|Rodwell Suráh #||Verse #||Traditional Suráh #||Sale Translation||Sale's Notes||Bahá'í References (Central Figures)||Bahá'í Translation (Shoghi Effendi unless otherwise noted)||Bahá'í References (Special)||Rodwell Translation||Rodwell's notes|
|50||0||37||CHAPTER XXXVII.||SURA XXXVII.THE RANKS [L.]|
|50||0||37||ENTITLED, THOSE WHO RANK THEMSELVES IN ORDER; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.182 Verses|
|50||0||37||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|50||1||37||BY the angels who rank themselves in order;c||c Some understand by these words the souls of men who range themselves in obedience to GODS laws, and put away from them all infidelity and corrupt doings; or the souls of those who rank themselves in battle array, to fight for the true religion, and push on their horses to charge the infidels, &c.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|By the angels ranged in order for Songs of Praise,|
|50||2||37||and by those who drive forward and dispel the clouds;d||d Or, who put in motion all bodies, in the upper and lower world, according to the divine command; or, who keep off men from disobedience to GOD, by inspiring them with good thoughts and inclinations; or, who drive away the devils from them, &c.3
|And by those who repel demons,1||1 I have given in the text the sense of these first two verses according to the Muhammadan commentators. The original, literally translated, viz. By the ranks which rank themselves, and by the repellers who repel, would not convey an intelligible idea to the English reader. Mar. renders, Per ordinantes ordinando et agitantes agitando.|
|50||3||37||and by those who read the Koran for an admonition;||And by those who recite the Koran for warning,|
|50||4||37||verily your GOD is one:||Truly your God is but one,|
|50||5||37||the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them, and the LORD of the east.e||e The original word, being in the plural number, is supposed to signify the different points of the horizon from whence the sun rises in the course of the year, which are in number 360 (equal to the number of days in the old civil year), and have as many corresponding points where it successively sets, during that space.4 Marracci groundlessly imagines this interpretation to be built on the error of the plurality of worlds.5
4 Idem, Yahya.
5 Marracc. in Alc. p. 589.
|Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them, and Lord of the East.2||2 Ar. Easts. Errat in pluralitate mundorum. Mar. But the allusion probably is to the different points of the horizon at which the sun rises and sets in the course of the year.|
|50||6||37||We have adorned the lower heaven with the ornament of the stars:||We have adorned the lower heaven with the adornment of the stars.|
|50||7||37||and we have placed therein a guard against every rebellious devil;||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
|They serve also as a guard against every rebellious Satan,|
|50||8||37||that they may not listen to the discourse of the exalted princes (for they are darted at from every side,||That they overhear not what passeth in the assembly on high, for they are darted at from every side,3||3 See Sura [lvii.] xv. 18.|
|50||9||37||to repel them, and a lasting torment is prepared for them);||Driven off and consigned to a lasting torment;|
|50||10||37||except him who catcheth a word by stealth, and is pursued by a shining flame.f||f See chapter 15, p. 192.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 32-36, Nabíl-i-Zarandi)
|While, if one steal a word by stealth, a glistening flame pursueth him.|
|50||11||37||Ask the Meccans, therefore, whether they be stronger by nature, or the angels, whom we have created? We have surely created them of stiff clay.||Ask the Meccans then, Are they, or the angels whom we have made, the stronger creation? Aye, of coarse clay have we created them.|
|50||12||37||Thou wonderest at God's power and their obstinacy; but they mock at the arguments urged to convince them:||But while thou marvellest they mock;|
|50||13||37||when they are warned, they do not take warning;||When they are warned, no warning do they take;|
|50||14||37||and when they see any sign, they scoff thereat,||And when they see a sign, they fall to mocking,|
|50||15||37||and say, This is no other than manifest sorcery:||And say, "This is no other than clear sorcery:|
|50||16||37||after we shall be dead, and become dust and bones, shall we really be raised to life,||What! when dead, and turned to dust and bones, shall we indeed be raised?|
|50||17||37||and our forefathers also?||Our sires also of olden times?"|
|50||18||37||Answer, Yea: and ye shall then be despicable.||Say, Yes; and ye shall be covered with disgrace.|
|50||19||37||There shall be but one blast of the trumpet, and they shall see themselves raised:||For, one blast only, and lo! they shall gaze around them,|
|50||20||37||and they shall say, Alas for us! this is the day of judgment,||And shall say, "Oh! woe to us! this is the day of reckoning;|
|50||21||37||this is the day of distinction between the righteous and the wicked, which ye rejected as a falsehood.||This is the day of decision which ye gainsaid as an untruth."|
|50||22||37||Gather together those who have acted unjustly, and their comrades, and the idols which they worshipped||Gather together those who have acted unjustly, and their consorts,4 and the gods whom they adored||4 Or, comrades, i.e. the demons.|
|50||23||37||besides GOD, and direct them in the way to hell;||Beside God; and guide them to the road for Hell.|
|50||24||37||and set them before God's tribunal; for they shall be called to account.||Set them forth: they shall be questioned.|
|50||25||37||What aileth you that ye defend not one another?||"How now, that ye help not one another?"|
|50||26||37||But on this day they shall submit themselves to the judgment of God:||But on this day they shall submit themselves to God,|
|50||27||37||and they shall draw nigh unto one another, and shall dispute among themselves.||And shall address one another with mutual reproaches.|
|50||28||37||And the seduced shall say unto those who seduced them, Verily ye came unto us with presages of prosperity;g||g Literally, from the right hand. The words may also be rendered, with force, to compel us; or with an oath, swearing that ye were in the right.||They shall say, "In sooth, ye came to us in well-omened sort:"5||5 Lit. on the right hand, the side of good omen i.e. with semblance of truth.|
|50||29||37||and the seducers shall answer, Nay, rather ye were not true believers: for we had no power over you to compel you; but ye were people who voluntarily transgressed:||But they will answer, "Nay, it was ye who would not believe; and we had no power whatever over you. Nay, ye were people given to transgress;|
|50||30||37||wherefore the sentence of our LORD hath been justly pronounced against us, and we shall surely taste his vengeance.||Just, therefore, is the doom which our Lord hath passed upon us.6 We shall surely taste it:||6 See Sura [lx.] xxxvi. 6.|
|50||31||37||We seduced you; but we also erred ourselves.||We made you err, for we had erred ourselves."|
|50||32||37||They shall both therefore be made partakers of the same punishment on that day.||Partners therefore shall they be in punishment on that day.|
|50||33||37||Thus will we deal with the wicked:||Truly, thus will we deal with the wicked,|
|50||34||37||because, when it is said unto them, There is no god besides the true GOD, they swell with arrogance,||Because when it was said to them, There is no God but God, they swelled with pride,|
|50||35||37||and say, Shall we abandon our gods for a distracted poet?||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 234, p. 211
|And they say, 'Shall we then abandon our gods for a crazed poet?'||And said, "Shall we then abandon our gods for a crazed poet?"|
|50||36||37||Nay: he cometh with the truth, and beareth witness to the former apostles.||Nay, he cometh with truth and confirmeth the Sent Ones of old.|
|50||37||37||Ye shall surely taste the painful torment of hell;||Ye shall surely taste the painful punishment,|
|50||38||37||and ye shall not be rewarded, but according to your works.||And ye shall not be rewarded but as ye have wrought,|
|50||39||37||But as for the sincere servants of GOD,||Save the sincere servants of God!|
|50||40||37||they shall have a certain provision in paradise,||A stated banquet shall they have|
|50||41||37||namely, delicious fruits: and they shall be honoured:||Of fruits; and honoured shall they be|
|50||42||37||they shall be placed in gardens of pleasure,||In the gardens of delight,|
|50||43||37||leaning on couches, opposite to one another:h||h See chapter 15, p. 193, note||Upon couches face to face.|
|50||44||37||a cup shall be carried round unto them, filled from a limpid fountain,||A cup shall be borne round among them from a fountain,|
|50||45||37||for the delight of those who drink:||Limpid, delicious to those who drink;|
|50||46||37||it shall not oppress the understanding, neither shall they be inebriated therewith.||It shall not oppress the sense, nor shall they therewith be drunken.|
|50||47||37||And near them shall lie the virgins of paradise, refraining their looks from beholding any besides their spouses, having large black eyes, and resembling the eggs of an ostrich covered with feathers from the dust.i||i This may seem an odd comparison to an European; but the orientals think nothing comes so near the colour of a fine womans skin as that of an ostrichs egg when kept perfectly clean.||And with them are the large-eyed ones with modest refraining glances, fair like the sheltered egg.7||7 The ostrich egg carefully protected from dust.|
|50||48||37||And they shall turn the one unto the other, and shall ask one another questions.||And they shall address one another with mutual questions.|
|50||49||37||And one of them shall say, Verily I had an intimate friend while I lived in the world,||Saith one of them, "I truly had a bosom friend,|
|50||50||37||who said unto me, Art thou one of those who assertest the truth of the resurrection?||Who said, 'Art thou of those who credit it?|
|50||51||37||After we shall be dead, and reduced to dust and bones, shall we surely be judged?||What! when we shall have died, and become dust and bones, shall we indeed be judged?"'|
|50||52||37||Then he shall say to his companions, Will ye look down?||He shall say to those around him, "Will ye look?"|
|50||53||37||And he shall look down, and shall see him in the midst of hell:||And he shall look and see him in the midst of Hell.|
|50||54||37||and he shall say unto him, By GOD, it wanted little but thou hadst drawn me into ruin:||And he shall say to him, "By God, thou hadst almost caused me to perish;|
|50||55||37||and had it not been for the grace of my LORD, I had surely been one of those who have been delivered up to eternal torment.||And, but for the favour of my Lord, I had surely been of those who have been brought with thee into torment."|
|50||56||37||Shall we die||"But do we not die," say the blessed,|
|50||57||37||any other than our first death; or do we suffer any punishment?||"Any other than our first death? and have we escaped the torment?"8||8 Lit. and are we not among the punished?|
|50||58||37||Verily this is great felicity:||This truly is the great felicity!|
|50||59||37||for the obtaining a felicity like this let the laborers labor.||For the like of this should the travailers travail!|
|50||60||37||Is this a better entertainment, or the tree of al Zakkum?k||k There is a thorny tree so called, which grows in Tehâma, and bears fruit like an almond, but extremely bitter; and therefore the same name is given to this infernal tree.||Is this the better repast or the tree Ez-zakkoum?|
|50||61||37||Verily we have designed the same for an occasion of dispute unto the unjust.l||l The infidels not conceiving how a tree could grow in hell, where the stones themselves serve for fuel.||Verily, we have made it for a subject of discord to the wicked.|
|50||62||37||It is a tree which issueth from the bottom of hell:||It is a tree which cometh up from the bottom of hell;|
|50||63||37||the fruit thereof resembleth the heads of devils;m||m Or of serpents ugly to behold; the original word signifies both.||Its fruits is as it were the heads of Satans;|
|50||64||37||and the damned shall eat of the same, and shall fill their bellies therewith;||And, lo! the damned shall surely eat of it and fill their bellies with it:|
|50||65||37||and there shall be given them thereon a mixture of filthy and boiling water to drink:||Then shall they have, thereon, a mixture of boiling water:|
|50||66||37||afterwards shall they return into hell.n||n Some suppose that the entertainment mentioned will be the welcome given the damned before they enter that place; and others, that they will be suffered to come out of hell from time to time, to drink their scalding liquor.||Then shall they return to hell.|
|50||67||37||They found their fathers going astray,||They found their fathers erring,|
|50||68||37||and they trod hastily in their footsteps:||And they hastened on in their footsteps.|
|50||69||37||for the greater part of the ancients erred before them.||Also before them the greater number of the ancients had erred.|
|50||70||37||And we sent warners unto them heretofore:||Though we had sent warners among them.|
|50||71||37||and see how miserable was the end of those who were warned;||But see what was the end of these warned ones,|
|50||72||37||except the sincere servants of GOD.||Except of God's true servants.|
|50||73||37||Noah called on us in former days: and we heard him graciously:||Noah called on us of old, and right prompt were we to hear him,9||9 Lit. et sane euge auditores. Mar.|
|50||74||37||and we delivered him and his family out of the great distress;||And we saved him and his family out of the great distress,|
|50||75||37||and we caused his offspring to be those who survived to people the earth:||And we made his offspring the survivors;|
|50||76||37||and we left the following salutation to be bestowed on him by the latest posterity,||And we left for him with posterity,|
|50||77||37||namely, Peace be on Noah among all creatures!||"Peace be on Noah throughout the worlds!"|
|50||78||37||Thus do we reward the righteous;||Thus do we reward the well-doers,|
|50||79||37||for he was one of our servants the true believers.||For he was one of our believing servants;|
|50||80||37||Afterwards we drowned the others.||And the rest we drowned.|
|50||81||37||Abraham also was of his religion:o||o For Noah and he agreed in the fundamental points both of faith and practice; though the space between them was no less than 2640 years.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And truly, of his faith was Abraham,|
|50||82||37||when he came unto his LORD with a perfect heart.||When he brought to his Lord a perfect heart,|
|50||83||37||When he said unto his father and his people, What do ye worship?||When he said to his father and to his people, "What is this ye worship?|
|50||84||37||Do ye choose false gods preferably to the true GOD?||Prefer ye with falsehood gods to God?|
|50||85||37||What therefore is your opinion of the LORD of all creatures?||And what deem ye of the Lord of the worlds?"|
|50||86||37||And he looked and observed the stars,||So gazing he gazed towards the stars,|
|50||87||37||and said, Verily I shall be sick,p and shall not assist at your sacrifices:||p He made as if he gathered so much from the aspect of the heavensthe people being greatly addicted to the superstitions of astrologyand made it his excuse for being absent from their festival, to which they had invited him.||And said, "In sooth I am ill:10||10 And therefore unable to assist at your sacrifices.|
|50||88||37||and they turned their backs and departed from him.q||q Fearing he had some contagious distemper.2
|And they turned their back on him and departed.|
|50||89||37||And Abraham went privately to their gods, and said, scoffingly unto them, Do ye not eat of the meat which is set before you?||He went aside to their gods and said, "Do ye not eat?|
|50||90||37||What aileth you that ye speak not?||What aileth you that ye do not speak?"|
|50||91||37||And he turned upon them, and struck them with his right hand, and demolished them.||He broke out upon them, with the right hand striking:|
|50||92||37||And the people came hastily unto him:||When his tribesmen came back to him with hasty steps|
|50||93||37||and he said, Do ye worship the images which ye carve?||He said, "Worship ye what ye carve,|
|50||94||37||whereas GOD hath created you, and also that which ye make.||When God hath created you, and that ye make?"|
|50||95||37||They said, Build a pile for him, and cast him into the glowing fire.||They said, "Build up a pyre for him and cast him into the glowing flame."|
|50||96||37||And they devised a plot against him; but we made them the inferior, and delivered him.r||r See chapter 21, p. 246, &c.||Fain would they plot against him, but we brought them low.|
|50||97||37||And Abraham said, Verily I am going unto my LORD,s who will direct me.||s Whither he hath commanded me.||And he said, "Verily, I repair to my Lord who will guide me:|
|50||98||37||O LORD, grant me a righteous issue.||O Lord give me a son, of the righteous."|
|50||99||37||Wherefore we acquainted him that he should have a son, who should be a meek youth.||We announced to him a youth of meekness.|
|50||100||37||And when he had attained to years of discretion,t and could join in acts of religion with him,||t He was then thirteen years old.3
|And when he became a full-grown youth,11||11 Lit. cum igitur pervenisset cum eo ad tatem cui competit operandi studium. Mar. Beidh. When he had attained to the age when he could work with him. Lane.|
|50||101||37||Abraham said unto him, O my son, verily I saw in a dream that I should offer thee in sacrifice:u consider therefore what thou art of opinion I should do.||u The commentators say, that Abraham was ordered in a vision, which he saw on the eighth night of the month Dhulhajja, to sacrifice his son; and to assure him that this was not from the devil, as he was inclined to suspect, the same vision was repeated a second time the next night, when he knew it to be from GOD, and also a third time the night following, when he resolved to obey it, and to sacrifice his son; and hence some think the eighth, ninth, and tenth days of Dhulhajja are called Yawm altarwiya, yawm ar afat, and yawm alnehr, that is, the day of the vision, the day of knowledge, and the day of the sacrifice.
It is the most received opinion among the Mohammedans that the son whom Abraham offered was Ismael, and not Isaac, Ismael being his only son at that time: for the promise of Isaacs birth is mentioned lower, as subsequent in time to this transaction. They also allege the testimony of their prophet, who is reported to have said, I am the son of the two who were offered in sacrifice; meaning his great ancestor, Ismael, and his own father Abdallah: for Abdalmotalleb had made a vow that if GOD would permit him to find out and open the well Zemzem, and should give him ten sons, he would sacrifice one of them. Accordingly, when he had obtained his desire in both respects, he cast lots on his sons, and the lot falling on Abdallah, he redeemed him by offering a hundred camels, which was therefore ordered to be the price of a mans blood in the Sonna.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin, al Zamakh.
|His father said to him, "My son, I have seen in a dream that I should sacrifice thee; therefore, consider what thou seest right."|
|50||102||37||He answered, O my father, do what thou art commanded: thou shalt find me, if GOD please, a patient person.||He said, "My father, do what thou art bidden; of the patient, if God please, shalt thou find me."|
|50||103||37||And when they had submitted themselves to the divine will, and Abraham had laid his son prostrate on his face,x||x The commentators add, that Abraham went so far as to draw the knife with all his strength across the lads throat, but was miraculously hindered from hurting him.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And when they had surrendered them to the will of God, he laid him down upon his forehead:|
|50||104||37||we cried unto him, O Abraham,||We cried unto him, "O Abraham!|
|50||105||37||now hast thou verified the vision. Thus do we reward the righteous.||Now hast thou satisfied the vision." See how we recompense the righteous.|
|50||106||37||Verily this was a manifest trial.||This was indeed a decisive test.|
|50||107||37||And we ransomed him with a noble victim.y||y The epithet of great or noble is here added, either because it was large and fat, or because it was accepted as the ransom of a prophet. Some suppose this victim was a ram, and, if we may believe a common tradition, the very same which Abel sacrificed, having been brought to Abraham out of paradise; others fancy it was a wild goat, which came down from Mount Thabîr, near Mecca, for the Mohammedans lay the scene of this transaction in the valley of Mina; as a proof of which they tell us that the horns of the victim were hung upon the spout of the Caaba, where they remained till they were burnt, together with that building, in the days of Abdallah Ebn Zobeir;3 though others assure us that they had been before taken down by Mohammed himself, to remove all occasion of idolatry.4
4 Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Ismail.
|And we ransomed his son with a costly12 victim,||12 Brought, says Rabbi Jehoshua, from Paradise by an angel. Midr. fol.|
|50||108||37||And we left the following salutation to be bestowed on him by the latest posterity,||And we left this13 for him among posterity,||13 This salutation.|
|50||109||37||namely, Peace be on Abraham!||"PEACE BE ON ABRAHAM!"|
|50||110||37||Thus do we reward the righteous:||Thus do we reward the well-doers,|
|50||111||37||for he was one of our faithful servants.||For he was of our believing servants.|
|50||112||37||And we rejoiced him with the promise of Isaac:||And we announced Isaac to hima righteous Prophet|
|50||113||37||and of their offspring were some righteous doers, and others who manifestly injured their own souls.||And on him and on Isaac we bestowed our blessing. And among their offspring were well-doers, and others, to their own hurt undoubted sinners.|
|50||114||37||We were also gracious unto Moses and Aaron, heretofore:||And of old,14 to Moses and to Aaron shewed we favours:||14 The Arabic particle which is here and elsewhere rendered of old (also, already, certainly) serves to mark the position of a past act or event as prior to the time present, and in all such passages merely gives a fulness and intensity to our perfect, or pluperfect tense.|
|50||115||37||and we delivered them and their people from a great distress.||And both of them, and their people, we rescued from the great distress:|
|50||116||37||And we assisted them against the Egyptians; and they became the conquerors.||And we succoured them, and they became the conquerors:|
|50||117||37||And we gave them the perspicuous book of the law,||And we gave them (Moses and Aaron) each the lucid book:|
|50||118||37||and we directed them into the right way,||And we guided them each into the right way:|
|50||119||37||and we left the following salutation to be bestowed on them by the latest posterity,||And we left this for each among posterity,|
|50||120||37||namely, Peace be on Moses and Aaron!||"PEACE BE ON MOSES AND AARON."|
|50||121||37||Thus do we reward the righteous;||Thus do we reward the well-doers,|
|50||122||37||for they were two of our faithful servants.||For they were two of our believing servants.|
|50||123||37||And Eliasz was also one of those who were sent by us.||z This prophet the Mohammedans generally suppose to be the same with al Khedr, and confound him with Phineas,5 and sometimes with Edris, or Enoch. Some say he was the son of Yasin, and nearly related to Aaron; and others suppose him to have been a different person. He was sent to the inhabitants of Baalbec, in Syria, the Heliopolis of the Greeks, to reclaim them from the worship of their idol Baal, or the sun, whose name makes part of that of the city, which was anciently called Becc.6
5 See cap. 18, p. 223, note
6 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|And Elias truly was of our Sent Ones,|
|50||124||37||When he said unto his people, Do ye not fear God?||When he said to his people, "Fear ye not God?|
|50||125||37||Do ye invoke Baal, and forsake the most excellent Creator?||Invoke ye Baal and forsake ye the most skilful Creator?|
|50||126||37||GOD is your LORD, and the LORD of your forefathers.||God is your Lord, and the Lord of your sires of old?"|
|50||127||37||But they accused him of imposture: wherefore they shall be delivered up to eternal punishment;||But they treated him as a liar, and shall therefore be consigned to punishment,|
|50||128||37||except the sincere servants of GOD.||Except God's faithful servants.|
|50||129||37||And we left the following salutation to be bestowed on him by the latest posterity,||And we left this for him among posterity,|
|50||130||37||namely, Peace be on Ilyâsin!a||a The commentators do not well know what to make of this word. Some think it is the plural of Elias, or, as the Arabs write it, Ilyâs, and that both that prophet and his followers, or those who resembled him, are meant thereby; others divide the word, and read âl Yasîn, i.e., the family of Yasin, who was the father of Elias according to an opinion mentioned above; and others imagine it signifies Mohammed, or the Korân, or some other book of scripture. But the most probable conjecture is that Ilyâs and Ilyâsin are the same name, or design one and the same person, as Sinai and Sinin denote one and the same mountain; the last syllable being added here, to keep up the rhyme or cadence, at the close of the verse.||"PEACE BE ON ELIASIN!"15||15 The form of this word is altered in the original for the sake of the rhyme.|
|50||131||37||Thus do we reward the righteous:||Thus do we reward the well-doers,|
|50||132||37||for he was one of our faithful servants.||For he was one of our believing servants.|
|50||133||37||And Lot was also one of those who were sent by us.||And Lot truly was of our Sent Ones,|
|50||134||37||When we delivered him and his whole family,||When we rescued him and all his family,|
|50||135||37||except an old woman, his wife, who perished, among those that remained behind:||Save an aged woman among those who tarried.|
|50||136||37||afterwards we destroyed the others.b||b See chapter 7, p. 113, &c., and chapter 11, p. 166, &c.||Afterward we destroyed the others.|
|50||137||37||And ye, O people of Mecca, pass by the places where they once dwelt, as ye journey in the morning,||And ye indeed pass by their ruined dwellings at morn|
|50||138||37||and by night; will ye not therefore understand?||And night: will ye not then reflect?|
|50||139||37||Jonas was also one of those who were sent by us.c||c See chapter 10, p. 157.||Jonas, too, was one of the Apostles,|
|50||140||37||When he fledd into the loaded ship;||d See chapter 21, p. 248.||When he fled unto the laden ship,|
|50||141||37||and those who were on board cast lots among themselves,e and he was condemned:f||e Al Beidâwi says the ship stood stock-still, wherefore they concluded that they had a fugitive servant on board, and cast lots to find him out.
f i.e., He was taken by the lot.
|And lots were cast,16 and he was doomed,||16 Lit. he cast lots (with the sailors).|
|50||142||37||and the fish swallowed him;g for he was worthy of reprehension.||g When the lot fell on Jonas he cried out, I am the fugitive; and immediately threw himself into the sea.7
|And the fish swallowed him, for he was blameworthy.|
|50||143||37||And if he had not been one those who praised GOD,h||h The words seem to relate particularly to Jonass supplication while in the whales belly.8
8 See cap. 21, p. 248.
|But had he not been of those who praise Us,|
|50||144||37||verily he had remained in the belly thereof until the day of resurrection.||In its belly had he surely remained, till the day of resurrection.|
|50||145||37||And we cast him on the naked shore, and he was sick:i||i By reason of what he had suffered; his body becoming like that of a new-born child.9 It is said that the fish, after it had swallowed Jonas, swam after the ship with its head above water, that the prophet might breathe, who continued to praise GOD till the fish came to land and vomited him out.
The opinions of the Mohammedan writers as to the time Jonas continued in the fishs belly differ very much: some suppose it was part of a day, others three days, others seven, others twenty, and others forty.10
9 Al Beidâwi.
|And we cast him on the bare shoreand he was sick;|
|50||146||37||and we caused a plant of a gourdk to grow up over him;||k The original word signifies a plant which spreads itself upon the ground, having no erect stalk or stem to support it, and particularly a gourd; though some imagine Jonass plant to have been a fig, and others the small tree or shrub called Mauz,1 which bears very large leaves, and excellent fruit.2 The commentators add, that this plant withered the next morning, and that Jonas being much concerned at it, GOD made a remonstrance to him in behalf of the Ninivites, agreeable to what is recorded in scripture.
2 Vide J Leon. Descr. Afric. lib. 9. Gab. Sionit. de Urb. Orient. ad calcem Geogr. Nub. p. 32, et Hottinger. Hist. Orient. p. 78, &c.
|And we caused a gourd-plant to grow up over him,|
|50||147||37||and we went him to an hundred thousand persons, or they were a greater number,||And we sent him to a hundred thousand persons, or even more,|
|50||148||37||and they believed: wherefore we granted them to enjoy this life for a season.||And because they believed, we continued their enjoyments for a season.|
|50||149||37||Inquire of the Meccans whether thy LORD hath daughters, and they sons?l||l See chapter 16, p. 199.||Inquire then of the Meccans whether thy Lord hath daughters, and they, sons?|
|50||150||37||Have we created the angels of the female sex? and were they witnesses thereof?||Have we created the angels females? and did they witness it?|
|50||151||37||Do they not say of their own false invention,||Is it not a falsehood of their own devising, when they say,|
|50||152||37||GOD hath begotten issue? and are they not really liars?||"God hath begotten"? They are indeed liars.|
|50||153||37||Hath he chosen daughters preferably to sons?||Would he have preferred daughters to sons?|
|50||154||37||Ye have no reason to judge thus.||What reason have ye for thus judging?|
|50||155||37||Will ye therefore not be admonished?||Will ye not then receive this warning?|
|50||156||37||Or have ye a manifest proof of what ye say?||Have ye a clear proof for them?|
|50||157||37||Produce now your book of revelations, if ye speak truth.||Produce your Book if ye speak truth.|
|50||158||37||And they make him to be of kin unto the genii;m whereas the genii know that they who affirm such things shall be delivered up to eternal punishment;||m That is, the angels, who are also comprehended under the name of genii, being a species of them. Some say that the infidels went so far as to assert that GOD and the devil were brothers,3 which blasphemous expression may have been occasioned by the magian notions.
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And they make him to be of kin with the Djinn: but the Djinn have long known that these idolaters shall be brought up before God.|
|50||159||37||(far be that from GOD, which they affirm of him!)||Far be the glory of God from what they impute to him.|
|50||160||37||except the sincere servants of GOD.||"His faithful servants do not thus.|
|50||161||37||Moreover ye and that which ye worship||Moreover, ye and what ye worship|
|50||162||37||shall not seduce any concerning God,||Shall not stir up any against God,17||17 Nequequam vos ad illud colendum estis Seducturi. Mar.|
|50||163||37||except him who is destined to be burned in hell.||Save him who shall burn in Hell.|
|50||164||37||There is none of us but hath an appointed place:||BWC: Not one of us but hath his clearly designated station.||Bahíyyih Khánum, V. Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf, no. 33, p. 134
|And verily each one of us hath his appointed place,|
|50||165||37||we range ourselves in order, attending the commands of God;||And we range ourselves in order,|
|50||166||37||and we celebrate the divine praise.n||n These words are supposed to be spoken by the angels, disclaiming the worship paid to them by the idolaters, and declaring that they have each their station and office appointed them by GOD, whose commands they are at all times ready to execute, and whose praises they continually sing. There are some expositors, however, who think they are the words of Mohammed and his followers; the meaning being, that each of them has a place destined for him in paradise, and that they are the men who range themselves in order before GOD, to worship and pray to him, and who celebrate his praise by rejecting every false notion derogatory to the divine wisdom and power.||And we celebrate His praises."18||18 This verse and the six preceding are the words of the Angel.|
|50||167||37||The infidels said,||And if those infidels say,|
|50||168||37||If we had been favored with a book of divine revelations, of those which were delivered to the ancients,||"Had we a revelation transmitted to us from those of old,19|
|50||169||37||we had surely been sincere servants of GOD:||We had surely been God's faithful servants."|
|50||170||37||yet now the Koran is revealed, they believe not therein; but hereafter shall they know the consequence of their unbelief.||Yet they believe not the Koran. But they shall know its truth at last.|
|50||171||37||Our word hath formerly been given unto our servants the apostles;||Our word came of old to our servants the apostles,|
|50||172||37||that they shall certainly be assisted against the infidels,||That they should surely be the succoured,|
|50||173||37||and that our armies should surely be the conquerors.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 134, p. 126 (2 times)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 18
|And verily Our host shall conquer.
EGB: And verily our host shall overcome for them,
|And that our armies should procure the victory for them.|
|50||174||37||Turn aside therefore from them, for a season:||Turn aside therefore from them for a time,|
|50||175||37||and see the calamities which shall afflict them; for they shall see thy future success and prosperity.||And behold them, for they too shall in the end behold their doom.|
|50||176||37||Do they therefore seek to hasten our vengeance?||Would they then hasten our vengeance?|
|50||177||37||Verily when it shall descend into their courts, an evil morning shall it be unto those who were warned in vain.||But when it shall come down into their courts, an evil morning shall it be to those who have had their warning.|
|50||178||37||Turn aside from them therefore for a season,||Turn aside from them therefore for a time.|
|50||179||37||and see: hereafter shall they see thy success and their punishment.||And behold; for they too shall in the end behold their doom.|
|50||180||37||Praise be unto thy LORD, the LORD who is far exalted above what they affirm of him!||Some Answered Questions (Chapter 81, within pp. 282-290)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (7 Prayers and Meditations, within pp. 183-186)
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: Far from the glory of thy Lord, the All-Glorious, be that which His creatures affirm of Him!
cf. LCB: Glory to thy Lord, the Lord Who is sanctified from all their descriptions.
BWC: Far be the glory of Thy Lord, the Lord of all greatness, from what they impute to Him,
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter III, p. 63
|Far be the glory of thy Lord, the Lord of all greatness, from what they impute to him,|
|50||181||37||And peace be on his apostles!||37:180-182 (cont.)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (7 Prayers and Meditations, within pp. 183-186)
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: And peace be upon His Messengers!
BWC: and peace be upon His Apostles,
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter III, p. 63
|And peace be on his Apostles!|
|50||182||37||And praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!||37:180-182 (cont.)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (7 Prayers and Meditations, within pp. 183-186)
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: And praise be to God, the Lord of all beings!
BWC: and praise be unto God, the Lord of all the worlds.
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter III, p. 63
|And praise be to God the Lord of the worlds.|
|59||0||38||CHAPTER XXXVIII.||SURA XXXVIII.SAD [LIX.]|
|59||0||38||ENTITLED, S.; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.88 Verses|
|59||0||38||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|59||1||38||S.o BY the Korân full of admonition.p Verily the unbelievers are addicted to pride and contention.||o The meaning of this letter is unknown:1 some guess it stands for Sidk, i.e., Truth; or for Sadaka, i.e., He (viz., Mohammed) speaketh the truth; and others propose different conjectures, all equally uncertain.
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.
p Something must be understood to answer this oath, which the commentators variously supply.
|SAD.1 By the Koran full of warning! In sooth the Infidels are absorbed in pride, in contention with thee.||1 The letter S. See Sura lxviii. p. 32.|
|59||2||38||How many generations have we destroyed before them; and they cried for mercy, but it was not a time to escape.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Lawh-i-Fuád)
|BWC: There is no escape!||How many generations have we destroyed before them! And they cried for mercy but no time was it of escape!|
|59||3||38||They wonder that a warner from among themselves hath come unto them. And the unbelievers said, This man is a sorcerer, and a liar:||And they marvel that a warner from among themselves hath come to them; and the Infidels say, "This is a sorcerer, a liar:|
|59||4||38||doth he affirm the gods to be but one GOD. Surely this is a wonderful thing.||Maketh he the gods to be but one god? A strange thing forsooth is this!"|
|59||5||38||And the chief men among them departed,q saying to one another, Go, and persevere in the worship of your gods: verily this is the thing which is designed.r||q On the conversion of Omar, the Koreish being greatly irritated, the most considerable of them went in a body to Abu Taleb, to complain to him of his nephew Mohammeds proceedings; but being confounded and put to silence by the prophets arguments, they left the assembly, and encouraged one another in their obstinacy.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
r Namely, to draw us from their worship.
|And their chiefs took themselves off. "Go, said they, and cleave steadfastly2 to your gods. Ye see the thing aimed at.||2 These verses are said to have been revealed when, upon the conversion of Omar, the Koreisch went in a body to Abu Talib and requested him to withdraw his protection from Muhammad, but being put to silence by the latter, departed in great confusion. Wah. Beidh.|
|59||6||38||We have not heard anything like this in the last religion:s this is no other than a false contrivance.||s i.e., In the religion which we received from our fathers; or, in the religion of Jesus, which was the last before the mission of Mohammed.3
|We heard not of this in the previous creed.3 It is but an imposture:||3 That is, in the Christian religion, which teaches, Muhammad ironically implies, a plurality of Gods.|
|59||7||38||Hath an admonition been sent unto him preferable to any other among us? Verily they are in a doubt concerning my admonition: but they have not yet tasted my vengeance.||To him alone of us all hath a book of warning been sent down?" Yes! they are in doubt as to my warnings, for they have not yet tasted my vengeance.|
|59||8||38||Are the treasures of the mercy of thy LORD, the mighty, the munificent God, in their hands?||Are the treasures of the mercy of thy Lord, the Mighty, the bounteous, in their hands?|
|59||9||38||Is the kingdom of the heavens, and the earth, and of whatever is between them, in their possession? If it be so, let them ascend by steps unto heaven.||Is the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth and of all that is between them theirs? Then let them mount up by cords!|
|59||10||38||But any army of the confederates shall even here be put to flight.||Any army of the confederates4 shall here be routed.||4 This may allude to the so-called "confederacy" of the Koreisch against Muhammad.|
|59||11||38||The people of Noah, and the tribe of Ad, and Pharaoh the contriver of the stakes,t||t For they say Pharaoh used to tie those he had a mind to punish by the hands and feet to four stakes fixed in the ground, and so tormented them.4 Some interpret the words, which may also be translated the lord or master of the stakes, figuratively, of the firm establishment of Pharaohs kingdom; because the Arabs fix their tents with stakes;5 but they may possibly intend that princes obstinacy and hardness of heart.
5 Al Beidâwi.
|The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 53
|MG: (note 30 states: Dhu'l-Awtád is variously rendered by translators of the Qur'án as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc. Awtád means pegs or tent stakes.)||Before them the people of Noah and Ad and Pharaoh the impaler5 treated their prophets as impostors;||5 This term is also applied to Pharaoh, Sura lxxxix. 9, p. 54. He is said to have fastened the Israelites to stakes, and then subjected them to various torments.
addendum: This is the usual interpretation. Lit. Lord of, or, possessor of stakes (comp. li. 39 in Ar.), i.e., Forces. Dr. Sprenger ingenuously suggests that Muhammads Jewish informant may have described Pharaoh as rich in neçyb, i.e., fortresses; whereas, in Ar., naçyb, means an erection, pillar, etc., for which Muhammad substituted the word for tent stakes. Vol. i. (470).
|59||12||38||and the tribe of Thamud, and the people of Lot, and the inhabitants of the wood near Madian,u accused the prophets of imposture before them; these were the confederates against the messengers of God.||u See chapter 15, p. 194.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Lawh-i-Fuád)
|And Themoud, and the people of Lot, and the dwellers in the forest: these were the confederates.|
|59||13||38||All of them did no other than accuse their apostles of falsehood: wherefore my vengeance hath been justly executed upon them.||Nought did they all but charge the apostles with falsehood: Just, therefore, the retribution.|
|59||14||38||And these wait only for one sounding of the trumpet; which there shall be no deferring.||And these (Meccans) await but one single trumpet blastThere shall be no delaying it|
|59||15||38||And they scoffingly say, O LORD, hasten our sentence unto us, before the day of account.||Yet they dare to say, "O our Lord! hasten our lot to us, before the day of reckoning."|
|59||16||38||Do thou patiently bear that which they utter: and remind them of our servant David, endued with strength;x for he was one who seriously turned himself unto God.||x The commentators suppose that ability to undergo the frequent practice of religious exercises is here meant. They say David used to fast every other day, and to spend one-half of the night in prayer.1
1 Idem. interp.
|Put thou up with what they say: and remember our servant David, a man strong of hand6, one who turned him to Us in penitence:||6 Præditi (manibus) virtute. Mar.|
|59||17||38||We compelled the mountains to celebrate our praise with him, in the evening and at sunrise,||We constrained the mountains7 to join with him in lauds at even and at sunrise;||7 Comp. Ps. cxlviii. 9, 10.|
|59||18||38||and also the birds, which gathered themselves together unto him:y all of them returned frequently unto him for this purpose.||y See chapter 21, p. 247.||And the birds which flocked to him, and would all return to him oft;|
|59||19||38||And we established his kingdom, and gave him wisdom and eloquence of speech.||And we stablished his kingdom: and wisdom, and skill to pronounce clear decisions, did we bestow on him.|
|59||20||38||Hath the story of the two adversariesz come to thy knowledge; when they ascended over the wall into the upper apartment,||z These were two angels, who came unto David in the shape of men, to demand judgment in the feigned controversy after mentioned. It is no other than Nathans parable to David,2 a little disguised.
2 2 Sam. xii.
|Hath the story of the two pleaders8 reached thee, O Muhammad, when they mounted the walls of his closet?||8 Two angels who pretended to appeal to David in order to convince him of his sin in the matter of Uriah's wife. Comp. I Sam. xii.|
|59||21||38||when they went in unto David, and he was afraid of them.a They said, Fear not: we are two adversaries who have a controversy to be decided. The one of us hath wronged the other: wherefore judge between us with truth, and be not unjust; and direct us into the even way.||a Because they came suddenly upon him, on a day of privacy: when the doors were guarded, and no person admitted to disturb his devotions. For David, they say, divided his time regularly, setting apart one day for the service of GOD, another day for rendering justice to his people, another day for preaching to them, and another day for his own affairs.3
3 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|When they entered in upon David, and he was frightened at them, they said, "Be not afraid; we are two opposing parties: one of us hath wronged the other. Judge therefore with truth between us, and be not unjust, but guide us to the right way.|
|59||22||38||This my brother had ninety and nine sheep: and I had only one ewe: and he said, Give her me to keep; and he prevailed against me in the discourse which we had together.||Now this my brother had ninety and nine ewes, and I had but a single ewe; and he said, make me her keeper. And he over-persuaded me in the dispute."|
|59||23||38||David answered, Verily he hath wronged thee in demanding thine ewe as an addition to his own sheep: and many of them who are concerned together in business wrong one another, except those who believe and do that which is right; but how few are they! And David perceived that we had tried him by this parable, and he asked pardon of his LORD: and he fell down and bowed himself, and repented.b||b The crime of which David had been guilty, was the taking the wife of Uriah, and ordering her husband to be set in the front of the battle to be slain.4
Some suppose this story was told to serve as an admonition to Mohammed, who, it seems, was apt to covet what was anothers.
|He said, "Certainly he hath wronged thee in asking for thine ewe to add her to his own ewes: and truly many associates do one another wrongexcept those who believe and do the things that are right; and few indeed are they!" And David perceived that we had tried him; so he asked pardon of his Lord, and fell down and bowed himself and repented.|
|59||24||38||Wherefore we forgave him this fault; and he shall be admitted to approach near unto us, and shall have an excellent place of abode in paradise.||So we forgave him that his sin; and truly he shall have a high rank with Us, and an excellent retreat in Paradise.|
|59||25||38||O David, verily we have appointed thee a sovereign prince in the earth: judge therefore between men with truth; and follow not thy own lust, lest it cause thee to err from the way of GOD: for those who err from the way of GOD shall suffer a severe punishment, because they have forgotten the day of account.||O David! verily we have made thee our vicegerent upon earth. Judge therefore between men with truth, and follow not thy passions, lest they cause thee to err from the way of God. For they who err from the way of God shall meet with a grievous chastisement, for that they have forgotten the day of reckoning.|
|59||26||38||We have not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in vain.c This is the opinion of the unbelievers: but woe unto those who believe not, because of the fire of hell.||c So as to permit injustice to go unpunished, and righteousness unrewarded.||We have not created the heaven and the earth and what is between them for nought. That is the thought of infidels; but woe to the infidels because of the fire!|
|59||27||38||Shall we deal with those who believe and do good works, as with those who act corruptly in the earth? Shall we deal with the pious as with the wicked?||Shall we treat those who believe and do the things that are right like those who propagate evil on earth? Shall we treat the God-fearing like the impious?|
|59||28||38||A blessed book have we sent down unto thee, O Mohammed, that they may attentively meditate on the signs thereof, and that men of understanding may be warned.||A blessed Book9 have we sent down to thee, that men may meditate its verses, and that those endued with understanding may bear it in mind.||9 The Psalms, if we suppose with Nöldeke, p. 99, that David is still addressed: the Koran, if with Sale we refer the passage to Muhammad.|
|59||29||38||And we gave unto David Solomon; how excellent a servant! for he frequently turned himself unto God.||And Solomon gave we unto David. An excellent servant, for he loved to turn him Godward.|
|59||30||38||When the horses standing on three feet, and touching the ground with the edge of the fourth foot, and swift in the course, were set in parade before him in the evening,d||d Some say that Solomon brought these horses, being a thousand in number, from Damascus and Nisibis, which cities he had taken; others say that they were left him by his father, who took them from the Amalekites; while others, who prefer the marvellous, pretend that they came up out of the sea, and had wings. However, Solomon, having one day a mind to view these horses, ordered them to be brought before him, and was so taken up with them that he spent the remainder of the day, till after sunset, in looking on them; by which means he neglected the prayer, which ought to have been said at that time, till it was too late; but when he perceived his omission, he was so greatly concerned at it, that ordering the horses to be brought back, he killed them all as an offering to GOD, except only a hundred of the best of them. But GOD made him ample amends for the loss of these horses, by giving him dominion over the winds.5
5 Al Beidâwi, al Zamakh., Yahya.
|Remember when at eventide the prancing10 chargers were displayed before him,||10 The Commentators say that the word used in the original implies that the mares stood on three feet, and touched the ground with the edge of the fourth foot.|
|59||31||38||he said, Verily I have loved the love of earthly good above the remembrance of my LORD: and have spent the time in viewing these horses, until the sun is hidden by the veil of night;||And he said, "Truly I have loved the love of earthly goods above the remembrance of my Lord, till the sun hath been hidden by the veil of darkness.11||11 Solomon, in his admiration of these horses, the result, we are told, of David's or his own conquests, forgot the hour of evening prayer, and when aware of his fault commenced their slaughter. The Tr. Sanhedr. fol. 21, mentions Solomon's love for horses, and that he determined to have a large stud; yet not to send the people to Egypt (Deut. xvii. 16) but to have them brought to him out of Egypt (I Kings x. 28).|
|59||32||38||bring the horses back unto me. And when they were brought back, he began to cut off their legs and their necks.||Bring them back to me." And he began to sever the legs and necks.|
|59||33||38||We also tried Solomon, and placed on his throne a counterfeit body:e afterwards he turned unto God,||e The most received exposition of this passage is taken from the following Talmudic fable.1
Solomon, having taken Sidon, and slain the king of that city, brought away his daughter Jerâda, who became his favourite; and because she ceased not to lament her fathers loss, he ordered the devils to make an image of him for her consolation: which being done, and placed in her chamber, she and her maids worshipped it morning and evening, according to their custom. At length Solomon being informed of this idolatry, which was practised under his roof, by his vizir Asâf, he broke the image, and having chastised the woman, went out into the desert, where he wept and made supplications to GOD; who did not think fit, however, to let his negligence pass without some correction. It was Solomons custom, while he eased or washed himself, to entrust his signet, on which his kingdom depended, with a concubine of his named Amîna: one day, therefore, when she had the ring in her custody, a devil, named Sakhar, came to her in the shape of Solomon, and received the ring from her; by virtue of which he became possessed of the kingdom, and sat on the throne in the shape which he had borrowed, making what alterations in the law he pleased. Solomon, in the meantime, being changed in his outward appearance, and known to none of his subjects, was obliged to wander about, and beg alms for his subsistence; till at length, after the space of forty days, which was the time the image had been worshipped in his house, the devil flew away, and threw the signet into the sea: the signet was immediately swallowed by a fish, which being taken and given to Solomon, he found the ring in its belly, and having by this means recovered the kingdom, took Sakhar, and tying a great stone to his neck, threw him into the lake of Tiberias.2
1 Vide Talm. En Jacob, part ii. et Yalkut in lib. Reg. p. 182.
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, Abulfeda.
|We also made trial of Solomon, and placed a phantom12 on his throne: whereupon he returned to Us (in penitence).||12 One of the Djinn. The absurd fiction may be seen in extenso in Sale. Compare Tr. Sanhedr. fol. 20, b. and Midr. Jalkut on I Kings vi. § 182.|
|59||34||38||and said, O LORD, forgive me, and give me a kingdom which may not be obtained by any after me;f for thou art the giver of kingdoms.||f i.e., That I may surpass all future princes in magnificence and power.||He said, O my Lord! pardon me, and give me a dominion that may not be to any one beside me, for thou art the liberal giver.|
|59||35||38||And we made the wind subject to him; it ran gently at his command, whithersoever we directed.||So we subjected the wind to him; it ran softly at his bidding, whithersoever he directed it:|
|59||36||38||And we also put the devils in subjection under him; and among them such as were every way skilled in building, and in diving for pearls:g||g See chapter 21, p. 247; chapter 27, p. 284, &c.||And the Satansevery builder and diver|
|59||37||38||and others we delivered to him bound in chains,||And others bound in chains:13||13 Thus the second Targum on Esther i. 2, mentions the four different kinds of Demons which were "given into the hand" of Solomona legend derived from a misunderstanding of Eccl. ii. 8.|
|59||38||38||saying, This is our gift: therefore be bounteous, or be sparing unto whom thou shalt think fit,h without rendering an account.||h Some suppose these words to relate to the genii, and that Solomon is thereby empowered to release or to keep in chains such of them as he pleased.||"This," said we, "is our gift: be bounteous then, or withhold thy favours; no account shalt thou render."|
|59||39||38||And he shall approach near unto us, and shall have an excellent abode in paradise.||And his rank also is high with Us, and an excellent retreat.|
|59||40||38||And remember our servant Job,i when he cried unto his LORD, saying, Verily Satan hath afflicted me with calamity and pain.||i See chapter 21, p. 247.||And remember our servant Job when he cried to his Lord, "Verily, Satan hath laid on me disease and pain."|
|59||41||38||And it was said unto him, Strike the earth with thy foot; which when he had done, a fountaink sprang up, and it was said to him, This is for thee to wash in, to refresh thee, and to drink.||k Some say there were two springs, one of hot water, wherein he bathed; and the other of cold, of which he drank.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|"Stamp," said we, "with thy foot. This14 is to wash with; cool, and to drink."||14 The fountain which had sprung up. To this history the Talmudists have no allusion.|
|59||42||38||And we restored unto him his family, and as many more with them, through our mercy; and for an admonition unto those who are endued with understanding.||And we gave him back his family, and as many more with them in our mercy; and for a monition to men of judgment.|
|59||43||38||And we said unto him, Take a handful of rodsl in thy hand, and strike thy wife therewith;m and break not thine oath.n Verily we found him a patient person:||l The original not expressing what this handful was to consist of, one supposes it was to be only a handful of dry grass or of rushes, and another that it was a branch of a palm-tree.4
4 See the notes to cap. 21, p. 247.
m The commentators are not agreed what fault Jobs wife had committed to deserve this chastisement: we have mentioned one opinion already.5 Some think it was only because she stayed too long on an errand.
5 See ibid.
n For he had sworn to give her a hundred stripes if he recovered.
|And we said, "Take in thine hand a rod, and strike15 with it, nor break thine oath." Verily, we found him patient!||15 Thy wife;on whom he had sworn that he would inflict an hundred blows, because she had absented herself from him when in need of her assistance, or for her words (Job ii. 9). The oath was kept, we are told, by his giving her one blow with a rod of a hundred stalks. This passage is often quoted by the Muslims as authorising any similar manner of release from an oath inconsiderately taken.|
|59||44||38||how excellent a servant was he! for he was one who frequently turned himself unto us.||How excellent a servant, one who turned to Us was he!|
|59||45||38||Remember also our servants Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, who were men strenuous and prudent.||And remember our servants Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, men of might and vision.16||16 Lit. men of hand and of sight.|
|59||46||38||Verily we purified them with a perfect purification, through the remembrance of the life to come;o||o Or, as the words may be interpreted, according to al Zamakhshari, We have purified them, or peculiarly destined and fitted them for paradise.||With this cleansing did we cleanse them the remembrance of the abode of Paradise.|
|59||47||38||and they were in our sight, elect and good men.||And verily, they were, in our sight, of the elect and of the good.|
|59||48||38||And remember Ismael, and Elisha,p and Dhu'lkefl:q for all these were good men.||p See chapter 6, p. 96.
q See chapter 21, p. 248. Al Beidâwi here takes notice of another tradition concerning this prophet, viz., that he entertained and took care of a hundred Israelites, who fled to him from certain slaughter, from which action he probably had the name of Dhulkefl given him, the primary signification of the verb cafala being to maintain or take care of another. If a conjecture might be founded on this tradition, I should fancy the person intended was Obadiah, the governor of Ahabs house.6
6 See I Kings xviii. 4.
|And remember Ishmael and Elisha and Dhoulkefl, for all these were of the just.|
|59||49||38||This is an admonition. Verily the pious shall have an excellent place to return unto,||This is a monition: and verily, the pious shall have a goodly retreat:|
|59||50||38||namely, gardens of perpetual abode, the gates whereof shall stand open unto them.||Gardens of Eden, whose portals shall stand open to them:|
|59||51||38||As they lie down therein, they shall there ask for many sorts of fruits, and for drink;||Therein reclining, they shall there call for many a fruit and drink:|
|59||52||38||and near them shall sit the virgins of paradise, refraining their looks from beholding any besides their spouses, and of equal age with them.r||r i.e., About thirty or thirty-three.1
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 77.
|And with them shall be virgins of their own age, with modest retiring glances:|
|59||53||38||This is what ye are promised, at the day of account.||"This is what ye were promised at the day of reckoning."|
|59||54||38||This is our provision, which shall not fail.||"Yes! this is our provision: it shall never fail."|
|59||55||38||This shall be the reward of the righteous. But for the transgressors is prepared an evil receptacle,||Even so. But for the evil doers is a wretched home|
|59||56||38||namely, hell: they shall be cast into the same to be burned, and a wretched couch shall it be.||Hellwherein they shall be burned: how wretched a bed!|
|59||57||38||This let them taste, to wit, scalding water, and corruption flowing from the bodies of the damned,||Even so. Let them then taste itboiling water and gore,|
|59||58||38||and divers other things of the same kind.||And other things of kindred sort!|
|59||59||38||And it shall be said to the seducers, This troop which was guided by you shall be thrown, together with you, headlong into hell: they shall not be bidden welcome: for they shall enter the fire to be burned.||To their leaders it shall be said, "This company shall be thrown in headlong with you. No greetings shall await them, for they shall be burned in the fire."|
|59||60||38||And the seduced shall say to their seducers, Verily ye shall not be bidden welcome: ye have brought it upon us; and a wretched abode is hell.||They shall say: "But ye, too! there shall be no welcome for you. It was ye who prepared this for us, and wretched is the abode!"|
|59||61||38||They shall say, O LORD, doubly increase the torment of him who hath brought this punishment upon us, in the fire of hell.||They will say: "O our Lord! increase twofold in the fire, the punishment of him who hath brought this upon us."|
|59||62||38||And the infidels shall say, Why do we not see the men whom we numbered among the wicked,||And they will say: "Why see we not the men whom we numbered among the wicked|
|59||63||38||and whom we received with scorn? Or do our eyes miss them?||Whom we used to treat with scorn? Have they escaped our eyes?"17||17 Lit. or do our eyes wander from them.|
|59||64||38||Verily this is a truth; to wit, the disputing of the inhabitants of hell fire.||Verily this is truththe wrangling together of the people of the fire.|
|59||65||38||Say, O Mohammed, unto the idolaters, Verily I am no other than a warner: and there is no god, except the one only GOD, the Almighty,||SAY: I am but a warner; and there is no God but God the One, the Almighty!|
|59||66||38||the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatsoever is between them; the mighty, the forgiver of sins.||Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, and of all that is between them,18 the Potent, the Forgiving!||18 See verses 9, 26, above. It seems to have been one of the peculiarities of Muhammad, as a person very deficient in imagination, to dwell upon and repeat the same ideas, with an intensity which is at once an evidence of deep personal conviction and consciousness, of the simple Arabian especially.|
|59||67||38||Say, it is a weighty message,||38:67-68
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 238, p. 214
|Say: it is a weighty Message,||SAY: this is a weighty message,19||19 The connection between the concluding episode and the preceding part of the Sura does not seem very clear. It probably originated at a different but uncertain period.|
|59||68||38||from which ye turn aside.||38:67-68 (cont.)
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 238, p. 214
|from which ye turn aside!||From which ye turn aside!|
|59||69||38||I had no knowledge of the exalted princes,s when they disputed concerning the creation of man:||s That is, the angels.||Yet had I no knowledge of what passed among the celestial chiefs when they disputed,20||20 About the creation of man.|
|59||70||38||(it hath been revealed unto me only as a proof that I am a public preacher:)||Verily, it hath been revealed to me only because I am a public preacher|
|59||71||38||when thy LORD said unto the angels, Verily I am about to create man of clay:||When thy Lord said to the angels, "I am about to make man of clay,21||21 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 28, ff.|
|59||72||38||when I shall have formed him, therefore, and shall have breathed my spirit into him, do ye fall down and worship him.t||t See chapter 2, p. 4.||38:72-74
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXVII, p. 64)
|cf. BWC: When God created the Remembrance He presented Him to the assemblage of all created beings upon the altar of His Will.||And when I have formed him and breathed my spirit into him, then worshipping fall down before him."|
|59||73||38||And all the angels worshipped him, in general,||38:72-74 (cont.)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXVII, p. 64)
|cf. BWC: Thereupon the concourse of the angels bowed low in adoration to God, the Peerless, the Incomparable;||And the angels prostrated themselves, all of them with one accord,|
|59||74||38||except Eblis, who was puffed up with pride, and became an unbeliever.||38:74-78
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 24)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter LXVII, p. 64)
|cf. BWC: while Satan waxed proud, refusing to submit to His Remembrance;||Save Eblis. He swelled with pride, and became an unbeliever.|
|59||75||38||God said unto him, O Eblis, what hindereth thee from worshipping that which I have created with my hands?||38:74-78 (cont.)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 24)
|"O Eblis," said God, "what hindereth thee from prostrating thyself before him whom my hands have made?|
|59||76||38||Art thou elated with vain pride? Or art thou really one of exalted merit?||38:74-78 (cont.)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 24)
|Is it that thou are puffed up with pride? or art thou a being of lofty merit?"|
|59||77||38||He answered, I am more excellent than he: thou hast created me of fire, and thou hast created him of clay.||38:74-78 (cont.)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 24)
|He said: "I am more excellent than he; me hast thou created of fire:22 of clay hast thou created him."||22 Comp. Ps. civ. 4.|
|59||78||38||God said unto him, Get thee hence therefore; for thou shalt be driven away from mercy;||38:74-78 (cont.)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 24)
|He said: "Begone then hence: thou art accursed,23||23 Lit. stoned. See Sura xv. 34, p. 114.|
|59||79||38||and my curse shall be upon thee, until the day of judgment.||And lo! my ban shall be on thee till the day of the reckoning."|
|59||80||38||He replied, O LORD, respite me, therefore, until the day of resurrection.||He said: "O my Lord! respite me till the day of Resurrection."|
|59||81||38||God said, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited||He said, "One then of the respited shalt thou be,|
|59||82||38||until the day of the determined time.||Till the day of the time appointed."|
|59||83||38||Eblis said, By thy might do I swear, I will surely seduce them all,||He said: "I swear by thy might then that all of them will I seduce,|
|59||84||38||except thy servants who shall be peculiarly chosen from among them.||Save thy sincere servants among them."|
|59||85||38||God said, It is a just sentence; and I speak the truth: I will surely fill hell with thee, and with such of them as shall follow thee, altogether.u||u See chapter 7, p. 106, and chapter 15, p. 192, &c.||He said: "It is truth, and the truth I speak. From thee will I surely fill Hell, and with such of them as shall follow thee, one and all.|
|59||86||38||Say unto the Meccans, I ask not of you any reward for this my preaching: neither am I one of those who assume a part which belongs not to them.||Say: I ask no wage of you for this, nor am I one who intermeddleth.|
|59||87||38||The Koran is no other than an admonition unto all creatures:||Of a truth the Koran is no other than a warning to all creatures.|
|59||88||38||and ye shall surely know what is delivered therein to be true, after a season.||And after a time shall ye surely know its message.|
|80||0||39||CHAPTER XXXIX.||SURA XXXIX.THE TROOPS [LXXX.]|
|80||0||39||ENTITLED, THE TROOPS;x REVEALED AT MECCA.y||x This title is taken from the latter end of the chapter, where it is said the wicked shall be sent to hell, and the righteous admitted into paradise by troops.
y Except the verse beginning, Say, O my servants, who have transgressed against your own souls, &c.1
1 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|80||0||39||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|80||1||39||THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD.||THE Book1 sent down from God, the Mighty, the Wise!||1 Lit. the sending down, or revelation, of the Book is, etc.|
|80||2||39||Verily we have revealed this book unto thee with truth: wherefore serve GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him.||We have sent down the Book to thee with the truth: serve thou God then, and be sincere in thy worship:|
|80||3||39||Ought not the pure religion to be exhibited unto GOD?||Is not a sincere worship due to God?|
|80||4||39||But as to those who take other patrons besides him, saying, We worship them only that they may bring us nearer unto GOD; verily GOD will judge between them concerning that wherein they disagree.||But they who take others beside him as lords saying, "We serve them only that they may bring us near to God"God will judge between them and the faithful, concerning that wherein they are at variance.|
|80||5||39||Surely GOD will not direct him who is a liar, or ungrateful.||Verily God will not guide him who is a liar, an infidel.|
|80||6||39||If GOD had been minded to have had a son, he had surely chosen what he pleased out of that which he hath created.z But far be such a thing from him! He is the sole, the almighty God.||z Because, says Al Beidâwi, there is no being besides himself but what hath been created by him, since there cannot be two necessarily-existent beings; and hence appears the absurdity of the imagination here condemned, because no creature can resemble the Creator, or be worthy to bear the relation of a son to him.||Had God desired to have had a son, he had surely chosen what he pleased out of his own creation. But praise be to Him! He is God, the One, the Almighty.|
|80||7||39||He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth: he causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night, and he obligeth the sun and the moon to perform their services; each of them hastening to an appointed period. Is not he the mighty, the forgiver of sins?||For truth2 hath he created the Heavens and the Earth: It is of Him that the night returneth upon the day and that the day returneth upon the night: and He controlleth the sun and the moon so that each speedeth to an appointed goal. Is He not the Mighty, the Gracious?||2 Lit. in truth, i.e. for a serious and earnest purpose, and not as mere pastime.|
|80||8||39||He created you of one man, and afterwards out of him formed his wife: and he hath bestoweda on you four pair of cattle.b He formeth you in the wombs of your mothers, by several gradual formations,c within three veils of darkness.d This is GOD, your LORD: his is the kingdom: there is no GOD but he. Why therefore are ye turned aside from the worship of him to idolatry?||a Literally, He hath sent down; from which expression some have imagined that these four kinds of beasts were created in paradise, and thence sent down to earth.2
2 Al Zamakh.
b See chapter 6, p. 102.
c See chapter 22, p. 250.
d i.e., The belly, the womb, and the membranes which enclose the embryo.
|He created you all of one man, from whom He afterwards formed his wife; and of cattle He hath sent down to you four pairs.3 In the wombs of your mothers did He create you by creation upon creation in triple darkness. It is He who is God your Lord: the kingdom is His: There is no God but He. How then are ye so turned aside from Him?||3 That is, camels, oxen, sheep and goats.|
|80||9||39||If ye be ungrateful, verily GOD hath no need of you; yet he liketh not ingratitude in his servants: but if ye be thankful, he will be well pleased with you. A burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another; hereafter shall ye return unto your LORD, and he shall declare unto you that which ye have wrought, and will reward you accordingly;||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 237)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 72
|BWC: None shall bear the burden of another.
EGB: None shall bear the burden of another.
|Suppose ye render him no thanks! yet forsooth is God rich without you: but He is not pleased with thanklessness in His servants: yet if ye be thankful He will be pleased with you. The soul burdened with its own works shall not be burdened with the burden of another: hereafter shall ye return to your Lord, and he will tell you of all your works,|
|80||10||39||for he knoweth the innermost parts of your breasts.||For he knoweth the very secrets of your breasts.|
|80||11||39||When harm befalleth a man, he calleth upon his LORD, and turneth unto him: yet afterwards, when God hath bestowed on him favor from himself, he forgetteth that Being which he invoked before,e and setteth up equals unto GOD, that he may seduce men from his way. Say unto such a man, Enjoy this life in thy infidelity for a little while; but hereafter shalt thou surely be one of the inhabitants of hell fire.||e Or, He forgetteth the evil which he before prayed against.||When some trouble toucheth a man, he turneth to his Lord and calleth on him: yet no sooner hath He enriched him with his favour than he forgetteth Him on whom he before had called, and setteth up peers with God, that he may beguile others from His way. SAY: Enjoy thou thyself yet a little in thine ingratitude! but thou shalt surely be one of the inmates of the fire.|
|80||12||39||Shall he who giveth himself up to prayer in the hours of the night, prostrate, and standing, and who taketh heed as to the life to come, and hopeth for the mercy of his LORD, be dealt with as the wicked unbeliever? Say, Shall they who know their duty and they who know it not, be held equal? Verily the men of understanding only will be warned.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 2
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 33
|MG: Shall they who have knowledge and they who have it not, be treated alike?
MG: Are they equal, those who know, and those who do not know?
|Shall he who observeth the hours of the night, prostrate or standing in devotion, heedful of the life to come, and hoping for the mercy of his Lord . . .? SAY: Shall they who have knowledge and they who have it not, be treated alike? In sooth, men of understanding only will take the warning.|
|80||13||39||Say, O my servants who believe, fear your LORD. They who do good in this world shall obtain good in the next;f and GOD'S earth is spacious:g verily those who persevere with patience shall receive their recompense without measure.||f Or, They who do good, shall obtain good even in this world.
g Wherefore let him who cannot safely exercise his religion where he was born or resides, fly to a place of liberty and security.1
1 Al Beidâwi
|Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 71, paragraph 104
|cf. BWC: He, verily, rewardeth beyond measure them that endure with patience||SAY: O my believing servants, fear your Lord. For those who do good in this world there is good: and broad is God's earth4verily those who endure with patience shall be repaid: their reward shall not be by measure.||4 The wording of this verse would seem to indicate a period when Muhammad was meditating flight from Mecca. Comp. [lxxxi.] xxix. 56.|
|80||14||39||Say, I am commanded to worship GOD, and to exhibit the pure religion unto him: and I am commanded to be the first Moslem.h||h i.e., The first of the Koreish who professeth the true religion, or the leader in chief of the Moslems.||SAY: I am bidden to serve God with a sincere worship: and I am bidden to be the first of those who surrender themselves to him (Muslims).|
|80||15||39||Say, Verily I fear, if I be disobedient unto my LORD, the punishment of the great day.||SAY: Verily I fear if I rebel against my Lord the punishment of a great day.|
|80||16||39||Say, I worship GOD, exhibiting my religion pure unto him;||SAY: God will I serve, presenting him with a sincere worship:|
|80||17||39||but do ye worship that which ye will, besides him. Say, Verily they will be the losers, who shall lose their own souls, and their families, on the day of resurrection: is not this manifest loss?||And serve ye what ye choose beside Him. SAY: The losers truly will they be who shall lose their own souls and their families on the day of resurrection: Is not this the clear ruin?|
|80||18||39||Over them shall be roofs of fire, and under them shall be floors of fire. With this doth GOD terrify his servants: wherefore, oh my servants, fear him.||Canopies of fire shall be over them, and floors of fire beneath them. With this doth God alarm his servants: Fear ye me, then, O my servants!|
|80||19||39||But those who eschew the worship of idols, and are turned unto GOD, shall receive good tidings. Bear good tidings therefore unto my servants, who hearken unto my word, and follow that which is most excellent therein: these are they whom GOD directeth, and these are men of understanding.||But good tidings are there for those who shun the worship of Thagout and are turned to God. Cheer then with good tidings those my servants who hearken to my word and follow its excellence. These are they whom God guideth, and these are men of insight.|
|80||20||39||Him, therefore, on whom the sentence of eternal punishment shall be justly pronounced, canst thou, O Mohammed, deliver him who is destined to dwell in the fire of hell?||Him then on whom the sentence of punishment hath justly lightedhim who is doomed to the fire canst thou rescue?|
|80||21||39||But for those who fear their LORD will be prepared high apartments in paradise, over which shall be other apartments built; and rivers shall run beneath them: this is the promise of GOD; and GOD will not be contrary to the promise.||But for those who fear their Lord are storied pavilions beneath which shall the rivers flow: it is the promise of God, and God will not fail in his promise.|
|80||22||39||Dost thou not see that GOD sendeth down water from heaven, and causeth the same to enter and form sources in the earth; and produceth thereby corn of various sorts? Afterwards he causeth the same to wither; and thou seest it become yellow: afterwards he maketh it crumble into dust. Verily, herein is an instruction to men of understanding.||Seest thou not that God sendeth down water from heaven, and guideth it along so as to form springs in the earththen bringeth forth by it corn of varied sortsthen causeth he it to wither, and thou seest it become yellowthen crumbleth it away? Lo! herein is teaching for men of insight.|
|80||23||39||Shall he, therefore, whose breast GOD hath enlarged to receive the religion of Islam, and who followeth the light from his LORD, be as he whose heart is hardened? But woe unto those whose hearts are hardened against the remembrance of GOD! they are in a manifest error.||Shall he then whose breast God hath opened to Islam, and who hath light from his Lord . . .? But woe to those whose hearts are hardened against the remembrance of God! They plainly err.|
|80||24||39||GOD hath revealed a most excellent discourse; a book conformable to itself, and containing repeated admonitions. The skins of those who fear their LORD shrink for fear thereat; afterwards their skins grow soft, and their hearts also, at the remembrance of their LORD. This is the direction of GOD: he will direct thereby whom he pleaseth; and whomsoever GOD shall cause to err, he shall have no director.||The best of recitals hath God sent down a book in unison with itself, and teaching by iteration.5 The very skins of those who fear their Lord do creep at it! Then do their skins and their hearts soften at the remembrance of their Lord! This is God's guidance: by it will He guide whom He pleaseth; and, whom God shall mislead, no guide shall there be for him.||5 See on the word Mathani, Sura xv. 87, p. 116. Or, by rhyming couplets.|
|80||25||39||Shall he therefore who shall be obliged to screen himself with his face from the severity of the punishment on the day of resurrection, be as he who is secure therefrom? And it shall be said unto the ungodly, Taste that which ye have deserved.||i For his hands shall be chained to his neck, and he shall not be able to oppose anything but his face to the fire.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Shall he who shall have nought but his own face to shelter him with from the torment of the punishment on the day of the resurrection . . .? Aye, to the evil doers it shall be said, "Taste what ye have earned."|
|80||26||39||Those who were before them accused their apostles of imposture; wherefore a punishment came upon them from whence they expected it not:||They who were before them said it was a lie; but a punishment came upon them whence they looked not for it:|
|80||27||39||and GOD caused them to take shame in this present life; but the punishment of the life to come will certainly be greater. If they were men of understanding, they would know this.||And God made them taste humiliation in this present life: but greater surely will be the punishment of the life to come. Did they but know it!|
|80||28||39||Now have we proposed unto mankind, in this Koran, every kind of parable; that they may be warned:||Now have we set before man in this Koran every kind of parable for their warning:|
|80||29||39||an Arabic Koran, wherein there is no crookedness; that they may fear God.||k i.e., No contradiction, defect, or doubt.||An Arabic Koran, free from tortuous wording, to the intent that they may fear God.|
|80||30||39||GOD propoundeth as a parable a man who hath several companions which are at mutual variance, and a man who committeth himself wholly to one person:l shall these be held in equal comparison? GOD forbid! But the greater part of them do not understand.||l This passage represents the uncertainty of the idolater, who is distracted in the service of different masters; and the satisfaction of mind which attends the worshipper of the only true GOD.2
|God setteth forth the comparison of a man with associates6 at variance among themselves, and of a man devoted wholly to a man. Are these to be held alike? No, praise be to God! But the greater part of them understand not.||6 The word associates contains an implied allusion to the deities associated with God, and who distract the idolaters in their worship.|
|80||31||39||Verily thou, O Mohammed, shalt die, and they also shall die:||Thou truly shall die, O Muhammad, and they too shall die:|
|80||32||39||and ye shall debate the matterm with one another before your LORD, at the day of resurrection.||m For the prophet will represent his endeavours to reclaim them from idolatry, and their obstinacy; and they will make frivolous excuses, as that they obeyed their chiefs, and kept to the religion of their fathers, &c.3
|Then, at the day of resurrection, ye shall wrangle with one another in the presence of your Lord.|
|80||33||39||(XXIV.) Who is more unjust than he who uttereth a lie concerning GOD, and denieth the truth when it cometh unto him? Is there not a dwelling provided in hell for the unbelievers?||And who acteth more unjustly than he who lieth of God, and treateth the truth when it cometh to him as a lie? Is there not a dwelling-place in Hell for the infidels?|
|80||34||39||But he who bringeth the truth, and giveth credit thereto,n these are they who fear God;||n i.e., Mohammed and his followers. Some suppose that by the latter words Abu Becr is particularly intended, because he asserted the prophets veracity in respect to his journey to heaven.||But he who bringeth the truth, and he who believeth it to be the truth: these are the God-fearing.|
|80||35||39||they shall obtain whatever they shall desire, in the sight of their LORD: this shall be the recompense of the righteous;||Whatever they shall desire, awaiteth them with their Lord! This is the reward of the righteous;|
|80||36||39||that GOD may expiate from them the very worst of that which they have wrought, and may render them their reward according to the utmost merit of the good which they have wrought.||That God may do away the guilt of their worst actions, and for their best actions render them their reward.|
|80||37||39||Is not GOD a sufficient protector of his servant? yet they will attempt to make thee afraid of the false deities which they worship besides GOD.o But he whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have none to direct him:||o The Koreish used to tell Mohammed that they feared their gods would do him some mischief, and deprive him of the use of his limbs, or of his reason, because he spoke disgracefully of them. It is thought by some that this passage was verified in Khâled Ebn al Walîd; who, being sent by Mohammed to demolish the idol al Uzza, was advised by the keeper of her temple to take heed what he did, because the goddess was able to avenge herself severely; but he was so little moved at the mans warning, that he immediately stepped up to the idol, and broke her nose. To support the latter explication, they say that what happened to Khâled is attributed to Mohammed, because the former was then executing the prophets orders.1 A circumstance not much different from the above mentioned is told of the demolition of Allat.2
2 Vide Gagnier, not. in Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 127.
|Is not God all-sufficient for his servant? Yet would they scare thee by their idols. But no guide shall there be for him whom God misleadeth:|
|80||38||39||and he whom GOD shall direct, shall have none to mislead him. Is not GOD most mighty, able to avenge?||And he whom God guideth shall have none to mislead him. Is not God, all-mighty, able to revenge?|
|80||39||39||If thou ask them who hath created the heavens and the earth, they will surely answer, GOD. Say, Do ye think, therefore, that the deities which ye invoke besides GOD, if GOD be pleased to afflict me, are able to relieve me from his affliction? or if he be pleased to show mercy unto me, that they are able to withhold his mercy? Say, GOD is my sufficient support: in him let those put their trust, who seek in whom to confide.||And if thou ask them who hath created the Heavens and the Earth, they will surely answer, God. SAY: Think ye, then, that they7 on whom ye call beside God, if God choose to afflict me, could remove his affliction? or if he choose to show me mercy, could they withhold His mercy? SAY: God sufficeth me: in Him let the trusting trust.||7 In the fem. gender in the Ar. This passage was revealed shortly after the circumstances mentioned, liii. 20, n. p. 70.|
|80||40||39||Say, O my people, do ye act according to your state; verily I will act according to mine: hereafter shall ye know||SAY: O my people, act your part as best ye can, I too will act mine; and in the end ye shall know|
|80||41||39||on which of us will be inflicted a punishment that shall cover him with shame, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall.||On whom shall light a punishment that shall shame him, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall.|
|80||42||39||Verily we have revealed unto thee the book of the Koran, for the instruction of mankind, with truth. Whoso shall be directed thereby shall be directed to the advantage of his own soul; and whoso shall err, shall only err against the same: and thou art not a guardian over them.||Assuredly we have sent down the Book to thee for man and for the ends of truth. Whoso shall be guided by itit will be for his own advantage, and whoso shall err, shall only err to his own loss. But not to thy keeping are they entrusted.|
|80||43||39||GOD taketh unto himself the souls of men at the time of their death; and those which die not he also taketh in their sleep:p and he withholdeth those on which he hath passed the decree of death,q but sendeth back the others till a determined period.r Verily herein are signs unto the people who consider.||p That is, seemingly and to outward appearance, sleep being the image of death.
q Not permitting them to return again into their bodies.
r viz., Into their bodies, when they awake.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|God taketh souls unto Himself at death; and during their sleep those who do not die:8 and he retaineth those on which he hath passed a decree of death, but sendeth the others back till a time that is fixed. Herein are signs for the reflecting.||8 See Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 60.|
|80||44||39||Have the Koreish taken idols for their intercessors with God? Say, What, although they have not dominion over anything, neither do they understand?||Have they taken aught beside God as intercessors? SAY: What! though they have no power over anything, neither do they understand?|
|80||45||39||Say, Intercession is altogether in the disposal of GOD:s his is the kingdom of heaven and earth; and hereafter shall ye return unto him.||s For none can or dare presume to intercede with him, unless by his permission.||SAY: Intercession is wholly with God:9 His the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth! To him shall ye be brought back hereafter!||9 That is, none may intercede with Him but those whom He permits to do so.|
|80||46||39||When the one sole GOD is mentioned, the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come, shrink with horror: but when the false gods, which are worshipped besides him, are mentioned, behold they are filled with joy.||But when the One God is named, the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come, shrivel up: but when the deities who are adored beside Him are named, lo! they are filled with joy.|
|80||47||39||Say, O GOD, the creator of heaven and earth, who knowest that which is secret, and that which is manifest; thou shalt judge between thy servants concerning that wherein they disagree.||SAY: O God, creator of the Heaven and of the Earth, who knowest the hidden and the manifest, thou shalt judge between thy servants as to the subject of their disputes.|
|80||48||39||If those who act unjustly were masters of whatever is in the earth, and as much more therewith, verily they would give it to ransom themselves from the evil of the punishment, on the day of resurrection: and there shall appear unto them, from GOD, terrors which they never imagined;||If the wicked possessed all that is in the earth and as much again therewith, verily they would ransom themselves with it from the pain of the punishment on the day of the resurrection; and there shall appear to them, from God, things they had never reckoned on:|
|80||49||39||and there shall appear unto them the evils of that which they shall have gained; and that which they mocked at shall encompass them.||And their own ill deeds shall be clearly perceived by them, and that fire at which they mocked shall encircle them on every side.|
|80||50||39||When harm befalleth man, he calleth upon us; yet afterwards, when we have bestowed on him favor from us, he saith, I have received it merely because of God's knowledge of my deserts.t On the contrary, it is a trial; but the greater part of them know it not.||t Or by means of my own wisdom.||When trouble befalleth a man he crieth to Us; afterwards, when we have vouchsafed favour to him, he saith, "God knew that I deserved it."10 Nay, it is a trial. But the greater part of them knew it not.||10 Lit. It was only given to me on account of knowledge. Mar. Deus sciebat me esse dignum eo. Thus Sale.|
|80||51||39||Those who were before them said the same:u but that which they had gained, profited them not:||u As did Karûn in particular.1
1 See cap. 28, p. 295.
|The same said those who flourished before them; but their deeds profited them not.|
|80||52||39||and the evils which they had deserved, fell upon them. And whoever of these Meccans shall have acted unjustly, on them likewise shall fall the evils which they shall have deserved;x neither shall they frustrate the divine vengeance.||x As it happened accordingly: for they were punished with a sore famine for seven years and had the bravest of their warriors cut off at the battle of Bedr.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|And their own ill deeds recoiled upon them. And whoso among these (Meccans) shall do wrong, on them likewise their own misdeeds shall light, neither shall they invalidate God.|
|80||53||39||Do they not know that GOD bestoweth provision abundantly on whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth? Verily herein are signs unto people who believe.||Know they not that God giveth supplies with open hand, and that He is sparing to whom He will? Of a truth herein are signs to those who believe.|
|80||54||39||Say, O my servants who have transgressed against your own souls, despair not of the mercy of GOD: seeing that GOD forgiveth all sins,y for he is gracious and merciful.||y To those who sincerely repent and profess his unity: for the sins of idolaters will not be forgiven.3
3 See p. 10, note h.
|SAY: O my servants who have transgressed to your own hurt,11 despair not of God's mercy, for all sins doth God forgive. Gracious, Merciful is He!||11 By becoming apostates from Islam. Comp. Sura [lxxiii.] xvi. 108. This and the two following verses are said to have originated at Medina. His 230, Wah. Omar ben Muhammad. Beidh. Itq. 19.|
|80||55||39||And be turned unto your LORD, and resign yourselves unto him, before the threatened punishment overtake you; for then ye shall not be helped.||And return ye to your Lord, and to Him resign yourselves, ere the punishment come on you, for then ye shall not be helped:|
|80||56||39||And follow the most excellent instructions which have been sent down unto you from your LORD, before the punishment come suddenly upon you, and ye perceive not the approach thereof;||And follow that most excellent thing which hath been sent down to you from your Lord, ere the punishment come on you suddenly, and when ye look not for it:|
|80||57||39||and a soul say, Alas! for that I have been negligent in my duty to GOD; verily I have been one of the scorners:||So that a soul say, "Oh misery! for my failures in duty towards God! and verily I was of those who scoffed:"|
|80||58||39||or say, If GOD had directed me, verily I had been one of the pious:||Or say, "Had God guided me, I had surely been of those who feared Him:"|
|80||59||39||or say, when it seeth the prepared punishment, If I could return once more into the world, I would become one of the righteous.||Or say, when it seeth the punishment, "Could I but return, then I would be of the righteous."|
|80||60||39||But God shall answer, My signs came unto thee heretofore, and thou didst charge them with falsehood, and wast puffed up with pride; and thou becamest one of the unbelievers.||Nay! my signs had already come to thee, and thou didst treat them as untruths, and wast arrogant, and becamest of those who believed not.|
|80||61||39||On the day of resurrection, thou shalt see the faces of those who have uttered lies concerning GOD, become black: is there not an abode prepared in hell for the arrogant?||And on the resurrection day, thou shalt see those who have lied of God, with their faces black. Is there not an abode in Hell for the arrogant?|
|80||62||39||But GOD shall deliver those who shall fear him, and shall set them in their place of safety: evil shall not touch them, neither shall they be grieved.||But God shall rescue those who fear him into their safe retreat: no ill shall touch them, neither shall they be put to grief.|
|80||63||39||GOD is the creator of all things, and he is the governor of all things. His are the keys of heaven and earth: and they who believe not in the signs of GOD, they shall perish.||God is the creator of all things, and of all things is He the guardian! His the keys of the Heavens and of the Earth! andwho believe not in the signs of Godthese! they shall perish!|
|80||64||39||Say, Do ye therefore bid me to worship other than GOD, oh ye fools?||SAY: What! do ye then bid me worship other than God, O ye ignorant ones?|
|80||65||39||since it hath been spoken by revelation unto thee, and also unto the prophets who have been before thee, saying, Verily if thou join any partners with God, thy work will be altogether unprofitable, and thou shalt certainly be one of those who perish:||But now hath it been revealed to thee and to those who flourished before thee,"Verily, if thou join partners with God, vain shall be all thy work, and thyself shalt be of those who perish.|
|80||66||39||wherefore rather fear GOD, and be one of those who give thanks.||Nay, rather worship God! and be of those who render thanks."|
|80||67||39||But they make not a due estimation of GOD:z since the whole earth shall be but his handful, on the day of resurrection; and the heavens shall be rolled together in his right hand. Praise be unto him! and far be he exalted above the idols which they associate with him!||z See chapter 6, p. 97, note a.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 51, p. 47
|The whole earth shall on the Resurrection Day be but His handful, and in His right hand shall the heavens be folded together. Praise be to Him! and high be He uplifted
above the partners they join with him!
|But they have not deemed of God as is His due;12 for on the resurrection day the whole Earth shall be but his handful, and in his right hand shall the Heavens be folded together. Praise be to Him! and high be He uplifted above the partners they join with Him!||12 Lit. they have not esteemed God according to the truth of His estimation.|
|80||68||39||the trumpet shall be sounded,a and whoever are in heaven, and whoever are on earth, shall expire; except those whom GOD shall please to exempt from the common fate.b Afterwards it shall be sounded again; and behold, they shall arise and look up.||a The first time, says Al Beidâwi; who consequently supposes there will be no more than two blasts (and two only are distinctly mentioned in the Korân), though others suppose there will be three.1
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 65.
b These, some say, will be the angels Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil, and the angel of death, who yet will afterwards all die, at the command of GOD;2 it being the constant opinion of the Mohammedan doctors, that every soul, both of men and of animals, which live either on land or in the sea, and of the angels also, must necessarily taste of death:3 others suppose those who will be exempted are the angels who bear the throne of GOD,4 or the black-eyed damsels, and other inhabitants of paradise.5
The space between these two blasts of the trumpet will be forty days, according to Yahya and others; there are some, however, who suppose it will be as many years.6
2 Al Beidâwi, Yahya.
3 Vide Pocock. not. in Port. Mosis. p. 266
4 Al Beidâwi.
6 See the Prelim. Disc. ubi sup.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 150-154, Zaynul-Muqarrabín)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 161-164, Hájí `Alí-'Askar-i-Tabrizi)
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: And there was a blast on the trumpet, and all who are in the heavens and all who are in the earth expired, save those whom God permitted to live. Then was there sounded another blast, and, lo! arising, they gazed around them.
MG: And there shall be a blast on the trumpet, and all who are in the heavens and all who are in the earth shall swoon away, save those whom God shall vouchsafe to live. Then shall there be another blast on it, and lo! arising they shall gaze around them:
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter II, p. 41
|And there shall be a blast on the trumpet, and all who are in the Heavens and all who are in the Earth shall expire, save those whom God shall vouchsafe to live. Then shall there be another blast on it, and lo! arising they shall gaze around them:|
|80||69||39||And the earth shall shine by the light of its LORD: and the book shall be laid open,c and the prophets and the martyrs shall be brought as witnesses; and judgment shall be given between them with truth, and they shall not be treated unjustly.||c See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 68.||39:68-69 (cont.)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 161-164, Hájí `Alí-'Askar-i-Tabrizi)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, pp. 1-2
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p.87
|Shoghi Effendi from The Dawn-Breakers: And the earth shone with the light of her Lord, and the Book was set, and the Prophets were brought up, and the witnesses; and judgment was given between them with equity; and none was wronged.
MG: and the earth shall shine with the light of her Lord...
cf. MG: The earth hath shone out with the light of her Lord!
MG: And the earth shall shine with the light of her Lord.
MG: The earth shall shine with the light of her Lord,
The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter II, p. 41
|And the earth shall shine with the light of her Lord, and the Book shall be set, and the prophets shall be brought up, and the witnesses; and judgment shall be given between them with equity; and none shall be wronged:|
|80||70||39||And every soul shall be fully rewarded, according to that which it shall have wrought; for he perfectly knoweth whatever they do.||And every soul shall receive as it shall have wrought, for well knoweth He men's actions.|
|80||71||39||And the unbelievers shall be driven unto hell by troops, until, when they shall arrive at the same, the gates thereof shall be opened: and the keepers thereofd shall say unto them, Did not apostles from among you come unto you, who rehearsed unto you the signs of your LORD, and warned you of the meeting of this your day? They shall answer, Yea: but the sentence of eternal punishment hath been justly pronounced on the unbelievers.e||d See chapter 74, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 72.
e See chapter 7, p. 106; chapter 11, p. 169, &c. It seems as if the damned, by these words, attributed their ruin to GODS decree of predestination.
|And by TROOPS shall the unbelievers be driven towards Hell, until when they reach it, its gates shall be opened, and its keepers shall say to them, "Came not apostles from among yourselves to you, reciting to you the signs of your Lord, and warning you of the meeting with Him on this your day?"13 They shall say, "Yes." But just is the sentence of punishment on the unbelievers.||13 Adventum diei hujus. Mar.|
|80||72||39||It shall be said unto them, Enter ye the gates of hell, to dwell therein forever; and miserable shall be the abode of the proud!||It shall be said to them, "Enter ye the gates of Hell, therein to dwell for ever;" and wretched the abode of the arrogant!|
|80||73||39||But those who shall have feared their LORD shall be conducted by troops towards paradise, until they shall arrive at the same: and the gates thereof shall be ready set open; and the guards thereof shall say unto them, Peace be on you! ye have been good: wherefore enter ye into paradise, to remain therein forever.||But those who feared their Lord shall be driven on by troops to Paradise, until when they reach it, its gates shall be opened, and its keepers shall say to them, "All hail! virtuous have ye been: enter then in, to abide herein for ever."|
|80||74||39||And they shall answer, Praise be unto GOD, who hath performed his promise unto us, and hath made us to inherit the earth,f that we may dwell in paradise wherever we please! How excellent is the reward of those who work righteousness!||This is a metaphorical expression, representing the perfect security and abundance which the blessed will enjoy in paradise.||And they shall say, "Praise be to God, who hath made good to us His promise, and hath given to us the earth as our heritage, that we may dwell in Paradise wherever we please!" And goodly is the reward of those who travailed virtuously.|
|80||75||39||And thou shalt see the angels going in procession round the throne, celebrating the praises of their LORD: and judgment shall be given between them with truth; and they shall say, Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!||And thou shalt see the Angels circling around the Throne with praises of their Lord: and judgment shall be pronounced between them with equity: and it shall be said, "Glory be to God the Lord of the Worlds."|
|78||0||40||CHAPTER XL.||SURA XL.THE BELIEVER [LXXVIII.]|
|78||0||40||ENTITLED, THE TRUE BELIEVER;g REVEALED AT MECCA.||g This title is taken from the passage wherein mention is made of one of Pharaohs family who believed in Moses.||MECCA.85 Verses|
|78||0||40||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|78||1||40||H. M.h THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD;||h See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||HA. MIM. The Revelation (sending down) of the Book is from God the Almighty, the All-knowing,1||1 See Sura 1xviii. 1, p. 32.|
|78||2||40||the forgiver of sin and the accepter of repentance; severe in punishing;||Forgiver of sin, and receiver of penitence,vehement in chastisement,|
|78||3||40||long suffering. There is no GOD but he: before him shall be the general assembly at the last day.||Long-suffering! There is no God but He: to Him shall be the final gathering.|
|78||4||40||None disputeth against the signs of GOD, except the unbelievers: but let not their prosperous dealing in the landi deceive thee with vain allurement.||i By trading into Syria and Yaman. See chapter 3, p. 52, note m.||None but infidels gainsay the signs of God: but let not their prosperity in the land deceive thee.|
|78||5||40||The people of Noah, and the confederated infidels which were after them, accused their respective prophets of imposture before these; and each nation hatched ill designs against their apostle, that they might get him into their power; and they disputed with vain reasoning, that they might thereby invalidate the truth: wherefore I chastised them; and how severe was my punishment!||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 4, p. 5
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 242)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 73
|Each nation hath plotted darkly against their Messenger to lay violent hold on Him, and disputed with vain words to invalidate the truth.
BWC: Each nation hath plotted darkly against their Messenger to lay violent hold on Him, and disputed with vain words to invalidate the truth.
EGB: Every nation schemed against their apostle to catch him. And they contended with falsehood therewith to refute the truth.
|The people of Noah, and the confederates after them, have brought the charge of imposture before these Meccans: each nation schemed against their apostle to lay violent hold on him, and disputed with vain words to refute the truth. Therefore did I lay violent hold on them; and how great was my chastisement!|
|78||6||40||Thus hath the sentence of thy LORD justly passed on the unbelievers; and they shall be the inhabitants of hell fire.||Thus is it that thy Lord's sentence, that inmates shall they be of the fire, was accomplished upon the infidels.|
|78||7||40||The angels who bear the throne of God, and those who stand about it,k celebrate the praise of their LORD, and believe in him; and they ask pardon for the true believers, saying, O LORD, thou encompassest all things by thy mercy and knowledge; wherefore forgive those who repent, and follow thy path, and deliver them from the pains of hell:||k These are the Cherubim, the highest order of angels, who approach nearest to GODS presence.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|They who bear the throne2 and they who encircle it, celebrate the praise of their Lord and believe in Him, and implore forgiveness for the believers:"O our Lord! thou embracest all things in mercy and knowledge; forgive, therefore, those who turn to thee and follow thy path; keep them from the pains of hell:||2 The Cherubic beings of Scripture are said to be above the throne of God (Is. vi. 1), beneath it (Ezek. x.); and the mystical beasts in the Revelations are said to be in the midst of the throne and round about it.|
|78||8||40||O LORD, lead them also into gardens of eternal abode, which thou hast promised unto them, and unto every one who shall do right, of their fathers, and their wives, and their children; for thou art the mighty, the wise God.||O our Lord! and bring them into the Gardens of Eden which thou hast promised to them, and to the righteous ones of their fathers and their wives and their children; for thou art the All-mighty, the All-wise:|
|78||9||40||And deliver them from evil; for whomsoever thou shalt deliver from evil on that day, on him wilt thou show mercy; and this will be great salvation.||And keep them from evil: for on him hast thou mercy whom on that day thou shalt keep from evil;" and this will be the great felicity.|
|78||10||40||But the infidels at the day of judgment, shall hear a voice crying unto them, Verily the hatred of GOD towards you is more grievous than your hatred towards yourselves: since ye were called unto the faith, and would not believe.||But to the infidels shall a voice cry, "Surely the hatred of God is more grievous than your hatred of yourselves, when ye were called to the faith, and remained unbelievers."|
|78||11||40||They shall say, O LORD, thou hast given us death twice, and thou hast twice given us life;l and we confess our sins: is there therefore no way to get forth from this fire?||l Having first created us in a state of death, or void of life and sensation, and then given life to the inanimate body;2 and afterwards caused us to die a natural death, and raised us again at the resurrection. Some understand the first death to be a natural death, and the second that in the sepulchre, after the body shall have been there raised to life in order to be examined;3 and consequently suppose the two revivals to be those of the sepulchre and the resurrection.4
2 See c p. 2, p. 4.
3 See Prelim Disc. Sect. IV. p. 60, &c.
4 Al Beidâwi. Jallal.
|They shall say, "Twice, O our Lord, hast thou given us death, and twice hast thou given us life:3 and we acknowledge our sins: is there no way to escape?"||3 Probably the union of life and death in the womb, and the subsequent life followed by death.|
|78||12||40||And it shall be answered them, This hath befallen you, for that when one GOD was preached unto you, ye believed not; but if a plurality of gods had been associated with him, ye had believed: and judgment belongeth unto the high, the great GOD.||"This hath befallen you, for that when One God was proclaimed to you, ye believed not: but when partners had been united with him, ye believed: But judgment belongeth unto God, the High, the Great."|
|78||13||40||It is he who showeth you his signs, and sendeth down food unto you from heaven: but none will be admonished, except he who turneth himself unto God.||It is He who sheweth you his signs, and sendeth down supplies to you from Heaven: but none will receive warning save he who turneth to God.|
|78||14||40||Call therefore upon GOD, exhibiting your religion pure unto him, although the infidels be averse thereto.||Call then on God, offering him a pure worship, though the infidels abhor it.|
|78||15||40||He is the Being of exalted degree, the possessor of the throne; who sendeth down the spirit, at his command, on such of his servants as he pleaseth: that he may warn mankind of the day of meeting,m||m When the Creator and his creatures,5 the inhabitants of heaven and of earth, the false deities and their worshippers, the oppressor and the oppressed, the labourer and his works, shall meet each other.6
5 See cap. 6, p. 91
6 Al Beidâwi, Jallal
|Of exalted grade, of the throne possessed, He sendeth forth the Spirit at His own behest on whomsoever of His servants He pleaseth, that He may warn of the day of meeting,|
|78||16||40||the day whereon they shall come forth out of their graves, and nothing of what concerneth them shall be hidden from GOD. Unto whom will the kingdom belong, on that day? Unto the only, the almighty GOD.||The day when they shall come forth from their graves, when nought that concerneth them shall be hidden from God. With whom shall be the power supreme on that day? With God, the One, the Almighty.|
|78||17||40||On that day shall every soul be rewarded according to its merits: there shall be no injustice done on that day. Verily GOD will be swift in taking an account.||On that day shall every soul be recompensed as it hath deserved: no injustice on that day! Verily, God will be swift to reckon.|
|78||18||40||Wherefore warn them, O prophet, of the day which shall suddenly approach; when men's hearts shall come up to their throats, and strangle them.||Warn them, then, of the approaching day, when men's hearts shall rise up, choking them, into their throats.|
|78||19||40||The ungodly shall have no friend or intercessor who shall be heard.||The evil-doers shall have no friend or intercessor who shall prevail.|
|78||20||40||God will know the deceitful eye, and that which their breasts conceal;||God knoweth the deceitful of eye, and what men's breasts conceal.|
|78||21||40||and GOD will judge with truth: but the false gods which they invoke, besides him, shall not judge at all: for GOD is he who heareth and seeth.||And everything will God decide with truth: But nothing shall those gods whom men call on beside him, decide. Verily, God! the Hearer, the Beholder, He!|
|78||22||40||Have they not gone through the earth, and seen what hath been the end of those who were before them? They were more mighty than these in strength, and left more considerable footsteps of their power in the earth: yet GOD chastised them for their sins, and there was none to protect them from GOD.||Have they never journeyed in this land, and seen what hath been the end of those who flourished before them? Mightier were they in strength than these Meccans, and their traces remain in the land: Yet God took them in their sins, and there was none to defend them against God.|
|78||23||40||This they suffered, because their apostles had come unto them with evident signs, and they disbelieved: wherefore GOD chastised them; for he is strong, and severe in punishing.||This, because their apostles had come to them with proofs of their mission, and they believed not: so God took them in hand; for He is mighty, vehement in punishing.|
|78||24||40||We heretofore sent Moses with our signs and manifest power,||Moreover we had sent Moses of old with our signs and with clear authority.|
|78||25||40||unto Pharaoh, and Haman, and Karûn; and they said, He is a sorcerer, and a liar.||To Pharaoh, and Haman, and Karun:4 and they said, "Sorcerer, impostor."||4 See Sura [lxxix.] xxviii. 76.|
|78||26||40||And when he came unto them with the truth from us, they said, Slay the sons of those who have believed with him, and save their daughters alive:n but the stratagem of the infidels was no other than vain.||n i.e., Pursue the resolution which has been formerly taken, and execute it more strictly for the future. See chapter 7, p. 117, note r.||And when he came to them from our presence with the truth, they said, "Slay the sons of those who believe as he doth, and save their females alive;" but the stratagem of the unbelievers issued only in failure.|
|78||27||40||And Pharaoh said, Let me alone, that I may kill Moses;o and let him call upon his LORD: verily I fear lest he change your religion, or cause violence to appear in the earth.p||o For they advised him not to put Moses to death, lest it should be thought he was not able to oppose him by dint of argument.1
1 Al Beidâwi
p By raising of commotions and seditions, in order to introduce his new religion.
|And Pharaoh said, "Let me alone, that I may kill Moses; and let him call upon his Lord: I fear lest he change your religion, or cause disorder to shew itself in the land."|
|78||28||40||And Moses said unto his people, Verily I have recourse unto my LORD and your LORD, to defend me against every proud person, who believeth not in the day of account.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Lawh-i-Fuád)
|And Moses said, "I take refuge with my Lord and your Lord from every proud one who believeth not in the day of reckoning."|
|78||29||40||And a man who was a true believer, of the family of Pharaoh,q and concealed in his faith, said, Will ye put a man to death, because he saith, GOD is my LORD; seeing he is come unto you with evident signs from your LORD? If he be a liar, on him will the punishment of his falsehood light; but if he speaketh the truth, some of those judgments with which he threateneth you will fall upon you: verily GOD directeth not him who is a transgressor, or a liar:||q This seems to be the same person who is mentioned, chapter 28, p. 291.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 12, p. 12
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 87)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|And a man of the family of Pharaoh who was a believer and concealed his faith said: 'Will ye slay a man because he saith my Lord is God, when He hath already come to you with signs from your Lord? If he be a liar, on him will be his lie, but if he be a man of truth, part of what he threateneth will fall upon you. In truth God guideth not him who is a transgressor, a liar.'
BWC: Will ye slay a man because he saith my Lord is God, when he hath already come to you with proofs of his mission? And if he be a liar, on him will be his lie, but if he be a man of truth, part at least of what he threateneth will fall upon you.
BWC: Will ye slay a man because he saith my Lord is God, when He hath already come to you with signs from your Lord? If he be a liar, on him will be his lie, but if he be a man of truth, part of what he threateneth will fall upon you. In truth God guideth not him who is a transgressor, a liar.
|And a man of the family of Pharaoh, who was a BELIEVER,5 but hid his faith, said, "Will ye slay a man because he saith my Lord is God, when he hath already come to you with proofs of his mission from your Lord? and if he be a liar, on him will be his lie:6 but if he be a man of truth, part at least of what he threateneth will fall upon you. Truly God guideth not him who is a transgressor, a liar.||5 Thus Sura [lxxix.] xxviii 20, and Sura [lx.] xxxvi. 19, we have a similar character introduced into the narrative.
6 Comp. Acts v. 38, 39.
|78||30||40||O my people, the kingdom is yours this day; and ye are conspicuous in the earth; but who shall defend us from the scourge of GOD, if it come unto us?r Pharaoh said, I only propose to you what I think to be most expedient; and I guide you only into the right path.||r See the speech of Gamaliel to the Jewish Sanhedrim, when the apostles were brought before them.2
2 Acts v. 38, 39
|O my people! this day is the kingdom yours, the eminent of the earth! but who shall defend us from the vengeance of God if it come on us?" Pharaoh said, "I would have you see only what I see; and in a right way only will I guide you."|
|78||31||40||And he who had believed said, O my people, Verily I fear for you a day like that of the confederates against the prophets in former times;||Then said he who believed, "O my people! truly I fear for you the like of the day of the allies,7||7 These tribes no doubt constantly formed temporary alliances. Muhammad implies that they were confederate against their prophets.|
|78||32||40||a condition like that of the people of Noah, and the tribes of Ad and Thamud,||The like of the state of the people of Noah and Ad and Themoud,|
|78||33||40||and of those who have lived after them; for GOD willeth not that any injustice be done unto his servants.||And of those who came after them; yet God willeth not injustice to his servants.|
|78||34||40||O my people, verily I fear for you the day whereon men shall call unto one another;s||s i.e., The day of judgment, when the inhabitants of paradise and of hell shall enter into mutual discourse: when the latter shall call for help, and the seducers and the seduced shall cast the blame upon each other.3
3 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin
|And, O my people! I indeed fear for you the day of mutual outcry|
|78||35||40||the day whereon ye shall be turned back from the tribunal, and driven to hell: then shall ye have none to protect you against GOD. And he whom GOD shall cause to err shall have no director.||The day when ye shall be turned back from the Judgment into hell. No protector shall ye have then against God. And he whom God shall mislead no guide shall there be for him.|
|78||36||40||Joseph came unto you, before Moses, with evident signs; but ye ceased not to doubt of the religion which he preached unto you, until, when he died, ye said, GOD will by no means send another apostle after him. Thus doth GOD cause him to err, who is a transgressor, and a sceptic.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 236, p. 213
|And Joseph came to you aforetime with clear tokens, but ye ceased not to doubt of the message with which He came to you, until, when He died, ye said, 'God will by no means raise up a Messenger after Him.' Thus God misleadeth him who is the transgressor the doubter.||Moreover, Joseph had come to you before with clear tokens, but ye ceased not to doubt of the message with which he came to you, until when he died, ye said, 'God will by no means raise up an apostle after him.' " Thus God misleadeth him who is the transgressor, the doubter.|
|78||37||40||They who dispute against the signs of GOD, without any authority which hath come unto them, are in great abomination with GOD, and with those who believe. Thus doth GOD seal up every proud and stubborn heart.||They who gainsay the signs of God without authority having come to them, are greatly hated by God and by those who believe. Thus God sealeth up every proud, contumacious heart.|
|78||38||40||And Pharaoh said, O Haman, build me a tower, that I may reach the tracts,||And Pharaoh said, "O Haman,8 Build for me a tower that I may reach the avenues,||8 Haman, the favourite of Ahasuerus and the enemy of the Jews, is thus made the vizier of Pharaoh. The Rabbins make this vizier to have been Korah, Jethro, or Balaam. Midr. Jalkut on Ex. ch. 1, Sect. 162-168; and Tr. Solah, fol. 11. See Sura [lxxix.] xxviii. 5.|
|78||39||40||the tracts of heaven, and may view the GOD of Moses;t for verily I think him to be a liar.||t See chapter 28, p. 293.||The avenues of the heavens, and may mount to the God of Moses, for I verily deem him a liar."|
|78||40||40||And thus the evil of his work was prepared for Pharaoh, and he turned aside from the right path: and the stratagems of Pharaoh ended only in loss.||And thus the evil of his doings was made fair-seeming to Pharaoh, and he turned away from the path of truth; but the artifice of Pharaoh ended only in his ruin.|
|78||41||40||And he who had believed said, O my people, follow me: I will guide you into the right way.||And he who believed said, "O my people! follow me: into the right way will I guide you.|
|78||42||40||O my people, verily this present life is but a temporary enjoyment; but the life to come is the mansion of firm continuance.||O my people! this present life is only a passing joy, but the life to come is the mansion that abideth.|
|78||43||40||Whoever worketh evil shall only be rewarded in equal proportion to the same: but whoever worketh good, whether male or female, and is a true believer, they shall enter paradise: they shall be provided for therein superabundantly.||Whoso shall have wrought evil shall not be recompensed but with its like; but whoso shall have done the things that are right, whether male or female, and is a believerthese shall enter paradise: good things unreckoned shall they enjoy therein.|
|78||44||40||And, O my people, as for me, I invite you to salvation; but ye invite me to hell fire:||And, O my people! how is it that I bid you to salvation, but that ye bid me to the fire?|
|78||45||40||ye invite me to deny GOD, and to associate with him that whereof I have no knowledge; but I invite you to the most mighty, the forgiver of sins.||Ye invite me to deny God, and to join with him gods of whom I know nothing; but I invite you to the Mighty, the Forgiving.|
|78||46||40||There is no doubt but that the false gods to which ye invite me deserve not to be invoked, either in this world or in the next; and that we must return unto GOD; and that the transgressors shall be the inhabitants of hell fire:||No doubt is there that they to whom ye invite me are not to be invoked either in this world or in the world to come: and that unto God is our return, and that the transgressors shall be the inmates of the fire.|
|78||47||40||and ye shall then remember what I now say unto you. And I commit my affair unto GOD; for GOD regardeth his servants.||Then shall ye remember what I am saying unto you: and to God commit I my case: Verily, God beholdeth his servants."|
|78||48||40||Wherefore GOD delivered him from the evils which they had devised; and a grievous punishment encompassed the people of Pharaoh.u||u Some are of opinion that those who were sent by Pharaoh to seize the true believer, his kinsman, are the persons more particularly meant in this place: for they tell us that the said believer fled to a mountain, where they found him at prayers, guarded by the wild beasts, which ranged themselves in order about him, and that his pursuers thereupon returned in a great fright to their master, who put them to death for not performing his command.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|So God preserved him from the evils which they had planned, and the woe of the punishment encompassed the people of Pharaoh.|
|78||49||40||They shall be exposed to the fire of hell morning and evening:x and the day whereon the hour of judgment shall come, it shall be said unto them, Enter, O people of Pharaoh, into a most severe torment.||x Some expound these words of the previous punishment they are doomed to suffer according to a tradition of Ebn Masúd, which informs us that their souls are in the crops of black birds, which are exposed to hell fire every morning and evening until the day of judgment.2
|It is the fire to which they shall be exposed morning and evening, and on the day when "the Hour" shall arrive"Bring in the people of Pharaoh into the severest punishment."|
|78||50||40||And think on the time when the infidels shall dispute together in hell fire; and the weak shall say unto those who behaved with arrogance,y Verily we were your followers: will ye therefore relieve us from any part of this fire?||y See chapter 14, p. 187, note||And when they shall wrangle together in the fire, the weak shall say to those who had borne themselves so proudly, "It is you we followed: will ye therefore relieve us from aught of the fire?"|
|78||51||40||Those who behaved with arrogance shall answer, Verily we are all doomed to suffer therein: for GOD hath now judged between his servants.||And those proud ones shall say, "Verily we are all in it; for now hath God judged between his servants."|
|78||52||40||And they who shall be in the fire shall say unto the keepers of hell,z Call ye on your LORD, that he would ease us, for one day, from this punishment.||z See chapter 74.||And they who are in the fire shall say to the keepers of Hell, "Implore your Lord that he would give us ease but for one day from this torment."|
|78||53||40||They shall answer, Did not your apostles come unto you with evident proofs? They shall say, Yea. The keepers shall reply, Do ye therefore call on God: but the calling of the unbelievers on him shall be only in vain.||They shall say, "Came not your apostles to you with the tokens?" They shall say, "Yes." They shall say, "Cry ye then aloud for help:" but the cry of the unbelievers shall be only in vain.|
|78||54||40||We will surely assist our apostles, and those who believe, in this present life, and on the day whereon the witnesses shall stand forth:||Assuredly, in this present life will we succour our apostles and those who shall have believed, and on the day when the witnesses shall stand forth;|
|78||55||40||a day, whereon the excuse of the unbelievers shall not avail them; but a curse shall attend them, and a wretched abode.||A day whereon the plea of the evil doers shall not avail them; but theirs shall be a curse, and theirs the woe of the abode in Hell.|
|78||56||40||We heretofore gave unto Moses a direction; and we left as an inheritance unto the children of Israel the book of the law; a direction, and an admonition to men of understanding.||And of old gave we Moses the guidance, and we made the children of Israel the heritors of the Book,a guidance and warning to men endued with understanding.|
|78||57||40||Wherefore do thou, O prophet, bear the insults of the infidels with patience; for the promise of GOD is true; and ask pardon for thy fault;a and celebrate the praise of thy LORD, in the evening and in the morning.||a In being too backward and negligent in advancing the true religion, for fear of the infidels.3
|Therefore be steadfast thou and patient; for true is the promise of God: and seek pardon for thy fault,9 and celebrate the praise of thy Lord at evening and at morning.||9 Thy remissness in propagating Islam. Beidh.|
|78||58||40||As to those who impugn the signs of GOD, without any convincing proof which hath been revealed unto them, there is nothing but pride in their breasts;b but they shall not attain their desire: wherefore fly for refuge unto GOD; for it is he who heareth and seeth.||b This sentence may be understood generally, though it was revealed on account of the idolatrous Meccans or of the Jews, who said of Mohammed, This man is not our lord, but the Messias, the Son of David, whose kingdom will be extended over sea and land.4
|As to those who cavil at the signs of God without authority having reached them, nought is there but pride in their breasts: but they shall not succeed. Fly thou for refuge then to God, for He is the Hearer, the Beholder.|
|78||59||40||Verily the creation of heaven and earth is more considerable than the creation of man: but the greater part of men do not understand.||Greater surely than the creation of man is the creation of the heavens and of the earth: but most men know it not.|
|78||60||40||The blind and the seeing shall not be held equal; nor they who believe and work righteousness, and the evil doer: how few revolve these things in their mind!||Moreover, the blind and the seeing, and the evil doer and they who believe and do the things that are right, shall not be deemed equal. How few ponder this!|
|78||61||40||The last hour will surely come; there is no doubt thereof: but the greater part of men believe it not.||Aye, "the Hour" will surely come: there is no doubt of it: but most men believe it not.|
|78||62||40||Your LORD said, Call upon me, and I will hear you: but they who proudly disdain my service shall enter with ignominy into hell.||And your Lord saith, "Call upon meI will hearken unto you: but they who turn in disdain from my service shall enter Hell with shame."|
|78||63||40||It is GOD who hath appointed the night for you to take your rest therein, and the day to give you light: verily GOD is endued with beneficence towards mankind: but the greater part of men do not give thanks.||It is God who hath ordained the night for your rest, and the day to give you light: verily God is rich in bounties to men: but most men render not the tribute of thanks.|
|78||64||40||This is GOD, your LORD, the Creator of all things; there is no GOD besides him: how therefore are ye turned aside from his worship?||This is God your Lord, Creator of all things: no god is there but He: why then do ye turn away from Him?|
|78||65||40||Thus are they turned aside, who oppose the signs of GOD.||Yet thus are they turned aside who gainsay the signs of God.|
|78||66||40||It is GOD who hath given you the earth for a stable floor, and the heaven for a ceiling; and who hath formed you, and made your forms beautiful, and feedeth you with good things. This is GOD, your LORD. Wherefore blessed be GOD, the LORD of all creatures!||It is God who hath given you the earth as a sure foundation, and over it built up the Heaven, and formed you, and made your forms beautiful, and feedeth you with good things. This is God your Lord. Blessed then be God the Lord of the Worlds!|
|78||67||40||He is the living God: there is no GOD but he. Wherefore call upon him, exhibiting unto him the pure religion. Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!||He is the Living One. No God is there but He. Call then upon Him and offer Him a pure worship. Praise be to God the Lord of the Worlds!|
|78||68||40||Say, Verily I am forbidden to worship the deities which ye invoke, besides GOD, after that evident proofs have come unto me from my LORD; and I am commanded to resign myself unto the LORD of all creatures.||SAY: Verily I am forbidden to worship what ye call on beside God, after that the clear tokens have come to me from my Lord, and I am bidden to surrender myself to the Lord of the Worlds.|
|78||69||40||It is he who first created you of dust, and afterwards of seed, and afterwards of coagulated blood; and afterwards brought you forth infants out of your mothers' wombs: then he permitteth you to attain your age of full strength, and afterwards to grow old men (but some of you die before that age), and to arrive at the determined period of your life;c that peradventure ye may understand.||c See chapter 22, p. 250.||He it is who created you of the dust, then of the germs of life, then of thick blood, then brought you forth infants: then he letteth you reach your full strength, and then become old men (but some of you die first), and reach the ordained term. And this that haply ye may understand.|
|78||70||40||It is he who giveth life, and causeth to die: and when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is.||It is He who giveth life and death; and when He decreeth a thing, He only saith of it, "Be," and it is.|
|78||71||40||Dost thou not observe those who dispute against the signs of GOD, how they are turned aside from the true faith?||Seest thou not those who cavil at the signs of God? how are they turned aside!|
|78||72||40||They who charge with falsehood the book of the Koran, and the other scriptures and revealed doctrines which we have sent our former apostles to preach, shall hereafter know their folly,||They who treat "the Book," and the message with which we have sent our Sent Ones, as a lie, shall know the truth hereafter,|
|78||73||40||when the collars shall be on their necks, and the chains by which they shall be dragged into hell; then shall they be burned in the fire.||When the collars shall be on their necks and the chains to drag them into Hell: then in the fire shall they be burned.|
|78||74||40||And it shall be said unto them, Where are the gods which ye associated, besides GOD? They shall answer, They have withdrawn themselves from us: yea, we called on nothingd heretofore. Thus doth GOD lead the unbelievers into error.||d Seeing an idol is nothing in the world.1
|Then shall it be said to them, "Where are they whom ye made the objects of joint worship with God?" They shall say, "They have vanished away from us. Yea, it was nought on which we called heretofore." Thus God leadeth the unbelievers astray.|
|78||75||40||This hath befallen you, for that ye rejoiced insolently on earth, in that which was false; and for that ye were elated with immoderate joy.||"This for you, because of your unrighteous insolence and immoderate joys on earth.|
|78||76||40||Enter the gates of hell, to remain therein forever: and wretched shall be the abode of the haughty!||Enter ye the portals of Hell to abide therein for ever. And, wretched the abode of the haughty ones!"|
|78||77||40||Wherefore persevere with patience, O Mohammed; for the promise of GOD is true. Whether we cause thee to see any part of the punishment with which we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before thou see it; before us shall they be assembled at the last day.||Therefore be thou steadfast in patience: for the promise of God is truth: and whether we shall make thee see part of the woes with which we threatened them, or whether we cause thee first to die, unto us shall they be brought back.|
|78||78||40||We have sent a great number of apostles before thee;e the histories of some of whom we have related unto thee, and the histories of others of them we have not related unto thee: but no apostle had the power to produce a sign, unless by the permission of GOD. When the command of GOD, therefore, shall come, judgment shall be given with truth; and then shall they perish who endeavor to render the signs of God of no effect.||e See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 59.||And we have already sent apostles before thee: of some we have told thee, and of others we have told thee nothing:10 but no apostle had the power to work a miracle unless by the leave of God. But when God's behest cometh, everything will be decided with truth: and then they perish who treated it as a vain thing.||10 It is possible that Muhammad, conscious of his ignorance of Jewish history, intends in this verse to screen himself from the charge of passing over the histories of many of their prophets.|
|78||79||40||It is GOD who hath given you the cattle, that ye may ride on some of them, and may eat of others of them;||It is God who hath given you the cattle that on some of them ye may ride, and of some may eat:|
|78||80||40||(ye also receive other advantages therefrom;)f and that on them ye may arrive at the business proposed in your mind: and on them are ye carried by land, and on ships by sea.||f See chapter 16, p. 195||(Other advantages too do ye derive from them)and that by them ye may effect the projects ye cherish in your breasts; for on them, and on ships are ye borne:|
|78||81||40||And he showeth you his signs; which, therefore, of the signs of GOD, will ye deny?||And He sheweth you His signs: which, then, of the signs of God will ye deny?|
|78||82||40||Do they not pass through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who were before them? They were more numerous than these, and more mighty in strength, and left more considerable monuments of their power in the earth: yet that which they had acquired profited them not.||Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 83-91, 12 To the Bahá'ís of the Western States)
|cf. O: Do ye not travel through the land?||Have they not journeyed in this land, and seen what hath been the end of those who flourished before them? More were they than these in number and mightier in strength, and greater are the traces of their power remaining in the land:11 yet their labours availed them nothing.||11 The wealth of Mecca, although it still numbered about 12,000 inhabitants (as well as of Arabia generally), had much declined at the time of Muhammad, owing mainly to the navigation of the Red Sea, under the Roman dominion over Egypt, which of course impoverished the tribes situated on the line of the old mercantile route southward. Mecca, however, was still to a certain extent prosperous. Comp. Sura [lxi.] xliii. 28.|
|78||83||40||And when their apostles came unto them with evident proofs of their mission, they rejoiced in the knowledge which was with them:g but that which they mocked at encompassed them.||g Being prejudiced in favour of their own erroneous doctrines, and despising the instructions of the prophets.||And when their apostles had come to them with the tokens of their mission, they exulted in what they possessed of knowledge; but that retribution at which they scoffed, encompassed them.|
|78||84||40||And when they beheld our vengeance, they said, We believe in GOD alone, and we renounce the idols which we associated with him:||And when they beheld our vengeance they said, "We believe in God alone, and we disbelieve in the deities we once associated with Him."|
|78||85||40||but their faith availed them not, after they had beholden our vengeance. This was the ordinance of GOD, which was formerly observed in respect to his servants and then did the unbelievers perish.||But their faith, after they had witnessed our vengeance, profited them not. Such the procedure of God with regard to his servants who flourished of old. And then the unbelievers perished.|
|71||0||41||CHAPTER XLI.||SURA1 XLI.THE MADE PLAIN [LXXI.]||1 In some MSS. this Sura is entitled Adoration. Thus Beidh. According to His. 186, comp. Caussin 1, 375 f., Muhammad's aim in this Sura was the conversion of a noble Meccan, Utba ben Rabia, to Islam. The precise year is uncertain.|
|71||0||41||ENTITLED, ARE DISTINCTLY EXPLAINED;h REVEALED AT MECCA.||h Some entitle this chapter Worship, or Adoration, because the infidels are herein commanded to forsake the worship of idols, and to worship GOD: but the thirty-second chapter bearing the same title, that which we have here prefixed is, for distinction, generally used.||MECCA.54 Verses|
|71||0||41||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|71||1||41||H. M.i This is a revelation from the most Merciful;||i See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||HA. MIM.2 A Revelation from the Compassionate, the Merciful!||2 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.|
|71||2||41||a book, the verses whereof are distinctly explained,k an Arabic Koran, for the instruction of people who understand;||k See chapter 11, p. 158, note y.||A Book whose verses (signs) are MADE PLAINan Arabic Koran, for men of knowledge;|
|71||3||41||bearing good tidings, and denouncing threats: but the greater part of them turn aside, and hearken not thereto.||Announcer of glad tidings and charged with warnings! But most of them withdraw and hearken not:|
|71||4||41||And they say, Our hearts are veiled from the doctrine to which thou invitest us; and there is a deafness in our ears, and a curtain between us and thee: wherefore act thou as thou shalt think fit; for we shall act according to our own sentiments.||And they say, "Our hearts are under shelter from thy teachings, and in our ears is a deafness, and between us and thee there is a veil. Act as thou thinkest right: we verily shall act as we think right."|
|71||5||41||Say, Verily I am only a man like you. It is revealed unto me, that your GOD is one GOD: wherefore direct your way straight unto him; and ask pardon of him for what is past. And woe be to the idolaters:||SAY: I am only a man like you.3 It is revealed to me that your God is one God: go straight then to Him, and implore his pardon. And woe to those who join gods with God;||3 Thus SS. Paul and Barnabas, Acts xiv. 15.|
|71||6||41||who give not the appointed alms, and believe not in the life to come!||Who pay not the alms of obligation, and in the life to come believe not!|
|71||7||41||But as to those who believe and work righteousness, they shall receive an everlasting reward.||But they who believe and do the things that are right shall receive a perfect4 recompense.||4 Or, never failing.|
|71||8||41||Say, Do ye indeed disbelieve in him who created the earth in two days;l and do ye set up equals unto him? He is the LORD of all creatures.||l viz., The two first days of the week.1
|SAY: Do ye indeed disbelieve in Him who in two days created the earth? and do ye assign Him peers? The Lord of the worlds is He!|
|71||9||41||And he placed in the earth mountains firmly rooted,m rising above the same: and he blessed it; and provided therein the food of the creatures designed to be the inhabitants thereof, in four days;n equally, for those who ask.o||m See chapter 16, p. 196.
n That is, including the two former days wherein the earth was created.
o i.e., For all, in proportion to the necessity of each, and as their several appetites require. Some refer the word sawâan, here translated equally, and which also signifies completely, to the four days; and suppose the meaning to be that GOD created these things in just so many entire and complete days.2
2 Idem, al Beidâwi.
|And he hath placed on the earth the firm mountains which tower above it; and He hath blessed it, and distributed food throughout it, for the cravings of all alike, in four days:|
|71||10||41||Then he set his mind to the creation of heaven, and it was smoke;p and he said unto it, and to the earth, Come, either obediently, or against your will. They answered, We come, obedient to thy command.||p Or darkness. Al Zamakhshari says this smoke proceeded from the waters under the throne of GOD (which throne was one of the things created before the heavens and the earth), and rose above the water; that the water being dried up, the earth was formed out of it, and the heavens out of the smoke which had mounted aloft.||Then He applied himself to the Heaven, which then was but smoke: and to it and to the Earth He said, "Come ye, whether in obedience or against your will?" and they both said, "We come obedient."|
|71||11||41||And he formed them into seven heavens, in two days;q and revealed unto every heaven its office. And we adorned the lower heaven with lights, and placed therein, a guard of angels.r This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God.||q viz., On the fifth and sixth days of the week. It is said the heavens were created on Thursday, and the sun, moon, and stars on Friday; in the evening of which last day Adam was made.3
r See chapter 15.
|And He made them seven heavens in two days, and in each heaven made known its office: And we furnished the lower heaven with lights and guardian angels. This, the disposition of the Almighty, the All-knowing.|
|71||12||41||If the Meccans withdraw from these instructions, say, I denounce unto you a sudden destruction, like the destruction of Ad and Thamud.||If they turn away, then SAY: I warn you of a tempest, like the tempest of Ad and Themoud!|
|71||13||41||When the apostles came unto them before them and behind them,s saying, Worship GOD alone; they answered, If our LORD had been pleased to send messengers, he had surely sent angels; and we believe not the message with which ye are sent.||s That is, on every side; persuading and urging them continually, and by arguments drawn from past examples, and the expectation of future rewards or punishments.||When the apostles came to them on every side,5 saying, "Worship none but God," they said, "Had our Lord been pleased to send down, He had surely sent down angels; and in sooth, your message we do not believe."||5 Lit. from before them and from behind them.|
|71||14||41||As to the tribe of Ad, they behaved insolently in the earth, without reason, and said, Who is more mighty than we in strength? Did they not see that GOD, who had created them, was more mighty than they in strength? And they knowingly rejected our signs.||As to Ad, they bore them proudly and unjustly in the land, and said, "Who more mighty than we in prowess?" Saw they not that God their creator was mightier than they in prowess? And they rejected our signs.|
|71||15||41||Wherefore we sent against them a piercing wind, on days of ill luck,t that we might make them taste the punishment of shame in this world: but the punishment of the life to come will be more shameful; and they shall not be protected therefrom.||t It is said that this wind continued from Wednesday to Wednesday inclusive, being the latter end of the month Shawâl; and that a Wednesday is the day whereon GOD sends down his judgments on a wicked people.4
|Therefore on ill-omened days did we send against them an impetuous blast that we might make them taste the chastisement of shame in this world:but more shameful shall be the chastisement of the life to come; and they shall not be protected.|
|71||16||41||And as to Thamud, we directed them; but they loved blindness better than the true direction: wherefore the terrible noise of an ignominious punishment assailed them, for that which they had deserved;||And as to Themoud, we had vouchsafed them guidance; but to guidance did they prefer blindness; wherefore the tempest of a shameful punishment overtook them for their doings:|
|71||17||41||but we delivered those who believed, and feared God.u||u See chapter 7, p. 112, &c.||But we rescued the believing and the God-fearing:|
|71||18||41||And warn them of the day, on which the enemies of GOD shall be gathered together unto hell fire, and shall march in distinct bands;||And warn of the day when the enemies of God shall be gathered6 unto the fire urged on in bands:||6 See Sura [lx.] xxxvi. 64, n.|
|71||19||41||until, when they shall arrive thereat, their ears, and their eyes, and their skins, shall bear witness against them of that which they shall have wrought.||Until when they reach it, their ears and their eyes and their skins shall bear witness against them of their deeds:|
|71||20||41||And they shall say unto their skins, Wherefore do ye bear witness against us? They shall answer, GOD hath caused us to speak, who giveth speech unto all things: he created you the first time; and unto him are ye returned.||And they shall say to their skins, "Why witness ye against us?" They shall say, "God, who giveth a voice to all things, hath given us a voice: He created you at first, and to Him are ye brought back.|
|71||21||41||Ye did not hide yourselves, while ye sinned, so that your ears, and your eyes, and your skins could not bear witness against you:x but ye thought that GOD was ignorant of many things which ye did.||x i.e., Ye hid your crimes from men, little thinking that your very members, from which ye could not hide them, would rise up as witnesses against you.||And ye did not hide yourselves so that neither your ears nor your eyes nor your skins should witness against you: but ye thought that God knew not many a thing that ye did!|
|71||22||41||This was your opinion, which ye imagined of your LORD: it hath ruined you; and ye are become lost people.||And this your thought which ye did think of your Lord hath ruined you, so that ye are become of those who perish."|
|71||23||41||Whether they bear their torment, hell fire shall be their abode; or whether they beg for favor, they shall not obtain favor.||And be they patient, still the fire shall be their abode: or if they beg for favour, yet shall they not be of favoured.|
|71||24||41||And we will give them the devils to be their companions; for they dressed up for them the false notions which they entertained of this present world, and of that which is to come; and the sentence justly fitteth them, which was formerly pronounced on the nations of genii and men who were before them; for they perished.||And we will appoint Satans as their fast companions; for it was they who made their present and future state seem fair and right to them; and the sentence passed on the peoples of Djinn and men who flourished before them hath become their due, and they shall perish.|
|71||25||41||The unbelievers say, Hearken not unto this Koran: but use vain discoursey during the reading thereof; that ye may overcome the voice of the reader by your scoffs and laughter.||y Or, talk aloud.||Yet the unbelievers say, "Hearken not to this Koran, but keep up a talking, that ye may overpower the voice of the reader."|
|71||26||41||Wherefore we will surely cause the unbelievers to taste a grievous punishment,||Surely therefore will we cause the unbelievers to taste a terrible punishment;|
|71||27||41||and we will certainly reward them for the evils which they shall have wrought.||And recompense them according to the worst of their actions.|
|71||28||41||This shall be the reward of the enemies of GOD, namely, hell fire; therein is prepared for them an everlasting abode, as a reward for that they have wittingly rejected our signs.||This the reward of the enemies of God,the Fire! it shall be their eternal abode, in requital for their gainsaying our signs.|
|71||29||41||And the infidels shall say in hell, O LORD, show us the two that seduced us, of the genii and men,z and we will cast them under our feet, that they may become most base and despicable.||z i.e., Those of either species, who drew us into sin and ruin. Some suppose that the two more particularly intended here are Eblis and Cain, the two authors of infidelity and murder.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And they who believed not shall say, "O our Lord! shew us those of the Djinn and men who led us astray: both of them will we put under out feet, that they may be of the humbled."|
|71||30||41||As for those who say, Our LORD is GOD, and who behave uprightly; the angels shall descend unto them,a and shall say, Fear not, neither be ye grieved; but rejoice in the hopes of paradise which ye have been promised.||a Either while they are living on earth to dispose their minds to good, to preserve them from temptations, and to comfort them; or at the hour of death to support them in their last agony; or at their coming forth from their graves at the resurrection.2
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 43, p. 43
The Four Valleys (Preamble, within pp. 47-49)
|They that say 'Our Lord is God,' and continue steadfast in His way, upon them, verily, shall the angels descend.
MG: But as for those who say, `Our Lord is God,' and who go straight to Him, the angels shall descend to them...
|But as for those who say, "Our Lord is God;" and who go straight to Him,7 angels shall descend to them and say, "Fear ye not, neither be ye grieved, but rejoice ye in the paradise which ye have been promised.||7 Comp. Sura [lxxxviii.] xlvi. 12.|
|71||31||41||We are your friends in this life, and in that which is to come: therein shall ye have that which your souls shall desire, and therein shall ye obtain whatever ye shall ask for;||We are your guardians in this life and in the next: your's therein shall be your soul's desire, and your's therein whatever ye shall ask for,|
|71||32||41||as a gift from a gracious and merciful God.||The hospitality of a Gracious, a Merciful One."|
|71||33||41||Who speaketh better than he who inviteth unto GOD, and worketh righteousness, and saith, I am a Moslem?||And who speaketh fairer than he who biddeth to God and doth the thing that is right, and saith, "I for my part am of the Muslims"?|
|71||34||41||Good and evil shall not be held equal. Turn away evil with that which is better; and behold, the man between whom and thyself there was enmity shall become, as it were, thy warmest friend:||Moreover, good and evil are not to be treated as the same thing. Turn away evil by what is better, and lo! he between whom and thyself was enmity, shall be as though he were a warm friend.|
|71||35||41||but none shall attain to this perfection, except they who are patient; nor shall any attain thereto, except he who is endued with a great happiness of temper.||Memorials of the Faithful (Mirzá Muhammad, the Servant at the Travelers' Hospice, within pp. 106-108)
|But none attain to this save men steadfast in patience, and none attain to it except the most highly favoured.8||8 Lit. the possessor of great good fortune.|
|71||36||41||And if a malicious suggestion be offered unto thee from Satan, have recourse unto GOD; for it is he who heareth and knoweth.||And if an enticement from Satan entice thee, then take refuge in God, for He is the Hearing, the Knowing.|
|71||37||41||Among the signs of his power are the night, and the day, and the sun, and the moon. Worship not the sun, neither the moon: but worship GOD, who hath created them; if ye serve him.||And among his signs are the night, and the day, and the sun, and the moon. Bend not in adoration to the sun or the moon, but bend in adoration before God who created them both, if ye would serve Him.|
|71||38||41||But if they proudly disdain his service; verily the angels, who are with thy LORD, praise him night and day, and are not wearied.||But if they are too proud for this, yet they who are with thy Lord do celebrate His praises night and day,9 and cease not.||9 Comp. Rev. iv. 8 in the original.|
|71||39||41||And among his signs another is, that thou seest the land waste; but when we send down rain thereon, it is stirred and fermenteth. And he who quickeneth the earth will surely quicken the dead; for he is almighty.||And among His signs is this, that thou seest the earth drooping: but, when we send down the rain upon it, it is stirred and swelleth; verily He who giveth it life, will surely give life to the dead; for His might extendeth over all things.10||10 Thus Tr. Taanith (init.).|
|71||40||41||Verily those who impiously wrong our signs are not concealed from us. Is he, therefore, better, who shall be cast into hell fire, or he who shall appear secure on the day of resurrection? Work that which ye will: he certainly beholdeth whatever ye do.||They truly who with obloquy disown our signs are not hidden from us. Is he then who shall be cast into the fire, or he who shall come forth secure on the day of resurrection, in the better position? Do what ye will: but His eye is on all your doings.|
|71||41||41||Verily they who believe not in the admonition of the Koran, after it hath come unto them, shall one day be discovered. It is certainly a book of infinite value:||Verily, they who believe not in "the warning," after it hath come to them . . . and yet the Koran is a glorious book!|
|71||42||41||vanity shall not approach it, either from before it, or from behind it:b it is a revelation from a wise God, whose praise is justly to be celebrated.||b That is, it shall not be prevailed against, or frustrated by any means or in any respect whatever.||Falsehood, from whatever side it cometh, shall not come night it;11 it is a missive down from the Wise, the Praiseworthy.||11 Lit. vanity shall not come to it from before it, or from behind it.|
|71||43||41||No other is said unto thee by the infidels of Mecca than what hath been formerly said unto the apostles before thee: verily thy LORD is inclined to forgiveness, and is also able to chastise severely.||Nothing hath been said to thee which hath not been said of old to apostles before thee. Verily with thy Lord is forgiveness, and with Him is terrible retribution.|
|71||44||41||If we had revealed the Koran in a foreign language,c they had surely said, Unless the signs thereof be distinctly explained, we will not receive the same: is the book written in a foreign tongue, and the person unto whom it is directed an Arabian? Answer, It is, unto those who believe, a sure guide, and a remedy for doubt unto those who believe, a sure guide, and a remedy for doubt and uncertainty: but unto those who believe not, it is a thickness of hearing in their ears, and it is a darkness which covereth them; these are as they who are called unto from a distant place.d||c See chapter 16, p. 203, &c.
d Being so far off that they hear not, or understand not the voice of him who calls to them.
|Had we made it a Koran in a foreign tongue, they had surely said, "Unless its signs be made clear . . . !12 What! in a foreign tongue? and the people Arabian?" SAY: It is to those who believe a guide and a medicine;13 but as to those who believe not, there is a thickness in their ears, and to them it is a blindness: they are like those who are called to from afar.||12 We will not receive it. The literal rendering of the following words is what! foreign and Arabian?
13 Comp. Sura [lxvii.] xvii. 83, 84.
|71||45||41||We heretofore gave the book of the law unto Moses; and a dispute arose concerning the same: and if a previous decree had not proceeded from thy LORD, to respite the opposers of that revelation, verily the matter had been decided between them, by the destruction of the infidels; for they were in a very great doubt as to the same.||Of old we gave the Book to Moses, and disputes arose about it: and if a decree of respite from thy Lord had gone before, there would surely have been a decision between them: for great were their doubts and questionings about it.14||14 Lit. verily they were in suspicious doubting about it.|
|71||46||41||He who doth right, doth it to the advantage of his own soul; and he who doth evil, doth it against the same: for thy LORD is not unjust towards his servants.||He who doth rightit is for himself:15 and he who doth evilit is for himself: and thy Lord will not deal unfairly with his servants.||15 Lit. for his soul. See next Sura, v. 14.|
|71||47||41||(XXV.) Unto him is reserved the knowledge of the hour of judgment: and no fruit cometh forth from the knops which involve it; neither doth any female conceive in her womb, nor is she delivered of her burden, but with his knowledge. On the day whereon he shall call them to him, saying, Where are my companions which ye ascribed unto me? they shall answer, We assure thee there is no witness of this matter among us:e||e For they shall disclaim their idols at the resurrection.||With Him alone16 is the knowledge of "the Hour." No fruit cometh forth from its coverings, neither doth any female conceive, nor is she delivered, but with His knowledge. And on that day He shall call men to Him, saying, "Where are the companions ye gave me?" They shall say, "We own to thee, there is no one of us can witness for them."||16 Lit. to Him is referred.|
|71||48||41||and the idols which they called on before shall withdraw themselves from them; and they shall perceive that there will be no way to escape.||And what they erst called on shall pass away from them, and they shall perceive that there will be no escape for them.|
|71||49||41||Man is not wearied with asking good; but if evil befall him, he despondeth, and despaireth.||Man ceaseth not to pray for good: but if evil betide him he despondeth, despairing.|
|71||50||41||And if we cause him to taste mercy from us, after affliction hath touched him, he surely saith, This is due to me on account of my deserts: I do not think the hour of judgment will ever come: and if I be brought before my LORD, I shall surely attain, with him, the most excellent condition. But we will then declare unto those who shall not have believed, that which they have wrought; and we will surely cause them to taste a most severe punishment.||And if we cause him to taste our mercy after affliction hath touched him, he is sure to say, "This is my due: and I take no thought of the Hour of Resurrection: and if I be brought back to my Lord, I shall indeed attain with Him my highest good." But we will then certainly declare their doings to the Infidels, and cause them to taste a stern punishment.|
|71||51||41||When we confer favors on man, he turneth aside, and departeth without returning thanks: but when evil toucheth him, he is frequent at prayer.||When we are gracious to man, he withdraweth and turneth him aside: but when evil toucheth him, he is a man of long prayers.|
|71||52||41||Say, What think ye? if the Koran be from GOD, and ye believe not therein; who will lie under a greater error, than he who dissenteth widely therefrom?||SAY: What think ye? If this Book be from God and ye believe it not, who will have gone further astray than he who is at a distance from it?|
|71||53||41||Hereafter we will show them our signs in the regions in the regions of the earth, and in themselves;f until it become manifest unto them that this book is the truth. Is it not sufficient for thee that thy LORD is witness of all things?||f By the surprising victories and conquests of Mohammed and his successors.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 107, p. 101
The Four Valleys (First Valley)
The Seven Valleys (The Valley of Knowledge) (2 parts)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 4
|We will surely show them our signs in the world and within themselves.
MG: Hereafter We will show them Our signs in the regions of the earth, and in themselves, until it become manifest unto them that it is the truth,
MG1: we shall show them our signs in the regions and in themselves,
MG2: until it become plain to them that (this Book) is the truth.
MG: We will surely show them Our signs in the world and within themselves.
|We will shew them our signs in different countries and among themselves, until it become plain to them that it is the truth. Is it not enough for thee that thy Lord is witness of all things?|
|71||54||41||Are they not in a doubt as to the meeting of their LORD at the resurrection? Doth not he encompass all things?||Are they not in doubt as to the meeting with their Lord? But doth he not encompass all things?|
|83||0||42||CHAPTER XLII.||SURA XLII.COUNSEL [LXXXIII.]|
|83||0||42||ENTITLED, CONSULTATION;g REVEALED AT MECCA.h||g The title is taken from the verse wherein the believers are commended, among other things, for using deliberation in their affairs, and consulting together in order to act for the best. Some, instead of this word, prefix the five single letters with which the chapter begins.
h Jallaloddin excepts three verses, beginning with these words, Say, I ask not of you, for this my preaching, any reward, &c.
|83||0||42||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|83||1||42||H. M. A. S. K.i THUS doth the mighty, the wise GOD reveal his will unto thee; and in like manner did he reveal it unto the prophets who were before thee.||i See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||HA. MIM. AIN. SIN. KAF.1 Thus unto thee as unto those who preceded thee doth God, the Mighty, the Wise, reveal!||1 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.|
|83||2||42||Unto him belongeth whatever is in heaven, and in earth; and he is the high, the great God.||All that is in the Heavens and all that is in the Earth is His: and He is the High, the Great!|
|83||3||42||It wanteth little but that the heavens be rent in sunder from above, at the awfulness of his majesty: the angels celebrate the praise of their LORD, and ask pardon for those who dwell in the earth. Is not GOD the forgiver of sins, the merciful?||Ready are the Heavens to cleave asunder from above for very awe: and the angels celebrate the praise of their Lord, and ask forgiveness for the dwellers on earth: Is not God the Indulgent, the Merciful?|
|83||4||42||But as to those who take other gods for their patrons, besides him, GOD observeth their actions: for thou art not a steward over them.||But whose take aught beside Him as lordsGod watcheth them! but thou hast them not in thy charge.|
|83||5||42||Thus have we revealed unto thee an Arabic Koran, that thou mayest warn the metropolis of Mecca, and the Arabs who dwell round about it; and mayest threaten them with the day of the general assembly, of which there is no doubt: one part shall then be placed in paradise, and another part in hell.||It is thus moreover that we have revealed to thee an Arabic Koran, that thou mayest warn the mother city2 and all around it, and that thou mayest warn them of that day of the Gathering, of which there is no doubtwhen part shall be in Paradise and part in the flame.||2 Mecca.|
|83||6||42||If GOD had pleased, he had made them all of one religion; but he leadeth whom he pleaseth into his mercy; and the unjust shall have no patron or helper.||Had God so pleased, He had made them one people and of one creed: but He bringeth whom He will within His mercy; and as for the doers of evil, no patron, no helper shall there be for them.|
|83||7||42||Do they take other patrons, besides him? whereas GOD is the only true patron: he quickeneth the dead; and he is almighty.||Will they take other patrons than Him? But God is man's only Lord: He quickeneth the dead; and He is mighty over all things.|
|83||8||42||Whatever matter ye disagree about, the decision thereof appertaineth unto GOD. This is GOD, my LORD: in him do I trust, and unto him do I turn me:||And whatever the subject of your disputes, with God doth its decision rest. This is God, my Lord: in Him do I put my trust, and to Him do I turn in penitence;|
|83||9||42||the Creator of heaven and earth: he hath given you wives of your own species, and cattle both male and female; by which means he multiplieth you: there is nothing like him; and it is he who heareth and seeth.||Creator of the Heavens and of the Earth! he hath given you wives from among your own selves, and cattle male and femaleby this means to multiply you: Nought is there like Him! the Hearer, the Beholder He!|
|83||10||42||His are the keys of heaven and earth; he bestoweth provision abundantly on whom he pleaseth, and he is sparing unto whom he pleaseth; for he knoweth all things.||His, the keys of the Heavens and of the Earth! He giveth with open hand, or sparingly, to whom He will: He knoweth all things.|
|83||11||42||He hath ordained you the religion which he commanded Noah, and which we have revealed unto thee, O Mohammed, and which we commanded Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus:k saying, Observe this religion, and be not divided therein. The worship of one God, to which thou invitest them, is grievous unto the unbelievers:||k See ibid. Sect. IV. p. 55 and 59.||To you hath He prescribed the faith which He commanded unto Noah, and which we have revealed to thee, and which we commanded unto Abraham and Moses and Jesus, saying, "Observe this faith, and be not divided into sects therein." Intolerable to those who worship idols jointly with God|
|83||12||42||GOD will elect thereto whom he pleaseth, and will direct unto the same him who shall repent.||Is that faith to which thou dost call them. Whom He pleaseth will God choose for it, and whosoever shall turn to Him in penitence will He guide to it.|
|83||13||42||Those who lived in times past were not divided among themselves, until after that the knowledge of God's unity had come unto them; through their own perverseness: and unless a previous decree had passed from thy LORD, to bear with them till a determined time, verily the matter had been decided between them, by the destruction of the gainsayers. They who have inherited the scriptures after them,l are certainly in a perplexing doubt concerning the same.m||l viz., The modern Jews and Christians.
m Not understanding the true meaning, nor believing the real doctrines thereof.
|Nor were they divided into sects through mutual jealousy, till after that "the knowledge" had come to them: and had not a decree from thy Lord gone forth respiting them to a fixed time, verily, there had at once been a decision between them.3 And they who have inherited "the Book" after them, are in perplexity of doubt concerning it.||3 Jews and Christians.|
|83||14||42||Wherefore invite them to receive the sure faith, and be urgent with them, as thou hast been commanded; and follow not their vain desires: and say, I believe in all the scriptures which GOD hath sent down; and I am commanded to establish justice among you: GOD is our LORD and your LORD: unto us will our works be imputed, and unto you will your works be imputed: let there be no wrangling between us and you; for GOD will assemble us all at the last day, and unto him shall we return.||The Four Valleys (Preamble, within pp. 47-49)
|MG: Go straight on then as thou hast been commanded.||For this cause summon thou them to the faith, and go straight on as thou hast been bidden, and follow not their desires: and SAY: In whatsoever Books God hath sent down do I believe: I am commanded to decide justly between you: God is your Lord and our Lord: we have our works and you have your works: between us and you let there be no strife: God will make us all one: and to Him shall we return.|
|83||15||42||As to those who dispute concerning GOD, after obedience hath been paid him by receiving his religion, their disputing shall be vain in the sight of their LORD; and wrath shall fall on them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment.||And as to those who dispute about God, after pledges of obedience given to Him,4 their disputings shall be condemned by their Lord, and wrath shall be on them, and theirs shall be a sore torment.||4 Or, nachdem ihm (Mohamed) die Lehre geworden. Ullm. Postquam responsum fuit illi (id est, Mahumeto de Religione manifestanda). Mar.|
|83||16||42||It is GOD who hath sent down the scripture with truth; and the balance of true judgment: and what shall inform with truth; and the balance of true judgment: and what shall inform thee whether the hour be nigh at hand?||It is God who hath sent down the Book with truth, and the Balance:5 but who shall inform thee whether haply "the Hour" be nigh?||5 The law contained in the Koran.|
|83||17||42||They who believe not therein wish it to be hastened by way of mockery: but they who believe dread the same, and know it to be the truth. Are not those who dispute concerning the last hour in a wide error?||They who believe not in it, challenge its speedy coming:6 but they who believe are afraid because of it, and know it to be a truth. Are not they who dispute of the Hour, in a vast error?||6 Isai. v. 19.|
|83||18||42||GOD is bounteous unto his servants; he provideth for whom he pleaseth; and he is the strong, the mighty.||Benign is God towards his servants: for whom He will doth He provide: and He is the Strong, the Mighty.|
|83||19||42||Whoso chooseth the tillage of the life to come,n unto him will we give increase in his tillage: and whoso chooseth the tillage of this world, we will give him the fruit thereof; but he shall have no part in the life to come.||n Labouring here to obtain a reward hereafter; for what is sown in this world will be reaped in the next.||Whoso will choose the harvest field of the life to come, to him will we give increase in this his harvest field: and whoso chooseth the harvest field of this life, thereof will we give him: but no portion shall there be for him in the life to come.7||7 Comp. Gal. vi. 7, 8.|
|83||20||42||Have the idolaters deities which ordain them a religion which GOD hath not allowed? But had it not been for the decree of respiting their punishment to the day of separating the infidels from the true believers, judgment had been already given between them: for the unjust shall surely suffer a painful torment.||Is it that they have gods who have sanctioned for them aught in the matter of religion which God hath not allowed? But had it not been for a decree of respite till the day of severance, judgment had ere now taken place among them; and assuredly the impious shall undergo a painful torment.|
|83||21||42||On that day thou shalt see the unjust in great terror, because of their demerits; and the penalty thereof shall fall upon them: but they who believe and do good works shall dwell in the delightful meadows of paradise; they shall obtain whatever they shall desire, with their LORD. This is the greatest acquisition.||On that day thou shalt see the impious alarmed at their own works, and the consequence thereof shall fall upon them: but they who believe and do the things that are right, shall dwell in the meadows of paradise: whatever they shall desire awaiteth them with their Lord. This, the greatest boon.|
|83||22||42||This is what GOD promiseth unto his servants who believe and do good works. Say, I ask not of you, for this my preaching, any reward, except the love of my relations: and whoever shall have deserved well by one good action, unto him will we add the merit of another action thereto; for GOD is inclined to forgive, and ready to reward.||This is what God announceth to his servants who believe and do the things that are right. SAY: For this ask I no wage of you, save the love of my kin. And whoever shall have won the merit of a good deed, we will increase good to him therewith; for God is forgiving, grateful.|
|83||23||42||Do they say, Mohammed hath blasphemously forged a lie concerning GOD? If GOD pleaseth, he will seal up thy heart:o and GOD will absolutely abolish vanity, and will establish the truth in his words;p for he knoweth the innermost part of men's breasts.||o The meaning of these words is somewhat obscure. Some imagine they express a detestation of the forgery charged on the prophet by the infidels; because none could be capable of so wicked an action but one whose heart was close shut, and knew not his LORD; as if he had said, God forbid that thou shouldst be void of grace, or have so little sense of thy duty. Others think the signification to be that GOD might strike all the revelations which had been vouchsafed to Mohammed, out of his heart at once; and others, that GOD would strengthen his heart with patience against the insults of the unbelievers.1 1 Al Beidâwi. p Wherefore if the doctrine taught in this book be of man, it will certainly fail and come to nothing; but if it be of GOD, it can never be overthrown.2 2 Idem.||Will they say he hath forged a lie of God? If God pleased, He could then seal up thy very heart.8 But God will bring untruth to nought, and will make good the truth by his word: for He knoweth the very secrets of the breast.||8 That is, deprive thee of the Prophetic mission; or, fortify thee with patience against the calumny of forging lies of God. Thus Mar. If this latter interpretation be adopted, the remainder of the verse must be rendered: And God will abolish the lie and, etc.|
|83||24||42||It is he who accepteth repentance from his servants, and forgiveth sins, and knoweth that which ye do.||He it is who accepteth repentance from his servants, and forgiveth their sins and knoweth your actions:|
|83||25||42||He will incline his ear unto those who believe and work righteousness, and will add unto them above what they shall ask or deserve, of his bounty: but the unbelievers shall suffer a severe punishment.||And to those who believe and do the things that are right will he hearken, and augment his bounties to them:9 but the unbelievers doth a terrible punishment await.||9 Lit. he will increase them. Comp. Ps. cxv. 14.|
|83||26||42||If GOD should bestow abundance upon his servants they would certainly behave insolently in the earth: but he sendeth down by measure unto every one that which he pleaseth; for he well knoweth and seeth the condition of his servants.||Should God bestow abundance upon his servants, they might act wantonly on the earth: but He sendeth down what He will by measure; for he knoweth, beholdeth his servants.|
|83||27||42||It is he who sendeth down the rain, after men have despaired thereof, and spreadeth abroad his mercy; and he is the patron, justly to be praised.||He it is who after that men have despaired of it, sendeth down the rain, and spreadeth abroad his mercy: He is the Protector, the Praiseworthy.|
|83||28||42||Among his signs is the creation of heaven and earth, and of the living creatures with which he hath replenished them both; and he is able to gather them together before his tribunal, whenever he pleaseth.||Among his signs is the creation of the Heavens and of the Earth, and the creatures which he hath scattered over both: and, for their gathering together when he will, He is allpowerful!|
|83||29||42||Whatever misfortune befalleth you is sent unto you by God, for that which your hands have deserved; and yet he forgiveth many things:||Nor happeneth to you any mishap, but it is for your own handy-work: and yet he forgiveth many things.|
|83||30||42||ye shall not frustrate the divine vengeance in the earth; neither shall ye have any protector or helper, against GOD.||Ye cannot weaken him on the earth: neither, beside God, patron or helper shall ye have.|
|83||31||42||Among his signs also are the ships running in the sea, like high mountains: if he pleaseth, he causeth the wind to cease, and they lie still on the back of the water: (verily herein are signs unto every patient and grateful person):||Among his signs also are the sea-traversing ships like mountains: if such be his will, He lulleth the wind, and they lie motionless on the back of the waves:truly herein are signs to all the constant, the grateful;|
|83||32||42||or he destroyeth them by shipwreck, be cause of that which their crews have merited; though he pardoneth many things.||Or if, for their ill deserts, He cause them to founder, still He forgiveth much:|
|83||33||42||And they who dispute against our signs shall know that there will be no way for them to escape our vengeance.||But they who gainsay our signs shall know that there will be no escape for them.|
|83||34||42||Whatever things are given you, they are the provision of this present life: but the reward which is with GOD is better, and more durable, for those who believe, and put their trust in their LORD;||All that you receive is but for enjoyment in this life present: but better and more enduring is a portion with God, for those who believe and put their trust in their Lord;|
|83||35||42||and who avoid heinous and filthy crimes, and when they are angry, forgive;||And who avoid the heinous things of crime, and filthiness, and when they are angered, forgive;|
|83||36||42||and who hearken unto their LORD, and are constant at prayer, and whose affairs are directed by consultation among themselves, and who give alms out of what we have bestowed on them;||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 100
|MG: and whose affairs are guided by mutual counsel.||And who hearken to their Lord, and observe prayer, and whose affairs are guided by mutual COUNSEL, and who give alms of that with which we have enriched them;|
|83||37||42||and who, when an injury is done them, avenge themselvesq||q Using the means which GOD has put into their hands for their own defence. This is added to complete the character here given; for valour and courage are not inconsistent with clemency,3 the rule being,
Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos.
|And who, when a wrong is done them, redress themselves:|
|83||38||42||(and the retaliation of evil ought to be an evil proportionate thereto): but he who forgiveth and is reconciled unto his enemy, shall receive his reward from GOD;r for he loveth not the unjust doers.||r See chapter 5, p. 79, &c.||Yet let the recompense of evil be only a like evil but he who forgiveth and is reconciled, shall be rewarded by God himself; for He loveth not those who act unjustly.|
|83||39||42||And whoso shall avenge himself, after he hath been injured; as to these, it is not lawful to punish them for it:||And there shall be no way open against those who, after being wronged, avenge themselves;|
|83||40||42||but it is only lawful to punish those who wrong men, and act insolently in the earth, against justice; these shall suffer a grievous punishment.||But there shall be a way open against those who unjustly wrong others, and act insolently on the earth in disregard of justice. These! a grievous punishment doth await them.|
|83||41||42||And whoso beareth injuries patiently, and forgiveth; verily this is a necessary work.||And whoso beareth wrongs with patience and forgiveth;this verily is a bounden duty;|
|83||42||42||Whom GOD shall cause to err, he shall afterwards have no protector. And thou shalt see the ungodly,||But he whom God shall cause to err, shall thenceforth have no protector. And thou shalt behold the perpetrators of injustice,|
|83||43||42||who shall say, when they behold the punishment prepared for them, Is there no way to return back into the world?||Exclaiming, when they see the torment, "Is there no way to return?"|
|83||44||42||And thou shalt see them exposed unto hell fire; dejected, because of the ignominy they shall undergo: they shall look at the fire sideways, and by stealth; and the true believers shall say, Verily the losers are they who have lost their own souls, and their families, on the day of resurrection: shall not the ungodly continue in eternal torment?||And thou shalt see them when set before it, downcast for the shame: they shall look at it with stealthy glances: and the believers shall say, "Truly are the losers they who have lost themselves and their families on the day of Resurrection! Shall not the perpetrators of injustice be in lasting torment?"|
|83||45||42||They shall have no protectors to defend them against GOD: and whom GOD shall cause to err, he shall find no way to the truth.||And no other protectors shall there be to succour them than God; and no pathway for him whom God shall cause to err.|
|83||46||42||Hearken unto your LORD, before the day come, which GOD will not keep back: ye shall have no place of refuge on that day; neither shall ye be able to deny your sins.||Hearken then to your Lord ere the day come, which none can put back when God doth ordain its coming. No place of refuge for you on that day! no denying your own works!|
|83||47||42||But if those to whom thou preachest turn aside from thy admonitions, verily we have not sent thee to be a guardian over them: thy duty is preaching only. When we cause man to taste mercy from us, he rejoiceth thereat: but if evil befall them, for that which their hands have formerly committed, verily man becometh ungrateful.||But if they turn aside from thee, yet we have not sent thee to be their guardian. 'Tis thine but to preach. When we cause man to taste our gifts of mercy, he rejoiceth in it; but if for their by-gone handy-work evil betide them, then lo! is man ungrateful.|
|83||48||42||Unto GOD appertaineth the kingdom of heaven and earth: he createth that which he pleaseth; he giveth females unto whom he pleaseth, and he giveth males unto whom he pleaseth;||God's, the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth! He createth what He will! and he giveth daughters to whom He will, and sons to whom He will:|
|83||49||42||or he giveth them males and females jointly: and he maketh whom he pleaseth to be childless; for he is wise and powerful.||Or He giveth them children of both sexes, and He maketh whom He will to be childless; for He is Wise, Powerful!|
|83||50||42||It is not fit for man that GOD should speak unto him otherwise than by private revelation, or from behind a veil,||It is not for man that God should speak with him but by vision, or from behind a veil:|
|83||51||42||or by his sending of a messenger to reveal, by his permission, that which he pleaseth; for he is high and wise.||Or, He sendeth a messenger to reveal, by his permission, what He will: for He is Exalted, Wise!|
|83||52||42||Thus have we revealed unto thee a revelation,s by our command. Thou didst not understand, before this, what the book of the Koran was, nor what the faith was: but we have ordained the same for a light; we will thereby direct such of our servants as we please: and thou shalt surely direct them into the right way,||s Or, as the words may be also translated, Thus have we sent the spirit Gabriel unto thee with a revelation.||Thus have we sent the Spirit (Gabriel10) to thee with a revelation, by our command. Thou knewest not, ere this, what "the Book" was, or what the faith. But we have ordained it for a light: by it will we guide whom we please of our servants. And thou shalt surely guide into the right way,||10 Thus Beidhawi.|
|83||53||42||the way of GOD, unto whom belongeth whatever is in heaven and in earth. Shall not all things return unto GOD?||The way of God, whose is all that the Heaven and the Earth contain. Shall not all things return to God?|
|61||0||43||CHAPTER XLIII.||SURA XLIII.ORNAMENTS OF GOLD [LXI.]|
|61||0||43||ENTITLED, THE ORNAMENTS OF GOLD;t REVEALED AT MECCA.u||t The words chosen for the title of this chapter occurs p. 364.
u Some except the verse beginning with these words, And ask our apostles whom we have sent before thee, &c.
|61||0||43||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|61||1||43||H. M.x BY the perspicuous book;||x See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||Ha. Mim.1 By the Luminous Book!||1 See Sura lxviii. I, p. 32.|
|61||2||43||verily we have ordained the same an Arabic Koran that ye may understand:||We have made it an Arabic Koran that ye may understand:|
|61||3||43||and it is certainly written in the original book,y kept with us, being sublime and full of wisdom.||y i.e., The preserved table; which is the original of all the scriptures in general.||And it is a transcript of the archetypal Book,2 kept by us; it is lofty, filled with wisdom,||2 Lit. it is in the Mother of the Book, i.e. the original of the Koran, preserved before God.|
|61||4||43||Shall we therefore turn away from you the admonition, and deprive you thereof, because ye are a people who transgress?||Shall we then turn aside this warning from you because ye are a people who transgress?|
|61||5||43||And how many prophets have we sent among those of old?||Yet how many prophets sent we among those of old!|
|61||6||43||and no prophet came unto them, out they laughed him to scorn:||But no prophet came to them whom they made not the object of their scorn:|
|61||7||43||wherefore we destroyed nations who were more mighty than these in strength; and the example of those who were of old hath been already set before them.||Wherefore we destroyed nations mightier than these Meccans in strength; and the example of those of old hath gone before!|
|61||8||43||If thou ask them who created the heavens and the earth, they will certainly answer, The mighty, the wise God created them:||And if thou ask them who created the Heavens and the Earth, they will say: "The Mighty, the Sage, created them both,"|
|61||9||43||who hath spread the earth as a bed for you, and hath made you paths therein, that ye may be directed:||Who hath made the Earth as a couch for you, and hath traced out routes therein for your guidance;|
|61||10||43||and who sendeth down rain from heaven by measure, whereby we quicken a dead country; (so shall ye be brought forth from your graves:)||And who sendeth down out of Heaven the rain in due degree, by which we quicken a dead land; thus shall ye be brought forth from the grave:|
|61||11||43||and who hath created all the various species of things, and hath given you ships and cattle, whereon ye are carried;||And who hath created the sexual couples, all of them, and hath made for you the ships and beasts whereon ye ride:|
|61||12||43||that ye may sit firmly on the backs thereof, and may remember the favor of your LORD, when ye sit thereon, and may say, Praise be unto him, who hath subjected these unto our service! for we could not have mastered them by our own power:||That ye may sit balanced on their backs and remember the goodness of your Lord as ye sit so evenly thereon, and say: "Glory to Him who hath subjected these to us! We could not have attained to it of ourselves:|
|61||13||43||and unto our LORD shall we surely return.||And truly unto our Lord shall we return."|
|61||14||43||Yet have they attributed unto him some of his servants as his offspring: verily man is openly ungrateful.||Yet do they assign to him some of his own servants for offspring! Verily man is an open ingrate!|
|61||15||43||Hath God taken daughters out of those beings which he hath created; and hath he chosen sons for you?||Hath God adopted daughters from among those whom he hath created, and chosen sons for you?|
|61||16||43||But when one of them hath the news brought of the birth of a child of that sex which they attribute unto the Merciful, as his similitude, his face becometh black, and he is oppressed with sorrow.z||z See chapter 16, p. 100, &c.||But when that3 is announced to any one of them, which he affirmeth to be the case with the God of Mercy,4 his face settleth into darkness and he is silent-sad.||3 That is, of the birth of a female.
4 Lit. which he imputeth to the God of Mercy, as his likeness.
|61||17||43||Do they therefore attribute unto God female issue, which are brought up among ornaments, and are contentious without cause?||What! make they a being to be the offspring of God who is brought up among trinkets, and is ever contentious without reason?|
|61||18||43||And do they make the angels, who are the servants of the Merciful, females? Were they present at their creation? Their testimony shall be written down, and they shall be examined concerning the same, on the day of judgment.||And they make the angels who are the servants of God of Mercy, females. What! did they witness their creation? Their witness shall be taken down, and they shall hereafter be enquired at.|
|61||19||43||And they say, If the Merciful had pleased, we had not worshipped them. They have no knowledge herein: they only utter a vain lie.||And they say: "Had the God of Mercy so willed it we should never have worshipped them." No knowledge have they in this: they only lie.|
|61||20||43||Have we given them a book of revelations before this; and do they keep the same in their custody?||Have we ere this given them a Book?5 and do they possess it still?||5 To authorise angel-worship.|
|61||21||43||But they say, Verily we found our fathers practising a religion; and we are guided in their footsteps.||But say they: "Verily we found our fathers of that persuasion, and verily, by their footsteps do we guide ourselves."|
|61||22||43||Thus we sent no preacher before thee, unto any city, but the inhabitants thereof who lived in affluence, said, Verily we found our fathers practising a religion: and we tread in their footsteps.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 162, p. 155
|Verily we found our fathers with a faith, and verily, in their footsteps we follow.||And thus never before thy time did we send a warner to any city but its wealthy ones said: "Verily we found our fathers with a religion, and in their tracks we tread."|
|61||23||43||And the preacher answered, What, although I bring you a more right religion than that which ye found your fathers to practise? And they replied, Verily we believe not that which ye are sent to preach.||SAY,such was our command to that apostle"What! even if I bring you a religion more right than that ye found your fathers following?" And they said, "Verily we believe not in your message."|
|61||24||43||Wherefore we took vengeance on them: and behold what hath been the end of those who accused our apostles of imposture.||Wherefore we took vengeance on them, and behold what hath been the end of those who treated our messengers as liars!|
|61||25||43||Remember when Abraham said unto his father, and his people, Verily I am clear of the gods which ye worship,||And bear in mind when Abraham said to his father and to his people, "Verily I am clear of what ye worship,|
|61||26||43||except him who hath created me; for he will direct me aright.||Save Him who hath created me; for he will vouchsafe me guidance."|
|61||27||43||And he ordained this to be a constant doctrine among his posterity; that they should be turned from idolatry to the worship of the only true God.||And this he established as a doctrine that should abide among his posterity, that to God might they be turned.|
|61||28||43||Verily I have permitted these Meccans and their fathers to live in prosperity, until the truth should come unto them, and a manifest apostle:||In sooth to these idolatrous Arabians and to their fathers did I allow their full enjoyments, till the truth should come to them, and an undoubted apostle:|
|61||29||43||but now the truth is come unto them, they say, This is a piece of sorcery; and we believe not therein.||But now that the truth hath come to them, they say, "'Tis sorcery, and we believe it not."|
|61||30||43||And they say, Had this Korân been sent down unto some great man of either of the two cities,a we would have received it.||a i.e., To one of the principal inhabitants of Mecca, or of Tâyef, such as al Walid Ebn al Mogheira, or Erwa Ebn Masud, the Thakifite.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And they say, "Had but this Koran been sent down to some great one of the two cities6 . . .!"||6 Supply, Mecca and Taief, we would have received it.|
|61||31||43||Do they distribute the mercy of thy LORD?b We distribute the necessary provision among them, in this present life, and we raise some of them several degrees above the others, that the one of them may take the other to serve him: and the mercy of thy LORD is more valuable than the riches which they gather together.||b By this expression the prophetic office is here particularly intended.||Are they then the distributors of thy Lord's Mercy?7 It is we who distribute their subsistence among them in this world's life; and we raise some of them by grades above others, that the one may take the other to serve him: but better is the mercy of thy Lord than all their hoards.||7 Lit. mercy, i.e. the gift and office of prophecy.|
|61||32||43||If it were not that mankind would have become one sect of infidels, verily we had given unto those who believe not in the Merciful, roofs of silver to their houses, and stairs of silver, by which they might ascend thereto,||But for fear that all mankind would have become a single people of unbelievers, verily we would certainly have given to those who believe not in the God of Mercy roofs of silver to their houses, and silver stairs to ascend by;|
|61||33||43||and doors of silver to their houses, and couches of silver, for them to lean on;||And doors of silver to their houses, and couches of silver to recline on;|
|61||34||43||and ornaments of gold: for all this is the provision of the present life; but the next life with thy LORD shall be for those who fear him.||And ORNAMENTS OF GOLD: for all these are merely the good things of the present life; but the next life doth thy Lord reserve for those who fear Him.|
|61||35||43||Whoever shall withdraw from the admonition of the Merciful, we will chain a devil unto him; and he shall be his inseparable companion:||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 286, p. 257
|And whoso shall withdraw from the remembrance of the Merciful, We will chain a Satan unto him, and he shall be his fast companion.||And whoso shall withdraw from the Warning of the God of Mercy, we will chain a Satan to him, and he shall be his fast companion:|
|61||36||43||(and the devils shall turn them aside from the way of truth; yet they shall imagine themselves to be rightly directed:)||For the Satans will turn men aside from the Way, who yet shall deem themselves rightly guided;|
|61||37||43||until, when he shall appear before us at the last day, he shall say unto the devil,c Would to GOD that between me and thee there was the distance of the east from the west! Oh how wretched a companion art thou!||c See chapter 19.||Until when man shall come before us, he shall say, "O Satan, would that between me and thee were the distance of the East and West."8 And a wretched companion is a Satan.||8 Lit. the two Easts, by which some understand the distance between the two solstices.|
|61||38||43||But wishes shall not avail you on this day, since ye have been unjust; for ye shall be partakers of the same punishment.||But it shall not avail you on that day, because ye were unjust: partners shall ye be in the torment.|
|61||39||43||Canst thou, O prophet, make the deaf to hear, or canst thou direct the blind, and him who is in a manifest error?||What! Canst thou then make the deaf to hear, or guide the blind and him who is in palpable error?|
|61||40||43||Whether we take thee away, we will surely take vengeance on them;||Whether therefore we take thee off by death, surely will we avenge ourselves on them;|
|61||41||43||or whether we cause thee to see the punishment with which we have threatened them executed, we will certainly prevail over them.||Or whether we make thee a witness of the accomplishment of that with which we threatened them, we will surely gain the mastery over them.9||9 Comp. Suras xl. 77; xxiii. 97; x. 47; xxix. 53; xxxvii. 179; xiii. 42. These passages clearly show that Muhammad had at this periodtowards the close of his Meccan periodfull faith in his ultimate success, and in the fulfilment of his menaces against the unbelievers.|
|61||42||43||Wherefore hold fast the doctrine which hath been revealed unto thee; for thou art in a right way:||Hold thou fast therefore what hath been revealed to thee, for thou art on a right path:|
|61||43||43||and it is a memorial unto thee and thy people, and hereafter shall ye be examined concerning your observance thereof.||For truly to thee and to thy people it is an admonition; and ye shall have an account to render for it at last.10||10 Lit. ye shall be examined in the end.|
|61||44||43||And ask our apostles whom we have sent before thee,d whether we have appointed gods for them to worship, besides the Merciful.||d That is, ask those who profess the religions which they taught, and their learned men.2
2 Idem, Jallal., &c.
|And ask our Sent Ones whom we have sent before thee, "Appointed we gods beside the God of Mercy whom they should worship?"11||11 This verse is said (see Nöld. p. 100, n.) to have been revealed in the temple at Jerusalem on the occasion of the night journey thither. See also Weil's Muhammed der Prophet, p. 374.|
|61||45||43||We formerly sent Moses with our signs unto Pharaoh and his princes, and he said, Verily I am the apostle of the LORD of all creatures.||Of old sent we Moses with our signs to Pharaoh and his nobles: and he said, "I truly am the Apostle of the Lord of the worlds."|
|61||46||43||And when he came unto them with our signs, behold, they laughed him to scorn;||And when he presented himself before them with our signs, lo! they laughed at them,|
|61||47||43||although we showed them no sign, but it was greater than the other:e and we inflicted a punishmentf on them, that peradventure they might be converted.||e Literally, Than its sister. The meaning is that the miracles were all very great and considerable, or, as the French may express it, by a phrase nearly the same, les uns plus grands que les autres.
f viz., The successive plagues which they suffered, previous to their final destruction in the Red Sea.
|Though we shewed them no sign that was not greater than its fellow:12 and therefore did we lay hold on them with chastisement, to the intent that they might be turned to God.||12 Lit. sister.|
|61||48||43||And they said unto Moses, O magician, pray unto thy LORD for us, according to the covenant which he hath made with thee; for we will certainly be directed.||Then they said, "O Magician! call on thy Lord on our behalf to do as he hath engaged with thee, for truly we would fain be guided."|
|61||49||43||But when we took the plague from off them, behold, they brake their promise.||But when we relieved them from the chastisement, lo! they broke their pledge.|
|61||50||43||And Pharaoh made proclamation among his people, saying, O my people, is not the kingdom of Egypt mine, and these rivers,g which flow beneath me? Do ye not see?||g To wit, the Nile and its branches.3
|And Pharaoh made proclamation among his people. Said he, "O my people! is not the kingdom of Egypt mine, and these rivers which flow at my feet?13 Do ye not behold?||13 See Sura [lxxix.] xxviii. 39, n.|
|61||51||43||Am not I better than this Moses, who is a contemptible person,||Am I not mightier than this despicable fellow,|
|61||52||43||and can scarce express himself intelligibly?h||h See chapter 20, p. 234, note||And who scarce can speak distinctly?|
|61||53||43||Have bracelets of gold, therefore, been put upon him;i or do the angels attend him in orderly procession?||i Such bracelets were some of the insignia of royalty; for when the Egyptians raised a person to the dignity of a prince, they put a collar or chain of gold about his neck,1 and bracelets of gold on his wrists.2
1 See Gen. xli. 42.
2 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|Have bracelets of gold14 then been put upon him, or come there with him a train of Angels?"||14 Comp. Gen. xli. 42.|
|61||54||43||And Pharaoh persuaded his people to light behavior; and they obeyed him: for they were a wicked people.||And he inspired his people with levity, and they obeyed him; for they were a perverse people:|
|61||55||43||And when they had provoked us to wrath, we took vengeance on them: and we drowned them all:||And when they had angered us, we took vengeance on them, and we drowned them all.|
|61||56||43||and we made them a precedent, and an example unto others.||And we made them a precedent and instance of divine judgments to those who came after them.|
|61||57||43||And when the son of Mary was proposed for an example, behold, thy people cried out through excess of joy thereat;k||k This passage is generally supposed to have been revealed on occasion of an objection made by one Ebn al Zabári to those words in the 21st chapter,3 by which all in general, who were worshipped as deities, besides GOD, are doomed to hell: whereupon the infidels cried out, We are contented that our gods should be with Jesus; for he also is worshipped as GOD.4 Some, however, are of opinion it might have been revealed in answer to certain idolaters, who said that the Christians, who received the scriptures, worshipped Jesus, supposing him to be the son of GOD; whereas the angels were more worthy of that honour than he.5
3 See p. 249.
4 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|And when the Son of Mary was set forth as an instance of divine power, lo! thy people cried out for joy thereat:|
|61||58||43||and they said, Are our gods better, or he? They have proposed this instance unto thee no otherwise than for an occasion of dispute: yea, they are contentious men.||And they said, "Are our gods or is he the better?"15 They put this forth to thee only in the spirit of dispute. Yea, they are a contentious people.||15 This was a captious objection made to Muhammad by the idolaters of Mecca when he condemned their gods (Sura xxi. 98), as if they had said, "Jesus is worshipped as a God by the Christians: does he come under your anathema equally with our idols? we shall be content for our gods to be with him."|
|61||59||43||Jesus is no other than a servant, whom we favored with the gift of prophecy; and we appointed him for an examplel unto the children of Israel:||l Or an instance of our power, by his miraculous birth.||Jesus is no more than a servant whom we favoured, and proposed as an instance of divine power to the children of Israel.|
|61||60||43||(if we pleased, verily we could from ourselves produce angels, to succeed you in the earth):m||m As easily as we produced Jesus without a father.6 The intent of the words is to show how just and reasonable it is to think that the angels should bear the relation of children to men, rather than to GOD; they being his creatures, as well as men, and equally in his power.
|(And if we pleased, we could from yourselves bring forth Angels to succeed you on earth:)16||16 That is, as we caused Jesus to be born without a human father.|
|61||61||43||and he shall be a sign of the approach of the last hour;n wherefore doubt not thereof. And follow me: this is the right way.||n For some time before the resurrection Jesus is to descend on earth, according to the Mohammedans, near Damascus,7 or, as some say, near a rock in the holy land named Afik, with a lance in his hand, wherewith he is to kill Antichrist, whom he will encounter at Ludd, or Lydda, a small town not far from Joppa.8 They add that he will arrive at Jerusalem at the time of morning prayer, that he shall perform his devotions after the Mohammedan institution, and officiate instead of the Imâm, who shall give place to him; that he will break down the cross, and destroy the churches of the Christians, of whom he will make a general slaughter, excepting only such as shall profess Islâm, etc.9
7 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 63.
8 See ibid. p. 63.
9 Al Beidâwi.
|And he shall be a sign of the last hour;17 doubt not then of it, and follow ye me: this is the right way;||17 At his return to this earth. Some refer this to the Koran as revealing the last Hour. Lit. He (or It) is for knowledge of the Hour.|
|61||62||43||And let not Satan cause you to turn aside: for he is your open enemy.||And let not Satan turn you aside from it, for he is your manifest foe.|
|61||63||43||And when Jesus came with evident miracles, he said, Now am I come unto you with wisdom,o and to explain unto you part of those things concerning which ye disagree; wherefore fear GOD, and obey me.||o That is, with a book of revelations, and an excellent system of religion.||And when Jesus came with manifest proofs, he said, "Now am I come to you with wisdom; and a part of those things about which ye are at variance I will clear up to you; fear ye God therefore and obey me.|
|61||64||43||Verily GOD is my LORD, and your LORD; wherefore worship him: this is the right way.||Verily, God is my Lord and your Lord; wherefore worship ye him: this is a right way."|
|61||65||43||And the confederated sects among them fell to variance:p but woe unto those who have acted unjustly, because of the punishment of a grievous day.||p This may be understood either of the Jews in the time of Jesus, who opposed his doctrine, or of the Christians since, who have fallen into various opinions concerning him; some making him to be GOD, others the Son of GOD, and others, one of the persons of the Trinity, &c.10
10 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|But the different parties18 fell into disputes among themselves; but woe to those who thus transgressed, because of the punishment of an afflictive day!||18 Jewish and Christian sects.|
|61||66||43||Do the unbelievers wait for any other than the hour of judgment; that it may come upon them suddenly, while they foresee it not?||For what wait they but for the hour "to come suddenly on them, while they expect it not?"|
|61||67||43||The intimate friends, on that day, shall be enemies unto one another; except the pious.||Friends on that day shall become foes to one another, except the God-fearing:|
|61||68||43||O my servants, there shall no fear come on you this day, neither shall ye be grieved:||"O my servants! on this day shall no fear come upon you, neither shall ye be put to grief,|
|61||69||43||who have believed in our signs, and have been Moslems:||Who have believed in our signs and become Muslims:|
|61||70||43||enter ye into paradise, ye and your wives, with great joy.||Enter ye and your wives into Paradise, delighted."|
|61||71||43||Dishes of gold shall be carried round unto them, and cups without handles: and therein shall they enjoy whatever their souls shall desire, and whatever their eyes shall delight in: and ye shall remain therein forever.||Dishes and bowls of gold shall go round unto them: there shall they enjoy whatever their souls desire, and whatever their eyes delight in; and therein shall ye abide for ever.|
|61||72||43||This is paradise, which ye have inherited as a reward for that which ye have wrought.||This is Paradise, which ye have received as your heritage in recompense for your works;|
|61||73||43||Therein shall ye have fruits in abundance, of which ye shall eat.||Therein shall ye have fruits in abundance, of which ye shall eat.|
|61||74||43||But the wicked shall remain forever in the torment of hell:||But in the torment of Hell shall the wicked remain for ever:|
|61||75||43||it shall not be made lighter unto them; and they shall despair therein.||It shall not be mitigated to them, and they shall be mute for despair therein,|
|61||76||43||We deal not unjustly with them, but they deal unjustly with their own souls.||For it is not we who have treated them unjustly, but it was they who were unjust to themselves.|
|61||77||43||And they shall call aloud, saying, O Malec,q intercede for us that thy LORD would end us by annihilation. He shall answer,r Verily ye shall remain here forever.||q This the Mohammedans suppose to be the name of the principal angel who has the charge of hell.
r Some say that this answer will not be given till a thousand years after.
|And they shall cry: "O Malec!19 would that thy Lord would make an end of us!" He saith: "Here must ye remain."||19 Malec is one of the keepers of Hell, who specially presides over the torments of the damned.|
|61||78||43||We brought you the truth heretofore, but the greater part of you abhorred the truth.||We have come to you with the truth (O Meccans), but most of you abhor the truth.|
|61||79||43||Have the infidels fixed on a method to circumvent our apostle? Verily we will fix on a method to circumvent them.||Have they drawn tight their toils for thee?20 We too will tighten ours.||20 Lit. if they have twisted tight or set firmly the affair, i.e. their plots against thee and the truth.|
|61||80||43||Do they imagine that we hear not their secrets, and their private discourse? Yea; and our messengers who attend thems write down the same.||s i.e., The guardian angels.||Think they that we hear not their secrets and their private talk? Yes, and our angels who are at their sides write them down.|
|61||81||43||Say, If the Merciful had a son, verily I would be the first of those who should worship him.||SAY: If the God of Mercy had a son, the first would I be to worship him:|
|61||82||43||Far be the LORD of heaven and earth, the LORD of the throne, from that which they affirm of him!||But far be the Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth, the Lord of the Throne, from that which they impute to Him!|
|61||83||43||Wherefore let them wade in their vanity, and divert themselves until they arrive at their day with which they have been threatened.||Wherefore let them alone, to plunge on, and sport, until they meet the day with which they are menaced.|
|61||84||43||He who is GOD in heaven, is GOD on earth also: and he is the wise, the knowing.||He who is God in the Heavens is God in earth also: and He is the Wise, the Knowing.|
|61||85||43||And blessed be he unto whom appertaineth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them; with whom is the knowledge of the last hour; and before whom ye shall be assembled.||And Blessed be He whose is the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth and of all that is between them; for with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Him shall ye be brought back.|
|61||86||43||They whom they invoke besides him have not the privilege to intercede for others; except those who bear witness to the truth, and know the same.t||t That is, to the doctrine of GODS unity. The exception comprehends Jesus, Ezra, and the angels; who will be admitted as intercessors, though they have been worshipped as gods.1
|The gods whom they call upon beside Him shall not be able to intercede for others: they only shall be able who bore witness to the truth and21 knew it."||21 Or, and they (the Infidels). The Commentators say that Jesus, Ezra, and the angels, will be allowed to intercede.|
|61||87||43||If thou ask them who hath created them, they will surely answer, GOD. How therefore are they turned away to the worship of others?||If thou ask them who hath created them, they will be sure to say, "God." How then hold they false opinions?|
|61||88||43||God also heareth the saying of the prophet, O LORD, verily these are people who believe not:||And one22 saith, "O Lord! verily these are people who believe not."||22 Muhammad.|
|61||89||43||and he answereth, Therefore turn aside from them; and say, Peace:u hereafter shall they know their folly.||u See chapter 25, p. 275, note d.||Turn thou then from them, and say, "Peace:" In the end they shall know their folly.|
|53||0||44||CHAPTER XLIV.||SURA XLIV.SMOKE [LIII.]|
|53||0||44||ENTITLED, SMOKE;x REVEALED AT MECCA.y||x This word occurs within a few lines from the beginning of the chapter.
y Some except the verse beginning, We will take the plague off you a little, &c.
|53||0||44||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|53||1||44||H. M.z BY the perspicuous book of the Koran;||z See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||Ha. Mim.1 By this clear Book!||1 See Sura lxviii. I, p. 32.|
|53||2||44||verily we have sent down the same on a blessed nighta (for we had engaged so to do),||a Generally supposed to be that between the twenty-third and twenty-fourth of Ramadân. See ibid. p. 50, and chapter 97, and the notes there.||See! on a blessed night2 have we sent it down, for we would warn mankind:||2 Of the 23rd and 24th of Ramadhan, in which, according to the Muslim creed, all the events of the year subsequent are arranged. See Sura xcvii. n. 2, p. 27.|
|53||3||44||on the night wherein is distinctly sent down the decree of every determined thing,||On the night wherein all things are disposed in wisdom,3||3 Lit. We settle each wise affaircalled wise, because proceeding direct from the will of Him who is absolute wisdom.|
|53||4||44||as a command from us.b Verily we have ever used to send apostles with revelations, at proper intervals,||b For annually on this night, as the Mohammedans are taught, all the events of the ensuing year, with respect to life and death and the other affairs of this world, are disposed and settled.1 Some, however, suppose that these words refer only to that particular night on which the Korân, wherein are completely contained the divine determinations in respect to religion and morality, was sent down;2 and, according to this exposition, the passage may be rendered, The night whereon every determined or adjudged matter was sent down.
1 Jallaloddin, al Beidâwi.
|By virtue of our behest. Lo! we have ever sent forth Apostles,|
|53||5||44||as a mercy from thy LORD; for it is he who heareth and knoweth:||A mercy from thy Lord: he truly heareth and knoweth all things|
|53||6||44||the LORD of heaven and earth, and of whatever is between them; if ye are men of sure knowledge.||Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth and of all that is between them,if ye be firm in faith|
|53||7||44||There is no GOD but he: he giveth life, and he causeth to die; he is your LORD, and the LORD of your forefathers.||There is no God but He!He maketh alive and killeth!Your Lord and the Lord of your sires of old!|
|53||8||44||Yet do they amuse themselves with doubt.||Yet with doubts do they disport them.|
|53||9||44||But observe them, on the day whereon the heaven shall produce a visible smoke,||44:9-10
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 84, p. 76
|On the day when the heaven shall give out a palpable smoke,||But mark them on the day when the Heaven shall give out a palpable SMOKE,|
|53||10||44||which shall cover mankind:c this will be a tormenting plague.||c The commentators differ in their expositions of this passage. Some think it spoke of a smoke which seemed to fill the air during the famine which was inflicted on the Meccans in Mohammeds time,3 and was so thick that, though they could hear, yet they could not see one another.4 But, according to a tradition of Ali, the smoke here meant is that which is to be one of the previous signs of the day of judgment,5 and will fill the whole space from east to west, and last for forty days. This smoke, they say, will intoxicate the infidels, and issue at their nose, ears and posteriors, but will very little inconvenience the true believers.6
3 See cap. 23, p. 259, note
4 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi, Yahya, Jallaloddin.
5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 63.
6 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi.
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 84, p. 76
|which shall enshroud
mankind: this will be an afflictive torment.
|Which shall enshroud mankind: this will be an afflictive torment.|
|53||11||44||They shall say, O LORD, take this plague from off us: verily we will become true believers.||They will cry, "Our Lord! relieve us from this torment: see! we are believers."|
|53||12||44||How should an admonition be of avail to them in this condition; when a manifest apostle came unto them,||But how did warning avail them, when an undoubted apostle had come to them;|
|53||13||44||but they retired from him, saying, This man is instructed by others,d or is a distracted person?||d See chapter 16, p. 203.||And they turned their backs on him, and said, "Taught by others, possessed?"|
|53||14||44||We will take the plague from off you, a little: but ye will certainly return to your infidelity.e||e If we follow the former exposition, the words are to be understood, of the ceasing of the famine upon the intercession of Mohammed, at the desire of the Koreish, and on their promise of believing on him; notwithstanding which, they fell back to their old incredulity; but if we follow the latter exposition, they are to be understood of GODS taking away the plague of the smoke, after the expiration of the forty days, at the prayer of the infidels, and on their promise of receiving the true faith, which being done, they will immediately return to their wonted obstinacy.||Were we to relieve you from the plague even a little, ye would certainly relapse.4||4 Beidh, and others suppose this verse to have been revealed at Medina. This opinion, however, is based upon the supposition that it refers to the famine with which Mecca was visited after the Hejira.|
|53||15||44||On the day whereon we shall fiercely assault them with great power,f verily we will take vengeance on them.||f Some expound this of the slaughter at Bedr, and others of the day of judgment.||On the day when we shall fiercely put forth our great fierceness, we will surely take vengeance on them!|
|53||16||44||We made trial of the people of Pharaoh before them, and an honourable messenger came unto them,||Of old, before their time, had we proved the people of Pharaoh, when a noble apostle presented himself to them.|
|53||17||44||saying, Send unto me the servants of GOD;g verily I am a faithful messenger unto you:||g i.e., Let the Israelites go with me to worship their GOD.||"Send away with me," cried he, "the servants of God; for I am an apostle worthy of all credit:|
|53||18||44||and lift not yourselves up against GOD; for I come unto you with manifest power.||And exalt not yourselves against God, for I come to you with undoubted power;|
|53||19||44||And I fly for protection unto my LORD, and your LORD, that ye stone me not.h||h Or that ye injure me not, either by word or deed.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And I take refuge with Him who is my Lord and your Lord, that ye stone me not:|
|53||20||44||If ye do not believe me, at least depart from me.i||i Without opposing me or offering me any injury, which I have not deserved from you.||And if ye believe me not, at least separate yourselves from me."|
|53||21||44||And when they accused him of imposture, he called upon his LORD, saying, These are a wicked people.||And he cried to his Lord, "That these are a wicked people."|
|53||22||44||And God said unto him, March forth with my servants by night; for ye will be pursued:||"March forth then, said God, with my servants by night, for ye will be pursued.|
|53||23||44||and leave the sea divided, that the Egyptians may enter the same; for they are a host doomed to be drowned.||And leave behind you the cleft sea: they are a drowned host."|
|53||24||44||How many gardens, and fountains,||How many a garden and fountain did they quit!|
|53||25||44||and fields of corn, and fair dwellings,||And corn fields and noble dwellings!|
|53||26||44||and advantages which they enjoyed, did they leave behind them!||And pleasures in which they rejoiced them!|
|53||27||44||Thus we dispossessed them thereof; and we gave the same for an inheritance unto another people.k||k See chapter 26, p. 278.||So was it: and we gave them as a heritage to another people.|
|53||28||44||Neither heaven nor earth wept for them;l neither were they respited any longer.||l That is, none pitied their destruction.||Nor Heaven nor Earth wept for them, nor was their sentence respited;|
|53||29||44||And we delivered the children of Israel from a shameful affliction;||And we rescued the children of Israel from a degrading affliction|
|53||30||44||from Pharaoh; for he was haughty, and a transgressor:||From Pharaoh, for he was haughty, given to excess.|
|53||31||44||and we chose them, knowingly,m above all people;||m i.e., Knowing that they were worthy of our choice; or, notwithstanding we knew they would, in time to come, fall into idolatry, &c.||And we chose them, in our prescience, above all peoples,5||5 Comp. Ex. xx. 20; Deut. viii. 16.|
|53||32||44||and we showed them several signs,n wherein was an evident trial.||n As the dividing of the Red Sea, the cloud which shaded them, the raining on them manna and quails, &c.2
|And we shewed them miracles wherein was their clear trial.|
|53||33||44||Verily these Meccans say,||Yet these infidels say,|
|53||34||44||Assuredly our final end will be no other than our first natural death; neither shall we be raised again:||"There is but our first death, neither shall we be raised again:|
|53||35||44||bring now our forefathers back to life, if ye speak truth.||Bring back our sires, if ye be men of truth."|
|53||36||44||Are they better, or the people of Tobba,o||o The Hamyarites, whose kings had the title of Tobba.3 The commentators tell us that the Tobba here meant was very potent, and built Samarcand, or, as others say, demolished it; and that he was a true believer, but his subjects were infidels.4
This prince seems to have been Abu Carb Asaad, who flourished about seven hundred years before Mohammed, and embraced Judaism, which religion he first introduced into Yaman (being the true religion at that time, inasmuch as Christianity was not then promulgated), and was, for that cause probably, slain by his own people.5
3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 7.
4 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
5 Al Jannâbi. Vide Poc. Spec. p. 60.
|Are they better than the people of Tobba,6||6 Tobba, i.e. Chalif or successor, is the title of the Kings of Yemen; or of Hadramont, Saba, and Hamyar.See Pocock, Spec. Hist. Ar. p. 60.|
|53||37||44||and those who were before them? we destroyed them, because they wrought wickedness.||And those who flourished before them whom we destroyed for their evil deeds?|
|53||38||44||We have not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, by way of sport:||We have not created the Heavens and the Earth and whatever is between them in sport:|
|53||39||44||we have created them no otherwise than in truth;p but the greater part of them do not understand.||p See chapter 21, p. 242, and chapter 38, p. 341.||We have not created them but for a serious end:7 but the greater part of them understand it not.||7 Lit. in truth.|
|53||40||44||Verily the day of separationq shall be the appointed term of them all:||q i.e., The day of judgment; when the wicked shall be separated from the righteous, &c.||Verily the day of severing8 shall be the appointed time of all:||8 That is, Of the good from the bad.|
|53||41||44||a day, whereon the master and the servant shall be of no advantage to one another, neither shall they be helped;||A day when the master shall not at all be aided by the servant, neither shall they be helped;|
|53||42||44||excepting those on whom GOD shall have mercy; for he is the mighty, the merciful.||Save those on whom God shall have mercy: for He is the mighty, the merciful.|
|53||43||44||Verily, the fruit of the tree of al Zakkum||44:43-44
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 209, p. 190
|Verily, the tree of Zaqqum||Verily the tree of Ez-Zakkoum9||9 See Sura xxxvii. 60, p. 81.|
|53||44||44||shall be the food of the impious:r||r Jallaloddin supposes this passage to have been particularly levelled against Abu Jahl.||44:43-44 (cont.)
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 209, p. 190
|shall be the food of the Athim.||Shall be the sinner's10 food:||10 The commentators suppose this sinner to be Abu Jahl, one of the chief of the Koreisch, and the bitter enemy of Muhammad.|
|53||45||44||as the dregs of oil shall it boil in the bellies of the damned,||Like dregs of oil shall it boil up in their bellies,|
|53||46||44||like the boiling of the hottest water.||Like the boiling of scalding water.|
|53||47||44||And it shall be said to the tormentors, Take him, and drag him into the midst of hell:||"Seize ye him, and drag him into the mid-fire;|
|53||48||44||and pour on his head the torture of boiling water,||Then pour on his head of the tormenting boiling water.|
|53||49||44||saying, Taste this; for thou art that mighty and honourable person.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 209, p. 190
|Taste this, for thou forsooth art the mighty Karim!||'Taste this:' for thou forsooth art the mighty, the honourable!|
|53||50||44||Verily this is the punishment of which ye doubted.||Lo! this is that of which ye doubted."|
|53||51||44||But the pious shall be lodged in a place of security,||But the pious shall be in a secure place,|
|53||52||44||among gardens and fountains:||Amid gardens and fountains,|
|53||53||44||they shall be clothed in fine silk, and in satin; and they shall sit facing one another.||Clothed in silk and richest robes, facing one another:|
|53||54||44||Thus shall it be: and we will espouse them to fair damsels, having large black eyes.||Thus shall it be: and we will wed them to the virgins with large dark eyes:|
|53||55||44||In that place shall they call for all kinds of fruits, in full security:||Therein shall they call, secure, for every kind of fruit;|
|53||56||44||they shall not taste death therein, after the first death; and God shall deliver from the pains of hell:||Therein, their first death passed, shall they taste death no more; and He shall keep them from the pains of Hell:|
|53||57||44||through the gracious bounty of thy LORD. This will be great felicity.||'Tis the gracious bounty of thy Lord! This is the great felicity.|
|53||58||44||Moreover we have rendered the Koran easy for thee, by revealing it in thine own tongue; to the end that they may be admonished:||We have made this Koran easy for thee in thine own tongue, that they may take the warning.|
|53||59||44||wherefore do thou wait the event; for they wait to see some misfortune befall thee.||Therefore wait thou, for they are waiting.11||11 To see the turn which events may take.|
|72||0||45||CHAPTER XLV.||SURA XLV.THE KNEELING [LXXII.]|
|72||0||45||ENTITLED, THE KNEELING;s REVEALED AT MECCA.||s The word from which this chapter is denominated occurs p. 370.||MECCA.36 Verses|
|72||0||45||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|72||1||45||H. M.t THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD.||t See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||HA. MIM.1 This Book is sent down2 from God, the Mighty, the Wise!||1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32. 2 Lit. the sending down, i.e. the revelation of the Book.|
|72||2||45||Verily both in heaven and earth are signs of the divine power unto the true believers:||Assuredly in the Heavens and the Earth are signs for those who believe:|
|72||3||45||and in the creation of yourselves, and of the beasts which are scattered over the face of the earth, are signs unto people of sound judgment;||And in your own creation, and in the beasts which are scattered abroad are signs to the firm in faith:|
|72||4||45||and also in the vicissitude of night and day, and the rain which GOD sendeth down from heaven, whereby he quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead: in the change of the winds also are signs unto people of understanding.||And in the succession of night and day, and in the supply which God sendeth down from the Heaven whereby He giveth life to the earth when dead, and in the change of the winds, are signs for a people of discernment.|
|72||5||45||These are the signs of GOD; we rehearse them unto thee with truth. In what revelation therefore will they believe, after they have rejected GOD and his signs?||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 228, p. 206
|Such are the verses of God: with truth do We recite them to Thee. But in what revelation will they believe, if they reject God and His verses?||Such are the signs of God: with truth do we recite them to thee. But in what teaching will they believe, if they reject3 God and his signs?||3 Lit. after God.|
|72||6||45||Woe unto every lying and impious person;||45:6-7
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 229, p. 207
|Woe to every lying sinner,||Woe to every lying sinner,|
|72||7||45||who heareth the signs of GOD, which are read unto him, and afterwards proudly persisteth in infidelity, as though he heard them not: (denounce unto him a painful punishment:)||45:6-7 (cont.)
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 229, p. 207
|who heareth the verses of God recited to him, and then, as though he heard them not, persisteth in proud disdain! Apprise him of a painful punishment.||Who heareth the signs of God recited to him, and then, as though he heard them not, persisteth in proud disdain! Apprise him of an afflictive punishment.|
|72||8||45||and who, when he cometh to the knowledge of any of our signs, receiveth the same with scorn. For these is prepared a shameful punishment:||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 230, p. 207
|And when he becometh acquainted with any of Our verses he turneth them to ridicule. There is a shameful punishment for them!||And when he becometh acquainted with any of our signs he turneth them into ridicule. These! a shameful punishment for them!|
|72||9||45||before them lieth hell; and whatever they shall have gained shall not avail them at all, neither shall the idols which they have taken for their patrons, besides GOD; and they shall suffer a grievous punishment.||Hell is behind them! and neither their gains nor the lords whom they have adopted beside God shall avail them in the least: and theirs, a great punishment!|
|72||10||45||This is a true direction: and for those who disbelieve the signs of their LORD, is prepared the punishment of a painful torment.||This is "Guidance:" and for those who disbelieve the signs of their Lord is the punishment of an afflictive torment.|
|72||11||45||It is GOD who hath subjected the sea unto you, that the ships may sail therein, at his command; and that ye may seek advantage unto yourselves by commerce; of his bounty; and that ye may give thanks:||It is God who hath subjected the sea to you that the ships may traverse it at his bidding, and that ye may go in quest of the gifts of his bounty, and that ye may be thankful.|
|72||12||45||and he obligeth whatever is in heaven and on earth to serve you; the whole being from him. Verily herein are signs unto people who consider.||And he hath subjected to you all that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth: all is from him. Verily, herein are signs for those who reflect.|
|72||13||45||Speak unto the true believers, that they forgive those who hope not for the days of GOD,u that he may reward people according to what they shall have wrought.||u By the days of GOD, in this place, are meant the prosperous successes of his people in battle against the infidels.1 The passage is said to have been revealed on account of Omar, who being reviled by one of the tribe of Ghifâr, was thinking to revenge himself by force. Some are of opinion that this verse is abrogated by that of war.2
1 See p. 186, note d.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Tell the believers to pardon those who hope not for the days of God4 in which He purposeth to reward men according to their deeds.||4 That is, the days of victory. In Scripture phrase, "the days of the right hand of the Most High."|
|72||14||45||Whoso doeth that which is right doth it to the advantage of his own soul; and whoso doeth evil doth it against the same: hereafter shall ye return unto your LORD.||He who doth that which is right, doth it to his own behoof, and whoso doth evil, doth it to his own hurt. Hereafter, to your Lord shall ye be brought back.|
|72||15||45||We gave unto the children of Israel the book of the law, and wisdom, and prophecy; and we fed them with good things, and preferred them above all nations:||To the children of Israel gave we of old the Book and the Wisdom, and the gift of Prophecy, and we supplied them with good things, and privileged them above all peoples:|
|72||16||45||and we gave them plain ordinances concerning the business of religion; neither do they fall to variance, except after that knowledge had come unto them, through envy among themselves: but thy LORD will decide the controversy between them, on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein they disagree.||And we gave them clear sanctions for our behests: neither did they differ, through mutual envy, till after they had become possessed of knowledge; but thy Lord will judge between them on the day of resurrection, as to the subject of their disputes.|
|72||17||45||Afterwards we appointed thee, O Mohammed, to promulgate a law concerning the business of religion: wherefore follow the same, and follow not the desires of those who are ignorant.x||x That is, of the principal Koreish, who were urgent with Mohammed to return to the religion of his forefathers.3
|Afterwards we set thee over our divine law:5 follow it then: and follow not the wishes of those who have no knowledge,||5 The Arabic amri may be rendered either command or business, i.e. of religion.|
|72||18||45||Verily they shall not avail thee against GOD at all; the unjust are the patrons of one another; but GOD is the patron of the pious.||For against God shall they avail thee nothing. And in sooth, the doers of evil are one another's patrons; but the patron of them that fear Him is God himself.|
|72||19||45||This Koran delivereth evident precepts unto mankind; and is a direction, and a mercy, unto people who judge aright.||This Book hath insight for mankind, and a Guidance and Mercy to a people who are firm in faith.|
|72||20||45||Do the workers of iniquity imagine that we will deal with them as with those who believe and do good works; so that their life and their death shall be equal? An ill judgment do they make.||Deem they whose gettings are only evil, that we will deal with them as with those who believe and work righteousness, so that their lives and deaths shall be alike? Ill do they judge.|
|72||21||45||GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in truth; that he may recompense every soul according to that which it shall have wrought: and they shall not be treated unjustly.||In all truth hath God created the Heavens and the Earth, that he may reward every one as he shall have wrought; and they shall not be wronged.|
|72||22||45||What thinkest thou? He who taketh his own lust for his GOD, and whom GOD causeth knowingly to err, and whose ears and whose heart he hath sealed up, and over whose eyes he hath cast a veil; who shall direct him, after GOD shall have forsaken him? Will ye therefore not be admonished?||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 237, p. 214
|What thinkest thou? He who hath made a God of his passions, and whom God causeth to err through a knowledge, and whose ears and whose heart He hath sealed up, and over whose sight He hath cast a veil -who, after his rejection by God, shall guide
such a one? Will ye not then be warned?
|What thinkest thou? He who hath made a God of his passions, and whom God causeth wilfully to err, and whose ears and whose heart he hath sealed up, and over whose sight he hath placed a veilwho, after his rejection by God, shall guide such a one? Will ye not then be warned?|
|72||23||45||They say, There is no other life, except our present life: we die, and we live; and nothing but time destroyeth us. But they have no knowledge in this matter; they only follow a vain opinion.||And they say, "There is only this our present life: we die and we live, and nought but time destroyeth us." But in this they have no knowledge: it is merely their own conceit.|
|72||24||45||And when our evident signs are rehearsed unto them, their argument which they offer against the same is no other than that they say, Bring to life our fathers who have been dead; if ye speak truth.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 231, p. 209
|And when Our clear verses are recited to them, their only argument is to say, 'Bring back our fathers, if ye speak the truth!'||And when our clear signs are recited to them, their only argument is to say, "Bring back our fathers, if ye speak the truth."|
|72||25||45||Say, GOD giveth you life; and afterwards causeth you to die: hereafter will he assemble you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt thereof; but the greater part of men do not understand.||Say: God giveth you life, then causeth you to die: then will He assemble you on the day of resurrection: there is no doubt of it: but most men have not this knowledge.|
|72||26||45||Unto GOD appertaineth the kingdom of heaven and earth; and the day whereon the hour shall be fixed, on that day shall those who charge the Koran with vanity perish.||And God's is the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth; and on the day when the Hour shall arrive, on that day shall the despisers6 perish.||6 Lit. the makers vain, i.e. vanitatis arguentes alcoranum. Mar.|
|72||27||45||And thou shalt see every nationy kneeling: every nation shall be called unto its book of account; and it shall be said unto them, This day shall ye be rewarded according to that which ye have wrought.||y The original word Ommat properly signifies a people who profess one and the same law or religion.||And thou shalt see every nation KNEELING: to its own book shall every nation be summoned:This day shall ye be repaid as ye have wrought.|
|72||28||45||This our book will speak concerning you with truth; therein have we written down whatever ye have done.z||z See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 70.||This our Book will speak of you with truth: therein have we written down whatever ye have done."|
|72||29||45||As to those who shall have believed and done good works, their LORD shall lead them into his mercy: this shall be manifest felicity.||As to those who have believed and wrought righteously, into his mercy shall their Lord cause them to enter. This shall be undoubted bliss!|
|72||30||45||But as to the infidels, it shall be said unto them, Were not my signs rehearsed unto you? but ye proudly rejected them, and became a wicked people!||But as to the Infidels"Were not my signs recited to you? but ye proudly scorned them, and became a sinful people."|
|72||31||45||And when it was said unto you, Verily the promise of GOD is true: and as to the hour of judgment, there is no doubt thereof: ye answered, We know not what the hour of judgment is: we hold an uncertain opinion only; and we are not well assured of this matter.||And when it was said, "Verily the Promise of God is truth; and as to the Hour, there is no doubt of it;" ye said, "We know not what the hour iswe conceive it a mere conceit,we have no assurance of it."|
|72||32||45||But on that day the evils of that which they have wrought shall appear unto them; and that which they mocked at shall encompass them:||And the evils they have wrought shall rise up into their view, and that at which they mocked shall hem them in on every side.|
|72||33||45||and it shall be said unto them, This day will we forget you, as ye did forget the meeting of this your day: and your abode shall be hell fire; and ye shall have none to deliver you.||And it shall be said to them, "This day will we forget you as ye forgat your meeting with us this day, and your abode shall be the fire, and none shall there be to succour you:|
|72||34||45||This shall ye suffer, because ye turned the signs of GOD to ridicule; and the life of the world deceived you. On this day, therefore, they shall not be taken forth from thence, neither shall they be asked any more to render themselves well-pleasing unto God.||This, because ye received the signs of God with mockery, and this present life deceived you." On that day therefore they shall not come out from it; and they shall not be asked to win the favour of God.|
|72||35||45||Wherefore praise be unto GOD, the LORD of the heavens, and the LORD of the earth;||Praise then be to God, Lord of the Heavens and Lord of the Earth; the Lord of the worlds!|
|72||36||45||the LORD of all creatures: and unto him be glory in heaven and earth; for he is the mighty, the wise God.||And His be the greatness in the Heavens and on the Earth; for He is the Mighty, the Wise!|
|88||0||46||CHAPTER XLVI.||SURA XLVI.AL AHKAF [LXXXVIII.]|
|88||0||46||ENTITLED, AL AHKAF;a REVEALED AT MECCA.||a Al Ahkâf is the plural of Hekf, and signifies lands which lie in a crooked or winding manner; whence it became the name of a territory in the province of Hadramaut, where the Adites dwelt. It is mentioned about the middle of the chapter.||MECCA.35 Verses|
|88||0||46||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|88||1||46||(XXVI.) H. M.b THE revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD.||b See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.||HA. MIM.1 The Revelation (sending down) of this Book is from the Mighty, the Wise!||1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32.|
|88||2||46||We have not created the heavens, and the earth, and whatever is between them, otherwise than in truth,c and for a determined period:d but the unbelievers turn away from the warning which is given them.||c See chapter 21, p. 242, and chapter 38, p. 341, &c.
d Being to last but a certain space of time, and not for ever.
|We have not created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them otherwise than in truth and for a settled term. But they who believe not, turn away from their warning.|
|88||3||46||Say, What think ye? Show me what part of the earth the idols which ye invoke, besides GOD, have created? Or, had they any share in the creation of the heavens? Bring me a book of scripture revealed before this, or some footstep of ancient knowledge, to countenance your idolatrous practices; if ye are men of veracity.||SAY: What think ye? As for those whom ye invoke beside God, shew me what part of the earth it is which they have created? Had they a share in the Heavens? Bring me a Book sent down by them before this Koran, or traces of their knowledge;2if ye are men of truth.||2 Of a divine revelation, authorising the worship of other gods than God|
|88||4||46||Who is in a wider error than he who invoketh, besides GOD, that which cannot return him an answer, to the day of resurrection; and idols which regard not their calling on them:||And who erreth more than he who, beside God, calleth upon that which shall not answer him until the day of Resurrection? Yes, they regard not their invocations;|
|88||5||46||and which, when men shall be gathered together to judgment, will become their enemies, and will ungratefully deny their worship?||And when mankind shall be assembled together, they will become their enemies, and ungratefully disown their worship.|
|88||6||46||When our evident signs are rehearsed unto them, the unbelievers say of the truth,e when it cometh unto them, This is a manifest piece of sorcery.||e i.e., Any part of the revelations of the Korân.||And when our clear signs are recited to them, they who believe not say of the truth when it cometh to them, "This is plain sorcery."|
|88||7||46||Will they say, Mohammed hath forged it? Answer, If I have forged it, verily ye shall not obtain for me any favor from GOD: he well knoweth the injurious language which ye utter concerning it: he is a sufficient witness between me and you; and he is gracious and merciful.||Will they say, "He hath devised It?" SAY: If I have devised the Koran, then not one single thing shall ye ever obtain for me from God! He best knoweth what ye utter in its regard! Witness enough is He between me and you! And He is the Gracious, the Merciful.|
|88||8||46||Say, I am not singular among the apostles;f neither do I know what will be done with me or with you hereafter: I follow no other than what is revealed unto me; neither am I any more than a public warner.||f That is, I do not teach a doctrine different from what the former apostles and prophets have taught, nor am I able to do what they could not, particularly to show the signs which every one shall think fit to demand.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|SAY: I am no apostle of new doctrines: neither know I what will be done with me or you. Only what is revealed to me do I follow, and I am only charged to warn openly.|
|88||9||46||Say, What is your opinion? If this book be from GOD, and ye believe not therein; and a witness of the children of Israel bear witness to its consonancy with the law,g and believeth therein; and ye proudly reject the same: are ye not unjust doers? Verily GOD directeth not unjust people.||g This witness is generally supposed to have been the Jew Abdallah Ebn Salâm, who declared that Mohammed was the prophet foretold by Moses. Some, however, suppose the witness here meant to have been Moses himself.2
2 Idem, Jallaloddin
|SAY: What think ye? If this Book be from God, and ye believe it not, and a witness of the children of Israel3 witness to its conformity with the Law, and believe, while ye proudly disdain it . . . ? Ah! God guideth not the people guilty of such a wrong!||3 Abdallah bin Salma, say the commentators.|
|88||10||46||But those who believe not say of the true believers, If the doctrine of the Koran had been good, they had not embraced the same before us.h And when they are not guided thereby, they say, This is an antiquated lie.||h These words were spoken, as some think, by the Jews, when Abdallah professed Islâm; or, according to others, by the Koreish, because the first followers of Mohammed were for the most part poor and mean people; or else by the tribes of Amer, Ghatfân, and Asad, on the conversion of those of Joheinah, Mozeinah, Aslam, and Ghifar.3
|But the infidels say of the believers, "If it were a good Book they would not have been before us in believing it:"4 And not having submitted to guidance, they proceed to say, "It is an old lying legend!"||4 Comp. John vii. 48.|
|88||11||46||Whereas the book of Moses was revealed before the Koran, to be a guide and a mercy: and this is a book confirming the same, delivered in the Arabic tongue; to denounce threats unto those who act unjustly, and to bear good tidings unto the righteous doers.||But before the Koran was the Book of Moses, a rule and a mercy; and this Book confirmeth it (the Pentateuch)in the Arabic tonguethat those who are guilty of that wrong may be warned, and as glad tidings to the doers of good.|
|88||12||46||As to those who say, Our LORD is GOD; and who behave uprightly: on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved.||Assuredly they who say, "Our Lord is God," and take the straight way to Himno fear shall come on them, neither shall they be put to grief:|
|88||13||46||These shall be the inhabitants of paradise, they shall remain therein forever: in recompense for that which they have wrought.||These shall be the inmates of Paradise to remain therein for ever,the recompense of their deeds!|
|88||14||46||We have commanded man to show kindness to his parents: his mother beareth him in her womb with pain, and bringeth him forth with pain: and the space of his being carried in her womb, and of his weaning, is thirty months;i until, when he attaineth his age of strength, and attaineth the age of forty years, he saith,k O LORD, excite me, by the inspiration, that I may be grateful for their favors, wherewith thou hast favored me and my parents; and that I may work righteousness, which may please thee: and be gracious unto me in my issue; for I am turned unto thee, and am a Moslem.||i At the least. For if the full time of suckling an infant be two years,4 or twenty-four months, there remain but six months for the space of his being carried in the womb; which is the least that can be allowed.5
4 See cap. 2, p. 25.
5 Al Beidâwi.
k These words, it is said, were revealed on account of Abu Becr, who professed Islâm in the fortieth year of his age, two years after Mohammeds mission, and was the only person, either of the Mohâjerin or the Ansârs, whose father and mother were also converted; his son Abdalrahmân, and his grandson Abu Atik, likewise embracing the same faith.6
6 Idem, Jallaloddin, &c.
|Moreover, we have enjoined on man to shew kindness to his parents. With pain his mother beareth him; with pain she bringeth him forth: and his bearing and his weaning is thirty months; until when he attaineth his strength, and attaineth to forty years,5 he saith, "O my Lord! stir me up to be grateful for thy favours wherewith thou hast favoured me and my parents, and to do good works which shall please thee: and prosper me in my offspring: for to thee am I turned, and am resigned to thy will" (am a Muslim).||5 Thus Mischn. Aboth, v. 21, "at forty years of age a man comes to intelligence." This verse refers, it is said by the Sonnites, to Abu Bekr, afterwards Chalif, who embraced Islam in his 40th year. But this interpretation was probably invented after his accession to power.|
|88||15||46||These are they from whom we accept the good work which they have wrought, and whose evil works we pass by; and they shall be among the inhabitants of paradise: this is a true promise, which they are promised in this world.||These are they from whom we will accept their best works, and whose evil works we will pass by; among the inmates shall they be of Paradise:a true promise which they are promised.|
|88||16||46||He who saith unto his parents, Fie on you! Do ye promise me that I shall be taken forth from the grave, and restored to life; when many generations have passed away before me, and none of them have returned back?l And his parents implore GOD'S assistance, and say to their son, Alas for thee! Believe: for the promise of GOD is true. But he answereth, This is no other than silly fables of the ancients.||l The words seem to be general; but it is said they were revealed particularly on occasion of Abdalrahmân, the son of Abu Becr, who used these expressions to his father and mother before he professed Islâm.7
7 Al Beidâwi.
|But he who saith to his parents, "Fie on you both! Promise ye me that I shall be taken forth from the grave alive, when whole generations have already passed away before me?" But they both will implore the help of God, and say, "Alas for thee! Believe: for the promise of God is true." But he saith, "It is no more than a fable of the ancients."|
|88||17||46||These are they whom the sentence passed on the nations which have been before them, of genii and of men, justly fitteth: they shall surely perish.m||m Unless they redeem their fault by repentance, and embracing the true faith, as did Abdalrahmân.||These are they in whom the sentence passed on the nations, djinn and men, who flourished before them, is made good. They shall surely perish.6||6 Lit. suffer loss.|
|88||18||46||For every one is prepared a certain degree of happiness or misery, according to that which they shall have wrought: that God may recompense them for their works: and they shall not be treated unjustly.||And there are grades for all, according to their works, that God may repay them for their works; and they shall not be dealt with unfairly.|
|88||19||46||On a certain day, the unbelievers shall be exposed before the fire of hell; and it shall be said unto them, Ye received your good things in your lifetime, while ye were in the world; and ye enjoyed yourselves therein: wherefore this day ye shall be rewarded with the punishment of ignominy; for that ye behaved insolently in the earth, without justice, and for that ye transgressed.||And they who believe not shall one day be set before the fire. "Ye made away your precious gifts during your life on earth; and ye took your fill of pleasure in them: This day, therefore, with punishment of shame shall ye be rewarded, for that ye behaved you proudly and unjustly on the earth, and for that ye were given to excesses."|
|88||20||46||Remember the brother of Ad,n when he preached unto his people in Al Ahkaf (and there were preachers before him, and after him), saying, Worship none but GOD: verily I fear for you the punishment of a great day.||n i.e., The prophet Hud.||Remember, too, the brother of Ad7 when he warned his people in AL AHKAF8and before and since his time there have been warners"Worship none but God: verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day."||7 The Prophet Houd.
8 That is, Sandhills; at Taief, to which Muhammad had retired in consequence of the opposition, etc., of the Meccans. Verses 20-31 are probably misplaced, as they interrupt the connection between 19 and 32, but appear to belong to the same period as the rest of the Sura.
|88||21||46||They answered, Art thou come unto us that thou mayest turn us aside from the worship of our gods? Bring on us now the punishment with which thou threatenest us, if thou art a man of veracity.||They said, "Art thou come to us to turn us away from our Gods? Bring on us now the woes which thou threatenest if thou speakest truth."|
|88||22||46||He said, Verily the knowledge of the time when your punishment will be inflicted is with GOD; and I only declare unto you that which I am sent to preach; but I see ye are an ignorant people.||"That knowledge," said he, "is with God alone: I only proclaim to you the message with which I am sent. But I perceive that ye are a people sunk in ignorance."|
|88||23||46||And when they saw the preparation made for their punishment, namely, a cloud traversing the sky, and tending towards their valleys, they said, This is a traversing cloud, which bringeth us rain. Hud answered, Nay; it is what ye demanded to be hastened: a wind, wherein is a severe vengeance:||So when they saw a cloud coming straight for their valleys, they said, "It is a passing cloud that shall give us rain." "Nay, it is that whose speedy coming ye challenged a blast wherein is an afflictive punishment:|
|88||24||46||it will destroy everything,o at the command of its LORD. And in the morning nothing was to be seen, besides their empty dwellings. Thus do we reward wicked people.||o Which came to pass accordingly; for this pestilential and violent wind killed all who believed not in the doctrine of Hud, without distinction of sex, age, or degree; and entirely destroyed their possessions. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 5, and the notes to chapter 7, p. 111.||It will destroy everything at the bidding of its Lord!" And at morn nought was to be seen but their empty dwellings! Thus repay we a wicked people.|
|88||25||46||We had established them in the like flourishing condition wherein we have established you, O men of Mecca; and we had given them ears, and eyes, and hearts: yet neither their ears, nor their eyes, nor their hearts profited them at all, when they rejected the signs of GOD; but the vengeance which they mocked at fell upon them.||With power had we endued them, even as with power have we endued you; and we had given them ears and eyes and hearts: yet neither their eyes, nor their ears, nor their hearts aided them at all, when once they gainsaid the signs of God; but that punishment which they had mocked at enveloped them on all sides.|
|88||26||46||We heretofore destroyed the cities which were round about you;p and we variously proposed our signs unto them, that they might repent.||p As the settlements of the Thamudites, Midianites, and the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, &c.||Of old, too, did we destroy the cities which were round about you; and, in order that they might return to us, we varied our signs before them.|
|88||27||46||Did those protect them, whom they took for gods, besides GOD, and imagined to be honoured with his familiarity? Nay; they withdrew from them: yet this was their false opinion which seduced them, and the blasphemy which they had devised.||But did those whom they took for gods beside God as his kindred deities, help them?9 Nay, they withdrew from them. Such was their delusion, and their device!||9 Thus Ullm. als naheverwandte Götter. But Wahl, denen sie sich mit gottesdienstlichen Opfer näherten. Ad appropinquandum (magis ipsi Deo), by intercession. Mar. Beidh.|
|88||28||46||Remember when we caused certain of the geniiq to turn aside unto thee, that they might hear the Koran: and when they were present at the reading of the same, they said to one another, Give ear: and when it was ended, they returned back unto their people, preaching what they had heard.||q These genii, according to different opinions, were of Nisibin, or of Yaman, or of Ninive; and in number nine or seven. They heard Mohammed reading the Korân by night, or after the morning prayer, in the valley of al Nakhlah, during the time of his retreat to al Tayef, and believed on him.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|And remember when we turned aside a company of the djinn to thee, that they might hearken to the Koran: and no sooner were they present at its reading than they said to each other, "Hist;" and when it was ended, they returned to their people with warnings.|
|88||29||46||They said, Our people, verily we have heard a book read unto us, which hath been revealed since Moses,r confirming the scripture which was delivered before it; and directing unto the truth, and the right way.||r Hence the commentators suppose those genii, before their conversion to Mohammedism, to have been of the Jewish religion.||They said, "O our people! verily we have been listening to a book sent down since the days of Moses, affirming the previous scriptures; it guideth to the truth, and to the right way.|
|88||30||46||Our people, obey GOD'S preacher: and believe in him; that he may forgive you your sins, and may deliver you from a painful punishment.||O our people! Obey the Summoner of God, and believe in him, that He may forgive your sins, and rescue you from an afflictive punishment.|
|88||31||46||And whoever obeyeth not GOD'S preacher shall by no means frustrate God's vengeance on earth: neither shall he have any protectors besides him. These will be in a manifest error.||And he who shall not respond to God's preacher, yet cannot weaken God's power on earth, nor shall he have protectors beside Him. These are in obvious error."|
|88||32||46||Do they not know that GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and was not fatigued with the creation thereof, is able to raise the dead to life? Yea verily; for he is almighty.||See they not that God who created the Heavens and the Earth, and was not wearied with their creation, is of power to quicken the dead? Yea, he is for all things Potent.|
|88||33||46||On a certain day the unbelievers shall be exposed unto hell fire; and it shall be said unto them, Is not this really come to pass? They shall answer, Yea, by our LORD. God shall reply, Taste, therefore, the punishment of hell, for that ye have been unbelievers.||And a day is coming when the infidels shall be set before the fire. "Is not this it in truth?" They shall say, "Aye, by our Lord." He said, "Taste then the punishment for that ye would not believe."|
|88||34||46||Do thou, O prophet, bear the insults of thy people with patience, as our apostles, who were endued with constancy, bear the injuries of their people: and require not their punishment to be hastened unto them. On the day whereon they shall see the punishment wherewith they have been threatened,||Bear thou up, then, with patience, as did the Apostles endued with firmness, and seek not to accelerate their doom. For, on the day when they shall see that with which they have been menaced,|
|88||35||46||it shall seem as though they had tarried in the world but an hour of a day. This is a fair warning. Shall they perish except the people who transgress?||It shall be as though they had waited but an hour of the day. Enough! shall any perish save they who transgress?|
|96||0||47||CHAPTER XLVII.||SURA1 XLVII.MUHAMMAD [XCVI.]||1 This Sura was revealed at a period after the victory at Bedr, when there was still some hesitation on the part of Muhammad's followers to take decided steps for securing their position. See 37.|
|96||0||47||ENTITLED, MOHAMMED;s REVEALED AT MEDINA.t||s Some entitle this chapter War, which is therein commanded to be vigorously carried on against the enemies of the Mohammedan faith.
t Some suppose the whole to have been revealed at Mecca.
|96||0||47||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|96||1||47||GOD will render of none effect the works of those who believe not, and who turn away men from the way of GOD:||WHOSO believe not, and prevent others from the way of Godtheir works will He cause to miscarry;2||2 Lit. will He cause to wander, that is, from their proper aim and end, the rewards of Paradise. See verse 5 ad f.|
|96||2||47||but as to those who believe, and work righteousness, and believe the revelation which hath been sent down unto Mohammed (for it is the truth from their LORD), he will expiate their evil deeds from them, and will dispose their heart aright.||But whoso believe, and do things that are right, and believe in what hath been sent down to MUHAMMADfor it is the truth from their Lordtheir sins will He cancel, and dispose their hearts aright.|
|96||3||47||This will he do, because those who believe not follow vanity, and because those who believe follow the truth from their LORD. Thus GOD propoundeth unto men their examples.||Thisbecause the infidels followed vanity, while those who believe, followed the truth from their Lord. Thus to men doth God set forth their likenesses.|
|96||4||47||When ye encounter the unbelievers, strike off their heads, until ye have made a great slaughter among them; and bind them in bonds;||When ye encounter the infidels,3 strike off their heads till ye have made a great slaughter among them, and of the rest make fast the fetters.||3 The Meccans and other unbelievers of Muhammad's time. The Hanefites suppose this law to apply only to the battle of Bedr. The Shiites take it as of universal obligation.|
|96||5||47||and either give them a free dismission afterwards, or exact a ransom; until the war shall have laid down its arms.u This shall ye do. Verily if GOD pleased he could take vengeance on them, without your assistance; but he commandeth you to fight his battles, that he may prove the one of you by the other. And as to those who fightx in defence of GOD'S true religion, God will not suffer their works to perish:||u This law the Hanifites judge to be abrogated, or to relate particularly to the war of Bedr, for the severity here commanded, which was necessary in the beginning of Mohammedism,1 they think too rigorous to be put in practice in its flourishing state. But the Persians and some others hold the command to be still in full force; for, according to them, all the men of full age who are taken in battle are to be slain, unless they embrace the Mohammedan faith; and those who fall into the hands of the Moslems after the battle are not to be slain, but may either be set at liberty gratis or on payment of a certain ransom, or may be exchanged for Mohammedan prisoners, or condemned to slavery, at the pleasure of the Imâm or prince.2
1 See cap. 8, p. 127 and 132.
2 Al Beidâwi. Vide Reland. Dissert. de Jure Militari Mohammedanor. p. 32.
x Some copies, instead of kâtilu, read kûtilu, according to which latter reading it should be rendered, who are slain, or suffer martyrdom, &c.
|And afterwards let there either be free dismissals or ransomings, till the war hath laid down its burdens. Thus do. Were such the pleasure of God, he could himself take vengeance upon them: but He would rather prove the one of you by the other. And whoso fight for the cause of God, their works he will not suffer to miscarry;|
|96||6||47||he will guide them, and will dispose their heart aright;||He will vouchsafe them guidance, and dispose their hearts aright;|
|96||7||47||and he will lead them into paradise, of which he hath told them.||And he will bring them into the Paradise, of which he hath told them.|
|96||8||47||O true believers, if ye assist GOD, by fighting for his religion, he will assist you against your enemies; and will set your feet fast:||Believers! if ye help God, God will help you, and will set your feet firm:|
|96||9||47||but as for the infidels, let them perish; and their works shall God render vain.||But as for the infidels, let them perish: and their works shall God bring to nought:|
|96||10||47||This shall befall them, because they have rejected with abhorrence that which GOD hath revealed: wherefore their works shall become of no avail.||Thisbecause they were averse from the command which God sent down; Fruitless, therefore, shall their works become!|
|96||11||47||Do they not travel through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who were before them? GOD utterly destroyed them: and the like catastrophe awaiteth the unbelievers.||Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 83-91, 12 To the Bahá'ís of the Western States)
|O: Do ye not travel through the land?||Have they not journeyed through the land, and seen what hath been the end of those who flourished before them? God brought destruction on them: and the like of this doth await the infidels.|
|96||12||47||This shall come to pass, for that GOD is the patron of the true believers, and for that the infidels have no protector.||Thisbecause God is the protector of those who believe, and because the infidels have no protector.|
|96||13||47||Verily GOD will introduce those who believe, and do good works, into gardens beneath which rivers flow: but the unbelievers indulge themselves in pleasures, and eat as beasts eat; and their abode shall be hell fire.||Verily God will bring those who believe, and do the things that are right, into the Gardens, beneath whose shades the rivers flow: but they who believe not, take their fill, and eat as the beasts eat! And their dwelling-place the fire!|
|96||14||47||How many cities were more mighty in strength than thy city which hath expelled thee; yet have we destroyed them, and there was none to help them?||And how many cities were mightier in strength than thy city, which hath thrust thee forth!4 We destroyed them, and there was none to help them.||4 This verse is said (by Omar b. Muhammad, and Itq. 43) to be the expression of Muhammad's feelings at the injuries inflicted on Mecca. He is reported to have wept over it.|
|96||15||47||Shall he therefore, who followeth the plain declaration of his LORD, be as he whose evil works have been dressed up for him by the devil; and who follow their own lusts?||Shall he who followeth the clear teaching of his Lord be as he, the evil of whose doings hath been made to seem good to him, or like those who follow their own lusts?|
|96||16||47||The description of paradise, which is promised unto the pious: therein are rivers of incorruptible water; and rivers of milk, the taste whereof changeth not; and rivers of wine, pleasant unto those who drink;||Compilation: Prohibition on Drinking Alcohol (no. 1785) by Baháulláh
|BWC: A wine delectable to those who drink it.||A picture of the Paradise which is promised to the God-fearing! Therein are rivers of water, which corrupt not: rivers of milk, whose taste changeth not: and rivers of wine, delicious to those who quaff it;|
|96||17||47||and rivers of clarified honey: and therein shall they have plenty of all kinds of fruits; and pardon from their LORD. Shall the man for whom these things are prepared be as he who must dwell forever in hell fire; and will have the boiling water given him to drink, which shall burst their bowels?||And rivers of honey clarified: and therein are all kinds of fruit for them from their Lord! Is this like the lot of those who must dwell for ever in the fire? and shall have draughts of boiling water forced on them which will rend their bowels asunder?|
|96||18||47||Of the unbelievers there are some who give ear unto thee, until, when they go out from thee, they say, by way of derision, unto those to whom knowledge hath been given,y What hath he said now? These are they whose hearts GOD hath sealed up, and who follow their own lusts:||y i.e., The more learned of Mohammeds companions, such as Ebn Masúd and Ebn Abbâs.3
|Some of them indeed hearken to thee, until when they go out from thee, they say with sneers to those to whom "the knowledge" hath been given, "What is this he said?" These are they whose hearts God hath sealed up, and who follow their own lusts.|
|96||19||47||but as to those who are directed, God will grant them a more ample direction, and he will instruct them what to avoid.z||z Or, as the words may also be translated, and he will reward them for their piety.||But as to those who have the guidance, He will increase their guidance, and He will teach them what to fear.|
|96||20||47||Do the infidels wait for any other than the last hour, that it may come upon them suddenly? Some signs thereof are already come:a and when it shall actually overtake them, how can they then receive admonition?||a As the mission of Mohammed, the splitting of the moon, and the smoke,1 mentioned in the forty-fourth chapter.
1 Idem, al Beidâwi.
|For what do the infidels wait, but that the Hour come suddenly on them? Already are its signs come,5 and when it hath come on them indeed, how can they be warned then?||5 The first sign being the mission of Muhammad; the second, the splitting of the moon; the third, the smoke mentioned in Sura xliv. p. 89.|
|96||21||47||Know therefore, that there is no god but GOD: and ask pardon for thy sin,b and for the true believers, both men and women. GOD knoweth your busy employment in the world, and the place of your abode hereafter.||b Though Mohammed here and elsewhere2 acknowledges himself to be a sinner, yet several Mohammedan doctors pretend he was wholly free from sin, and suppose he is here commanded to ask forgiveness, not that he wanted it, but that he might set an example to his followers: wherefore he used to say of himself, if the tradition be true, I ask pardon of GOD a hundred times a day.3
2 See cap. 48, in the beginning.
|Know, then, that there is no god but God: and ask pardon for thy sin, and for believers, both men and women. God knoweth your busy movements, and your final resting-places.|
|96||22||47||The true believers say, Hath not a Sura been revealed commanding war against the infidels? But when a Sura without any ambiguity is revealed, and war is mentioned therein, thou mayest see those in whose hearts is an infirmity,c look towards thee with the look of one whom death overshadoweth. But obedience would be more eligible for them, and to speak that which is convenient.||c As hypocrisy, cowardice, or instability in their religion.||The believers say, "Oh, would that a Sura were sent down!"6 but when a peremptory Sura is revealed, whose burden is war, thou mayest see the diseased of heart look toward thee, with a look of one on whom the shadows of death have fallen! But better in them would be obedience and becoming language.||6 That is, commanding war against the infidels.|
|96||23||47||And when the command is firmly established, if they give credit unto GOD, it will be better for them.||And if, when the command for war is issued, they are true to God, it will be assuredly best for them.|
|96||24||47||Were ye ready, therefore, if ye had been put in authority,d to commit outrages in the earth, and to violate the ties of blood?||d Or, as the words may also be translated, If ye had turned back, and apostatized from your faith.||Were ye not ready, if ye had turned back from Him, to spread disorder in the land, and violate the ties of blood?|
|96||25||47||These are they whom GOD hath cursed, and hath rendered deaf, and whose eyes he hath blinded.||These are they whom God hath cursed, and made deaf, and blinded their eyes!|
|96||26||47||Do they not therefore attentively meditate on the Koran? Are there locks upon their hearts?||Will they not then meditate on the Koran? Are locks upon their hearts?|
|96||27||47||Verily they who turn their backs, after the true direction is made manifest unto them, Satan shall prepare their wickedness for them, and God shall bear with them for a time.||But as to those who return to their errors after "the guidance" hath been made plain to them, Satan shall beguile them, and fill them with his suggestions.|
|96||28||47||This shall befall them, because they say privately unto those who detest what GOD hath revealed, We will obey you in part of the matter.e But GOD knoweth their secrets.||e i.e., In part of what ye desire of us; by staying at home and not going forth with Mohammed to war, and by private combination against him.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|Thisbecause they say to those who abhor what God hath sent down, "We will comply with you in part of what ye enjoin." But God knoweth their secret reservations.|
|96||29||47||How therefore will it be with them, when the angels shall cause them to die, and shall strike their faces, and their backs?f||f These words are supposed to allude to the examination of the sepulchre.||But how? When the angels, in causing them to die, shall smite them on the face and back!|
|96||30||47||This shall they suffer, because they follow that which provoketh GOD to wrath, and are averse to what is well pleasing unto him: and he will render their works vain.||Thisbecause they follow that which angereth God, and abhor what pleaseth Him: therefore will He make their works fruitless.|
|96||31||47||Do they in whose hearts is an infirmity imagine that GOD will not bring their malice to light?||Think these men of diseased hearts, that God will not bring out their malice to light?|
|96||32||47||If we pleased, we could surely show them unto thee, and thou shouldest know them by their marks; but thou shalt certainly know them by their perverse pronunciation of their words. GOD knoweth your actions:||If such were our pleasure, we could point them out to thee, and thou surely know them by their tokens: and know them thou shalt, by the strangeness of their words.7 God knoweth your doings.||7 Unintelligible or affected words, applied to the new religion in contempt. See Sura [xci.] ii. 56, p. 343.|
|96||33||47||and we will try you, until we know those among you who fight valiantly, and who persevere with constancy: and we will try the reports of your behavior.||And we will surely test you, until we know the valiant and the steadfast among you: and we will test the reports of your conduct.|
|96||34||47||Verily those who believe not, and turn away men from the way of GOD, and make opposition against the apostle,g after the divine direction hath been manifested unto them, shall not hurt GOD at all; but he shall make their works to perish.||g These were the tribes of Koreidha and al Nadir; or those who distributed provision to the army of the Koreish at Bedr.1
1 Al Beidâwi. See cap. 8, p. 129, note y.
|Verily they who believe not, and turn others from the way of God, and separate from the Apostle after that "the guidance" hath been clearly shewn them, shall in no way injure God: but their works shall he bring to nought.|
|96||35||47||O true believers, obey GOD; and obey the apostle: and render not your works of no effect.||Believers! obey God and the Apostle: and render not your works vain.|
|96||36||47||Verily those who believe not, and who turn away men from the way of GOD, and then die, being unbelievers, GOD will by no means forgive.||Verily those who believe not, and who pervert others from the way of God, and then die in unbelief, God will not forgive.|
|96||37||47||Faint not therefore, neither invite your enemies to peace, while ye are the superior: for GOD is with you, and will not defraud you of the merit of your works.||Be not fainthearted then; and invite not the infidels to peace when ye have the upper hand: for God is with you, and will not defraud you of the recompense of your works.|
|96||38||47||Verily this present life is only a play and a vain amusement; but if ye believe, and fear God, he will give you your rewards. He doth not require of you your whole substance:||Surely this present life is only a play, and pastime! but if ye believe, fear God; He will give you your rewards: but He will not ask all your riches of you.|
|96||39||47||if he should require the whole of you, and earnestly press you, ye would become niggardly, and it would raise your hatred against his apostle.||Should He ask them of you, and urge you, ye would shew yourself niggards: and He would bring your grudges to light.|
|96||40||47||Behold, ye are those who are invited to expend part of your substance for the support of GOD'S true religion; and there are some of you who are niggardly. But whoever shall be niggardly shall be niggardly towards his own soul: for GOD wanteth nothing, but ye are needy: and if ye turn back, he will substitute another people in your stead, who shall not be like unto you.h||h i.e., In backwardness and aversion to the propagation of the faith. The people here designed to be put in the place of these lukewarm Moslems are generally supposed to be the Persians, there being a tradition that Mohammed, being asked what people they were, at a time when Salmân was sitting by him, clapped his hand on his thigh, and said, This man and his nation. Others, however, are of opinion the Ansârs or the angels are intended in this place.2
|Lo! ye are they, who are called to expend for the cause of God: and some of you are niggards: but whoso is niggardly shall be niggard only to his own loss; for God is the Rich, and ye are the poor: and if ye turn back, He will change you for another people,8 and they shall not be your like!||8 Matt. xxi. 43.|
|108||0||48||CHAPTER XLVIII.||SURA XLVIII.THE VICTORY [CVIII.]|
|108||0||48||ENTITLED, THE VICTORY; REVEALED AT MEDINA.||MEDINA.29 Verses|
|108||0||48||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|108||1||48||VERILY we have granted thee a manifest victory:i||i This victory, from which the chapter takes its title, according to the most received interpretation, was the taking of the city of Mecca. The passage is said to have been revealed on Mohammeds return from the expedition of al Hodeibiya, and contains a promise or prediction of this signal success, which happened not till two years after, the preterite tense being therein used, according to the prophetic style, for the future.3
There are some, notwithstanding, who suppose the advantage here intended was the pacification of al Hodeibiya, which is here called a victory, because the Meccans sued for peace, and made a truce there with Mohammed, their breaking of which occasioned the taking of Mecca. Others think the conquest of Khaibar, or the victory over the Greeks at Mûta, &c., to be meant in this place.
3 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi, &c.
Some Answered Questions (Chapter 44, within pp. 167-171)
|LCB: We have granted Thee a manifest victory,||Verily, We have won for thee an undoubted VICTORY1||1 This Sura was probably revealed shortly after the peace of Hudaibiya. Ann. Hej. 6. Some commentators, however, understand the Victory of the taking of Mecca two yearslater the preterite being used in the prophetic style for the futureothers of the taking of Chaibar, or Muta (?), a town of the Roman empire.|
|108||2||48||that GOD may forgive theek thy preceding and thy subsequent sin,l and may complete his favour on thee, and direct thee in the right way;||k That is to say, that GOD ay give thee an opportunity of deserving forgiveness by eradicating of idolatry, and exalting his true religion, and the delivering of the weak from the hands of the ungodly, &c.
l i.e., Whatever thou hast done worthy reprehension; or, thy sins committed as well in the time of ignorance as since. Some expound the words more particularly, and say the preceding or former fault was his lying with his handmaid Mary,1 contrary to his oath; and the latter, his marrying of Zeinab,2 the wife of Zeîd his adopted son.3
1 See cap. 66, and the notes thereon.
2 See cap. 33, and the notes thereon.
3 Al Zamakh.
Some Answered Questions (Chapter 44, within pp. 167-171)
|LCB: so that God may forgive Thee Thy preceding and subsequent sin.||In token that God forgiveth thy earlier and later faults, and fulfilleth His goodness to thee, and guideth thee on the right way,|
|108||3||48||and that GOD may assist thee with a glorious assistance.||And that God succoureth thee with a mighty succour.|
|108||4||48||It is he who sendeth down secure tranquility into the hearts of the true believers, that they may increase in faith, beyond their former faith; (the hosts of heaven and earth are GOD'S; and GOD is knowing and wise)||He it is who sendeth down a spirit of secure repose into the hearts of the faithful that they might add faith to their faith; (for God's are the armies of the Heavens and of the Earth: and God is Knowing, Wise:)|
|108||5||48||that he may lead the true believers of both sexes into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever; and may expiate their evil deeds from them: (this will be great felicity with GOD):||And that He may bring the believing men and the believing women into gardens 'neath whose trees the rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever, and that He may cancel their evil deeds: for this is the great bliss with God:|
|108||6||48||and that he may punish the hypocritical men, and the hypocritical women, and the idolaters, and the idolatresses, who conceive an ill opinion of GOD. They shall experience a turn of evil fortune: and GOD shall be angry with them, and shall curse them, and hath prepared hell for them; and ill journey shall it be thither!||And that He may punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women, and the men and women who join other gods with God, and think evil thoughts of Him. Theirs shall be a round of evil; and God is angry with them and curseth them, and hath prepared Hell for them: and, an evil journey thither!|
|108||7||48||Unto GOD belong the hosts of heaven and earth; and GOD is mighty and wise.||The armies of the Heavens and of the Earth are God's, and God is Mighty, Wise!|
|108||8||48||Verily we have sent thee to be a witness, and a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats;||Verily, we have sent thee to be a witness and a herald of good (an announcer), and a warner,|
|108||9||48||that ye may believe in GOD, and his apostle; and may assist him, and revere him, and praise him morning and evening.||That ye may believe on God and on His Apostle; and may assist Him, and honour Him, and praise him, morning and evening.|
|108||10||48||Verily they who swear fealtym unto thee, swear fealty unto GOD: the hand of GOD is over their hands.n Whoever shall violate his oath, will violate the same to the hurt only of his own soul: but whoever shall perform that which he hath covenanted with GOD, he will surely give him a great reward.||m The original word signifies publicly to acknowledge or inaugurate a prince, by swearing fidelity and obedience to him.
n That is, he beholdeth from above, and is witness to the solemnity of your giving your faith to his apostle, and will reward you for it.4 The expression alludes to the manner of their plighting their faith on these occasions.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 196, p. 179
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 147, p. 136
|In truth, they who plighted fealty unto thee, really plighted that fealty unto God.
The hand of God is above their hands.
|In truth, they who plighted fealty to thee, really plighted that fealty to God: the hand of God was over their hands! Whoever, therefore, shall break his oath shall only break it to his own hurt; but whoever shall be true to his engagement with God, He will give him a great reward.|
|108||11||48||The Arabs of the desert who were left behindo will say unto thee, Our substance and our families employed us, so that we went not forth with thee to war; wherefore, ask pardon for us. They speak that with their tongues, which is not in their hearts. Answer, Who shall be able to obtain for you anything from GOD to the contrary, if he is pleased to afflict you, or is pleased to be gracious unto you? Yea, verily, GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.||o These were the tribes of Aslam, Joheinah, Mozeinah, and Ghifâr, who, being summoned to attend Mohammed in the expedition of al Hodeibiya, stayed behind, and excused themselves by saying their families must suffer in their absence, and would be robbed of the little they had (for these tribes were of the poorer Arabs); whereas in reality they wanted firmness in the faith, and courage to face the Koreish.5
5 Idem, al Beidâwi.
|The Arabs who took not the field with you,2 will say to thee,3 "We were engaged with our property and our families; therefore ask thou pardon for us." They speak with their tongues what is not in their hearts. SAY: And who can have any power over God in your behalf, whether he will you some loss, or whether he will you an advantage? Yes, God is acquainted with your doings.||2 Lit. were left behind.
3 On the return to Medina. See Weil's Leben M. p. 173 (n.).
|108||12||48||Truly ye imagined that the apostle and the true believers would never return to their families: and this was prepared in your hearts: but ye imagined an evil imagination; and ye are a corrupt people.||But ye thought that the Apostle and the faithful could never more come back to their families; and your hearts were pleased at this; and ye thought an evil thought of this expedition, and ye became an undone people:|
|108||13||48||Whoso believeth not in GOD and his apostle, verily we have prepared burning fire for the unbelievers.||For, whoso believeth not in God, and His Apostle. . . . Verily, we have got ready the flame for the Infidels!|
|108||14||48||Unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth: he forgiveth whom he pleaseth: and he punisheth whom he pleaseth: and GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful.||And God's is the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth: Whom He will He forgiveth, and whom He will He punisheth: and God is Gracious, Merciful!|
|108||15||48||Those who were left behind will say, when ye go forth to take the spoil,p Suffer us to follow you. They seek to change the word of GOD.q Say, Ye shall by no means follow us: thus hath GOD said heretofore. They will reply, Nay: ye envy us a share of the booty. But they are men of small understanding.||p viz., In the expedition of Khaibar. The prophet returned from al Hodeibiya in Dhulhajja, in the sixth year of the Hejra, and stayed at Medina the remainder of that month and the beginning of Moharram, and then set forward against the Jews of Khaibar, with those only who had attended him to Hodeibiya; and having made himself master of the place, and all the castles and strongholds in that territory,1 took spoils to a great value, which he divided among them who were present at that expedition, and none else.2
1 Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 87, &c.
2 Al Beidâwi.
q Which was his promise to those who attended the prophet to al Hodeibiya, that he would make them amends for their missing of the plunder of Mecca at that time by giving them that of Khaibar in lieu thereof. Some think the word here intended, to be that passage in the ninth chapter,3 Ye shall not go forth with me for the future, &c., which yet was plainly revealed long after the taking of Khaibar, on occasion of the expedition of Tabûc.4
3 Page 144.
4 Al Beidâwi.
|They who took not the field with you will say, when ye go forth to the spoil to take it, "Let us follow you." Fain would they change the word of God.4 SAY: Ye shall by no means follow us: thus hath God said already. They will say, "Nay, ye are jealous of us." Nay! they are men of little understanding.||4 The law relative to booty, viz. that those who were not at Hudaibiya should have no share in the booty to be obtained from the Jews at Chaibar. Muhammad marched against them in Hej. 7.|
|108||16||48||Say unto the Arabs of the desert who were left behind, Ye shall be called forth against a mighty and a warlike nation;r ye shall fight against them, or they shall profess Islâm. If ye obey, GOD will give you a glorious reward: but if ye turn back, as ye turned back heretofore, he will chastise you with a grievous chastisement.||r These were Banu Honeifa, who inhabited al Yamâma, and were the followers of Moseilama, Mohammeds competitor; or any other of those tribes which apostatized from Mohammedism,5 or, as others rather suppose, the Persians or the Greeks.6
|SAY to those Arabs of the desert, who took not the field, ye shall be called forth against a people of mighty valour. Ye shall do battle with them, or they shall profess Islam. If ye obey, a goodly recompense will God give you; but if ye turn back, as ye turned back aforetime, He will chastise you with a sore chastisement.|
|108||17||48||It shall be no crime in the blind, neither shall it be a crime in the lame, neither shall it be a crime in the sick, if they go not forth to war: and whoso shall obey GOD and his apostle, he shall lead them into gardens beneath which rivers flow; but whoso shall turn back, he will chastise him with a grievous chastisement.||It shall be no crime on the part of the blind, the lame, or the sick, if they go not to the fight. But whoso shall obey God and His Apostle, he shall bring him into the gardens 'neath which the rivers flow: but whoso shall turn back, He will punish him with a sore punishment.|
|108||18||48||Now GOD was well pleased with the true believers, when they sware fidelity to thee under the tree;s and he knew that which was in their hearts; wherefore he sent down on them tranquility of mind,t and rewarded them with a speedy victory,u||s Mohammed, when at al Hodeibiya, sent Jawwâs Ebn Omeyya the Khozaïte, to acquaint the Meccans that he was come with a peaceable intention to visit the temple; but they, on some jealousy conceived, refusing to admit him, the prophet sent Othman Ebn Affân, whom they imprisoned, and a report ran that he was slain: whereupon Mohammed called his men about him, and they took an oath to be faithful to him, even to death; during which ceremony he sat under a tree, supposed by some to have been an Egyptian thorn, and by others a kind of lote-tree.7
7 Idem, al Beidâwi. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 86.
t The original word is Sakînat, of which notice has been taken elsewhere.8
8 In not. ad cap. 2, p. 27.
u Namely, the success at Khaibar; or, as some rather imagine, the taking of Mecca, &c.
|Well pleased now hath God been with the believers when they plighted fealty to thee under the tree;5 and He knew what was in their hearts: therefore did He send down upon them a spirit of secure repose, and rewarded them with a speedy victory,||5 When the rumour reached Muhammad at Hudaibiya that Othman Ibn Affan, whom he had sent to inform the Meccans that he was merely coming to visit their temple, and with peaceable intentions, had been slain by them.|
|108||19||48||and many spoils which they took: for GOD is mighty and wise.||And with the rich booty which they took: for God is Mighty, Wise!|
|108||20||48||GOD promised you many spoils which ye should take; but he have you these by way of earnest; and he restrained the hands of men from you:x that the same may be a sign unto the true believers; and that he may guide you into the right way.||x i.e., The hands of those of Khaibar, or of their successors of the tribes of Asad and Ghatfân, or of the inhabitants of Mecca, by the pacification of al Hodeibiya.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|God promised you the taking of a rich booty6 and sped it to you; and He withheld men's hands from you, for a sign to the faithful, and that He might guide you along the right way:||6 At Chaibar.|
|108||21||48||And he also promiseth you other spoils, which ye have not yet been able to take: but now hath GOD encompassed them for you; and GOD is almighty.||And other booty, over which ye have not yet had power: but now hath God compassed them for you; for God is over all things Potent.|
|108||22||48||If the unbelieving Meccans had fought against you, verily they had turned their backs; and they would not have found a patron or protector:||If the Infidels shall fight against you, they shall assuredly turn their backs; then, neither protector nor helper shall they find!|
|108||23||48||according to the ordinance of GOD, which hath been put in execution heretofore against opposers of the prophets; for thou shalt not find any change in the ordinance of GOD.||Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 32, paragraph 42
|BWC: No change canst thou find in God's mode of dealing||Such is God's method carried into effect of old; no change canst thou find in God's mode of dealing.|
|108||24||48||It was he who restrained their hands from you, and your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca; after that he had given you the victory over them:y and GOD saw that which ye did.||y Jallaloddin says that fourscore of the infidels came privately to Mohammeds camp at al Hodeibiya, with an intent to surprise some of his men, but were taken and brought before the prophet, who pardoned them and ordered them to be set at liberty; and this generous action was the occasion of the truce struck up by the Koreish with Mohammed; for thereupon they sent Sohail Ebn Amru and some others (and not Arwa Ebn Masúd, as is said by mistake in another place,2 for his errand was an actual defiance) to treat for peace.
Al Beidâwi explains the passage by another story, telling us that Acrema Ebn Abi Jahl marching from Mecca at the head of five hundred men to al Hodeibiya, Mohammed sent against him Khâled Ebn al Walîd with a detachment, who drove the infidels back to the innermost part of Mecca (as the word here translated valley properly signifies), and then left them, out of respect to the place.
2 Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 41.
|And He it was who held their hands from you and your hands from them in the valley of Mecca,7 after that He had given you the victory over them: for God saw what ye did.||7 The valley of Mecca may mean Hudaibiya. But the commentators explain this verse of different events. It probably, however, refers to the 50 (according to Djalalein 80) prisoners whom Muhammad dismissed freely at Hudaibiya.|
|108||25||48||These are they who believed not, and hindered you from visiting the holy temple, and also hindered the offering being detained, that it should not arrive at the place where it ought to be sacrificed.z Had it not been that ye might have trampled on divers true believers, both men and women, whom ye know not, being promiscuously assembled with the infidels, and that a crime might therefore have lighted on you on their account, without your knowledge, he had not restrained your hands from them: but this was done, that GOD might lead whom he pleased into his mercy. If they had been distinguished from one another, we had surely chastised such of them as believed not, with a severe chastisement.||z Mohammeds intent, in the expedition of al Hodeibiya, being only to visit the temple of Mecca in a peaceable manner, and to offer a sacrifice in the valley of Mina, according to the established rites, he carried beasts with him for that purpose; but was not permitted by the Koreish either to enter the temple or to go to Mina.||These are they who believed not, and kept you away from the sacred Mosque, as well as the offering which was prevented from reaching the place of sacrifice. And had it not been that ye would have trodden down believers, both men and women, whom ye knew not, so that a crime might have lighted on you without your knowledge on their account, and that God would bring whom He will within His mercy, this would have been otherwise ordered. Had they been apart,8 we had surely punished such of them as believed not, with a sore punishment.||8 Had the believers been separate from the infidels.|
|108||26||48||When the unbelievers had put in their hearts an affected preciseness, the preciseness of ignorance, and GOD sent down his tranquility on his apostle and on the true believers;a and firmly fixed in them the word of piety,b and they were the most worthy of the same, and the most deserving thereof: for GOD knoweth all things.||a This passage was occasioned by the stiffness of Sohail and his companions in wording the treaty concluded with Mohammed; for when the prophet ordered Ali to begin with the form, In the name of the most merciful GOD, they objected to it, and insisted that he should begin with this: In thy name, O GOD; which Mohammed submitted to, and proceeded to dictate, These are the conditions on which Mohammed, the apostle of GOD, has made peace with those of Mecca; to this Sohail again objected, saying, If we had acknowledged thee to be the apostle of GOD, we had not given thee any opposition; whereupon Mohammed ordered Ali to write as Sohail desired, These are the conditions which Mohammed, the son of Abdallah, &c. But the Moslems were so disgusted thereat, that they were on the point of breaking off the treaty, and had fallen on the Meccans, had not GOD appeased and calmed their minds, as it follows in the text.3
The terms of this pacification were that there should be a truce for ten years; that any person might enter into league either with Mohammed or with the Koreish, as he should think fit; and that Mohammed should have the liberty to visit the temple of Mecca the next year for three days.4
3 Al Beidâwi. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 87.
b i.e., The Mohammedan profession of faith; or the Bismillah, and the words, Mohammed, the apostle of GOD, which were rejected by the infidels.
|When the unbelievers had fostered rage in their heartsthe rage of ignorance (of heathens)God sent down His peace on His Apostle and on the faithful, and stablished in them the word of piety, for they were most worthy and deserving of it: and God knoweth all things.|
|108||27||48||Now hath GOD in truth verified unto his apostle the vision,c wherein he said, Ye shall surely enter the holy temple of Mecca, if GOD please, in full security; having your heads shaved, and your hair cut:d ye shall not fear: for God knoweth that which ye know not; and he hath appointed you, besides this, a speedy victory.e||c Or dream which Mohammed had at Medina before he set out for al Hodeibiya; wherein he dreamed that he and his companions entered Mecca in security, with their heads shaven and their hair cut. This dream being imparted by the prophet to his followers, occasioned a great deal of joy among them, and they supposed it would be fulfilled that same year; but when they saw the truce concluded, which frustrated their expectation for that time, they were deeply concerned; whereupon this passage was revealed for their consolation, confirming the vision, which was not to be fulfilled till the year after, when Mohammed performed the visitation distinguished by the addition of al Kadâ, or completion, because he then completed the visitation of the former year, when the Koreish not permitting him to enter Mecca, he was obliged to kill his victims, and to shave himself at al Hodeibiya.5
5 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 84, 87.
d i.e., Some being shaved, and others having only their hair cut.
e viz., The taking of Khaibar.
|Now hath God in truth made good to His Apostle the dream9 in which he said, "Ye shall surely enter the sacred Mosque, if God will, in full security, having your heads shaved and your hair cut: ye shall not fear; for He knoweth what ye know not; and He hath ordained you, beside this, a speedy victory."||9 This dream Muhammad had at Medina, before he set out for al Hudaibiya. His followers expected its fulfilment within the year, but when the truce frustrated their hopes, this verse was revealed to pacify them.|
|108||28||48||It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and the religion of truth; that he may exalt the same above every religion: and GOD is a sufficient witness hereof.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 41
|MG: that He may make it victorious over every other religion||It is He who hath sent His Apostle with "the Guidance," and the religion of truth, that He may exalt it above every religion. And enough for thee is this testimony on the part of God.|
|108||29||48||Mohammed is the apostle of GOD: and those who are with him are fierce against the unbelievers, but compassionate towards one another. Thou mayest see them bowing down, prostrate, seeking a recompense from GOD, and his good-will. Their signs are in their faces, being marks of frequent prostration. This is their description in the pentateuch, and their description in the gospel: they are as seed which putteth forth its stalk and strengtheneth it, and swelleth in the ear, and riseth upon its stem; giving delight unto the sower. Such are the Moslems described to be: that the infidels may swell with indignation at them. GOD hath promised unto such of them as believe, and do good works, pardon and a great reward.||Muhammad is the Apostle of God; and his comrades are vehement against the infidels, but full of tenderness among themselves. Thou mayst see them bowing down, prostrating themselves, imploring favours from God, and His acceptance. Their tokens10 are on their faces, the marks of their prostrations. This is their picture in the Law, and their picture in the Evangel:11 they are as the seed which putteth forth its stalk; then strengtheneth it, and it groweth stout, and riseth upon its stem,12 rejoicing the husbandmanthat the infidels may be wrathful at them. To such of them as believe and do the things that are right, hath God promised forgiveness and a noble recompense.||10 Dust from the pavement. The Muhammadans who say their prayers on carpets often place little bricks before them which they touch in prostration with their forehead.
11 Comp. Mark iv. 28.
12 Lit. legs.