|Rodwell Suráh #||Verse #||Traditional Suráh #||Sale Translation||Sale's Notes||Bahá'í References (Central Figures)||Bahá'í Translation (Shoghi Effendi unless otherwise noted)||Bahá'í References (Special)||Rodwell Translation||Rodwell's notes|
|112||0||49||CHAPTER XLIX.||SURA XLIX.THE APARTMENTS [CXII.]|
|112||0||49||ENTITLED, THE INNER APARTMENTS; REVEALED AT MEDINA.||MEDINA.18 Verses|
|112||0||49||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|112||1||49||O TRUE believers, anticipate not any matter in the sight of GOD and his apostle:f and fear GOD; for GOD both heareth and knoweth.||f That is, do not presume to give your own decision in any case, before ye have received the judgment of GOD and his apostle.||O BELIEVERS! enter not upon any affair ere God and His Apostle1 permit you; and fear ye God: for God Heareth, Knoweth.2||1 Or anticipate not, take not the lead of God and His Apostle.
2 All the ancient Interpreters (as His. 933 ff., Ibn Sa'd. 320, Tab. Agâní. 116 f.comp. also Weil 244 ff., Caussin, iii. 271) refer from 1-5 to the disrespectful demeanour, in Muhammad's presence, of the envoys of the Banu Tamim in Hej. 9 or 10.
|112||2||49||O true believers, raise not your voices above the voice of the prophet;g neither speak loud unto him in discourse, as ye speak loud unto one another, lest your works become vain, and ye perceive it not.||g This verse is said to have been occasioned by a dispute between Abu Becr and Omar, concerning the appointing of a governor of a certain place; in which they raised their voices so high, in the presence of the apostle, that it was thought proper to forbid such indecencies for the future.1
|O Believers! raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, neither speak loud to him as ye speak loud one to another, lest your works come to nought, and ye unaware of it.|
|112||3||49||Verily they who lower their voices in the presence of the apostle of GOD are those whose hearts GOD hath disposed unto piety: they shall obtain pardon, and a great reward.||They who lower their voices in the presence of the Apostle of God, are the persons whose hearts God hath inclined to piety. Forgiveness shall be theirs and a rich reward.|
|112||4||49||As to those who call unto thee from without the inner apartments;h the greater part of them do not understand the respect due to thee.||h These, they say, were Oyeyna Ebn Osein, and al Akrá Ebn Hâbes; who wanting to speak with Mohammed, when he was sleeping at noon in his womens apartment, had the rudeness to call out several times, Mohammed, come forth to us.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|They who call out to thee while thou art within3 thine APARTMENTS, have most of them no right perception of what is due to thee.||3 Lit. from without.|
|112||5||49||If they wait with patience, until thou come forth unto them, it will certainly be better for them: but GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful.||But if they wait patiently till thou come forth to them, it were far better for them. But God is Indulgent, Merciful.|
|112||6||49||O true believers, if a wicked man come unto you with a tale, inquire strictly into the truth thereof; lest ye hurt people through ignorance, and afterwards repent of what ye have done;i||i This passage was occasioned, it is said, by the following accident. Al Walid Ebn Okba being sent by Mohammed to collect the alms from the tribe of al Mostalek, when he saw them come out to meet him in great numbers, grew apprehensive they designed him some mischief, because of past enmity between him and them in the time of ignorance, and immediately turned back, and told the prophet they refused to pay their alms, and attempted to kill him; upon which Mohammed was thinking to reduce them by force: but on sending Khâled Ebn al Walîd to them, he found his former messenger had wronged them, and that they continued in their obedience.3
3 Idem, Jallal.
|Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 229)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 34)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 69
|Shoghi Effendi in The Dawn-Breakers: If any bad man come unto you with news, clear up the matter at once, lest through ignorance ye harm others, and be speedily constrained to repent of what ye have done.
BWC: O ye who believe! If a wicked man come to you with news, clear it up at once, lest through ignorance ye harm others, and afterward repent of what ye have done.
BWC: If a wicked man come to you with news, clear it up at once
EGB: O ye who believe, if there come unto you a sinner with a message, then discriminate, lest you fall upon a people in ignorance and on the morrow repent of what ye have done.
|The Dawn-Breakers, Chapter VIII, p. 150
|O Believers! if any bad man4 come to you with news, clear it up at once, lest through ignorance ye harm others, and speedily have to repent of what ye have done.||4 The commentators mentioned in the last note, as well as others, explain this verse of Al Walid ben Uqba, who had brought a false report of the refusal of the Banu'lmustaliq to pay certain alms which Muhammad had sent him to demand. This Al Walid became governor of Kufa under Othman. He probably was never really converted to Islam.|
|112||7||49||and know that the apostle of GOD is among you: if he should obey you in many things, ye would certainly be guilty of a crime, in leading him into a mistake. But GOD hath made the faith amiable unto you, and hath prepared the same in your hearts; and hath rendered infidelity, and iniquity, and disobedience hateful unto you. These are they who walk in the right way;||And know that an Apostle of God is among you! should he give way to you in many matters ye would certainly become guilty of a crime. But God hath endeared the faith to you, and hath given it favour in your hearts, and hath made unbelief, and wickedness, and disobedience hateful to you. Such are they who pursue a right course.|
|112||8||49||through mercy from GOD, and grace: and GOD is knowing, and wise.||Through the bounty and grace which is from God: and God is Knowing, Wise.|
|112||9||49||If two parties of the believers contend with one another, do ye endeavor to compose the matter between them: and if the one of them offer an insult unto the other, fight against that party which offered the insult, until they return unto the judgment of GOD; and if they do return, make peace between them with equity: and act with justice; for GOD loveth those who act justly.k||k This verse is supposed to have been occasioned by a fray which happened between the tribes of al Aws and al Khazraj. Some relate that the prophet one day riding on an ass, as he passed near Abdallah Ebn Obba, the ass chanced to stale, at which Ebn Obba stopped his nose; and Ebn Rawâha said to him, By GOD, the piss of his ass smells sweeter than thy musk: whereupon a quarrel ensued between their followers, and they came to blows, though they struck one another only with their hands and slippers, or with palm-branches.4
|If two bodies of the faithful are at war, then make ye peace between them:5 and if the one of them wrong the other, fight against that party which doth the wrong, until they come back to the precepts of God: if they come back, make peace between them with fairness, and act impartially; God loveth those who act with impartiality.||5 Upon this passage 91-2, die Muslimen, says Nöldeke, verschiedene Geschichten erzählen, so dass sich Nichts sicher bestimmen Iässt, p. 164. This remark applies to the great mass of Muhammadan comment.|
|112||10||49||Verily the true believers are brethren; wherefore reconcile your brethren; and fear GOD, that ye may obtain mercy.||Only the faithful are brethren; wherefore make peace between your brethren; and fear God, that ye may obtain mercy.|
|112||11||49||O true believers, let not men laugh other men to scorn; who peradventure may be better than themselves: neither let women laugh other women to scorn; who may possibly be better than themselves. Neither defame one another; nor call one another by opprobrious appellations. An ill name it is to be charged with wickedness, after having embraced the faith: and whoso repenteth not, they will be the unjust doers.l||l It is said that this verse was revealed on account of Safiya Bint Hoyai, one of the prophets wives; who came to her husband and complained that the women said to her, O thou Jewess, the daughter of a Jew and of a Jewess: to which he answered, Canst thou not say, Aaron is my father, and Moses is my uncle, and Mohammed is my husband?5
5 Al Beidâwi. See Prid. Life of Mahom. p. 111, &c.
|O Believers! let not men laugh men to scorn who haply may be better than themselves; neither let women laugh women to scorn who may haply be better than themselves!6 Neither defame one another, nor call one another by nicknames. Bad is it to be called wicked after having professed the faith:7 and whoso repent not of this are doers of wrong.||6 Said to refer to Safia, one of Muhammad's wives. who had been taunted by his other wives with being a Jewess.
7 Lit. Bad the name, wickedness, after faith.
|112||12||49||O true believers, carefully avoid entertaining a suspicion of another: for some suspicions are a crime. Inquire not too curiously into other men's failings: neither let the one of you speak ill of another in his absence. Would any of you desire to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Surely ye would abhor it. And fear GOD; for GOD is easy to be reconciled, and merciful.||O Believers! avoid frequent suspicions, for some suspicions are a crime; and pry not: neither let the one of you traduce another in his absence. Would any one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Surely ye would loathe it. And fear ye God: for God is Ready to turn, Merciful.|
|112||13||49||O men, verily we have created you of a male and a female; and we have distributed you into nations and tribes, that ye might know one another. Verily the most honourable of you, in the sight of GOD, is the most pious of you: and GOD is wise and knowing.||Compilation on Women (V. Fostering the Development of Women, quotation 96, by Abdul-Bahá)
|BWC: Verily the most honoured in the sight of God is the most virtuous amongst you||O men! verily, we have created you of a male and a female; and we have divided you into peoples and tribes that ye might have knowledge one of another. Truly, the most worthy of honour in the sight of God is he who feareth Him most.8 Verily, God is Knowing, Cognisant.||8 That is, not the most nobly born, like the Koreisch. This verse is said to have been revealed in Mecca on the day of its conquest. See Weil, Leben, p.372, and n.|
|112||14||49||The Arabs of the desertm say, We believe. Answer, Ye do by no means believe; but say, We have embraced Islâm:n for the faith hath not yet entered into your hearts. If ye obey GOD and his apostle, he will not defraud you of any part of the merit of your works: for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful.||m These were certain of the tribe of Asad, who came to Medina in a year of scarcity, and having professed Mohammedism, told the prophet that they had brought all their goods and their families, and would not oppose him, as some other tribes had done: and this they said to obtain a part of the alms, and to upbraid him with their having embraced his religion and party.6
n That is, Ye are not sincere believers, but outward professors only of the true religion.
|The Arabs of the desert9 say, "We believe." Say thou: Ye believe not; but rather say, "We profess Islam;" for the faith hath not yet found its way into your hearts. But if ye obey God and His Apostle, he will not allow you to lose any of your actions: for God is Indulgent, Merciful.||9 The Banû Asad had come to Medina in a year of famine to seek support for themselves and families, and made profession of Islamism. Beidh.Thus, also Ibn Sad. Tabari. Wah.|
|112||15||49||Verily the true believers are those only who believe in GOD and his apostle, and afterwards doubt not; and who employ their substance and their persons in the defence of GOD'S true religion: these are they who speak sincerely.||The true believers are those only who believe in God and His Apostle, and afterwards doubt not; and who contend with their substance and their persons on the path of God. These are the sincere.|
|112||16||49||Say, Will ye inform GOD concerning your religion?o But GOD knoweth whatever is in heaven and in earth: for GOD is omniscient.||o i.e., Will ye pretend to deceive him, by saying ye are true believers?||SAY: Will ye teach God about your religion? when God knoweth whatever is in the Heavens and on the Earth: yea, God hath knowledge of all things.|
|112||17||49||They upbraid thee that they have embraced Islâm. Answer, Upbraid me not with your having embraced Islâm: rather GOD upbraideth you, that he hath directed you to the faith;p if ye speak sincerely.||p The obligation being not on GODS side, but on yours, for that he has favoured you so far as to guide you into the true faith, if ye are sincere believers.||They taunt thee with their having embraced Islam.10 SAY: Taunt me not with your having embraced Islam: God rather taunteth you with His having guided you to the faith: acknowledge this if ye are sincere.||10 As if by so doing they had conferred a favour on the Prophet.|
|112||18||49||Verily GOD knoweth the secrets of heaven and earth: and GOD beholdeth that which ye do.||Verily, God knoweth the secrets of the Heavens and of the Earth: and God beholdeth what ye do.|
|54||0||50||CHAPTER L.||SURA L.KAF [LIV.]|
|54||0||50||ENTITLED, K; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.45 Verses|
|54||0||50||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.|
|54||1||50||K.q BY the glorious Koran:||q Some imagine that this letter is designed to express the mountain Kâf, which several eastern writers fancy encompass the whole world.1 Others say it stands for Kada al amr, i.e., The matter is decreed, viz., the chastisement of the infidels.2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.
1 Vide DHerbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Caf.
2 Al Beidâwi. Jallaloddin.
|Kaf1. By the glorious Koran:||1 See Sura lxviii. I, p. 32.|
|54||2||50||verily they wonder that a preacher from among themselves is come unto them; and the unbelievers say, This is a wonderful thing:||They marvel forsooth that one of themselves hath come to them charged with warnings. "This," say the infidels, "is a marvellous thing:|
|54||3||50||after we shall be dead, and become dust, shall we return to life?||What! when dead and turned to dust shall we. . . .? Far off is such a return as this?"|
|54||4||50||This is a return remote from thought. Now we know what the earth consumeth of them; and with us is a book which keepeth an account thereof.||Now know we what the earth consumeth of them, and with us is a Book in which account is kept.|
|54||5||50||But they charge falsehood on the truth, after it hath come unto them: wherefore they are plunged in a confused business.r||r Not knowing what certainly to affirm of the Korân; calling it sometimes a piece of poetry, at other times a piece of sorcery, and at other times a piece of divination, &c.||But they have treated the truth which hath come to them as falsehood; perplexed therefore is their state.|
|54||6||50||Do they not look up to the heaven above them, and consider how we have raised it and adorned it; and that there are no flaws therein?||Will they not look up to the heaven above them, and consider how we have reared it and decked it forth, and that there are no flaws therein?|
|54||7||50||We have also spread forth the earth, and thrown thereon mountains firmly rooted:s and we caused every beautiful kind of vegetables to spring up therein;||s See chapter 16, p. 196, and chapter 31, p. 307.||And as to the earth, we have spread it out, and have thrown the mountains upon it, and have caused an upgrowth in it of all beauteous kinds of plants,|
|54||8||50||for a subject of meditation, and an admonition unto every man who turneth unto us.||For insight and admonition to every servant who loveth to turn to God:|
|54||9||50||And we send down rain as a blessing from heaven, whereby we cause gardens to spring forth, and the grain of harvest,||And we send down the rain from Heaven with its blessings, by which we cause gardens to spring forth and the grain of harvest,|
|54||10||50||and tall palm-trees having branches laden with dates hanging one above another,||And the tall palm trees with date-bearing branches one above the other|
|54||11||50||as a provision for mankind; and we thereby quicken a dead country: so shall be the coming forth of the dead from their graves.||For man's nourishment: And life give we thereby to a dead country. So also shall be the resurrection.|
|54||12||50||The people of Noah, and those who dwelt at Al Rass,t and Thamud,||t See chapter 25, p. 273.||Ere the days of these (Meccans) the people of Noah, and the men of Rass2 and Themoud, treated their prophets as impostors:||2 See [lxvi.] xxv. 40.|
|54||13||50||and Ad, and Pharaoh, accused the prophets of imposture before the Meccans; and also the brethren of Lot, and the inhabitants of the wood near Midian, and the people of Tobba:u all these accused the apostles of imposture; wherefore the judgments which I threatened were justly inflicted on them.||u See chapter 44, p. 368.||And Ad and Pharaoh, and the brethren of Lot and the dwellers in the forest, and the people of Tobba,3 all gave the lie to their prophets: justly, therefore, were the menaces inflicted.||3 See xliv. 36, p. 90.|
|54||14||50||Is our power exhausted by the first creation? Yea; they are in a perplexity, because of a new creation which is foretold them, namely the raising of the dead.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 121, p. 115
|Are We wearied out with the first creation? Yet are they in doubt with regard to a new creation!||Are we wearied out with the first creation? Yet are they in doubt with regard to a new creation!4||4 The Resurrection.|
|54||15||50||We created man, and we know what his soul whispereth within him; and we are nearer unto him than his jugular vein.||We created man: and we know what his soul whispereth to him, and we are closer to him than his neck-vein.|
|54||16||50||When the two angels deputed to take account of a man's behavior, take an account thereof; one sitting on the right hand, and the other on the left:||When the two angels charged with taking account shall take it, one sitting on the right hand, the other on the left:|
|54||17||50||he uttereth not a word, but there is with him a watcher, ready to note it.x||x The intent of the passage is to exalt the omniscience of GOD, who wants not the information of the guardian angels, though he has thought fit, in his wisdom, to give them that employment; for if they are so exact as to write down every word which falls from a mans mouth, how can we hope to escape the observation of him who sees our inmost thoughts?
The Mohammedans have a tradition that the angel who notes a mans good actions has the command over him who notes his evil actions; and that when a man does a good action, the angel of the right hand writes it down ten times, and when he commits an ill action, the same angel says to the angel of the left hand, Forbear setting it down for seven hours; peradventure he may pray, or may ask pardon.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Not a word doth he utter, but there is a watcher with him ready to note it down:|
|54||18||50||And the agony of death shall come in truth: this, O man, is what thou soughtest to avoid.||And the stupor of certain death cometh upon him: "This is what thou wouldst have shunned"|
|54||19||50||And the trumpet shall sound: this will be the day which hath been threatened.||50:19-20
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 122, p. 116
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|And there was a blast on the trumpet,--lo! it is the threatened Day!||And there shall be a blast on the trumpet,it is the threatened day!|
|54||20||50||And every soul shall come; and therewith shall be a driver and a witness.y||y i.e., Two angels, one acting as a sergeant, to bring every person before the tribunal; and the other prepared as a witness, to testify either for or against him. Some say the former will be the guardian angel who took down his evil actions, and the other the angel who took down his good actions.2
Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 122, p. 116
|And every soul is summoned to a reckoning,--with him an impeller and a witness.||And every soul shall come,an angel with it urging it along, and an angel to witness against it5||5 Lit. a driver and a witness.|
|54||21||50||And the former shall say unto the unbeliever, Thou wast negligent heretofore of this day: but we have removed thy veil from off thee; and thy sight is become piercing this day.||The Seven Valleys (Valley of Contentment, within pp. 29-31)
|cf. MG: And we have made thy sight sharp in this day.||Saith he, "Of this day didst thou live in heedlessness: but we have taken off thy veil from thee, and thy sight is becoming sharp this day."|
|54||22||50||And his companions shall say, This is what is ready with me to be attested.||And he who is at this side6 shall say, "This is what I am prepared with against thee."||6 The Satan who is chained to him. Sura [lxxi.] xli. 24.|
|54||23||50||And God shall say, Cast into hell every unbeliever, and perverse person,||And God will say, "Cast into Hell, ye twain, every infidel, every hardened one,|
|54||24||50||and every one who forbade good, and every transgressor, and doubter of the faith,||The hinderer of the good, the transgressor, the doubter,|
|54||25||50||who set up another god with the true GOD; and cast him into a grievous torment.||Who set up other gods with God. Cast ye him into the fierce torment."|
|54||26||50||His companionz shall say, O LORD, I did not seduce him; but he was in a wide error.a||z viz., The devil which shall be chained to him.
a This will be the answer of the devil, whom the wicked person will accuse as his seducer; for the devil has no power over a man to cause him to do evil, any otherwise than by suggesting what is agreeable to his corrupt inclinations.3
3 See cap. 14, p. 188, &c.
|He who is at his side shall say, "O our Lord! I led him not astray, yet was he in an error wide of truth."|
|54||27||50||God shall say, Wrangle not in my presence: since I threatened you beforehand with the torments which ye now see prepared for you.||He shall say, "Wrangle not in my presence. I had plied you beforehand with menaces:|
|54||28||50||The sentence is not changed with me: neither do I treat my servants unjustly.||My doom changeth not, and I am not unjust to man."|
|54||29||50||On that day we will say unto hell, Art thou full? and it shall answer, Is there yet any addition?b||b i.e., Are there yet any more condemned to this place, or is my space to be enlarged and rendered more capacious to receive them?
The commentators suppose hell will be quite filled at the day of judgment, according to that repeated expression in the Korân, Verily I will fill hell with you, &c.
|The Seven Valleys (The Valley of Love, within pp. 8-11)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 78, paragraph 117
|MG: Is there yet any more?
BWC: Is there yet any more?
|On that day will we cry to Hell, "Art thou full?" And it shall say, "Are there more?"7||7 Lit. is there any addition? which some explain as if Hell enquired whether, being already full, any addition could be made to its size. Comp. Prov. xxx. 15, and Othioth Derabbi Akiba, 8, 1: "That the Prince of Hell saith daily, Give me food enough, is clear from what is said (Is. v. 14). Therefore Shaol hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure, etc."|
|54||30||50||And paradise shall be brought near unto the pious;||And not far from thence shall Paradise be brought near unto the Pious:|
|54||31||50||and it shall be said unto them, This is what ye have been promised; unto every one who turned himself unto God, and kept his commandments;|| "This is what ye have been promised: to every one who hath turned in penitence to God and kept his laws;|
|54||32||50||who feared the Merciful in secret, and came unto him with a converted heart:||Who hath feared the God of Mercy in secret, and come to him with a contrite heart:|
|54||33||50||enter the same in peace: this is the day of eternity.||Enter it in peace: this is the day of Eternity."|
|54||34||50||Therein shall they have whatever they shall desire; and there will be a superabundant addition of bliss with us.c||c See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 78.||There shall they have all that they can desire: and our's will it be to augment their bliss:|
|54||35||50||How many generations have we destroyed before the Meccans, which were more mighty than they in strength? Pass, therefore, through the regions of the earth, and see whether there be any refuge from our vengeance.||And how many generations have we destroyed ere the days of these (Meccans), mightier than they in strength! Search ye then the land. Is there any escape?|
|54||36||50||Verily herein is an admonition unto him who hath a heart to understand, or giveth ear, and is present with an attentive mind.||Lo! herein is warning for him who hath a heart, or giveth ear, and is himself an eye-witness.8||8 That is, of the ruins of the destroyed cities, etc.|
|54||37||50||We created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, in six days, and no weariness affected us.d||d This was revealed in answer to the Jews, who said that GOD rested from his work of creation on the seventh day, and reposed himself on his throne, as one fatigued.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|We created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six days, and no weariness touched us.9||9 This verse is said (by Omar b. Muhammad, Itq. 36, Djelal Eddin, ap. Maracc. and Beidh.) to have been revealed in answer to the Jews who told the Prophet that if God rested on the Sabbath, it was because he was weary. But a connection with verse 14 seems more natural.|
|54||38||50||Wherefore patiently suffer what they say;e and celebrate the praise of thy LORD before sunrise, and before sunset,||Wherefore put up with what they say, and celebrate the praise of thy Lord before sunrise and before sunset:|
|54||39||50||and praise him in some part of the night: and perform the additional parts of worship.f||f These are the two inclinations used after the evening prayer, which are not necessary, or of precept, but voluntary, and of supererogation; and may therefore be added, or omitted, indifferently.||And praise Him in the night: and perform the two final prostrations.|
|54||40||50||And hearken unto the day whereon the crier shall call men to judgment from a near place:g||g That is, from a place whence every creature may equally hear the call. This place, it is supposed, will be the mountain of the temple of Jerusalem, which some fancy to be nigher heaven than any other part of the earth; whence Israfil will sound the trumpet, and Gabriel will make the following proclamation: O ye rotten bones, and torn flesh, and dispersed hairs, GOD commandeth you to be gathered together to judgment.2
|And list for the day whereon the crier shall cry from a place near to every one alike:|
|54||41||50||the day whereon they shall hear the voice of the trumpet in truth: this will be the day of men's coming forth from their graves:||The day on which men shall in truth hear that shout will be the day of their coming forth from the grave.|
|54||42||50||we give life, and we cause to die; and unto us shall be the return of all creatures:||Verily, we cause to live, and we cause to die. To us shall all return.|
|54||43||50||the day whereon the earth shall suddenly cleave in sunder over them. This will be an assembly easy for us to assemble.||On the day when the earth shall swiftly cleave asunder over the dead, will this gathering be easy to Us.|
|54||44||50||We well know what the unbelievers say; and thou art not sent to compel them forcibly to the faith.||We know best what the infidels say: and thou art not to compel them.|
|54||45||50||Wherefore warn, by the Koran, him who feareth my threatening.||Warn then by the Koran those who fear my menace.|
|43||0||51||CHAPTER LI.||SURA LI.THE SCATTERING [XLIII.]|
|43||0||51||ENTITLED, THE DISPERSING; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.60 Verses|
|43||0||51||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|43||1||51||BY the winds dispersing and scattering the dust;h||h Or, by the women who bring forth or scatter children, &c.||By the clouds1 which scatter with SCATTERING,||1 Lit. (I swear) by those which scatter (i.e., the rain) with a scattering, (2) and by those which carry a burden, (3) and by those which run lightly, (4) and by those which divide a matter, or by command. The participles are all in the feminine: hence some interpret verse 1 of winds; verse 2 of clouds; verse 3 of ships; verse 4 of angels.|
|43||2||51||and by the clouds bearing a load of rain;i||i Or, by the women bearing a burden in their womb, or the winds bearing the clouds, &c.||And those which bear their load,|
|43||3||51||by the ships running swiftly in the sea;k||k Or, by the winds passing swiftly in the air, or the stars moving swiftly in their courses, &c.||And by those which speed lightly along,|
|43||4||51||and by the angels who distribute things necessary for the support of all creatures;l||l Or, by the winds which distribute the rain, &c.||And those which apportion by command!|
|43||5||51||verily that wherewith ye are threatened is certainly true;||True, indeed, is that with which ye are threatened,|
|43||6||51||and the last judgment will surely come.||And lo! the judgment will surely come.2||2 Comp. note at Sura lvi. 1, p. 65.|
|43||7||51||By the heaven furnished with paths;m||m i.e., The paths or orbs of the stars, or the streaks which appear in the sky like paths, being thin and extended clouds.||By the star-tracked heaven!|
|43||8||51||ye widely differ in what ye say.n||n Concerning Mohammed, or the Korân, or the resurrection and day of judgment; speaking variously and inconsistently of them.||Ye are discordant in what ye say;|
|43||9||51||He will be turned aside from the faith, who shall be turned aside by the divine decree.||But whose turneth him from the truth, is turned from it by a divine decree.|
|43||10||51||Cursed be the liars;||Perish the liars,|
|43||11||51||who wade in deep waters of ignorance, neglecting their salvation.||Who are bewildered in the depths of ignorance!|
|43||12||51||They ask, When will the day of judgment come?||They ask, "When this day of judgment?"|
|43||13||51||On that day shall they be burned in hell fire;||On that day they shall be tormented at the fire.|
|43||14||51||and it shall be said unto them, Taste your punishment; this is what ye demanded to be hastened.||"Taste ye of this your torment, whose speedy coming ye challenged."|
|43||15||51||But the pious shall dwell among gardens and fountains,||But the God-fearing shall dwell amid gardens and fountains,|
|43||16||51||receiving that which their LORD shall give them; because they were righteous doers before this day.||Enjoying what their Lord hath given them, because, aforetime they were well-doers:|
|43||17||51||They slept but a small part of the night;o||o Spending the greater part in prayer and religious meditation.||But little of the night was it that they slept,|
|43||18||51||and early in the morning they asked pardon of God:||And at dawn they prayed for pardon,|
|43||19||51||and a due portion of their wealth was given unto him who asked, and unto him who was forbidden by shame to ask.||And gave due share of their wealth to the suppliant and the outcast.|
|43||20||51||There are signs of the divine power and goodness in the earth, unto men of sound understanding;||On Earth are signs for men of firm belief,|
|43||21||51||and also in your own selves: will ye not therefore consider?||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 107, p. 101
|And also in your own selves: will ye not then behold the signs of God?||And also in your own selves: Will ye not then behold them?|
|43||22||51||Your sustenance is in the heaven; and also that which ye are promised.p||p i.e., Your food cometh from above, whence proceedeth the change of seasons and rain; and your future reward is also there, that is to say, in paradise, which is situate above the seven heavens.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 75, p. 68
Compilation: The Importance of Prayer, Meditation, and the Devotional Attitude, no. 1742 by Abdul-Bahá
|The heaven hath sustenance for you, and it containeth that which you are promised;
BWC: The heaven hath sustenance for you
|The Heaven hath sustenance for you, and it containeth that which you are promised.|
|43||23||51||Wherefore by the LORD of heaven and earth I swear that this is certainly the truth; according to what ye yourselves speak.q||q That is, without any doubt or reserved meaning, as ye affirm a truth unto one another.||By the Lord then of the heaven and of the earth, I swear that this is the truth, even as ye speak yourselves.3||3 That is, this oath is for the confirmation of the truth, as ye are wont to confirm things one among another by an oath.|
|43||24||51||Hath not the story of Abraham's honoured guestsr come to thy knowledge?||r See chapter 11, p. 165, and chapter 15, p. 193.||Hath the story reached thee of Abraham's honoured guests?4||4 Comp. Sura xi. 72, and xv. 51. From the want of connection with what precedes, it is highly probable that the whole passage from verse 24 60 did not originally form a part of this Sura, but was added at a later period, perhaps in the recension of the text under Othman.|
|43||25||51||When they went in unto him, and said, Peace: he answered Peace; saying within himself, These are unknown people.||When they went in unto him and said, "Peace!" he replied, "Peace:they are strangers."|
|43||26||51||And he went privately unto his family, and brought a fatted calf.||And he went apart to his family, and brought a fatted calf,|
|43||27||51||And he set it before them, and when he saw they touched it not, he said, Do ye not eat?||And set it before them. He said, "Eat ye not?"|
|43||28||51||And he began to entertain a fear of them. They said, Fear not:s and they declared unto him the promise of a wise youth.||s Some add, that to remove Abrahams fear, Gabriel, who was one of these strangers, touched the calf with his wing, and it immediately rose up and walked to its dam; upon which Abraham knew them to be the messengers of GOD.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And he conceived a fear of them. They said to him, "Fear not;" and announced to him a wise son.|
|43||29||51||And his wife drew near with exclamation, and she smote her face,t and said, I am an old woman, and barren.||t This, some pretend, she did for shame, because she felt her courses coming upon her.||His wife came up with outcry: she smote her face and said, "What I, old and barren!"|
|43||30||51||The angels answered, Thus saith thy LORD: verily he is the wise, the knowing.||They said, "Thus saith thy Lord. He truly is the Wise, the Knowing."|
|43||31||51||(XXVII.) And Abraham said unto them, What is your errand, therefore, O messengers of God?||Said he, "And what, O messengers, is your errand?"|
|43||32||51||They answered, Verily we are sent unto a wicked people:||They said, "To a wicked people are we sent,|
|43||33||51||that we may send down upon them stones of baked clay,||To hurl upon them stones of clay,|
|43||34||51||marked from thy LORD, for the destruction of transgressors.||Destined5 by thy Lord for men guilty of excesses."||5 Lit. marked, with the names of the individuals to be slain, say the commentators.|
|43||35||51||And we brought forth the true believers who were in the city:||And we brought forth the believers who were in the city:|
|43||36||51||but we found not therein more than one family of Moslems.||But we found not in it but one family of Muslims.|
|43||37||51||And we overthrew the same, and left a sign therein unto those who dread the severe chastisement of God.||And signs we left in it for those who dread the afflictive chastisement,|
|43||38||51||In Moses also was a sign: when we sent him unto Pharaoh with manifest power.||And in Moses: when we sent him to Pharaoh with manifest power:|
|43||39||51||But he turned back, with his princes, saying, This man is a sorceror, or a madman.||But relying on his forces6 he turned his back and said, "Sorcerer, or Possessed."||6 Or, with his nobles.|
|43||40||51||Wherefore we took him and his forces, and cast them into the sea: and he was one worthy of reprehension.||So we seized him and his hosts and cast them into the sea; for of all blame was he worthy.|
|43||41||51||And in the tribe of Ad also was a sign: when we sent against them a destroying wind;u||u See chapter 7, p. 111, &c.||And in Ad: when we sent against them the desolating blast:|
|43||42||51||it touched not aught whereon it came, but it rendered the same as a thing rotten, and reduced to dust.||It touched not aught over which it came, but it turned it to dust.|
|43||43||51||In Thamud likewise was a sign: when it was said unto them, Enjoy yourselves for a time.x||x i.e., For three days. See chapter 11, p. 165.||And in Themoud:7 when it was said to them, "Enjoy yourselves for yet a while."||7 For Ad and Themoud, see Sura xi.|
|43||44||51||But they insolently transgressed the command of their LORD: wherefore a terrible noise from heaven assailed them, while they looked on;y||y For this calamity happened in the daytime.||But they rebelled against their Lord's command: so the tempest took them as they watched its coming.8||8 That is, in broad daylight. Thus Beidh. Comp. Sura xlvi. 22.|
|43||45||51||and they were not able to stand on their feet, neither did they save themselves from destruction.||They were not able to stand upright, and could not help themselves.|
|43||46||51||And the people of Noah did we destroy before these: for they were a people who enormously transgressed.||And we destroyed the people of Noah, before them; for an impious people were they.|
|43||47||51||We have built the heaven with might; and we have given it a large extent:||And the Heavenwith our hands have we built it up, and given it its expanse;|
|43||48||51||and we have stretched forth the earth beneath; and how evenly have we spread the same!||And the Earthwe have stretched it out like a carpet; and how smoothly have we spread it forth!|
|43||49||51||And of everything have we created two kinds,z that peradventure ye may consider.||z As for example: male and female; the heaven and the earth; the sun and the moon; light and darkness; plains and mountains; winter and summer; sweet and bitter, &c.1
|And of everything have we created pairs: that haply ye may reflect.|
|43||50||51||Fly, therefore, unto GOD; verily I am a public warner unto you, from him.||Fly then to God: I come to you from him a plain warner.|
|43||51||51||And set not up another god with the true GOD: verily I am a public warner unto you, from him.||And set not up another god with God: I come to you from him a plain warner.|
|43||52||51||In like manner there came no apostle unto their predecessors, but they said, This man is a magician, or a madman.||Even thus came there no apostle to those who flourished before them, but they exclaimed, "Sorcerer, or Possessed."|
|43||53||51||Have they bequeathed this behavior successively the one to the other? Yea; they are a people who enormously transgress.||Have they made a legacy to one another of this scoff? Yes, they are a rebel people.|
|43||54||51||Wherefore withdraw from them; and thou shalt not be blameworthy in so doing.||Turn away, then, from them, and thou shalt not incur reproach:|
|43||55||51||Yet continue to admonish: for admonition profiteth the true believers.||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-i-Mulúk, paragraph 34)
|BWC: Warn them, for, in truth, Thy warning will profit the believers.||Yet warn them, for, in truth, warning will profit the believers.|
|43||56||51||I have not created genii and men for any other end than that they should serve me.||Baháí Prayers (Second prayer under Marriage) by Abdul-Bahá
|O: I have not created spirits and men, but that they should worship me.||I have not created Djinn and men, but that they should worship me:|
|43||57||51||I require not any sustenance from them; neither will I that they feed me.||I require not sustenance from them, neither require I that they feed me:|
|43||58||51||Verily GOD is he who provideth for all creatures; possessed of mighty power.||Verily, God is the sole sustainer: possessed of might: the unshaken!|
|43||59||51||Unto those who shall injure our apostle shall be given a portion like unto the portion of those who behaved like them in times past; and they shall not wish the same to be hastened.||Therefore to those who injure thee shall be a fate like the fate of their fellows of old. Let them not challenge me to hasten it.|
|43||60||51||Woe, therefore, to the unbelievers, because of their day with which they are threatened!||Woe then to the infidels, because of their threatened day.|
|44||0||52||CHAPTER LII.||SURA LII.THE MOUNTAIN [XLIV.]|
|44||0||52||ENTITLED, THE MOUNTAIN; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.49 Verses|
|44||0||52||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|44||1||52||BY the mountain of Sinai;||BY the MOUNTAIN,|
|44||2||52||and by the book written||And by the Book written|
|44||3||52||in an expanded scroll;a||a The book here intended, according to different opinions, is either the book or register wherein every mans actions are recorded; or the preserved table containing GODS decrees; or the book of the law, which was written by GOD, Moses hearing the creaking of the pen; or else the Korân.2
2 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi.
|On an outspread roll,|
|44||4||52||and by the visited house;b||b i.e., The Caaba, so much visited by pilgrims; or, as some rather think, the original model of that house in heaven, called al Dorâh, which is visited and compassed by the angels, as the other is by men.3
3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
|Prayers and Meditations of Baháulláh, no. VII, within pp. 9-10
Baháí Prayers (Second prayer in The Fast section)
Selections from the Writings of the Báb (6 Excerpts from Various Writings, within pp. 154-155),
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 145-148, Jináb-i-Munib, upon him be the Glory of the All-Glorious)
BWC: Frequented Fane
MG: much-frequented shrine
|And by the frequented fane,1||1 Of the Caaba.|
|44||5||52||and by the elevated roof of heaven;||And by the lofty vault,|
|44||6||52||and by the swelling ocean:||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XXIV, within pp. 50-51)
|And by the swollen sea,|
|44||7||52||verily the punishment of thy LORD will surely descend;||Verily, a chastisement from thy Lord is imminent,|
|44||8||52||there shall be none to withhold it.||And none shall put it back.|
|44||9||52||On that day the heaven shall be shaken, and shall reel;||Reeling on that day the Heaven shall reel,|
|44||10||52||and the mountains shall walk and pass away.||And stirring shall the mountains stir.2||2 Comp. Psalm lxviii. 9.|
|44||11||52||And on that day woe be unto those who accused God's apostles of imposture;||And woe, on that day, to those who called the apostles liars,|
|44||12||52||who amused themselves in wading in vain disputes!||Who plunged for pastime into vain disputes|
|44||13||52||On that day shall they be driven and thrust into the fire of hell;||On that day shall they be thrust with thrusting to the fire of Hell:|
|44||14||52||and it shall be said unto them, This is the fire which ye denied as a fiction.||"This is the fire which ye treated as a lie.|
|44||15||52||Is this a magic illusion? Or do ye not see?||What! is this magic, then? or, do ye not see it?|
|44||16||52||Enter the same to be scorched: whether ye bear your torments patiently, or impatiently, it will be equal unto you: ye shall surely receive the reward of that which ye have wrought.||Burn ye therein: bear it patiently or impatiently 'twill be the same to you: for ye shall assuredly receive the reward of your doings."|
|44||17||52||But the pious shall dwell amidst gardens and pleasures;||But mid gardens and delights shall they dwell who have feared God,|
|44||18||52||delighting themselves in what their LORD shall have given them: and their LORD shall deliver them from the pains of hell.||Rejoicing in what their Lord hath given them; and that from the pain of hell-fire hath their Lord preserved them.|
|44||19||52||And it shall be said unto them, Eat and drink with easy digestion; because of that which ye have wrought:||"Eat and drink with healthy enjoyment, in recompense for your deeds."|
|44||20||52||leaning on couches disposed in order: and we will espouse them unto virgins having large black eyes.||On couches ranged in rows shall they recline; and to the damsels with large dark eyes will we wed them.|
|44||21||52||And unto those who believe, and whose offspring follow them in the faith, we will join their offspring in paradise: and we will not diminish unto them aught of the merit of their works. (Every man is given in pledge for that which he shall have wrought.c)||c i.e., Every man is pledged unto GOD for his behaviour; and if he does well, he redeems his pledge, but if evil, he forfeits it.||And to those who have believed, whose offspring have followed them in the faith, will we again unite their offspring; nor of the meed of their works will we in the least defraud them. Pledged to God is every man for his actions and their desert.3||3 The more prosaic style of this verse indicates a later origin than the context. Muir places the whole Sura in what he terms the fourth stage of Meccan Suras.|
|44||22||52||And we will give them fruits in abundance, and flesh of the kinds which they shall desire.||And fruits in abundance will we give them, and flesh as they shall desire:|
|44||23||52||They shall present unto one another therein a cup of wine, wherein there shall be no vain discourse, nor any incitement unto wickedness.||Therein shall they pass to one another the cup which shall engender no light discourse, no motive to sin:|
|44||24||52||And youths appointed to attend them shall go round them: beautiful as pearls hidden in their shell.||And youths shall go round among them beautiful as imbedded pearls:|
|44||25||52||And they shall approach unto one another, and shall ask mutual questions.||And shall accost one another and ask mutual questions.|
|44||26||52||And they shall say, Verily we were heretofore amidst our family, in great dread with regard to our state after death:||"A time indeed there was," will they say, "when we were full of care as to the future lot of our families;|
|44||27||52||but GOD hath been gracious unto us, and hath delivered us from the pain of burning fire:||But kind hath God been to us, and from the pestilential torment hath he preserved us;|
|44||28||52||for we called on him heretofore; and he is the beneficent, the merciful.||For, heretofore we called upon Himand He is the Beneficent, the Merciful."|
|44||29||52||Wherefore do thou, O prophet, admonish thy people. Thou art not, by the grace of thy LORD, a soothsayer, or a madman.||Warn thou, then. For thou by the favour of thy Lord art neither soothsayer nor possessed.|
|44||30||52||Do they say, He is a poet; we wait, concerning him, some adverse turn of fortune?||Will they say, "A poet! let us await some adverse turn of his fortune?"|
|44||31||52||Say, Wait ye my ruin: verily I wait, with you, the time of your destruction.||SAY, wait ye, and in sooth I too will wait with you.|
|44||32||52||Do their mature understandings bid them say this; or are they people who perversely transgress?||Is it their dreams which inspire them with this? or is it that they are a perverse people?|
|44||33||52||Do they say, He hath forged the Koran? Verily they believe not.||Will they say, "He hath forged it (the Koran) himself?" Nay, rather it is that they believed not.|
|44||34||52||Let them produce a discourse like unto it, if they speak truth.||Let them then produce a discourse like it, if they speak the Truth.|
|44||35||52||Were they created by nothing; or were they creators of themselves?||Were they created by nothing? or were they the creators of themselves?|
|44||36||52||Did they create the heavens and the earth? Verily they are not firmly persuaded that God hath created them.d||d For though they confess this with their tongues, yet they deny it by their averseness to render him his due worship.||Created they the Heavens and Earth? Nay, rather, they have no faith.|
|44||37||52||Are the stores of thy LORD in their hands? Are they the supreme dispensers of all things?||Hold they thy Lord's treasures? Bear they the rule supreme?|
|44||38||52||Have they a ladder whereby they may ascend to heaven, and hear the discourses of angels? Let one, therefore, who hath heard them, produce an evident proof thereof.||Have they a ladder for hearing the angels? Let any one who hath heard them bring a clear proof of it.|
|44||39||52||Hath God daughters, and have ye sons?e||e See chapter 16, p. 199, &c.||Hath God daughters and ye sons?|
|44||40||52||Dost thou ask them a reward for thy preaching? but they are laden with debts.||Asketh thou pay of them? they are themselves weighed down with debts.|
|44||41||52||Are the secrets of futurity with them; and do they transcribe the same from the table of God's degrees?||Have they such a knowledge of the secret things that they can write them down?|
|44||42||52||Do they seek to lay a plot against thee? But the unbelievers are they who shall be circumvented.f||f See chapter 8, p. 128, &c.||Desire they to lay snares for thee? But the snared ones shall be they who do not believe.|
|44||43||52||Have they any god, besides GOD? Far be GOD exalted above the idols which they associate with him!||Have they any God beside God? Glory be to God above what they join with Him.|
|44||44||52||If they should see a fragment of the heaven falling down upon them, they would say, It is only a thick cloud.g||g This was one of the judgments which the idolatrous Meccans defied Mohammed to bring down upon them; and yet, says the text, if they should see a part of the heaven falling on them, they would not believe it till they were crushed to death by it.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|And should they see a fragment of the heaven falling down, they would say, "It is only a dense cloud."|
|44||45||52||Wherefore leave them, until they arrive at their day wherein they shall swoon for fear:h||h i.e., At the first sound of the trumpet.2
2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 64.
|Leave them then until they come face to face with the day when they shall swoon away:|
|44||46||52||a day, in which their subtle contrivances shall not avail them at all, neither shall they be protected.||A day in which their snares shall not at all avail them, neither shall they be helped.|
|44||47||52||And those who act unjustly shall surely suffer another punishment besides this:i but the greater part of them do not understand.||i That is, besides the punishment to which they shall be doomed at the day of judgment, they shall be previously chastised by calamities in this life, as the slaughter at Bedr, and the seven years famine, and also after their death, by the examination of the sepulchre.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And verily, beside this is there a punishment for the evildoers: but most of them know it not.|
|44||48||52||And wait thou patiently the judgment of thy LORD concerning them; for thou art in our eye: and celebrate the praise of thy LORD, when thou risest up;||Wait thou patiently the judgment of thy Lord, for thou art in our eye; and celebrate the praise of thy Lord when thou risest up,|
|44||49||52||and praise him in the night-season, and when the stars begin to disappear.||And in the night-season: Praise him when the stars are setting.|
|46||0||53||CHAPTER LIII.||SURA1LIII. THE STAR [XLVI.]||1 This Sura was revealed at about the time of the first emigration of Muhammad's followers to Abyssinia, A. 5. The manner in which the Prophet cancelled the objectionable verses 19, 20, is the strongest proof of his sincerity (as also is the opening of Sura 1xxx.) at this period. Had he not done so, nothing would have been easier for him than to have effected a reconciliation with the powerful party in Mecca, who had recently compelled his followers to emigrate.|
|46||0||53||ENTITLED, THE STAR; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.62 Verses|
|46||0||53||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|46||1||53||BY the star,k when it setteth;l||k Some suppose the stars in general, and others the Pleiades in particular, to be meant in this place.
l Or, according to a contrary signification of the verb here used, when it riseth.
|By the STAR when it setteth,|
|46||2||53||your companion Mohammed erreth not; nor is he led astray:||Your compatriot erreth not, nor is he led astray,|
|46||3||53||neither doth he speak of his own will.||Neither speaketh he from mere impulse.|
|46||4||53||It is no other than a revelation, which hath been revealed unto him.||The Koran is no other than a revelation revealed to him:|
|46||5||53||One mighty in power, endued with understanding, taught it him:m||m Namely, the angel Gabriel.||One terrible in power2 taught it him,||2 The Angel Gabriel, to the meaning of whose name, as the strong one of God, these words probably allude.|
|46||6||53||and he appearedn||n In his natural form, in which GOD created him, and in the eastern part of the sky. It is said that this angel appeared in his proper shape to none of the prophets, except Mohammed, and to him only twice: once when he received the first revelation of the Korân, and a second time when he took his night journey to heaven; as it follows in the text.||Endued with wisdom. With even balance stood he|
|46||7||53||in the highest part of the horizon.||In the highest part of the horizon:|
|46||8||53||Afterwards he approached the prophet,o and near unto him;||o In a human shape.||53:8-18
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|Then came he nearer and approached,|
|46||9||53||until he was at the distance of two bows' lengthp from him, or yet nearer;||p Or, as the word also signifies, two cubits length.||53:8-18 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|And was at the distance of two bows, or even closer,|
|46||10||53||and he revealed unto his servant that which he revealed.||53:8-18 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|And he revealed to his servant what he revealed.|
|46||11||53||The heart of Mohammed did not falsely represent that which he saw.||53:8-18 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|His heart falsified not what he saw.|
|46||12||53||Will ye therefore dispute with him concerning that which he saw?q||q But he saw it in reality.||53:8-18 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|What! will ye then dispute with him as to what he saw?|
|46||13||53||He also saw him another time,||53:8-18 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|He had seen him also another time,|
|46||14||53||by the lote-tree beyond which there is no passing:r||r This tree, say the commentators, stands in the seventh heaven, on the right hand of the throne of GOD; and is the utmost bounds beyond which the angels themselves must not pass; or, as some rather imagine, beyond which no creatures knowledge can extend.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 173-180, The Consort of the King of Martyrs)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|MG: Sidrah Tree/Lote-Tree/Sadratu'l-Muntahá||Near the Sidrah-tree, which marks the boundary.3||3 That is, Beyond which neither men nor angels can pass (Djelal). The original word is also rendered, the Lote-Tree of the extremity, or of the loftiest spot in Paradise, in the seventh Heaven, on the right hand of the throne of God. Its leaves are fabled to be as numerous as the members of the whole human family, and each leaf to bear the name of an individual. This tree is shaken on the night of the 15th of Ramadan every year a little after sunset, when the leaves on which are inscribed the names of those who are to die in the ensuing year fall, either wholly withered, or with more or less green remaining, according to the months or weeks the person has yet to live.|
|46||15||53||near it is the garden of eternal abode.||53:8-18 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|Near which is the garden of repose.|
|46||16||53||When the lote-tree covered that which it covered,s||s The words seem to signify that what was under this tree exceeded all description and number. Some suppose the whole host of angels worshipping beneath it1 are intended, and others, the birds which sit on its branches.2
1 Al Beidâwi.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|MG: Sidrah Tree/Lote-Tree/Sadratu'l-Muntahá||When the Sidrah-tree4 was covered with what covered it,5||4 The Sidrah is a prickly plum, which is called Ber in India, the zizyphus Jujuba of Linnæus. A decoction of the leaves is used in India to wash the dead, on account of the sacredness of the tree.
5 Hosts of adoring angels, by which the tree was masked.
|46||17||53||his eyesight turned not aside, neither did it wander:||53:8-18 (cont.)
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|His eye turned not aside, nor did it wander:|
|46||18||53||and he really beheld some of the greatest signs of his LORD.t||t Seeing the wonders both of the sensible and the intellectual world.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Lawh-i-Burhán, within pp. 203-216)
|For he saw the greatest of the signs of his Lord.|
|46||19||53||What think ye of Allat, and Al Uzza,||Do you see Al-Lat and Al-Ozza,6||6 Al-Lat or El-Lat, probably the Alilat of Herodotus (iii. 8) was an idol at Nakhlah, a place east of the present site of Mecca. Al-Ozza was an idol of the Kinanah tribe; but its hereditary priests were the Banu Solaym, who were stationed along the mercantile road to Syria in the neighbourhood of Chaibar.|
|46||20||53||and Manah, that other third goddess?u||u Those were three idols of the ancient Arabs, of which we have spoken in the Preliminary Discourse.4
As to the blasphemy which some pretend Mohammed once uttered, through inadvertence, as he was reading this passage, see chapter 22, p. 255.
4 Sect. I. p. 14, &c.
|And Manat the third idol besides?7||7 When at the first recital of this Sura, the prophet had reached this verse, he continued,
These are the exalted females, [or, sublime swans, i.e., mounting nearer and nearer to God]
And truly their intercession may be expected.
These words, however, which were received by the idolaters with great exultation, were disowned by Muhammad in the course of a few days as a Satanic suggestion, and replaced by the text as it now stands. The probability is that the difficulties of his position led him to attempt a compromise of which he speedily repented. In the Suras subsequent to this period the denunciations of idolatry become much sterner and clearer. The authorities are given by Weil, Sprenger and Muir. See Sura [lxvii.] xvii. 74-76.
|46||21||53||Have ye male children, and God female?x||x See chapter 16, p. 199, &c.||What? shall ye have male progeny and God female?|
|46||22||53||This, therefore, is an unjust partition.||This were indeed an unfair partition!|
|46||23||53||They are no other than empty names, which ye and your fathers have named goddesses. GOD hath not revealed concerning them anything to authorize their worship. They follow no other than a vain opinion, and what their souls desire: yet hath the true direction come unto them from their LORD.||These are mere names: ye and your fathers named them thus: God hath not sent down any warranty in their regard. A mere conceit and their own impulses do they follow. Yet hath "the guidance" from their Lord come to them.|
|46||24||53||Shall man have whatever he wisheth for?y||y i.e., Shall he dictate to GOD, and name whom he pleases for his intercessors, or for his prophet; or shall he choose a religion according to his own fancy, and prescribe the terms on which he may claim the reward of this life and the next?5
5 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|Shall man have whatever he wisheth?|
|46||25||53||The life to come and the present life are GOD'S:||The future and the present are in the hand of God:|
|46||26||53||and how many angels soever there be in the heavens, their intercession shall be of no avail,||And many as are the Angels in the Heavens, their intercession shall be of no avail8||8 Verses 26-33 are probably later than the previous part of the Sura, but inserted with reference to it. Some (as Omar b. Muhammad and 1tq.) consider verse 33, or (as Itq.36) verses 34-42, or (as Omar b. Muhammad) the whole Sura, to have originated at Medina.|
|46||27||53||until after GOD shall have granted permission unto whom he shall please and shall accept.||Until God hath permitted it to whom he shall please and will accept.|
|46||28||53||Verily they who believe not in the life to come give unto the angels a female appellation.||Verily, it is they who believe not in the life to come, who name the angels with names of females:|
|46||29||53||But they have no knowledge herein: they follow no other than a bare opinion; and a bare opinion attaineth not anything of truth.||But herein they have no knowledge: they follow a mere conceit; and mere conceit can never take the place of truth.|
|46||30||53||Wherefore withdraw from him who turneth away from our admonition, and seeketh only the present life.||Withdraw then from him who turneth his back on our warning and desireth only this present life.|
|46||31||53||This is their highest pitch of knowledge. Verily thy LORD well knoweth him who erreth from his way; and he well knoweth him who is rightly directed.||This is the sum of their knowledge. Truly thy Lord best knoweth him who erreth from his way, and He best knoweth him who hath received guidance.|
|46||32||53||Unto GOD belongeth whatever is in heaven and earth: that he may reward those who do evil, according to that which they shall have wrought; and may reward those who do well, with the most excellent reward.||And whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth is God's that he may reward those who do evil according to their deeds: and those who do good will He reward with good things.|
|46||33||53||As to those who avoid great crimes, and heinous sins, and are guilty only of lighter faults; verily thy LORD will be extensive in mercy towards them. He well knew you when he produced you out of the earth, and when ye were embryos in your mothers' wombs: wherefore justify not yourselves: he best knoweth the man who feareth him.||To those who avoid great crimes and scandals but commit only lighter faults, verily, thy Lord will be diffuse of mercy. He well knew you when he produced you out of the earth, and when ye were embryos in your mother's womb. Assert not then your own purity. He best knoweth who feareth him.|
|46||34||53||What thinkest thou of him who turneth aside from following the truth,||Hast thou considered him who turned his back?|
|46||35||53||and giveth little, and covetously stoppeth his hand?z||z This passage, it is said, was revealed on account of al Walid Ebn al Mogheira, who, following the prophet one day, was reviled by an idolater for leaving the religion of the Koreish, and giving occasion of scandal; to which he answered, that what he did was out of apprehension of the divine vengeance: whereupon the man offered, for a certain sum, to take the guilt of his apostacy on himself; and the bargain being made, al Walid returned to his idolatry, and paid the man part of what had been agreed on; but afterwards, on farther consideration, he thought it too much, and kept back the remainder.6
6 Al Beidâwi.
|Who giveth little and is covetous?|
|46||36||53||Is the knowledge of futurity with him, so that he seeth the same?a||a That is, is he assured that the person with whom he made the above-mentioned agreement will be allowed to suffer in his stead hereafter?7
|Is it that he hath the knowledge and vision of the secret things?|
|46||37||53||Hath he not been informed of that which is contained in the books of Moses,||Hath he not been told of what is in the pages of Moses?|
|46||38||53||and of Abraham who faithfully performed his engagements?||And of Abraham faithful to his pledge?|
|46||39||53||To wit: that a burdened soul shall not bear the burden of another;||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 237)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 72
|BWC: None shall bear the burden of another.
EGB: None shall bear the burden of another.
|That no burdened soul shall bear the burdens of another,|
|46||40||53||and that nothing shall be imputed to a man for righteousness, except his own labor;||And that nothing shall be reckoned to a man but that for which he hath made efforts:|
|46||41||53||and that his labor shall surely be made manifest hereafter,||And that his efforts shall at last be seen in their true light:|
|46||42||53||and that he shall be rewarded for the same with a most abundant reward;||That then he shall be recompensed with a most exact recompense,|
|46||43||53||and that unto thy LORD will be the end of all things;||And that unto thy Lord is the term of all things,|
|46||44||53||and that he causeth to laugh, and causeth to weep;||And that it is He who causeth to laugh and to weep,|
|46||45||53||and that he putteth to death, and giveth life:||And that He causeth to die and maketh alive,|
|46||46||53||and that he createth the two sexes, the male and the female,||And that He hath created the sexes, male and female,|
|46||47||53||of seed when it is emitted;||From the diffused germs of life,9||9 Ex spermate cum seminatum fuerit.|
|46||48||53||and that unto him appertaineth another production, namely, the raising of the dead again to life hereafter;||And that with Him is the second creation,|
|46||49||53||and that he enricheth, and causeth to acquire possessions;||And that He enricheth and causeth to possess,|
|46||50||53||and that he is the LORD of the dog-star;b||b Sirius, or the greater dog-star, was worshipped by some of the old Arabs.1
1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 13, and Hyde, not. in Ulug. Beig. Tab. Stell. fix. p. 53.
|And that He is the Lord of Sirius,10||10 The Dog-star, worshipped by the Arabians.|
|46||51||53||and that he destroyed the ancient tribe of Ad,||And that it was He who destroyed the ancient Adites,|
|46||52||53||and Thamud, and left not any of them alive;||And the people of Themoud and left not one survivor,|
|46||53||53||and also the people of Noah, before them; for they were most unjust and wicked:||And before them the people of Noah who were most wicked and most perverse.|
|46||54||53||and he overthrew the cities which were turned upside down;c||c viz., Sodom, and the other cities involved in her ruin. See chapter 11, p. 166.||And it was He who destroyed the cities that were overthrown.|
|46||55||53||and that which covered them, covered them.||So that that which covered them covered them.|
|46||56||53||Which, therefore, of thy LORD'S benefits, O man, wilt thou call in question?||Which then of thy Lord's benefits wilt thou make a matter of doubt?11||11 Compare the refrain in Sura lv. p. 74.|
|46||57||53||This our apostle is a preacher like the preachers who preceded him.||He who warneth you is one of the warners of old.|
|46||58||53||The approaching day of judgment draweth near: there is none who can reveal the exact time of the same, besides GOD.||The day that must draw nigh, draweth nigh already: and yet none but God can reveal its time.|
|46||59||53||Do ye, therefore, wonder at this new revelation,||Is it at these sayings that ye marvel?|
|46||60||53||and do ye laugh, and not weep,||And that ye laugh and weep not?|
|46||61||53||spending your time in idle diversions?||And that ye are triflers?|
|46||62||53||But rather worship GOD, and serve him.||Prostrate yourselves then to God and worship.|
|49||0||54||CHAPTER LIV.||SURA LIV.THE MOON [XLIX.]|
|49||0||54||ENTITLED, THE MOON; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.55 Verses|
|49||0||54||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|49||1||54||THE hour of judgment approacheth; and the moon hath been split in sunder:d||d This passage is expounded two different ways. Some imagine the words refer to a famous miracle supposed to have been performed by Mohammed; for it is said that, on the infidels demanding a sign of him, the moon appeared cloven in two,1 one part vanishing, and the other remaining; and Ebn Masúd affirmed that he saw Mount Harâ interpose between the two sections. Others think the preter tense is here used in the prophetic style for the future, and that the passage should be rendered, The moon shall be split in sunder: for this, they say, is to happen at the resurrection. The former opinion is supported by reading, according to some copies, wakad inshakka lkamaro, i.e., since the moon hath already been split in sunder; the splitting of the moon being reckoned by some to be one of the previous signs of the last day.2
1 See a long and fabulous account of this pretended miracle in Gagnier, Vie de Mah. c. 19
2 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi.
|The hour hath approached and the MOON hath been cleft:|
|49||2||54||but if the unbelievers see a sign, they turn aside, saying, This is a powerful charm.e||e Or, as the participle here used may also signify, a continued series of magic, or a transient magic illusion.||But whenever they see a miracle they turn aside and say, This is well-devised magic.|
|49||3||54||And they accuse thee, O Mohammed, of imposture, and follow their own lusts: but everything will be immutably fixed.f||f Or will reach a final period of ruin or success in this world, and of misery or happiness in the next, which will be conclusive and unchangeable thenceforward for ever.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And they have treated the prophets as impostors, and follow their own lusts; but everything is unalterably fixed.|
|49||4||54||And now hath a messageg come unto them, wherein is a determent from obstinate infidelity;||A message of prohibition had come to them|
|49||5||54||the same being consummate wisdom: but warners profit them not;||Consummate wisdombut warners profit them not.|
|49||6||54||wherefore do thou withdraw from them. The day whereon the summoner shall summon mankind to an ungrateful business,h||h That is, when the angel Israfil shall call men to judgment.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 267, p. 239
|The day when the Summoner shall summon to a stern business.||Quit them then. On the day when the summoner shall summon to a stern business,|
|49||7||54||they shall come forth from their graves with downcast looks: numerous as locusts scattered far abroad;||With downcast eyes shall they come forth from their graves, as if they were scattered locusts,|
|49||8||54||hastening with terror unto the summoner. The unbelievers shall say, This is a day of distress.||Hastening to the summoner. "This," shall the infidels say, "is the distressful day."|
|49||9||54||The people of Noah accused that prophet of imposture, before thy people rejected thee: they accused our servant of imposture, saying, He is a madman; and he was rejected with reproach.||Before them the people of Noah treated the truth as a lie. Our servant did they charge with falsehood, and said, "Demoniac!" and he was rejected.|
|49||10||54||He called, therefore, upon his LORD, saying, Verily I am overpowered; wherefore avenge me.i||i This petition was not preferred by Noah till after he had suffered repeated violence from his people; for it is related that one of them having fallen upon him and almost strangled him, when he came to himself he said, O LORD, forgive them, for they know not what they do.4
|Then cried he to his Lord, "Verily, they prevail against me; come thou therefore to my succour."|
|49||11||54||So we opened the gates of heaven, with water pouring down,||So we opened the gates of Heaven with water which fell in torrents,|
|49||12||54||and we caused the earth to break forth into springs; so that the water of heaven and earth met, according to the decree which had been established.||And we caused the earth to break forth with springs, and their waters met by settled decree.|
|49||13||54||And we bare him on a vessel composed of planks and nails;||And we bare him on a vessel made with planks and nails.|
|49||14||54||which moved forward under our eyes:k as a recompense unto him who had been ungratefully rejected.||k i.e., Under our special regard and keeping.||Under our eyes it floated on: a recompence to him who had been rejected with unbelief.|
|49||15||54||And we left the said vessel for a sign: but is any one warned thereby?||And we left it a sign: but, is there any one who receives the warning?|
|49||16||54||And how severe was my vengeance, and my threatening!||And how great was my vengeance and my menace!|
|49||17||54||Now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby?||Easy for warning have we made the Koranbut, is there any one who receives the warning?|
|49||18||54||Ad charged their prophet with imposture: but how severe was my vengeance, and my threatening!||The Adites called the truth a lie: but how great was my vengeance and my menace;|
|49||19||54||Verily we sent against them a roaringl wind, on a day of continued ill luck;m||l Or, a cold wind.
m viz., On a Wednesday. See chapter 41, p. 356, note t.
|For we sent against them a roaring wind in a day of continued distress:|
|49||20||54||it carried men away, as though they had been roots of palm-trees forcibly torn up.n||n It is related that they sought shelter in the clefts of rocks, and in pits, holding fast by one another; but that the wind impetuously tore them away, and threw them down dead.5
|It tore men away as though they were uprooted palm stumps.|
|49||21||54||And how severe was my vengeance and my threatening!||And how great was my vengeance and my menace!|
|49||22||54||Now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby?||Easy for warning have we made the Koranbut, is there any one who receives the warning?|
|49||23||54||Thamud charged the admonitions of their prophet with falsehood,||The tribe of Themoud treated the threatenings as lies:|
|49||24||54||and said, Shall we follow a single man among us? verily we should then be guilty of error, and preposterous madness:||And they said, "Shall we follow a single man from among ourselves? Then verily should we be in error and in folly.|
|49||25||54||is the office of admonition committed unto him preferably to the rest of us? Nay; he is a liar, and an insolent fellow.||To him alone among us is the office of warning entrusted? No! he is an impostor, an insolent person."|
|49||26||54||But God said to Saleh, To-morrow shall they know who is the liar, and the insolent person:||To-morrow shall they learn who is the impostor, the insolent.|
|49||27||54||for we will surely send the she-camel for a trial of them:o and do thou observe them, and bear their insults with patience:||o See chapter 7, p. 112, &c.||"For we will send the she-camel to prove them: do thou mark them well, O Saleh, and be patient:|
|49||28||54||and prophesy unto them that the water shall be divided between them,p and each portion shall be sat down to alternately.||p That is, between the Thamudites and the camel. See chapter 26, p. 280, note f.||And foretell them that their waters shall1 be divided between themselves and her, and that every draught shall come by turns to them."||1 See Sura [lvi.] xxvi. 155; also Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 71.|
|49||29||54||And they called their companion:q and he took a sword,r and slew her.||q Namely, Kodâr Ebn Salef; who was not an Arab, but a stranger dwelling among the Thamudites. See chapter 7, p. 112, note k.
r Or, as the word also imports, He became resolute and daring.
|But they called to their comrade, and he took a knife and ham-strung her.|
|49||30||54||But how severe was my vengeance, and my threatening!||And how great was my vengeance and my menance!|
|49||31||54||For we sent against them one cry of the angel Gabriel; and they became like the dry sticks used by him who buildeth a fold for cattle.s||s The words may signify either the dry boughs with which, in the east, they make folds or enclosures, to fence their cattle from wind and cold; or the stubble and other stuff with which they litter them in those folds during the winter season.||We sent against them a single shout; and they became like the dry sticks of the fold-builders.|
|49||32||54||And now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby?||Easy have we made the Koran for warningbut, is there any one who receives the warning?|
|49||33||54||The people of Lot charged his preaching with falsehood:||The people of Lot treated his warning as a lie;|
|49||34||54||but we sent against them a wind driving a shower of stones, which destroyed them all except the family of Lot; whom we delivered early in the morning,||But we sent a stone-charged wind against them all, except the family of Lot, whom at daybreak we delivered,|
|49||35||54||through favor from us. Thus do we reward those who are thankful.||By our special gracefor thus we reward the thankful.|
|49||36||54||And Lot had warned them of our severity in chastising; but they doubted of that warning.||He, indeed, had warned them of our severity, but of that warning they doubted.|
|49||37||54||And they demanded his guests of him, that they might abuse them: but we put out their eyes,t||t So that their sockets became filled up even with the other parts of their faces. This, it is said, was done by one stroke of the wing of the angel Gabriel. See chapter 11, p. 166.||Even this guess did they demand: therefore we deprived them of sight,|
|49||38||54||saying, Taste my vengeance, and my threatening.||And said, "Taste ye my vengeance and my menace;"|
|49||39||54||And early in the morning a lasting punishmentu surprised them. Taste, therefore, my vengeance, and my threatening.||u Under which they shall continue till they receive their full punishment in hell.||And in the morning a relentless punishment overtook them.|
|49||40||54||Now have we made the Koran easy for admonition: but is any one admonished thereby?||Easy have we made the Koran for warning but, is there any one who receives the warning?|
|49||41||54||The warning of Moses also came unto the people of Pharaoh;||To the people of Pharaoh also came the threatenings:|
|49||42||54||but they charged every one of our signs with imposture: wherefore we chastised them with a mighty and irresistible chastisement.||All our miracles did they treat as impostures. Therefore seized we them as he only can seize, who is the Mighty, the Strong.|
|49||43||54||Are your unbelievers, O Meccans, better than these? Is immunity from punishment promised unto you in the scriptures?||Are your infidels, O Meccans, better men than these? Is there an exemption for you in the sacred Books?|
|49||44||54||Do they say, We are a body of men able to prevail against our enemies?||Will they say, "We are a host that lend one another aid?"|
|49||45||54||The multitude shall surely be put to flight, and shall turn their back.x||x This prophecy was fulfilled by the overthrow of the Koreish at Bedr. It is related, from a tradition of Omar, that when this passage was revealed, Mohammed professed himself to be ignorant of its true meaning; but on the day of the battle of Bedr, he repeated these words as he was putting on his coat of mail.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|The host shall be routed, and they shall turn them back.|
|49||46||54||But the hour of judgment is their threatened time of punishment:y and that hour shall be more grievous and more bitter than their afflictions in this life.||y i.e., The time when they shall receive their full punishment; what they suffer in this world being only the forerunner or earnest of what they shall feel in the next.||But, that Hour is their threatened time, and that Hour shall be most severe and bitter.|
|49||47||54||Verily the wicked wander in error, and shall be tormented hereafter in burning flames.||Verily, the wicked are sunk in bewilderment and folly.|
|49||48||54||On that day they shall be dragged into the fire on their faces; and it shall be said unto them, Taste ye the touch of hell.||On that day they shall be dragged into the fire on their faces. "Taste ye the touch of Hell."|
|49||49||54||All things have we created bound by a fixed decree:||All things have we created after a fixed decree:|
|49||50||54||and our command is no more than a single word,z like the twinkling of an eye.||z viz., Kun, i.e., Be. The passage may also be rendered, The execution of our purpose is but a single act, exerted in a moment. Some suppose it refers to the business of the day of judgment.1
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 161, p. 153
|Our Cause is but one.||Our command was but one word, swift as the twinkling of an eye.|
|49||51||54||We have formerly destroyed nations like unto you; but is any of you warned by their example?||Of old, too, have we destroyed the like of youyet is any one warned?|
|49||52||54||Everything which they do is recorded in the books kept by the guardian angels:||And everything that they do is in the Books;2||2 Kept by the Guardian Angels.|
|49||53||54||and every action both small and great, is written down in the preserved table.||Each action, both small and great, is written down.|
|49||54||54||Moreover the pious shall dwell among gardens and rivers,||Verily, amid gardens3 and rivers shall the pious dwell.||3 The Talmudic descriptions of the Gardensfor the later Jews believed in more than one Paradiseand of the rivers and trees therein, will be found in Schr der Talm. Rabb. Judenthum, pp. 418-432.|
|49||55||54||in the assembly of truth, in the presence of a most potent king.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 9-13, Mullá Alí-Akbar)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 41-43, Pidar-Ján of Qazvín)
Memorials fo the Faithful (within pp. 72-73, Ustád Báqir and Ustád Ahmad)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 44
|MG: in the seat of truth, in the presence of the potent King.
MG: seat of truth, in the presence of the potent king.
MG: seat of truth
MG: the seat of truth, in the presence of the potent King,
|In the seat of truth, in the presence of the potent King.|
|48||0||55||CHAPTER LV.||SURA LV.THE MERCIFUL [XLVIII.]|
|48||0||55||ENTITLED, THE MERCIFUL; REVEALED AT MECCA.a||a Most of the commentators doubt whether this chapter was revealed at Mecca or at Medina; or partly at the one place, and partly at the other.||MECCA.78 Verses|
|48||0||55||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|48||1||55||THE Merciful hath taught his servant the Koran.||55:1-3
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 2
A Travelers Narrative, p. 47
|MG: The God of mercy hath taught the Qur'án,
EGB: Blessed is the Merciful One:
|The God of MERCY hath taught the Koran,|
|48||2||55||He created man:||Compilation on Women (V. Fostering the Development of Women, quotation 101, by Abdul-Bahá)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 2
A Travelers Narrative, p. 47
|cf. BWC: The All-Merciful hath taught the Qur'án.
MG: hath created man,
EGB: Who created man:
|Hath created man,|
|48||3||55||he hath taught him distinct speech.||55:1-3 (cont.)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 2
A Travelers Narrative, p. 47
|MG: hath taught him articulate speech.
EGB: and taught him utterance.
|Hath taught him articulate speech,|
|48||4||55||The sun and the moon run their courses according to a certain rule:||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 36, p. 37
|Verily, the sun and the moon are both condemned to the torment of infernal fire.||The Sun and the Moon have each their times,|
|48||5||55||and the vegetables which creep on the ground, and the trees submit to his disposition.||And the plants and the trees bend in adoration.|
|48||6||55||He also raised the heaven; and he appointed the balance,b||b Or justice and equity in mutual dealings.||And the Heaven, He hath reared it on high, and hath appointed the balance;|
|48||7||55||that ye should not transgress in respect to the balance:||That in the balance ye should not transgress.|
|48||8||55||wherefore observe a just weight; and diminish not the balance.||Weigh therefore with fairness, and scant not the balance.|
|48||9||55||And the earth hath he prepared for living creatures:||And the Earth, He hath prepared it for the living tribes:|
|48||10||55||therein are various fruits, and palm-trees bearing sheaths of flowers;||Therein are fruits, and the palms with sheathed clusters,|
|48||11||55||and grain having chaff, and leaves.||And the grain with its husk, and the fragrant plants.|
|48||12||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?c||c The words are directed to the two species of rational creatures, men and genii; the verb and the pronoun being in the dual number.
This verse is intercalated, or repeated by way of burden, throughout the whole chapter no less than thirty-one times, which was done, as Marracci guesses, in imitation of David.2
2 See Psalm cxxxvi.
|Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?||1 Men and djinn. The verb is in the dual.|
|48||13||55||He created man of dried clay like an earthen vessel:||He created man of clay like that of the potter.|
|48||14||55||but he created the genii of fire clear from smoke.||And He created the djinn of pure fire:|
|48||15||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties, etc.|
|48||16||55||He is the LORD of the east,||He is the Lord of the East,2||2 Lit. of the two easts, of the two wests, i.e., of all that lies between the extreme points at which the sun rises and sets at the winter and summer solstices.|
|48||17||55||and the LORD of the west.d||d The original words are both in the dual number, and signify the different points of the horizon at which the sun rises and sets at the summer and winter solstice. See chapter 37, p. 334, note e.||He is the Lord of the West:|
|48||18||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||19||55||He hath let loose the two seas,e that they meet each another:||e Of salt water and fresh;3 or the Persian and Mediterranean seas.4
3 See cap. 25, p. 274.
4 Al Beidâwi.
Baháí Prayers (Second prayer under Marriage) by Abdul-Bahá
|O: He hath let loose the two seas, that they meet each other:||55:19-22
Memorandum of the Reserarch Department, dated 6 August 1997
|He hath let loose the two seas3 which meet each other:||3 Lit. he hath set at large, poured forth over the earth the masses of fresh and salt water which are in contact at the mouths of rivers, etc. See Sura [lxviii.] xxvii. 62; [lxxxvi.] xxxv. 13.|
|48||20||55||between them is placed a bar which they cannot pass.||55:19-22 (cont.)
Baháí Prayers (Second prayer under Marriage) by Abdul-Bahá
|O: Between them is a barrier which they overpass not.||55:19-22 (cont.)
Memorandum of the Reserarch Department, dated 6 August 1997
|Yet between them is a barrier which they overpass not:|
|48||21||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||55:19-22 (cont.)
Baháí Prayers (Second prayer under Marriage) by Abdul-Bahá
|O: Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye deny?||55:19-22 (cont.)
Memorandum of the Reserarch Department, dated 6 August 1997
|Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||22||55||From them are taken forth unions and lesser pearls.||55:19-22 (cont.)
Baháí Prayers (Second prayer under Marriage) by Abdul-Bahá
|O: From each He bringeth up greater and lesser pearls.||55:19-22 (cont.)
Memorandum of the Reserarch Department, dated 6 August 1997
|From each he bringeth up pearls both great and small:|
|48||23||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||24||55||His also are the ships, carrying their sails aloft in the sea like mountains.||And His are the ships towering up at sea like mountains:|
|48||25||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||26||55||Every creature which liveth on the earth is subject to decay:||55:26-27
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 269)
The Seven Valleys (The Valley of True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness)
|BWC: All on earth shall pass away,
MG: All on the earth shall pass away,
|All on the earth shall pass away,|
|48||27||55||but the glorious and honourable countenance of thy LORD shall remain forever.||55:26-27 (cont.)
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 269)
55:26, 27 (cont.)
The Seven Valleys (The Valley of True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness)
|BWC: and there remaineth alone the face of My Lord, the All-Glorious, the Most-Bountiful.
MG: but the face of thy Lord....
|But the face of thy Lord shall abide resplendent with majesty and glory:|
|48||28||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||29||55||Unto him do all creatures which are in heaven and earth make petition: every day is he employed in some new work.f||f In executing those things which he hath decreed from eternity; by giving life and death, raising one and abasing another, hearing prayers and granting petitions, &c.5
5 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 74, p. 67
|Verily, His ways differ every day.||To Him maketh suit all that is in the Heaven and the Earth. Every day doth some new work employ Him:|
|48||30||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||31||55||We will surely attend to judge you, O men and genii, at the last day.||We will find leisure to judge you, O ye men and djinn:4||4 Lit. O ye two weights; hence, treasures; and, generally, any collective body of men or things.|
|48||32||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||33||55||O ye collective body of genii and men, if ye be able to pass out of the confines of heaven and earth,g pass forth: ye shall not pass forth but by absolute power.||g To fly from the power and to avoid the decree of GOD.||O company of djinn and men, if ye can overpass the bounds of the Heavens and the Earth, then overpass them. But by our leave only shall ye overpass them:|
|48||34||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||35||55||A flame of fire without smoke, and a smoke without flameh shall be sent down upon you; and ye shall not be able to defend yourselves therefrom.||A bright flash of fire shall be hurled at you both, and molten brass, and ye shall not defend yourselves from it:|
|48||36||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||37||55||And when the heaven shall be rent in sunder, and shall become red as a rose, and shall melt like ointment.i||i Or, shall appear like red leather; according to a different signification of the original word.||When the Heaven shall be cleft asunder, and become rose red, like stained leather:|
|48||38||55||(Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?)||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||39||55||On that day neither man nor genius shall be asked concerning his sin.k||k For their crimes will be known by their different marks; as it follows in the text. This, says al Beidâwi, is to be understood of the time when they shall be raised to life, and shall be led towards the tribunal: for when they come to trial, they will then undergo an examination, as is declared in several places of the Korân.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 186, p. 173
|'On that day shall neither man nor spirit be asked of his Sin?'||On that day shall neither man nor djinn be asked of his sin:|
|48||40||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||41||55||The wicked shall be known by their marks;l and they shall be taken by the forelocks, and the feet, and shall be cast into hell.||l See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 66, &c.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 186, p. 173
|'By their countenance shall the sinners be known, and they shall be seized by their forelocks and their feet.'||By their tokens shall the sinners be known, and they shall be seized by their forelocks and their feet:|
|48||42||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||43||55||This is hell, which the wicked deny as a falsehood:||"This is Hell which sinners treated as a lie."|
|48||44||55||they shall pass to and fro between the same and hot boiling water.m||m For the only respite they shall have from the flames of hell, will be when they are suffered to go to drink this scalding liquor. See chapter 37, p. 336.||To and fro shall they pass between it and the boiling water:|
|48||45||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||46||55||But for him who dreadeth the tribunal of his LORD are prepared two gardens:n||n i.e., One distinct paradise for men, and another for genii, or, as some imagine, two gardens for each person; one as a reward due to his works, and the other as a free and superabundant gift, &c.||But for those who dread the majesty of their Lord shall be two gardens:|
|48||47||55||(Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?)||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||48||55||planted with shady trees.||With o'erbranching trees in each:|
|48||49||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||50||55||In each of them shall be two fountains flowing.||In each two fountains flowing:|
|48||51||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||52||55||In each of them shall there be of every fruit two kinds.o||o Some being known, and like the fruits of the earth; and others of new and unknown species, or fruits both green and ripe.||In each two kinds of every fruit:|
|48||53||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||54||55||They shall repose on couches, the linings whereof shall be of thick silk interwoven with gold: and the fruit of the two gardens shall be near at hand together.p||p So that a man may reach them as he sits or lies down.||On couches with linings of brocade shall they recline, and the fruit of the two gardens shall be within easy reach:|
|48||55||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||56||55||Therein shall receive them beauteous damsels, refraining their eyes from beholding any besides their spouses: whom no man shall have deflowered before them, neither any genius:||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 78, p. 71
|whom no man nor spirit hath touched before.||Therein shall be the damsels with retiring glances, whom nor man nor djinn hath touched before them:|
|48||57||55||(Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?)||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||58||55||Having complexions like rubies and pearls.||Like jacynths and pearls:|
|48||59||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||60||55||Shall the reward of good works be any other good?||Shall the reward of good be aught but good?|
|48||61||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||62||55||And besides these there shall be two other gardens:q||q For the inferior classes of the inhabitants of paradise.||And beside these shall be two other gardens:5||5 One for men, the other for the Genii; or, two for each man and Genius; or, both are for the inferior classes of Muslims. Beidh.|
|48||63||55||(Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?)||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||64||55||Of a dark green.r||r From hence, says al Beidâwi, it may be inferred that these gardens will chiefly produce herbs or the inferior sorts of vegetables, whereas the former will be planted chiefly with fruit-trees. The following part of this description also falls short of that of the other gardens, prepared for the superior classes.||Of a dark green:|
|48||65||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||66||55||In each of them shall be two fountains pouring forth plenty of water.||With gushing fountains in each:|
|48||67||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||68||55||In each of them shall be fruits, and palm-trees, and pomegranates.||In each, fruits and the palm and the pomegranate:|
|48||69||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||70||55||Therein shall be agreeable and beauteous damsels:||In each, the fair, the beauteous ones:|
|48||71||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||72||55||Having fine black eyes, and kept in pavilions from public view:||With large dark eyeballs, kept close in their pavilions:|
|48||73||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||74||55||Whom no man shall have deflowered before their destined spouses, nor any genius.||Whom man hath never touched, nor any djinn:6||6 It should be remarked that these promises of the Houris of Paradise are almost exclusively to be found in Suras written at a time when Muhammad had only a single wife of 60 years of age, and that in all the ten years subsequent to the Hejira, women are only twice mentioned as part of the reward of the faithful. Suras ii. 23 and iv. 60. While in Suras xxxvi. 56; xliii. 70; xiii. 23; xl. 8 the proper wives of the faithful are spoken of as accompanying their husbands into the gardens of bliss.|
|48||75||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||76||55||Therein shall they delight themselves, lying on green cushions and beautiful carpets.||Their spouses on soft green cushions and on beautiful carpets shall recline:|
|48||77||55||Which, therefore, of your LORD'S benefits will ye ungratefully deny?||Which then of the bounties of your Lord will ye twain1 deny?|
|48||78||55||Blessed be the name of thy LORD, possessed of glory and honour!||Blessed be the name of thy Lord, full of majesty and glory.|
|45||0||56||CHAPTER LVI.||SURA LVI.THE INEVITABLE [XLV.]|
|45||0||56||ENTITLED, THE INEVITABLE; REVEALED AT MECCA.||56:all (especially 56:1, 3)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|45||0||56||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|45||1||56||WHEN the inevitables day of judgment shall suddenly come,||s The original word, the force whereof cannot well be expressed by a single one in English, signifies a calamitous accident, which falls surely and with sudden violence, and is therefore made use of here to design the day of judgment.||56:all (especially 56:1, 3)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|MG: When the Day that must come shall have come suddenly...||WHEN the day that must come shall have come suddenly,1||1 The renderings of Mar. cum inciderit casura, or as in Sur. lxix, 15, ingruerit ingruens nearly express the peculiar force of the Arabic verb and of the noun formed from it; i.e. a calamity that falls suddenly and surely. Weil renders, ween der Auferstehung's Tag eintritt (p. 389). Lane, when the calamity shall have happened.|
|45||2||56||no soul shall charge the prediction of its coming with falsehood:||None shall treat that sudden coming as a lie:|
|45||3||56||it will abase some, and exalt others.||56:all (especially 56:1, 3)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 191-204, Táhirih)
|MG: Day that shall abase! Day that shall exalt!...||Day that shall abase! Day that shall exalt!|
|45||4||56||When the earth shall be shaken with a violent shock;||When the earth shall be shaken with a shock,|
|45||5||56||and the mountains shall be dashed in pieces,||And the mountains shall be crumbled with a crumbling,|
|45||6||56||and shall become as dust scattered abroad;||And shall become scattered dust,|
|45||7||56||and ye shall be separated into three distinct classes:||And into three bands shall ye be divided:2||2 Comp. Tr. Rosch Haschanah, fol. 16, 6.|
|45||8||56||the companions of the right hand; (how happy shall the companions of the right hand be!)||Then the people of the right hand3Oh! how happy shall be the people of the right hand!||3 Lit., the companions of the right hand, what shall be the companions of the right hand! and thus in verses 9, 37, 40.|
|45||9||56||and the companions of the left handt (how miserable shall the companions of the left hand be!),||t That is, the blessed and the damned; who may be thus distinguished here, because the books wherein their actions are registered will be delivered into the right hands of the former and into the left hands of the latter,1 thought he words translated right hand and left hand do also signify happiness and misery.
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|And the people of the left handOh! how wretched shall be the people of the left hand!|
|45||10||56||and those who have preceded others in the faith shall precede them to paradise.u||u Either the first converts to Mohammedism, or the prophets, who were the respective leaders of their people, or any persons who have been eminent examples of piety and virtue, may be here intended. The original words literally rendered are, The leaders, the leaders: which repetition, as some suppose, was designed to express the dignity of these persons and the certainty of their future glory and happiness.2
|And they who were foremost on earththe foremost still.4||4 Lit., the preceders, the preceders.|
|45||11||56||These are they who shall approach near unto God:||These are they who shall be brought nigh to God,|
|45||12||56||they shall dwell in gardens of delight:||In gardens of delight;|
|45||13||56||(There shall be many of the former religions;||A crowd of the former|
|45||14||56||and few of the last.x)||x i.e., There shall be more leaders, who have preceded others in faith and good works, among the followers of the several prophets from Adam down to Mohammed, than of the followers of Mohammed himself.3
|And few of the latter generations;|
|45||15||56||Reposing on couches adorned with gold and precious stones;||On inwrought couches|
|45||16||56||sitting opposite to one another thereon.y||y See chapter 25, p. 193, note a.||Reclining on them face to face:|
|45||17||56||Youths which shall continue in their bloom forever, shall go round about to attend them,||Aye-blooming youths go round about to them|
|45||18||56||with goblets, and beakers, and a cup of flowing wine:||With goblets and ewers and a cup of flowing wine;|
|45||19||56||their heads shall not ache by drinking the same, neither shall their reason be disturbed:||Their brows ache not from it, nor fails the sense:|
|45||20||56||and with fruits of the sorts which they shall choose,||And with such fruits as shall please them best,|
|45||21||56||and the flesh of birds of the kind which they shall desire.||And with flesh of such birds, as they shall long for:|
|45||22||56||And there shall accompany them fair damsels having large black eyes; resembling pearls hidden in their shells:||And theirs shall be the Houris, with large dark eyes, like pearls hidden in their shells,|
|45||23||56||as a reward for that which they shall have wrought.||In recompense of their labours past.|
|45||24||56||They shall not hear therein any vain discourse, or any charge of sin;||No vain discourse shall they hear therein, nor charge of sin,|
|45||25||56||but only the salutation, Peace! Peace!||But only the cry, "Peace! Peace!"|
|45||26||56||And the companions of the right hand (how happy shall the companions of the right hand be!)||And the people of the right handoh! how happy shall be the people of the right hand!|
|45||27||56||shall have their abode among lote-trees free from thorns,||Amid thornless sidrahs5||5 See Sura liii. 14, p. 69.|
|45||28||56||and trees of mauzz loaded regularly with their produce from top to bottom;||z The original word Talh is the name, not only of the mauz,1 but also of a very tall and thorny tree, which bears abundance of flowers of an agreeable smell,2 and seems to be the Acacia.
1 See p. 338.
2 Vide J. Leon. Descript. Africæ, l. 2.
|And talh6 trees clad with fruit,||6 Probably the banana according to others, the acacia gummifera.|
|45||29||56||under an extended shade,||And in extended shade,|
|45||30||56||near a flowing water,a||a Which shall be conveyed in channels to such places and in such manner as every one shall desire.3 Al Beidâwi observes that the condition of the few who have preceded others in faith and good works, is represented by whatever may render a city life agreeable; and that the condition of the companions of the right hand, or the generality of the blessed, is represented by those things which make the principal pleasure of a country life; and that this is done to show the difference of the two conditions.
3 Al Beidâwi.
|And by flowing waters,|
|45||31||56||and amidst fruits in abundance,||And with abundant fruits,7||7 "A Muslim of some learning professed to me that he considered the descriptions of Paradise in the Koran to be, in a great measure, figurative; 'like those,' said he, 'in the book of the Revelation of St. John;' and he assured me that many learned Muslims were of the same opinion." Lane's Modern Egyptians, i. p. 75, note.
|45||32||56||which shall not fail, nor shall be forbidden to be gathered:||Unfailing, unforbidden,|
|45||33||56||and they shall repose themselves on lofty beds.b||b The word translated beds, signifies also, by way of metaphor, wives or concubines; and if the latter sense be preferred, the passage may be rendered thus, And they shall enjoy damsels raised on lofty couches, whom we have created, &c.||And on lofty couches.|
|45||34||56||Verily we have created the damsels of paradise by a peculiar creation;c||c Having created them purposely of finer materials than the females of this world, and subject to none of those inconveniences which are natural to the sex.4 Some understand this passage of the beatified women; who, though they died old and ugly, shall yet be restored to their youth and beauty in paradise.5
4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 75, &c.
5 See ibid. p. 80.
|Of a rare creation have we created the Houris,|
|45||35||56||and we have made them virgins,d||d For how often soever their husbands shall go in unto them, they shall always find them virgins.||And we have made them ever virgins,|
|45||36||56||beloved by their husbands, of equal age with them;||Dear to their spouses, of equal age with them,8||8 Like them, grow not old.|
|45||37||56||for the delight of the companions of the right hand.||For the people of the right hand,|
|45||38||56||There shall be many of the former religions,||A crowd of the former,|
|45||39||56||and many of the latter.e||e Father Marracci thinks this to be a manifest contradiction to what is said above, There shall be many of the former and few of the latter: but al Beidâwi obviates such an objection, by observing that the preceding passage speaks of the leaders only, and those who have preceded others in faith and good works; and the passage before us speaks of the righteous of inferior merit and degree; so that though there be many of both sorts, yet there may be few of one sort, comparatively speaking, in respect to the other.||And a crowd of the latter generations.9||9 This seems a direct contradiction to verse 14, unless we suppose with Beidhawi that an inferior and more numerous class of believers are here spoken of.|
|45||40||56||And the companions of the left hand (how miserable shall the companions of the left hand be!)||But the people of the left handoh! how wretched shall be the people of the left hand!|
|45||41||56||shall dwell amidst burning winds,f and scalding water,||f Which shall penetrate into the passages of their bodies.||Amid pestilential10 winds and in scalding water,||10 Or, scorching.|
|45||42||56||under the shade of a black smoke,||And in the shadow of a black smoke,|
|45||43||56||neither cool nor agreeable.||Not cool, and horrid to behold.11||11 Lit., not noble, agreeable in appearance.|
|45||44||56||For they enjoyed the pleasures of life before this, while on earth;||For they truly, ere this, were blessed with worldly goods,|
|45||45||56||and obstinately persisted in a heinous wickedness:||But persisted in heinous sin,|
|45||46||56||and they said,||And were wont to say,|
|45||47||56||After we shall have died, and become dust and bones, shall we surely be raised to life?||"What! after we have died, and become dust and bones, shall we be raised?|
|45||48||56||Shall our forefathers also be raised with us?||And our fathers, the men of yore?"|
|45||49||56||Say, Verily both the first and the last||SAY: Aye, the former and the latter:|
|45||50||56||shall surely be gathered together to judgment, at the prefixed time of a known day.||Gathered shall they all be for the time of a known day.|
|45||51||56||Then ye, O men, who have erred, and denied the resurrection as a falsehood,||Then ye, O ye the erring, the gainsaying,|
|45||52||56||shall surely eat of the fruit of the tree of al Zakkum,||Shall surely eat of the tree Ez-zakkoum,|
|45||53||56||and shall fill your bellies therewith:||And fill your bellies with it,|
|45||54||56||and ye shall drink thereon boiling water;||And thereupon shall ye drink boiling water,|
|45||55||56||and ye shall drink as a thirsty camel drinketh.||And ye shall drink as the thirsty camel drinketh.|
|45||56||56||This shall be their entertainment on the day of judgment.||This shall be their repast in the day of reckoning!|
|45||57||56||We have created you: will ye not therefore believe that we can raise you from the dead?||We created you, will ye not credit us?12||12 As to the resurrection.|
|45||58||56||What think ye? The seed which ye emit,||What think ye? The germs of life13||13 Lit., semen quod emittitis.|
|45||59||56||do ye create the same, or are we the creators thereof?||Is it ye who create them? or are we their creator?|
|45||60||56||We have decreed death unto you all:||It is we who have decreed that death should be among you;|
|45||61||56||and we shall not be prevented. We are able to substitute others like unto you in your stead, and to produce you again in the condition or form which ye know not.||Yet are we not thereby hindered14 from replacing you with others, your likes, or from producing you again in a form which ye know not!||14 Lit., forestalled, anticipated.|
|45||62||56||Ye know the original production by creation; will ye not therefore consider that we are able to produce you by resuscitation?||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 84-86, Hájí Mullá Mihdíy-i-Yazdí)
|Ye have known the first creation: will ye not then reflect?|
|45||63||56||What think ye? The grain which ye sow,||What think ye? That which ye sow|
|45||64||56||do ye cause the same to spring forth, or do we cause it to spring forth?||Is it ye who cause its upgrowth, or do we cause it to spring forth?|
|45||65||56||If we pleased, verily we could render the same dry and fruitless, so that ye would not cease to wonder,g saying,||g Or to repent of your time and labour bestowed to little purpose, &c.||If we pleased we could so make your harvest dry and brittle that ye would ever marvel and say,|
|45||66||56||Verily we have contracted debtsh for seed and labor, but we are not permittedi to reap the fruit thereof.||h Or, We are undone.
i Or, We are unfortunate wretches, who are denied the necessaries of life.
|"Truly we have been at cost,15 yet are we forbidden harvest."||15 Lit, have incurred debt.|
|45||67||56||What think ye? The water which ye drink,||What think ye of the water ye drink?|
|45||68||56||do ye send down the same from the clouds, or are we the senders thereof?||Is it ye who send it down from the clouds, or send we it down?|
|45||69||56||If we pleased, we could render the same brackish: will ye not therefore give thanks?||Brackish could we make it, if we pleased: will ye not then be thankful?|
|45||70||56||What think ye? The fire which ye strike,||What think ye? The fire which ye obtain by friction|
|45||71||56||do ye produce the tree whence ye obtain the same,k or are we the producers thereof?||k See chapter 36, p. 334, note b.||Is it ye who rear its tree, or do we rear it?|
|45||72||56||We have ordained the same for an admonition,l and an advantage to those who travel through the deserts.||l To put men in mind of the resurrection;1 which the production of fire in some sort resembles, or, of the fire of hell.2
1 See cap. 36, p. 334.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|It is we who have made it for a memorial and a benefit to the wayfarers of the desert,|
|45||73||56||Wherefore praise the name of thy LORD, the great God.||Praise therefore the name of thy Lord, the Great.|
|45||74||56||Moreover I swearm by the setting of the stars;||m The particle la is generally supposed to be intensive in this place; but if it be taken for a negative, the words must be translated, I will not or do not swear, because what is here asserted is too manifest to need the confirmation of an oath.3
|It needs not that I swear by the setting of the stars,|
|45||75||56||(and it is surely a great oath, if ye knew it;)||And it is a great oath, if ye knew it,|
|45||76||56||that this is the excellent Koran,||That this is the honourable Koran,|
|45||77||56||the original whereof is written in the preserved book:||Written in the preserved Book:16||16 That is, The Prototype of the Koran written down in the Book kept by God himself.|
|45||78||56||none shall touch the same, except those who are clean.n||n Or, Let none touch the same, &c. Purity both of body and mind being requisite in him who would use this book with the respect he ought, and hopes to edify by it: for which reason these words are usually written on the cover.4
4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 54.
|Let none touch it but the purified,17||17 This passage implies the existence of copies of portions at least of the Koran in common use. It was quoted by the sister of Omar when at his conversion be desired to take her copy of Sura xx. into his hands.|
|45||79||56||It is a revelation from the LORD of all creatures.||It is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds.|
|45||80||56||Will ye, therefore, despise this new revelation?||Such tidings as these will ye disdain?|
|45||81||56||And do ye make this return for your food which ye receive from God, that ye deny yourselves to be obliged to him for the same?o||o By ascribing the rains, which fertilize your lands, to the influence of the stars.5
Some copies instead of rizkacom, i.e., your food, read shocracom, i.e., your gratitude; and then the passage may be rendered thus, And do ye make this return of gratitude, for GODS revealing the Korân, that ye reject the same as a fiction?
5 See ibid. Sect. I. p. 25.
|Will ye make it your daily bread to gainsay them?|
|45||82||56||When the soul of a dying person cometh up to his throat,||Why, at the moment when the soul of a dying man shall come up into his throat,|
|45||83||56||and ye at the same time are looking on;||And when ye are gazing at him,|
|45||84||56||(and we are nigher unto him than ye, but ye see not his true condition;)||Though we are nearer to him than ye, although ye see us not:|
|45||85||56||would ye not, if ye are not to be rewarded for your action hereafter,||Why do ye not, if ye are to escape the judgment,|
|45||86||56||cause the same to return into the body, if ye speak the truth?p||p The meaning of this obscure passage is, if ye shall not be obliged to give an account of your actions at the last day, as by your denying the resurrection ye seem to believe, cause the soul of the dying person to return into his body; for ye may as easily do that as avoid the general judgment.6
6 Jallal., al Beidâwi.
|Cause that soul to return? Tell me, if ye speak the truth.|
|45||87||56||And whether he be of those who shall approach near unto God,q||q That is, of the leaders, or first professors of the faith.||But as to him who shall enjoy near access to God,|
|45||88||56||his reward shall be rest, and mercy, and a garden of delights:||His shall be repose, and pleasure, and a garden of delights.|
|45||89||56||or whether he be of the companions of the right hand,||Yea, for him who shall be of the people of the right hand,|
|45||90||56||he shall be saluted with the salutation, Peace be unto thee! by the companions of the right hand, his brethren:||Shall be the greeting from the people of the right hand"Peace be to thee."|
|45||91||56||or whether he be of those who have rejected the true faith,||But for him who shall be of those who treat the prophets as deceivers,|
|45||92||56||and gone astray,||And of the erring,|
|45||93||56||his entertainment shall consist of boiling water,||His entertainment shall be of scalding water,|
|45||94||56||and the burning of hell fire.||And the broiling of hell-fire.|
|45||95||56||Verily this is a certain truth.||Verily this is a certain truth:|
|45||96||56||Wherefore praise the name of thy LORD, the great God.||Praise therefore the name of thy Lord, the Great.|
|99||0||57||CHAPTER LVII.||SURA LVII.IRON [XCIX.]|
|99||0||57||ENTITLED, IRON;r REVEALED AT MECCA, OR AT MEDINA.s||r The word occurs toward the end of the chapter.
s It is uncertain which of the two places was the scene of revelation of this chapter.
|MEDINA.129 Verses||1 The general tone of this Sura shews it to have been revealed at Medina, and from verse 22 it may be inferred that its true date lies between the battle of Ohod and the battle of the Ditch.|
|99||0||57||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|99||1||57||WHATEVER is in heaven and earth singeth praise unto GOD; and he is mighty and wise.||ALL that is in the Heavens and in the Earth praiseth God, and He is the Mighty, the Wise!|
|99||2||57||His is the kingdom of heaven and earth; he giveth life, and he putteth to death; and he is almighty.||His the Kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth; He maketh alive and killeth; and He hath power over all things!|
|99||3||57||He is the first, and the last; the manifest and the hidden: and he knoweth all things.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 151, p. 143
The Seven Valleys (The Valley of Knowledge) (2 words)
The Seven Valleys (Valley of Unity, within pp. 17-29)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 35, paragraph 46
|the First and the Last, the Seen, and the Hidden.
MG: He is the first and the last, the Seen and the Hidden....
BWC: He is the First and the Last; the Seen and the Hidden; and He knoweth all things!
|He is the first and the last; the Seen and the Hidden;2 and He knoweth all things!||2 Lit. the exterior and the interior.|
|99||4||57||It is he who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then ascended his throne. He knoweth that which entereth into the earth, and that which issueth out of the same, and that which descendeth from heaven, and that which ascendeth thereto; and he is with you, wheresoever ye be: for GOD seeth that which ye do.||It is He who in six days created the Heavens and the Earth, then ascended His throne. He knoweth that which entereth the earth, and that which goeth forth from it, and what cometh down from Heaven, and what mounteth up to it; and wherever ye are, He is with you; and God beholdeth all your actions!|
|99||5||57||His is the kingdom of heavens and earth; and unto GOD shall all things return.||His the kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth; and to God shall all things return!|
|99||6||57||He causeth the night to succeed the day, and he causeth the day to succeed the night; and he knowest the innermost part of men's breasts.||He causeth the night to pass into the day, and He causeth the day to pass into the night: and He knoweth the very secrets of the bosom!|
|99||7||57||Believe in GOD and his apostle, and lay out in alms a part of the wealth whereof GOD hath made you inheritors: for unto such of you as believe, and bestow alms, shall be given a great reward.||Believe in God and his apostle, and bestow in alms of that whereof God hath made you heirs: for whoever among you believe and give almstheir's shall be a great recompense.|
|99||8||57||And what aileth you, that ye believe not in GOD, when the apostle inviteth you to believe in your LORD; and he hath received your covenantt concerning this matter, if ye believe any proposition?||t That is, ye are obliged to believe in him by the strongest arguments and motives.||What hath come to you that ye believe not in God, although the apostle exhorteth you to believe in your Lord, and He hath accepted your allianceif ye are true believers?|
|99||9||57||It is he who hath sent down unto his servant evident signs, that he may lead you out of darkness into light; for GOD is compassionate and merciful unto you.||He it is who hath sent down clear tokens upon His servant, that He may bring you out of darkness into light; and truly, Kind, Merciful to you is God.|
|99||10||57||And what aileth you, that ye contribute not of your substance for the defence of GOD'S true religion? Since unto GOD appertaineth the inheritance of heaven and earth. Those among you who shall have contributed and fought in defence of the faith, before the taking of Mecca, shall not be held equal with those who shall contribute and fight for the same afterwards.u These shall be superior in degree unto those who shall contribute and fight for the propagation of the faith, after the above-mentioned success; but unto all hath GOD promised a most excellent reward; and GOD well knoweth that which ye do.||u Because afterwards there was not so great necessity for either, the Mohammedan religion being firmly established by that great success.||And what hath come to you that ye expend not for the cause of God? since the heritage of the Heavens and of the Earth is God's only! Those among you who contributed before the victory, and fought, shall be differently treated from certain others among you! Such shall have a nobler grade than those who contributed and fought after it. But a goodly recompense hath God promised to all; and God is fully informed of your actions.|
|99||11||57||Who is he that will lend unto GOD an acceptable loan? for he will double the same unto him, and he shall receive moreover an honourable reward.||Who is he that will lend a generous loan to God? So will He double it to him, and he shall have a noble reward.|
|99||12||57||On a certain day, thou shalt see the true believers of both sexes: their light shall run before them, and on their right hands;x and it shall be said unto them, Good tidings unto you this day: gardens through which rivers flow; ye shall remain therein forever. This will be great felicity.||x One light leading them the right way to paradise, and the other proceeding from the book wherein their actions are recorded, which they will hold in their right hand.||One day thou shalt see the believers, men and women, with their light running before them, and on their right hand.3 The angels shall say to them, "Good tidings for you this day of gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flow, in which ye shall abide for ever!" This the great bliss!||3 To guide them on their route to paradise.|
|99||13||57||On that day the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women shall say unto those who believe, Stay for us,y what we may borrow some of your light. It shall be answered, Return back into the world, and seek light. And a high wall shall be set betwixt them, wherein shall be a gate, within which shall be mercy; and without it, over against the same, the torment of hell. The hypocrites shall call out unto the true believers, saying, Were we not with you? They shall answer, Yea; but ye seduced your own souls by your hypocrisy; and ye waited our ruin; and ye doubted concerning the faith; and your wishes deceived you, until the decree of GOD came, and ye died: and the deceiver deceived you concerning GOD.||y For the righteous will hasten to paradise swift as lightning.||On that day the hypocrites, both men and women, shall say to those who believe, "Tarry for us, that we may kindle our light at yours." It shall be said, "Return ye back, and seek light for yourselves." But between them shall be set a wall with a gateway, within which shall be the Mercy, and in front, without it, the Torment. They shall cry to them, "Were we not with you?" They shall say, "Yes! but ye led yourselves into temptation, and ye delayed, and ye doubted, and the good things ye craved deceived you, till the doom of God arrived:and the deceiver deceived you in regard to God."|
|99||14||57||This day, therefore, a ransom shall not be accepted of you, nor of those who have been unbelievers. Your abode shall be hell fire: this is what ye have deserved; and an unhappy journey shall it be thither!||On that day, therefore, no ransom shall be taken from you or from those who believe not:your abode the fire!This shall be your master!4 and wretched the journey thither!||4 Patronus. Mar. Beschutzer. Ullm. Or, what ye have deserved.|
|99||15||57||Is not the time yet come unto those who believe, that their hearts should humbly submit to the admonition of GOD, and to that truth which hath been revealed; and that they be not as those unto whom the scripture was given heretofore, and to whom the time of forbearance was prolonged, but their hearts were hardened, and many of them were wicked doers?||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 263)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 79
|BWC: Hath not the time come for those who believe to humble their hearts at the mention of God?
EGB: Is not the time yet come to those who believe for their hearts to become humble for the remembrance of God?
|Hath not the time come, for those who believe, to humble their hearts at the warning of God and at the truth which he hath sent down? and that they be not as those to whom the Scriptures were given heretofore, whose lifetime was prolonged, but whose hearts were hardened, and many of them were perverse?|
|99||16||57||Know that GOD quickeneth the earth, after it hath been dead. Now have we distinctly declared our signs unto you, that ye may understand.||Know that God quickeneth the earth after its death! Now have we made these signs clear to you, that ye may understand.|
|99||17||57||Verily as to the almsgivers, both men and women, and those who lend unto GOD an acceptable loan, he will double the same unto them; and they shall moreover receive an honourable reward.||Verily, they who give alms, both men and women, and they who lend a generous loan to God,doubled shall it be to themand they shall have a noble recompense.|
|99||18||57||And they who believe in GOD and his apostles, these are the men of veracity, and the witnesses in the presence of their LORD: they shall have their reward, and their light. But as to those who believe not, and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell.||And they who believed in God and his apostle are the men of truth, and the witnesses in the presence of their Lord;5 They shall have their recompense and their light: But as for the infidels, and those who give the lie to our signs, these shall be the inmates of Hell.||5 Against the infidels.|
|99||19||57||Know that this present life is only a toy and a vain amusement: and worldly pomp, and the affectation of glory among you, and the multiplying of riches and children, are as the plants nourished by the rain, the springing up whereof delighteth the husbandmen; afterwards they wither, so that thou seest the same turned yellow, and at length they become dry stubble. And in the life to come will be a severe punishment for those who covet worldly grandeur;||Know ye that this world's life is only a sport, and pastime, and show, and a cause of vainglory among you! And the multiplying of riches and children is like the plants which spring up after rainTheir growth rejoiceth the husband-man; then they wither away, and thou seest them all yellow; then they become stubble. And in the next life is a severe chastisement,|
|99||20||57||and pardon from GOD, and favor for those who renounce it: for this present life is no other than a deceitful provision.||Or else pardon from God and His satisfaction: and this world's life is but a cheating fruition.6||6 Supellex deceptionis. Mar.|
|99||21||57||Hasten with emulation to obtain pardon from your LORD, and paradise, the extent whereof equalleth the extent of heaven and earth, prepared for those who believe in GOD and his apostles. This is the bounty of GOD: he will give the same unto whom he pleaseth; and GOD is endued with great bounty.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (3 Exercepts from the Persian Bayán, V, 5, p. 85)
|Such is the bounty of God; to whom He will, He giveth it, and God is the Lord of grace abounding.||Vie in hasting after pardon from your Lord, and Paradisewhose outspread is as the outspread of the Heaven and of the Earth: Prepared is it for those who believe in God and His apostles: Such is the bounty of God: to whom He will He giveth it: and of immense bounty is God!|
|99||22||57||No accident happeneth in the earth, nor in your persons, but the same was entered in the book of our decrees, before we created it: verily this is easy with GOD:||No mischance chanceth either on earth or in your own persons, but ere we created them, it was in the Book;7for easy is this to God||7 Of our eternal decrees.|
|99||23||57||and this is written lest ye immoderately grieve for the good which escapeth you, or rejoice for that which happened unto you; for GOD loveth no proud or vain-glorious person,||Lest ye distress yourselves if good things escape you, and be over joyous for what falleth to your share. God loveth not the presumptuous, the boaster,|
|99||24||57||or those who are covetous, and command men covetousness. And whoso turneth aside from giving alms; verily GOD is self-sufficient, worthy to be praised.||Who are covetous themselves and incite others to covetousness. But whose turneth away from almsgivingAh! God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy.|
|99||25||57||We formerly sent our apostles with evident miracles and arguments; and we sent down with them the scriptures and the balance,z that men might observe justice: and we sent them down iron,a wherein is mighty strength for war,b and various advantages unto mankind: that GOD may know who assisteth him and his apostles in secret;c for GOD is strong and mighty.||z i.e., A rule of justice. Some think that a balance was actually brought down from heaven by the angel Gabriel to Noah, the use of which he was ordered to introduce among his people.
a That is, we taught them how to dig the same from mines. Al Zamakhshari adds, that Adam is said to have brought down with him from paradise five things made of iron, viz., an anvil, a pair of tongs, two hammers, a greater and a lesser, and a needle.
b Warlike instruments and weapons being generally made of iron.
c That is, sincerely and heartily.
|Memorials of the Faithful (pp. 180-191, Shamsu'd-Duhá)
|MG: Balance||We have sent our apostles with the clear tokens, and we have caused the Book and the balance8 to descend with them, that men might observe fairness. And we have sent down IRON. Dire evil9 resideth in it, as well as advantage, to mankind! God would know who will assist Him and his apostle in secret. Verily, God is Powerful, Strong.||8 Brought by Gabriel to Noah, who imparted its use to his posterity. So say the commentators. But the expression seems rather to be figurative. Comp. Sura lv. 6, p. 74.
9 Or, mighty warlike strength, but the antithesis requires the rendering given in the text. Comp. Gen. iv. 22, and Michna Tr. Aboth, 5, 9.
|99||26||57||We formerly sent Noah and Abraham, and we established in their posterity the gift of prophecy, and the scripture: and of them some were directed, but many of them were evil-doers.||And of old sent we Noah and Abraham, and on their seed conferred the gift of prophecy, and the Book; and some of them we guided aright; but many were evil doers.|
|99||27||57||Afterwards we caused our apostles to succeed in their footsteps; and we caused Jesus the son of Mary to succeed them, and we gave him the gospel: and we put in the hearts of those that followed him compassion and mercy: but as to the monastic state, they instituted the same (we did not prescribe it to them) only out of a desire to please GOD; yet they observed not the same as it ought truly to have been observed. And we gave unto such of them as believed their reward: but many of them were wicked doers.||Then we caused our apostles to follow in their footsteps; and we caused Jesus the son of Mary to follow them; and we gave him the Evangel,10 and we put into the hearts of those who followed him kindness and compassion: but as to the monastic life, they invented it themselves. The desire only of pleasing God did we prescribe to them, and this they observed not as it ought to have been observed: but to such of them as believed gave we their reward, though many of them were perverse.||10 We are not to understand by the word Evangel the actual volume of the New Testament, or any one of its component parts, but rather the revelation made to Jesus by God himself, which Muhammad may have imagined to have been committed to writing subsequently, in the same way as his own Koran.|
|99||28||57||O ye who believe in the former prophets,d fear GOD, and believe in his apostle Mohammed: he will give you two portions of his mercy,e and he will ordain a light wherein ye may walk, and he will forgive you; for GOD is ready to forgive, and merciful:||d These words are directed to the Jews and Christians, or rather to the latter only.
e One as a recompence for their believing in Mohammed, and the other as a recompense for their believing in the prophets who preceded him; for they will not lose the reward of their former religion, though it be now abrogated by the promulgation of Islâm.1
|O ye who believe! fear God and believe in his apostle: two portions of his mercy will He give you. He will bestow on you light to walk in, and He will forgive you: for God is Forgiving, Merciful;|
|99||29||57||that those who have received the scriptures may know that they have not power over any of the favours of GOD,f and that good is in the hand of GOD; he bestoweth the same on whom he pleaseth; for GOD is endued with great beneficence.||f i.e., That they cannot expect to receive any of the favours above mentioned, because they believe not in his apostle, and those favours are annexed to faith in him; or, that they have not power to dispose of GODS favours, particularly of the greatest of them, the gift of prophecy, so as to appropriate the same to whom they please.1
|That the people of the Book may know that they have no control over aught of the favours of God, and that these gifts of grace11 are in the hands of God, and that He vouchsafeth them to whom he will; for God is of immense bounty.||11 The word in the original is the same for favours, gifts of grace, bounty. The reference is to the gift of prophecy (Beidh.) mentioned verse 27.|
|106||0||58||ENTITLED, SHE WHO DISPUTED; REVEALED AT MEDINA.g||g Some are of opinion that the first ten verses of this chapter, ending with these words, and fear GOD, before whom ye shall be assembled, were revealed at Mecca, and the rest at Medina.2
|SURA LVIII.SHE WHO PLEADED [CVI.]|
|106||0||58||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|106||1||58||(XXVIII.) NOW hath GOD heard the speech of her who disputed with thee concerning her husband, and made her complaint unto GOD;h and GOD hath heard your mutual discourse: for GOD both heareth and seeth.||h This was Khawla bint Thálaba, the wife of Aws Ebn al Sâmat, who, being divorced by her husband by a form in use among the Arabs in the time of ignorance, viz., by saying to her, Thou art to me as the back of my mother,3 came to ask Mohammeds opinion whether they were necessarily obliged to a separation; and he told her that it was not lawful for her to cohabit with her husband any more: to which she replying, that her husband had not put her away, the prophet repeated his former decision, adding that such form of speaking was by general consent understood to imply a perpetual separation. Upon this the woman, being greatly concerned because of the smallness of her children, went home, and uttered her complaint to GOD in prayer: and thereupon this passage was revealed,4 allowing a man to take his wife again, notwithstanding his having pronounced the above-mentioned form of divorce, on doing certain acts of charity or mortification, by way of penance.
3 See cap. 33, p. 312.
4 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin, &c.
|God hath heard the words of HER1 WHO PLEADED with thee against her husband, and made her plaint to God; and God hath heard your mutual intercourse: for God Heareth, Beholdeth.||1 Khaula, daughter of Thalaba, who had been divorced by the formula in verse 2, which was understood among the Arabs to imply perpetual separation. This Muhammad had asserted in her case; but in consequence of the woman's prayers, etc., a relaxation of the law, on fulfilment of the conditions mentioned in verses 4, 5, was hereby allowed. None of the earlier traditions fix any date for this Sura, though later authorities (Weil, 184) fix the end of Hej. 6, or the beginning of Hej. 7.The subject matter is in part similar to that of Sura xxiv.|
|106||2||58||As to those among you who divorce their wives, by declaring that they will thereafter regard them as their mothers; let them know that they are not their mothers. They only are their mothers who brought them forth;i and they certainly utter an unjustifiable saying and a falsehood:||i And therefore no woman ought to be placed in the same degree of prohibition, except those whom GOD has joined with them, as nursing mothers, and the wives of the prophet.5
5 Al Beidâwi See cap. 4, p. 56, and cap. 33, p. 319.
|As to those of you who put away their wives by saying, "Be thou to me as my mother's back" their mothers2 they are not; they only are their mothers who gave them birth! they certainly say a blameworthy thing and an untruth:||2 See Sura [ciii.] xxxiii. 4.|
|106||3||58||but GOD is gracious and ready to forgive.||But truly, God is Forgiving, Indulgent.|
|106||4||58||Those who divorce their wives by declaring that they will for the future regard them as their mothers, and afterwards would repairk what they have said, shall be obliged to free a captive,l before they touch one another. That is what ye are warned to perform: and GOD is well apprised of that which ye do.||k This seems to be here the true meaning of the original word, which properly signifies to return, and is variously expounded by the Mohammedan doctors.
l Which captive, according to the most received decision, ought to be a true believer, as is ordered for the expiation of manslaughter.6
6 See cap. 4, p. 64.
|And those who thus put away their wives, and afterwards would recall their words, must free a captive before they can come together again. To this are ye warned to conform: and God is aware of what ye do.|
|106||5||58||And whoso findeth not a captive to redeem, shall observe a fast of two consecutive months, before they touch one another. And whoso shall not be able to fast that time, shall feed threescore poor men. This is ordained you, that ye may believe in GOD and his apostle. These are the statutes of GOD: and for the unbelievers is prepared a grievous torment.||And he who findeth not a captive to set free, shall fast two months in succession before they two come together. And he who shall not be able to do so, shall feed sixty poor men. This, that he may believe in God and His Apostle. These are the statutes of God: and for the unbelievers is an afflictive chastisement!|
|106||6||58||Verily they who oppose GOD and his apostle shall be brought low, as the unbelievers who preceded them were brought low. And now have we sent down manifest signs: and an ignominious punishment awaiteth the unbelievers.||Truly they who oppose God and His Apostle shall be brought low, as those who were before them were brought low. And now have we sent down demonstrative signs: and, for the Infidels is a shameful chastisement.|
|106||7||58||On a certain day GOD shall raise them all to life, and shall declare unto them that which they have wrought. GOD hath taken an exact account thereof; but they have forgotten the same: and GOD is witness over all things.||On the day when God shall raise them all to life, and shall tell them of their doings. God hath taken count of them, though they have forgotten them! and God is witness over all things.|
|106||8||58||Dost thou not perceive that GOD knoweth whatever is in heaven and in earth? There is no private discourse among three persons, but he is the fourth of them; nor among five, but he is the sixth of them; neither among a smaller number than this, nor a larger, but he is with them, wheresoever they be: and he will declare unto them that which they have done, on the day of resurrection; for GOD knoweth all things.||Dost thou not see that God knoweth all that is in the Heavens and all that is in the Earth? Three persons speak not privately together, but He is their fourth; nor five, but He is their sixth; nor fewer nor more, but wherever they be He is with them. Then on the day of resurrection He will tell them of their deeds: for God knoweth all things.|
|106||9||58||Hast thou not observed those who have been forbidden to use clandestine discourse, but afterwards return to what they have been forbidden, and discourse privily among themselves of wickedness, and enmity, and disobedience towards the apostle?m And when they come unto thee, they salute thee with that form of salutation wherewith GOD doth not salute thee;n and they say among themselves, by way of derision, Would not GOD punish us for what we say, if this man were a prophet? Hell shall be their sufficient punishment: they shall go down into the same to be burned; and an unhappy journey shall it be!||m That is, the Jews and hypocritical Moslems, who caballed privately together against Mohammed, and made signs to one another when they saw the true believers; and this they continued to do, notwithstanding they were forbidden.
n It seems they used, instead of Al salâm aleica, i.e., Peace be upon thee, to say, Al sâm aleica, i.e., Mischief on thee, &c.1
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|Hast thou not marked those who have been forbidden secret talk, and return to what they have been forbidden, and talk privately together with wickedness, and hate, and disobedience towards the Apostle? And when they come to thee, they greet thee not as God greeteth thee:3 and they say among themselves, "Why doth not God punish us for what we say?" Hell shall be their meed:4 they shall be burned at its fire: and a wretched passage thither!||3 Instead of saying, Es-salam aleika, "Peace be on thee," the Infidels and Jews said, Es-sam aleika, "a plague, or poison on thee." See Geiger, p. 18.
4 Lit. sufficiency.
|106||10||58||O true believers, when ye discourse privily together, discourse not of wickedness, and enmity, and disobedience towards the apostle; but discourse of justice and piety: and fear GOD, before whom ye shall be assembled.||O Believers! when ye hold private converse together, let it not be with wickedness, and hate, and disobedience towards the Apostle; but let your private talk be with justice and the fear of God: aye, fear ye God unto whom ye shall be gathered!|
|106||11||58||Verily the clandestine discourse of the infidels proceedeth from Satan, that he may grieve the true believers: but there shall be none to hurt them in the least, unless by the permission of GOD; wherefore in GOD let the faithful trust.||Only of Satan is this clandestine talk, that he may bring the faithful to grief: but, unless by God's permission, not aught shall he harm them! in God then let the faithful trust.|
|106||12||58||O true believers, when it is said unto you, Make room in the assembly; make room:o GOD will grant you ample room in paradise. And when it is said unto you, Rise up; rise up: GOD will raise those of you who believe, and those to whom knowledge is given, to superior degrees of honour; and GOD is fully apprised of that which ye do.||o In this passage the Moslems are commanded to give place, in the public assemblies, to the prophet and the more honourable of his companions; and not to press and crowd upon him, as they used to do, out of a desire of being near him, and hearing his discourse.||O ye who believe! when it is said to you, "Make room in your assemblies," then make ye room. God will make room for you in Paradise! And when it is said to you, "Rise up," then rise ye up. God will uplift those of you who believe, and those to whom "the Knowledge" is given, to lofty grades! and God is cognisant of your actions.|
|106||13||58||O true believers, when ye go to speak with the apostle, give alms previously to your discoursing with him;p this will be better for you, and more pure. But if ye find not what to give, verily GOD will be gracious and merciful unto you.||p To show your sincerity, and to honour the apostle. It is doubted whether this be a counsel or a precept; but, however, it continued but a very little while in force, being agreed on all hands to be abrogated by the following passage, Do ye fear to give alms, &c.2
|O ye who believe! when ye go to confer in private with the Apostle, give alms before such conference. Better will this be for you, and more pure. But if ye have not the means, then truly God is Lenient, Merciful.|
|106||14||58||Do ye fear to give alms previously to your discoursing with the prophet, lest ye should impoverish yourselves? Therefore if ye do it not, and GOD is gracious unto you, by dispensing with the said precept for the future, be constant at prayer, and pay the legal alms; and obey GOD and his apostle in all other matters: for GOD well knoweth that which ye do.||Do ye hesitate to give alms previously to your private conference? Then if ye do it not (and God will excuse it in you), at least observe prayer, and pay the stated impost, and obey God and His Apostle: for God is cognisant of your actions.|
|106||15||58||Hast thou not observed those who have taken for their friends a people against whom GOD is incensed?q They are neither of you, nor of them:r and they swear to a lies knowingly.||q i.e., The Jews.
r Being hypocrites, and wavering between the two parties.
s i.e., They have solemnly professed Islâm, which they believe not in their hearts.
|Hast thou not remarked those who make friends of that people with whom God is angered? They are neither of your party nor of theirs; and they swear to a lie,5 knowing it to be such.||5 The Jews swear that they are Muslims.|
|106||16||58||GOD hath prepared for them a grievous punishment; for it is evil which they do.||God hath got ready for them a severe torment: for, evil is that they do.|
|106||17||58||They have taken their oaths for a cloak, and they have turned men aside from the way of GOD: wherefore a shameful punishment awaiteth them;||They make a cloak of their faith, and turn others aside from the way of God: wherefore a shameful torment awaiteth them.|
|106||18||58||neither their wealth nor their children shall avail them at all against GOD. These shall be the inhabitants of hell fire; they shall abide therein forever.||Not at all shall their wealth or their children avail them aught against God. Companions shall they be of the fire: they shall abide therein for ever.|
|106||19||58||On a certain day GOD shall raise them all: then will they swear unto him, as they swear now unto you, imagining that it will be of service to them. Are they not liars?||On the day when God shall raise them all, they will swear to Him as they now swear to you, deeming that it will avail them. Are they notyes theythe liars?|
|106||20||58||Satan hath prevailed against them, and hath caused them to forget the remembrance of GOD. These are the party of the devil; and shall not the party of the devil be doomed to perdition?||Satan hath gotten mastery over them, and made them forget the remembrance of God. These are Satan's party. What! shall not verily the party of Satan be for ever lost.|
|106||21||58||Verily they who oppose GOD and his apostle shall be placed among the most vile. GOD hath written, Verily I will prevail, and my apostles: for GOD is strong and mighty.||Verily, they who oppose God and His Apostle shall be among the most vile. God hath written this decree: "I will surely prevail, and my Apostles also." Truly God is Strong, Mighty.|
|106||22||58||Thou shalt not find people who believe in GOD and the last day to love him who opposeth GOD and his apostle; although they be their fathers, or their sons, or their brethren, or their nearest relations. In the hearts of these hath GOD written faith; and he hath strengthened them with his spirit: and he will lead them into gardens, beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever. GOD is well pleased in them; and they are well pleased in him. These are the party of GOD: and shall not the party of GOD prosper?||Thou shalt not find that any of those who believe in God, and in the last day, love him who opposeth God and His Apostle, even though they be their fathers, or their sons, or their brethren, or their nearest kin. On the hearts of these hath God graven the Faith, and with His own Spirit hath He strengthened them; and He will bring them into gardens, beneath whose shades the rivers flow, to remain therein eternally. God is well pleased in them, and they in Him. These are God's party! Shall not, of a truth, a party of God be for ever blessed?|
|102||0||59||CHAPTER LIX.||SURA LIX.THE EMIGRATION [CII.]|
|102||0||59||ENTITLED, THE EMIGRATION;t REVEALED AT MEDINA.||t The original word signifies the quitting or removing from ones native country or settlement, to dwell elsewhere, whether it be by choice or compulsion.||MEDINA.24 Verses|
|102||0||59||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|102||1||59||WHATEVER is in heaven and earth celebrateth the praise of GOD: and he is the mighty, the wise.||ALL that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth praiseth God! He, the Mighty, the Wise!|
|102||2||59||It was he who caused those who believed not, of the people who receive the scripture, to depart from their habitations at the first emigration.u Ye did not think that they would go forth: and they thought that their fortresses would protect them against GOD. But the chastisement of GOD came upon them, from whence they did not expect; and he cast terror into their hearts. They pulled down their houses with their own hands,x and the hands of the true believers. Wherefore take example from them, O ye who have eyes.||u The people here intended were the Jews of the tribe of al Nadîr, who dwelt in Medina, and when Mohammed fled thither from Mecca, promised him to stand neuter between him and his opponents, and made a treaty with him to that purpose. When he had gained the battle of Bedr, they confessed that he was the prophet described in the law: but upon his receiving that disgrace at Ohod, they changed their note; and Caab Ebn al Ashraf, with forty horse, went and made a league with Abu Sofiân, which they confirmed by oath. Upon this, Mohammed got Caab dispatched, and, in the fourth year of the Hejra, set forward against al Nadîr, and besieged them in their fortress, which stood about three miles from Medina, for six days, at the end of which they capitulated, and were allowed to depart, on condition that they should entirely quit that place: and accordingly some of them went into Syria, and others to Khaibar and Hira.1
This was the first emigration, mentioned in the passage before us. The other happened several years after, in the reign of Omar, when that Khalîf banished those who had settled at Khaibar, and obliged them to depart out of Arabia.2
Dr. Prideaux, speaking of Mohammeds obliging those of al Nadîr to quit their settlements, says that a party of his men pursued those who fled into Syria, and having overtaken them, put them all to the sword, excepting only one man that escaped. With such cruelty, continues he, did those barbarians first set up to fight for that imposture they had been deluded into.3 But a learned gentleman has already observed that this is all grounded on a mistake, which the doctor was led into by an imperfection in the printed edition of Elmacinus; where, after mentioning the expulsion of the Nadîrites, are inserted som e incoherent words relating to another action which happened the month before, and wherein seventy Moslems, instead of putting others to the sword, were surprised and put to the sword themselves, together with their leader al Mondar Ebn Omar, Caab Ebn Zeid alone escaping.4
1 Al Beidâwi, Jallal. &c. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. c. 35.
2 Idem interp.
3 Prid. Life of Mah. p. 82.
4 Vide Gagnier, not. in Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 72.
x Doing what damage they could, that the Moslems might make the less advantage of what they were obliged to leave behind them.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 256, p. 229
Some Answered Questions (Chapter 37, within pp. 146-151)
Some Answered Questions (Chapter 81, within pp. 282-290)
|Wherefore, take ye good heed ye who are men of insight!
LCB: Take heed ye who are endued with discernment.
LCB: Take heed ye who are endued with discernment.
|He it is who caused the unbelievers among the people of the Book to quit their homes and join those who had EMIGRATED previously.1 Ye did not think that they would quit them; and they on their part thought that their fortresses would protect them against God: But God came upon them whence they looked not for Him, and cast such fear into their hearts that by their own hands as well as by the hands of the victorious believers they demolished their houses! Profit by this example ye who are men of insight!||1 The Jews of Nadhir, three miles from Medina, had broken a treaty made with Muhammad, and in the month Rab of the fourth year of the Hejira were besieged by him and driven first to the Jews of Kainoka, who had emigrated previously, under compulsion, after the battle of Bedr, and subsequently out of Arabia. Weil, Life of M. p.137.n.|
|102||3||59||And if GOD had not doomed them to banishment, he had surely punished them in this world:y and in the world to come they shall suffer the torment of hell fire.||y By delivering them up to slaughter and captivity, as he did those of Koreidha.||And were it not that God had decreed their exile, surely in this world would he have chastised them: but in the world to come the chastisement of the fire awaiteth them.|
|102||4||59||This, because they opposed GOD and his apostle: and whoso opposeth GOD, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him.||This because they set them against God and his apostle; and whoso setteth him against God. . . . ! God truly is vehement in punishing.|
|102||5||59||What palm-trees ye cut down, or left standing on their roots, were so cut down or left by the will of GOD; and that he might disgrace the wicked doers.||Your cutting down some of their palm trees and sparing others was by God's permission, and to put the wicked to shame.|
|102||6||59||And as to the spoils of these people which GOD hath granted wholly to his apostle,z ye did not push forward any horses or camels against the same;a but GOD giveth unto his apostles dominion over whom he pleaseth: for GOD is almighty.||z It is remarkable that in this expedition the spoils were not divided according to the law given for that purpose in the Korân,5 but were granted to the apostle, and declared to be entirely in his disposition. And the reason was, because the place was taken without the assistance of horse, which became a rule for the future.6
5 Cap. 8, p. 130.
6 Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 91.
a For the settlement of those of al Nadîr being so near Medina, the Moslems went all on foot thither, except only the prophet himself.7
7 Al Beidâwi.
|After the spoils of these Jews which God hath assigned to his apostle, ye pressed not with horse or camel.2 But God giveth his apostles power over what he will. God is Almighty.||2 On which account these spoils were entirely assigned to Muhammad, and not divided in the usual manner. See Sura [xcv.] viii. 42. Weil, p. 138, 184.|
|102||7||59||The spoils of the inhabitants of the towns which GOD hath granted to his apostle are due unto GOD and to the apostle, and to him who is of kin to the apostle, and the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller; that they may not be forever divided in a circle among such of you as are rich. What the apostle shall give you, that accept; and what he shall forbid you, that abstain from: and fear GOD; for GOD is severe in chastising.||The spoil taken from the people of the towns and assigned by God to his apostle, belongeth to God, and to the apostle, and to his kindred, and to the orphan, and to the poor, and to the wayfarer, that none of it may circulate among such of you only as are rich: What the apostle hath given you, take: What he hath refused you, refuse: And fear ye God, for God is severe in punishing.|
|102||8||59||A part also belongeth to the poor Mohâjerîn,b who have been dispossessed of their houses and their substance, seeking favor from GOD, and his good-will, and assisting GOD and his apostle. These are the men of veracity.||b Wherefore Mohammed distributed those spoils among the Mohâjerîn, or those who had fled from Mecca, only, and gave no part thereof to the Ansârs, or those of Medina, except only to three of them, who were in necessitous circumstances.8
8 Idem. Vide Abulf. ubi sup. p. 72.
|To the poor refugees (Mohadjerin) also doth a part belong, who have been driven from their homes and their substance, and who seek favour from God and his goodwill, and aid God and his apostle. These are the men of genuine virtue.|
|102||9||59||And they who quietly possessed the town of Medina, and professed the faith without molestation, before them,c love him who hath fled unto them, and find in their breasts no want of that which is given the Mohâjerîn,d but prefer them before themselves, although there be indigence among them. And whoso is preserved from the covetousness of his own soul, those shall surely prosper.||c That is, the Ansârs; who enjoyed their houses and the free exercise of their religion before the Hejra, while the converts of Mecca were persecuted and harassed by the idolaters.
d i.e., And bear them no grudge or envy on that account.
|Tablets of Baháulláh Revelaed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (KALÍMÁT-I-FIRDAWSÍYYIH (Words of Paradise), within pp. 55-80)
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 96
The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 103
|BWC: They prefer them before themselves, though poverty be their own lot. And with such as are preserved from their own covetousness shall it be well.
MG: They prefer them before themselves, though poverty be their own lot.
MG: They prefer them before themselves, though poverty be their own lot.
|They of Medina who had been in possession of their abodes and embraced the faith before them, cherish those who take refuge with them; and they find not in their breasts any desire for what hath fallen to their share: they prefer them before themselves, though poverty be their own lot. And with such as are preserved from their own covetousness shall it be well.|
|102||10||59||And they who have come after theme say, O LORD, forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in the faith, and put not into our hearts ill-will against those who have believed: O LORD, verily thou art compassionate and merciful.||e The persons here meant seem to be those who fled from Mecca after Mohammed began to gain strength, and his religion had made a considerable progress.||And they who have come after them into the faith say, "O our Lord! forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in the faith, and put not into our hearts ill-will against those who believe. O our Lord! thou verily art Kind, Merciful."|
|102||11||59||Hast thou not observed them who play the hypocrites? They say unto their brethren who believe not, of those who have received the scriptures,f Verily if ye be expelled your habitations, we will surely go forth with you; and we will not pay obedience, in your respect, unto any one forever: and if ye be attacked, we will certainly assist you. But GOD is witness that they are liars.||f That is, the Jews of the tribe of al Nadîr.||Hast thou not observed the disaffected saying to their unbelieving brethren3 among the people of the Book, "If ye be driven forth, we will go forth with you; and in what concerneth you, never will we obey any one; and if ye be attacked we will certainly come to your help." But God is witness that they are liars.||3 To the Jews of the tribe of Nadhir.|
|102||12||59||Verily if they be expelled, they will not go forth with them: and if they be attacked, they will not assist them;g and if they do assist them, they will surely turn their backs: and they shall not be protected.||g And it happened accordingly; for Ebn Obba and his confederates wrote to the Nadîrites to this purpose, but never performed their promise.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|No! if they were driven forth, they would not share their banishment; if they were attacked they would not help them, or if they help them they will surely turn their backs: then would they remain unhelped.|
|102||13||59||Verily ye are stronger than they, by reason of the terror cast into their breasts from GOD. This, because they are not people of prudence.||Assuredly the fear of you is more intense in their hearts than the fear of God! This because they are a people devoid of discernment.|
|102||14||59||They will not fight against you in a body, except in fenced towns, or from behind walls. Their strength in war among themselves is great:h thou thinkest them to be united; but their hearts are divided. This, because they are people who do not understand.||h i.e., It is not their weakness or cowardice which makes them decline a field battle with you, since they show strength and valour enough in their wars with one another; but both fail them when they enter into the lists with GOD and his apostle.||They (the Jews) will not fight against you in a body except in fenced towns or from behind walls. Mighty is their valour among themselves! thou thinkest them unitedbut their hearts are divided. This for that they are a people who understand not.|
|102||15||59||Like those who lately preceded them,i they have tasted the evil consequence of their deed; and a painful torment is prepared for them hereafter.||i viz., The idolaters who were slain at Bedr; or the Jews of Kainokâ, who were plundered and sent into exile before those of al Nadîr.||They act like those who lately preceded them,4 who also tasted the result of their doings; and a grievous chastisement awaiteth them||4 The idolaters slain at Bedr (Djal.) or the Jews of Kainoka, who had been plundered previously to those of Nadhir.|
|102||16||59||Thus have the hypocrites deceived the Jews: like the devil, when he saith unto a man, Be thou an infidel; and when he is become an infidel, he saith, Verily I am clear of thee; for I fear GOD, the LORD of all creatures.||Like Satan when he saith to a man, "Be an infidel:" and when he hath become an infidel, he saith, "I share not thy guilt:5 verily, I fear God the Lord of the Worlds."||5 Lit. I am clear of thee.|
|102||17||59||Wherefore the end of them both shall be that they shall dwell in hell fire, abiding therein forever: and this shall be the recompense of the unjust.||Of both, therefore, shall the end be that they dwell for ever in the fire: This is the recompense of the evil doers.|
|102||18||59||O true believers, fear GOD; and let a soul look what it sendeth before for the morrow:k and fear GOD, for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.||k That is, for the next life, which may be called the morrow, as this present life may be called to-day.||O ye who believe! fear God. And let every soul look well to what it sendeth on before for the morrow. And fear ye God: Verily, God is cognisant of what ye do.|
|102||19||59||And be not as those who have forgotten GOD, and whom he hath caused to forget their own souls: these are the wicked doers.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 107, p. 101
The Four Valleys (First Valley)
|And be ye not like those who forget God, and whom He hath therefore caused to forget their own selves.
MG: And be ye not like those who forget God, and whom He hath therefore caused to forget their own selves. These are the wicked doers.
|And be ye not like those who forget God, and whom He hath therefore caused to forget their proper selves. Such men are the evil doers.|
|102||20||59||The inhabitants of hell fire and the inhabitants of paradise shall not be held equal. The inhabitants of paradise are they who shall enjoy felicity.||The inmates of the Fire and the inmates of Paradise are not to be held equal. The inmates of Paradise only shall be the blissful.|
|102||21||59||If we had sent down this Koran on a mountain, thou wouldest certainly have seen the same humble itself, and cleave in sunder for fear of GOD. These similitudes do we propose unto men, that they may consider.||Had we sent down this Koran on some mountain, thou wouldst certainly have seen it humbling itself6 and cleaving asunder for the fear of God. Such are the parables we propose to men in order that they may reflect.||6 This may be derived from the Rabbinical idea that Mount Sinai was chosen, on account of its lowness, to be the scene of the revelation to Moses, in order to shew that God loves the humble.|
|102||22||59||He is GOD, besides whom there is no GOD; who knoweth that which is future, and that which is present: he is the most Merciful;||He is God beside whom there is no god. He knoweth things visible and invisible: He is the Compassionate, the Merciful.|
|102||23||59||he is GOD, besides whom there is no GOD: the King, the Holy, the Giver of peace, the Faithful, the Guardian, the Powerful, the Strong, the most High. Far be GOD exalted above the idols which they associate with him!||He is God beside whom there is no god: He is the King, the Holy, the Peaceful, the Faithful, the Guardian, the Mighty, the Strong, the Most High! Far be the Glory of God from that which they unite with Him!|
|102||24||59||He is GOD, the Creator, the Maker, the Former. He hath most excellent names.l Whatever is in heaven and in earth praiseth him: and he is the Mighty, the Wise.||l See cap. 7, p. 123, note x.||He is God, the Producer, the Maker, the Fashioner! To Him are ascribed excellent titles. Whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth praiseth Him. He is the Mighty, the Wise!|
|110||0||60||CHAPTER LX.||SURA1 LX.SHE WHO IS TRIED [CX.]||1 Revealed probably as far as verse 9 (Ramadhan Hej. 8) shortly before the taking of Mecca.|
|110||0||60||ENTITLED, SHE WHO IS TRIED;m REVEALED AT MEDINA.||m This chapter bears this title because it directs the women who desert and come over from the infidels to the Moslems to be examined, and tried whether they be sincere in their profession of the faith.||MEDINA.13 Verses|
|110||0||60||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|110||1||60||O TRUE believers, take not my enemy and your enemy for your friends,n showing kindness towards them; since they believe not in the truth which hath come unto you, having expelled the apostle and yourselves from your native city, because ye believe in GOD, your LORD. If ye go forth to fight in defence of my religion, and out of a desire to please me, and privately show friendship unto them;o verily I well know that which ye conceal, and that which ye discover: and whoever of you doth this, hath already erred from the straight path.||n This passage was revealed on account of Hateb Ebn Abi Balpaa, who understanding that Mohammed had a design to surprise Mecca, wrote a letter to the Koreish, giving them notice of the intended expedition, and advised them to be on their guard: which letter he sent by Sarah, a maid-servant belonging to the family of Hâshem. The messenger had not been gone long, before Gabriel discovered the affair to the prophet, who immediately sent after her; and having intercepted the letter, asked Hateb how he came to be guilty of such an action? To which he replied that it was not out of infidelity, or a desire to return to idolatry, but merely to induce the Koreish to treat his family, which was still at Mecca, with some kindness; adding that he was well assured his intelligence would be of no service at all to the Meccans, because he was satisfied GOD would take vengeance on them. Whereupon Mohammed received his excuse and pardoned him; but it was thought proper to forbid any such practices for the future.1
1 Idem. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 192.
o The verb here used has also a contrary signification, according to which the words may be rendered, and yet openly show friendship unto them.
|O YE who believe! take not my foe2 and your foe for friends, shewing them kindness, although they believe not that truth which hath come to you: they drive forth the Apostles and yourselves because ye believe in God your Lord! If ye go forth to fight on my way, and from a desire to please me, and shew them kindness in private, I well know what ye conceal, and what ye discover! Whoso doth this hath already gone astray from the even way.||2 Halèb Ben Abu Baltaa had informed the Koreisch of an intended surprise of Mecca on the part of Muhammad, with the view of making terms for his own family who had been left there. The offence was pardoned, but the revelation was nevertheless published with the view of preventing similar acts of treachery in future.|
|110||2||60||If they get the better of you, they will be enemies unto you, and they will stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil: and they earnestly desire that ye should become unbelievers.||If they meet with you they will prove your foes: hand and tongue will they put forth for your hurt, and will desire that you become infidels again.|
|110||3||60||Neither your kindred nor your children will avail you at all on the day of resurrection, which will separate you from one another: and GOD seeth that which ye do.||Neither your kindred nor your children shall at all avail you on the day of the resurrection. A severance between you will it make! and your actions doth God behold.|
|110||4||60||Ye have an excellent pattern in Abraham, and those who were with him, when they said unto their people, Verily we are clear of you, and of the idols which ye worship, besides GOD: we have renounced you; and enmity and hatred is begun between us and you forever, until ye believe in GOD alone: except Abraham's saying unto his father, Verily I will beg pardon for thee:p but I cannot obtain aught of GOD in thy behalf. O LORD, in thee do we trust, and unto thee are we turned; and before thee shall we be assembled hereafter.||p For in this Abrahams example is not to be followed. See chapter 9, p. 148.||A good example had ye in Abraham,3 and in those who followed him, when they said to their people, "Verily, we are clear of you, and of what ye worship beside God: we renounce you: and between us and hath hatred and enmity sprung up for ever, until ye believe in God alone." Yet imitate not the language of Abraham to his Father, "I will pray for thy forgiveness, but not aught shall I obtain for thee from God."4 O our Lord! in thee do we trust! to thee do we turn! to thee we shall come back at the last.||3 Speaking of the representatives of the different religious systems prevalent in the Roman Empire, as Orpheus, Abraham, Christ, Apollonius of Tyana, enshrined among the household deities of Alexander Severus, Mr. Milman remarks (Hist. of Christianity, ii. p. 231) that "It is singular that Abraham, rather than Moses, was placed at the head of Judaism: it is possible that the traditionary sanctity which attached to the first parent of the Jewish people, and of many of the Arab tribes, and which was afterwards embodied in the Koran, was floating in the East, and would comprehend, as it were, the opinions, not only of the Jews, but of a much wider circle of the Syrian natives."
4 Sura [cxiii.] ix. 115.
|110||5||60||O LORD, suffer us not to be put to trial by the unbelievers:q and forgive us, O LORD; for thou art mighty and wise.||q i.e., Suffer them not to prevail against us, lest they thence conclude themselves to be in the right, and endeavour to make us deny our faith by the terror of persecution.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|O our Lord! expose us not for trial to the unbelievers, and forgive us: for thou art the Mighty, the Wise!|
|110||6||60||Verily ye have in them an excellent example, unto him who hopeth in GOD and the last day: and whoso turneth back; verily GOD is self-sufficient, and praiseworthy.||A good example had ye in them, for all who hope in God and in the last day. But let who will turn back, God truly is the Rich, the Praiseworthy!|
|110||7||60||Peradventure GOD will establish friendship between yourselves and such of them as ye now hold for enemies:r for GOD is powerful; and GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful.||r And this happened accordingly on the taking of Mecca; when Abu Sofiân and others of the Koreish, who had till then been inveterate enemies to the Moslems, embraced the same faith, and became their friends and brethren. Some suppose the marriage of Mohammed with Omm Habîba, the daughter of Abu Sofiân, which was celebrated the year before, to be here intended.2
2 Vide Gagnier, not in Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 91.
|God will, perhaps, establish good will between yourselves and those of them whom ye take to be your enemies:5 God is Powerful: and God is Gracious, Merciful.||5 That is, by their conversion hereafter.|
|110||8||60||As to those who have not borne arms against you on account of religion, nor turned you out of your dwellings, GOD forbiddeth you not to deal kindly with them, and to behave justly towards them:s for GOD loveth those who act justly.||s This passage, it is said, was revealed on account of Koteila bint Abdal Uzza, who having, while she was an idolatress, brought some presents to her daughter, Asma bint Abi Becr, the latter not only refused to accept them, but even denied her admittance.3
3 Al Beidâwi.
|God doth not forbid you to deal with kindness and fairness toward those who have not made war upon you on account of your religion, or driven you forth from your homes: for God loveth those who act with fairness.|
|110||9||60||But as to those who have borne arms against you on account of religion, and have dispossessed you of your habitations, and have assisted in dispossessing you, GOD forbiddeth you to enter into friendship with them: and whosoever of you entereth into friendship with them, those are unjust doers.||Only doth God forbid you to make friends of those who, on account of your religion, have warred against you, and have driven you forth from your homes, and have aided those who drove you forth: and whoever maketh friends of them are wrong-doers.|
|110||10||60||O true believers, when believing women come unto you as refugees, try them: GOD well knoweth their faith. And if ye know them to be true believers, send them not back to the infidels: they are not lawful for the unbelievers to have in marriage; neither are the unbelievers lawful for them. But give their unbelieving husbands what they shall have expended for their dowers.t Nor shall it be any crime in you if ye marry them, provided ye give them their dowries.u And retain not the patronage of the unbelieving women: but demand back that which ye have expended for the dowry of such of your wives as go over to the unbelievers; and let them demand back that which they have expended for the dowry of those who come over to you. This is the judgment of GOD, which he establisheth among you: and GOD is knowing and wise.||t For, according to the terms of the pacification of al Hodeibiya,4 each side was to return whatever came into their power belonging to the other; wherefore when the Moslems were, by this passage, forbidden to restore the married women who should come over to them, they were at the same time commanded to make some sort of satisfaction, by returning their dowry.
It is related that, after the aforesaid pacification, while Mohammed was yet at al Hodeibiya, Sobeia bint al Hareth, of the tribe of Aslam, having embrace Mohammedism, her husband, Mosâfer the Makhzumite, came and demanded her back; upon which this passage was revealed: and Mohammed, pursuant thereto, administered to her the oath thereafter directed, and returned her husband her dower; and then Omar married her.5
4 See cap. 48, p. 380, &c.
5 Al Beidâwi.
u For what is returned to their former husbands is not to be considered as their dower.
|O Believers!6 when believing women come over to you as refugees (Mohadjers), then make TRIAL of them. God best knoweth their faith; but if ye have also ascertained their faith, let them not go back to the infidels; they are not lawful for them, nor are the unbelievers lawful for these women. But give them back what they have spent for their dowers. No crime shall it be in you to marry them, provided ye give them their dowers. Do not retain any right in the infidel women, but demand back what you have spent for their dowers, and let the unbelievers demand back what they have spent for their wives.7 This is the ordinance of God which He ordaineth among you: and God is Knowing, Wise.||6 Said (see Nöld. p. 163) to have been revealed at, or shortly after, the peace of Hudaibiya. According to the terms then agreed upon, a mutual restitution of property was to take place.
7 Who are converted to Islam.
|110||11||60||If any of your wivesx escape from you to the unbelievers, and ye have your turn by the coming over of any of the unbelievers' wives to you;y give unto those believers whose wives shall have gone away, out of the dowries of the latter, so much as they shall have expended for the dowers of the former: and fear GOD, in whom ye believe.||x Literally, anything of your wives; which some interpret, any part of their dowry.
y Or, as the original verb may also be translated, and ye take spoils; in which case the meaning will be, that those Moslems, whose wives shall have gone over to the infidels, shall have a satisfaction for their dower out of the next booty. This law, they saw, was given because of the idolaters, after the preceding verse had been revealed, refused to comply therewith, or to make any return of the dower of those women who went over to them from the Moslems;1 so that the latter were obliged to indemnify themselves as they could.
|And if any of your wives escape from you to the Infidels from whom ye afterwards take any spoil, then give to those whose wives shall have fled away, the like of what they shall have spent for their dowers; and fear God in whom ye believe.|
|110||12||60||O prophet, when believing women come unto thee, and plight their faith unto thee,z that they will not associate anything with GOD, nor steal, nor commit fornication, nor kill their children,a nor come with a calumny which they have forged between their hands and their feet,b nor be disobedient to thee in that which shall be reasonable: then do thou plight thy faith unto them, and ask pardon for them of GOD; for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful.||z See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 37. Some are of opinion that this passage was not revealed till the day of the taking of Mecca; when, after having received the solemn submission of the men, he proceeded to receive that of the women.2
a See chapter 81.
b Jallaloddin understands these words of their laying their spurious children to their husbands.
|O Prophet! when believing women come to thee, and pledge themselves that they will not associate aught with God, and that they will not steal or commit adultery, nor kill their children, nor bring scandalous charges,8 nor disobey thee in what is right, then plight thou thy faith to them, and ask pardon for them of God: for God is Indulgent, Merciful!||8 Lit. with a calumny which they have devised between their hands and their feet. Said to have been revealed at the taking of Mecca. Tab. Beidh.|
|110||13||60||O true believers, enter not into friendship with a people against whom GOD is incensed;c they despair of the life to come,d as the infidels despair of the resurrection of those who dwell in the graves.||c i.e., The infidels in general; or the Jews in particular.3
3 See cap. I, p. 1.
d By reason of their infidelity; or because they well know they cannot expect to be made partakers of the happiness of the next life, by reason of their rejecting of the prophet foretold in the law, and whose mission is confirmed by miracles.4
4 Al Beidâwi.
|O Believers! enter not into amity with those against whom God is angered; they despair of the life to come, even as the Infidels despair of the inmates of the tombs.|
|98||0||61||CHAPTER LXI.||SURA LXI.BATTLE ARRAY [XCVIII.]|
|98||0||61||ENTITLED, BATTLE-ARRAY; REVEALED AT MECCA.e||e Or, as some rather judge, at Medina; which opinion is confirmed by the explication in the next note.||MEDINA.14 Verses|
|98||0||61||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|98||1||61||WHATEVER is in heaven and in earth celebrateth the praise of GOD; for he is mighty and wise.||ALL that is in the Heavens and all that is on the Earth praiseth God. He is the Mighty, the Wise!|
|98||2||61||O true believers, why do ye say that which ye do not?f||f The commentators generally suppose these words to be directed to the Moslems, who, notwithstanding they had solemnly engaged to spend their lives and fortunes in defence of their faith, yet shamefully turned their backs at the battle of Ohod.5 They may, however, be applied to hypocrites of all sorts, whose actions contradict their words.
5 Cap. 3, p. 45, &c.
|Believers! why profess ye that which ye practise not?1||1 Addressed to the Muslims who had turned their backs to the enemy at Ohod.|
|98||3||61||It is most odious in the sight of GOD, that ye say that which ye do not.||Most hateful is it to God that ye say that which ye do not.|
|98||4||61||Verily GOD loveth those who fight for his religion in battle-array, as though they were a well-compacted building.||Memorials of the Faithful, within pp. 97-102, Mishkín-Qalam)
|MG: solidly established||Verily God loveth those who, as though they were a solid wall, do battle for his cause in serried lines!|
|98||5||61||Remember when Moses said unto his people, O my people, why do ye injure me;g since ye know that I am the apostle of GOD sent unto you? And when they had deviated from the truth, GOD made their hearts to deviate from the right way; for GOD directeth not wicked people.||g viz., By your disobedience; or by maliciously aspersing me.6
6 See cap. 33, p. 320.
|And bear in mind when Moses said to his people, "Why grieve ye me, O my people, when ye know that I am God's apostle unto you?" And when they went astray, God led their hearts astray; for God guideth not a perverse people:|
|98||6||61||And when Jesus the Son of Mary said, O children of Israel, verily I am the apostle of GOD sent unto you, confirming the law which was delivered before me, and bringing good tidings of an apostle who shall come after me, and whose name shall be Ahmed.i And when he produced unto them evident miracles, they said, This is manifest sorcery.||i For Mohammed also bore the name of Ahmed; both names being derived from the same root, and nearly of the same signification. The Persian paraphrast, to support what is here alleged, quotes the following words of Christ, I go to my father, and the Paraclete shall come:7 the Mohammedan doctors unanimously teaching that by the Paraclete (or, as they choose to read it, the Periclyte, or Illustrious) their prophet is intended, and no other.8
7 See John xvi. 7, &c.
8 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 58.
|And remember when Jesus the son of Mary said, "O children of Israel! of a truth I am God's apostle to you to confirm the law which was given before me, and to announce an apostle that shall come after me whose name shall be Ahmad!"2 But when he (Ahmad) presented himself with clear proofs of his mission, they said, "This is manifest sorcery!"||2 Muhammad had no doubt heard that Jesus had promised a Paracletos, John xvi. 7. This title, understood by him, probably from the similarity of sound, as equivalent to Periclytos, he applied to himself with reference to his own name Muhammad (i.e. praised, glorified) from the same root and of the same meaning as Ahmad, also one of the Prophet's names. It may be here remarked that the name Muhammad, if pronounced Muhammed, "might be understood by an Arab in an active instead of a passive sense." (Lane, Kor. p. 52.) Other passages of Scripture understood by Muslims of their Prophet are Deut. xxxiii. 2, where Paran is said to mean Islam; Isai. xxi. 6, where the "rider on the ass" is Jesus, the "rider on the camel" Muhammad; Matt. xx. 1-16, where the morning, noon, and even are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; John iv. 21; 1 John iv. 2, 3, where Muhammad is said to be "the spirit that is of God," because he proclaimed that Jesus was a true man and not God.|
|98||7||61||But who is more unjust than he who forgeth a lie against GOD, when he is invited unto Islam? And GOD directeth not the unjust people.||But who more impious than he who when called to Islam deviseth a falsehood concerning God? God guideth not the wicked!|
|98||8||61||They seek to extinguish GOD'S light with their mouths: but GOD will perfect his light, though the infidels be averse thereto.||Fain would they put out the light of God with their mouths! but though the Infidels hate it, God will perfect his light.|
|98||9||61||It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and the religion of truth, that he may exalt the same above every religion, although the idolaters be averse thereto.||The Secret of Divine Civilization, p. 41
|MG: that He may make it victorious over every other religion||He it is who hath sent his apostle with guidance and the religion of truth, that, though they hate it who join other gods with God, He may make it victorious over every other religion.|
|98||10||61||O true believers, shall I show you a merchandise which will deliver you from a painful torment hereafter?||O ye who believe! shall I shew you a merchandise that shall deliver you from the sore torment?|
|98||11||61||Believe in GOD and his apostle; and defend GOD'S true religion with your substance, and in your own persons. This will be better for you, if ye knew it.||Believe in God and his apostle, and do valiantly in the cause of God with your wealth and with your persons! This, did ye but know it, will be best for you.|
|98||12||61||He will forgive you your sins, and will introduce you into gardens through which rivers flow, and agreeable habitations in gardens of perpetual abode. This will be great felicity.||Your sins will He forgive you, and He will bring you into gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flowinto charming abodes in the gardens of Eden: This shall be the great bliss.|
|98||13||61||And ye shall obtain other things which ye desire, namely, assistance from GOD, and a speedy victory. And do thou bear good tidings to the true believers.||And other things which ye desire will he bestow, Help from God and speedy conquest!3 Bear thou these tidings to the faithful.||3 If this allude to a meditated attack on the Banu Nadir (see Sura [cii.] lix.) we have a clue to the probable date of the Sura. The promise, however, may be general. But the tone of verse 9 evidently points to a period when, as at Medina, the prospects of Islam were becoming hopeful.|
|98||14||61||O true believers, be ye assistants of GOD; as Jesus the son of Mary said to the apostles, Who will be my assistants with respect to GOD?k The apostles answered, We will be the assistants of GOD. So a part of the children of Israel believed, and a part believed not:l but we strengthened those who believed, above their enemy; wherefore they became victorious over them.||k See chapter 3, p. 38.
l Either by rejecting him, or by affirming him to be GOD, and the son of GOD.9
|O ye who believe! be helpers (ansars) of God; as said Jesus the son of Mary to his apostles, "Who will come to the help of God?" "We," said the apostles, "will be helpers of God." And a part of the children of Israel believed, and a part believed not. But to those who believed gave we the upperhand over their foes, and soon did they prove victorious.|
|94||0||62||CHAPTER LXII.||SURA LXII.THE ASSEMBLY [XCIV.]|
|94||0||62||ENTITLED, THE ASSEMBLY; REVEALED AT MEDINA.||MEDINA.II Verses|
|94||0||62||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|94||1||62||WHATEVER is in heaven and earth praiseth GOD; the King, the Holy, the Mighty, the Wise.||ALL that is in the Heavens, and all that is on the Earth, uttereth the Praise of God, the King! the Holy! the Mighty! the Wise!|
|94||2||62||It is he who hath raised up amidst the illiterate Arabians an apostle from among themselves,m to rehearse his signs unto them, and to purify them, and to teach them the scriptures and wisdom; whereas before they were certainly in a manifest error;||m See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 32.||It is He who hath sent to the pagan folk (Arabs) an Apostle from among themselves, to rehearse His signs to them, and to purify them, and to impart to them a knowledge of "the Book" and wisdom; for aforetime were they in manifest error.|
|94||3||62||and others of them have not yet attained unto them, by embracing the faith; though they also shall be converted in God's good time; for he is mighty and wise.||And others among them have not yet overtaken those who preceded them in the faith. But He is the Mighty, the Wise!|
|94||4||62||This is the free grace of GOD: he bestoweth the same on whom he pleaseth: and GOD is endued with great beneficence.||This is the goodness of God: He bestoweth it on whom He will: God is of immense goodness!|
|94||5||62||The likeness of those who were charged with the observance of the law, and then observed it not, is as the likeness of an ass laden with books.n How wretched is the likeness of the people who charge the signs of GOD with falsehood! and GOD directeth not the unjust people.||n Because they understand not the prophecies contained in the law, which bear witness to Mohammed, no more than the ass does the books he carries.||They on whom the burden of the law was laid, and would not bear it, are like an ass beneath a load of books. A sorry likeness this, for the people who give the lie to the signs of God! God guideth not the people who do this wrong!|
|94||6||62||Say, O ye who follow the Jewish religion, if ye say that ye are the friends of GOD above other men, wish for death,o if ye speak truth.||o i.e., Make it your request to GOD that he would translate you from this troublesome world to a state of never-fading bliss.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part II, paragraph 252, p. 227
Summons of the Lord of Hosts (Súriy-Haykal, paragraph 223)
A Travelers Narrative, p. 67
|Wish for death, if ye are men of truth.
BWC: Wish ye then for death, if ye be men of truth.
EGB: Desire death, then, if ye be sincere.
|SAY: O ye Jews, if ye profess that ye rather than other men are the friends of God, then wish for death if ye are men of truth.|
|94||7||62||But they will never wish for it, because of that which their hands have sent before them:p and GOD well knoweth the unjust.||p See chapter 2, p. 11.||But never on account of their previous handywork will they wish for it, and God knoweth the wrong doers.|
|94||8||62||Say, Verily death, from which ye fly, will surely meet you: then shall ye be brought before him who knoweth as well what is concealed as what is discovered; and he will declare unto you that which ye have done.||SAY: Verily the death from which ye flee will surely meet you. Then shall ye be brought back to Him who knoweth alike the things done in secret and openly: and He will tell you of your actions.|
|94||9||62||O true believers, when ye are called to prayer on the day of assembly,q hasten to the commemoration of GOD and leave merchandising. This will be better for you, if you knew it.||q That is, Friday, which being more peculiarly set apart by Mohammed for the public worship of GOD, is therefore called Yawm al jomá, i.e., the day of the assembly or congregation; whereas before it was called al Arûba. The first time this day was particularly observed, as some say, was on the prophets arrival at Medina, into which city he made his first entry on a Friday: but others tell us that Caab Ebn Lowa, one of Mohammeds ancestors, gave the day its present name, because on that day the people used to be assembled before him.1 One reason given for the observation of Friday, preferably to any other day of the week, is because on that day GOD finished the creation.2
By returning to your commerce and worldly occupations, if ye think fit: for the Mohammedans do not hold themselves obliged to observe the day of their public assembly with the same strictness as the Christians and Jews do their respective Sabbath; or particularly to abstain from work, after they have performed their devotions. Some, however, from a tradition of their prophet, are of opinion that works of charity, and religious exercises, which may draw down the blessing of GOD, are recommended in this passage.
1 Al Beidâwi.
2 Vide Gol. in Alfrag p. 15.
|O ye who believe! When ye are summoned to prayer on the day of THE ASSEMBLY,1 haste to the commemoration of God, and quit your traffic. This, if ye knew it, will be best for you.||1 Friday; the day on which Muhammad made his first entry into Medina, and the day on which creation was finished.|
|94||10||62||And when prayer is ended, then disperse yourselves through the land as ye list, and seek gain of the liberality of GOD:r and remember GOD frequently, that ye may prosper.||r It is related that one Friday, while Mohammed was preaching, a caravan of merchants happened to arrive with their drums beating, according to custom; which the congregation hearing, they all ran out of the mosque to see them, except twelve only.3
3 Al Beidâwi, Jallaloddin.
|Selections from the Writings of the Báb (3 Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, VIII, 19, within pp. pp. 80-81)
|Verily, make ye mention of God||And when the Prayer is ended, then disperse yourselves abroad and go in quest of the bounties of God; and, that it may be well with you, oft remember God.|
|94||11||62||But when they see any merchandising, or sport, they flock thereto, and leave thee standing up in the pulpit.s Say, The reward which is with GOD is better than any sport or merchandise: and GOD is the best provider.||[no note]||But when they get a sight of merchandise or sport, they disperse after it, and leave thee standing alone.2 SAY: God hath in reserve what is better than sport or wares. And God is the best provider!||2 It is said that when Muhammad was preaching, Dahya Alkalbi, while yet a heathen, came, on a Friday, into Medina at the head of a caravan, and that all the congregation, attracted by the music of the tambours which preceded it, left the sermon for the spectacle. Muquâtil ap. Alfarrâ. If this account be accurate, we may approximate to the date of this Sura as in Hej. 5 (towards the close). Dahya is known to have fought in the ranks of the Muslims at the battle of the Ditch. And as the former part is aimed at the Jews, it is probably of the same period as Sura [xci.] ii.|
|104||0||63||CHAPTER LXIII.||SURA LXIII.1THE HYPOCRITES [CIV.]||1 Revealed shortly after the expedition against the Banu 'l Mustaliq in Hej. 6. See Nöld. p. 156 n. The "Hypocrites" mentioned in the later Suras are the disaffected portion of the population of Medina, who covertly opposed the claims of Muhammad to temporal authority over that city. They were gradually absorbed, as the authority of Islam increased.|
|104||0||63||ENTITLED, THE HYPOCRITES; REVEALED AT MEDINA.||MEDINA.11 Verses|
|104||0||63||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|104||1||63||WHEN the hypocrites come unto thee, they say, We bear witness that thou art indeed the apostle of GOD. And GOD knoweth that thou art indeed his apostle: but GOD beareth witness that the hypocrites are certainly liars.||WHEN the Hypocrites come to thee, they say, "We bear witness that thou art the Sent One of God." God knoweth that thou art His Sent One: but God beareth witness that the HYPOCRITES do surely lie.|
|104||2||63||They have taken their oaths for a protection, and they turn others aside from the way of GOD: it is surely evil which they do.||Their faith2 have they used as a cloak, and they turn aside others from the way of God! Evil are all their doings.||2 Or, in accordance with another reading, oaths. Comp. Ps. cix. 18.|
|104||3||63||This is testified of them, because they believed, and afterwards became unbelievers: wherefore a seal is set on their hearts, and they shall not understand.||This, for that they believed, then became unbelievers!Therefore hath a seal been set upon their hearts, and they understand not.|
|104||4||63||When thou beholdest them, their persons please thee:t and if they speak, thou hearest their discourse with delight. They resemble pieces of timber set up against a wall.u They imagine every shout to be against them.x They are enemies: wherefore beware of them. GOD curse them: how are they turned aside from the truth!||t The commentators tell us, that Abdallah Ebn Obba, a chief hypocrite, was a tall man of a very graceful presence, and of a ready and eloquent tongue; and used to frequent the prophets assembly, attended by several like himself; and that these men were greatly admired by Mohammed, who was taken with their handsome appearance, and listened to their discourse with pleasure.1
1 Al Beidâwi
u Being tall and big, but void of knowledge and consideration.2
x Living under continual apprehensions; because they are conscious of their hypocrisy towards GOD, and their insincerity towards the Moslems.
|When thou seest them, their persons make thee marvel; and if they speak, thou listenest with pleasure to their discourse. Like timbers are they leaning against a wall!3 They think that every shout is against them. They are enemiesBeware of them thenGod do battle with them! How false are they!||3 Like timbers or joists supported in a wall or leaned against it, i.e., their persons are bulky, but their hearts so hypocritical and cowardly that they are afraid of the slightest noise. In the original, saïkat is perhaps an allusion to the shout of Gabriel, that is to exterminate the wicked.|
|104||5||63||And when it is said unto them, Come, that the apostle of GOD may ask pardon for you; they turn away their heads, and thou seest them retire big with disdain.||And when it is said to them, "Come, the Apostle of God will ask pardon for you," they turn their heads aside, and thou seest them withdraw in their pride.|
|104||6||63||It shall be equal unto them, whether thou ask pardon for them, or do not ask pardon for them: GOD will by no means forgive them; for GOD directeth not the prevaricating people.||Alike shall it be to them whether thou ask forgiveness for them, or ask it not. By no means will God forgive them: God hath no guidance for a perverse people.|
|104||7||63||These are the men who say to the inhabitants of Medina, Do not bestow anything on the refugees who are with the apostle of GOD, that they may be obliged to separate from him. Whereas unto GOD belong the stores of heaven and earth: but the hypocrites do not understand.||These are they who say to you of Medina, "Spend not aught upon those who are with the Apostle of God, and they will be forced to quit him." Yet the treasures of the Heavens and of the Earth are God's! But the Hypocrites have no understanding.|
|104||8||63||They say, Verily, if we return to Medina, the worthier shall expel thence the meaner.y Whereas superior worth belongeth unto GOD and his apostle, and the true believers: but the hypocrites know it not.||y These, as well as the preceding, were the words of Ebn Obba to one of Medina, who in a certain expedition quarrelling with an Arab of the desert about water, received a blow on the head with a stick, and made his complaint thereof to him.3
|They say: "If we return to the city, the mightier will assuredly drive out the weaker from it." But might is with God, and with the Apostle, and with the Faithful! Yet the Hypocrites understand not.|
|104||9||63||O true believers, let not your riches or your children divert you from the remembrance of GOD: for whosoever doth this, they will surely be losers.||O ye who believe! let not your wealth and your children delude you into forgetfulness of God. Whoever shall act thus, shall surely suffer loss.|
|104||10||63||And give alms out of that which we have bestowed on you; before death come unto one of you, and he say, O LORD, wilt thou not grant me respite for a short term: that I may give alms, and become one of the righteous?||And expend in the cause of God out of that with which we have supplied you, ere death surprise each one of you, and he say, "O Lord! wilt thou not respite me to a term not far distant, that I may give alms, and become one of the just?"|
|104||11||63||For GOD will by no means grant further respite to a soul, when its determined time is come: and GOD is fully apprised of that which ye do.||And by no means will God respite a soul when its hour hath come! And God is fully cognisant of what ye do.|
|93||0||64||CHAPTER LXIV||SURA LXIV.MUTUAL DECEIT [XCIII.]|
|93||0||64||ENTITLED, MUTUAL DECEIT; REVEALED AT MECCA.z||z The commentators are not agreed whether this chapter was revealed at Mecca, or at Medina; or partly at the one place, and partly at the other.||MEDINA.118 Verses||1 The first verse of this Sura, and the phrase obey God and the Apostle (verses 8, 12), which usually occurs only in Medina Suras, the phrases in verse 16 compared with Sura [cii.] lix. 9, as well as the subject matter, incline me to follow those Muslim commentators who are of opinion that the whole Sura was revealed at Medina. Weil and Muir suppose it to be Meccan.|
|93||0||64||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|93||1||64||WHATEVER is in heaven and earth celebrateth the praises of GOD: his is the kingdom, and unto him is the praise due; for he is almighty.||ALL that is in the Heavens, and all that is in the Earth, praiseth God: His the Kingdom and His the Glory! And He hath power over all things!|
|93||2||64||It is he who hath created you; and one of you is predestined to be an unbeliever, and another of you is predestined to be a believer: and GOD beholdeth that which ye do.||It is He who hath created you all; yet some of you are infidel and others believers: but God beholdeth all your actions.|
|93||3||64||He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth; and he hath fashioned you, and given you beautiful forms: and unto him must ye all go.||He hath created the Heavens and the Earth in Truth; and He hath fashioned you and given you goodly forms; and to Him must ye all return.|
|93||4||64||He knoweth whatever is in heaven and earth: and he knoweth that which ye conceal, and that which ye discover; for GOD knoweth the innermost part of men's breasts.||He knoweth all that passeth in the Heavens and in the Earth; and He knoweth what ye hide and what ye bring to light; and God knoweth the very secrets of men's breasts.|
|93||5||64||Have ye not been acquainted with the story of those who disbelieved heretofore, and tasted the evil consequence of their behavior? And for them is prepared in the life to come a tormenting punishment.||Hath not the story reached you of those who disbelieved of yore, and therefore tasted the evil consequences of their doings? And a sore punishment doth await them.|
|93||6||64||This shall they suffer, because their apostles came unto them with evident proofs of their mission, and they said, Shall men direct us? Wherefore they believed not, and turned their backs. But GOD standeth in need of no person: for GOD is self-sufficient, and worthy to be praised.||This, for that when their apostles came to them with the clear tokens, they said, "What! shall men be our guides?" And they believed not and turned their backs. But God can dispense with them; for God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy!|
|93||7||64||The unbelievers imagine that they shall not be raised again. Say, Yea, by my LORD, ye shall surely be raised again; then shall ye be told that which ye have wrought; and this is easy with GOD.||The infidels pretend that they shall not be raised from the dead. SAY: Yea, by my Lord, ye shall surely be raised; then shall ye surely be told of your deeds! And easy is this for God.|
|93||8||64||Wherefore believe in GOD and his apostle, and the light which we have sent down: for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.||Believe then in God and his apostle and in the light which we have sent down; for God is fully aware of all ye do.|
|93||9||64||On a certain day he shall assemble you, at the day of the general assembly: that will be the day of mutual deceit.a And whoso shall believe in GOD, and shall do that which is right, from him will he expiate his evil deeds, and he will lead him into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever. This will be great felicity.||a When the blessed will deceive the damned, by taking the places which they would have had in paradise had they been true believers; and contrariwise.1
1 Idem, Jallaloddin, Yahya.
|The day when He shall gather you together for the day of mutual gathering, will be the day of MUTUAL DECEIT,2 and whoso shall have believed in God and done what is right, for him will He cancel his deeds of evil; and He will bring him into the gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flow, to abide therein for evermore. This will be the great bliss!||2 That is, the day on which it will be found that if the just had been wicked they would have taken the place of the reprobates, while the reprobates will see that if they had been just persons they would have gone to Paradise.|
|93||10||64||But they who shall not believe, and shall accuse our signs of falsehood, those shall be the inhabitants of hell fire, wherein they shall remain forever; and a wretched journey shall it be thither!||But the unbelievingthose who gave the lie to our signsshall be the inmates of the fire, wherein they shall remain for ever. And a wretched passage thither!|
|93||11||64||No misfortune happeneth but by the permission of GOD; and whoso believeth in GOD, he will direct his heart: and GOD knoweth all things.||No mischance chanceth but by God's permission; and whoso believeth in God, that man's heart will he guide: and God knoweth all things.|
|93||12||64||Wherefore obey GOD, and obey the apostle: but if ye turn back, verily the duty incumbent on our apostle is only public preaching.||Obey God then and obey the apostle: but if ye turn away, our apostle is not to blame, for he is only charged with plain preaching.|
|93||13||64||GOD! there is no GOD but he: wherefore in GOD let the faithful put their trust.||God! there is no God but He! On God, then, let the faithful trust.|
|93||14||64||O true believers, verily of your wives and your children ye have an enemy:b wherefore beware of them. But if ye pass over their offences, and pardon, and forgive them;c GOD is likewise inclined to forgive, and merciful.||b For these are apt to distract a man from his duty, especially in time of distress;2 a married man caring for the things that are of this world, while the unmarried careth for the things that belong to the LORD.3
3 See I Cor. vii. 25, &c.
c Considering that the hindrance they may occasion you proceeds from their affection, and their ill bearing your absence in time of war, &c.
|O ye who believe! Verily, in your wives and your children ye have an enemy: wherefore beware of them. But if ye pass it3 over and pardon, and are lenient, then God too is Lenient, Merciful.||3 Their occasionally beguiling you from your duty, especially that of contending for the faith. Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 32.|
|93||15||64||Your wealth and your children are only a temptation; but with GOD is a great reward.||Your wealth and your children are only a source of trial! but God! with Him is the great recompense.|
|93||16||64||Wherefore fear GOD, as much as ye are able; and hear, and obey: and give alms, for the good of your souls; for whoso is preserved from the covetousness of his own soul, they shall prosper.||Fear God, then, with all your might, and hear and obey: and give alms for your own weal; for such as are saved from their own greed, shall prosper.|
|93||17||64||If ye lend unto GOD an acceptable loan, he will double the same unto you, and will forgive you: for GOD is grateful, and long-suffering,||If ye lend God a generous loan, He will double it to you and will forgive you, for God is Grateful, Long-suffering.|
|93||18||64||knowing both what is hidden, and what is divulged; the Mighty, the Wise.||He knoweth alike the Hidden and the Manifest: the Mighty, the Wise!|
|101||0||65||CHAPTER LXV.||SURA LXV.DIVORCE1 [CI.]||1 Comp. Sura [xci.] ii. 228, which this Sura is perhaps intended to supplement. Wahidi and Beidhawi state that it was revealed on account of Ibn Omar who had divorced his wife at improper time, and was obliged to take her again.|
|101||0||65||ENTITLED, DIVORCE; REVEALED AT MEDINA.||MECCA.12 Verses|
|101||0||65||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|101||1||65||O PROPHET, when ye divorce women, put them away at their appointed term;d and compute the term exactly: and fear GOD, your LORD. Oblige them not to go out of their apartments, neither let them go out, until the term be expired, unless they be guilty of manifest uncleanness. These are the statutes of GOD: and whoever transgresseth the statutes of GOD assuredly injureth his own soul. Thou knowest not whether GOD will bring something new to pass, which may reconcile them after this.||d That is, when they shall have had their courses thrice after the time of their divorce, if they prove not to be with child; or, if they prove with child, when they shall have been delivered.1 Al Beidâwi supposes husbands are hereby commanded to divorce their wives while they are clean; and says that the passage was revealed on account of Ebn Omar, who divorced his wife when she had her courses upon her, and was therefore obliged to take her again.
1 cap. 2, p. 24.
|O PROPHET! when ye divorce women, divorce them at their special times. And reckon those times exactly, and fear God your Lord. Put them not forth from their houses, nor allow them to depart, unless they have committed a proven adultery. This is the precept of God; and whoso transgresseth the precept of God, assuredly imperilleth his own self. Thou knowest not whether, after this, God may not cause something new to occur which may bring you together again.|
|101||2||65||And when they shall have fulfilled their term, either retain them with kindness, or part from them honourably: and take witnesses from among you, men of integrity; and give your testimony as in the presence of GOD. This admonition is given unto him who believeth in GOD and the last day: and whoso feareth GOD, unto him will he grant a happy issue out of all his afflictions, and he will bestow on him an ample provision from whence he expecteth it not:||65:2-3
Memorandum on behalf of the Universal House of Justice, dated 6 August 1997 (concerning Rituals in Babism and Baha'ism, p. 43) (cites Rodwells)
|And when they have reached their set time, then either keep them with kindness, or in kindness part from them. And take upright witnesses from among you, and bear witness as unto God. This is a caution for him who believeth in God and in the latter day. And whoso feareth God, to him will He grant a prosperous issue, and will provide for him whence he reckoned not upon it.|
|101||3||65||and whoso trusteth in GOD, he will be his sufficient support; for GOD will surely attain his purpose. Now hath GOD appointed unto everything a determined period.||65:2-3 (cont.)
Memorandum on behalf of the Universal House of Justice, dated 6 August 1997 (concerning Rituals in Babism and Baha'ism, p. 43) (cites Rodwells)
|And for him who putteth his trust in Him will God be all-sufficient. God truly will attain his purpose. For everything hath God assigned a period.|
|101||4||65||As to such of your wives as shall despair having their courses, by reason of their age; if ye be in doubt thereof, let their term be three months: and let the same be the term of those who have not yet had their courses. But as to those who are pregnant, their term shall be, until they be delivered of their burden.e And whoso feareth GOD, unto him will he make his command easy.||e See chapter 2, p. 24.||As to such of your wives as have no hope of the recurrence of their times, if ye have doubts in regard to them, then reckon three months, and let the same be the term of those who have not yet had them. And as to those who are with child, their period shall be until they are delivered of their burden. God will make His command easy to him who feareth Him.|
|101||5||65||This is the command of GOD, which he hath sent down unto you. And whoso feareth GOD, he will expiate his evil deeds from him, and will increase his reward.||This is God's command which He hath sent down to you: Whoso feareth God, his evil deeds will He cancel and will increase his reward.|
|101||6||65||Suffer the women whom ye divorce to dwell in some part of the houses wherein ye dwell; according to the room and conveniences of the habitations which ye possess: and make them not uneasy, that ye may reduce them to straits. And if they be with child, expend on them what shall be needful, until they be delivered of their burden. And if they suckle their children for you, give them their hire;f and consult among yourselves, according to what shall be just and reasonable. And if ye be put to a difficulty herein, and another woman shall suckle the child for him,||f Which ought at least to be sufficient to maintain and clothe them during the time of suckling. See chapter 2, p. 25.||Lodge the divorced wherever ye lodge, according to your means; and distress them not by putting them to straits. And if they are pregnant, then be at charges for the them till they are delivered of their burden; and if they suckle your children, then pay them their hire and consult among yourselves, and act generously: And if herin ye meet with obstacles, then let another female suckle for him.|
|101||7||65||let him who hath plenty expend proportionably in the maintenance of the mother and the nurse, out of his plenty: and let him whose income is scanty expend in proportion out of that which GOD hath given him. GOD obligeth no man to more than he hath given him ability to perform: GOD will cause ease to succeed hardship.||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter XIII, within pp. 47-48)
|cf. BWC: every hardship shall be followed by ease||Let him who hath abundance of his abundance; let him, too, whose store is scanty, give of what God hath vouchsafed to him. God imposeth burdens only according to the means which He hath given. God will cause ease to succeed difficulties.|
|101||8||65||How many cities have turned aside from the command of the LORD and his apostles! Wherefore we brought them to a severe account; and we chastised them with a grievous chastisement:||How many cities have turned aside from the command of their Lord and of his apostles! Therefore did we reckon with them in a severe reckoning, and chastised them with a stern chastisement;|
|101||9||65||and they tasted the evil consequence of their business; and the end of their business was perdition.||And they tasted the harmfulness of their own conduct: and the end of their conduct was ruin.|
|101||10||65||GOD hath prepared for them a severe punishment: wherefore fear GOD, O ye who are endued with understanding.||A vehement chastisement hath God prepared for them! Fear God, then, O ye men of understanding!2||2 In order to make good the rhyme, verse 10 ought to be continued to the end of the first clause of verse II.|
|101||11||65||True believers, now hath GOD sent down unto you an admonition, an apostle who may rehearse unto you the perspicuous signs of GOD; that he may bring forth those who believe and do good works, from darkness into light. And whoso believeth in GOD, and doth that which is right, him will he lead into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever: now hath GOD made an excellent provision for him.||Believers! Now hath God sent down to you a warning! a prophet, who reciteth to you the clear signs of God, that he may bring those who believe, and do the things that are right, out of the darkness into the light. And-whoso believeth in God, and doeth the things that are right, God will cause them to enter the gardens beneath which the rivers flow, to remain therein for aye! A goodly provision now hath God made for him.|
|101||12||65||It is GOD who hath created seven heavens, and as many different stories of the earth: the divine command descendeth between them;g that ye may know that GOD is omnipotent, and that GOD comprehendeth all things by his knowledge.||g Penetrating and pervading them all with absolute efficacy.||It is God who hath created seven heavens and as many earths.3 The Divine command cometh down through them all, that ye may know that God hath power over all things, and that God in his knowledge embraceth all things!||3 Lit. and of the earth, their likes. The style of this verse resembles that of the Meccan Suras. Hence, probably; a tradition in Omar ben Muhammad makes the whole Sura Meccan.|
|109||0||66||CHAPTER LXVI.||SURA LXVI.THE FORBIDDING [CIX.]|
|109||0||66||ENTITLED, PROHIBITION; REVEALED AT MEDINA.||MEDINA.12 Verses|
|109||0||66||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|109||1||66||O PROPHET, why holdest thou that to be prohibited which GOD hath allowed thee, seeking to please thy wives;h since GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful?||h There are some who suppose this passage to have been occasioned by Mohammeds protesting never to eat honey any more, because, having once eaten some in the apartment of Hafsa, or of Zeinab, three other of his wives, namely, Ayesha, Sawda, and Safia, all told him they smelt he had been eating of the juice which distils from certain shrubs in those parts, and resembles honey in taste and consistence, but is of a very strong flavour, and which the prophet had a great aversion to.1 But the more received opinion is, that the chapter was revealed on the following occasion. Mohammed having lain with a slave of his named Mary, of Coptic extract (who had been sent him as a present by al Mokawkas, governor of Eygpt), on the day which was due to Ayesha, or to Hafsa, and, as some say, on Hafsas own bed, while she was absent; and this coming to Hafsas knowledge, she took it extremely ill, and reproached her husband so sharply that, to pacify her, he promised, with an oath, never to touch the maid again:1 and to free him from the obligation of this promise was the design of the chapter.
I cannot here avoid observing, as a learned writer2 has done before me, that Dr. Prideaux has strangely misrepresented this passage. For having given the story of the prophets amour with his maid mary, a little embellished, he proceeds to tell us that in this chapter Mohammed brings in GOD allowing him, and all his Moslems, to lie with their maids when they will, notwithstanding their wives (whereas the words relate to the prophet only, who wanted not any new permission for that purpose, because it was a privilege already granted him,3 though to none else); and then, to show what ground he had for his assertion, adds that the first words of the chapter are, O prophet, why dost thou forbid what GOD hath allowed thee, that thou mayest please thy wives? GOD hath granted unto you to lie with your maid-servants.4 Which last words are not to be found here, or elsewhere in the Korân, and contain an allowance of what is expressly forbidden therein;5 though the doctor has thence taken occasion to make some reflections which might as well have been spared. I shall say nothing to aggravate the matter, but leave the reader to imagine what this reverend divine would have said of a Mohammedan if he had caught him tripping in the like manner.
Having digressed so far, I will venture to add a word or two in order to account for one circumstance which Dr. Prideaux relates concerning Mohammeds concubine Mary; viz., that after her masters death, no account was had of her or the son which she had borne him, but both were sent away into Egypt, and no mention made of either ever after among them; and then he supposes (for he seldom is at a loss for a supposition) that Ayesha, out of the hatred which she bore her, procured of her father, who succeeded the impostor in the government, to have her thus disposed of.6 But it being certain, by the general consent of all the eastern writers, that Mary continued in Arabia till her death, which happened at Medina about five years after that of her master, and was buried in the usual burying-place there, called al Bakí, and that her son died before his father, it has been asked, whence the doctor had this?7 I answer, that I guess he had it partly from Abulfaragius, according to the printed edition of whose work, the Mary we are speaking of is said to have been sent with her sister Shirin (not with her son) to Alexandria by al Mokawkas;8 though I make no doubt but we ought in that passage to read min, from, instead if ila, to (notwithstanding the manuscript copies of this author used by Dr. Pocock, the editor, and also a very fair one in my own possession, agree in the latter reading); and that the sentence ought to run thus, quam (viz., Mariam) unà cum sorore Shirina ab Alexandria miserat al Mokawkas.
1 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi.
1 Idem, Jallal., Yahya.
2 Gagnier, not. ad Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 150.
3 See cap. 33, p. 318, 319.
4 Prid. Life of Mah. p. 113.
5 See cap. 17, p. 209; cap. 4, p. 56; and cap. 24, p. 267, &c.
6 Prid. Life of Mah. p. 114.
7 Gagnier, ubi supra.
8 Abulfarag. Hist. Dynast. p. 165.
|WHY,1 O Prophet! dost thou hold that to be FORBIDDEN which God hath made lawful to thee, from a desire to please thy wives, since God is Lenient, Merciful?||1 The first verses of this Sura were revealed (Hej. 7.) on occasion of Muhammad's reviving affection for Mary, a Copt slave sent him by the governor of Egypt, from whom he had recently (verse 3) sworn to his wife Hafsa to separate entirely. Hafsa, who had been greatly incensed at their amour, of which Muhammad had himself informed her, communicated the matter in confidence to Ayesha, from whose altered manner, probably, the prophet found that his secret had been betrayed. To free Muhammad from his obligation to Hafsa was the object of this chapter.|
|109||2||66||GOD hath allowed you the dissolution of your oaths:i and GOD is your master; and he is knowing and wise.||i By having appointed an expiation for that purpose;9 or, as the words may be translated, God hath allowed you to use an exception in your oaths if it please GOD; in which case a man is excused from guilt if he perform not his oath.10 The passage, though directed to all the Moslems in general, seems to be particularly designed for quieting the prophets conscience in regard to the oath above mentioned: but Al Beidâwi approves not this opinion, because such an oath was to be looked upon as an inconsiderate one, and required no expiation.
9 See cap. 5, p. 84.
10 Al Beidâwi.
|God hath allowed you release from your oaths; and God is your master: and He is the Knowing, Wise.|
|109||3||66||When the prophet intrusted as a secret unto one of his wives a certain accident; and when she disclosed the same, and GOD made it known unto him; he acquainted her with part of what she had done, and forbore to upbraid her with the other part thereof. And when he had acquainted her therewith, she said, Who hath discovered this unto thee? He answered, The knowing, the sagacious God hath discovered it unto me.k||k When Mohammed found that Hafsa knew of his having injured her, or Ayesha, by lying with his concubine Mary on the day due to one of them, he desired her to keep the affair secret, promising, at the same time, that he would not meddle with Mary any more; and foretold her, as a piece of news which might soothe her vanity, that Abu Becr and Omar should succeed him in the government of his people. Hafsa, however, could not conceal this from Ayesha, with whom she lived in strict friendship, but acquainted her with the whole matter: whereupon the prophet, perceiving, probably by Ayeshas behaviour, that his secret had been discovered, upbraided Hafsa with her betraying him, telling her that GOD had revealed it to him; and not only divorced her, but separated him from all his other wives for a whole month, which time he spent in the apartment of Mary. In a short time, notwithstanding, he took Hafsa again, by the direction, as he gave out, of the angel Gabriel, who commended her for her frequent fasting and other exercises of devotion, assuring him likewise that she should be one of his wives in paradise.11
11 Idem. al Zamakh, &c.
|When the prophet told a recent occurrence as a secret to one of his wives, and when she divulged it and God informed him of this, he acquainted her with part and withheld part.2 And when he had told her of it, she said, "Who told thee this?" He said, "The Knowing, the Sage hath told it me.||2 Muhammad withheld the fact that Ayesha, as well as God, was his informant, but taxed Hafsa with not having kept his secret.|
|109||4||66||If ye both be turned unto GOD (for your hearts have swerved) it is well: but if ye join against him, verily GOD is his patron; and Gabriel, and the good man among the faithful, and the angels also are his assistants.l||l This sentence is directed to Hafsa and Ayesha; the pronouns and verbs of the second person being in the dual number.||"If ye both be turned to God in penitence, for now have your hearts gone astray . . . .3 but if ye conspire against the Prophet, then know that God is his Protector, and Gabriel, and every just man among the faithful; and the angels are his helpers besides.|
|109||5||66||If he divorce you, his LORD can easily give him in exchange other wives better than you, women resigned unto God, true believers, devout, penitent, obedient, given to fasting, both such as have been known by other men, and virgins.||"Haply if he put you both away, his Lord will give him in exchange other wives better than you, Muslims, believers, devout, penitent, obedient, observant of fasting, both known of men and virgins."|
|109||6||66||O true believers, save your souls, and those of your families, from the fire whose fuel is men and stones, over which are set angels fierce and terrible;m who disobey not GOD in what he hath commanded them, but perform what they are commanded.||O Believers! save yourselves and your families from the fire whose fuel is men and stones, over which are set angels fierce and mighty: they disobey not God in what He hath commanded them, but execute His behests.|
|109||7||66||O unbelievers, excuse not yourselves this day; ye shall surely be rewarded for what ye have done.n||n These words will be spoken to the infidels at the last day.||O ye Infidels! make no excuses for yourselves this day; ye shall surely be recompensed according to your works.|
|109||8||66||O true believers, turn unto GOD with a sincere repentance: peradventure your LORD will do away from you your evil deeds, and will admit you into gardens, through which rivers flow; on the day whereon GOD will not put to shame the prophet, or those who believe with him: their light shall run before them, and on their right hands,o and they shall say, LORD, make our light perfect, and forgive us: for thou art almighty.||o See chapter 57, p. 400.||O Believers! turn to God with the turning of true penitence; haply your Lord will cancel your evil deeds, and will bring you into the gardens 'neath which the rivers flow, on the day when God will not shame the Prophet, nor those who have shared his faith: their light shall run before them, and on their right hands! they shall say, "Lord perfect our light, and pardon us: for thou hast power over all things."|
|109||9||66||O prophet, attack the infidels with arms, and the hypocrites with arguments; and treat them with severity: their abode shall be hell, and an ill journey shall it be thither.||O Prophet! make war on the infidels and hypocrites, and deal rigorously with them. Hell shall be their abode! and wretched the passage to it!|
|109||10||66||GOD propoundeth as a similitude unto the unbelievers, the wife of Noah, and the wife of Lot: they were under two of our righteous servants, and they deceived them both;p wherefore their husbands were of no advantage unto them at all, in the sight of GOD:q and it shall be said unto them, at the last day, Enter ye into hell fire, with those who enter therein.||p Who were both unbelieving women, but deceived their respective husbands by their hypocrisy. Noahs wife, named Wâïla, endeavoured to persuade the people her husband was distracted; and Lots wife, whose name was Wâhela (though some writers give this name to the other, and that of Wâïla to the latter), was in confederacy with the men of Sodom, and used to give them notice when any strangers came to lodge with him, by a sign of smoke by day, and of fire by night.1
1 Jallal., al Zamakh.
q For they both met with a disastrous end in this world,2 and will be doomed to eternal misery in the next. In like manner, as Mohammed would insinuate, the infidels of his time had no reason to expect any mitigation of their punishment, on account of their relation to himself and the rest of the true believers.
2 See cap. 11, p. 162, 166, and 167.
|God setteth forth as an example to unbelievers the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot; they were under two of our righteous servants, both of whom they deceived: but their husbands availed them nought against God: and it shall be said "Enter ye into the fire with those who enter."|
|109||11||66||GOD also propoundeth as a similitude unto those who believe, the wife of Pharaoh;r when she said, LORD, build me a house with thee in paradise; and deliver me from Pharaoh and his doings, and deliver me from the unjust people:||r viz., Asia, the daughter of Mozâhem. The commentators relate, that because she believed in Moses, her husband cruelly tormented her, fastening her hands and feet to four stakes, and laying a large mill-stone on her breast, her face, at the same time, being exposed to the scorching beams of the son. These pains, however, were alleviated by the angels shading her with their wings, and the view of the mansion prepared for her in paradise, which was exhibited to her on her pronouncing the prayer in the text. At length GOD received her soul; or, as some say, she was taken up alive into paradise, where she eats and drinks.3
3 Jallal., al Zamakh.
|God also holdeth forth to those who believe the example of the wife of Pharaoh,4 when she said, "Lord, build me an house with thee in Paradise, and deliver me from Pharaoh and his doings; and deliver me from the wicked:"||4 Asia, a name, perhaps, corrupted from that of Pharaoh's daughter Bithiah. 1 Chron. iv.18.|
|109||12||66||and Mary the daughter of Imran; who preserved her chastity, and into whose womb we breathed of our spirit,s and who believed in the words of her LORD, and his scriptures, and was a devout and obedient person.t||s See chapter 19, p. 228, &c.
t On occasion of the honourable mention here made of these two extraordinary women, the commentators introduce a saying of their prophet, That among men there had been many perfect, but no more than four of the other sex had attained perfection; to wit, Asia, the wife of Pharaoh; Mary, the daughter of Imrân; Khadîjah, the daughter of Khowailed (the prophets first wife); and Fâtema, the daughter of Mohammed.
|And Mary, the daughter of Imran, who kept her maidenhood, and into whose womb5 we breathed of our spirit, and who believed in the words of her Lord and His Scriptures, and was one of the devout.||5 See Sura xxi. 91. Lit. quae rimam suam tuita est, in quam (rimam) inflavimus Spiritus nostri partem. Thus Beidh.|
|63||0||67||CHAPTER LXVII.||SURA LXVII.THE KINGDOM [LXIII.]|
|63||0||67||ENTITLED, THE KINGDOM;u REVEALED AT MECCA.||u It is also entitled by some, The Saving, or The Delivering, because, say they, it will save him who reads it from the torture of the sepulchre.||MECCA. 30 Verses|
|63||0||67||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|63||1||67||(XXIX.) BLESSED be he in whose hand is the kingdom, for he is almighty!||BLESSED be He is whose hand is the KINGDOM! and over all things is He potent:|
|63||2||67||Who hath created death and life, that he might prove you, which of you is most righteous in his actions: and he is mighty, and ready to forgive.||Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 39, p. 39
|That He might prove you, which of you excel in deeds.||Who hath created death and life to prove which of you will be most righteous in deed; and He is the Mighty, the Forgiving!|
|63||3||67||Who hath created seven heavens, one above another: thou canst not see in a creature of the most Merciful any unfitness or disproportion.||The Seven Valleys (The Valley of Knowledge)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 6, paragraph 5 (into 2 parts)
Gems of Divine Mysteries, p. 32, paragraph 42
Tablets of the Divine Plan (within pp. 91-99, 13 To the Bahá'ís of Canada and Greenland)
|MG: No defect canst thou see in the creation of the God of Mercy: Repeat the gaze: Seest thou a single flaw?
cf. BWC1: no distinction amongst His creatures
cf. BWC2: no flaw in the creation of the heavens and the earth
BWC: No difference wilt thou see in the creation of the God of Mercy
O: Thou shalt see no difference in the creatures of God.
|Who hath created seven Heavens one above another: No defect canst thou see in the creation of the God of Mercy: Repeat the gaze: seest thou a single flaw?|
|63||4||67||Lift up thine eyes again to heaven, and look whether thou seest any flaw: then take two other views; and thy sight shall return unto thee dull and fatigued.||Then twice more repeat the gaze: thy gaze shall return to thee dulled and weary.|
|63||5||67||Moreover we have adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, and have appointed them to be darted at the devils,x for whom we have prepared the torment of burning fire:||x See chapter 15, p. 192.||Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 32-36, Nabíl-i-Zarandi)
Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 131-134, Muhammad-Mustafa Baghdádí)
|Moreover we have decked the lowest heaven with lights, and have placed them there to be hurled at the Satans, for whom we have prepared the torment of the flaming fire.|
|63||6||67||and for those who believe not in their LORD is also prepared the torment of hell; and ill journey shall it be thither.||And for those who believe not in their Lord is the torment of Hell; and horrid the journey thither!|
|63||7||67||When they shall be thrown thereinto, they shall hear it bray like an ass;y and it shall boil, and almost burst for fury.||y See chapter 31, p. 308.||When they shall be thrown into it, they shall hear it braying:1 and it shall boil||1 Thus Shakespeare uses the word braying of clamours of Hell; and Milton speaks of braying horrible discord. Comp. Sura xxv. 12-21.|
|63||8||67||So often as a company of them shall be thrown therein, the keepers thereof shall ask them, saying, Did not a warner come unto you?||Almost shall it burst for fury. So oft as a crowd shall be thrown into it, its keepers shall ask them, "Came not the warner to you?"|
|63||9||67||They shall answer, Yea, a warner came unto us: but we accused him of imposture, and said, GOD hath not revealed anything; ye are in no other than a great error:||They shall say, Yes! there came to us one charged with warnings; but we treated him as a liar, and said, "Nothing hath God sent down: ye are in nothing but a vast delusion."|
|63||10||67||and they shall say, If we had hearkened, or had rightly considered, we should not have been among the inhabitants of burning fire:||And they shall say, "Had we but hearkened or understood, we had not been among the dwellers in the flames;"|
|63||11||67||and they shall confess their sins; but far be the inhabitants of burning fire from obtaining mercy!||And their sin shall they acknowledge: but, "Avaunt, ye dwellers in the flame."|
|63||12||67||Verily they who fear their LORD in secret shall receive pardon and a great reward.||But pardon and a great reward for those who fear their Lord in secret!|
|63||13||67||Either conceal your discourse, or make it public; he knoweth the innermost part of your breasts:||Be your converse hidden or open, He truly knoweth the inmost recess of your breasts!|
|63||14||67||shall not he know all things who hath created them; since he is the sagacious, the knowing?||What! shall He not know who hath created? for He is the Subtil,2 the Cognizant.||2 Der alles durchdringt. Ullm.; perspicax. Mar.; sagacious. Sale. The primary meaning of the Arabic root is to draw near; hence the above signification, in the sense of God's presence as interpenetrating all things: hence also the other sense of benign, as in Sura [lxxxiii.] xlii. 18.|
|63||15||67||It is he who hath levelled the earth for you: therefore walk through the regions thereof, and eat of his provision; unto him shall be the resurrection.||It is He who hath made the earth level for you: traverse then its broad sides, and eat of what He hath provided.Unto Him shall be the resurrection.|
|63||16||67||Are ye secure that he who dwelleth in heaven will not cause the earth to swallow you up? and behold, it shall shake.||What! are ye sure that He who is in Heaven will not cleave the Earth beneath you? And lo, it shall quake.|
|63||17||67||Or are you secure that he who dwelleth in heaven will not send against you an impetuous whirlwind, driving the sands to overwhelm you? then shall ye know how important my warning was.||Or are ye sure that He who is in Heaven will not send against you a stone-charged whirlwind? Then shall ye know what my warning meant!|
|63||18||67||Those also who were before you disbelieved; and how grievous was my displeasure!||And verily, those who flourish before you treated their prophets as liars: and how grievous my wrath!|
|63||19||67||Do they not behold the birds above them, extending and drawing back their wings? None sustaineth them, except the Merciful; for he regardeth all things.||Behold they not the birds over their heads, outstretching and drawing in their wings? None, save the God of Mercy, upholdeth them: for he regardeth all things.|
|63||20||67||Or who is he that will be as an army unto you, to defend you against the Merciful? Verily the unbelievers are in no other than a mistake.||Who is he that can be as an army to you, to succour you, except the God of Mercy? Truly, the infidels are in the merest delusion.|
|63||21||67||Or who is he that will give you food, if he withholdeth his provision? yet they persist in perverseness, and flying from the truth.||Or who is he that will furnish you supplies, if He withhold His supplies? Yet do they persist in pride and in fleeing from Him!|
|63||22||67||Is he, therefore, who goeth grovelling upon his face, better directed than he who walketh upright in a straight way?z||z This comparison is applied by the expositors to the infidel and the true believer.||Is he who goeth along grovelling on his face, better guided than he who goeth upright on a straight path?|
|63||23||67||Say, It is he who hath given you being, and endued you with hearing, and sight, and understanding; yet how little gratitude have ye!||SAY: It is He who hath brought you forth, and gifted you with hearing and sight and heart: yet how few are grateful!|
|63||24||67||Say, It is he who hath sown you in the earth, and unto him shall ye be gathered together.||SAY: It is He who hath sown you in the earth, and to Him shall ye be gathered.|
|63||25||67||They say, When shall this menace be put in execution, if ye speak truth?||And they say, "When shall this threat be put in force, if ye speak the truth?"|
|63||26||67||Answer, The knowledge of this matter is with GOD alone: for I am only a public warner.||SAY: Nay truly, this knowledge is with God alone: and I am only an open warner.|
|63||27||67||But when they shall see the same nigh at hand, the countenance of the infidels shall grow sad: and it shall be said unto them, This is what ye have been demanding.||But when they shall see it nigh, sad shall wax the countenances of the infidels: and it shall be said, "This is what ye have been calling for."|
|63||28||67||Say, What think ye? Whether GOD destroy me and those who are with me, or have mercy on us; who will protect the unbelievers from a painful punishment?||SAY: What think ye? Whether God destroy me or not, and those who follow me, or whether he have mercy on us, yet who will protect the infidels from a woeful torment?|
|63||29||67||Say, He is the Merciful; in him do we believe, and in him do we put our trust. Ye shall hereafter know who is in a manifest error.||SAY: He is the God of Mercy: in Him do we believe, and in Him put we our trust; and ye shall know hereafter who is in a manifest error.|
|63||30||67||Say, What think ye? If your water be in the morning swallowed up by the earth, who will give you clear and running water?||SAY: What think ye? If at early morn your waters shall have sunk away, who then will give you clear running water?|
|17||0||68||CHAPTER LXVIII.||SURA LXVIII.THE PEN [XVII.]|
|17||0||68||ENTITLED, THE PEN; REVEALED AT MECCA.||Mecca.52 Verses|
|17||0||68||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|17||1||68||N.a BY the pen, and what they write,b||a This letter is sometimes made the title of the chapter, but its meaning is confessedly uncertain. They who suppose it stands for the word Nûn are not agreed as to its signification in this place; for it is not only the name of the letter N in Arabic, but signifies also an inkhorn and a fish; some are of opinion the former signification is the most proper here, as consonant to what is immediately mentioned of the pen and writing, and, considering that the blood of certain fish is good ink, not inconsistent with the latter signification; which is, however, preferred by others, saying that either the whole species of fish in general is thereby intended, or the fish which swallowed Jonas (who is mentioned in this chapter), or else that vast one called Behemoth, fancied to support the earth, in particular. Those who acquiesce in none of the foregoing explications have invented others of their own, and imagine this character stands for the table of GODS decrees, or one of the rivers in paradise, &c.1
1 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi, Yahya.
b Some understand these words generally, and others of the pen with which GODS decrees are written on the preserved table, and of the angels who register the same.
|Nun.1 By the PEN2 and by what they write,||1 It has been conjectured that as the word Nun means fish, there may be a reference to the fish which swallowed Jonas (v. 48). The fact, however, is that the meaning of this and of the similar symbols, throughout the Koran, was unknown to the Muhammadans themselves even in the first century. Possibly the letters Ha, Mim, which are prefixed to numerous successive Suras were private marks, or initial letters, attached by their proprietor to the copies furnished to Said when effecting his recension of the text under Othman. In the same way, the letters prefixed to other Suras may be monograms, or abbreviations, or initial letters of the names of the persons to whom the copies of the respective Suras belonged.
addendum: The symbol nun may possibly refer to this letter as forming the Rhyme in most of the verses of this Sura.
2 This Sura has been supposed by ancient Muslim authorities to be, if not the oldest, the second revelation, and to have followed Sura xcvi. But this opinion probably originated from the expression in v. 1 compared with Sura xcvi. 4. Verses 17-33 read like a later addition, and this passage, as well as verse 48-50, has been classed with the Medina revelations. In the absence of any reliable criterion for fixing the date, I have placed this Sura with those which detail the opposition encountered by the Prophet at Mecca.
|17||2||68||thou, O Mohammed, through the grace of thy LORD, art not distracted.||Thou, O Prophet; by the grace of thy Lord art not possessed!3||3 By djinn. Comp. Sur. xxxiv. 45.|
|17||3||68||Verily there is prepared for thee an everlasting reward:||And truly a boundless recompense doth await thee,|
|17||4||68||for thou art of a noble disposition.c||c In that thou hast borne with so much patience and resignation the wrongs and insults of thy people, which have been greater than those offered to any apostle before thee.2
2 Al Beidâwi.
|Memorials of the Faithful (within pp. 26-29, `Abdu's-Salih, the Gardener)
|Of a noble nature art thou.||For thou art of a noble nature.4||4 In bearing the taunts of the unbelievers with patience.|
|17||5||68||Thou shalt see, and the infidels shall see,||But thou shalt see and they shall see|
|17||6||68||which of you are bereaved of your senses.||Which of you is the demented.|
|17||7||68||Verily thy LORD well knoweth him who wandereth from his path; and he well knoweth those who are rightly directed:||Now thy Lord! well knoweth He the man who erreth from his path, and well doth he know those who have yielded to Guidance;|
|17||8||68||wherefore obey not those who charge thee with imposture.||Give not place, therefore, to those who treat thee as a liar:|
|17||9||68||They desire that thou shouldest be easy with them, and they will be easy with thee.d||d i.e., If thou wilt let them alone in their idolatry and other wicked practices, they will cease to revile and persecute thee.
3 Idem, Jallal.
|They desire thee to deal smoothly with them: then would they be smooth as oil with thee:|
|17||10||68||But obey not any who is a common swearer, a despicable fellow,||But yield not to the man of oaths, a despicable person,|
|17||11||68||a defamer, going about with slander,||Defamer, going about with slander,|
|17||12||68||who forbiddeth that which is good, who is also a transgressor, a wicked person,||Hinderer of the good, transgressor, criminal,|
|17||13||68||cruel, and besides this, of spurious birth:e||e The person at whom this passage was particularly levelled is generally supposed to have been Mohammeds inveterate enemy, al Walid Ebn al Mogheira, whom, to complete his character, he calls bastard, because al Mogheira did not own him for his son till he was eighteen years of age.1 Some, however, think it was al Akhnas Ebn Shoraik, who was really of the tribe of Thakîf, though reputed to be of that of Zahra.2
1 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|Harshbeside this, impure by birth,|
|17||14||68||although he be possessed of wealth and many children:||Though a man of riches and blessed with sons.|
|17||15||68||when our signs are rehearsed unto him, he saith, They are fables of the ancients.||Who when our wondrous verses are recited to him saith"Fables of the ancients."|
|17||16||68||We will stigmatize him on the nose.f||f Which being the most conspicuous part of the face, a mark set thereon is attended with the utmost ignominy. It is said that this prophetical menace was actually made good, al Walid having his nose slit by a sword at the battle of Bedr, the mark of which wound he carried with him to his grave.3
3 Idem, Jallaloddin.
|We will brand him on the nostrils.|
|17||17||68||Verily we have tried the Meccans,g as we formerly tried the owners of the garden;h when they swore that they would gather the fruit thereofi in the morning,||g By afflicting them with a grievous famine. See chapter 23, p. 260.
h This garden was a plantation of palm-trees, about two parsangs from Sanaa, belonging to a certain charitable man, who, when he gathered his dates, used to give public notice to the poor, and to leave them such of the fruit as the knife missed, or was blown down by the wind, or fell beside the cloth spread under the tree to receive it: after his death, his sons, who were then become masters of the garden, apprehending they should come to want if they followed their fathers example, agreed to gather the fruit early in the morning, when the poor could have no notice of the matter: but when they came to execute their purpose, they found, to their great grief and surprise, that their plantation had been destroyed in the night.4
i Literally, that they would cut it; the manner of gathering dates being to cut the clusters off with a knife. Marracci supposes they intended to cut down the trees, and destroy the plantation; which, as he observes, renders the story ridiculous and absurd.
|Verily, we have proved them (the Meccans) as we proved the owners of the garden, when they swore that at morn they would cut its fruits;|
|17||18||68||and added not the exception, if it please God:||But added no reserve.5||5 They did not add the restriction, if God will.|
|17||19||68||wherefore a surrounding destruction from thy LORD encompassed it, while they slept;||Wherefore an encircling desolation from thy Lord swept round it while they slumbered,|
|17||20||68||and in the morning it became like a garden whose fruits had been gathered.k||k Or, as the original may also be rendered, like a dark night; it being burnt up and black.||And in the morning it was like a garden whose fruits had all been cut.|
|17||21||68||And they called the one to the other as they rose in the morning,||Then at dawn they called to each other,|
|17||22||68||saying, Go out early to your plantation, if ye intend to gather the fruit thereof:||"Go out early to your field, if ye would cut your dates."|
|17||23||68||so they went on, whispering to one another,||So on they went whispering to each other,|
|17||24||68||No poor man shall enter the garden upon you, this day.||"No poor man shall set foot this day within your garden;"|
|17||25||68||And they went forth early, with a determined purpose.||And they went out at daybreak with this settled purpose.|
|17||26||68||And when they saw the garden blasted and destroyed, they said, We have certainly mistaken our way:||But when they beheld it, they said, "Truly we have been in fault:|
|17||27||68||but when they found it to be their own garden, they cried, Verily we are not permittedl to reap the fruit thereof.||l The same expression is used, chapter 56, p. 398.||Yes! we are forbidden our fruits."|
|17||28||68||The worthier of them said, Did I not say unto you, Will ye not give praise unto GOD?||The most rightminded of them said, "Did I not say to you, Will ye not give praise to God?"|
|17||29||68||They answered, Praise be unto our LORD! Verily we have been unjust doers.||They said, "Glory to our Lord! Truly we have done amiss."|
|17||30||68||And they began to blame one another,m||m For one advised this expedition, another approved of it, a third gave consent by his silence, but the fourth was absolutely against it.5
5 Al Beidâwi
|And they fell to blaming one another:|
|17||31||68||and they said, Woe be unto us! verily we have been transgressors:||They said, "Oh woe to us! we have indeed transgressed!|
|17||32||68||peradventure our LORD will give us in exchange a better garden than this: and we earnestly beseech our LORD to pardon us.||Haply our Lord will give us in exchange a better garden than this: verily we crave it of our Lord."|
|17||33||68||Thus is the chastisement of this life: but the chastisement of the next shall be more grievous: if they had known it, they would have taken heed.||Such hath been our chastisementbut heavier shall be the chastisement of the next world. Ah! did they but know it.|
|17||34||68||Verily for the pious are prepared, with their LORD, gardens of delight.||Verily, for the God-fearing are gardens of delight in the presence of their Lord.|
|17||35||68||Shall we deal with the Moslems, as with the wicked?n||n This passage was revealed in answer to the infidels, who said, If we shall be raised again, as Mohammed and his followers imagine, they will not excel us; but we shall certainly be in a better condition than they in the next world, as we are in this.6
|Shall we then deal with those who have surrendered themselves to God, as with those who offend him?|
|17||36||68||What aileth you that ye judge thus?||What hath befallen you that ye thus judge?|
|17||37||68||Have ye a book from heaven, wherein ye read||Have ye a Scripture wherein ye can search out|
|17||38||68||that ye are therein promised that which ye shall choose?||That ye shall have the things ye choose?|
|17||39||68||Or have ye received oaths which shall be binding upon us to the day of resurrection, that ye shall enjoy what ye imagine?||Or have ye received oaths which shall bind Us even until the day of the resurrection, that ye shall have what yourselves judge right?|
|17||40||68||Ask them, which of them will be the voucher of this.||Ask them which of them will guarantee this?|
|17||41||68||Or have they companionso who will vouch for them? Let them produce their companions, therefore, if they speak truth.||o Or, as some interpret the word, idols; which can make their condition, in the next life, equal to that of the Moslems?||Or is it that they have joined gods with God? let them produce those associate-gods of theirs, if they speak truth.|
|17||42||68||On a certain day the leg shall be made bare;p and they shall be called upon to worship, but they shall not be able.q||p This expression is used to signify a grievous and terrible calamity: thus they say, War has made bare the leg, when they would express the fury and rage of battle.7
7 Idem, Jallaloddin
q Because the time of acceptance shall be past. Al Beidâwi is uncertain whether the words respect the day of judgment, or the article of death: but Jallaloddin supposes them to relate to the former, and adds that the infidels shall not be able to perform the act of adoration, because their backs shall become stiff and inflexible.
|Selections from the Writings of the Báb (2 Excerpts from the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, Chapter VII, within pp. 46-47)
|On the day when men's legs shall be bared,6 and they shall be called upon to bow in adoration, they shall not be able:||6 An expression implying a grievous calamity; borrowed probably from the action of stripping previous to wrestling, swimming, etc.|
|17||43||68||Their looks shall be cast down: ignominy shall attend them; for that they were invited to the worship of God, while they were in safety, but would not hear.||Their looks shall be downcast: shame shall cover them: because, while yet in safety, they were invited to bow in worship, but would not obey.|
|17||44||68||Let me alone, therefore, with him who accuseth this new revelation of imposture. We will lead them gradually to destruction, by ways which they know not:r||r i.e., By granting them long life and prosperity in this world; which will deceive them to their ruin.||Leave me alone therefore with him who chargeth this revelation with imposture. We will lead them by degrees to their ruin; by ways which they know not;|
|17||45||68||and I will bear with them for a long time; for my stratagem is effectual.||Yet will I bear long with them; for my plan is sure.|
|17||46||68||Dost thou ask them any reward for thy preaching? But they are laden with debts.||Askest thou any recompense from them? But they are burdened with debt.|
|17||47||68||Are the secrets of futurity with them; and do they transcribe the same from the table of God's decrees?s||s See chapter 52, p. 389.||Are the secret things within their ken? Do they copy them from the Book of God?|
|17||48||68||Wherefore patiently wait the judgment of thy LORD: and be not like him who was swallowed by the fish;t when he cried unto God, being inwardly vexed.||t That is, be not impatient and pettish, as Jonas was. See chapter 21, p. 248.||Patiently then await the judgment of thy Lord, and be not like him who was in the fish,7 when in deep distress he cried to God.||7 Lit. the companion of the fish. Comp. on Jonah Sura xxxvii. 139-148, and Sura xxi. 87.|
|17||49||68||Had not grace from his LORD reached him, he had surely been cast forth on the naked shore, covered with shame:||Had not favour from his Lord reached him, cast forth would he have been on the naked shore, overwhelmed with shame:|
|17||50||68||but his LORD chose him, and made him one of the righteous.||But his Lord chose him and made him of the just.|
|17||51||68||It wanteth little but that the unbelievers strike thee down with their malicious looks, when they hear the admonition of the Koran; and they say, He is certainly distracted:||Selections from the Writings of the Báb (4 EXCERPTS FROM DALÁ'IL-I-SAB`IH (The Seven Proofs), p. 121)
|BWC: He is certainly a lunatic||Almost would the infidels strike thee down with their very looks when they hear the warning of the Koran. And they say, "He is certainly possessed."|
|17||52||68||but it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures.||Yet is it nothing less than a warning for all creatures.|
|42||0||69||CHAPTER LXIX.||SURA LXIX.THE INEVITABLE [XLII.]|
|42||0||69||ENTITLED, THE INFALLIBLE; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.52 Verses|
|42||0||69||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|42||1||69||THE infallible!u||u The original word al Hâkkat is one of the names or epithets of the day of judgment. As the root from which it is derived signifies not only to be or come to pass of necessity, but also to verify; some rather think that day to be so called because it will verify and show the truth of what men doubt of in this life, viz., the resurrection of the dead, their being brought to account, and the consequent rewards and punishments.8
|42||2||69||What is the infallible?||What is the Inevitable?|
|42||3||69||And what shall cause thee to understand what the infallible is?||And who shall make thee comprehend what the Inevitable is?|
|42||4||69||The tribes of Thamud and Ad denied as a falsehood the day which shall strikex men's hearts with terror.||x Arab. al Kâriát, or the striking; which is another name or epithet of the last day.||Themoud and Ad treated the day of Terrors1 as a lie.||1 Thus Beidh., Sale, etc. But with reference to another sense of the root karaa, it may be rendered the day of decision, the day on which man's lot shall be decided.|
|42||5||69||But Thamud were destroyed by a terrible noise:||So as to Themoud,2 they were destroyed by crashing thunder bolts;||2 On Ad and Themoud. See Sura vii. 63-77.|
|42||6||69||and Ad were destroyed by a roaring and furious wind;||And as to Ad, they were destroyed by a roaring and furious blast.|
|42||7||69||which God caused to assail them for seven nights and eight days successively: thou mightest have seen people during the same, lying prostrate, as though they had been the roots of hollow palm-trees;y||y See chapter 54, p. 392.||It did the bidding of God3 against them seven nights and eight days together, during which thou mightest have seen the people laid low, as though they had been the trunks of hollow palms;||3 Lit. God subjected it to himself, availed himself of it against them.|
|42||8||69||and couldest thou have seen any of them remaining?||And couldst thou have seen one of them surviving?|
|42||9||69||Pharaoh also, and those who were before him, and the cities which were overthrown,z were guilty of sin:||z Viz., Sodom and Gomorrah. See chapter 9, p. 142, note p.||Pharaoh also, and those who flourished before him, and the overthrown cities, committed sin,|
|42||10||69||and they severally were disobedient to the apostle of their LORD; wherefore he chastised them with an abundant chastisement.||And disobeyed the Sent one of their Lord; therefore did he chastise them with an accumulated chastisement.|
|42||11||69||When the water of the deluge arose, we carried you in the ark which swam thereon;||When the Flood rose high, we bare you in the Ark,|
|42||12||69||that we might make the same a memorial unto you, and the retaining ear might retain it.||That we might make that event a warning to you, and that the retaining ear might retain it.|
|42||13||69||And when one blast shall sound the trumpet,||But when one blast shall be blown on the trumpet,|
|42||14||69||and the earth shall be moved from its place, and the mountains also, and shall be dashed in pieces at one stroke:||And the earth and the mountains shall be upheaved, and shall both be crushed into dust at a single crushing,|
|42||15||69||on that day the inevitable hour of judgment shall suddenly come;||On that day the woe that must come suddenly shall suddenly come,4||4 El-wakia, the sudden event, the calamity; the woe that must break in upon Heaven and Earth. The same word is used, Sura lvi. 1, and ci. 1, for the Resurrection and Day of Judgment.|
|42||16||69||and the heavens shall cleave in sunder, and shall fall in pieces, on that day:||And the heaven shall cleave asunder, for on that day it shall be fragile;|
|42||17||69||and the angels shall be on the sides thereof;a and eight shall bear the throne of thy LORD above them, on that day.b||a These words seem to intimate the death of the angels at the demolition of their habitation; beside the ruins whereof they shall lie like dead bodies.
b The number of those who bear it at present being generally supposed to be but four; to whom four more will be added at the last day, for the grandeur of the occasion.1
|And the angels shall be on its sides, and over them on that day eight shall bear up the throne of thy Lord.|
|42||18||69||On that day ye shall be presented before the judgment-seat of God; and none of your secret actions shall be hidden.||On that day ye shall be brought before Him: none of your hidden deeds shall remain hidden:|
|42||19||69||And he who shall have his book delivered into his right hand shall say, Take ye, read this my book;||And he who shall have his book given to him in his right hand, will say to his friends, "Take ye it; read ye my book;|
|42||20||69||verily I thought that I should be brought to this my account:||I ever thought that to this my reckoning I should come."|
|42||21||69||he shall lead a pleasing life,||And his shall be a life that shall please him well,|
|42||22||69||in a lofty garden,||In a lofty garden,|
|42||23||69||the fruits whereof shall be near to gather.||Whose clusters shall be near at hand:|
|42||24||69||Eat and drink with easy digestion; because of the good works which ye sent before you, in the days which are past.||"Eat ye and drink with healthy relish, as the meed of what ye sent on beforehand in the days which are past."|
|42||25||69||But he who shall have his book delivered into his left hand shall say, Oh that I had not received this book;||But he who shall have his book given into his left hand, will say, "O that my book had never been given me!|
|42||26||69||and that I had not known what this my account was!||And that I had never known my reckoning!|
|42||27||69||Oh that death had made an end of me!||O that death had made an end of me!|
|42||28||69||My riches have not profited me;||My wealth hath not profited me!|
|42||29||69||and my power is passed from me.||My power hath perished from me!"|
|42||30||69||And God shall say to the keepers of hell, Take him, and bind him,||"Lay ye hold on him and chain him,|
|42||31||69||and cast him into hell to be burned:||Then at the Hell-fire burn him,|
|42||32||69||then put him into a chain of the length of seventy cubits:c||c i.e., Wrap him round with it, so that he may not be able to stir.||Then into a chain whose length is seventy cubits thrust him;|
|42||33||69||because he believed not in the great GOD;||For he believed not in God, the Great,|
|42||34||69||and was not solicitous to feed the poor:||And was not careful to feed the poor;|
|42||35||69||wherefore this day he shall have no friend here;||No friend therefore shall he have here this day,|
|42||36||69||nor any food, but the filthy corruption flowing from the bodies of the damned,||Nor food, but corrupt sores,|
|42||37||69||which none shall eat but the sinners.||Which none shall eat but the sinners."|
|42||38||69||I sweard by that which ye see,||d Or, I will not swear. See chapter 56, p. 398, note m.||It needs not that I swear by what ye see,|
|42||39||69||and that which ye see not,||And by that which ye see not,|
|42||40||69||that this is the discourse of an honourable apostle||That this verily is the word of an apostle worthy of all honour!|
|42||41||69||and not the discourse of a poet: how little do ye believe!||And that it is not the word of a poethow little do ye believe!|
|42||42||69||Neither is it the discourse of a soothsayer: how little are ye admonished!||Neither is it the word of a soothsayer (Kahin)how little do ye receive warning!|
|42||43||69||It is a revelation from the LORD of all creatures.||It is a missive from the Lord of the worlds.|
|42||44||69||If Mohammed had forged any part of these discourses concerning us,||But if Muhammad had fabricated concerning us any sayings,|
|42||45||69||verily we had taken him by the right hand,||We had surely seized him by the right hand,|
|42||46||69||and had cut in sunder the vein of his heart;||And had cut through the vein of his neck.5||5 In allusion to the mode of executing criminals in many eastern countries.|
|42||47||69||neither would we have withheld any of you from chastising him.||Nor would We have withheld any one of you from him.|
|42||48||69||And verily this book is an admonition unto the pious;||But, verily, It (the Koran) is a warning for the God-fearing;|
|42||49||69||and we well know that there are some of you who charge the same with imposture:||And we well know that there are of you who treat it as a falsehood.|
|42||50||69||but it shall surely be an occasion of grievous sighing unto the infidels;||But it shall be the despair of infidels,|
|42||51||69||for it is the truth of a certainty.||For it is the very truth of sure knowledge.|
|42||52||69||Wherefore praise the name of thy LORD, the great God.||Praise, then, the name of thy Lord, the Great.|
|47||0||70||CHAPTER LXX.||SURA LXX.THE STEPS OR ASCENTS [XLVII.]|
|47||0||70||ENTITLED, THE STEPS; REVEALED AT MECCA.||MECCA.44 Verses|
|47||0||70||IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.||In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful|
|47||1||70||ONE demanded and called for vengeance to fall||A SUITOR sued1 for punishment to light suddenly||1 Lit. asking one asked; probably some unbeliever, with reference to the opening of Sura lvi., p. 60, or like statements in some previous Sura.|
|47||2||70||on the unbelievers:e there shall be none to avert the same||e The person here meant is generally supposed to have been al Nodar Ebn al Hareth, who said, O GOD, if what Mohammed preaches be the truth from thee, rain down upon us a shower of stones, or send some dreadful judgment to punish us.1 Others, however, think it was Abu Jahl, who challenged Mohammed to cause a fragment of heaven to fall on them.2
1 Al Zamakh., al Beidâwi.
2 Al Beidâwi.
|On the infidels: none can hinder|
|47||3||70||from being inflicted by GOD, the possessor of the steps:f||f By which prayers and righteous actions ascend to heaven; or by which the angels ascend to receive the divine commands, or the believers will ascend to paradise. Some understand thereby the different orders of angels; or the heavens, which rise gradually one above another.||God from inflicting it, the master of those ASCENTS,|
|47||4||70||by which the angels ascend unto him, and the spirit Gabriel also, in a day whose space is fifty thousand years:g||g This is supposed to be the space which would be required for their ascent from the lowest part of creation to the throne of GOD, if it were to be measured; or the time which it would take a man up to perform that journey; and this is not contradictory to what is said elsewhere3 (if it be to be interpreted of the ascent of the angels), that the length of the day whereon they ascend is one thousand years; because that is meant only of their ascent from earth to the lower heaven, including also the time of their descent.
But the commentators generally taking the day spoken of in both these passages to be the day of judgment, have recourse to several expedients to reconcile them, some of which we have mentioned in another place;4 and as both passages seem to contradict what the Mohammedan doctors teach, that GOD will judge all creatures in the space of half a day,5 they suppose those large number of years are designed to express the time of the previous attendance of those who are to be judged;6 or else to the space wherein GOD will judge the unbelieving nations, of which they say there will be fifty, the trial of each nation taking up one thousand years, though that of the true believers will be over in the short space above mentioned.7
3 Cap. 32, p. 310.
4 Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 65.
5 See ibid. p. 69.
6 See ibid. p. 67.
7 Al Zamakh.
|By which the angels and the spirit ascend to him in a day, whose length is fifty thousand years.2||2 The expression is hyperbolical, and, as such, identical with Sura [lxx.] xxxii. 4. Compare also Sura xcvii., p. 37. where the descent is said to take place in a single night.|
|47||5||70||wherefore bear the insults of the Meccans with becoming patience;||Be thou patient therefore with becoming patience;|
|47||6||70||for they see their punishment afar off,||They forsooth regard that day as distant,|
|47||7||70||but we see it nigh at hand.||But we see it nigh:|
|47||8||70||On a certain day the heaven shall become like molten brass,||The day when the heavens shall become as molten brass,|
|47||9||70||and the mountains like wool of various colours, scattered abroad by the wind:||And the mountains shall become like flocks of wool:|
|47||10||70||and a friend shall not ask a friend concerning his condition,||And friend shall not question of friend,|
|47||11||70||although they see one another. The wicked shall wish to redeem himself from the punishment of that day, by giving up his children,||Though they look at one another. Fain would the wicked redeem himself from punishment on that day at the price of his children,|
|47||12||70||and his wife, and his brother,||Of his spouse and his brother,|
|47||13||70||and his kindred who showed kindness unto him,||And of his kindred who shewed affection for him,|
|47||14||70||and all who are in the earth; and that this might deliver him:||And of all who are on the earth that then it might deliver him.|
|47||15||70||by no means: for hell fire,||But no. For the fire,|
|47||16||70||dragging them by their scalps,||Dragging by the scalp,|
|47||17||70||shall call him who shall have turned his back, and fled from the faith,||Shall claim him who turned his back and went away,|
|47||18||70||and shall have amassed riches, and covetously hoarded them.||And amassed and hoarded.|
|47||19||70||Verily man is created extremely impatient:h||h See chapter 17, p. 208.||Man truly is by creation hasty;|
|47||20||70||when evil toucheth him, he is full of complaint;||When evil befalleth him, impatient;|
|47||21||70||but when good befalleth him, he becometh niggardly:||But when good falleth to his lot, tenacious.|
|47||22||70||except those who are devoutly given,||Not so the prayerful,|
|47||23||70||and who persevere in their prayers;||Who are ever constant at their prayers;|
|47||24||70||and those of whose substance a due and certain portion||And of whose substance there is a due and stated portion|
|47||25||70||is ready to be given unto him who asketh, and him who is forbidden by shame to ask:||For him who asketh, and for him who is ashamed3 to beg;||3 Lit. forbidden or prevented by shame.|
|47||26||70||and those who sincerely believe the day of judgment,||And who own the judgment-day a truth,|
|47||27||70||and who dread the punishment of their LORD:||And who thrill with dread at the chastisement of their Lord|
|47||28||70||(for there is none secure from the punishment of their LORD:)||For there is none safe from the chastisement of their Lord|
|47||29||70||and who abstain from the carnal knowledge of women||And who control their desires,|
|47||30||70||other than their wives, or the slaves which their right hands possess: (for as to them they shall be blameless;||(Save with their wives or the slaves whom their right hands have won, for there they shall be blameless;|
|47||31||70||but whoever coveteth any woman besides these, they are transgressors:)||But whoever indulge their desires beyond this are transgressors);|
|47||32||70||and those who faithfully keep what they are intrusted with, and their covenant;||And who are true to their trusts and their engagements,|
|47||33||70||and who are upright in their testimonies,||And who witness uprightly,|
|47||34||70||and who carefully observe the requisite rites in their prayers:||And who keep strictly the hours of prayer:|
|47||35||70||these shall dwell amidst gardens, highly honoured.||These shall dwell, laden with honours, amid gardens.|
|47||36||70||What aileth the unbelievers, that they run before thee in companies,||But what hath come to the unbelievers that they run at full stretch around thee,|
|47||37||70||on the right hand and on the left?||On the right hand and on the left, in bands?|
|47||38||70||Doth every man of them wish to enter into a garden of delight?||Is it that every man of them would fain enter that garden of delights?|
|47||39||70||By no means: verily we have created them of that which they know.i||i viz., Of filthy seed, which bears no relation or resemblance to holy beings; wherefore it is necessary for him who would hope to be an inhabitant of paradise, to perfect himself in faith and spiritual virtues, to fit himself for that place.1
1 Al Beidâwi.
|Not at all. We have created them, they know of what.|
|47||40||70||I sweark by the LORD of the east and of the west,l that we are able to destroy them,||k Or, I will not swear, &c. See chapter 56, p. 398, note m.
l The original words are in the plural number, and signify the different points of the horizon at which the sun rises and sets in the course of the year. See chapter 37, p. 334, note e.
|Kitáb-i-Íqán, part I, paragraph 45, p. 43
|But nay! I swear by the Lord of the Easts and the Wests,||It needs not that I swear by the Lord of the East and of the West4 that we have power.||4 See next Sura. v. 16.|
|47||41||70||and to substitute better than them in their room; neither are we to be prevented, if we shall please so to do.||To replace them with better than themselves: neither are we to be hindered.|
|47||42||70||Wherefore suffer them to wade in vain disputes, and to amuse themselves with sport: until they meet their day with which they have been threatened;||Wherefore let them flounder on and disport them, till they come face to face with their threatened day,|
|47||43||70||the day whereon they shall come forth hastily from their graves, as though they were troops hastening to their standard:||The day on which they shall flock up out of their graves in haste like men who rally to a standard:|
|47||44||70||their looks shall be downcast; ignominy shall attend them. This is the day with which they have been threatened.||Their eyes downcast; disgrace shall cover them. Such their threatened day.|