshipped. And they say of the Koran, This is no other than a lie blasphemously forged. And the unbelievers say of the truth, when it is come unto them, This is no other than manifest sorcery:||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 238, p. 215
|And when Our clear verses are recited to them, they say, 'This is merely a man who would fain pervert you from your father's worship.' And they say, 'This is none other than a forged falsehood.'||For when our distinct signs are recited to them, they say, "This is merely a man who would fain pervert you from your father's Worship." And they say, "This (Koran) is no other than a forged falsehood." And the unbelievers say to the truth when it is presented to them, "Tis nothing but palpable sorcery."|
|85||43||34||yet we have given them no books of scripture wherein to exercise themselves, nor have we sent unto them any warner before thee.||Yet have we given them no books in which to study deeply, nor have we sent any one to them before thee, charged with warnings.|
|85||44||34||They who were before them in like manner accused their prophets of imposture: but these have not arrived unto the tenth part of the riches and strength which we had bestowed on the former: and they accused my apostles of imposture; and how severe was my vengeance!||They also flourished before them, treated our apostles as impostors in like sort: but not to the tenth part of what we bestowed on them,6 have these attained. And yet when they charged my apostles with deceit, how terrible was my vengeance:||6 That is, of strength and material prosperity.|
|85||45||34||Say, Verily I advise you unto one thing, namely, that ye stand before GOD by two and two, and singly;u and then consider seriously and you will find that there is no madness in your companion Mohammed: he is no other than a warner unto you, sent before a severe punishment.||u i.e., That ye set yourselves to deliberate and judge of me and my pretensions coolly and sincerely, as in the sight of GOD, without passion or prejudice. The reason why they are ordered to consider either alone, or by two and two at most together, is because in larger assembles, where noise, passion, and prejudice generally prevail, men have not that freedom of judgment which they have in private.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|SAY: One thing in sooth do I advise you:that ye stand up before God two and two, or singly,7 and then reflect that in your fellow citizen is no djinn:8 he is no other than your warner before a severe punishment.||7 That is, so as to form a judgment free from the influence of others.
8 It is very remarkable, that when the power of Muhammad became firmly established, he never reverts to the insinuations against the soundness of his mind which in the earlier Suras he so often rebuts.
|85||46||34||Say, I ask not of you any reward for my preaching;x it is your own, either to give or not:y my reward is to be expected from GOD alone; and he is witness over all things.||x Mohammed, having in the preceding words answered the imputation of madness or vain enthusiasm, by appealing to their cooler thoughts of him and his actions, endeavours by these to clear himself of the suspicion of any worldly view or interest, declaring that he desired no salary or support from them for executing his commission, but expected his wages from GOD alone.
y See chapter 25, p. 275.
|SAY: I ask not any wage from you: keep it for yourselves: my wage is from God alone. And He is witness over all things!|
|85||47||34||Say, Verily my LORD sendeth down the truth to his prophets: he is the knower of secrets.||SAY: Truly my Lord sendeth forth the Truth:Knower of things unseen!|
|85||48||34||Say, Truth is come, and falsehood is vanished, and shall not return any more.||SAY: Truth is come, and falsehood shall vanish and return no more.|
|85||49||34||Say, If I err, verily I shall err only against my own soul: but if I be rightly directed, it will be by that which my LORD revealeth unto me; for he is ready to hear, and nigh unto those who call upon him.||SAY: If I err, verily to my own cost only shall I err: but if I have guidance, it will be of my Lord's revealing, for He is the Hearer, the near at hand.|
|85||50||34||If thou couldest see, when the unbelievers shall tremble,z and shall find no refuge, and shall be taken from a near place,a||z viz., At their death, or the day of judgment, or the battle of Bedr.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
a That is, from the outside of the earth to the inside thereof; or, from before GODS tribunal to hell fire; or, from the plain of Bedr to the well into which the dead bodies of the slain were thrown.3
|Couldst thou see how they shall tremble and find no escape, and be taken forth from the place that is so near;9||9 That is, their graves. Mar. So called because there is but a step into it from the surface of the earth. Ullm.|
|85||51||34||and shall say, We believe in him! But how shall they receive the faith from a distant place:b||b i.e., When they are in the other world; whereas faith is to be received in this.||And shall say, "We believe in Him!" But how, in their present distance, shall they receive the faith,|
|85||52||34||since they had before denied him, and reviled the mysteries of faith, from a distant place?||When they had before denied it, and aimed their shafts at the mysteries from afar?10||10 That is, when in this life.|
|85||53||34||And a bar shall be placed between them and that which they shall desire;||And a gulf shall be between them and that which they shall desire|
|85||54||34||as it hath been done with those who behaved like them heretofore: because they have been in a doubt which hath caused scandal.||As was done unto their likes of old, who were lost in the questionings of doubt.|
|86||0||35||CHAPTER XXXV.||SURA XXXV.THE CREATOR, OR THE ANGELS [LXXXVI.]|
|86||0||35||ENTITLED, THE CREATOR;c REVEALED AT MECCA.||c Some entitle this chapter The Angels: both words occur in the first verse.||MECCA.45 Verses|
|86||0||35||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|86||1||35||PRAISE be unto GOD the Creator of heaven and earth; who maketh the angels his messengers, furnished with two, and three, and four pair of wings:d GOD maketh what addition he pleaseth unto his creatures; for GOD is almighty.||d That is, some angels have a greater and some a lesser number of wings, according to their different orders, the words not being designed to express the particular number. Gabriel is said to have appeared to Mohammed, on the night he made his journey to heaven, with no less than six hundred wings.4
|PRAISE be to God, Maker of the Heavens and of the Earth! Who employeth the ANGELS as envoys, with pairs of wings, two, three, and four: He addeth to his creature what He will! Truly God hath power for all things.|
|86||2||35||The mercy which GOD shall freely bestow on mankind, there is none who can withhold; and what he shall withhold, there is none who can bestow, besides him; and he is the mighty, the wise.||The mercy which God layeth open for man, no one can keep back; and what He shall keep back, none can afterwards send forth. And He is the Mighty, the Wise.|
|86||3||35||O men, remember the favor of GOD towards you: is there any creator, besides GOD, who provideth food for you from heaven and earth? There is no GOD but he: how therefore are ye turned aside from acknowledging his unity?||O men! bear in mind the favour of God towards you. Is there a creator other than God, who nourisheth you with the gifts of heaven and earth? There is no God but He! How then are ye turned aside from Him?|
|86||4||35||If they accuse thee of imposture, apostles before thee have also been accused of imposture: and unto GOD shall all things return.||If they treat thee as an impostor, then before thee have apostles been treated as impostors. But to God shall all things return.|
|86||5||35||O men, verily the promise of GOD is true: let not therefore the present life deceive you, neither let the deceiver deceive you concerning GOD:||O men! assuredly the promise of God is true: let not then the present life deceive you: and let not the Deceiver deceive you as to God.|
|86||6||35||for Satan is an enemy unto you; wherefore hold him for an enemy: he only inviteth his confederates to be the inhabitants of hell.||Yes, Satan is your foe. For a foe then hold him. He calleth his followers to him that they may become inmates of the flame.|
|86||7||35||For those who believe not there is prepared a severe torment:||The unbelievers,for them a terrible punishment!|
|86||8||35||but for those who shall believe and do that which is right, is prepared mercy and a great reward.||But believers and doers of good works, for them is mercy, and a great reward!|
|86||9||35||Shall he therefore for whom his evil work hath been prepared, and who imagineth it to be good, be as he who is rightly disposed, and discerneth the truth? Verily GOD will cause to err whom he pleaseth, and will direct whom he pleaseth. Let not thy soul therefore be spent in sighs for their sakes, on account of their obstinacy; for GOD well knoweth that which they do.||Shall he, the evil of whose deeds are so tricked out to him that he deemeth them good, be treated like him who seeth things aright? Verily God misleadeth whom He will, and guideth whom He will. Spend not thy soul in sighs for them: God knoweth their doings.|
|86||10||35||It is God who sendeth the winds, and raiseth a cloud; and we drive the same unto a dead country, and thereby quicken the earth after it hath been dead; so shall the resurrection be.e||e See chapter 29, p. 298, note||It is God who sendeth forth the winds which raise the clouds aloft: then drive we them on to some land dead from drought,1 and give life thereby to the earth after its death. So shall be the resurrection.||1 See note at Sura [xcvii.] iii. 18. This is one of the passages said to have originated with Zayd.|
|86||11||35||Whoever desireth excellence; unto GOD doth all excellence belong: unto him ascendeth the good speech; and the righteous work will he exalt. But as for them who devise wicked plots,f they shall suffer a severe punishment; and the device of those men shall be rendered vain.||f As the Koreish did against Mohammed. See chapter 8, p. 128, note n.||If any one desireth greatness, all greatness is in God. The good word riseth up to Him, and the righteous deed will He exalt. But a severe punishment awaiteth the plotters of evil things; and the plots of such will He render vain.|
|86||12||35||GOD created you first of the dust, and afterwards of seed;g and he hath made you man and wife. No female conceiveth, or bringeth forth, but with his knowledge. Nor is anything added unto the age of him whose life is prolonged, neither is anything diminished from his age, but the same is written in the book of God's decrees. Verily this is easy with GOD.||g See chapter 22, p. 250.||Moreover, God created you of dustthen of the germs of lifethen made you two sexes: and no female conceiveth or bringeth forth without his knowledge; and the aged ageth not, nor is aught minished from man's age, but in accordance with the Book. An easy thing truly is this to God.|
|86||13||35||The two seas are not to be held in comparison: this is fresh and sweet, pleasant to drink: but that is salt and bitter:h yet out of each of them ye eat fish,i and take ornamentsk for you to wear. Thou seest the ships also ploughing the waves thereof, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves by commerce, of the abundance of God: peradventure ye will be thankful.||h That is, the two collective bodies of salt water and fresh. See chapter 25, p. 274
i See chapter 16, p. 196, note u.
k As pearls and coral.
|Nor are the two seas2 alike: the one fresh, sweet, pleasant for drink, and the other salt, bitter; yet from both ye eat fresh fish, and take forth for you ornaments to wear, and thou seest the ships cleaving their waters that ye may go in quest of his bounties, and that ye may be thankful.||2 Not only seas, properly so called, but the great masses of fresh water in the Nile, Tigris, inland lakes, etc.|
|86||14||35||He causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night; and he obligeth the sun and the moon to perform their services: each of them runneth an appointed course. This is GOD, your LORD: his is the kingdom. But the idols which ye invoke besides him have not the power even over the skin of a date-stone:||He causeth the night to enter in upon the day, and the day to enter in upon the night; and He hath given laws to the sun and to the moon, so that each journeyeth to its appointed goal: This is God your Lord: All power is His: But the gods whom ye call on beside Him have no power over the husk of a date stone!|
|86||15||35||if ye invoke them, they will not hear your calling; and although they should hear, yet they would not answer you. On the day of resurrection they shall disclaim your having associated them with God: and none shall declare unto thee the truth, like one who is well acquainted therewith.||If ye cry to them they will not hear your cry; and if they heard they would not answer you, and in the day of resurrection they will disown your joining them with God: and none can instruct thee like Him who is informed of all.|
|86||16||35||O men, ye have need of GOD; but GOD is self-sufficient, and to be praised.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 143, p. 132
|O men! Ye are but paupers in need of God; but God is the Rich, the Self-Sufficing.||O men! ye are but paupers in need of God; but God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy!|
|86||17||35||If he pleaseth, he can take you away, and produce a new creature in your stead:||If He please, He could sweep you away, and bring forth a new creation!|
|86||18||35||neither will this be difficult with GOD.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 17
|MG: Neither will this be difficult with God.||Nor will this be hard for God.|
|86||19||35||A burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another: and if a heavy-burdened soul call on another to bear part of its burden, no part thereof shall be borne by the person who shall be called on, although he be ever so nearly related. Thou shalt admonish those who fear their LORD in secret and are constant at prayer: and whoever cleanseth himself from the guilt of disobedience, cleanseth himself to the advantage of his own soul; for all shall be assembled before GOD at the last day.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 237)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 72
|BWC: None shall bear the burden of another.
EGB: None shall bear the burden of another.
|And the burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another: and if the heavy laden soul cry out for its burden to be carried, yet shall not aught of it be carried, even by the near of kin! Thou shalt warn those who fear their Lord in secret, and observe prayer. And whoever shall keep himself pure, he purifieth himself to his own behoof: for unto God shall be the final gathering.|
|86||20||35||The blind and the seeing shall not be held equal; neither darkness and light; nor the cool shade and the scorching wind:||And the blind and the seeing are not alike; neither darkness and light; nor the shade and the hot wind;|
|86||21||35||neither shall the living and the dead be held equal.l GOD shall cause him to hear whom he pleaseth; but thou shalt not make those to hear who are in their graves.m Thou art no other than a preacher:||l This passage expresses the great difference between a true believer and an infidel, truth and vanity, and their future reward and punishment.
m i.e., Those who obstinately persist in their unbelief, who are compared to the dead.
|Nor are the living and the dead the same thing! God indeed shall make whom He will to hearken, but thou shalt not make those who are in their graves to hearken; for only with warning art thou charged.|
|86||22||35||verily we have sent thee with truth, a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats. There hath been no nation, but a preacher hath in past times been conversant among them:||Verily we have sent thee with the truth; a bearer of good tidings and a warner; nor hath there been a people unvisited by its warner.|
|86||23||35||if they charge thee with imposture, they who were before them likewise charged their apostles with imposture. Their apostles came unto them with evident miracles, and with divine writings,n and with the enlightening book:o||n As the volumes delivered to Abraham, and to other prophets before Moses.
o viz., The law or the gospel.
|And if they treat thee as a liar, so did those who were before them threat their Apostles who came to them with the proofs of their mission, and with the Scriptures and with the enlightening Book:3||3 The Gospel.|
|86||24||35||afterwards I chastised those who were unbelievers; and how severe was my vengeance!||Then chastised I the unbelievers: and how great was my vengeance!|
|86||25||35||Dost thou not see that GOD sendeth down rain from heaven, and that we thereby produce fruits of various colours?q In the mountain also there are some tracts white and red, of various colours;q and others are of a deep black: and of men, and beasts, and cattle there are whose colours are in like manner various. Such only of his servants fear GOD as are endued with understanding: verily GOD is mighty and ready to forgive.||p That is, of different kinds. See chapter 16, p. 196.
q Being more or less intense.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Seest thou not how that God sendeth down water from the Heaven, and that by it we cause the up-growth of fruits of varied hues, and that on the mountains4 are tracks of varied hues, white and red, and others are of a raven black? And of men and reptiles and animals, various likewise are the hues. Such only of his servants as are possessed of knowledge fear God. Lo! God is Mighty, Gracious!||4 This idea was probably suggested by Muhammad's reminiscences of the view from the Cave of Hira, to the north and west of which there is a prospect thus described by Burckhardt (Travels, p. 176). "The country before us had a dreary aspect, not a single green spot being visible; barren, black, and grey hills, and white sandy valleys were the only objects in sight."|
|86||26||35||Verily they who read the book of GOD, and are constant at prayer, and give alms out of what we have bestowed on them, both in secret and openly, hope for a merchandise which shall not perish:||Verily they who recite the Book of God, and observe prayer, and give alms in public and in private from what we have bestowed upon them, may hope for a merchandise that shall not perish:|
|86||27||35||that God may fully pay them their wages, and make them a superabundant addition of his liberality; for he is ready to forgive the faults of his servants, and to requite their endeavors.||God will certainly pay them their due wages, and of his bounty increase them: for He is Gracious, Grateful.|
|86||28||35||That which we have revealed unto thee of the book of the Koran is the truth, confirming the scriptures which were revealed before it: for GOD knoweth and regardeth his servants.||And that which we have revealed to thee of the Book is the very Truth, confirmatory of previous Scriptures: for God knoweth and beholdeth his servants.|
|86||29||35||And we have given the book of the Koran in heritage unto such of our servants as we have chosen: of them there is one who injureth his own soul;r and there is another of them who keepeth the middle way;s and there is another of them who outstrippeth others in good works, by the permission of GOD. This is the great excellence.||r By not practising what he is taught and commanded in the Korân.
s That is, who meaneth well, and performeth his duty for the most part, but not perfectly
|Moreover, we have made the Book an heritage to those of our servants whom we have chosen. Some of them injure themselves by evil deeds; others keep the midway between good and evil; and others, by the permission of God, outstrip in goodness; this is the great merit!|
|86||30||35||They shall be introduced into gardens of perpetual abode; they shall be adorned therein with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their clothing therein shall be of silk:||Into the gardens of Eden shall they enter: with bracelets of gold and pearl shall they be decked therein, and therein shall their raiment be of silk:|
|86||31||35||and they shall say, Praise be unto GOD, who hath taken away sorrow from us! verily our LORD is ready to forgive the sinners, and to reward the obedient;||And they shall say, "Praise be to God who hath put away sorrow from us. Verily our Lord is Gracious, Grateful,|
|86||32||35||who hath caused us to take up our rest in a dwelling of eternal stability, through his bounty, wherein no labor shall touch us, neither shall any weariness affect us.||Who of His bounty hath placed us in a manison that shall abide for ever: therein no toil shall reach us, and therein no weariness shall touch us."|
|86||33||35||But for the unbelievers is prepared the fire of hell: it shall not be decreed them to die a second time; neither shall any part of the punishment thereof be made lighter unto them. Thus shall every infidel be rewarded.||But for infidels is the fire of Hell; to die shall never be decreed them, nor shall aught of its torment be made light to them. Thus reward we every infidel!|
|86||34||35||And they shall cry out aloud in hell, saying, LORD, take us hence, and we will work righteousness, and not what we have formerly wrought. But it shall be answered them, Did we not grant you lives of length sufficient, that whoever would be warned might be warned therein; and did not the preachert come unto you?||t viz., Mohammed.||And therein shall they cry aloud, "Take us hence, O our Lord! righteousness will we work, and not what we wrought of old.""Prolonged we not your days that whoever would be warned might be warned therein? And the preacher came to you|
|86||35||35||taste therefore the pains of hell. And the unjust shall have no protector.||Taste it then."There is no protector for the unjust.|
|86||36||35||Verily GOD knoweth the secrets both of heaven and earth, for he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men.||God truly knoweth the hidden things both of the Heavens and of the Earth: for He knoweth the very secrets of the breast.|
|86||37||35||It is he who hath made you to succeed in the earth. Whoever shall disbelieve, on him be his unbelief; and their unbelief shall only gain the unbelievers greater indignation in the sight of their LORD; and their unbelief shall only increase the perdition of the unbelievers.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 9, p. 9
|And their unbelief shall only increase for the unbelievers their own perdition.||He hath appointed you his vicegerents in the earth: And whoever believeth not, on him shall be his unbelief; and their unbelief shall only increase for the unbelievers, hatred at the hands of their Lord:and their unbelief shall only increase for the unbelievers their own perdition!|
|86||38||35||Say, What think ye of your deities which ye invoke besides GOD? Show me what part of the earth they have created. Or had they any share in the creation of the heavens? Have we given unto the idolaters any book of revelations, so that they may rely on any proof therefrom to authorize their practice? Nay; but the ungodly make unto one another only deceitful promises.||SAY: What think ye of the gods whom ye invoke beside God? Shew me what part of the earth they have created? Had they a share in the creation of the Heavens? Have we given them a Book in which they can find proofs that they are to be called on? Nay, the wicked promise one another only deceits.|
|86||39||35||Verily GOD sustaineth the heavens and the earth, lest they fail: and if they should fail, none could support the same besides him; he is gracious and merciful.||Verily God holdeth fast the Heavens and the Earth that they pass not away: and if they were passing away none could hold them back but He: for He is Kind, Gracious.|
|86||40||35||The Koreish swore by GOD, with a most solemn oath, that if a preacher had come unto them, they would surely have been more willingly directed than any nation: but now a preacher is come unto them, it hath only increased in them their aversion from the truth,||They swore by God with their mightiest oath that should a preacher come to them they would yield to guidance more than any people: but when the preacher came to them it only increased in them their estrangement,|
|86||41||35||their arrogance in the earth, and their contriving of evil; but the contrivance of evil shall only encompass the authors thereof. Do they expect any other than the punishment awarded against the unbelievers of former times? For thou shalt not find any change in the ordinance of GOD;||Their haughtiness on earth and their plotting of evil! But the plotting of evil shall only enmesh those who make use of it.5 Look they then for aught but God's way6 of dealing with the peoples of old? Thou shalt not find any change in the way of God,||5 Lit. shall encompass its people.
6 Method of dealing, i.e., first warning, then punishing.
|86||42||35||neither shalt thou find any variation in the ordinance of GOD.||Yea, thou shalt not find any variableness in the way of God.|
|86||43||35||Have they not gone through the earth, and seen what hath been the end of those who were before them; although they were more mighty in strength than they? GOD is not to be frustrated by anything either in heaven or on earth; for he is wise and powerful.||Have they never journeyed in the land and seen what hath been the end of those who flourished before them, though mightier in strength than they? God is not to be frustrated by aught in the Heavens or in the Earth; for He is the All-knowing, the All-mighty.|
|86||44||35||If GOD should punish men according to what they deserve, he would not leave on the back of the earth so much as a beast: but he respiteth them to a determined time;||If, moreover, God should chastise men according to their deserts, He would not leave even a reptile on the back of the earth! But to an appointed time doth He respite them.|
|86||45||35||and when their time shall come, verily GOD will regard his servants.||And when their time shall come, then verily God's eye is on his servants.|
|60||0||36||CHAPTER XXXVI.||SURA XXXVI.YA. SIN [LX.]|
|60||0||36||ENTITLED, Y. S.; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.83 Verses|
|60||0||36||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|60||1||36||Y. S.u I SWEAR by the instructive Koran,||u The meaning of these letters is unknown:1 some, however, from a tradition of Ebn Abbas, pretend they stand for Ya insân, i.e., O man. This chapter, it is said, had several other titles given it by Mohammed himself, and particularly that of The heart of the Korân. The Mohammedans read it to dying persons in their last agony.2
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sec. III. p. 46, &c.
2 Vide Bobov. De Visit. Ægrot. p. 17.
|YA. SIN.1 By the wise Koran!||1 This Sura is said to have been termed by Muhammad "the heart of the Koran." It is recited in all Muhammadan countries to the dying, at the tombs of saints, etc. On Ya. Sin, see Sura lxviii. p. 32.|
|60||2||36||that thou art one of the messengers of God,||Surely of the Sent Ones, Thou,|
|60||3||36||sent to show the right way.||Upon a right path!|
|60||4||36||This is a revelation of the most mighty, the merciful God:||A revelation of the Mighty, the Merciful,|
|60||5||36||that thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned, and who live in negligence.||That thou shouldest warn a people whose fathers were not warned and therefore lived in heedlessness!|
|60||6||36||Our sentencex hath justly been pronounced against the greater part of them; wherefore they shall not believe.||x viz., The sentence of damnation, which GOD pronounced against the greater part of genii and men at the fall of Adam.3
3 See cap. 7, p. 106; c. II, p. 169, &c.
|Just, now, is our sentence2 against most of them; therefore they shall not believe.||2 Sura xxxviii. 85, p. 129.|
|60||7||36||We have put yokesy on their necks, which come up to their chins; and they are forced to hold up their heads;||y Or collars, such as are described p. 181, note t.||On their necks have we placed chains which reach the chin, and forced up are their heads:|
|60||8||36||and we have set a bar before them, and a bar behind them;z and we have covered them with darkness; wherefore they shall not see.a||z That is, we have placed obstacles to prevent their looking either forwards or backwards. The whole passage represents the blindness and invincible obstinacy, with which GOD justly curses perverse and reprobate men.
a It is said that when the Koreish, in pursuance of a resolution they had taken, had sent a select number to beset Mohammeds house, and to kill him,4 the prophet, having caused Ali to lie down on his bed to deceive the assassins, went out and threw a handful of dust at them, repeating the nine first verses of this chapter, which end here; and they were thereupon stricken with blindness, so that they could not see him.5
4 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 39.
5 Vide Abulf. Vit Moh. p. 50.
|Before them have we set a barrier and behind them a barrier, and we have shrouded them in a veil, so that they shall not see.|
|60||9||36||It shall be equal unto them whether thou preach unto them, or do not preach unto them; they shall not believe.||Alike is it to them if thou warn them or warn them not: they will not believe.|
|60||10||36||But thou shalt preach with effect unto him only who followeth the admonition of the Koran, and feareth the Merciful in secret. Wherefore bear good tidings unto him, of mercy, and an honourable reward.||Him only shalt thou really warn, who followeth the monition and feareth the God of mercy in secret: him cheer with tidings of pardon, and of a noble recompense.|
|60||11||36||Verily we will restore the dead to life, and will write down their works which they shall have sent before them, and their footsteps which they shall have left behind them: b and everything do we set down in a plain register.||b As their good or evil example, doctrine, &c.||Verily, it is We who will quicken the dead, and write down the works which they have sent on before them, and the traces which they shall have left behind them: and everything have we set down in the clear Book of our decrees.3||3 Lit. in the clear prototype, that is, in the Preserved Table, on which all the actions of mankind are written down.|
|60||12||36||Propound unto them as an example the inhabitants of the city of Antioch, when the apostles of Jesus came thereto:c||c To explain this passage, the commentators tell the following story:
The people of Antioch being idolaters, Jesus sent two of his disciples thither to preach to them; and when they drew near the city they found Habîb, surnamed al Najjâr, or the carpenter, feeding sheep, and acqainted him with their errand; whereupon he asked them what proof they had of their veracity, and they told him they could cure the sick, and the blind, and the lepers; and to demonstrate the truth of what they said, they laid their hands on a child of his who was sick, and immediately restored him to health. Habîb was convinced by this miracle, and believed; after which they went into the city and preached the worship of one true GOD, curing a great number of people of several infirmities; but at length, the affair coming to the princes ear, he ordered them to be imprisoned for endeavouring to seduce the people. When Jesus heard of this, he sent another of his disciples, generally supposed to have been Simon Peter, who, coming to Antioch, and appearing as a zealous idolater, soon insinuated himself into the favour of the inhabitants and of their prince, and at length took an opportunity to desire the prince would order the two persons who, as he was informed, had been put in prison for broaching new opinions, to be brought before him to be examined; and accordingly they were brought: when Peter, having previously warned them to take no notice that they knew him, asked them who sent them, to which they answered, GOD, who had created all things, and had no companion. He then required some convincing proof of their mission, upon which they restored a blind person to his sight and performed some other miracles, with which Peter seemed not to be satisfied, for that, according to some, he did the very same miracles himself, but declared that, if their GOD could enable them to raise the dead, he would believe them; which condition the two apostles accepting, a lad was brought who had been dead seven days, and at their prayers he was raised to life; and thereupon Peter acknowledged himself convinced, and ran and demolished the idols, a great many of the people following him, and embracing the true faith; but those who believed not were destroyed by the cry of the angel Gabriel.1
1 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi, &c. Vide etiam Marracc. in Alc. p. 580.
|Set forth to them the instance of the people of the city4 when the Sent Ones came to it.||4 Antioch, to which Jesus is said to have sent two disciples to preach the unity of God, and subsequently Simon Peter. This vague story, and that of the seven sleepers in Sura xviii. are the only traces to be found in the Koran of any knowledge, on the part of Muhammad, of the history of the Church subsequent to the day of Pentecost, or of the spread of the Christian religion.|
|60||13||36||when we sent unto them two of the said apostles;d but they charged them with imposture. Wherefore we strengthened them with a third.e And they said, Verily we are sent unto you by God.||d Some say these two were John and Paul; but others name different persons.
e viz., Simon Peter.
|When we sent two unto them and they charged them both with imposturetherefore with a third we strengthened them: and they said, "Verily we are the Sent unto you of God."|
|60||14||36||The inhabitants answered, Ye are no other than men, as we are; ye only publish a lie.||They said, "Ye are only men like us: Nought hath the God of Mercy sent down. Ye do nothing but lie."|
|60||15||36||The apostles replied, Our LORD knoweth that we are really sent unto you:||They said, "Our Lord knoweth that we are surely sent unto you;|
|60||16||36||and our duty is only public preaching.||To proclaim a clear message is our only duty."|
|60||17||36||Those of Antioch said, Verily we presage evil from you: if ye desist not from preaching, we will surely stone you, and a painful punishment shall be inflicted on you by us.||They said, "Of a truth we augur ill from you:5 if ye desist not we will surely stone you, and a grievous punishment will surely befall you from us."||5 Comp. Sura xxvii. 48; vii. 128, where, as in this passage, the word augur refers to the mode of divination practised previous to Islam, by the flight of birds.|
|60||18||36||The apostles answered, Your evil presage is with yourselves:f although ye be warned, will ye persist in yours errors? Verily ye are a people who transgress exceedingly.||f i.e., If any evil befall you, it will be the consequence of your own obstinacy and unbelief. See chapter 27, p. 287, note b.||They said, "Your augury of ill is with yourselves. Will ye be warned?6 Nay, ye are an erring people."||6 Lit. if ye have been warned (will ye still disbelieve?).|
|60||19||36||And a certain mang came hastily from the farther parts of the city, and said, O my people, follow the messengers of God;||g This was Habîb al Najjâr, whose martyrdom is here described. His tomb is still shown near Antioch, and is much visited by the Mohammedans.2
2 Vide Schultens, Indic. Geogr. ad calcem Vitæ Saladini, voce Antiochia.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 176, p. 165
|Follow ye, O people! the Messengers of God,||Then from the end of the city a man came running:7 He said, "O my people! follow the Sent Ones;||7 Habib, the carpenter, who, as implied at verse 25, was martyred, and whose tomb at Antioch is still an object of veneration to the Muhammadans.|
|60||20||36||follow him who demandeth not any reward of you: for these are rightly directed.||Follow those who ask not of you a recompense, and who are rightly guided.|
|60||21||36||(XXIII.) What reason have I that I should not worship him who hath created me? for unto him shall ye return.||And why should I not worship Him who made me, and to whom ye shall be brought back?|
|60||22||36||Shall I take other gods besides him? If the Merciful be pleased to afflict me, their intercession will not avail me at all, neither can they deliver me:||Shall I take gods beside Him? If the God of Mercy be pleased to afflict me, their intercession will not avert from me aught, nor will they deliver:|
|60||23||36||then should I be in a manifest error.||Truly then should I be in a manifest error.|
|60||24||36||Verily I believe in your LORD; wherefore hearken unto me.||Verily, in your Lord have I believed; therefore hear me."8||8 Ullm. following Wahl, renders, Als sie (die stadtlente) darauf ihn schändlich behandleten. The verb in the original is thus used in the 4th conj. Nöldeke supposes that words to this effect have been lost from the text. But of this there is no trace in the Commentators.|
|60||25||36||But they stoned him: and as he died, it was said unto him, Enter thou into paradise. And he said, O that my people knew||It was said to him, "Enter thou into Paradise:" And he said, "Oh that my people knew|
|60||26||36||how merciful GOD hath been unto me! for he hath highly honoured me.||How gracious God hath been to me, and that He hath made me one of His honoured ones."|
|60||27||36||And we sent not down against his people, after they had slain him, an army from heaven, nor the other instruments of destruction which we sent down on unbelievers in former days:h||h As a deluge, or a shower of stones, or a suffocating wind, &c. The words may also be translated, Nor did we determine to send down such executioners of our justice.||But no army sent we down out of heaven after his death, nor were we then sending down our angels|
|60||28||36||there was only one cry of Gabriel from heaven, and behold, they became utterly extinct.||There was but one shout from Gabriel, and lo! they were extinct.|
|60||29||36||Oh the misery of men! No apostle cometh unto them, but they laugh him to scorn.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 4, p. 5
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 242)
A Travelers Narrative, pp. 73-74
|O the misery of men! No Messenger cometh unto them but they laugh Him to scorn.
BWC: No Messenger cometh unto them but they laugh Him to scorn.
EGB: There came not unto them any apostle but they mocked at him.
|Oh! the misery that rests upon my servants! No apostle cometh to them but they laugh him to scorn.|
|60||30||36||Do they not consider how many generations we have destroyed before them?||See they not how many generations we have destroyed before them?|
|60||31||36||Verily they shall not return unto them:||Not to false gods is it that they shall be brought9 back,||9 Or, the Apostles shall not return to them again. Ullm.|
|60||32||36||but all of them in general shall be assembled before us.||But all, gathered together, shall be set before Us.|
|60||33||36||One sign of the resurrection unto them is the dead earth:i we quicken the same by the rain, and produce thereout various sorts of grain, of which they eat.||i See cap. 29, p. 298, note y.||Moreover, the dead earth is a sign to them: we quicken it and bring forth the grain from it, and they eat thereof:|
|60||34||36||And we make therein gardens of palm-trees, and vines; and we cause springs to gush forth in the same:||And we make in it gardens of the date and vine; and we cause springs to gush forth in it;|
|60||35||36||that they may eat of the fruits thereof, and of the labor of their hands. Will they not therefore give thanks?||That they may eat of its fruits and of the labour of their hands. Will they not therefore be thankful?|
|60||36||36||Praise be unto him who hath created all the different kinds, both of vegetables, which the earth bringeth forth, and of their own species, by forming the two sexes, and also the various sorts of things which they know not.||Some Answered Questions (Chapter 17, within pp. 87-89)
|LCB: Glory be to Him Who has created all the pairs: of such things as the earth produceth, and of themselves; and of things which they know not||Glory be to Him, who hath created all the sexual pairs of such things as Earth produceth,10 and of mankind themselves; and of things beyond their ken!||10 For instance, date trees, the female blossoms of which were carefully impregnated, when requisite, by branches of the male plant. See Freyt. Einl. p. 271.|
|60||37||36||The night also is a sign unto them: we withdraw the day from the same, and behold, they are covered with darkness:||A sign to them also is the Night. We withdraw the day from it, and lo! they are plunged in darkness;|
|60||38||36||and the sun hasteneth to his place of rest.k This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God.||k That is, he hasteneth to run his daily course, the setting of the sun resembling a travellers going to rest. Some copies vary in this place, and instead of limostakarrin laha, read la mostakarra laha; according to which the sentence should be rendered, The sun runneth his course without ceasing, and hath not a place of rest.||And the Sun hasteneth to her place of rest. This, the ordinance of the Mighty, the Knowing!|
|60||39||36||and for the moon have we appointed certain mansions,l until she change and return to be like the old branch of a palm-tree.m||l viz., These are twenty-eight constellations, through one of which the moon passes every night, thence called the mansions or houses of the moon.1
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 24.
m For when a palm-branch grows old, it shrinks, and becomes crooked and yellow, not ill representing the appearance of the new moon.
|And as for the Moon, We have decreed stations for it, till it change like an old and crooked palm branch.|
|60||40||36||It is not expedient that the sun should overtake the moon in her course: neither doth the night outstrip the day: but each of these luminaries moving in a peculiar orbit.||To the Sun it is not given to overtake the Moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day; but each in its own sphere doth journey on.|
|60||41||36||It is a sign also unto them, that they carry their offspring in the ship filled with merchandise;n||n Some suppose that the deliverance of Noah and his companions in the ark is here intended; and then the words should be translated, That we carried their progeny in the ark filled with living creatures.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 156-159, Mirzá Jafar-i-Yazdi)
|MG: fully-laden Ark||It is also a sign to them that we bare their posterity in the full-laden Ark;|
|60||42||36||and that we have made for them other conveniences like unto it,o whereon they ride.||o As camels, which are the land-ships; or lesser vessels and boats.||And that we have made for them vessels like it on which they embark;|
|60||43||36||If we please, we drown them, and there is none to help them; neither are they delivered,||And if we please, we drown them, and there is none to help them, and they are not rescued,|
|60||44||36||unless through our mercy, and that they may enjoy life for a season.||Unless through our mercy, and that they may enjoy themselves for yet awhile.|
|60||45||36||When it is said unto them, Fear that which is before you, and that which is behind you,p that ye may obtain mercy: they withdraw from thee:||p i.e., The punishment of this world and of the next.||And when it is said to them, Fear what is before you and what is behind you,11 that ye may obtain mercy. . . .||11 The chastisements of this world and of the next.|
|60||46||36||and thou dost not bring them one sign, of the signs of their LORD, but they turn aside from the same.||Aye, not one sign from among the signs of their Lord dost thou bring them, but they turn away from it!|
|60||47||36||And when it is said unto them, Give alms of that which GOD hath bestowed on you; the unbelievers say unto those who believe, by way of mockery, Shall we feed him whom GOD can feed, if he pleaseth?q Verily ye are in no other than a manifest error.||q When the poor Moslems asked alms of the richer Koreish, they told them that if GOD could provide for them, as they imagined, and did not, it was an argument that they deserved not his favour so well as themselves: whereas GOD permits some to be in want, to try the rich and exercise their charity.||And when it is said to them, Give alms of what God hath bestowed on you,12 they who believe not say to the believers, "Shall we feed him whom God can feed if He will? Truly ye are in no other than a plain error."||12 On account of this precept, Itq. 35, and Omar b. Muhammad suppose the verse to have originated at Medina.|
|60||48||36||And they say, When will this promise of the resurrection be fulfilled, if ye speak truth?||And they say, "When will this promise be fulfilled, if what ye say be true?"|
|60||49||36||They only wait for one sounding of the trumpet,r which shall overtake them while they are disputing together;||r See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 64, 65, and the notes to chapter 39||They await but a single blast: as they are wrangling shall it assail them:|
|60||50||36||and they shall not have time to make any disposition of their effects, neither shall they return to their family.||And not a bequest shall they be able to make, nor to their families shall they return.|
|60||51||36||And the trumpet shall be sounded again;s and behold they shall come forth from their graves, and hasten unto their LORD.||s See ibid.||And the trumpet shall be blown, and, lo! they shall speed out of their sepulchres to their Lord:|
|60||52||36||They shall say, Alas for us! who hath awakened us from our bed?t This is what the Merciful promised us; and his apostles spoke the truth.||t For they shall sleep during the interval between these two blasts of the trumpet, and shall feel no pain.1
|They shall say, "Oh! woe to us! who hath roused us from our sleeping place? 'Tis what the God of Mercy promised; and the Apostles spake the truth."|
|60||53||36||It shall be but one sound of the trumpet, and behold, they shall be all assembled before us.||But one blast shall there be,13 and, lo! they shall be assembled before us, all together.||13 The Muhammadans affirm that a space of forty years will intervene between two blasts of the Trumpet. Maracci suggests that the idea of the two blasts is derived from 1 Thess. iv. 16, "the voice of the archangel and . . . the trump of God."|
|60||54||36||On this day no soul shall be unjustly treated in the least; neither shall ye be rewarded, but according to what ye shall have wrought.||And on that day shall no soul be wronged in the least: neither shall ye be rewarded but as ye shall have wrought.|
|60||55||36||On this day the inhabitants of paradise shall be wholly taken up with joy:||But joyous on that day shall be the inmates of Paradise, in their employ;|
|60||56||36||they and their wives shall rest in shady groves, leaning on magnificent couches.||In shades, on bridal couches reclining, they and their spouses:|
|60||57||36||There shall they have fruit, and they shall obtain whatever they shall desire.||Therein shall they have fruits, and shall have whatever they require|
|60||58||36||Peace shall be the word spoken unto the righteous, by a merciful LORD:||"Peace!" shall be the word on the part of a merciful Lord.|
|60||59||36||but he shall say unto the wicked, Be ye separated this day, O ye wicked, from the righteous.||"But be ye separated this day, O ye sinners!|
|60||60||36||Did I not command you, O sons of Adam, that ye should not worship Satan; because he was an open enemy unto you?||Did I not enjoin on you, O sons of Adam, 'Worship not Satan, for that he is your declared foe,'|
|60||61||36||And did I not say, Worship me; this is the right way?||But 'Worship Me: this is a right path'?|
|60||62||36||But now hath he seduced a great multitude of you: did ye not therefore understand?||But now hath he led a vast host of you astray. Did ye not then comprehend?|
|60||63||36||This is hell, with which ye were threatened:||This is Hell with which ye were threatened:|
|60||64||36||be ye cast into the same this day to be burned; for that ye have been unbelievers.||Endure its heat this day, for that ye believed not."|
|60||65||36||On this day we will seal up their mouths, that they shall not open them in their own defence; and their hands shall speak unto us, and their feet shall bear witness of that which they have committed.u||u See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 69.||On that day will we set a seal upon their mouths; yet shall their hands speak unto us, and their feet14 shall bear witness of that which they shall have done.||14 Thus Chagiga, 16; Taanith, 11. "The very members of a man bear witness against him, for thus is it written (Is. xliii. 12), Ye yourselves are my witnesses, saith the Lord." See also Sura [lxxi.] xli. 19, 20.|
|60||66||36||If we pleased we could put out their eyes, and they might run with emulation in the way they use to take; and how should they see their error?||And, if we pleased, we would surely put out their eyes: yet even then would they speed on with rivalry in their path: but how should they see?|
|60||67||36||And if we pleased we could transform them into other shapes, in their places when they should be found; and they should not be able to depart; neither should they repent.x||x That is, They deserve to be thus treated for their infidelity and disobedience; but we bear with them out of mercy, and grant them respite.||And, if we pleased, we would surely transform them as they stand,15 and they would not be able to move onward, or to return.||15 Lit. in their place.|
|60||68||36||Unto whomsoever we grant a long life, him do we cause to bow down his body through age. Will they not therefore understand?||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XIII, within pp. 47-48)
|cf BWC: We have decreed that every long life shall in truth suffer decline||Him cause we to stoop through age whose days we lengthen. Will they not understand?|
|60||69||36||We have not taught Mohammed the art of poetry;y nor is it expedient for him to be a poet. This book is no other than an admonition from God, and a perspicuous Korân;||y That is in answer to the infidels, who pretended the Korân was only a poetical composition.||We have not taught him (Muhammad) poetry,16 nor would it beseem him. This Book is no other than a warning and a clear Koran,||16 See Sura xxvi. 225, p. III.|
|60||70||36||that he may warn him who is living:z and the sentence of condemnation will be justly executed on the unbelievers.||z i.e., Endued with understanding; the stupid and careless being like dead persons.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|To warn whoever liveth; and, that against the Infidels sentence may be justly given.|
|60||71||36||Do they not consider that we have created for them, among the things which our hands have wrought, cattle of several kinds, of which they are possessors;||See they not that we have created for them among the things which our hands have wrought, the animals of which they are masters?|
|60||72||36||and that we have put the same in subjection under them? Some of them are for their riding; and on some of them do they feed:||And that we have subjected them unto them? And on some they ride, and of others they eat;|
|60||73||36||and they receive other advantages therefrom; and of their milk do they drink. Will they not, therefore, be thankful?||And they find in them profitable uses and beverages:|
|60||74||36||They have taken other gods, besides GOD, in hopes that they may be assisted by them;||Yet have they taken other gods beside God that they might be helpful to them.|
|60||75||36||but they are not able to give them any assistance: yet are they a party of troops ready to defend them.||No power have they to succour them: yet are their votaries an army at their service.|
|60||76||36||Let not their speech, therefore, grieve thee: we know that which they privately conceal, and that which they publicly discover.||Let not their speech grieve thee: We know what they hide and what they bring to light.|
|60||77||36||Doth not man know that we have created him of seed? yet behold, he is an open disputer against the resurrection;||Doth not man perceive that we have created him of the moist germs of life? Yet lo! is he an open caviller.|
|60||78||36||and he propoundeth unto us a comparison, and forgetteth his creation. He saith, Who shall restore bones to life, when they are rotten?a||a See chapter 16, p. 195, note||And he meeteth us with arguments,17 and forgetteth his creation: "Who," saith he, "shall give life to bones when they are rotten?"||17 Lit. he setteth forth to us comparisons.|
|60||79||36||Answer, He shall restore them to life, who produced them the first time: for he is skilled in every kind of creation:||SAY: He shall give life to them who gave them being at first, for in all creation is he skilled:|
|60||80||36||who giveth you fire out of the green tree,b and behold, ye kindle your fuel from thence.||b The usual way of striking fire in the east is by rubbing together two pieces of wood, one of which is commonly of the tree called Markh, and the other of that called Afâr: and it will succeed even though the wood be green and wet.1
1 Vide Hyde, de Rel. Vet. Pers. c. 25, p. 333, &c.
|Who even out of the green tree hath given you fire18, and lo! ye kindle flame from it.||18 The form of the Arabic word is Rabbinic Hebrew.|
|60||81||36||Is not he who hath created the heavens and the earth able to create new creatures like unto them? Yea certainly: for he is the wise Creator.||What! must not He who hath created the Heavens and the Earth be mighty enough to create your likes? Yes! and He is the skilful creator.|
|60||82||36||His command, when he willeth a thing, is only that he saith unto it, Be; and it is.||His command when He willeth aught, is but to say to it, BE, and IT IS.|
|60||83||36||Wherefore praise be unto him, in whose hand is the kingdom of all things, and unto whom ye shall return at the last day.||So glory be to Him in whose hand is sway over all things! And to Him shall ye be brought back.|