AL KORAN.

________


CHAPTER I.

ENTITLED, THE PREFACE, OR INTRODUCTION;a REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD


       PRAISE be to GOD, the LORD of all creatures;b the most merciful, the king of the day of judgment. Thee do we worship, and of thee do we beg assistance. Direct us in the right way, in the way of those to whom thou hast been gracious; not of those against whom thou art incensed, nor of those who go astray.c

      a In Arabic al Fâtihat. This chapter is a prayer, and held in great veneration by the Mohammedans, who give it several other honourable titles; as the chapter of prayer, of praise, of thanksgiving, of treasure, &c. They esteem it as the quintessence of the whole Korân, and often repeat it in their devotions both public and private, as the Christians do the Lord’s Prayer.1
      b The original words are, Rabbi ‘lâlamîna, which literally signify Lord of the worlds; but âlamîna in this and other places of the Korân properly mean the three species of rational creatures, men, genii, and angels. Father Marracci has endeavoured to prove from this passage that Mohammed believed a plurality of worlds, which he calls the error of the Manichees, &c.:2 but this imputation the learned Reland has shown to be entirely groundless.3
      c This last sentence contains a petition, that GOD would lead the supplicants into the true religion, by which is meant the Mohammedan, in the Korân often called the right way; in this place more particularly defined to be, the way of those to whom GOD hath been gracious, that is, of the prophets and faithful who preceded Mohammed; under which appellations are also comprehended the Jews and Christians, such as they were in the times of their primitive purity, before they had deviated from their respective institutions; not the way of the modern Jews, whose signal calamities are marks of the just anger of GOD against them for their obstinacy and disobedience: nor of the Christians of this age, who have departed from the true doctrine of Jesus, and are bewildered in a labyrinth of error.4
      This is the common exposition of the passage; though al Zamakhshari, and some others, by a different application of the negatives, refer the whole to the true believers; and then the sense will run thus: The way of those to whom thou hast been gracious, against whom thou art not incensed, and who have not erred. Which translation the original will very well bear.

      1 Vide Bobovium de Precib. Mohammed. p. 3, et seq. 2 In Prodromo ad Refut. Alcorani part iv. p. 76, et in notis ad Alc. c. I. 3 De Religion. Mohammed. p. 262 1 Jallalo’ddin. Al Beidawi, &c.


CHAPTER II.

ENTITLED, THE COW;d REVEALED PARTLY AT MECCA, AND PARTLY AT MEDINA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


A. L. M.e There is no doubt in this book; it is a direction to the pious, who believe in the mysteriesf of faith, who observe the appointed times of prayer, and distribute alms out of what we have bestowed on them, and who believe in that revelation, which hath been sent down unto thee and that which hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee,g and have firm assurance of the life to come:h these are directed by their LORD, and they shall prosper. As for the unbelievers, it will be equal to them whether thou admonish them, or do not admonish them; they will not believe. GOD hath sealed up their hearts and their hearing; a dimness covereth their sight, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. There are some who say, We believe in GOD, and the last day; but are not really believers: they seek to deceive GOD, and those who do believe, but they deceive themselves only, and are not sensible thereof. There is an infirmity in their hearts, and GOD hath increased that infirmity;i and they shall suffer a most painful punishment, because they have disbelieved. When one saith unto them, Act not corruptlyk in the earth; they reply, Verily we are men of integrity.l Are not they themselves corrupt doers? but they are not sensible thereof. And when one saith unto them, Believe ye as othersm believe; they answer, Shall we believe as fools believe? Are not they themselves fools? but they know it not. When they meet those who believe, they say, We do believe: but when they retire privately to their devils,n they say, We

      d This title was occasioned by the story of the red heifer, mentioned p. 9.
      e As to the meaning of these letters, see the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. III.
      f The Arabic word is gheib, which properly signifies a thing that is absent, at a great distance, or invisible, such as the resurrection, paradise, and hell. And this is agreeable to the language of scripture, which defines faith to be the evidence of things not seen.1
      g The Mohammedans believe that GOD gave written revelations not only to Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, but to several other prophets;2 though they acknowledge none of those which preceded the Korân to be now extant, except the Pentateuch of Moses, the Psalms of David, and the Gospel of Jesus; which yet they say were even before Mohammed’s time altered and corrupted by the Jews and Christians; and therefore will not allow our present copies to be genuine.
      h The original word al-âkherhat properly signifies the latter part of anything, and by way of excellence the next life, the latter or future state after death; and is opposed to al-donya, this world; and al-oula, the former or present life. The Hebrew word ahharith, from the same root, is used by Moses in this sense, and is translated latter end.3
      i Mohammed here, and elsewhere frequently, imitates the truly inspired writers, in making GOD by operation on the minds of reprobates to prevent their conversion. This fatality or predestination, as believed by the Mohammedans, hath been sufficiently treated of in the Preliminary Discourse.
      k Literally corrupt not in the earth, by which some expositors understand the sowing of false doctrine, and corrupting people’s principles.
      l According to the explication in the preceding note, this word must be translated reformers, who promote true piety by their doctrine and example.
      m The first companions and followers of Mohammed.4
      n The prophet, making use of the liberty zealots of all religions have, by prescription, of

      1 Heb. xi. I. See also Rom. xxiv. 25; 2 Cor. iv. 18 and v. 7. 2 Vide Reland. de Relig. Moham. p. 34 and Dissert. de Samaritanis, p. 34, &c. 3 Numb. xxiv. 20; Deut. viii. 16. 4 Jallalo’ddin.


really hold with you, and only mock at those people: GOD shall mock at them, and continue them in their impiety; they shall wander in confusion. There are the the men who have purchased error at the price of true direction: but their traffic hath not been gainful, neither have they been rightly directed. They are like unto one who kindleth a fire,o and when it hath enlightened all around him,p GOD taketh away their lightq and leaveth them in darkness, they shall not see; they are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore will they not repent. Or like a stormy cloud from heaven, fraught with darkness, thunder, and lightning,r they put their fingers in their ears because of the noise of the thunder, for fear of death; GOD encompasseth the infidels: the lightning wanteth but little of taking away their sight; so often as it enlighteneth them, they walk therein, but when darkness cometh on them, they stand still; and if GOD so pleased, he would certainly deprive them of their hearing and their sight, for GOD is almighty. O men of Mecca, serve your LORD who hath created you, and those who have been before you: peradventure ye will fear him; who hath spread the earth as a bed for you, and the heaven as a covering, and hath caused water to descend from heaven, and thereby produced fruits for your sustenance. Set not up therefore any equals unto GOD, against your own knowledge. If ye be in doubt concerning that revelation which we have sent down unto our servant, produce a chapter like unto it, and call upon your witnesses besides GOD,s if ye say truth. But if ye do it not, nor shall ever be able to do it; justly fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the unbelievers. But bear good tidings unto those who believe, and do good works, that they shall have gardens watered by rivers; so often as they eat of the fruit thereof for sustenance, they shall say, this is what we have formerly eaten of; and they shall be supplied with several sorts of fruit having a mutual resemblance to one another.t There shall they enjoy wives subject to no impurity, and there shall they continue forever. Moreover, GOD will not be ashamed to propound in a

giving ill language, bestows this name on the Jewish rabbins and Christian priests; though he seems chiefly to mean the former, against whom he had by much the greater spleen.
      o In this passage, Mohammed compares those who believed not on him, to a man who wants to kindle a fire, but as soon as it burns up, and the flames give a light, shuts his eyes, lest he should see. As if he had said, You, O Arabians, have long desired a prophet of your own nation, and now I am sent unto you, and have plainly proved my mission by the excellence of my doctrine and revelation, you resist conviction, and refuse to believe in me; therefore shall God leave you in your ignorance.
      p The sense seems to be here imperfect, and may be completed by adding the words, He turns from it, shuts his eyes, or the like.
      q That is of the unbelievers, to whom the word their being in the plural, seems to refer; though it is not unusual for Mohammed, in affectation of the prophetic style, suddenly to change the number against all rules of grammar.
      r Here he compares the unbelieving Arabs to people caught in a violent storm. To perceive the beauty of this comparison, it must be observed, that the Mohammedan doctors say, this tempest is a type or image of the Korân itself: the thunder signifying the threats therein contained; the lightning, the promises; and the darkness, the mysteries. The terror of the threats makes them stop their ears, unwilling to hear truths so disagreeable; when the promises are read to them, they attend with pleasure; but when anything mysterious or difficult of belief occurs, they stand stock still, and will not submit to be directed.
      s i.e., Your false gods and idols.
      t Some commentators1 approve of this sense, supposing the fruits of paradise, though of various tastes, are alike in colour and outward appearance: but others2 think the meaning to be, that the inhabitants of that place will find there fruits of the same or the like kinds as they used to eat while on earth.

       1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Al Zamakhshari.

parable a gnat, or even a more despicable thing:u for they who believe will know it to be the truth from their LORD; but the unbelievers will say, What meaneth GOD by this parable? he will thereby mislead many, and will direct many thereby: but he will not mislead any thereby, except the transgressors, who make void the covenant of GOD after the establishing thereof, and cut in sunder that which GOD hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the earth; they shall perish. How is it that ye believe not in GOD? Since ye were dead, and he gave you life;x he will hereafter cause you to die, and will again restore you to life; then shall ye return unto him. It is he who hath created for you whatsoever is on earth, and then set his mind to the creation of heaven, and formed it into seven heavens; he knoweth all things. When thy LORD said unto the angels, I am going to place a substitute on earth;y they said, Wilt thou place there one who will do evil therein, and shed blood? but we celebrate thy praise, and sanctify thee. GOD answered, Verily I know that which ye know not; and he taught Adam the names of all things, and then proposed them to the angels, and said, Declare unto me the names of these things if ye say truth. They answered, Praise be unto thee; we have no knowledge but what thou teachest us, for thou art knowing and wise. GOD said, O Adam, tell them their names. And when he had told them their names, GOD said, Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and know that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal?z And when we said unto the angels, Worshipa Adam, they

      u This was revealed to take off an objection made to the Korân by the infidels, for condescending to speak of such insignificant insects as the spider, the pismire, the bee, &c.3
      x i.e., Ye were dead while in the loins of your fathers, and he gave you life in your mothers wombs; and after death ye shall be again raised at the resurrection.4
      y Concerning the creation of Adam, here intimated, the Mohammedans have several peculiar traditions. They say the angels, Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil, were sent by God, one after another, to fetch for that purpose seven handfuls of earth from different depths, and of different colours (whence some account for the various complexion of mankind5); but the earth being apprehensive of the consequence, and desiring them to represent her fear to God that the creature he designed to form would rebel against him, and draw down his curse upon her, they returned without performing God’s command; whereupon he sent Azraïl on the same errand, who executed his commission without remorse, for which reason God appointed that angel to separate the souls from the bodies, being therefore called the angel of death. The earth he had taken was carried into Arabia, to a place between Mecca and Tayef, where, being first kneaded by the angels, it was afterwards fashioned by God himself into a human form, and left to dry6 for the space of forty days, or, as others say, as many years, the angels in the meantime often visiting it, and Eblis (then one of the angels who are nearest to God’s presence, afterwards the devil) among the rest; but he, not contented with looking on it, kicked it with his foot till it rung and knowing God designed that creature to be his superior, took a secret resolution never to acknowledge him as such. After this, God animated the figure of clay and endued it with an intelligent soul, and when he had placed him in paradise, formed Eve out of his left side.7
      z This story Mohammed borrowed from the Jewish traditions, which say that the angels having spoken of man with some contempt when God consulted them about his creation, God made answer that the man was wiser than they; and to convince them of it, he brought all kinds of animals to them, and asked them their names; which they not being able to tell, he put the same question to the man, who named them one after another; and being asked his own name and God’s name, he answered very justly, and gave God the name of JEHOVAH1. The angels’ adoring of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud.2
      a The original word signifies properly to prostrate one’s self till the forehead touches the ground, which is the humblest posture of adoration, and strictly due to GOD only; but it is sometimes, as in this place, used to express that civil worship or homage, which may be paid to creatures.3

      3 Yahya. 4 Jallalo’ddin. 5 Al Termedi, from a tradition of Abu Musa al Ashari 6 Kor. c. 55. 7 Khondamir. Jallalo’ddin. Comment. in Korân, &c. Vide D’Herbelot, Biblioth. Orient. p. 55. 1 Vide Rivin. Serpent. seduct. p. 56. 2 R. Moses Haddarshan, in Bereshit rabbah. 3 Jallalo’ddin.

all worshipped him, except Eblis, who refused, and was puffed up with pride, and became of the number of unbelievers.b And we said, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in the garden,c and eat of the fruit thereof plentifully wherever ye will; but approach not this tree,d lest ye become of the number of the transgressors. But Satan caused them to forfeit paradise,e and turned them out of the state of happiness wherein they had been; whereupon we said, Get ye down,f the one of you an enemy unto the other; and there shall be a dwelling-place for you on earth, and a provision for a season. And Adam learned words of prayer from his LORD, and GOD turned unto him, for he is easy to be reconciled and merciful. We said, Get ye all down from hence; hereafter shall there come unto you a direction from me,g and whoever shall follow my direction, on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved; but they who shall be unbelievers, and accuse our signsh of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell fire, therein shall they remain forever. O children of Israeli, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you; and perform your covenant with me,

      b This occasion of the devil’s fall has some affinity with an opinion which has been pretty much entertained among Christians,4 viz., that the angels being informed of GOD’S intention to create man after his own image, and to dignify human nature by CHRIST’S assuming it, some of them, thinking their glory to be eclipsed thereby, envied man’s happiness, and so revolted.
      c Mohammed, as appears by what presently follows, does not place this garden or paradise on earth, but in the seventh heaven.5
      d Concerning this tree or the forbidden fruit, the Mohammedans, as well as the Christians, have various opinions. Some say it was an ear of wheat; some will have it to have been a fig-tree, and others a vine.6 The story of the Fall is told, with some further circumstances, in the beginning of the seventh chapter.
      e They have a tradition that the devil offering to get into paradise to tempt Adam, was not admitted by the guard; whereupon he begged of the animals, one after another, to carry him in, that he might speak to Adam and his wife; but they all refused him except the serpent, who took him between two of his teeth, and so introduced him. They add that the serpent was then of a beautiful form, and not in the shape he now bears.7
      f The Mohammedans say that when they were cast down from paradise, Adam fell on the isle of Ceylon or Serendib, and Eve near Joddah (the port of Mecca) in Arabia; and that after a separation of 200 years, Adam was, on his repentance, conducted by the angel Gabriel to a mountain near Mecca, where he found and knew his wife, the mountain being thence named Arafat; and that he afterwards retired with her to Ceylon, where they continued to propagate their species.8
      It may not be improper here to mention another tradition concerning the gigantic stature of our first parents. Their prophet, they say, affirmed Adam to have been as tall as a high palm-tree;9 but this would be too much in proportion, if that were really the print of his foot, which is pretended to be such, on the top of a mountain in the isle of Ceylon, thence named Pico de Adam, and by the Arab writers Rahûn, being somewhat above two spans long10 (though others say it is 70 cubits long, and that when Adam set one foot here, he had the other in the sea)11; and too little, if Eve were of so enormous a size, as is said, when her head lay on one hill near Mecca, her knees rested on two others in the plain, about two musket-shots asunder.12
      g GOD here promises Adam that his will should be revealed to him and his posterity; which promise the Mohammedans believe was fulfilled at several times by the ministry of several prophets, from Adam himself, who was the first, to Mohammed, who was the last. The number of books revealed unto Adam they say was ten.1
      h This word has various significations in the Korân; sometimes, as in this passage, it signifies divine revelation, or scripture in general; sometimes the verses of the Korân in particular, and at other times visible miracles. But the sense is easily distinguished by the context.
      i The Jews are here called upon to receive the Korân, as verifying and confirming the Pentateuch, particularly with respect to the unity of God and the mission of Mohammed.2 And they are exhorted not to conceal the passages of their law which bear witness to those truths, nor to corrupt them by publishing false copies of the Pentateuch, for which the writers were but poorly paid.3

      4 Irenæus, Lact. Greg. Nyssen. &c. 5 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 24. 6 Vide ibid. p. 22. 7 Vide ibid. 8 D’Herbelot, Bib. Orient. p. 55. 9 Yahya. 10 Moncony’s Voyage, part i. p. 372, &c. See Knox’s Account of Ceylon. 11 Anciennes Relations des Indes, &c. p. 3. 12 Moncony’s, ubi sup. 1 Vide Hottinger Hist. Orient. p. 11. Reland. de Relig. Mohammed, p. 21. 2 Yahya. 3 Jallalo’ddin.

and I will perform my covenant with you; and revere me: and believe in the revelation which I have sent down, confirming that which is with you, and be not the first who believe not therein, neither exchange my signs for a small price; and fear me. Clothe not the truth with vanity, neither conceal the truth against your own knowledge; observe the stated times of prayer, and pay your legal alms, and bow down yourselves with those who bow down. Will ye command men to do justice, and forget your own souls? yet ye read the book of the law: do ye not therefore understand? Ask help with perseverance and prayer; this indeed is grievous unless to the humble, who seriously think they shall meet their LORD and that to him they shall return. O children of Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have preferred you above all nations; dread the day wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any intercession be accepted from them, nor shall any compensation be received, neither shall they be helped. Remember when we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed you, they slew your male children, and let your females live: therein was a great trial from your LORD. And when we divided the sea for you and delivered you, and drowned Pharaoh's people while ye looked on.k And when we treated with Moses forty nights; then ye took the calfl for your God, and did evil; yet afterwards we forgave you, that peradventure ye might give thanks. And when we gave Moses the book of the law, and the distinction between good and evil, that peradventure ye might be directed. And when Moses said unto his people, O my people, verily ye have injured your own souls, by your taking the calf for your God; therefore be turned unto your Creator, and slay those among you who have been guilty of that crime;m this will be better for you in the sight of your Creator: and thereupon he turned unto you, for he is easy to be reconciled, and merciful. And when ye said, O Moses, we will not believe thee, until we see GOD manifestly; therefore a punishment came upon you, while ye looked on; then we raised you to life after ye had been dead, that peradventure ye might give thanks.n And

      k See the story of Moses and Pharaoh more particularly related, chapter vii. and xx. &c.
      l The person who cast this calf, the Mohammedans say, was (not Aaron but) al Sâmeri, one of the principal men among the children of Israel, some of whose descendants it is pretended still inhabit an island of that name in the Arabian Gulf.4 It was made of the rings5 and bracelets of gold, silver, and other materials, which the Israelites had borrowed of the Egyptians; for Aaron, who commanded in his brother’s absence, having ordered al Sâmeri to collect those ornaments from the people, who carried on a wicked commerce with them, and to keep them together till the return of Moses; al Sâmeri, understanding the founder’s art, put them altogether into a furnace to melt them down into one mass, which came out in the form of a calf.1 The Israelites, accustomed to the Egyptian idolatry, paying a religious worship to this image, al Sâmeri went farther, and took some dust from the footsteps of the horse of the angel Gabriel, who marched at the head of the people, and threw it into the mouth of the calf, which immediately began to low, and became animated;2 for such was the virtue of that dust.3 One writer says that all the Israelites adored this calf, except only 12,000.4
      m In this particular, the narration agrees with that of Moses, who ordered the Levites to slay every man his brother:5 but the scripture says, there fell of the people that day about 3,000 (the Vulgate says 23,000) men;6 whereas the commentators of the Korân make the number of the slain to amount to 70,000; and add, that GOD sent a dark cloud which hindered them from seeing one another, lest the sight should move those who executed the sentence to compassion.7
      n The persons here meant are said to have been seventy men, who were made choice of by


      4 Geogr. Nubiens. p. 45. 5 Kor. c. 7. 1 See Exod. xxxii. 24. 2 Kor. c. 7. 3 Jallalo’ddin. Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 650. 4 Abulfeda. 5 Exod. xxxii. 26, 27. 6 Ibid. 28. 7 Jallalo’ddin, &c.

we caused clouds to overshadow you, and manna and quailso to descend upon you, saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food: and they injured not us, but injured their own souls. And when we said, Enter into this city,p and eat of the provisions thereof plentifully as ye will; and enter the gate worshipping, and say, Forgiveness!q we will pardon you your sins, and give increase unto the well-doers. But the ungodly changed the expression into another,r different from what had been spoken unto them; and we sent down upon the ungodly indignation from heaven,s because they had transgressed. And when Moses asked drink for his people, we said, Strike the rockt with thy rod; and there gushed thereout twelve fountainsu according to the number of the tribes, and all men knew their respective drinking-place. Eat and drink of the bounty of GOD, and commit not evil on the earth, acting unjustly. And when ye said, O Moses, we will by no means be satisfied with one kind of food; pray unto thy LORD therefore for us, that he would produce for us of that which the earth bringeth forth, herbs and cucumbers, and garlic, and lentils, and onions;x Moses answered,

Moses and heard the voice of GOD talking with him. But not being satisfied with that, they demanded to see GOD; whereupon they were all struck dead by lightning, and on Moses’s intercession restored to life.8
      o The eastern writers say these quails were of a peculiar kind, to be found nowhere but in Yaman, from whence they were brought by a south wind in great numbers to the Israelites’ camp in the desert.9 The Arabs call these birds Salwâ, which is plainly the same with the Hebrew Salwim, and say they have no bones, but are eaten whole.10
      p Some commentators suppose it to be Jericho, others Jerusalem.
      q The Arabic word is Hittaton, which some take to signify that profession of the unity of GOD so frequently used by the Mohammedans, La ilâha illa ‘llaho, There is no god but GOD.
      r According to Jallalo’ddin, instead of Hittaton, they cried Habbat fi shaïrat–i.e., a grain in an ear of barley; and in ridicule of the divine command to enter the city in an humble posture, they indecently crept in upon their breech.
      s A pestilence which carried off near 70,000 of them.11
t The commentators say this was a stone which Moses brought from Mount Sinai, and the same that fled away with his garments which he laid upon it one day while he washed; they add that Moses ran after the stone naked, till he found himself, ere he was aware, in the midst of the people, who, on this accident, were convinced of the falsehood of a report which had been raised of their prophet, that he was bursten, or, as others write, an hermaphrodite.1
      They describe it to be a square piece of white marble, shaped like a man’s head; wherein they differ not much from the accounts of European travellers, who say this rock stands among several lesser ones, about 100 paces from Mount Horeb, and appears to have been loosened from the neighbouring mountains, having no coherence with the others; that it is a huge mass of red granite, almost round on one side, and flat on the other, twelve feet high, and as many thick, but broader than it is high, and about fifty feet in circumference.2
      u Marracci thinks this circumstance looks like a Rabbinical fiction, or else that Mohammed confounds the water of the rock at Horeb with the twelve wells at Elim;3 for he says several who have been on the spot affirm there are but three orifices whence the water issued.4 But it is to be presumed that Mohammed had better means of information in this respect than to fall into such a mistake; for the rock stands within the borders of Arabia, and some of his countrymen must needs have seen it, if he himself did not, as it is most probable he did. And in effect he seems to be in the right. For one who went into those parts in the end of the fifteenth century tells us expressly that the water issued from twelve places of the rock, according to the number of the tribes of Israel; egressæ sunt aquæ largissimæ in duodecim locis petræ, juxta numerum duodecim tribuum Israel.5 A late curious traveller6 observes that there are twenty-four holes in the stone, which may be easily counted–that is to say, twelve on the flat side, and as many on the opposite round side, every one being a foot deep, and an inch wide; and he adds, that the holes on one side do not communicate with those on the other, which a less accurate spectator not perceiving (for they are placed horizontally, within two feet of the top of the rock), might conclude they pierced quite through the stone, and so reckon them to be but twelve.
      x See Numb. xi. 5, &c.

      8 Ismael Ebn Ali. 9 See Psalm lxxviii. 26. 10 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 477. 11 Jallalo’ddin. 1 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya. 2 Breydenbach, Itinerar. Chartâ m. p. 1. Sicard, dans les Mémoires des Missions, vol. vii. p. 14. 3 Exod. xv. 27; Numb. xxxiii. 9. 4 Marracc. Prodr. part iv. p. 80. 5 Breydenbach, ubi sup. 6 Sicard, ubi sup.

Will ye exchange that which is better, for that which is worse? Get ye down into Egypt, for there shall ye find what ye desire: and they were smitten with vileness and misery, and drew on themselves indignation from GOD. This they suffered, because they believed not in the signs of GOD, and killed the prophets unjustly; this, because they rebelled and transgressed. Surely those who believe, and those who Judaize, and Christians, and Sabians,y whoever believeth in GOD, and the last day, and doth that which is right, they shall have their reward with their LORD; there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. Call to mind also when we accepted your covenant, and lifted up the mountain of Sinai over you,z saying, Receive the law which we have given you, with a resolution to keep it, and remember that which is contained therein, that ye may beware. After this ye again turned back, so that if it had not been for GOD's indulgence and mercy towards you, ye had certainly been destroyed. Moreover ye know what befell those of your nation who transgressed on the sabbath day;a We said unto them, Be ye changed into apes, driven away from the society of men. And we made them an example unto those who were contemporary with them, and unto those who came after them, and a warning to the pious. And when Moses said unto his people, Verily GOD commandeth you to sacrifice a cow;b they answered, Dost thou make a jest

      y From these words, which are repeated in the fifth chapter, several writers7 have wrongly concluded that the Mohammedans hold it to be the doctrine of their prophet that every man may be saved in his own religion, provided he be sincere and lead a good life. It is true, some of their doctors do agree this to be the purport of the words;1 but then they say the latitude hereby granted was soon revoked, for that this passage is abrogated by several others in the Korân, which expressly declare that none can be saved who is not of the Mohammedan faith, and particularly by those words of the third chapter, Whoever followeth any other religion than Islâm (i.e., the Mohammedan) it shall not be accepted of him, and at the last day he shall be of those who perish.2 However, others are of opinion that this passage is not abrogated, but interpret it differently, taking the meaning of it to be that no man, whether he be a Jew, a Christian, or a Sabian, shall be excluded from salvation, provided he quit his erroneous religion and become a Moslem, which they say is intended by the following words, Whoever believeth in GOD and the last day, and doth that which is right. And this interpretation is approved by Mr. Reland, who thinks the words here import no more than those of the apostle, In every nation he that feareth GOD, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him;3 from which it must not be inferred that the religion of nature, or any other, is sufficient to save, without faith in Christ.4
      z The Mohammedan tradition is, that the Israelites refusing to receive the law of Moses, GOD tore up the mountain by the roots, and shook it over their heads, to terrify them into a compliance.5
      a The story to which this passage refers, is as follows: In the days of David some Israelites dwelt at Ailah, or Elath, on the Red Sea, where on the night of the sabbath the fish used to come in great numbers to the shore, and stay there all the sabbath, to tempt them; but the night following they returned into the sea again. At length some of the inhabitants, neglecting GOD’S command, catched fish on the sabbath, and dressed and ate them; and afterward cut canals from the sea, for the fish to enter, with sluices, which they shut on the sabbath, to prevent their return to the sea. The other part of the inhabitants, who strictly observed the sabbath, used both persuasion and force to stop this impiety, but to no purpose, the offenders growing only more and more obstinate; whereupon David cursed the sabbath-breakers, and God transformed them into apes. It is said that one going to see a friend of his that was among them, found him in the shape of an ape, moving his eyes about wildly; and asking him whether he was not such a one, the ape made a sign with his head that it was he; whereupon the friend said to him, Did not I advise you to desist? at which the ape wept. They add that these unhappy people remained three days in this condition, and were afterwards destroyed by a wind which swept them all into the sea.6
      b The occasion of this sacrifice is thus related. A certain man at his death left his son, then

      7 Selden, de Jure Nat. et Gent. sec. Hebr. l. 6, c. 12. Angel, a St. Joseph. Gazophylac. Persic. p. 365. Nic. Cusanus in Cribratione Alcorani, l. 3, c. 2, &c. 1 See Chardin’s Voyages, vol. ii. p. 326, 331. 2 Abu’lkasem Hebatallah de abrogante et abrogato. 3 Acts x. 35. 4 Vide Reland. de Rel. Moham. p. 128, &c. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 6 Abulfeda.

of us! Moses said, GOD forbid that I should be one of the foolish. They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would show us what cow it is. Moses answered, He saith, She is neither an old cow, nor a young heifer, but of a middle age between both: do ye therefore that which ye are commanded. They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would show us what colour she is of. Moses answered, He saith, She is a red cow,c intensely red, her colour rejoiceth the beholders. They said, Pray for us unto thy LORD, that he would further show us what cow it is, for several cows with us are like one another, and we, if GOD please, will be directed. Moses answered, He saith, She is a cow not broken to plough the earth, or water the field, a sound one, there is no blemish in her. They said, Now hast thou brought the truth. Then they sacrificed her; yet they wanted but little of leaving it undone.d And when ye slew a man, and contended among yourselves concerning him, GOD brought forth to light that which ye concealed. For we said, Strike the dead body with part of the sacrificed cow:e so GOD raiseth the dead to life, and showeth you his signs, that peradventure ye may understand. Then were your hearts hardened after this, even as stones, or exceeding them in hardness: for from some stones have rivers bursted forth, others have been rent in sunder, and water hath issued from them, and others have fallen down for fear of GOD. But GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. Do ye therefore desire that the Jews should believe you? yet a part of them heard the word of GOD, and then perverted it, after they had understood it, against their own conscience. And when they meet the true believers, they say, We believe: but when they are privately assembled together, they say, Will ye acquaint them with what GOD hath revealed unto you, that they may dispute with you concerning it in the presence of your LORD? Do ye not therefore understand? Do not they know that GOD knoweth that which they conceal as well as that which they publish? But there are illiterate

a child, a cow-calf, which wandered in the desert till he came to age; at which time his mother told him the heifer was his, and bid him fetch her, and sell her for three pieces of gold. When the young man came to the market with his heifer, an angel in the shape of a man accosted him, and bid him six pieces of gold for her; but he would not take the money till he had asked his mother’s consent; which when he had obtained, he returned to the market-place, and met the angel, who now offered him twice as much for the heifer, provided he would say nothing of it to his mother; but the young man refusing, went and acquainted her with the additional offer. The woman perceiving it was an angel, bid her son go back and ask him what must be done with the heifer; whereupon the angel told the young man that in a little time the children of Israel would buy that heifer of him at any price. And soon after it happened that an Israelite, named Hammiel, was killed by a relation of his, who, to prevent discovery, conveyed the body to a place considerably distant from that where the fact was committed. The friends of the slain man accused some other persons of the murder before Moses; but they denying the fact, and there being no evidence to convict them, God commanded a cow, of such and such particular marks, to be killed; but there being no other which answered the description except the orphan’s heifer, they were obliged to buy her for as much gold as her hide would hold; according to some, for her full weight in gold, and as others say, for ten times as much. This heifer they sacrificed, and the dead body being, by divine direction, struck with a part of it, revived, and standing up, named the person who had killed him; after which it immediately fell down dead again.1 The whole story seems to be borrowed from the red heifer, which was ordered by the Jewish law to be burnt, and the ashes kept for purifying those who happened to touch a dead corpse;2 and from the heifer directed to be slain for the expiation of an uncertain murder. See Deut. xxi. 1-9.
      c The epithet in the original is yellow; but this word we do not use in speaking of the colour or cattle.
      d Because of the exorbitant price which they were obliged to pay for the heifer.
      e i.e., Her tongue, or the end of her tail.3

       1 Abulfeda. 2 Numb. xix. 3 Jallalo’ddin.

men among them, who know not the book of the law, but only lying stories, although they think otherwise. And woe unto them, who transcribe corruptly the book of the lawf with their hands, and then say, This is from GOD: that they may sell it for a small price. Therefore woe unto them because of that which their hands have written; and woe unto them for that which they have gained. They say, The fire of hell shall not touch us but for a certain number of days.g Answer, Have ye received any promise from GOD to that purpose? for GOD will not act contrary to his promise: or do ye speak concerning GOD that which ye know not? Verily whoso doth evil,h and is encompassed by his iniquity, they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever: but they who believe and do good works, they shall be the companions of paradise, they shall continue therein forever. Remember also, when we accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall not worship any other except GOD, and ye shall show kindness to your parents and kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and speak that which is good unto men, and be constant at prayer, and give alms. Afterwards ye turned back, except a few of you, and retired afar off. And when we accepted your covenant, saying, Ye shall not shed your brother's blood nor dispossess one another of your habitations; then ye confirmed it, and were witnesses thereto. Afterwards ye were they who slew one another,i and turned several of your brethren out of their houses, mutually assisting each other against them with injustice and enmity; but if they come captives unto you, ye redeem them: yet it is equally unlawful for you to dispossess them. Do ye therefore believe in part of the book of the law, and reject other part thereof? But whoso among you doth this, shall have no other reward than shame in this life, and on the day of resurrection they shall be sent to a most grievous punishment; for GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. These are they who have purchased this present life, at the price of that which is to come; wherefore their punishment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be helped. We formerly delivered the book of the law unto Moses, and caused apostles to succeed him, and gave evident miracles to Jesus the son of Mary, and strengthened him with the holy spirit.k Do ye therefore, whenever an apostle

      f Mohammed again accuses the Jews of corrupting their scripture.
      g That is, says Jallalo’ddin, forty; being the number of days that their forefathers worshipped the golden calf; after which they gave out that their punishment should cease. It is a received opinion among the Jews at present, that no person, be he ever so wicked, or of whatever sect, shall remain in hell above eleven months, or at most a year; except Dathan and Abiram, and atheists, who will be tormented there to all eternity.1
      h By evil in this place the commentators generally understand polytheism or idolatry; which sin the Mohammedans believe, unless repented of in this life, is unpardonable and will be punished by eternal damnation; but all other sins they hold will at length be forgiven. This therefore is that irremissible impiety, in their opinion, which in the New Testament is called the sin against the Holy Ghost.
      i This passage was revealed on occasion of some quarrels which arose between the Jews of the tribes of Koreidha, and those of al Aws, al Nadhîr, and al Khazraj, and came to that height that they took arms and destroyed one another’s habitations, and turned one another out of their houses; but when any were taken captive, they redeemed them. When they were asked the reason of their acting in this manner, they answered, That they were commanded by their law to redeem the captives, but that they fought out of shame, lest their chiefs should be despised.2
      k We must not imagine Mohammed here means the Holy Ghost in the Christian acceptation.

      1 Vide Bartoloccii Biblioth. Rabbinic. tom. ii. p. 128, et tom. iii. p. 421. 2 Jallalo’ddin.

cometh unto you with that which your souls desire not, proudly reject him, and accuse some of imposture, and slay others? The Jews say, Our hearts are uncircumcised: but GOD hath cursed them with their infidelity; therefore few shall believe. And when a book came unto them from GOD, confirming the scriptures which were with them, although they had before prayed for assistance against those who believed not,l yet when that came unto them which they knew to be from God, they would not believe therein: therefore the curse of GOD shall be on the infidels. For a vile price have they sold their souls, that they should not believe in that which GOD hath sent down;m out of envy, because GOD sendeth down his favors to such of his servants as he pleaseth: therefore they brought on themselves indignation on indignation; and the unbelievers shall suffer an ignominious punishment. When one saith unto them, Believe in that which GOD hath sent down; they answer, We believe in that which hath been sent down unto us:n and they reject what hath been revealed since, although it be the truth, confirming that which is with them. Say, Why therefore have ye slain the prophets of GOD in times past, if ye be true believers? Moses formerly came unto you with evident signs, but ye afterwards took the calf for your god and did wickedly. And when we accepted your covenant, and lifted the mountain of Sinai over you,o saying Receive the law which we have given you, with a resolution to perform it, and hear; they said, We have heard, and have rebelled: and they were made to drink down the calf into their heartsp for their unbelief. Say, A grievous thing hath your faith commanded you, if ye be true believers?q Say, if the future mansion with GOD be prepared peculariarly for you, exclusive of the rest of mankind, wish for death, if ye say truth; but they will never wish for it, because of that which their hands have sent before them;r GOD knoweth the wicked-doers; and thou shalt surely find them of all men the most covetous of life, even more than the idolaters: one of them would desire his life to be prolonged a thousand years, but none shall reprieve himself from punishment, that his life may be prolonged: GOD seeth that which they do. Say, Whoever is an enemy to Gabriels

The commentators says this spirit was the angel Gabriel, who sanctified Jesus and constantly attended on him.1
      l The Jews in expectation of the coming of Mohammed (according to the tradition of his followers) used this prayer, O God, help us against the unbelievers by the prophet who is to be sent in the last times.2
      m The Korân.
      n The Pentateuch.
      o See before p. 8.
      p Moses took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strewed it upon the water (of the brook that descended from the mount), and made the children of Israel drink of it.3
      q Mohammed here infers from their forefathers’ disobedience in worshipping the calf, at the same time that they pretended to believe in the law of Moses, that the faith of the Jews in his time was as vain and hypocritical, since they rejected him, who was foretold therein, as an impostor.4
      r That is, by reason of the wicked forgeries which they have been guilty of in respect to the scriptures. An expression much like that of St. Paul, where he says, that some men’s sins are open beforehand, going before to judgment.5
      s The commentators say that the Jews asked what angel it was that brought the divine revelations to Mohammed; and being told that it was Gabriel, they replied that he was their enemy, and the messenger of wrath and punishment; but if it had been Michael, they would

      1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem. 3 Exod. xxxii. 20; Deut. ix. 21. 4 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, al Beidâwi. 5 1 Tim. v. 24.

(for he hath caused the Koran to descend on thy heart, by the permission of GOD, confirming that which was before revealed, a direction, and good tidings to the faithful); whosoever is an enemy to GOD, or his angels, or his apostles, or to Gabriel, or Michael, verily GOD is an enemy to the unbelievers. And now we have sent down unto thee evident signs,t and none will disbelieve them but the evil-doers. Whenever they make a covenant, will some of them reject it? yea, the greater part of them do not believe. And when there came unto them an apostle from GOD, confirming that scripture which was with them, some of those to whom the scriptures were given cast the book of GOD behind their backs, as if they knew it not: and they followed the device which the devils devised against the kingdom of Solomon;u and Solomon was not an unbeliever; but the devils believed not, they taught men sorcery, and that which was sent down to the two angels at Babel, Harût and Marût:v yet those two taught no man until they had said, Verily we are a temptation, therefore be not an unbeliever. So men learned from those two a charm by which they might cause division between a man and his wife; but they hurt none thereby, unless by GOD'S permission, and they learned that which would hurt them, and not profit them; and yet they knew that he who bought that art should have no part in the life to come, and woful is the price for which they have sold their souls, if they knew it. But if they had believed, and feared GOD, verily the reward they would have had from GOD would have been better, if they had known it. O true believers, say not to our

have believed on him, because that angel was their friend, and the messenger of peace and plenty. And on this occasion, they say, this passage was revealed.1
      That Michael was really the protector or guardian angel of the Jews, we know from scripture;2 and it seems that Gabriel was, as the Persians call him, the angel of revelations, being frequently sent on messages of that kind;3 for which reason it is probable Mohammed pretended he was the angel from whom he received the Korân.
      t i.e., the revelations of this book.
      u The devils having, by GOD’S permission, tempted Solomon without success, they made use of a trick to blast his character. For they wrote several books of magic, and hid them under that prince’s throne, and after his death, told the chief men that if they wanted to know by what means Solomon had obtained his absolute power over men, genii, and the winds, they should dig under his throne; which having done, they found the aforesaid books, which contained impious superstitions. The better sort refused to learn the evil arts therein delivered, but the common people did; and the priests published this scandalous story of Solomon, which obtained credit among the Jews, till GOD, say the Mohammedans, cleared that king by the mouth of their prophet, declaring that Solomon was no idolater.4
      v Some say only that these were two magicians, or angels sent by GOD to teach men magic, and to tempt them.5 But others tell a longer fable; that the angels expressing their surprise at the wickedness of the sons of Adam, after prophets had been sent to them with divine commissions, GOD bid them choose two out of their own number to be sent down to be judges on earth. Whereupon they pitched upon Harût and Marût, who executed their office with integrity for some time, till Zohara, or the planet Venus, descended and appeared before them in the shape of a beautiful woman, bringing a complaint against her husband (though others say she was a real woman). As soon as they saw her, they fell in love with her, and endeavoured to prevail on her to satisfy their desires; but she flew up again to heaven, whither the two angels also returned, but were not admitted. However, on the intercession of a certain pious man, they were allowed to choose whether they would be punished in this life, or in the other; whereupon they chose the former, and now suffer punishment accordingly in Babel, where they are to remain till the day of judgment. They add that if a man has a fancy to learn magic, he may go to them, and hear their voice, but cannot see them.1
      This story Mohammed took directly from the Persian Magi, who mention two rebellious angels of the same names, now hung up by the feet, with their heads downwards, in the territory of Babel.2 And the Jews have something like this, of the angel Shamhozai, who, having

      1 Jallalo’ddin; al Zamakh. Yahya. 2 Dan. xii. I. 3 Ibid.. c. viii. 16, and ix. 21; Luke i. 19, 26. See Hyde de Rel. Vet. Persar. p. 263. 4 Yahya, Jallalo’ddin. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 1 Yahya, &c. 2 Vide Hyde, ubi sup. c. 12.

apostle
, Raïna; but say Ondhorna;x and hearken: the infidels shall suffer a grievous punishment. It is not the desire of the unbelievers, either among those unto whom the scriptures have been given, or among the idolaters, that any good should be sent down unto you from your LORD: but GOD will appropriate his mercy unto whom he pleaseth; for GOD is exceeding beneficent. Whatever verse we shall abrogate, or cause thee to forget, we will bring a better than it, or one like unto it. Dost thou not know that God is almighty? Dost thou not know that unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth? neither have ye any protector or helper except GOD. Will ye require of your apostle according to that which was formerly required of Moses?y but he that hath exchanged faith for infidelity, hath already erred from the straight way. Many of those unto whom the scriptures have been given, desire to render you again unbelievers, after ye have believed; out of envy from their souls, even after the truth is become manifest unto them; but forgive them, and avoid them, till GOD shall send his command; for GOD is omnipotent. Be constant in prayer, and give alms; and what good ye have sent before for your souls, ye shall find it with GOD; surely GOD seeth that which ye do. They say, Verily none shall enter paradise, except they who are Jews or Christians:z this is their wish. Say, Produce your proof of this, if ye speak truth. Nay, but he who resigneth himselfa to GOD, and doth that which is right,b he shall have his reward with his LORD: there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. The Jews say, The Christians are grounded on nothing;c and the Christians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing; and the Christians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing; yet they both read the scriptures. So likewise say they who know not the scripture, according to their saying. But GOD shall judge between them on the day of the resurrection, concerning that about which they now disagree. Who is more unjust than he who prohibiteth the temples of GOD,d that his name should be remembered therein, and who hasteth to destroy them? Those men cannot enter therein, but with fear: they shall have shame in this world, and in the next a grievous punishment. To GOD belongeth the east and the west; therefore whithersoever ye turn yourselves to pray, there is the

debauched himself with women, repented, and by way of penance hung himself up between heaven and earth.3
      x Those two Arabic words have both the same signification, viz., Look on us; and are a kind of salutation. Mohammed had a great aversion to the first, because the Jews frequently used it in derision, it being a word of reproach in their tongue.4 They alluded, it seems, to the Hebrew verb [Hebrew Text] ruá, which signifies to be bad or mischievous.
      y Namely, to see GOD manifestly.5
      z This passage was revealed on occasion of a dispute which Mohammed had with the Jews of Medina, and the Christians of Najrân, each of them asserting that those of their religion only should be saved.6
      a Literally, resigneth his face, &c.
      b That is, asserteth the unity of GOD.7
      c The Jews and Christians are here accused of denying the truth of each other’s religion, notwithstanding they read the scriptures. Whereas the Pentateuch bears testimony to Jesus, and the Gospel bears testimony to Moses.1
      d Or hindereth men from paying their adorations to GOD in those sacred places. This passage, says Jallalo’ddin, was revealed on news being brought that the Romans had spoiled the temple of Jerusalem; or else when the idolatrous Arabs obstructed Mohammed’s visiting the temple of Mecca, in the expedition of al Hodeibiya, which happened in the sixth year of the Hejra.2

      3 Bereshit rabbah, in Gen. vi. 2. 4 Jallalo’ddin. 5 See before, p. 7. 6 Jallalo’ddin. 7 Idem. 1 Idem. 2 Vide Abulfeda. Vit. Moham. p. 84, &c.

face of GOD; for GOD is omnipresent and omniscient. They say, GOD hath begotten children:e GOD forbid! To him belongeth whatever is in heaven, and on earth; all is possessed by him, the Creator of heaven and earth; and when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is. And they who know not the scriptures say, Unless GOD speak unto us, or thou show us a sign, we will not believe. So said those before them, according to their saying: their hearts resemble each other. We have already shown manifest signs unto people who firmly believe; we have sent thee in truth, a bearer of good tidings and a preacher; and thou shalt not be questioned concerning the companions of hell. But the Jews will not be pleased with thee, neither the Christians, until thou follow their religion; say, The direction of GOD is the true direction. And verily if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, thou shalt find no patron or protector against GOD. They to whom we have given the book of the Koran, and who read it with its true reading, they believe therein; and whoever believeth not therein, they shall perish. O children of Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have preferred you before all nations; and dread the day wherein one soul shall not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any compensation be accepted from them, nor shall any intercession avail, neither shall they be helped. Remember when the LORD tried Abraham by certain words,f which he fulfilled: GOD said, Verily I will constitute thee a model of religiong unto mankind; he answered, And also of my posterity; GOD said, My covenant doth not comprehend the ungodly. And when we appointed the holy househ of Mecca to be a place of resort for mankind, and a place of security; and said, Take the station of Abrahami for a place of prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham for a place of prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham and Ismael, that they should cleanse my house for those who should compass it, and those who should be devoutly assiduous there, and those who should bow down and worship. And when Abraham said, LORD make this a territory of security, and bounteously bestow fruits on its inhabitants, such of them as believe in GOD and the last day; GOD answered, And whoever believeth not, I will bestow on him little; after wards I will drive him to the punishment of hell fire; an ill journey shall it be! And when Abraham and Ismael raised the foundations of the house, saying, LORD, accept it from us, for thou art he who heareth and knoweth: LORD, make us also resignedk unto thee, and of our

      e This is spoken not only of the Christians and of the Jews (for they are accused of holding Ozair, or Ezra, to be the Son of GOD), but also the pagan Arabs, who imagined the angels to be the daughters of GOD.
      f GOD tried Abraham chiefly by commanding him to leave his native country, and to offer his son. But the commentators suppose the trial here meant related only to some particular ceremonies, such as circumcision, pilgrimage to the Caaba, several rites of purification, and the like.3
      g I have rather expressed the meaning, than truly translated the Arabic word Imâm, which answers to the Latin Antistes. This title the Mohammedans give to their priests, who begin the prayers in their mosques, and whom all the congregation follow.
      h That is, the Caaba, which is usually called, by way of eminence, the House. Of the sanctity of this building, and other particulars relating to it, see the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.
      i A place so called within the inner enclosure of the Caaba, where they pretend to show the print of his foot in a stone.4
      k The Arabic word is Moslemûna, in the singular Moslem, which the Mohammedans take as a title peculiar to themselves. The Europeans generally write and pronounce it Musulman.

       3 Jallalo’ddin. 4 See the Prelim. Disc., Sect. IV.

posterity a people resigned unto thee, and show us our holy ceremonies, and be turned unto us, for thou art easy to be reconciled, and merciful: LORD, send them likewise an apostle from among them, who may declare thy signs unto them, and teach them the book of the Koran and wisdom, and may purify them; for thou art mighty and wise. Who will be averse to the religion of Abraham, but he whose mind is infatuated? Surely we have chosen him in this world, and in that which is to come he shall be one of the righteous. When his LORD said unto him, Resign thyself unto me; he answered, I have resigned myself unto the LORD of all creatures. And Abraham bequeathed this religion to his children, and Jacob did the same, saying, My children, verily GOD hath chosen this religion for you, therefore die not, unless ye also be resigned. Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death? when he said to his sons, Whom will ye worship after me? They answered, We will worship thy GOD, and the GOD of thy fathers Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, one GOD, and to him will we be resigned. That people are now passed away, they have what they have gained,l and ye shall have what ye gain; and ye shall not be questioned concerning that which they have done. They say, Become Jews or Christians that ye may be directed. Say, Nay we follow the religion of Abraham the orthodox, who was no idolater. Say, We believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto us, and that which hath been sent down unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered unto Moses, and Jesus, and that which was delivered unto the prophets from their LORD: We make no distinction between any of them, and to GOD are we resigned. Now if they believe according to what ye believe, they are surely directed, but if they turn back, they are in schism. GOD shall support thee against them, for he is in the hearer, the wise. The baptism of GODm have we received, and who is better than GOD to baptize? him do we worship. Say, Will ye dispute with us concerning GOD,n who is our LORD, and your LORD? we have our works, and ye have your works, and unto him are we sincerely devoted. Will ye say, truly Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say, are ye wiser, or GOD? And who is more unjust than he who hideth the testimony which he hath received from GOD?o But GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. That people are passed away, they have what they have gained, and ye shall have what ye gain, nor shall ye be questioned concerning that which they have done. The foolish men will say, What hath turned them from their Keblah, towards which they formerly prayed?p Say unto GOD belongeth the

      l Or deserved. The Mohammedan notion, as to the imputation of moral actions to man, which they call gain, or acquisition, is sufficiently explained in the Preliminary Discourse.
      m By baptism is to be understood the religion which GOD instituted in the beginning; because the signs of it appear in the person who professes it, as the signs of water appear in the clothes of him that is baptized.1
      n These words were revealed because the Jews insisted that they first received the scriptures, that their Keblah was more ancient, and that no prophets could arise among the Arabs; and therefore if Mohammed was a prophet, he must have been of their nation.2
      o The Jews are again accused of corrupting and suppressing the prophecies in the Pentateuch relating to Mohammed.
      p At first, Mohammed and his followers observed no particular rite in turning their faces to-

       1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem.

east and the west: he directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. Thus have we placed you, O Arabians, an intermediate nation,q that ye may be witness against the rest of mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness against you. We appointed the Keblah, towards which thou didst formerly pray, only that we might know him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth back on the heels;r though this change seem a great matter, unless unto those whom GOD hath directed. But GOD will not render your faith of none effect;s for GOD is gracious and merciful unto man. We have seen thee turn about thy face towards heaven with uncertainty, but we will cause thee to turn thyself towards a Keblah that will please thee. Turn, therefore, thy face towards the holy temple of Mecca; and wherever ye be, turn your faces towards that place. They to whom the scripture hath been given, know this to be truth from their LORD. GOD is not regardless of that which ye do. Verily although thou shouldest show unto those to whom the scripture hath been given all kinds of signs, yet they will not follow thy Keblah, neither shalt thou follow their Keblah; nor will one part of them follow the Keblah of the other. And if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, verily thou wilt become one of the ungodly. They to whom we have given the scripture know our apostle, even as they know their own children, but some of them hide the truth, against their own knowledge. Truth is from thy LORD, therefore thou shalt not doubt. Every sect hath a certain tract of heaven to which they turn themselves in prayer; but do ye strive to run after good things; wherever ye be, GOD will bring you all back at the resurrection, for GOD is almighty. And from what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple, for this is truth from thy LORD; neither is GOD regardless of that which ye do. From what place soever thou comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple; and wherever ye be, thitherward turn your faces, lest men have matter of dispute against you; but as for those among them who are unjust doers, fear them not, but fear me, that I may accomplish my grace upon you, and that ye may be directed. As we have sent unto you an apostle from among you,t to rehearse our signs unto you, and to purify you, and to teach you the book of the Koran and wisdom, and to teach you that which ye knew not: therefore remember me, and I will remember you, and give thanks unto me, and be not unbelievers. O true believers, beg assistance with patience and prayer, for GOD is with the patient. And say not of those

wards any certain place, or quarter of the world, when they prayed; it being declared to be perfectly indifferent.3 Afterwards, when the prophet fled to Medina, he directed them to turn towards the temple of Jerusalem (probably to ingratiate himself with the Jews), which continued to be their Keblah for six or seven months; but either finding the Jews too intractable, or despairing otherwise to gain the pagan Arabs, who could not forget their respect to the temple of Mecca, he ordered that prayers for the future should be towards the last. This change was made in the second year of the Hejra,4 and occasioned many to fall from him, taking offence at his inconstancy.5
      q This seems to be the sense of the words; though the commentators6 will have the meaning to be that the Arabians are here declared to be a most just and good nation.
      r i.e., Returneth to Judaism.
      s Or will not suffer it to go without its reward, while ye prayed towards Jerusalem.
      t That is, of your own nation.

      3 See before, p. 13. 4 Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moham. p. 54. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 6 Idem. Yahya, &c.

who are slain in fight for the religion of GOD,u that they are dead; yea, they are living:x but ye do not understand. We will surely prove you by afflicting you in some measure with fear, and hunger, and decrease of wealth, and loss of lives, and scarcity of fruits: but bear good tidings unto the patient, who, when a misfortune befalleth them, say, We are GOD'S and unto him shall we surely return.y Upon them shall be blessings from their LORD and mercy, and they are the rightly directed. Moreover Safa and Merwah are two of the monuments of God: whoever therefore goeth on pilgrimage to the temple of Mecca or visiteth it, it shall be no crime in him, if he compass them both.z And as for him who voluntarily performeth a good work; verily GOD is grateful and knowing. They who conceal any of the evident signs, or the direction which we have sent down, after what we have manifested unto men in the scripture, GOD shall curse them; and they who curse shall curse them.a But as for those who repent and amend, and make known what they concealed, I will be turned unto them, for I am easy to be reconciled and merciful. Surely they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, upon them shall be the curse of GOD, and of the angels, and of all men; they shall remain under it forever, their punishment shall not be alleviated, neither shall they be regarded.b Your GOD is one GOD; there is no GOD but He, the most merciful. Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, and in the ship which saileth in the sea, loaden with what is profitable for mankind, and in the rain water which GOD sendeth from heaven, quickening thereby the dead earth, and replenishing the same with all sorts of cattle, and in the change of winds, and the clouds that are compelled to do servicec between heaven and earth, are signs to people of understanding: yet some men take idols beside GOD, and love them as with the love due to GOD; but the true believers are more

      u The original words are literally, who are slain in the way of GOD; by which expression, frequently occurring in the Korân, is always meant war undertaken against unbelievers for the propagation of the Mohammedan faith.
      x The souls of martyrs (for such they esteem those who die in battle against infidels), says Jallalo’ddin, are in the crops of green birds, which have liberty to fly wherever they please in paradise, and feed on the fruits thereof.
      y An expression frequently in the mouths of the Mohammedans, when under any great affliction, or in any imminent danger.
      z Safâ and Merwâ are two mountains near Mecca, whereon were anciently two idols, to which the pagan Arabs used to pay a superstitious veneration.1 Jallalo’ddin says this passage was revealed because the followers of Mohammed made a scruple of going round these mountains, as the idolaters did. But the true reason of his allowing this relic of ancient superstition seems to be the difficulty he found in preventing it. Abul Kâsem Hebato’llah thinks these last words are abrogated by those other, Who will reject the religion of Abraham, except he who hath infatuated his souls?2 So that he will have the meaning to be quite contrary to the letter, as if it had been, it shall be no crime in him if he do not compass them. However, the expositors are all against him3, and the ceremony of running between these two hills is still observed at the pilgrimage.4
      a That is, the angels, the believers, and all things in general.5 But Yahya interprets it of the curses which will be given to the wicked, when they cry out because of the punishment of the sepulchre,6 by all who hear them, that is, by all creatures except men and genii.
      b Or, as Jallalo’ddin expounds it, GOD will not wait for their repentance.
      c The original word signifies properly that are pressed or compelled to do personal service without hire; which kind of service is often exacted by the eastern princes of their subjects, and is called by the Greek and Latin writers, Angaria. The scripture often mentions this sort of compulsion by force.7

      1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. 2 See before, p. 15. 3 Vide Marracci in Alc. p. 69, &c 4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 6 See Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV 7 Matth. v. 41; xxvii. 32, &c.

fervent in love towards GOD. Oh that they who act unjustly did perceive,d when they behold their punishment, that all power belongeth unto GOD, and that he is severe in punishing! When those who have been followed shall separate themselves from their followers,e and shall see the punishment, and the cords of relation between them shall be cut in sunder; the followers shall say, If we could return to life, we would separate ourselves from them, as they have now separated themselves from us. So GOD will show them their works; they shall sigh grievously, and shall not come forth from the fire of hell. O men, eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth; and tread not in the steps of the devil, for he is your open enemy. Verily he commandeth you evil and wickedness, and that ye should say that of GOD which ye know not. And when it is said unto them who believe not, Follow that which GOD hath sent down; they answer, Nay, but we will follow that which we found our fathers practise. What? though their fathers knew nothing, and were not rightly directed? The unbelievers are like unto one who crieth aloud to that which heareth not so much as his calling, or the sound of his voice. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore do they not understand. O true believers, eat of the good things which we have bestowed on you for food, and return thanks unto GOD, if ye serve him. Verily he hath forbidden you to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood and swine's flesh, and that on which any other name but GOD'S hath been invocated.f But he who is forced by necessity, not lusting, nor returning to transgress, it shall be no crime in him if he eat of those things, for GOD is gracious and merciful. Moreover they who conceal any part of the scripture which GOD hath sent down unto them, and sell it for a small price, they shall swallow into their bellies nothing but fire; GOD shall not speak unto them on the day of resurrection, neither shall he purify them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. These are they who have sold direction for error, and pardon for punishment: but how great will their suffering be in the fire! This they shall endure, because GOD sent down the book of the Koran with truth, and they who disagree concerning that book are certainly in a wide mistake. It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces in prayer towards the east and the west, but righteousness is of him who believeth in GOD and the last day, and the angels, and the scriptures, and the prophets; who giveth money for GOD'S sake unto his kindred, and unto orphans, and the needy, and the stranger, and those who ask, and for redemption of captives; who is constant at prayer, and giveth alms; and of those who perform their covenant, when they have covenanted, and who behave themselves patiently in adversity, and hardships, and in time of violence; these are they who are true, and these are they who fear GOD. O true believers, the law of retaliation is ordained you for the slain: the free shall die for the

      d Or it may be translated, Although the ungodly will perceive, &c. But some copies instead of yara, in the third person, read tara, in the second; and then it must be rendered, Oh if thou didst see when the ungodly behold their punishment, &c.
      e That is, when the broachers or heads of new sects shall at the last day forsake or wash their hands of their disciples, as if they were not accomplices in their superstitions.
      f For this reason, whenever the Mohammedans kill any animal for food, they always say, Bismi llah, or In the name of GOD; which, if it be neglected, they think it not lawful to eat of it.

free, and the servant for the servant, and a woman for a woman:g but he whom his brother shall forgive may be prosecuted, and obliged to make satisfaction according to what is just, and a fine shall be set on himh with humanity. This is indulgence from your LORD, and mercy. And he who shall transgress after this, by killing the murderer, shall suffer a grievous punishment. And in this law or retaliation ye have life, O ye of understanding, that peradventure ye may fear. It is ordained you, when any of you is at the point of death, if he leave any goods, that he bequeath a legacy to his parents, and kindred, according to what shall be reasonable.i This is a duty incumbent on those who fear GOD. But he who shall change the legacy, after he hath heard it bequeathed by the dying person, surely the sin thereof shall be on those who change it, for GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. Howbeit he who apprehendeth from the testator any mistake or injustice, and shall compose the matter between them, that shall be no crime in him, for GOD is gracious and merciful. O true believers, a fast is ordained you, as it was ordained unto those before you, that ye may fear GOD. A certain number of days shall ye fast: but he among you who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast an equal number of other days. And those who cank keep it, and do not, must redeem their neglect by maintaining of a poor man.l And he who voluntarily dealeth better with the poor man than he is obliged, this shall be better for him. But if ye fast, it will be better for you, if ye knew it. The month of Ramadan shall ye fast, in which the Koran was sent down from heaven,n a direction unto men, and declarations of direction, and the distinction between good and evil. Therefore, let him among you who shall be present in this month, fast the same month; but he who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast the like number of other days. GOD would make

      g This is not to be strictly taken; for according to the Sonna, a man also is to be put to death for the murder of a woman. Regard is also to be had to difference in religion, so that a Mohammedan, though a slave, is not to be put to death for an infidel, though a freeman.1 But the civil magistrates do not think themselves always obliged to conform to this last determination of the Sonna.
      h This is the common practice in Mohammedan countries, particularly in Persia,2 where the relations of the deceased may take their choice, either to have the murderer put into their hands to be put to death, or else to accept of a pecuniary satisfaction.
      i That is, the legacy was not to exceed a third part of the testator’s substance, nor to be given where there was no necessity. But this injunction is abrogated by the law concerning inheritances.
      k The expositors differ much about the meaning of this passage, thinking it very improbable that people should be left entirely at liberty either to fast or not, on compounding for it in this manner. Jallalo’ddin, therefore, supposes the negative particle not to be understood, and that this is allowed only to those who are not able to fast, by reason of age or dangerous sickness; whether they would fast or maintain a poor man, which liberty was soon after taken away, and this passage abrogated by the following, Therefore let him who shall be present in this month, fast the same month. Yet this abrogation, he says, does not extend to women with child or that give suck, lest the infant suffer.
      Al Zamakhshari, having first given an explanation of Ebn Abbâs, who, by a different interpretation of the Arabic word Yotikûnaho, which signifies can or are able to fast, renders it, Those who find great difficulty therein, &c., adds an exposition of his own, by supposing something to be understood, according to which the sense will be, Those who can fast and yet have a legal excuse to break it, must redeem it, &c.
      l According to the usual quantity which a man eats in a day and the custom of the country.3
      m See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      n i.e., At home, and not in a strange country, where the fact cannot be performed, or on a journey.

      1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Vide Chardin Voyage de Perse, t. ii. p. 299, &c. 3 Jallalo’ddin.

this
an ease unto you, and would not make it a difficulty unto you; that ye may fulfil the number of days, and glorify GOD, for that he hath directed you, and that ye may give thanks. When my servants ask thee concerning me, Verily I am near; I will hear the prayer of him that prayeth, when he prayeth unto me: but let them hearken unto me, and believe in me, that they may be rightly directed. It is lawful for you, on the night of the fast, to go in unto your wives;o they are a garmentp unto you, and ye are a garment unto them. GOD knoweth that ye defraud yourselves therein, wherefore he turneth unto you, and forgiveth you. Now, therefore, go in unto them; and earnestly desire that which GOD ordaineth you, and eat and drink, until ye can plainly distinguish a white thread from a black thread by the daybreak: then keep the fast until night, and go not in unto them, but be constantly present in the places of worship. These are the prescribed bounds of GOD, therefore draw not near them to transgress them. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto men, that ye may fear him. Consume not your wealth among yourselves in vain; nor present it unto judges, that ye may devour part of men's substance unjustly, against your own consciences. They will ask thee concerning the phases of the moon: Answer, They are times appointed unto men, and to show the season of the pilgrimage to Mecca. It is not righteousness that ye enter your houses by the back parts thereof,q but righteousness is of him who feareth GOD. Therefore enter your houses by their doors; and fear GOD, that ye may be happy. And fight for the religion of GOD against those who fight against you; but transgress not by attacking them first, for GOD loveth not the transgressors. And kill them wherever ye find them, and turn them out of that whereof they have dispossessed you; for temptation to idolatry is more grievous than slaughter; yet fight not against them in the holy temple, until they attack you therein; but if they attack you, slay them there. This shall be the reward of infidels. But if they desist, GOD is gracious and merciful. Fight therefore against them, until there be no temptation to idolatry, and the religion be GOD'S; but if they desist, then let there be no hostility, except against the ungodly. A sacred month for a sacred month,r and the holy limits of Mecca, if they attack you therein, do ye also attack them therein in retaliation; and whoever transgresseth against you by so doing, do ye transgress against him in like manner as he hath transgressed against you, and fear GOD, and know that GOD is with those who fear him. Contribute out of your substance toward the defence of the religion of GOD, and throw not yourselves with your own hands into perdition;s and do good, for GOD loveth those who do

      o In the beginning of Mohammedism, during the fast, they neither lay with their wives, nor ate nor drank after supper. But both are permitted by this passage.1
      p A metaphorical expression, to signify the mutual comfort a man and his wife find in each other.
      q Some of the Arabs had a superstitious custom after they had been at Mecca (in pilgrimage, as it seems), on their return home, not to enter their house by the old door, but to make a hole through the back part for a passage, which practice is here reprehended.
      r As to these sacred months, wherein it was unlawful for the ancient Arabs to attack one another, see the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VII.
      s i.e., Be not accessory to your own destruction, by neglecting your contributions towards the wars against infidels, and thereby suffering them to gather strength.

       1 Jallalo’ddin.

good. Perform the pilgrimage of Mecca, and the visitation of GOD; and, if ye be besieged, send that offering which shall be the easiest; and shave not your heads,t until your offering reacheth the place of sacrifice. But, whoever among you is sick, or is troubled with any distemper of the head, must redeem the shaving his head, by fasting, or alms, or some offering.u When ye are secure from enemies, he who tarrieth in the visitation of the temple of Meccax until the pilgrimage, shall bring that offering which shall be the easiest. But he who findeth not anything to offer, shall fast three days in the pilgrimage, and seven when ye are returned: they shall be ten days complete. This is incumbent on him whose family shall not be present at the holy temple. And fear GOD, and know that GOD is severe in punishing. The pilgrimage must be performed in the known months:y whosoever therefore purposeth to go on pilgrimage therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress, nor quarrel in the pilgrimage. The good which ye do, GOD knoweth it. Make provision for your journey; but the best provision is piety and fear me, O ye of understanding. It shall be no crime in you, if ye seek an increase from your LORD, by trading during the pilgrimage. And when ye go in processionz from Arafat,a remember GOD near the holy monument;b and remember him for that he hath directed you, although ye were before this of the number of those who go astray. Therefore go in procession from whence the people go in procession, and ask pardon of GOD, for GOD is gracious and merciful. And when ye have finished your holy ceremonies, remember GOD, according as ye remember your fathers, or with a more reverent commemoration. There are some men who say, O LORD, give us our portion in this world; but such shall have no portion in the next life: and there are others who say, O LORD, give us good in this world and also good in the next world, and deliver us from the torment of hell fire. They shall have a portion of that which they have gained: GOD is swift in taking an account.c Remember GOD the appointed number of days:d but if any haste to depart from the valley of Mina in two days, it shall be no crime in him. And if any tarry longer, it shall be no crime in him, in him who feareth GOD. Therefore fear GOD, and

      t For this was a sign they had completed their vow, and performed all the ceremonies of the pilgrimage.1
      u That is, either by fasting three days, or feeding six poor people, or sacrificing a sheep.
      x This passage is somewhat obscure. Yahya interprets it of him who marries a wife during the visitation, and performs the pilgrimage the year following. But Jallalo’ddin expounds it of him who stays within the sacred enclosures, in order to complete the ceremonies which (as it should seem) he had not been able to do within the prescribed time.
      y i.e., Shawâl, Dhu’lkaada, and Dhu’lhajja. See the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.
      z The original word signifies to rush forward impetuously; as the pilgrims do when they proceed from Arafat to Mozdalifa.
      a A mountain near Mecca, so called because Adam there met and knew his wife, after a long separation.2 Yet others say that Gabriel, after he had instructed Abraham in all the sacred ceremonies, coming to Arafat, there asked him if he knew the ceremonies which had been shown him; to which Abraham answering in the affirmative, the mountain had thence its name.3
      b In Arabic, al Masher al harâm. It is a mountain in the farther part of Mozdalifa, where it is said Mohammed stood praying and praising God, till his face became extremely shining.4 Bobovious calls it Farkh5, but the true name seems to be Kazah; the variation being occasioned only by the different pointing of the Arabic letters.
      c For he will judge all creatures, says Jallalo’ddin, in the space of half a day.
      d i.e., Three days after slaying the sacrifices.

      1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 See before, p. 5, note f. 3 Al Hasan. 4 Jallalo’ddin. 5 Bobov. de Peregr. Meccana, p. 15.

know that unto him ye shall be gathered. There is a man who causeth thee to marvele by his speech concerning this present life, and calleth God to witness that which is in his heart, yet he is most intent in opposing thee; and when he turneth away from thee, he hasteth to act corruptly in the earth, and to destroy that which is sown, and springeth up:f but GOD loveth not corrupt doing. And if one say unto him, Fear GOD; pride seizeth him, together with wickedness; but hell shall be his reward, and an unhappy couch shall it be. There is also a man who selleth his soul for the sake of those things which are pleasing unto GOD;g and GOD is gracious unto his servants. O true believers, enter into the true religion wholly, and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your open enemy. If ye have slipped after the declarations of our will have come unto you, know that GOD is mighty and wise. Do the infidels expect less than that GOD should come down to them overshadowed with clouds, and the angels also? but the thing is decreed, and to GOD shall all things return. Ask the children of Israel how many evident signs we have showed them; and whoever shall change the grace of GOD after it shall have come unto him, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him. The present life was ordained for those who believe not, and they laugh the faithful to scorn; but they who fear GOD shall be above them, on the day of the resurrection: for GOD is bountiful unto whom he pleaseth without measure. Mankind was of one faith, and GOD sent prophets bearing good tidings, and denouncing threats and sent down with them the scripture in truth, that it might judge between men of that concerning which they disagreed: and none disagreed concerning it, except those to whom the same scriptures were delivered, after the declarations of GOD'S will had come unto them, out of envy among themselves. And GOD directed those who believed, to that truth concerning which they disagreed, by his will: for GOD directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. Did ye think ye should enter paradise, when as yet no such thing had happened unto you, as hath happened unto those who have been before you? They suffered calamity, and tribulation, and were afflicted; so that the apostle, and they who believed with him, said: When will the help of GOD come? Is not the help of GOD nigh? They will ask thee what they shall bestow in alms: Answer, The good which ye bestow, let it be given to parents, and kindred, and orphans, and the poor and the stranger. Whatsoever good ye do, GOD knoweth it. War is enjoined you against the Infidels; but this is hateful unto you: yet perchance ye hate a thing which is better for you, and perchance ye love a thing which is worse for you: but GOD knoweth and ye know not. They will ask thee concerning the sacred month, whether they may war therein: Answer, To war therein is grievous; but to obstruct the way of GOD, and infidelity towards him, and to keep

      e This person was al Akhnas Ebn Shoraik, a fair-spoken dissembler, who swore that he believed in Mohammed, and pretended to be one of his friends, and to contemn this world. But GOD here reveals to the prophet his hypocrisy and wickedness.1
      f Setting fire to his neighbour’s corn, and killing his asses by night.2
      g The person here meant was one Soheib, who being persecuted by the idolaters of Mecca, forsook all he had, and fled to Medina.3

       1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem. 3 Idem.

men
from the holy temple, and to drive out his people from thence, is more grievous in the sight of GOD, and the temptation to idolatry is more grievous than to kill in the sacred months. They will not cease to war against you, until they turn you from your religion, if they be able: but whoever among you shall turn back from his religion, and die an infidel, their works shall be vain in this world, and the next; they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever. But they who believe, and who fly for the sake of religion, and fight in GOD's cause, they shall hope for the mercy of GOD; for GOD is gracious and merciful. They will ask thee concerning wineh and lots:i Answer, In both there is great sin, and also some things of use unto men;k but their sinfulness is greater than their use. They will ask thee also what they shall bestow in alms: Answer, What ye have to spare. Thus GOD showeth his signs unto you, that peradventure ye might seriously think of this present world, and of the next. They will also ask thee concerning orphans: Answer, To deal righteously with them is best; and if ye intermeddle with the management of what belongs to them, do them no wrong; they are your brethren: GOD knoweth the corrupt dealer from the righteous; and if GOD please, he will surely distress you,l for GOD is mighty and wise. Marry not women who are idolaters, until they believe: verily a maid-servant who believeth, is better than an idolatress, although she please you more. And give not women who believe in marriage to the idolaters, until they believe: for verily a servant who is a true believer, is better than an idolater, though he please you more. They invite unto hell fire, but GOD inviteth unto paradise and pardon through his will, and declareth his signs unto men, that they may remember. They will ask thee also concerning the courses of women: Answer, They are a pollution: therefore separate yourselves from women in their courses, and go not near them, until they be cleansed. But when they are cleansed, go in unto them as GOD hath commanded you,m for GOD loveth those who repent, and loveth those who are clean. Your wives are your tillage, go in therefore unto your tillage in what manner soever ye will:n and do first some act that may be profitable unto your souls;o and fear GOD, and know that ye must meet him; and bear good

      h Under the name of wine all sorts of strong and inebriating liquors are comprehended.1
      i The original word, al Meiser, properly signifies a particular game performed with arrows, and much in use with the pagan Arabs. But by lots we are here to understand all games whatsoever, which are subject to chance or hazard, as dice, cards, &c.2
      k From these words some suppose that only drinking to excess and too frequent gaming are prohibited.3 And the moderate use of wine they also think is allowed by these words of the 16th chapter, And of the fruits of palm-trees and grapes ye obtain inebriating drink, and also good nourishment. But the more received opinion is, that both drinking wine or other strong liquors in any quantity, and playing at any game of chance, are absolutely forbidden.4
      l viz., By his curse, which shall certainly bring to nothing what ye shall wrong the orphans of.
      m But not while they have their courses, nor by using preposterous venery.1
      n It has been imagined that these words allow that preposterous lust, which the commentators say is forbidden by the preceding; but I question whether this can be proved.2
      o i.e., Perform some act of devotion or charity.

      1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V. 2 See ibid. 3 Vide Jallalo’ddin et al Zamakhshari. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. ubi sup. 1 Ebn Abbas, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, al Zamakhshari Vide Lucret. de Rer. Nat. l. 4, v. 1258, &c.

tidings unto the faithful. Make not GOD the object of your oaths,p that ye will deal justly, and be devout, and make peace among men;q for God is he who heareth and knoweth. GOD will not punish you for an inconsiderate wordr in your oaths; but he will punish you for that which your hearts have assented unto: GOD is merciful and gracious. They who vow to abstain from their wives, are allowed to wait four months:s but if they go back from their vow, verily GOD is gracious and merciful;t and if they resolve on a divorce, GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. The women who are divorced shall wait concerning themselves until they have their courses thrice,u and it shall not be lawful for them to conceal that which GOD hath created in their wombs,x if they believe in GOD and the last day; and their husbands will act more justly to bring them back at this time, if they desire a reconciliation. The women ought also to behave towards their husbands in like manner as their husbands should behave towards them, according to what is just: but the men ought to have a superiority over them. GOD is mighty and wise. Ye may divorce your wives twice; and then either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness. But it is not lawful for you to take away anything of what ye have given them, unless both fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of GOD.y And if ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinance of GOD, it shall be no crime in either of them on account of that for which the wife shall redeem herself.z These are the ordinances of GOD; therefore transgress them not; for whoever transgresseth the ordinances of GOD, they are unjust doers. But if the husband divorce her a third time, she shall not be lawful for him again, until she marry another husband. But if he also divorce her, it shall be no crime in them if they return to each other, if they think they can observe the ordinances of GOD, and these are the ordinances of GOD, he declareth them to people of understanding. But when ye divorce women, and they have fulfilled their pre-

      p So as to swear frequently by him. The word translated object, properly signifies a butt to shoot at with arrows.3
      q Some commentators4 expound this negatively, That ye will not deal justly, nor be devout, &c. For such wicked oaths, they say, were customary among the idolatrous inhabitants of Mecca; which gave occasion to the following saying of Mohammed: When your swear to do a thing, and afterwards find it better to do otherwise, do that which is better, and make void your oath.
      r When a man swears inadvertently, and without design.
      s That is, they may take so much time to consider; and shall not, by a rash oath, be obliged actually to divorce them.
      t i.e., If they be reconciled to their wives within four months, or after, they may retain them, and GOD will dispense with their oath.
      u This is to be understood of those only with whom the marriage has been consummated; for as to the others there is no time limited. Those who are not quite past childbearing (which a woman is reckoned to be after her courses cease, and she is fifty-five lunar years, or about fifty-three solar years old), and those who are too young to have children, are allowed three months only; but they who are with child must wait till they be delivered.5
      x That is, they shall tell the real truth, whether they have their courses, or be with child, or not; and shall not, by deceiving their husband, obtain a separation from him before the term be accomplished: lest the first husband’s child should, by that means, go to the second; or the wife, in case of the first husband’s death, should set up her child as his heir, or demand her maintenance during the time she went with such child, and the expenses of her lying-in, under pretence that she waited not her full prescribed time.6
      y For if there be a settled aversion on either side, their continuing together may have very ill, and perhaps fatal consequences.
      z i.e., If she prevail on her husband to dismiss her, by releasing part of her dowry.

      3 Jallalo’ddin. 4 Idem. Yahya. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 6 Yahya.

scribed time, either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness; and retain them not by violence, so that ye transgress;a for he who doth this surely injureth his own soul. And make not the signs of GOD a jest: but remember GOD'S favor towards you, and that he hath sent down unto you the book of the Koran, and wisdom admonishing you thereby; and fear GOD, and know that GOD is omniscient. But when ye have divorced your wives, and they have fulfilled their prescribed time, hinder them not from marrying their husbands, when they have agreed among themselves according to what is honourable. This is given in admonition unto him among you who believeth in GOD, and the last day. This is most righteous for you, and most pure. GOD knoweth, but ye know not. Mothers after they are divorced shall give suck unto their children two full years, to him who desireth the time of giving suck to be completed; and the father shall be obliged to maintain them and clothe them in the mean time, according to that which shall be reasonable. No person shall be obliged beyond his ability. A mother shall not be compelled to what is unreasonable on account of her child nor a father on account of his child. And the heir of the father shall be obliged to do in like manner. But if they choose to wean the child before the end of two years, by common consent, and on mutual consideration, it shall be no crime in them. And if ye have a mind to provide a nurse for your children, it shall be no crime in you, in case ye fully pay what ye offer her, according to that which is just. And fear GOD, and know that GOD seeth whatsoever ye do. Such of you as die, and leave wives, their wives must wait concerning themselves four months and ten days,b and when they shall have fulfilled their term, it shall be no crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves,c according to what is reasonable. GOD well knoweth that which ye do. And it shall be no crime in you, whether ye make public overtures of marriage unto such women, within the said four months and ten days, or whether ye conceal such your designs in your minds: GOD knoweth that ye will remember them. But make no promises unto them privately, unless ye speak honourable words; and resolve not on the knot of marriage until the prescribed time be accomplished; and know that GOD knoweth that which is in your minds, therefore beware of him and know that GOD is gracious and merciful. It shall be no crime in you, if ye divorce your wives, so long as ye have not touched them, nor settled any dowry on them. And provide for them (he who is at his ease must provide according to his circumstances) necessaries, according to what shall be reasonable. This is a duty incumbent on the righteous. But if ye divorce them before ye have touched them, and have already settled a dowry on them, ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless they release any part, or he release part in whose hand the knot of marriage is;d and if ye release

      a viz., By obliging them to purchase their liberty with part of their dowry.
      b That is to say, before they marry again; and this, not only for decency sake, but that it may be known whether they be with child by the deceased or not.
      c That is, if they leave off their mourning weeds, and look out for new husbands.
      d i.e., Unless the wife agree to take less than half her dowry, or unless the husband be so generous as to give her more than half, or the whole, which is here approved of as most commendable.

the whole, it will approach nearer unto piety. And not forget liberality among you, for GOD seeth that which ye do. Carefully observe the appointed prayers, and the middle prayer,e and be assiduous therein, with devotion towards GOD. But if ye fear any danger, pray on foot or on horseback; and when ye are safe remember GOD, how he hath taught you what as yet ye knew not. And such of you as shall die and leave wives ought to bequeath their wives a year's maintenance, without putting them out of their houses: but if they go out voluntarily, it shall be no crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves, according to what shall be reasonable; GOD is mighty and wise. And unto those who are divorced, a reasonable provision is also due; this is a duty incumbent on those who fear GOD. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may understand. Hast thou not considered those, who left their habitations, (and they were thousands,) for fear of death?f And GOD said unto them, Die; then he restored them to life, for GOD is gracious towards mankind; but the greater part of men do not give thanks. Fight for the religion of GOD, and know that GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. Who is he that will lend unto GOD on good usury?g verily he will double it unto him manifold; for GOD contracteth and extendeth his hand as he pleaseth, and to him shall ye return. Hast thou not considered the assembly of the children of Israel, after the time of Moses; when they said unto their prophet Samuel, Set a king over us, that we may fight for the religion of GOD. The prophet answered, If ye are enjoined to go to war, will ye be near refusing to fight? They answered, And what should ail us that we should not fight for the religion of GOD, seeing we are dispossessed of our habitations, and deprived of our children? But when they were enjoined to go to war, they turned back, except a few of them: and GOD knew the ungodly. And their prophet said unto them, Verily GOD hath set Talût,h king over you: they answered, How shall he reign over us, seeing we are more worthy of the kingdom than he, neither is he possessed of great riches? Samuel said, Verily GOD hath chosen him before you, and hath caused him to increase in knowledge and stature, for GOD

      e Yahya interprets this from a tradition of Mohammed, who, being asked which was the middle prayer, answered, The evening prayer, which was instituted by the prophet Solomon. But Jallalo’ddin allows a greater lattitude, and supposes it may be the afternoon prayer, the morning prayer, the noon prayer, or any other.
      f These were some of the children of Israel, who abandoned their dwellings because of a pestilence, or, as others say, to avoid serving in a religious war; but, as they fled, God struck them all dead in a certain valley. About eight days or more after, when their bodies were corrupted, the prophet Ezekiel, the son of Buzi, happening to pass that way, at the sight of their bones wept; whereupon God said to him, Call to them, O Ezekiel, and I will restore them to life. And accordingly on the prophet’s call they all arose, and lived several years after; but they retained the colour and stench of dead corpses as long as they lived, and the clothes they wore changed as black as pitch, which qualities they transmitted to their posterity.1 As to the number of these Israelites the commentators are not agreed; they who reckon least say they were 3,000, and they who reckon most, 70,000. This story seems to have been taken from Ezekiel’s vision of the resurrection of dry bones.2
      Some of the Mohammedan writers will have Ezekiel to have been one of the judges of Israel, and to have succeeded Othoniel the son of Caleb. They also call this prophet Ebn al ajûz, or the son of the old woman; because they say his mother obtained him by her prayers in her old age.3
      g viz., By contributing towards the establishment of his true religion.
      h So the Mohammedans name Saul.

      1 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, Abulfeda, &c. 2 Ezek. xxxvii. 1-10. 3 Al Thalabi, Abu Ishak, &c.

giveth his kingdom unto whom he pleaseth; GOD is bounteous and wise. And their prophet said unto them, Verily the sign of his kingdom shall be, that the ark shall come unto you:i therein shall be tranquility from your LORD,k and the relicsl which have been left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron; the angels shall bring it. Verily this shall be a sign unto you, if ye believe. And when Talut departed with his soldiers he said, Verily GOD will prove you by the river: for he who drinketh thereof, shall not be on my side (but he who shall not taste thereof he shall be on my side), except he who drinketh a draught out of his hand. And they drank thereof, except a few of them.m And when they had passed the river, he and those who believed with him, they said, We have no strength to-day, against Jalutn and his forces. But they who considered that they should meet GOD at the resurrection, said, How often hath a small army discomfited a great one, by the will of GOD! and GOD is with those who patiently persevere. And when they went forth to battle against Jalut and his forces, they said, O LORD, pour on us patience, and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving people. Therefore they discomfited them, by the will of GOD, and David slew Jalut. And GOD gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him his will;o and if GOD had not prevented men, the one by the other, verily the earth had been corrupted: but GOD is beneficent towards his creatures. These are the signs of GOD: we rehearse them unto thee with truth, and thou art surely one of those who have been sent by GOD. These are the apostles; we have preferred some of them before others; some of them hath GOD spoken unto, and hath exalted the degree of others of them. And we gave unto Jesus the son of Mary manifest signs, and strengthened him with the holy spirit.p And if GOD had pleased, they who came after those apostles would not have contended among themselves, after manifest signs had been shown unto them. But they fell to variance; therefore some of them believed, and some of them believed not; and if GOD had so pleased, they would not have con-

      i This ark, says Jallalo’ddin, contained the images of the prophets, and was sent down from heaven to Adam, and at length came to the Israelites, who put great confidence therein, and continually carried it in the front of their army, till it was taken by the Amalekites. But on this occasion the angels brought it back, in the sight of all the people, and placed it at the feet of Talût; who was thereupon unanimously acknowledged for their king.
      This relation seems to have arisen from some imperfect tradition of the taking and sending back the ark by the Philistines.4
      k That is, because of the great confidence the Israelites placed in it, having won several battles by its miraculous assistance. I imagine, however, that the Arabic word Sakînat, which signifies tranquillity or security of mind, and is so understood by the commentators, may not improbably mean the divine presence or glory, which used to appear on the ark, and which the Jews express by the same word Shechinah.
      l These were the shoes and rod of Moses, the mitre of Aaron, a pot of manna, and the broken pieces of the two tables of the law.5
      m The number of those who drank out of their hands was about 313.1 It seems that Mohammed has here confounded Saul with Gideon, who by the divine direction took with him against the Midianites such of his army only as lapped water out of their hands, which were 300 men.2
      n Or Goliath.
      o Or what he pleased to teach him. Yahya most rationally understands hereby the divine revelations which David received from GOD; but Jallalo’ddin the art of making coats of mail (which the Mohammedans believe was that prophet’s peculiar trade), and the knowledge of the language of birds.
      p See before p. 10, note k.

      4 I Sam. iv. v. and vi. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 1 Idem, Yahya. 2 Judges vii.

tended among themselves; but GOD doth what he will. O true believers, give alms of that which we have bestowed unto you, before the day cometh wherein there shall be no merchandizing, nor friendship, nor intercession. The infidels are unjust doers. GOD! there is no GOD but he;q the living, the self-subsisting: neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him; to him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven, and on earth. Who is he than can intercede with him, but through his good pleasure? He knoweth that which is past, and that which is to come unto them, and they shall not comprehend anything of his knowledge, but so far as he pleaseth. His throne is extended over heaven and earth,r and the preservation of both is no burden unto him. He is the high, the mighty. Let there be no violence in religion.s Now is right direction manifestly distinguished from deceit: whoever therefore shall deny Tagut,t and believe in GOD, he shall surely take hold on a strong handle, which shall not be broken; GOD is he who heareth and seeth. GOD is the patron of those who believe; he shall lead them out of darkness into light: but as to those who believe not, their patrons are Tagut; they shall lead them from the light into darkness; they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever. Hast thou not considered him who disputed with Abraham concerning his LORD,u because GOD had given him the kingdom? When Abraham said, My LORD is he who giveth life, and killeth: he answered, I give life, and I kill. Abraham said, Verily GOD bringeth the sun from the east, now do thou bring it from the west. Whereupon the infidel was confounded; for GOD directeth not the ungodly people. Or hast thou not considered how he behaved who passed by a city which had been destroyed, even to her foundations?x He said, How shall GOD quicken this city, after she hath been dead? And GOD caused him to die for an hundred years, and after-

      q The following seven lines contain a magnificent description of the divine majesty and providence; but it must not be supposed the translation comes up to the dignity of the original. This passage is justly admired by the Mohammedans, who recite it in their prayers; and some of them wear it about them, engraved on an agate or other precious stone.3
      r This throne, in Arabic called Corsi, is by the Mohammedans supposed to be God’s tribunal, or seat of justice; being placed under that other called al Arsh, which they say is his imperial throne. The Corsi allegorically signifies the divine providence, which sustains and governs the heaven and the earth, and is infinitely above human comprehension.4
      s This passage was particularly directed to some of Mohammed’s first proselytes, who, having sons that had been brought up in idolatry or Judaism, would oblige them to embrace Mohammedism by force.1
      t This word properly signifies an idol, or whatever is worshipped besides GOD–particularly the two idols of the Meccans, Allât and al Uzza; and also the devil, or any seducer.
      u This was Nimrod, who, as the commentators say, to prove his power of life and death by ocular demonstration, caused two men to be brought before him at the same time, one of whom he slew, and saved the other alive. As to this tyrant’s persecution of Abraham, see chapter 21, and the notes thereon.
      x The person here meant was Ozair or Ezra, who riding on an ass by the ruins of Jerusalem, after it had been destroyed by the Chaldeans, doubted in his mind by what means God could raise the city and its inhabitants again; whereupon God caused him to die, and he remained in that condition 100 years; at the end of which God restored him to life, and he found a basket of figs and a cruse of wine he had with him not in the least spoiled or corrupted; but his ass was dead, the bones only remaining, and these, while the prophet looked on, were raised and clothed with flesh, becoming an ass again, which being inspired with life, began immediately to bray.2
      This apocryphal story may perhaps have taken its rise from Nehemiah’s viewing of the ruins of Jerusalem.3

      3 Vide Bobov. de Prec. Moham. p. 5, et Reland. Dissert. de Gemmis Arab p. 235, 239. 4 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Corsi. 1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, &c See D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Ozair. 3 Nehem. ii. 12, &c.

wards raised him to life. And GOD said, how long hast thou tarried here? He answered, A day, or part of a day. GOD said, Nay, thou hast tarried here a hundred years. Now look on thy food and thy drink, they are not yet corrupted; and look on thine ass: and this have we done that we might make thee a sign unto men. And look on the bones of thine ass, how we raise them, and afterwards clothe them with flesh. And when this was shown unto him, he said, I know that GOD is able to do all things. And when Abraham said, O LORD, show me how thou wilt raise the dead;y God said, Dost thou not yet believe? He answered, Yea, but I ask this that my heart may rest at ease. GOD said, take therefore four birds, and divide them;z then lay a part of them on every mountain; then call them, and they shall come swiftly unto thee: and know that GOD is mighty and wise. The similitude of those who lay out their substance, for advancing the religion of GOD, is as a grain of corn which produceth seven ears, and in every ear an hundred grains; for GOD giveth twofold unto whom he pleaseth: GOD is bounteous and wise. They who lay out their substance for the religion of GOD, and afterwards follow not what they have so laid out by reproaches or mischief,a they shall have their reward with their LORD; upon them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved. A fair speech and to forgive, is better than alms followed by mischief. GOD is rich and merciful. O true believers, make not your alms of none effect by reproaching, or mischief, as he who layeth out what he hath to appear unto men to give alms, and believeth not in GOD and the last day. The likeness of such a one is as a flint covered with earth, on which a violent rain falleth, and leaveth it hard. They cannot prosper in anything which they have gained, for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. And the likeness of those who lay out their substance from a desire to please GOD, and for an establishment for their souls, is as a garden on a hill, on which a violent rain falleth, and it bringeth forth its fruits twofold; and if a violent rain falleth not on it, yet the dew falleth thereon: and GOD seeth that which ye do. Doth any of you desire to have a garden of palm-trees and vines,b through which rivers flow, wherein ye may have all kinds of fruits, and that he may attain to old age, and have a weak offspring? then a violent fiery wind shall strike it, so that it shall be burned. Thus GOD declareth his signs unto you, that ye may consider. O true believers, bestow alms of the good things

      y The occasion of this request of Abraham is said to have been on a doubt proposed to him by the devil, in human form, how it was possible for the several parts of the corpse of a man which lay on the sea-shore, and had been partly devoured by the wild beasts, the birds, and the fish, to be brought together at the resurrection.4
      z These birds, according to the commentators, were an eagle (a dove, say others), a peacock, a raven and a cock, which Abraham cut to pieces, and mingled their flesh and feathers together, or, as some tell us, pounded all in a mortar, and dividing the mass into four parts, laid them on so many mountains, but kept the heads, which he had preserved whole, in his hand. Then he called them each by their name, and immediately one part flew to the other, till they all recovered their first shape, and then came to be joined to their respective heads.1
      This seems to be taken from Abraham’s sacrifice of birds mentioned by Moses,2 with some additional circumstances.
      a i.e., Either by reproaching the person whom they have relieved with what they have done for him, or by exposing his poverty to his prejudice.3
      b This garden is an emblem of alms given out of hypocrisy, or attended with reproaches, which perish, and will be of no service hereafter to the giver.4

      4 See D’Herbelot, p. 13. 1 Jallalo’ddin. See D’Herbelot, ubi supra. 2 Gen. xv 3 Jallalo’ddin. 4 Idem.

which ye have gained, and of that which we have produced for you out of the earth, and choose not the bad thereof, to give it in alms, such as ye would not accept yourselves, otherwise than by connivance:c and know that GOD is rich and worthy to be praised. The devil threateneth you with poverty, and commandeth you filthy covetousness; but GOD promiseth you pardon from himself and abundance: GOD is bounteous and wise. He giveth wisdom unto whom he pleaseth; and he unto whom wisdom is given hath received much good: but none will consider, except the wise of heart. And whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow, verily GOD knoweth it; but the ungodly shall have none to help them. If ye make your alms to appear, it is well; but if ye conceal them, and give them unto the poor, this will be better for you, and will atone for your sins; and GOD is well informed of that which ye do. The direction of them belongeth not unto thee; but GOD directeth whom he pleaseth. The good that ye shall give in alms shall redound unto yourselves; and ye shall not give unless out of desire of seeing the face of GOD.d And what good thing ye shall give in alms, it shall be repaid you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly; unto the poor who are wholly employed in fighting for the religion of GOD, and cannot go to and fro on the earth; whom the ignorant man thinketh rich, because of their modesty: thou shalt know them by this mark, they ask not men with importunity; and what good ye shall give in alms, verily GOD knoweth it. They who distribute alms of their substance night and day, in private and in public, shall have their reward with the LORD; on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved. They who devour usury shall not arise from the dead, but as he ariseth whom Satan hath infected by a touch:e this shall happen to them because they say, Truly selling is but as usury: and yet GOD hath permitted selling and forbidden usury. He therefore who when there cometh unto him an admonition from his LORD abstaineth from usury for the future, shall have what is past forgiven him, and his affair belongeth unto GOD. But whoever returneth to usury, they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall continue therein forever. GOD shall take his blessing from usury, and shall increase alms: for GOD loveth no infidel, or ungodly person. But they who believe and do that which is right, and observe the stated times of prayer, and pay their legal alms, they shall have their reward with their LORD: there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. O true believers, fear GOD, and remit that which remaineth of usury,f if ye really believe; but if ye do it not, hearken unto war, which is declared against you from GOD and his apostle: yet if ye repent, ye shall have the capital of your money. Deal not unjustly with others, and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly. If there be any debtor under a difficulty of paying his debt, let his creditor wait till it be easy for him to do it; but if ye remit it as alms, it will be

      c That is, on having some amends made by the seller of such goods, either by abatement of the price, or giving something else to the buyer to make up the value.
      d i.e., For the sake of a reward hereafter, and not for any worldly consideration.1
      e viz., Like demoniacs or possessed persons, that is, in great horror and distraction of mind and convulsive agitation of body.
      f Or the interest due before usury was prohibited. For this some of Mohammed’s followers exacted of their debtors, supposing they lawfully might.2

       1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem.

better for you, if ye knew it. And fear the day wherein ye shall return unto GOD; then shall every soul be paid what it hath gained, and they shall not be treated unjustly. O true believers, when ye bind yourselves one to the other in a debt for a certain time, write it down; and let a writer write between you according to justice, and let not the writer refuse writing according to what GOD hath taught him; but let him write, and let him who oweth the debt dictate, and let him fear GOD his LORD, and not diminish aught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt be foolish, or weak, or be not able to dictate himself, let his agentg dictate according to equity; and call to witness two witnesses of your neighboring men; but if there be not two men, let there be a man and two women of those whom ye shall choose for witnesses: if one of those women should mistake, the other of them will cause her to recollect. And the witnesses shall not refuse, whensoever they shall be called. And disdain not to write it down, be it a large debt, or be it a small one, until its time of payment: this will be more just in the sight of GOD, and more right for bearing witness, and more easy, that ye may not doubt. But if it be a present bargain which ye transact between yourselves, it shall be no crime in you, if ye write it not down. And take witnesses when ye sell one to the other, and let no harm be done to the writer, nor to the witness; which if ye do, it will surely be injustice in you: and fear GOD, and GOD will instruct you, for GOD knoweth all things. And if ye be on a journey, and find no writer, let pledges be taken: but if one of you trust the other, let him who is trusted return what he is trusted with, and fear GOD his LORD. And conceal not the testimony, for he who concealeth it hath surely a wicked heart: GOD knoweth that which ye do. Whatever is in heaven and on earth is GOD'S: and whether ye manifest that which is in your minds, or conceal it, GOD will call you to account for it, and will forgive whom he pleaseth, and will punish whom he pleaseth, for GOD is almighty. The apostle believeth in that which hath been sent down unto him from his LORD, and the faithful also. Every one of them believeth in GOD, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his apostles: we make no distinction at all between his apostles.h And they say, We have heard, and do obey: we implore thy mercy, O LORD, for unto thee must we return. GOD will not force any one beyond its capacity: it shall have the good which it gaineth, and it shall suffer the evil which it gaineth. O LORD, punish us not, if we forget, or act sinfully: O LORD, lay not on us a burden like that which thou hast laid on those who have been before us;i neither make us, O LORD, to bear what we have not strength to bear, but be favorable unto us, and spare us, and be merciful unto us. Thou art our patron, help us therefore against the unbelieving nations.

      g Whoever manages his affairs, whether his father, heir, guardian, or interpreter.1
      h But this, say the Mohammedans, the Jews do, who receive Moses but reject Jesus; and the Christians, who receive both those prophets, but reject Mohammed.2
      i That is, on the Jews, who, as the commentators tell us, were ordered to kill a man by way of atonement, to give one-fourth of their substance in alms, and to cut off an unclean ulcerous part,3 and were forbidden to eat fat, or animals that divided the hoof, and were obliged to observe the sabbath, and other particulars wherein the Mohammedans are at liberty.4

       1 Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Yahya.

CHAPTER III.

ENTITLED, THE FAMILY OF IMRAN;k REVEALED AT MEDINA

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       AL. M.l There is no GOD but GOD, the living, the self-subsisting: he hath sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that which was revealed before it; for he had formerly sent down the law, and the gospel a direction unto men; and he had also sent down the distinction between good and evil. Verily those who believe not the signs of GOD shall suffer a grievous punishment; for GOD is mighty, able to revenge. Surely nothing is hidden from GOD, of that which is on earth, or in heaven: it is he who formeth you in the wombs, as he pleaseth; there is no GOD but he, the mighty, the wise. It is he who hath sent down unto thee the book, wherein are some verses clear to be understood, they are the foundation of the book; and others are parabolical.m But they whose hearts are perverse will follow that which is parabolical therein, out of love of schism, and a desire of the interpretation thereof; yet none knoweth the interpretation thereof, except God. But they who are well grounded in the knowledge say, We believe therein, the whole is from our LORD; and none will consider except the prudent. O LORD, cause not our hearts to swerve from truth, after thou hast directed us: and give us from thee mercy, for thou art he who giveth. O LORD, thou shalt surely gather mankind together, unto a day of resurrection: there is no doubt of it, for GOD will not be contrary to the promise. As for the infidels, their wealth shall not profit them anything, nor their children, against GOD: they shall be the fuel of hell fire. According to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those who went before them, they charged our signs with a lie; but GOD caught them in their wickedness, and GOD is severe in punishing. Say unto those who believe not, Ye shall be overcome, and thrown together into hell; and an unhappy couch shall it be. Ye have already had a miracle shown you in two armies, which attacked each other:n one army fought for GOD'S true religion, but the other

      k This name is given in the Korân to the father of the Virgin Mary. See below, p. 35.
      l For the meaning of these letters the reader is referred to the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. III.
      m This passage is translated according to the exposition of al Zamakhshari and al Beidâwi, which seems to be the truest.
      The contents of the Korân are here distinguished into such passages as are to be taken in the literal sense, and such as require a figurative acceptation. The former being plain and obvious to be understood, compose the fundamental part, or, as the original expresses it, the mother of the book, and contain the principal doctrines and precepts; agreeably to and consistently with which, those passages which are wrapt up in metaphors, and delivered in an enigmatical, allegorical style, are always to be interpreted.5
      n The sign or miracle here meant, was the victory gained by Mohammed in the second year of the Hejra, over the idolatrous Meccans, headed by Abu Sofiân, in the valley of Bedr, which is situate near the sea, between Mecca and Medina. Mohammed’s forces consisted of no more than three hundred and nineteen men, but the enemy’s army of near a thousand, notwithstanding which odds he put them to flight, having killed seventy of the principal Koreish, and taken as many prisoners, with the loss of only fourteen of his own men.1 This was the first victory obtained by the prophet, and though it may seem no very considerable action, yet it

      5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. 1 Elmacin. p. 5. Hottinger. Hist. Orient. l. 2, c. 4. Abulfed. Vit. Moham. p. 56, &c. Prideaux’s Life of Mahom. p. 71, &c.


were infidels; they saw the faithful twice as many as themselves in their eyesight; for GOD strengthened with his help whom he pleaseth. Surely herein was an example unto men of understanding. The love and eager desire of wives, and children, and sums heaped up of gold and silver, and excellent horses, and cattle, and land, is prepared for men: this is the provision of the present life; but unto GOD shall be the most excellent return. Say, Shall I declare unto you better things than this? For those who are devout are prepared with their LORD gardens through which rivers flow; therein shall they continue forever: and they shall enjoy wives free from impurity, and the favor of GOD; for GOD regardeth his servants who say, O LORD, we do sincerely believe; forgive us therefore our sins, and deliver us from the pain of hell fire: the patient, and the lovers of truth, and the devout, and the almsgivers, and those who ask pardon early in the morning. GOD hath borne witness that there is no GOD but he; and the angels, and those who are endowed with wisdom, profess the same; who executeth righteousness; there is no GOD but he; the mighty, the wise. Verily the true religion in the sight of GOD is Islâm;o and they who had received the scriptures dissented not therefrom, until after the knowledge of God's unity had come unto them, out of envy among themselves; but whosoever believeth not in the signs of GOD, verily GOD will be swift in bringing him to account. If they dispute with thee, say, I have resigned myself unto GOD, and he who followeth me doth the same; and say unto them who have received the scriptures, and to the ignorant,p Do ye profess the religion of Islam? now if they embrace Islam, they are surely directed; but if they turn their backs, verily unto thee belongeth preaching only; for GOD regardeth his servants. And unto those who believe not in the signs of GOD, and slay the prophets without a cause, and put those men to death who teach justice; denounce unto them a painful punishment. These are they whose works perish in this world, and in that which is to come; and they shall have none to help them. Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the scripture was given?q They were called unto the book of GOD, that it might judge between them;r then some of them

was of great advantage to him, and the foundation of all his future power and success. For which reason it is famous in the Arabian history, and more than once vaunted in the Korân,2 as an effect of the divine assistance. The miracle, it is said, consisted in three things: 1. Mohammed, by the direction of the angel Gabriel, took a handful of gravel and threw it toward the enemy in the attack, saying, May their faces be confounded; whereupon they immediately turned their backs and fled. But though the prophet seemingly threw the gravel himself, yet it is told in the Korân,3 that it was not he, but God, who threw it, that is to say, by the ministry of his angel. 2. The Mohammedan troops seemed to the infidels to be twice as many in number as themselves, which greatly discouraged them. And 3. God sent down to their assistance first a thousand and afterwards three thousand angels, led by Gabriel, mounted on his horse Haizûm; and, according to the Korân,4 these celestial auxiliaries really did all the execution, though Mohammed’s men imagined themselves did it, and fought stoutly at the same time.
      o The proper name of the Mohammedan religion, which signifies the resigning or devoting one’s self entirely to GOD and his service. This they say is the religion which all the prophets were sent to teach, being founded on the unity of GOD.5
      p i.e., The pagan Arabs, who had no knowledge of the scriptures.1
      q That is, the Jews.
      r This passage was revealed on occasion of a dispute Mohammed had with some Jews, which is differently related by the commentators.

      2 See this chapter below, and c. 8 and 32. 3 Cap. 8, not far from the beginning. 4 Ibid. 5 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 1 Idem.

turned their backs, and retired afar off. This they did because they said, the fire of hell shall by no means touch us, but for a certain number of days;s and that which they had falsely devised hath deceived them in their religion. How then will it be with them, when we shall gather them together at the day of judgment,t of which there is no doubt; and every soul shall be paid that which it hath gained, neither shall they be treated unjustly? Say, O GOD, who possessest the kingdom; thou givest the kingdom unto whom thou wilt, and thou takest away the kingdom from whom thou wilt: thou exaltest whom thou wilt, and thou humblest whom thou wilt: in thy hand is good, for thou art almighty. Thou makest the night to succeed the day: thou bringest forth the living out of the dead, and thou bringest forth the dead out of the living;u and providest food for whom thou wilt without measure. Let not the faithful take the infidels for their protectors, rather than the faithful: he who doth this shall not be protected of GOD at all; unless ye fear any danger from them: but GOD warneth you to beware of himself; for unto GOD must ye return. Say, Whether ye conceal that which is in your breasts, or whether ye declare it, GOD knoweth it; for he knoweth whatever is in heaven, and whatever is on earth: GOD is almighty. On the last day every soul shall find the good which it hath wrought, present; and the evil which it hath wrought, it shall wish that between itself and that were a wide distance: but GOD warneth you to beware of himself; for GOD is gracious unto his servants. Say, If ye love GOD, follow me: then GOD shall love you, and forgive you your sins; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Say, Obey GOD, and his apostle; but if ye go back, verily GOD loveth not the unbelievers. GOD hath surely chosen Adam, and Noah, and the family of Abraham, and the family of Imrânx above the

Al Beidâwi says that Mohammed going one day into a Jewish synagogue, Naïm Ebn Amru and al Hareth Ebn Zeid asked him what religion he was of? To which he answering, “Of the religion of Abraham;” they replied, “Abraham was a Jew.” But on Mohammed’s proposing that the Pentateuch might decide the question, they would by no means agree to it.
      But Jallalo’ddin tells us that two persons of the Jewish religion having committed adultery, their punishment was referred to Mohammed, who gave sentence that they should be stoned, according to the law of Moses. This the Jews refused to submit to, alleging there was no such command in the Pentateuch; but on Mohammed’s appealing to the book, the said law was found therein. Whereupon the criminals were stoned, to the great mortification of the Jews.
      It is very remarkable that this law of Moses concerning the stoning of adulterers is mentioned in the New Testament2 (though I know some dispute the authenticity of that whole passage), but is not now to be found, either in the Hebrew or Samaritan Pentateuch, or in the Septuagint; it being only said that such shall be put to death.3 This omission is insisted on by the Mohammedans as one instance of the corruption of the law of Moses by the Jews.
      It is also observable that there was a verse once extant in the Korân, commanding adulterers to be stoned; and the commentators say the words only are abrogated, the sense or law still remaining in force.4
      s i.e., Forty; the time their forefathers worshipped the calf.5 Al Beidâwi adds, that some of them pretended their punishment was to last but seven days, that is, a day for every thousand years which they supposed the world was to endure; and that they imagined they were to be so mildly dealt with, either by reason of the intercession of their fathers the prophets, or because GOD had promised Jacob that his offspring should be punished but slightly.
      t The Mohammedans have a tradition that the first banner of the infidels that shall be set up, on the day of judgment, will be that of the Jews; and that GOD will first reproach them with their wickedness, over the heads of those who are present, and then order them to hell.6
      u As a man from seed, and a bird from an egg; and vice versâ.1
      x Or Amrân, is the name of two several persons, according to the Mohammedan tradition.

      2 John viii. 5. 3 Levit. xx. 10. See Whiston’s Essay towards restoring the true text of the Old Test. p. 99, 100. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. 5 See before, p. 10, note g.
6 Al Beidâwi. 1 Jallalo’ddin

rest of the world; a race descending the one from the other: GOD is he who heareth and knoweth. Remember when the wife of Imrâny said, LORD, verily I have vowed unto thee that which is in my womb, to be dedicated to thy service;z accept it therefore of me; for thou art he who heareth and knoweth. And when she was delivered of it, she said, LORD, verily I have brought forth a female (and GOD well knew what she had brought forth), and a male is not as a female.a I have called her MARY; and I commend her to thy protection, and also her issue, against Satan driven away with stones.b Therefore the LORD accepted her with a gracious acceptance,c and caused her to bear an excellent off-

One was the father of Moses and Aaron; and the other was the father of the Virgin Mary;2 but he is called by some Christian writers Joachim. The commentators suppose the first, or rather both of them, to be meant in this place; however, the person intended in the next passage, it is agreed, was the latter; who besides Mary the mother of Jesus, had also a son named Aaron,3 and another sister, named Ishá (or Elizabeth), who married Zacharias, and was the mother of John the Baptist; whence that prophet and Jesus are usually called by the Mohammedans, The two sons of the aunt, or the cousins german.
      From the identity of names it has been generally imagined by Christian writers4 that the Korân here confounds Mary the mother of Jesus, with Mary or Miriam the sister of Moses and Aaron; which intolerable anachronism, if it were certain, is sufficient of itself to destroy the pretended authority of this book. But though Mohammed may be supposed to have been ignorant enough in ancient history and chronology to have committed so gross a blunder, yet I do not see how it can be made out from the words of the Korân. For it does not follow, because two persons have the same name, and have each a father and brother who bear the same names, that they must therefore necessarily be the same person: besides, such a mistake is inconsistent with a number of other places in the Korân, whereby it manifestly appears that Mohammed well knew and asserted that Moses preceded Jesus several ages. And the commentators accordingly fail not to tell us that there had passed about one thousand eight hundred years between Amrân the father of Moses, and Amrân the father of the Virgin Mary: they also make them the sons of different persons; the first, they say, was the son of Yeshar, or Izhar (though he was really his brother),5 the son of Kâhath, the son of Levi; and the other was the son of Mathân,6 whose genealogy they trace, but in a very corrupt and imperfect manner, up to David, and thence to Adam.7
      It must be observed that though the Virgin Mary is called in the Korân1 the sister of Aaron, yet she is nowhere called the sister of Moses; however, some Mohammedan writers have imagined that the same individual Mary, the sister of Moses, was miraculously preserved alive from his time till that of Jesus Christ, purposely to become the mother of the latter.2
      y The Imrân here mentioned was the father of the Virgin Mary, and his wife’s name was Hannah, or Ann, the daughter of Fakudh. This woman, say the commentators, being aged and barren, on seeing a bird feed her young ones, became very desirous of issue, and begged a child of GOD, promising to consecrate it to his service in the temple; whereupon she had a child, but it proved a daughter.3
      z The Arabic word is free, but here signifies particularly one that is free or detached from all worldly desires and occupations, and wholly devoted to GOD’S service.4
      a Because a female could not minister in the temple as a male could.5
      b This expression alludes to a tradition, that Abraham, when the devil tempted him to disobey God in not sacrificing his son, drove the fiend away by throwing stones at him; in memory of which, the Mohammedans, at the pilgrimage of Mecca, throw a certain number of stones at the devil, with certain ceremonies, in the valley of Mina.6
      It is not improbable that the pretended immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary is intimated in this passage; for according to a tradition of Mohammed, every person that comes into the world is touched at his birth by the devil, and therefore cries out: Mary and her son only excepted, between whom and the evil spirit God placed a veil, so that his touch did not reach them.7 And for this reason, they say, neither of them were guilty of any sin, like the rest of the children of Adam:8 which peculiar grace they obtained by virtue of this recommendation of them by Hannah to God’s protection.
      c Though the child happened not to be a male, yet her mother presented her to the priests who had the care of the temple, as one dedicated to GOD; and they having received her, she

      2 Al Zamakhshari, al Beidâwi. 3 Kor. c. 19. 4 Vide Reland. de Rel. Moh. p. 211 Marracc. in Alc. p. 115, &c. Prideaux, Letter to the Deists, p. 185. 5 Exod. vi. 18. 6 Al Zamakh. al Beidâwi. 7 Vide Reland. ubi sup. D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 583. 1 Cap. 19. 2 Vide Guadagnol. Apolog. pro Rel. Christ. contra Ahmed Ebn Zein al Abedin. p. 279. 3 Al Beidâwi, al Thalabi. 4 Jallalo’ddin, al Zamakhshari. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 6 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. 7 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 8 Kitada.

spring. And Zacharias took care of the child; whenever Zacharias went into the chamber to her, he found provisions with her:d and he said, O Mary, whence hadst thou this? she answered, This is from GOD, for GOD provideth for whom he pleaseth without measure.e There Zacharias called on his LORD, and said, LORD, give me from thee a good offspring, for thou art the hearer of prayer. And the angelsf called to him, while he stood praying in the chamber, saying, Verily GOD promiseth thee a son named John, who shall bear witness to the Wordg which cometh from GOD; and honourable person, chaste,h and one of the righteous prophets. He answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, when old age hath overtaken me,i and my wife is barren? The angel said, So GOD doth that which he pleaseth. Zacharias answered, LORD, give me a sign. The angel said, Thy sign shall be, that thou shalt speak unto no mank for three days, otherwise than by gesture: remember thy LORD often, and praise him evening and morning. And when the angels said, O Mary, verily GOD hath chosen thee, and hath purified thee and hath chosen thee above all the women of the world: O Mary, be devout towards thy LORD, and worship, and bow down with those who bow down. This is a secret history: we reveal it unto thee, although thou wast not present with them when they threw in their rods to cast lots which of them should have the education of Mary;l neither wast thou with them, when they strove among themselves. When the angels said; O Mary, verily GOD sendeth thee good tidings, that thou shalt bear the Word proceeding from himself; his name shall be CHRIST JESUS the son of Mary, honourable in this world and in the world to come, and one of those who approach near to the presence of GOD; and

was committed to the care of Zacharias, as will be observed by-and-bye, and he built her an apartment in the temple, and supplied her with necessaries.9
      d The commentators say that none went into Mary’s apartment but Zacharias himself, and that he locked seven doors upon her, yet he found she had always winter fruits in summer, and summer fruits in winter.10
      e There is a story of Fâtema, Mohammed’s daughter, that she once brought two loaves and a piece of flesh to her father, who returned them to her, and having called for her again, when she uncovered the dish, it was full of bread and meat; and on Mohammed’s asking her whence she had it, she answered in the words of this passage: This is from GOD; for GOD provideth for whom he pleaseth without measure. Whereupon he blessed GOD, who thus favoured her, as he had the most excellent of the daughters of Israel.1
      f Though the word be in the plural, yet the commentators say it was the angel Gabriel only. The same is to be understood where it occurs in the following passages.
      g That is, Jesus, who, al Beidâwi says, is so called because he was conceived by the word or command of GOD without a father.
      h The original word signifies one who refrains not only from women, but from all other worldly delights and desires. Al Beidâwi mentions a tradition, that during his childhood some boys invited him to play, but he refused, saying that he was not created to play.
      i Zacharias was then ninety-nine years old, and his wife eighty-nine.2
      k Though he could not speak to anybody else, yet his tongue was at liberty to praise GOD as he is directed to do by the following words.
      l When Mary was first brought to the temple, the priests, because she was the daughter of one of their chiefs, disputed among themselves who should have the education of her. Zacharias insisted that he ought to be preferred, because he had married her aunt; but the others not consenting that it should be so, they agreed to decide the matter by casting of lots; whereupon twenty-seven of them went to the river Jordan and threw in their rods (or arrows without heads or feathers, such as the Arabs used for the same purpose), on which they had written some passages of the law; but they all sank except that of Zacharias, which floated on the water; and he had thereupon the care of the child committed to him.3

      9 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. Vide Lud. de Dieu, in not. ad Hist. Christi Xaverii, p. 542. 10 Al Beidâwi. Vide de Dieu, ubi sup. p. 548. 1 Al Beidâwi 2 Idem. 3 Idem. Jallalo’ddin, &c.

he shall speak unto men in the cradle,m and when he is grown up;n and he shall be one of the righteous: she answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, since a man hath not touched me? the angel said, So GOD createth that which he pleaseth: when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is: GOD shall teach him the scripture, and wisdom, and the law, and the gospel; and shall appoint him his apostle to the children of Israel; and he shall say, Verily I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; for I will make before you, of clay, as it were the figure of a bird;o then I will breathe thereon, and it shall become a bird, by the permission of GOD;p and I will heal him that hath been blind from his birth; and the leper: and I will raise the deadq by the permission of GOD: and I will prophesy unto you what ye eat, and what ye lay up for store in your houses. Verily herein will be a sign unto you, if ye believe. And I come to confirm the law which was revealed before me and to allow unto you as lawful part of that which hath been forbidden you:r and I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; therefore fear GOD, and obey me. Verily GOD is my LORD, and your LORD; therefore serve him. This is the right way. But when Jesus perceived their unbelief, he said, Who will be my helpers towards GOD?

      m Besides an instance of this given in the Korân itself,1 which I shall not here anticipate, a Mohammedan writer, (of no very great credit, indeed) tells two stories, one of Jesus’s speaking while in his mother’s womb, to reprove her cousin Joseph for his unjust suspicions of her;2 and another of his giving an answer to the same person soon after he was born. For Joseph being sent by Zacharias to seek Mary (who had gone out of the city by night to conceal her delivery) and having found her began to expostulate with her, but she made no reply; whereupon the child spoke these words: Rejoice, O Joseph, and be of good cheer; for God hath brought me forth from the darkness of the womb, to the light of the world; and I shall go to the children of Israel, and invite them to the obedience of God.3
      These seem all to have been taken from some fabulous traditions of the eastern Christians, one of which is preserved to us in the spurious gospel of the Infancy of Christ; where we read that Jesus spoke while yet in the cradle, and said to his mother, Verily I am Jesus the Son of God, the word which thou hast brought forth, as the angel Gabriel did declare unto thee; and my father hath sent me to save the world.4
      n The Arabic word properly signifies a man in full age, that is, between thirty or thirty-four, and fifty-one; and the passage may relate to Christ’s preaching here on earth. But as he had scarce attained this age when he was taken up into heaven, the commentators choose to understand it of his second coming.5
      o Some say it was a bat,6 though others suppose Jesus made several birds of different sorts.
      This circumstance is also taken from the following fabulous tradition, which may be found in the spurious gospel above mentioned. Jesus being seven years old, and at play with several children of his age, they made several figures of birds and beasts, for their diversion, of clay; and each preferring his own workmanship, Jesus told them, that he would make his walk and leap; which accordingly, at his command, they did. He made also several figures of sparrows and other birds, which flew about or stood on his hands as he ordered them, and also ate and drank when he offered them meat and drink. The children telling this to their parents, were forbidden to play any more with Jesus, whom they held to be a sorcerer.8
      p The commentators observe that these words are added here, and in the next sentence, lest it should be thought Jesus did these miracles by his own power, or was GOD.9
      q Jallalo’ddin mentions three persons whom Christ restored to life, and who lived several years after, and had children, viz., Lazarus, the widow’s son, and the publican’s (I suppose he means the ruler of the synagogue’s) daughter. He adds that he also raised Shem the son of Noah, who, as another writes10 thinking he had been called to judgment, came out of his grave with his head half grey, whereas men did not grow grey in his days; after which he immediately died again.
      r Such as the eating of fish that have neither fins nor scales, the caul and fat of animals, and camel’s flesh, and to work on the sabbath. These things, say the commentators, being arbitrary institutions in the law of Moses, were abrogated by Jesus; as several of the same kind, instituted by the latter, have been since abrogated by Mohammed.1

      1 Cap. 19. 2 Vide Sikii notas in Evang. Infant. p. 5. 3 Al Kessai, apud eundem 4 Evang. Infant. p. 5. 5 Jallalo’ddin. Al Beidâwi. 6 Jallalo’ddin. 7 Al Thalabi 8 Evang. Infant. p. 111, &c. 9 Al Beidâwi, &c. 10 Al Thalabi. 1 Al Beidâwi. Jallalo’ddin.

The apostles answered,s We will be the helpers of GOD; we believe in GOD, and do thou bear witness that we are true believers. O LORD, we believe in that which thou hast sent down, and we have followed thy apostle; write us down therefore with those who bear witness of him. And the Jews devised a stratagem against him;t but GOD devised a stratagem against them;u and GOD is the best deviser of stratagems. When GOD said, O Jesus, verily I will cause thee to die,x and I will

      s In Arabic, al Hawâriyûn; which word they derive from Hâra, to be white, and suppose the apostles were so called either from the candour and sincerity of their minds, or because they were princes and wore white garments, or else because they were by trade fullers.2 According to which last opinion, their vocation is thus related; that as Jesus passed by the seaside, he saw some fullers at work, and accosting them, said, Ye cleanse these clothes, but cleanse not your hearts; upon which they believed on him. But the true etymology seems to be from the Ethiopic verb Hawyra, to go; whence Hawârya signifies one that is sent, a messenger or apostle.3
      t i.e., They laid a design to take away his life.
      u This stratagem of God’s was the taking of Jesus up into heaven, and stamping his likeness on another person, who was apprehended and crucified in his stead. For it is the constant doctrine of the Mohammedans that it was not Jesus himself who underwent that ignominious death, but somebody else in his shape and resemblance.4 The person crucified some will have to be a spy that was sent to entrap him; others, that it was one Titian, who by the direction of Judas entered in at a window of the house where Jesus was, to kill him; and others that it was Judas himself, who agreed with the rulers of the Jews to betray him for thirty pieces of silver, and led those who were sent to take him.
      They add, that Jesus after his crucifixion in effigy, was sent down again to the earth, to comfort his mother and disciples and acquaint them how the Jews were deceived; and was then taken up a second time into heaven.5
      It is supposed by several that this story was an original invention of Mohammed’s; but they are certainly mistaken; for several sectaries held the same opinion, long before his time. The Basilidians,6 in the very beginning of Christianity, denied that Christ himself suffered, but that Simon the Cyrenean was crucified in his place. The Cerinthians before them, and the Carpocratians next (to name no more of those who affirmed Jesus to have been a mere man), did believe the same thing; that it was not himself, but one of his followers very like him that was crucified. Photius tells us, that he read a book entitled, “The Journeys of the Apostles,” relating the acts of Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas and Paul; and among other things contained therein, this was one, that Christ, was not crucified, but another in his stead, and that therefore he laughed at his crucifiers,7 or those who thought they had crucified him.8
      I have in another place9 mentioned an apocryphal gospel of Barnabas, a forgery originally of some nominal Christians, but interpolated since by Mohammedans; which gives this part of the history of Jesus with circumstances too curious to be omitted. It is therein related, that the moment the Jews were going to apprehend Jesus in the garden, he was snatched up into the third heaven by the ministry of four angels, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael and Uriel; that he will not die till the end of the world, and that it was Judas who was crucified in his stead; God having permitted that traitor to appear so like his master, in the eyes of the Jews, that they took and delivered him to Pilate. That this resemblance was so great, that it deceived the Virgin Mary and the Apostles themselves; but that Jesus Christ afterward obtained leave of God to go and comfort them. That Barnabas having then asked him, why the divine goodness had suffered the mother and disciples of so holy a prophet to believe even for one moment that he had died in so ignominious a manner? Jesus returned the following answer. “O Barnabas, believe me that every sin, how small soever, is punished by God with great torment, because God is offended with sin. My mother therefore and faithful disciples, having loved me with a mixture of earthly love, the just God has been pleased to punish this love with their present grief, that they might not be punished for it hereafter in the flames of hell. And as for me, though I have myself been blameless in the world, yet other men having called me God and the Son of God; therefore God, that I might not be mocked by the devils at the day of judgment, has been pleased that in this world I should be mocked by men with the death of Judas, making everybody believe that I died upon the cross. And hence it is that this mocking is still to continue till the coming of Mohammed, the messenger of God; who, coming into the world, will undeceive every one who shall believe in the law of God from this mistake.1
      x It is the opinion of a great many Mohammedans that Jesus was taken up into heaven with-

      2 Idem. 3 Vide Ludolfi Lexic. Æthiop. col. 40, et Golii notas ad cap. 61 Korâni, p. 205. 4 See Kor. c. 4. 5 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 113, &c., et in Prodr. part iii. p. 63, &c. 6 Irenæus, l. I, c. 23, &c. Epiphan. Hæres. 24, num. iii. 7 Photius, Bibl. Cod. 114, col. 291. 8 Toland’s Nararenus, p 17, &c. 9 Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. 1 See the Menagiana. tom. iv. p. 326, &c.

take thee up unto me,y and I will deliver thee from the unbelievers; and I will place those who follow thee above the unbelievers, until the day of resurrection:z then unto me shall ye return, and I will judge between you of that concerning which ye disagree. Moreover, as for the infidels, I will punish them with a grievous punishment in this world, and in that which is to come; and there shall be none to help them. But they who believe, and do that which is right, he shall give them their reward: for GOD loveth not the wicked doers. These signs and this prudent admonition do we rehearse unto thee. Verily the likeness of Jesus in the sight of GOD is as the likeness of Adam; he created him out of the dust, and then said unto him, Be; and he was.a This is the truth from thy LORD; be not therefore one of those who doubt; and whoever shall dispute with thee, concerning him,b after the knowledge which hath been given thee, say unto them, Come, let us call together our sons and your sons, and our wives and your wives, and ourselves and yourselves; then let us make imprecations, and lay the curse of GOD on those who lie.c Verily this is a true history: and there is no GOD, but GOD; and GOD is most mighty and wise. If they turn back, GOD well knoweth the evil doers. Say, O ye who have received the scripture, come to a just determination between us and you;d that we worship not any except GOD, and associate no creature with him; and that the one of us take not the other for lords,e beside GOD. But if they turn back, say, Bear witness that we are true

out dying; which opinion is consonant to what is delivered in the spurious gospel above mentioned. Wherefore several of the commentators say that there is a hysteron proteron in these words, I will cause thee to die, and I will take thee up unto me; and that the copulative does not import order, or that he died before his assumption; the meaning being this, viz., that GOD would first take Jesus up to heaven, and deliver him from the infidels, and afterwards cause him to die; which they suppose is to happen when he shall return into the world again, before the last day.2 Some, thinking the order of the words is not to be changed, interpret them figuratively, and suppose their signification to be that Jesus was lifted up while he was asleep, or that GOD caused him to die a spiritual death to all worldly desires. But others acknowledge that he actually died a natural death, and continued in that state three hours, or, according to another tradition, seven hours; after which he was restored to life, and then taken up to heaven.3
      y Some Mohammedans say this was done by the ministry of Gabriel; but others that a strong whirlwind took him up from Mount Olivet.4
      z That is, they who believe in Jesus (among whom the Mohammedans reckon themselves) shall be for ever superior to the Jews, both in arguments and in arms. And accordingly, says al Beidâwi, to this very day the Jews have never prevailed either against the Christians or Moslems, nor have they any kingdom or established government of their own.
      a He was like to Adam in respect of his miraculous production by the immediate power of GOD.1
      b Namely, Jesus.
      c To explain this passage their commentators tell the following story. That some Christians, with their bishop named Abu Hareth, coming to Mohammed as ambassadors from the inhabitants of Najrân, and entering into some disputes with him touching religion and the history of Jesus Christ, they agreed the next morning to abide the trial here mentioned, as a quick way of deciding which of them were in the wrong. Mohammed met them accordingly, accompanied by his daughter Fâtema, his son-in-law Ali, and his two grandsons, Hasan and Hosein, and desired them to wait till he had said his prayers. But when they saw him kneel down, their resolution failed them, and they durst not venture to curse him, but submitted to pay him tribute.2
      d That is, to such terms of agreement as are indisputably consonant to the doctrine of all the prophets and scriptures, and therefore cannot be reasonably rejected.3
      e Besides other charges of idolatry on the Jews and Christians, Mohammed accused them of paying too implicit an obedience to their priests and monks, who took upon them to pronounce what things were lawful, and what unlawful, and to dispense with the laws of GOD.4

      2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Al Thalabi. See 2 Kings ii. I, II 1 Jallalo’ddin, &c 2 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Idem.

believers. O ye to whom the scriptures have been given, why do ye dispute concerning Abraham,f since the Law and the Gospel were not sent down until after him? Do ye not therefore understand? Behold ye are they who dispute concerning that which ye have some knowledge in; why therefore do you dispute concerning that which ye have no knowledge of?g GOD knoweth, but ye know not. Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian; but he was of the true religion, one resigned unto God, and was not of the number of the idolaters. Verily the men who are the nearest of kin unto Abraham are they who follow him; and this prophet, and they who believed on him: GOD is the patron of the faithful. Some of those who have received the scriptures desire to seduce you;h but they seduce themselves only, and they perceive it not. O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of GOD, since ye are witnesses of them? O ye who have received the scriptures, why do you clothe truth with vanity, and knowingly hide the truth?i And some of those to whom the scriptures were given say, Believe in that which hath been sent down unto those who believe, in the beginning of the day, and deny it in the end thereof; that they may go back from their faith;k and believe him only who followeth your religion. Say, Verily the true direction is the direction of GOD, that there may be given unto some other a revelation like unto what hath been given unto you. Will they dispute with you before your Lord? Say, Surely excellence is in the hand of GOD, he giveth it unto whom he pleaseth; GOD is bounteous and wise: he will confer peculiar mercy on whom he pleaseth; for GOD is endued with great beneficence. There is of those who have received the scriptures, unto whom if thou trust a talent he will restore it unto thee;l and there is also of them, unto whom if thou trust a dinâr, he will not restore it unto thee, unless thou stand over him continually with great urgency.m This they do because

      f viz., By pretending him to have been of your religion.
      g i.e., Ye perversely dispute even concerning those things which ye find in the law and the gospel, whereby it appears they were both sent down long after Abraham’s time; why then will ye offer to dispute concerning such points of Abraham’s religion, of which your scriptures say nothing, and of which ye consequently can have no knowledge?5
      h This passage was revealed when the Jews endeavoured to pervert Hodheifa, Ammâr, and Moâdh to their religion.1
      i The Jews and Christians are again accused of corrupting the scriptures and stifling the prophecies concerning Mohammed.
      k The commentators, to explain this passage, say that Caab Ebn al Ashraf and Malec Ebn al Seif (two Jews of Medina) advised their companions, when the Keblah was changed,2 to make as if they believed it was done by the divine direction, and to pray towards the Caaba in the morning, but that in the evening they should pray, as formerly, towards the temple of Jerusalem; that Mohammed’s followers, imagining the Jews were better judges of this matter than themselves, might imitate their example. But others say these were certain Jewish priests of Khaibar, who directed some of their people to pretend in the morning that they had embraced Mohammedism, but in the close of the day to say that they had looked into their books of scripture, and consulted their Rabbins, and could not find that Mohammed was the person described and intended in the law, by which trick they hoped to raise doubts in the minds of the Mohammedans.3
      l As an instance of this, the commentators bring Abd’allah Ebn Salâm, a Jew, very intimate with Mohammed,4 to whom one of the Koreish lent 1,200 ounces of gold, which he very punctually repaid at the time appointed.5
      m Al Beidâwi produces an example of such a piece of injustice in one Phineas Ebn Azûra, a Jew, who borrowed a dinâr, which is a gold coin worth about ten shillings, of a Koreishite, and afterwards had the conscience to deny it.
      But the person more directly struck at in this passage was the above-mentioned Caab Ebn al

      Al Beidâwi. 1 Idem. 2 See before, c. 2, p. 16. 3 Al Beidâwi 4 See Prideaux’s Life of Mahom. p. 33. 5 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin.

they say, We are not obliged to observe justice with the heathen: but they utter a lie against GOD, knowingly. Yea, whoso keepeth his covenant, and feareth God, GOD surely loveth those who fear him. But they who make merchandise of GOD'S covenant, and of their oaths, for a small price, shall have no portion in the next life, neither shall GOD speak to them or regard them on the day of resurrection, nor shall he cleanse them; but they shall suffer a grievous punishment. And there are certainly some of them who read the scriptures perversely, that ye may think what they read to be really in the scriptures, yet it is not in the scripture; and they say, This is from GOD; but it is not from GOD: and they speak that which is false concerning GOD, against their own knowledge. It is not fit for a man, that GOD should give him a book of revelations, and wisdom, and prophecy; and then he should say unto men, Be ye worshippers of me, besides GOD; but he ought to say, Be ye perfect in knowledge and in works, since ye know the scriptures, and exercise yourselves therein.n GOD hath not commanded you to take the angels and the prophets for your lords: Will he command you to become infidels, after ye have been true believers? And remember when GOD accepted the covenant of the prophets,o saying, This verily is the scripture and the wisdom which I have given you: hereafter shall an apostle come unto you, confirming the truth of that scripture which is with you; ye shall surely believe in him, and ye shall assist him. GOD said, Are ye firmly resolved, and do ye accept my covenant on this condition? They answered, We are firmly resolved: God said, Be ye therefore witnesses; and I also bear witness with you: and whosoever turneth back after this, they are surely the transgressors. Do they therefore seek any other religion but GOD'S? since to him is resigned whosoever is in heaven or on earth, voluntarily or of force: and to him shall they return. Say, We believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto us, and that which was sent down unto Abraham,

Ashraf, a most inveterate enemy of Mohammed and his religion, of whom Jallalo’ddin relates the same story as al Beidâwi does of Phineas. This Caab, after the battle of Bedr, went to Mecca, and there, to excite the Koreish to revenge themselves, made and recited verses lamenting the death of those who were slain in that battle, and reflecting very severely on Mohammed; and he afterwards returned to Medina, and had the boldness to repeat them publicly there also, at which Mohammed was so exceedingly provoked that he proscribed him, and sent a party of men to kill him, and he was circumvented and slain by Mohammed Ebn Moslema, in the third year of the Hejra.1 Dr. Prideaux2 has confounded the Caab we are now speaking of with another very different person of the same name, and a famous poet, but who was the son of Zohair, and no Jew, as a learned gentleman has already observed.3 In consequence of which mistake, the doctor attributes what the Arabian historians write of the latter to the former, and wrongly affirms that he was not put to death by Mohammed.
      Some of the commentators, however, suppose that in the former part of this passage the Christians are intended, who, they say, are generally people of some honour and justice; and in the latter part the Jews, who, they think, are more given to cheating and dishonesty.4
      n This passage was revealed, say the commentators, in answer to the Christians, who insisted that Jesus had commanded them to worship him as GOD. Al Beidâwi adds that two Christians, named Abu Râfé al Koradhi and al Seyid al Najrâni, offered to acknowledge Mohammed for their Lord, and to worship him; to which he answered, GOD forbid that we should worship any besides GOD.
      o Some commentators interpret this of the children of Israel themselves, of whose race the prophets were. But others say the souls of all the prophets, even of those who were not then born, were present on Mount Sinai when GOD gave the law to Moses, and that they entered into the covenant here mentioned with him. A story borrowed by Mohammed from the Talmudists, and therefore most probably his true meaning in this place.

      1 Al Jannâbi, Elmacin. 2 Life of Mahom. p. 78, &c. 3 Vide Gagnier, in not. ad Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 64 and 122. 4 Al Beidâwi.

and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered to Moses, and Jesus, and the prophets from their LORD; we make no distinction between any of them; and to him are we resigned. Whoever followeth any other religion than Islam, it shall not be accepted of him: and in the next life he shall be of those who perish.p How shall GOD direct men who have become infidels after they had believed, and borne witness that the apostle was true, and manifest declarations of the divine will had come unto them? for GOD directeth not the ungodly people. Their reward shall be, that on them shall fall the curse of GOD and of angels, and of all mankind: they shall remain under the same forever; their torment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be regarded; except those who repent after this, and amend; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Moreover they who become infidels after they have believed, and yet increase in infidelity, their repentance shall in no wise be accepted, and they are those who go astray. Verily they who believe not, and die in their unbelief, the world full of gold shall in nowise be accepted from any of them, even though he should give it for his ransom; they shall suffer a grievous punishment, and they shall have none to help them. Ye will never attain unto righteousness until ye give in alms of that which ye love: and whatever ye give, GOD knoweth it. All food was permitted unto the children of Israel, except what Israel forbade unto himself,q before the Pentateuch was sent down.r Say unto the Jews, Bring hither the Pentateuch and read it, if ye speak truth. Whoever therefore contriveth a lie against GOD after this, they will be evil doers. Say, GOD is true: follow ye therefore the religion of Abraham the orthodox; for he was no idolater. Verily the first house appointed unto men to worship in was that which was in Becca;s blessed, and a direction to all creatures.t Therein are manifest signs:u the place where Abraham stood; and whoever entereth therein, shall be safe. And it is a duty towards GOD, incumbent

      p See before, chapter 2, p. 8, note y.
      q This passage was revealed on the Jews reproaching Mohammed and his followers with their eating of the flesh and milk of camels,1 which they said was forbidden Abraham, whose religion Mohammed pretended to follow. In answer to which he tells them that GOD ordained no distinction of meats before he gave the law to Moses, though Jacob voluntarily abstained from the flesh and milk of camels; which some commentators say was the consequence of a vow made by that patriarch, when afflicted with the sciatica, that if he were cured he would eat no more of that meat which he liked best; and that was camel’s flesh: but others suppose he abstained from it by the advice of physicians only.2
      This exposition seems to be taken from the children of Israel’s not eating of the sinew on the hollow of the thigh, because the angel, with whom Jacob wrestled at Peniel, touched the hollow of his thigh in the sinew that shrank.3
      r Wherein the Israelites, because of their wickedness and perverseness, were forbidden to eat certain animals which had been allowed their predecessors.4
      s Mohammed received this passage when the Jews said that their Keblah, or the temple of Jerusalem, was more ancient than that of the Mohammedans, or the Caaba.5 Becca is another name of Mecca.6 Al Beidâwi observes that the Arabs used the “M” and “B” promiscuously in several words.
      t i.e., The Keblah, towards which they are to turn their faces in prayer.
      u Such is the stone wherein they show the print of Abraham’s feet, and the inviolable security of the place immediately mentioned; that the birds light not on the roof of the Caaba, and wild beasts put off their fierceness there; that none who came against it in a hostile manner ever prospered,1 as appeared particularly in the unfortunate expedition of Abraha al Ashram;2 and other fables of the same stamp which the Mohammedans are taught to believe.

      1 See Levit. xi. 4; Deut. xiv. 7. 2 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 3 Gen. xxxii. 32. 4 Kor. c. 4. See the notes there. 5 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 6 See the Prelim. Disc Sect. I. p. 3. 1 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 2 See Kor. c. 105.

on those who are able to go thither,x to visit this house; but whosoever disbelieveth, verily GOD needeth not the service of any creature. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of GOD? Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye keep back from the way of GOD, him who believeth? Ye seek to make it crooked, and yet are witnesses that it is the right: but GOD will not be unmindful of what ye do. O true believers, if ye obey some of those who have received the scripture, they will render you infidels, after ye have believed:y and how can ye be infidels, when the signs of GOD are read unto you, and his apostle is among you? But he who cleaveth firmly unto GOD, is already directed in the right way. O believers, fear GOD with his true fear, and die not unless ye also be true believers. And cleave all of you unto the covenantz of GOD, and depart not from it, and remember the favor of GOD towards you: since ye were enemies, and he reconciled your hearts, and ye became companions and brethren by his favor: and ye were on the brink of a pit of fire, and he delivered you thence. Thus GOD declareth unto you his signs, that ye may be directed. Let there be people among you who invite to the best religion; and command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil; and they shall be happy. And be not as they who are divided, and disagree in matters of religion,a after manifest proofs have been brought unto them: they shall suffer a great torment. On the day of resurrection some faces shall become white, and other faces shall become black.b And unto them whose faces shall become black, GOD will say, Have ye returned unto your unbelief, after ye had believed? therefore taste the punishment, for that ye have been unbelievers: but they whose faces shall become white shall be in the mercy of GOD, therein shall they remain for ever.

      x According to an exposition of this passage attributed to Mohammed, he is supposed to be able to perform the pilgrimage, who can supply himself with provisions for the journey, and a beast to ride upon. Al Shâfeï has decided that those who have money enough, if they cannot go themselves, must hire some other to go in their room. Malec Ebn Ans thinks he is to be reckoned able who is strong and healthy, and can bear the fatigue of the journey on foot, if he has no beast to ride, and can also earn his living by the way. But Abu Hanîfa is of opinion that both money sufficient and health of body are requisite to make the pilgrimage a duty.3
      y This passage was revealed on occasion of a quarrel excited between the tribes of al Aws and al Khazraj, by one Shâs Ebn Kais, a Jew; who, passing by some of both tribes as they were sitting and discoursing familiarly together, and being inwardly vexed at the friendship and harmony which reigned among them on their embracing Mohammedism, whereas they had been, for 120 years before, most inveterate and mortal enemies, though descendants of two brothers; in order to set them at variance, sent a young man to sit down by them, directing him to relate the story of the battle of Boâth (a place near Medina), wherein, after a bloody fight, al Aws had the better of al Khazraj, and to repeat some verses on that subject. The young man executed his orders; whereupon those of each tribe began to magnify themselves, and to reflect on and irritate the other, till at length they called to arms, and great numbers getting together on each side, a dangerous battle had ensued, if Mohammed had not stepped in and reconciled them; by representing to them how much they would be to blame if they returned to paganism, and revived those animosities which Islâm had composed; and telling them that what had happened was a trick of the devil to disturb their present tranquility.4
      z Literally, Hold fast by the cord of God. That is, Secure yourselves by adhering to Islâm, which is here metaphorically expressed by a cord, because it is as sure a means of saving those who profess it from perishing hereafter, as holding by a rope is to prevent one’s falling into a well, or other like place. It is said that Mohammed used for the same reason to call the Korân, Habl Allah al matîn, i.e., the sure cord of GOD.5
      a i.e., As the Jews and Christians, who dispute concerning the unity of GOD, the future state, &c.1
      b See the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.

       3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. 5 Idem. 1 Idem

These are the signs of GOD: we recite them unto thee with truth. GOD will not deal unjustly with his creatures. And to GOD belongeth whatever is in heaven and on earth; and to GOD shall all things return. Ye are the best nation that hath been raised up unto mankind: ye command that which is just, and ye forbid that which is unjust, and ye believe in GOD. And if they who have received the scriptures had believed, it had surely been the better for them: there are believers among them,c but the greater part of them are transgressors. They shall not hurt you, unless with a slight hurt; and if they fight against you, they shall turn their backs to you; and they shall not be helped.d They are smitten with vileness wheresoever they are found; unless they obtain security by entering into a treaty with GOD, and a treaty with men:f and they draw on themselves indignation from GOD, and they are afflicted with poverty. This they suffer, because they disbelieved the signs of GOD,g and slew the prophets unjustly; this, because they were rebellious, and transgressed. Yet they are not all alike: there are of those who have received the scriptures, upright people; they meditate on the signs of GOD in the night season, and worship; they believe in GOD, and the last day; and command that which is just, and forbid that which is unjust, and zealously strive to excel in good works; these are of the righteous. And ye shall not be denied the reward of the good which ye do;h for GOD knoweth the pious. As for the unbelievers, their wealth shall not profit them at all, neither their children, against GOD: they shall be the companions of hell fire; they shall continue therein forever. The likeness of that which they lay out in this present life, is as a wind wherein there is a scorching cold: it falleth on the standing corn of those men who have injured their own souls, and destroyeth it. And GOD dealeth not unjustly with them; but they injure their own souls. O true believers, contract not an intimate friendship with any besides yourselves;i they will not fail to corrupt you. They wish for that which may cause you to perish: their hatred hath already appeared from out of their mouths; but what their breasts conceal is yet more inveterate. We have already shown you signs of their ill will towards you, if ye understand. Behold, ye love them, and they do not love you: ye believe in all the scriptures, and when they meet you, they say, We believe; but when they assemble privately together, they bite their fingers' ends out of wrath against you. Say unto them, Die in your wrath: verily GOD knoweth the innermost part of your breasts. If good happen unto you, it grieveth them; and if evil befall you, they rejoice at it. But if ye be patient, and fear God, their subtlety shall not hurt you at all; for GOD comprehendeth whatever they do. Call to mind when thou wentest

      c As Abd’allah Ebn Salâm and his companions,2 and those of the tribes of al Aws and al Khazraj who had embraced Mohammedism.
      d This verse, al Beidâwi says, is one of those whose meaning is mysterious, and relates to something future: intimating the low condition to which the Jewish tribes of Koreidha, Nadîr, Banu Kainokâ, and those who dwelt at Khaibar, were afterwards reduced by Mohammed.
      e i.e., Unless they either profess the Mohammedan religion, or submit to pay tribute.
      f Those namely who have embraced Islâm.
      g That is, the Korân.
      h Some copies have a different reading in this passage, which they express in the third person: They shall not be denied, &c.
      i i.e., Of a different religion.

       2 Al Beidâwi.

forth early from thy family, that thou mightest prepare the faithful a camp for war;k and GOD hear and knew it; when two companies of you were anxiously thoughtful, so that ye became faint-hearted;l but GOD was the supporter of them both; and in GOD let the faithful trust. And GOD had already given you the victory at Bedr,m when ye were inferior in number; therefore fear GOD, that ye may be thankful. When thou saidst unto the faithful, Is it not enough for you, that your LORD should assist you with three thousand angels sent down from heaven? Verily if ye persevere, and fear God, and your enemies come upon you suddenly, your LORD will assist you with five thousand angels, distinguished by their horses and attire.n And this GOD designed only as good tidings for youo that your hearts might rest secure; for victory is from GOD alone, the mighty, the wise. That he should cut off the uttermost part of the unbelievers, or cast them down, or that they should be overthrown and unsuccessful is nothing to thee. It is no business of thine; whether God be turned unto them, or whether he punish them; they are surely unjust doers.p To GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: he spareth whom he pleaseth, and he punisheth whom he pleaseth; for GOD is merciful. O true believers, devour nor usury, doubling it twofold; but fear GOD, that ye may prosper: and fear the fire which is prepared for the unbelievers; and obey GOD, and his apostle that ye may obtain mercy. And run with emulation to obtain remission from your LORD, and paradise, whose breath equalleth the heavens and the earth, which is prepared for the godly; who give alms in prosperity and adversity; who bridle

      k This was at the battle of Ohod, a mountain about four miles to the north of Medina. The Koreish, to revenge their loss at Bedr,1 the next year being the third of the Hejra, got together an army of 3,000 men, among whom there were 200 horse, and 700 armed with coats of mail. These forces marched under the conduct of Abu Sofiân and sat down at Dhu’lholeifa, a village about six miles from Medina. Mohammed, being much inferior to his enemies in numbers, at first determined to keep himself within the town, and receive them there; but afterwards, the advice of some of his companions prevailing, he marched out against them at the head of 1,000 men (some say he had 1,050 men, others but 900), of whom 100 were armed with coats of mail, but he had no more than one horse, besides his own, in his whole army. With these forces he formed a camp in a village near Ohod, which mountain he contrived to have on his back; and the better to secure his men from being surrounded, he placed fifty archers in the rear, with strict orders not to quit their post. When they came to engage, Mohammed had the better at first, but afterwards by the fault of his archers, who left their ranks for the sake of the plunder, and suffered the enemies’ horse to encompass the Mohammedans and attack them in the rear, he lost the day, and was very near losing his life, being struck down by a shower of stones, and wounded in the face with two arrows, on pulling out of which his two foreteeth dropped out. Of the Moslems seventy men were slain, and among them Hamza the uncle of Mohammed, and of the infidels twenty-two.2 To excuse the ill success of this battle, and to raise the drooping courage of his followers, is Mohammed’s drift in the remaining part of this chapter.
      l These were some of the families of Banu Salma of the tribe of al Khazraj, and Banu’l Hareth of the tribe of al Aws, who composed the two wings of Mohammed’s army. Some ill impression had been made on them by Abda’llah Ebn Obba Solûl, then an infidel, who having drawn off 300 men, told them that they were going to certain death, and advised them to return back with him; but he could prevail on but a few, the others being kept firm by the divine influence, as the following words intimate.3
      m See before, p. 32.
      n The angels who assisted the Mohammedans at Bedr, rode, say the commentators, on black and white horses, and had on their heads white and yellow sashes, the ends of which hung down between their shoulders.
      o i.e., As an earnest of future success.
      p This passage was revealed when Mohammed received the wounds above mentioned at the battle of Ohod, and cried out, How shall that people prosper who have stained their prophet’s

      1 See before, p. 32. 2 Abulfeda, in Vita Moham. p. 64, &c. El Macin. l. x. Prideaux’s Life of Mahomet, p. 80. 3 Al Beidâwi.

their anger, and forgive men; for GOD loveth the beneficent.q And who, after they have committed a crime, or dealt unjustly with their own souls, remember GOD, and ask pardon for their sins, (for who forgiveth sins except GOD?) and persevere not in what they have done knowingly; their reward shall be pardon from their LORD, and gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever: and how excellent is the reward of those who labor! There have already been before you examples of punishment of infidels, therefore go through the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those who accuse God's apostles of imposture. This book is a declaration unto men, and a direction and an admonition to the pious. And be not dismayed, neither be ye grieved; for ye shall be superior to the unbelievers if ye believe. If a wound hath happened unto you in war,r a like wound hath already happened unto the unbelieving people:s and we cause these days of different success interchangeably to succeed each other among men; that GOD may know those who believe, and may have martyrs from among you: (GOD loveth not the workers of iniquity;) and that GOD might prove those who believe, and destroy the infidels. Did ye imagine that ye should enter paradise, when as yet GOD knew not those among you who fought strenuously in his cause; nor knew those who persevered with patience? Moreover ye did sometimes wish for death before that ye met it;t but ye have now seen it, and ye looked on, but retreated from it. Mohammed is no more than an apostle; the other apostles have already deceased before him: if he die, therefore, or be slain, will ye turn back on your heels?u but he who turneth back on his heels will not hurt God at all; and GOD will surely reward the thankful. No soul can die unless by the permission of GOD, according to what is written in the book containing the determination of things.x And whoso chooseth the reward of this world, we will give

face with blood, while he called them to their Lord? The person who wounded him was Otha the son of Abu Wakkas.4
      q It is related of Hasan the son of Ali, that a slave having once thrown a dish on him boiling hot, as he sat at table, and fearing his master’s resentment, fell immediately on his knees, and repeated these words, Paradise is for those who bridle their anger: Hasan answered, I am not angry. The slave proceeded, and for those who forgive men. I forgive you, said Hasan. The slave, however, finished the verse, adding, for God loveth the beneficent. Since it is so replied Hasan, I give you your liberty, and four hundred pieces of silver.5 A noble instance of moderation and generosity.
      r That is, by your being worsted at Ohod.
      s When they were defeated at Bedr. It is observable that the number of Mohammedans slain at Ohod, was equal to that of the idolaters slain at Bedr; which was so ordered by GOD for a reason to be given elsewhere.1
      t Several of Mohammed’s followers who were not present at Bedr, wished for an opportunity of obtaining, in another action, the like honour as those had gained who fell martyrs in that battle; yet were discouraged on seeing the superior numbers of the idolaters in the expedition of Ohod. On which occasion this passage was revealed.2
      u These words were revealed when it was reported in the battle of Ohod that Mohammed was slain; whereupon the idolaters cried out to his followers, Since your prophet is slain, return to your ancient religion, and to your friends; if Mohammed had been a prophet he had not been slain. It is related that a Moslem named Ans Ebn al Nadar, uncle to Malec Ebn Ans, hearing these words, said aloud to his companions, My friends, though Mohammed be slain, certainly Mohammed’s Lord liveth and dieth not; therefore value not your lives since the prophet is dead, but fight for the cause for which he fought: then he cried out, O God, I am excused before thee, and acquitted in thy sight of what they say; and drawing his sword, fought valiantly till he was killed.3
      x Mohammed, the more effectually to still the murmurs of his party on their defeat, represents

      4 Idem. Abulfeda, ubi supra. 5 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Hassan. 1 In not. ad cap. 8. 2 Al Beidâwi 3 Idem.

him thereof: but whoso chooseth the reward of the world to come, we will give him thereof: and we will surely reward the thankful. How many prophets have encountered those who had many myriads of troops: and yet they desponded not in their mind for what had befallen them in fighting for the religion of GOD; and were not weakened, neither behaved themselves in an abject manner? GOD loveth those who persevere patiently. And their speech was no other than what they said, Our LORD forgive us our offences, and our transgressions in our business; and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving people. And GOD gave them the reward of this world, and a glorious reward in the life to come; for GOD loveth the well-doers. O ye who believe, if you obey the infidels, they will cause you to turn back on your heels, and ye will be turned back and perish:y but GOD is your LORD; and he is the best helper. We will surely cast a dread into the hearts of the unbelievers,z because they have associated with GOD that concerning which he sent them down no power: their dwelling shall be the fire of hell; and the receptacle of the wicked shall be miserable. GOD had already made good unto you his promise, when ye destroyed them by his permission,a until ye became faint-hearted, and disputed concerning the command of the apostle, and were rebellious;b after God had shown you what ye desired. Some of you chose this present world, and others of you chose the world to come.c Then he turned you to flight from before them, that he might make trial of you: (but he hath now pardoned you: for GOD is endued with beneficence towards the faithful;) when ye went up as ye fled, and looked not back on any: while the apostle called you, in the uttermost part of you.d Therefore God rewarded you with affliction on affliction, that ye be not grieved hereafter for the spoils which ye fail of, nor for that which befalleth you,e for GOD is well acquainted

to them that the time of every man’s death is decreed and predetermined by God, and that those who fell in the battle could not have avoided their fate had they stayed at home; whereas they had now obtained the glorious advantage of dying martyrs for the faith. Of the Mohammedan doctrine of absolute predestination I have spoken in another place.4
      y This passage was also occasioned by the endeavours of the Koreish to seduce the Mohammedans to their old idolatry, as they fled in the battle of Ohod.
      z To this Mohammed attributed the sudden retreat of Abu Sofiân and his troops, without making any farther advantage of their success; only giving Mohammed a challenge to meet them next year at Bedr, which he accepted. Others say that as they were on their march home, they repented they had not utterly extirpated the Mohammedans, and began to think of going back to Medina for that purpose, but were prevented by a sudden consternation or panic fear, which fell on them from GOD.5
      a i.e., In the beginning of the battle, when the Moslems had the advantage, putting the idolaters to flight, and killing several of them.
      b That is, till the bowmen, who were placed behind to prevent their being surrounded, seeing the enemy fly, quitted their post, contrary to Mohammed’s express orders, and dispersed themselves to seize the plunder; whereupon Khâled Ebn al Walîd perceiving their disorder, fell on their rear with the horse which he commanded, and turned the fortune of the day. It is related that though Abda’llah Ebn Johair, their captain, did all he could to make them keep their ranks, he had not ten that stayed with him out of the whole fifty.6
      c The former were they who, tempted by the spoil, quitted their post; and the latter they who stood firm by their leader.
      d Crying aloud, Come hither to me, O servants of GOD! I am the apostle of GOD; he who returneth back, shall enter paradise. But notwithstanding all his endeavours to rally his men, he could not get above thirty of them about him.
      e i.e., GOD punished your avarice and disobedience by suffering you to be beaten by your enemies, and to be discouraged by the report of your prophet’s death; that ye might be inured to patience under adverse fortune, and not repine at any loss or disappointment for the future

      4 Prelim. Disc. Sect IV. 5 Al Beidâwi. 6 Idem. Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 65, 66, and note, ibid.

with whatever ye do. Then he sent down upon you after affliction security; a soft sleep which fell on some part of you; but other part were troubled by their own souls;f falsely thinking of GOD, a foolish imagination saying, Will anything of the matter happen unto us?g Say, Verily, the matter belongeth wholly unto GOD. They concealed in their minds what they declared not unto thee; saying,h If anything of the matter had happened unto us,i we had not been slain here. Answer, If ye had been in your houses, verily they would have gone forth to fight, whose slaughter was decreed, to the places where they died, and this came to pass that GOD might try what was in your breasts, and might discern what was in your hearts; for GOD knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. Verily they among you who turned their backs on the day whereon the two armies met each other at Ohod, Satan caused them to slip for some crime which they had committed:k but now hath GOD forgiven them; for GOD is gracious and merciful. O true believers, be not as they who believed not, and said of their brethren when they had journeyed in the land or had been at war, If they had been with us, those had not died, nor had these been slain: whereas what befell them was so ordained that GOD might take it matter of sighing in their hearts. GOD giveth life, and causeth to die: and GOD seeth that which ye do. Moreover if ye be slain, or die in defence of the religion of GOD, verily pardon from GOD, and mercy, is better than what they heap together of worldly riches. And if ye die, or be slain, verily unto GOD shall ye be gathered. And as to the mercy granted unto the disobedient from GOD, thou O Mohammed, hast been mild towards them; but if thou hadst been severe, and hard-hearted, they had surely separated themselves from about thee. Therefore forgive them, and ask pardon for them: and consult them in the affair of war; and after thou hast deliberated, trust in GOD; for GOD loveth those who trust in him. If GOD help you, none shall conquer you; but if he desert you, who is it that will help you after him? Therefore in GOD let the faithful trust. It is not the part of a prophet to defraud,l for he who defraudeth shall bring with him what he hath defrauded any one of, on the day of the resurrection.m Then shall every

      f After the action, those who had stood firm in the battle were refreshed as they lay in the field by falling into an agreeable sleep, so that the swords fell out of their hands; but those who had behaved themselves ill were troubled in their minds, imagining they were now given over to destruction.1
      g That is, is there any appearance of success, or of the divine favour and assistance which we have been promised?2
      h i.e., To themselves, or to one another in private.
      i If GOD had assisted us according to his promise; or, as others interpret the words, if we had taken the advice of Abda’llah Ebn Obba Solûl, and had kept within the town of Medina, our companions had not lost their lives.3
      k viz., For their covetousness in quitting their post to seize the plunder.
      l This passage was revealed, as some say, on the division of the spoil at Bedr; when some of the soldiers suspected Mohammed of having privately taken a scarlet carpet made all of silk and very rich, which was missing.4 Others suppose the archers, who occasioned the loss of the battle of Ohod, left their station because they imagined Mohammed would not give them their share of the plunder; because, as it is related, he once sent out a party as an advanced guard, and in the meantime attacking the enemy, took some spoils which he divided among those who were with him in the action, and gave nothing to the party that was absent on duty.5
      m According to a tradition of Mohammed, whoever cheateth another will on the day of judgment carry his fraudulent purchase publicly on his neck.

      1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 5 Al Beidâwi.

soul be paid what he hath gained; and they shall not be treated unjustly. Shall he therefore who followeth that which is well-pleasing unto GOD be as he who bringeth on himself wrath from GOD, and whose receptacle is hell? an evil journey shall it be thither. There shall be degrees of rewards and punishments with GOD, for GOD seeth what they do. Now hath GOD been gracious unto the believers when he raised up among them an apostle of their own nation,n who should recite his signs unto them, and purify them, and teach them the book of the Koran and wisdom:o whereas they were before in manifest error. After a misfortune had befallen you at Ohod, (ye had already obtained two equal advantages)p do ye say, Whence cometh this? Answer, This is from yourselves:q for GOD is almighty. And what happened unto you, on the day whereon the two armies met, was certainly by the permission of GOD; and that he might know the ungodly. It was said unto them, Come, fight for the religion of GOD, or drive back the enemy: they answered, if we had known ye went out to fight, we had certainly followed you.r They were on that day nearer unto unbelief, than they were to faith; they spake with their mouths, what was not in their hearts: but GOD perfectly knew what they concealed; who said of their brethren, while themselves stayed at home, if they had obeyed us, they had not been slain. Say, Then keep back death from yourselves, if ye say truth. Thou shalt in nowise reckon those who have been slain at Ohod, in the cause of GOD, dead; nay, they are sustained alive with their LORD,s rejoicing for what GOD of his favor hath granted them; and being glad for those who, coming after them, have not as yet overtaken them;t because there shall no fear come on them, neither shall they be grieved. They are filled with joy for the favor which they have received from GOD and his bounty; and for that GOD suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish. They who hearkened unto GOD and his apostle, after a wound had befallen them at Ohod,u

      n Some copies, instead of min anfosihim, i.e., of themselves, read min anfasihim, i.e., of the noblest among them; for such was the tribe of Koreish, of which Mohammed was descended.1
      o i.e., The Sonna.2
      p viz., In the battle of Bedr, where ye slew seventy of the enemy, equalling the number of those who lost their lives at Ohod, and also took as many prisoners.3
      q It was the consequence of your disobeying the orders of the prophet, and abandoning your post for the sake of plunder.
      r That is, if we had conceived the least hope of success when ye marched out of Medina to encounter the infidels, and had not known that ye went rather to certain destruction than to battle, we had gone with you. But this Mohammed here tells them was only a feigned excuse; the true reason of their staying behind being their want of faith and firmness in their religion.4
      s See before, p. 17.
      t i.e., Rejoicing also for their sakes, who are destined to suffer martyrdom, but have not as yet attained it.5
      u The commentators differ a little as to the occassion of this passage. When news was brought to Mohammed, after the battle of Ohod, that the enemy, repenting of their retreat, were returning towards Medina, he called about him those who had stood by him in the battle, and marched out to meet the enemy as far as Homarâ al Asad, about eight miles from that town, notwithstanding several of his men were so ill of their wounds that they were forced to be carried; but a panic fear having seized the army of the Koreish, they changed their resolution and continued their march home; of which Mohammed having received intelligence, he also went back to Medina: and, according to some commentators, the Korân here approves the faith and courage of those who attended the prophet on this occasion. Others say the persons intended in this passage were those who went with Mohammed the next year, to meet

      1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 See before, p. 32. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Vide Rev. vi. II.

such of them as do good works, and fear God, shall have a great reward; unto whom certain men said, Verily the men of Mecca have already gathered forces against you, be ye therefore afraid of them:x but this increased their faith, and they said, GOD is our support, and the most excellent patron. Wherefore they returned with favor from GOD, and advantage:y no evil befell them: and they followed what was well pleasing unto GOD: for GOD is endowed with great liberality. Verily that devilz would cause you to fear his friends: but be ye not afraid of them: but fear me, if ye be true believers. They shall not grieve thee, who emulously hasten unto infidelity; for they shall never hurt GOD at all. GOD will not give them a part in the next life, and they shall suffer a great punishment. Surely those who purchase infidelity with faith shall by no means hurt GOD at all, but they shall suffer a grievous punishment. And let not the unbelievers think, because we grant them lives long and prosperous, that it is better for their souls: we grant them long and prosperous lives only that their iniquity may be increased; and they shall suffer an ignominious punishment. GOD is not disposed to leave the faithful in the condition which ye are now in,a until he sever the wicked from the good; nor is GOD disposed to make you acquainted with what is a hidden secret, but GOD chooseth such of his apostles as he pleaseth, to reveal his mind unto:b believe therefore in GOD, and his apostles; and if ye believe, and fear God, ye shall receive a great reward. And let not those who are covetous of what GOD of his bounty hath granted them imagine that their avarice is better for them: nay, rather it is worse for them. That which they have covetously reserved shall be bound as a collar about their neck,c on the day of the resurrection: unto GOD belongeth the inheritance of heaven and earth; and GOD is well acquainted with what ye do. GOD hath already heard the saying of those who said, Verily GOD is

Abu Sofiân and the Koreish, according to their challenge, at Bedr,1 where they waited some time for the enemy, and then returned home; for the Koreish, though they set out from Mecca, yet never came so far as the place of appointment, their hearts failing them on their march; which Mohammed attributed to their being struck with a terror from GOD.2 This expedition the Arabian histories call the second, or lesser expedition of Bedr.
      x The persons who thus endeavoured to discourage the Mohammedans were, according to one tradition, some of the tribe of Abd Kais, who, going to Medina, were bribed by Abu Sofiân with a camel’s load of dried raisins; and, according to another tradition, it was Noaim Ebn Masúd al Ashjaï who was also bribed with a she-camel ten months gone with young (a valuable present in Arabia). This Noaim, they say, finding Mohammed and his men preparing for the expedition, told them that Abu Sofiân, to spare them the pains of coming so far as Bedr, would seek them in their own houses, and that none of them could possibly escape otherwise than by timely flight. Upon which Mohammed, seeing his followers a little dispirited, swore that he would go himself though not one of them went with him. And accordingly he set out with seventy horsemen, every one of them crying out, Hashna Allah, i.e., GOD is our support.3
      y While they stayed at Bedr expecting the enemy, they opened a kind of fair there, and traded to very considerable profit.4
      z Meaning either Noaim, or Abu Sofiân himself.
      a That is, he will not suffer the good and sincere among you to continue indiscriminately mixed with the wicked and hypocritical.
      b This passage was revealed on the rebellious and disobedient Mohammedans telling Mohammed that if he was a true prophet he could easily distinguish those who sincerely believed from the dissemblers.1
      c Mohammed is said to have declared, that whoever pays not his legal contribution of alms duly shall have a serpent twisted about his neck at the resurrection.2

      1 See before, p. 47, note 2. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 4 Al Beidâwi. 1 Idem. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

poor, and we are rich:d we will surely write down what they have said, and the slaughter which they have made of the prophets without a cause; and we will say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning. This shall they suffer for the evil which their hands have sent before them, and because GOD is not unjust towards mankind; who also say, Surely GOD hath commanded us, that we should not give credit to any apostle, until one should come unto us with a sacrifice, which should be consumed by fire.e Say, Apostles have already come unto you before me,f with plain proofs, and with the miracle which ye mention: why therefore have ye slain them, if ye speak truth? If they accuse thee of imposture, the apostles before thee have also been accounted impostors, who brought evident demonstrations, and the scriptures, and the book which enlighteneth the understanding. Every soul shall taste of death, and ye shall have your reward on the day of resurrection; and he who shall be far removed from hell fire, and shall be admitted into paradise, shall be happy: but the present life is only a deceitful provision. Ye shall surely be proved in your possessions, and in your persons; and ye shall bear from those unto whom the scripture was delivered before you, and from the idolaters, much hurt: but if ye be patient and fear God, this is a matter that is absolutely determined. And when GOD accepted the covenant of those to whom the book of the law was given, saying, Ye shall surely publish it unto mankind, ye shall not hide it: yet they threw it behind their backs, and sold it for a small price: but woful is the price for which they have sold it.g Think not that they who rejoice at what they have done, and expect to be praised for what they have not done;h think not, O prophet, that they shall escape from

      d It is related that Mohammed, writing to the Jews of the tribe of Kainokâ to invite them to Islâm, and exhorting them, among other things, in the words of the Korân,3 to lend unto GOD on good usury, Phineas Ebn Azûra, on hearing that expression, said, Surely GOD is poor, since they ask to borrow for him. Whereupon Abu Becr, who was the bearer of that letter, struck him on the face, and told him that if it had not been for the truce between them, he would have struck off his head; and on Phineas’s complaining to Mohammed of Abu Becr’s ill usage, this passage was revealed.4
      e The Jews, say the commentators, insisted that it was a peculiar proof of the mission of all the prophets sent to them, that they could, by their prayers, bring down fire from heaven to consume the sacrifice, and therefore they expected Mohammed should do the like. And some Mohammedan doctors agree that GOD appointed this miracle as the test of all their prophets, except only Jesus and Mohammed;5 though others say any other miracle was a proof full as sufficient as the bringing down fire from heaven.6
      The Arabian Jews seem to have drawn a general consequence from some particular instances of this miracle in the Old Testament.7 And the Jews at this day say, that first the fire which fell from heaven on the altar of the tabernacle,8 after the consecration of Aaron and his sons, and afterwards that which descended on the altar of Solomon’s temple, at the dedication of that structure,9 was fed and constantly maintained there by the priests, both day and night, without being suffered once to go out, till it was extinguished, as some think, in the reign of Manasses,10 but, according to the more received opinion, when the temple was destroyed by the Chaldeans. Several Christians11 have given credit to this assertion of the Jews, with what reason I shall not here inquire; and the Jews, in consequence of this notion, might probably expect that a prophet who came to restore GOD’S true religion, should rekindle for them this heavenly fire, which they have not been favoured with since the Babylonish captivity.
      f Among these the commentators reckon Zacharias and John the Baptist.
      g i.e., Dearly shall they pay hereafter for taking bribes to stifle the truth. Whoever concealeth the knowledge which GOD has given him, says Mohammed, GOD shall put on him a bridle of fire on the day of resurrection.
      h i.e., Who think they have done a commendable deed in concealing and dissembling the testimonies in the Pentateuch concerning Mohammed, and in disobeying GOD’S commands to

      3 Cap. 2, p. 26. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 6 Al Beidâwi. 7 Levit. ix. 24; I Chron. xxi. 26; 2 Chron. vii. I; 1 Kings xviii. 38. 8 Levit. ix. 24. 9 2 Chron. vii. x. 10 Talmud, Zebachim, c. 6. 11 See Prideaux’s Connect part i. bk. iii. p. 158.

punishment, for they shall suffer a painful punishment; and unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth: GOD is almighty. Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, are signs unto those who are endued with understanding; who remember GOD standing, and sitting, and lying on their sides;i and meditate on the creation of heaven and earth, saying, O LORD, thou hast not created this in vain; far be it from thee: therefore deliver us from the torment of hell fire: O LORD, surely whom thou shalt throw into the fire, thou wilt also cover with shame: nor shall the ungodly have any to help them. O LORD, we have heard a preacherk inviting us to the faith and saying, Believe in your LORD: and we believed. O LORD, forgive us therefore our sins, and expiate our evil deeds from us, and make us to die with the righteous. O LORD, give us also the reward which thou hast promised by thy apostles; and cover us not with shame on the day of resurrection; for thou art not contrary to the promise. Their LORD therefore answered them, saying, I will not suffer the work of him among you who worketh to be lost, whether he be male, or female:l the one of you is from the other. They therefore who have left their country, and have been turned out of their houses, and have suffered for my sake, and have been slain in battle; verily I will expiate their evil deeds from them, and I will surely bring them into gardens watered by rivers; a reward from GOD; and with GOD is the most excellent reward. Let not the prosperous dealing of the unbelievers in the land deceive thee;m it is but a slender provision;n and then their receptacle shall be hell; an unhappy couch shall it be. But they who fear the LORD shall have gardens through which rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever: this is the gift of GOD for what is with GOD shall be better for the righteous than short-lived worldly prosperity. There are some of those who have received the scriptures, who believe in GOD, and that which hath been sent down unto you, and that which hath been sent down to them, submitting themselves unto GOD;o they tell not the signs of GOD for a

the contrary. It is said that, Mohammed once asking some Jews concerning a passage in their law, they gave him an answer very different from the truth, and were mightily pleased that they had, as they thought, deceived him. Others, however, think this passage relates to some pretended Mohammedans who rejoiced in their hypocrisy, and expected to be commended for their wickedness.12
      i viz., At all times and in all postures. Al Beidâwi mentions a saying of Mohammed to one Imrân Ebn Hosein, to this purpose: Pray standing, if thou art able; if not, sitting; and if thou canst not sit up, then as thou liest along. Al Shâfeï directs that he sick should pray lying on their right side.
      k Namely, Mohammed, with the Korân.
      l These words were added, as some relate, on Omm Salma, one of the prophet’s wives, telling him that she had observed GOD often made mention of the men who fled their country for the sake of their faith, but took no notice of the women.1
      m The original word properly signifies success in the affairs of life, and particularly in trade. It is said that some of Mohammed’s followers observing the prosperity the idolaters enjoyed, expressed their regret that those enemies of GOD should live in such ease and plenty, while themselves were perishing for hunger and fatigue; whereupon this passage was revealed.2
      n Because of its short continuance.
      o The persons here meant, some will have to be Abda’llah Ebn Salâm3 and his companions; others suppose they were forty Arabs of Najrân, or thirty-two Ethiopians, or else eight Greeks, who were converted from Christianity to Mohammedism; and others say this passage was revealed in the ninth year of the Hejra, when Mohammed, on Gabriel’s bringing him the news of the death of Ashama king of Ethiopia, who had embraced the Mohammedan religion some

      12 Al Beidâwi. 1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 See before, p. 44.

small price: these shall have their reward with their LORD; for GOD is swift in taking an account.p O true believers, be patient and strive to excel in patience, and be constant-minded, and fear GOD, that ye may be happy.


______________


CHAPTER IV.

ENTITLED, WOMEN;q REVEALED AT MEDINA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD


O MEN, fear your LORD, who hath created you out of one man, and out of him created his wife, and from them two hath multiplied many men, and women: and fear GOD by whom ye beseech one another;r and respect womens who have borne you, for GOD is watching over you. And give the orphans when they come to age their substance; and render them not in exchange bad for good:t and devour not their substance, by adding it to your own substance; for this is a great sin. And if ye fear that ye shall not act with equity towards orphans of the female sex, take in marriage of such other women as please you, two, or three, or four, and not more.u But if ye fear that ye cannot act equitably towards so many, marry one only, or the slaves which ye shall have acquired.x This will be easier, that ye swerve not from righteousness. And give women their dowry freely; but if they voluntarily remit unto you any part of it, enjoy it with satisfaction and advantage. And give not unto those who are weak of understanding the substance which GOD hath appointed you to preserve for them; but maintain them thereout, and clothe them, and speak kindly unto them. And

years before,4 prayed for the soul of the departed; at which some of his hypocritical followers were displeased, and wondered that he should pray for a Christian proselyte whom he had never seen.5
      p See before, p. 21, and the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.
      q This title was given to this chapter, because it chiefly treats of matters relating to women; as, marriages, divorces, dower, prohibited degrees, &c.
      r Saying, I beseech thee for GOD’S sake.1
      s Literally, the wombs.
      t That is, take not what ye find of value among their effects to your own use, and give them worse in its stead.
      u The commentators understand this passage differently. The true meaning seems to be as it is here translated; Mohammed advising his followers that if they found they should wrong the female orphans under their care, either by marrying them against their inclinations, ought, by reason of their having already several wives, they should rather choose to marry other women, to avoid all occasion of sin.2 Others say that when this passage was revealed, many of the Arabians, fearing trouble and temptation, refused to take upon them the charge of orphans, and yet multiplied wives to a great excess, and used them ill; or, as others write, gave themselves up to fornication; which occasioned this passage. And according to these, its meaning must be either that if they feared they could not act justly towards orphans, they had as great reason to apprehend they could not deal equitably with so many wives, and therefore are commanded to marry but a certain number; or else, that since fornication was a crime as well as wronging of orphans, they ought to avoid that also, by marrying according to their abilities.3
      x For slaves requiring not so large a dower, nor so good and plentiful a maintenance as free women, a man might keep several of the former, as easily as one of the latter.

      4 See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. II. 5 Al Beidâwi. 1 Idem. 2 Idem 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.


examine the orphansy until they attain the age of marriage:z but if ye perceive they are able to manage their affairs well, deliver their substance unto them; and waste it not extravagantly, or hastily, because they grow up.a Let him who is rich abstain entirely from the orphans' estates; and let him who is poor take thereof according to what shall be reasonable.b And when ye deliver their substance unto them, call witnesses thereof in their presence: GOD taketh sufficient account of your actions. Men ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leavec behind them when they die: and women also ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leave, whether it be little, or whether it be much; a determinate part is due to them. And when they who are of kin are present at the dividing of what is left, and also the orphans, and the poor; distribute unto them some part thereof; and if the estate be too small, at least speak comfortably unto them. And let those fear to abuse orphans, who if they leave behind them a weak offspring, are solicitous for them; let them therefore fear GOD, and speak that which is convenient.d Surely they who devour the possessions of orphans unjustly shall swallow down nothing but fire into their bellies, and shall broil in raging flames. GOD hath thus commanded you concerning your children. A male shall have as much as the share of two females:e but if they be females only, and above two in number, they shall have two third parts of what the deceased shall leave;f and if there be but one, she shall have the half.g And the parents of the deceased shall have each of them a sixth part of what he shall leave, if he have a child; but if he have no child, and his parents be his heirs, then his mother shall have the third part.h And if he have brethren, his mother shall have a sixth part, after the legaciesi which he shall bequeath, and his debts be paid. Ye know not whether your parents or your children be of greater use unto you. This is an

      y i.e., Try whether they be well grounded in the principles of religion, and have sufficient prudence for the management of their affairs. Under this expression is also comprehended the duty of a curator’s instructing his pupils in those respects.
      z Or age of maturity, which is generally reckoned to be fifteen; a decision supported by a tradition of their prophet, though Abu Hanîfah thinks eighteen the proper age.1
      a i.e., Because they will shortly be of age to receive what belongs to them.
      b That is, no more than what shall make sufficient recompense for the trouble of their education.
      c This law was given to abolish a custom of the pagan Arabs, who suffered not women or children to have any part of their husband’s or father’s inheritance, on pretence that they only should inherit who were able to go to war.2
      d viz., Either to comfort the children, or to assure the dying father they shall be justly dealt by.3
      e This is the general rule to be followed in the distribution of the estate of the deceased, as may be observed in the following cases.4
      f Or if there be two and no more, they will have the same share.
      g And the remaining third part, or the remaining moiety of the estate, which is not here expressly disposed of, if the deceased leaves behind him no son, nor a father, goes to the public treasury. It must be observed that Mr. Selden is certainly mistaken when, in explaining this passage of the Korân, he says, that where there is a son and an only daughter, each of them will have a moiety:5 for the daughter can have a moiety but in one case only, that is, where there is no son; for if there be a son, she can have but a third, according to the above-mentioned rule.
      h And his father consequently the other two-thirds.6
      i By legacies, in this and the following passages, are chiefly meant those bequeathed to pious uses; for the Mohammedans approve not of a person’s giving away his substance from his family and near relations on any other account.

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Vide Prelim. Disc. Sect. VI. 5 Selden, de Success. ad Leges Ebræor. l. I, c. I. 6 Al Beidâwi.

ordinance from GOD, and GOD is knowing and wise. Moreover ye may claim half of what your wives shall leave, if they have no issue; but if they have issue, then ye shall have the fourth part of what they shall leave, after the legacies which they shall bequeath, and the debts be paid. They also shall have the fourth part of what ye shall leave, in case ye have no issue; but if ye have issue, then they shall have the eighth part of what ye shall leave, after the legacies which ye shall bequeath, and your debts be paid. And if a man or woman's substance be inherited by a distant relation,k and he or she have a brother or sister; each of them two shall have a sixth part of the estate.l But if there be more than this number, they shall be equal sharers in a third part, after payment of the legacies which shall be bequeathed, and the debts, without prejudice to the heirs. This is an ordinance from GOD: and GOD is knowing and gracious. These are the statutes of GOD. And whoso obeyeth GOD and his apostle, God shall lead him into gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever; and this shall be great happiness. But whoso disobeyeth GOD, and his apostle, and transgresseth his statutes, God shall cast him into hell fire; he shall remain therein forever, and he shall suffer a shameful punishment. If any of your women be guilty of whoredom,m produce four witnesses from among you against them, and if they bear witness against them, imprison them in separate apartments until death release them, or GOD affordeth them a way to escape.n And if two of you commit the like wickedness,o punish them both:p but if they repent and amend, let them both alone; for GOD is easy to be reconciled and merciful. Verily repentance will be accepted with GOD, from those who do evil ignorantly, and then repent speedily; unto them will GOD be turned: for GOD is knowing and wise. But no repentance shall be accepted from those who do evil until the time when death presenteth itself unto one of them, and he saith, Verily I repent now; nor unto those who die unbelievers; for them have we prepared a grievous punishment. O true believers, it is

      k For this may happen by contract, or on some other special occasion.
      l Here, and in the next case, the brother and sister are made equal sharers, which is an exception to the general rule, of giving a male twice as much as a female; and the reason is said to be because of the smallness of the portions, which deserve not such exactness of distribution; for in other cases the rule holds between brother and sister, as well as other relations.1
      m Either adultery or fornication.
      n Their punishment, in the beginning of Mohammedism, was to be immured till they died, but afterwards this cruel doom was mitigated, and they might avoid it by undergoing the punishment ordained in its stead by the Sonna, according to which the maidens are to be scourged with a hundred stripes, and to be banished for a full year; and the married women to be stoned.2
      o The commentators are not agreed whether the text speaks of fornication or sodomy. Al Zamakhshari, and from him, al Beidâwi, supposes the former is here meant: but Jallalo’ddin is of opinion that the crime intended in this passage must be committed between two men, and not between a man and a woman; not only because the pronouns are in the masculine gender, but because both are ordered to suffer the same slight punishment, and are both allowed the same repentance and indulgence; and especially for that a different and much severer punishment is appointed for the women in the preceding words. Abu’l Kâsem Hebatallah takes simple fornication to be the crime intended, and that this passage is abrogated by that of the 24th chapter, where the man and the woman who shall be guilty of fornication are ordered to be scourged with a hundred stripes each.
      p The original is, Do them some hurt or damage: by which some understand that they are only to reproach them in public,3 or strike them on the head with their slippers4 (a great indignity in the east), though some imagine they may be scourged.5

      1 See this chapter, near the end. 2 Jallalo’ddin. 3 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, Abul Kâsem Habatallah, al Beidâwi. 4 Jallalo’ddin al Beidâwi. 5 Al Beidâwi.

not lawful for you to be heirs of women against their will,q nor to hinder them from marrying others,r that ye may take away part of what ye have given them in dowry; unless they have been guilty of a manifest crime:s but converse kindly with them. And if ye hate them, it may happen that ye may hate a thing wherein GOD hath placed much good. If ye be desirous to exchange a wife for another wife,t and ye have already given one of them a talent,u take not away anything therefrom:x will ye take it by slandering her, and doing her manifest injustice? And how can ye take it, since the one of you hath gone in unto the other, and they have received from you a firm covenant? Marry not women whom your fathers have had to wife; (except what is already past:) for this is uncleanness, and an abomination, and an evil way. Ye are forbidden to marry your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts both on the father's and on the mother's side, and your brothers' daughters, and your sisters' daughters, and your mothers who have given you suck, and your foster-sisters, and your wives' mothers, and your daughters-in-law which are under your tuition, born of your wives unto whom ye have gone in, (but if ye have not gone in unto them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them, ) and the wives of your sons who proceed out of your loins; and ye are also forbidden to take to wife two sisters,y except what is already past: for GOD is gracious and merciful. Ye are also forbidden to take to wife free women who are married, except those women whom your right hands shall possess as slaves.z This is ordained you from GOD. Whatever is beside this is allowed you; that ye may with your substance provide wives for yourselves, acting that which is right, and avoiding whoredom. And for the advantage which ye receive from them, give them their reward,a according to what is ordained: but it shall be no crime in you to make any other agreement among yourselves,b after the ordinance shall be complied with; for GOD is knowing and wise. Whoso among you hath not means sufficient that he may marry free women, who are believers, let him marry with such of your maid-servants whom your right hands possess, as are true believers; for GOD well knoweth

      q It was customary among the pagan Arabs, when a man died, for one of his relations to claim a right to his widow, which he asserted by throwing his garment over her; and then he either married her himself, if he thought fit, on assigning her the same dower that her former husband had done, or kept her dower and married her to another, or else refused to let her marry unless she redeemed herself by quitting what she might claim of her husband’s goods.1 This unjust custom is abolished by this passage.
      r Some say these words are directed to husbands who used to imprison their wives without any just cause, and out of covetousness, merely to make them relinquish their dower or their inheritance.2
      s Such as disobedience, ill behaviour, immodesty, and the like.3
      t That is, by divorcing one, and marrying another.
      u i.e., Ever so large a dower.
      x See chapter 2, p. 25.
      y The same was also prohibited by the Levitical law.4
      z According to this passage it is not lawful to marry a free woman that is already married, be she a Mohammedan or not, unless she be legally parted from her husband by divorce; but it is lawful to marry those who are slaves, or taken in war, after they shall have gone through the proper purifications, though their husbands be living. Yet, according to the decision of Abu Hanîfah, it is not lawful to marry such whose husbands shall be taken, or in actual slavery with them.1
      a That is, assign them their dower.
      b That is, either to increase the dower, or to abate some part or even the whole of it.

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Levit. xviii. 18. 1 Al Beidâwi.

your faith. Ye are the one from the other:c therefore marry them with the consent of their masters; and give them their dower according to justice; such as are modest, not guilty of whoredom, nor entertaining lovers. And when they are married, if they be guilty of adultery, they shall suffer half the punishment which is appointed for the free women.d This is allowed unto him among you, who feareth to sin by marrying free women; but if ye abstain from marrying slaves, it will be better for you; GOD is gracious and merciful. GOD is willing to declare these things unto you, and to direct you according to the ordinances of those who have gone before you,e and to be merciful unto you. GOD is knowing and wise. GOD desireth to be gracious unto you; but they who follow their lusts,f desire that ye should turn aside from the truth with great deviation. GOD is minded to make his religion light unto you: for man was created weak.g O true believers, consume not your wealth among yourselves in vanity;h unless there be merchandising among you by mutual consent: neither slay yourselves;i for GOD is merciful towards you: and whoever doth this maliciouslyk and wickedly, he will surely cast him to be broiled in hell fire; and this is easy with GOD. If ye turn aside from the grievous sins,l of those which ye are forbidden to commit, we will cleanse you from your smaller faults; and will introduce you into paradise with an honourable entry. Covet not that which GOD hath bestowed on some of you preferably to others.m Unto the men shall be given a portion of what they shall have gained, and unto the women shall be given a portion of what they shall have gained:n therefore ask GOD of his bounty; for

      c Being alike descended from Adam, and of the same faith.2
      d The reason of this is because they are not presumed to have had so good education. A slave, therefore, in such a case, is to have fifty stripes, and to be banished for half a year; but she shall not be stoned, because it is a punishment which cannot be inflicted by halves.3
      e viz., Of the prophets, and other holy and prudent men of former ages.4
      f Some commentators suppose that these words have a particular regard to the Magians, who formerly were frequently guilty of incestuous marriages, their prophet Zerdusht having allowed them to take their mothers and sisters to wife; and also to the Jews, who likewise might marry within some of the degrees here prohibited.5
      g Being unable to refrain from women, and too subject to be led away by carnal appetites.6
      h That is, employ it not in things prohibited by GOD; such as usury, extortion, rapine, gaming, and the like.7
      i Literally, slay not your souls; i.e., says Jallalo’ddin, by committing mortal sins, or such crimes as will destroy them. Others, however, are of opinion that self-murder, which the gentile Indians did, and still do, often practise in honour of their idols, or else the taking away the life of any true believer, is hereby forbidden.8
      k See Wisdom xvi. 14, in the Vulgate.
      l These sins al Beidâwi, from a tradition of Mohammed, reckons to be seven (equaling in number the sins called deadly by Christians), that is to say, idolatry, murder, falsely accusing modest women of adultery, wasting the substance of orphans, taking of usury, desertion in a religious expedition, and disobedience to parents. But Ebn Abbâs says they amount to near seven hundred; and others suppose that idolatry only, of different kinds, in worshipping idols or any creature, either in opposition to or jointly with the true God, is here intended; that sin being generally esteemed by Mohammedans, and in a few lines after declared by the Korân itself, to be the only one which God will not pardon.1
      m Such as honour, power, riches, and other worldly advantages. Some, however, understand this of the distribution of inheritances according to the preceding determinations, whereby some have a larger share than others.2
      n That is, they shall be blessed according to their deserts; and ought, therefore, instead of displeasing God by envying of others, to endeavor to merit his favour by good works and to apply to him by prayer.

      2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Jallalo’ddin. Al Beidâwi. 5 Al Beidâwi. 6 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 7 Idem. 8 Idem. 1 Idem. See before, c. 2, p. 10. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

GOD is omniscient. We have appointed unto every one kindred, to inherit part of what their parents and relations shall leave at their deaths. And unto those with whom your right hands have made an alliance, give their part of the inheritance;o for GOD is witness of all things. Men shall have the preëminence above women, because of those advantages wherein GOD hath caused the one of them to excel the other,p and for that which they expend of their substance in maintaining their wives. The honest women are obedient. careful in the absence of their husbands,q for that GOD preserveth them, by committing them to the care and protection of the men. But those, whose perverseness ye shall be apprehensive of, rebuke; and remove them into separate apartments,r and chastise them.s But if they shall be obedient unto you, seek not an occasion of quarrel against them: for GOD is high and great. And if ye fear a breach between the husband and wife, send a judget out of his family, and a judge out of her family: if they shall desire a reconciliation, GOD will cause them to agree; for GOD is knowing and wise. Serve GOD, and associate no creature with him; and show kindness unto parents, and relations, and orphans, and the poor, and your neighbor who is of kin to you,u and also your neighbor who is a stranger, and to your familiar companion, and the traveller, and the captives whom your right hands shall possess; for GOD loveth not the proud or vain-glorious, who are covetous, and recommend covetousness unto men, and conceal that which GOD of his bounty hath given themx (we have prepared a shameful punishment for the unbelievers;) and who bestow their wealth in charity to be observed of men, and believe not in GOD, nor in the last day; and whoever hath Satan for a companion, an evil companion hath he! And what harm would befall them if they should believe in GOD, and the last day, and give alms out of that which GOD hath bestowed on them? since GOD knoweth them who do this. Verily GOD will not wrong any one even the weight of an ant:y and if it be a good action, he will double it, and will recompense it in his sight with a great reward. How will it be with the unbelievers when we shall

      o A precept conformable to an old custom of the Arabs, that where persons mutually entered into a strict friendship or confederacy, the surviving friend should have a sixth part of the deceased’s estate. But this was afterwards abrogated, according to Jallalo’ddin and al Zamakhshari, at least as to infidels. The passage may likewise be understood of a private contract, whereby the survivor is to inherit a certain part of the substance of him that dies first.3
      p Such as superior understanding and strength, and the other privileges of the male sex, which enjoys the dignities in church and state, goes to war in defence of GOD’S true religion, and claims a double share of their deceased ancestors’ estates.4
      q Both to preserve their husband’s substance from loss or waste, and themselves from all degrees of immodesty.5
      r That is, banish them from your bed.
      s By this passage the Mohammedans are in plain terms allowed to beat their wives, in case of stubborn disobedience; but not in a violent or dangerous manner.6
      t i.e., Let the magistrate first send two arbitrators or mediators, one on each side, to compose the difference, and prevent, if possible, the ill consequences of an open rupture.
      u Either of your own nation or religion.
      x Whether it be wealth, knowledge, or any other talent whereby they may help their neighbour.
      y Either by diminishing the recompense due to his good actions, or too severely punishing his sins. On the contrary, he will reward the former in the next life far above their deserts. The Arabic word dharra, which is translated an ant, signifies a very small sort of that insect, and is used to denote a thing that is exceeding small, as a mite.

      3 Vide al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. 5 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 6 Idem.

bring a witness out of each nation against itself,z and shall bring thee, O Mohammed, a witness against these people?a In that day they who have not believed, and have rebelled against the apostle of God, shall wish the earth was levelled with them; and they shall not be able to hide any matter from GOD. O true believers, come not to prayers when ye are drunk,b until ye understand what ye say; nor when ye are polluted by emission of seed, unless ye be travelling on the road, until ye wash yourselves. But if ye be sick or on a journey, or any of you come from easing nature, or have touched women, and find no water; take fine clean sand and rub your faces and your hands therewith;c for GOD is merciful and inclined to forgive. Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the scriptured was delivered? they sell error, and desire that ye may wander from the right way; but GOD well knoweth your enemies. GOD is a sufficient patron; and GOD is a sufficient helper. Of the Jews there are some who pervert words from their places;e and say, We have heard, and have disobeyed; and do thou hear without understanding our meaning,f and look upon us:g perplexing with their tongues, and reviling the true religion. But if they had said, We have heard, and do obey; and do thou hear, and regard us:h certainly it were better for them, and more right. But GOD hath cursed them by reason of their infidelity; therefore a few of them only shall believe. O ye to whom the scriptures have been given, believe in the revelation which we have sent down, confirming that which is with you; before we deface your countenances, and render them as the back parts thereof;i or curse them, as we cursed those who transgressed on the sabbath day;k and the command of GOD was fulfilled. Surely GOD will not pardon the giving him an equal;l but will pardon any other sin except that, to whom he pleasethm and whoso giveth a companion

      z When the prophet who was sent to each nation in particular, shall on the last day be produced to give evidence against such of them as refused to believe on him, or observed not the laws which he brought.
      a That is, the Arabians, to whom Mohammed was, as he pretended, more peculiarly sent.1
      b It is related, that before the prohibition of wine, Abd’alrahmân Ebn Awf made an entertainment, to which he invited several of the apostle’s companions; and after they had ate and drunk plentifully, the hour of evening prayer being come, one of the company rose up to pray, but being overcome with liquor, made a shameful blunder in reciting a passage of the Korân; whereupon to prevent the danger of any such indecency for the future, this passage was revealed.2
      c See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      d Meaning the Jews, and particularly their Rabbins.
      e That is (according to the commentators), who change the true sense of the Pentateuch by dislocating passages, or by wresting the words according to their own fancies and lusts.3 But Mohammed seems chiefly to intend here the Jews bantering of him in their addresses, by making use of equivocal words, seeming to bear a good sense in Arabic, but spoken by them in derision according to their acceptation in Hebrew; an instance of which he gives in the following words.
      f Literally, without being made to hear or apprehend what we say.
      g The original word is Raïna, which being a term of reproach in Hebrew, Mohammed forbade their using to him.4
      h In Arabic, Ondhorna; which having no ill equivocal meaning, the prophet ordered them to use instead of the former.
      i That is, perfectly plain, without eyes, nose, or mouth. The original, however, may also be translated, and turn them behind, by wringing their necks backward.
      k And were therefore changed into apes.5
      l That is, idolatry of all kinds.
      m viz., To those who repent.6

      1 See before, c. 2, p. 16. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 4 See before, c. 2, p. 13. 5 See before, c. 2, p. 8. 6 Al Beidâwi.

unto GOD, hath devised a great wickedness. Hast thou not observed those who justify themselves?n But GOD justifieth whomsoever he pleaseth, nor shall they be wronged a hair.o Behold, how they imagine a lie against GOD; and therein is iniquity sufficiently manifest. Hast thou not considered those to whom part of the scripture hath been given? They believe in false gods and idols,p and say of those who believe not, These are more rightly directed in the way of truth, than they who believe on Mohammed. Those are the men whom God hath cursed and unto him whom GOD shall curse, thou shalt surely find no helper. Shall they have a part of the kingdom,q since even then they would not bestow the smallest matterr on men? Do they envy other men that which GOD of his bounty hath given them?s We formerly gave unto the family of Abraham a book of revelations and wisdom; and we gave them a great kingdom.t There is of them who believeth on him;u and there is of them who turneth aside from him: but the raging fire of hell is a sufficient punishment. Verily those who disbelieve our signs, we will surely cast to be broiled in hell fire; so often as their skins shall be well burned, we will give them other skins in exchange, that they may taste the sharper torment; for GOD is mighty and wise. But those who believe and do that which is right, we will bring into gardens watered by rivers, therein shall they remain forever, and there shall they enjoy wives free from all impurity; and we will lead them into perpetual shades. Moreover GOD commandeth you to restore what ye are trusted with, to the owners;x and when ye judge between

      n i.e., The Christians and Jews, who called themselves the children of GOD, and his beloved people.1
      o The original word signifies a little skin in the cleft of a date-stone, and is used to express a thing of no value.
      p The Arabic is, in Jibt and Taghût. The former is supposed to have been the proper name of some idol; but it seems rather to signify any false deity in general. The latter we have explained already.8
      It is said that this passage was revealed on the following occasion. Hoyai Ebn Akhtab and Caab Ebn al Ashraf,9 two chief men among the Jews, with several others of that religion, went to Mecca, and offered to enter into a confederacy with the Koreish, and to join their forces against Mohammed. But the Koreish, entertaining some jealousy of them, told them, that the Jews pretended to have a written revelation from heaven, as well as Mohammed, and their doctrines and worship approached much nearer to what he taught, than the religion of their tribe; wherefore, said they, if you would satisfy us that you are sincere in the matter, do as we do, and worship our gods. Which proposal, if the story be true, these Jews complied with, out of their inveterate hatred to Mohammed.1
      q For the Jews gave out that they should be restored to their ancient power and grandeur;2 depending, it is to be presumed, on the victorious Messiah whom they expected.
      r The original word properly signifies a small dent on the back of a date-stone, and is commonly used to express a thing of little or no value.
      s viz., The spiritual gifts of prophecy, and divine revelations; and the temporal blessings of victory and success, bestowed on Mohammed and his followers.
      t Wherefore GOD will doubtless show equal favour to this prophet (a descendant also of Abraham), and those who believe on him.3
      u Namely, on Mohammed.
      x This passage, it is said, was revealed on the day of the taking of Mecca, the primary design of it being to direct Mohammed to return the keys of the Caaba to Othmân Ebn Telha Ebn Abdaldâr, who had then the honour to be keeper of that holy place,4 and not to deliver them to his uncle al Abbâs, who having already the custody of the well Zemzem, would fain have had also that of the Caaba. The prophet obeying the divine order, Othmân was so affected with the justice of the action, notwithstanding he had at first refused him entrance, that he immediately embraced Mohammedism; whereupon the guardianship of the Caaba was confirmed to this Othmân and his heirs for ever.5

      7 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. See c. 5, not far from the beginning. 8 See p. 28, note t. 9 See before, p. 40, note m. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 See Prideaux’s Life of Mahomet, p. 2. 5 Al Beidâwi See D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 220, 221.

men, that ye judge according to equity: and surely an excellent virtue it is to which GOD exhorteth you; for GOD both heareth and seeth. O true believers, obey GOD, and obey the apostle; and those who are in authority among you: and if ye differ, in anything, refer it unto GODy and the apostle, if ye believe in GOD, and the last day: this is better, and a fairer method of determination. Hast thou not observed those who pretend they believe in what hath been revealed unto thee, and what hath been revealed before thee? They desire to go to judgment before Taghût,z although they have been commanded not to believe in him; and Satan desireth to seduce them into a wide error. And when it is said unto them, Come unto the book which GOD hath sent down, and to the apostle; thou seest the ungodly turn aside from thee, with great aversion. But how will they behave when a misfortune shall befall them, for that which their hands have sent before them? Then will they come unto thee, and swear by GOD, saying, If we intended any other than to do good, and to reconcile the parties.a GOD knoweth what is in the hearts of these men; therefore let them alone, and admonish them, and speak unto them a word which may affect their souls. We have not sent any apostle, but that he might be obeyed by the permission of GOD: but if they, after they have injured their own souls,b come unto thee, and ask pardon of GOD, and the apostle ask pardon for them, they shall surely find GOD easy to be reconciled and merciful. And by thy LORD they will not perfectly believe, until they make thee judge of their controversies; and shall not afterwards find in their own minds any hardship in what thou shalt determine, but shall acquiesce therein with entire submission. And if we had commanded them, saying, Slay yourselves, or depart from your houses;c they would not have done it except a few of them. And if they had done what they were admonished, it would certainly have been better for them, and more efficacious for confirming their faith; and we should then have surely given them in our sight an exceeding great reward, and we should have directed them in the right way. Whoever obeyeth GOD and the apostle, they shall be with those unto whom GOD hath been gracious, of the prophets, and the sincere, and the martyrs, and the righteous;

      y i.e., To the decision of the Korân.
      z That is, before the tribunals of infidels. This passage was occasioned by the following remarkable accident. A certain Jew having a dispute with a wicked Mohammedan, the latter appealed to the judgment of Caab Ebn al Ashraf, a principal Jew, and the former to Mohammed. But at length they agreed to refer the matter to the prophet singly, who, giving it in favor of the Jew, the Mohammedan refused to acquiesce in his sentence, but would needs have it re-heard by Omar, afterwards Khalif. When they came to him, the Jew told him that Mohammed had already decided the affair in his favour, but that the other would not submit to his determination; and the Mohammedan confessing this to be true, Omar bid them stay a little, and fetching his sword, struck off the obstinate Moslem’s head, saying aloud, This is the reward of him who refuseth to submit to the judgment of God and his apostle. And from this action Omar had the surname of al Farûk, which alludes both to his separating that knave’s head from his body, and to his distinguishing between truth and falsehood.1 The name of Taghût,2 therefore, in this place, seems to be given to Caab Ebn al Ashraf.
      a For this was the excuse of the friends of the Mohammedan whom Omar slew, when they came to demand satisfaction for his blood.3
      b viz., By acting wickedly, and appealing to the judgment of the infidels.
      c Some understand these words of their venturing their lives in a religious expedition; and others, of their undergoing the same punishments which the Israelites did for their idolatry in worshipping the golden calf.4

      1 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. See D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 688, and Ockley’s Hist. of the Sarac. v. I, p. 365.
2 See before, p. 28. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem, see before, p. 7

and these are the most excellent company. This is bounty from GOD; and GOD is sufficiently knowing. O true believers, take your necessary precautiond against your enemies, and either go forth to war in separate parties, or go forth all together in a body. There is of you who tarrieth behind;e and if a misfortune befall you, he saith, Verily GOD hath been gracious unto me, that I was not present with them: but if success attend you from GOD, he will say (as if there was no friendship between you and him),f Would to GOD I had been with them, for I should have acquired great merit. Let them therefore fight for the religion of GOD, who part with the present life in exchange for that which is to come;g for whosoever fighteth for the religion of GOD, whether he be slain, or be victorious,h we will surely give him a great reward. And what ails you, that ye fight not for GOD'S true religion, and in defence of the weak among men, women, and children,i who say, O LORD, bring us forth from this city, whose inhabitants are wicked; grant us from before thee a protector, and grant us from before thee a defender.k They who believe fight for the religion of GOD; but they who believe not fight for the religion of Taghût.l Fight therefore against the friends of Satan, for the stratagem of Satan is weak. Hast thou not observed those unto whom it was said, Withhold your hands from war, and be constant at prayers, and pay the legal alms?m But when war is commanded them, behold a part of them fear men as they should fear GOD, or with a great fear, and say, O LORD, wherefore hast thou commanded us to go to war, and hast not suffered us to wait our approaching end?n Say unto them, The provision of this life is but small; but the future shall be better for him who feareth God; and ye shall not be in the least injured at the day of judgment. Wheresoever ye be, death will overtake you, although ye be in lofty towers. If good befall them, they say, This is from GOD; but if evil befall them, they say, This is from thee, O Mohammed:o say, All is from GOD; and what aileth these people, that they are so far from understanding what is said unto them? Whatever

      d i.e., Be vigilant, and provide yourselves with arms and necessaries.
      e Mohammed here upbraids the hypocritical Moslems, who, for want of faith and constancy in their religion, were backward in going to war for its defence.
      f i.e., As one who attendeth not to the public, but his own private interest. Or else these may be the words of the hypocritical Mohammedan himself, insinuating that he stayed not behind the rest of the army by his own fault, but was left by Mohammed, who chose to let the others share in his good fortune, preferably to him.1
      g By venturing their lives and fortunes in defence of the faith.
      h For no man ought to quit the field till he either fall a martyr or gain some advantage for the cause.2
      i viz., Those believers who stayed behind at Mecca, being detained there either forcibly by the idolaters, or for want of means to fly for refuge to Medina. Al Beidâwi observes that children are mentioned here to show the inhumanity of the Koreish, who persecuted even that tender age.
      k This petition, the commentators say, was heard. For GOD afforded several of them an opportunity and means of escaping, and delivered the rest at the taking of Mecca by Mohammed, who left Otâb Ebn Osaid governor of the city: and under his care and protection, those who had suffered for their religion became the most considerable men in the place.
      l See before, p. 28.
      m These were some of Mohammed’s followers, who readily performed the duties of their religion so long as they were commanded nothing that might endanger their lives.
      n That is, a natural death.
      o As the Jews, in particular, who pretended that their land was grown barren, and provisions scarce, since Mohammed came to Medina.3

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem.

good befalleth thee, O man, it is from GOD; and whatever evil befalleth thee, it is from thyself.p We have sent thee an apostle unto men, and GOD is a sufficient witness thereof. Whoever obeyeth the apostle, obeyeth GOD; and whoever turneth back, we have not sent thee to be a keeper over them.q They say, Obedience: yet when they go forth from thee, part of them meditate by night a matter different from what thou speakest; but GOD shall write down what they meditate by night: therefore let them alone, and trust in GOD, for GOD is a sufficient protector. Do they not attentively consider the Koran? if it had been from any besides GOD, they would certainly have found therein many contradictions. When any news cometh unto them, either of security or fear, they immediately divulge it; but if they told it to the apostle and to those who are in authority among them, such of them would understand the truth of the matter, as inform themselves thereof from the apostle and his chiefs. And if the favor of GOD and his mercy had not been upon you, ye had followed the devil, except a few of you.r Fight therefore for the religion of GOD, and oblige not any to what is difficult,s except thyself; however excite the faithful to war, perhaps GOD will restrain the courage of the unbelievers; for GOD is stronger than they, and more able to punish. He who intercedeth between men with a good intercessiont shall have a portion thereof; and he who intercedeth with an evil intercession shall have a portion thereof; for GOD overlooketh all things. When ye are saluted with a salutation, salute the person with a better salutation,u or at least return the same; for GOD taketh an account of all things. GOD! there is no GOD but he; he will surely gather you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt of it: and who is more true than GOD in what he saith? Why are ye divided concerning the ungodly into two parties;x since GOD hath overturned them for what they have committed? Will ye direct him whom GOD hath led astray; since for him whom GOD shall lead astray, thou shalt find no true path? They desire that ye should become

      p These words are not to be understood as contradictory to the preceding, That all proceeds from GOD; since the evil which befalls mankind, though ordered by GOD, is yet the consequence of their own wicked actions.
      q Or, to take an account of their actions, for this is GOD’S part.
      r That is, if GOD had not sent his apostle with the Korân to instruct you in your duty, ye had continued in idolatry and been doomed to destruction; except only those who, by GOD’S favour and their superior understanding, should have true notions of the divinity; such, for example, as Zeid Ebn Amru Ebn Nofail1 and Waraka Ebn Nawfal,2 who left idols, and acknowledged but one GOD, before the mission of Mohammed.3
      s It is said this passage was revealed when the Mohammedans refused to follow their prophet to the lesser expedition of Bedr, so that he was obliged to set out with no more than seventy.4 Some copies vary in this place, and instead of la tokallafo, in the second person singular, read la nokallafo, in the first person plural, We do not oblige, &c. The meaning being, that the prophet only was under an indispensable necessity of obeying GOD’S commands, however difficult, but others might choose, though at their peril.
      t i.e., To maintain the right of a believer, or to prevent his being wronged.
      u By adding something farther. As when one salutes another by this form, Peace be unto thee, he ought not only to return the salutation, but to add, and the mercy of GOD and his blessing.
      x This passage was revealed, according to some, when certain of Mohammed’s followers, pretending not to like Medina, desired leave to go elsewhere, and, having obtained it, went farther and farther, till they joined the idolaters; or, as others say, on occasion of some deserters at the battle of Ohod; concerning whom the Moslems were divided in opinion whether they should be slain as infidels or not.

      1 Vide Millium, de Mohammedismo ante Moh. p. 311. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 See before, c. 3, p. 49.

infidels, as they are infidels, and that ye should be equally wicked with themselves. Therefore take not friends from among them, until they fly their country for the religion of GOD; and if they turn back from the faith, take them, and kill them wherever ye find them; and take no friend from among them, nor any helper, except those who go unto a people who are in alliance with you,y or those who come unto you, their hearts forbidding them either to fight against you, or to fight against their own people.z And if GOD pleased he would have permitted them to have prevailed against you, and they would have fought against you. But if they depart from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, GOD doth not allow you to take or kill them. Ye shall find others who are desirous to enter into confidence with you, and at the same time to preserve a confidence with their own people:a so often as they return to sedition, they shall be subverted therein; and if they depart not from you, and offer you peace, and restrain their hands from warring against you, take them and kill them wheresoever ye find them; over these have we granted you a manifest power. It is not lawful for a believer to kill a believer, unless it happen by mistake;b and whoso killeth a believer by mistake, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer from slavery, and a fine to be paid to the family of the deceased,c unless they remit it as alms: and if the slain person be of a people at enmity with you, and be a true believer, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer;d but if he be of a people in confederacy with you, a fine to be paid to his family, and the freeing of a believer. And he who findeth not wherewith to do this shall fast two months consecutively as a penance enjoined from GOD; and GOD is knowing and wise. But whoso killeth a believer designedly, his reward shall be hell; he shall remain therein for ever;e and GOD shall be angry with him, and shall curse him, and shall prepare for him a great punishment. O true believers, when ye are on a march in defence of the true religion, justly discern such as ye shall happen to meet, and say not unto him who saluteth you, thou art not a true believer;f seeking

      y The people here meant, say some, were the tribe of Khozâah, or, according to others, the Aslamians, whose chief, named Helâl Ebn Owaimar, agreed with Mohammed, when he set out against Mecca, to stand neuter; or, as others rather think, Banu Becr Ebn Zeid.1
      z These, it is said, were the tribe of Modlaj, who came in to Mohammed, but would not be obliged to assist him in war.2
      a The person hinted at here were the tribes of Asad and Ghatfân, or, as some say, Banu Abdaldâr, who came to Medina and pretended to embrace Mohammedism, that they might be trusted by the Moslems, but when they returned, fell back to their old idolatry.3
      b That is, by accident and without design. This passage was revealed to decide the case of Ayâsh Ebn Abi Rabîa, the brother, by the mother’s side, of Abu Jahl, who meeting Hareth Ebn Zeid on the road, and not knowing that he had embraced Mohammedism, slew him.4
      c Which fine is to be distributed according to the laws of inheritances given in the beginning of this chapter.5
      d And no fine shall be paid, because in such case his relations, being infidels and at open war with the Moslems, have no right to inherit what he leaves.
      e That is, unless he repent. Others, however, understand not here an eternity of damnation (for it is the general doctrine of the Mohammedans that none who profess that faith shall continue in hell for ever), but only a long space of time.1
      f On pretence that he only feigns to be a Moslem, that he might escape from you. The commentators mention more instances than one of persons slain and plundered by Mohammed’s men under this pretext, notwithstanding they declared themselves Moslems by repeating the usual form of words, and saluting them; for which reason this passage was revealed, to prevent such rash judgments for the future.

      1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Idem. 5 Idem. 1 Idem.

the accidental goods of the present life;g for with GOD is much spoil. Such have ye formerly been; but GOD hath been gracious unto you;h therefore make a just discernment, for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. Those believers who sit still at home, not having any hurt,i and those who employ their fortunes and their persons for the religion of GOD, shall not be held equal. GOD hath preferred those who employ their fortunes and their persons in that cause to a degree of honour above those who sit at home; GOD hath indeed promised every one paradise, but GOD hath preferred those who fight for the faith before those who sit still, by adding unto them a great reward, by degrees of honour conferred on them from him, and by granting them forgiveness and mercy; for GOD is indulgent and merciful. Moreover unto those whom the angels put to death, having injured their own souls,k the angels said, Of what religion were ye? they answered, We were weak in the earth.l The angels replied, Was not GOD'S earth wide enough, that ye might fly therein to a place of refuge?m Therefore their habitation shall be hell; and an evil journey shall it be thither: except the weak among men, and women, and children, who were not able to find means, and were not directed in the way; these peradventure GOD will pardon, for GOD is ready to forgive, and gracious. Whosoever flieth from his country for the sake of GOD'S true religion, shall find in the earth many forced to do the same, and plenty of provisions. And whoever departeth from his house, and flieth unto GOD and his apostle, if death overtake him in the way,n GOD will be obliged to reward him, for GOD is gracious and merciful. When ye march to war in the earth, it shall be no crime in you if ye shorten your prayers, in case ye fear the infidels may attack you; for the infidels are your open enemy. But when thou, O prophet, shalt be among them, and shalt pray with them, let a party of them arise to prayer with thee, and let them take their arms; and when they shall have worshipped, let them stand behind you,o and let another party come that hath not prayed, and let them pray with thee, and let them be cautious and take their arms. The unbelievers would that ye should neglect your arms and your baggage while ye pray, that they might turn upon you at once. It shall be no crime in you, if ye be incommoded by rain, or

      g That is, being willing to judge him an infidel, only that ye may kill and plunder him.
      h viz., At your first profession of Islâmism, before ye had given any demonstrations of your sincerity and zeal therein.
      i i.e., Not being disabled from going to war by sickness, or other just impediment. It is said that when the passage was first revealed there was no such exception therein, which occasioned Ebn Omm Mactûm, on his hearing it repeated, to object, And what though I be blind? Whereupon Mohammed, falling into a kind of trance, which was succeeded by strong agitations, pretended he had received the divine direction to add these words to the text.2
      k These were certain inhabitants of Mecca, who held with the hare and ran with the hounds, for though they embraced Mohammedism, yet they would not leave that city to join the prophet, as the rest of the Moslems did, but on the contrary went out with the idolaters, and were therefore slain with them at the battle of Bedr.3
      l Being unable to fly, and compelled to follow the infidels to war.
      m As they did who fled to Ethiopia and to Medina.
      n This passage was revealed, says al Beidâwi, on account of Jondob Ebn Damra. This person being sick, was, in his flight, carried by his sons on a couch, and before he arrived at Medina, perceiving his end approached, he clapped his right hand on his left, and solemnly plighting his faith to GOD and his apostle, died.
      o To defend those who are at prayers, and to face the enemy.

       2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin

be sick, that ye lay down your arms; but take your necessary precaution:p GOD hath prepared for the unbelievers an ignominious punishment. And when ye shall have ended your prayer, remember GOD, standing, and sitting, and lying on your sides.q But when ye are secure from danger, complete your prayers: for prayer is commanded the faithful, and appointed to be said at the stated times. Be not negligent in seeking out the unbelieving people, though ye suffer some inconvenience; for they also shall suffer as ye suffer, and ye hope for a reward from GOD which they cannot hope for; and GOD is knowing and wise.r We have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, that thou mayest judge between men through that wisdom which GOD showeth thee therein; and be not an advocate for the fraudulent;s but ask pardon of GOD for thy wrong intention, since GOD is indulgent and merciful. Dispute not for those who deceive one another, for GOD loveth not him who is a deceiver or unjust.t Such conceal themselves from men, but they conceal not themselves from GOD; for he is with them when they imagine by night a saying which pleaseth him not,u and GOD comprehendeth what they do. Behold, ye are they who have disputed for them in this present life; but who shall dispute with GOD for them on the day of resurrection, or who will become their patron? yet he who doth evil, or injureth his own soul, and afterwards asketh pardon of God, shall find God gracious and merciful. Whoso committeth wickedness, committeth it against his own soul: GOD is knowing and wise. And whoso committeth a sin or iniquity, and afterwards layeth it on the innocent, he shall surely bear the guilt of calumny and manifest injustice. If the indulgence and mercy of GOD had not been upon thee, surely a part of them had studied to seduce thee;x but they shall seduce themselves only, and shall not hurt thee at all. GOD hath sent down unto thee the book of the Koran and wisdom, and hath taught thee that which thou knewest not;y for the favor of GOD hath been great towards thee. There is no good in the multitude of their private discourses, unless in the discourse of him who recommendeth alms, or that which is right, or agreement amongst men: whoever doth this out of a desire to please GOD,

      p By keeping strict guard.
      q That is, in such posture as ye shall be able.1
      r This verse was revealed on occasion of the unwillingness of Mohammed’s men to accompany him in the lesser expedition of Bedr.2
      s Tima Ebn Obeirak, of the sons of Dhafar, one of Mohammed’s companions, stole a coat of mail from his neighbour, Kitâda Ebn al Nomân, in a bag of meal, and hid it at a Jew’s named Zeid Ebn al Samîn; Tima, being suspected, the coat of mail was demanded of him, but he denying he knew anything of it, they followed the track of the meal, which had run out through a hole in the bag, to the Jew’s house, and there seized it, accusing him of the theft; but he producing witnesses of his own religion that he had it of Tima, the sons of Dhafar came to Mohammed and desired him to defend his companion’s reputation, and condemn the Jew; which he having some thoughts of doing, this passage was revealed, reprehending him for his rash intention, and commanding him to judge not according to his own prejudice and opinion, but according to the merit of the case.3
      t Al Beidâwi, as an instance of the divine justice, adds, that Tima, after the fact above mentioned, fled to Mecca, and returned to idolatry; and there undermining the wall of a house, in order to commit a robbery, the wall fell in upon him and crushed him to death.
      u That is, when they secretly contrive means, by false evidence or otherwise, to lay their crimes on innocent persons.
      x Meaning the sons of Dhafar.
      y By instructing them in the knowledge of right and wrong, and the rules of justice.

      1 See before, c. 3, p. 52. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya.

we will surely give him a great reward. But whoso separateth himself from the apostle, after true direction hath been manifested unto him, and followeth any other way than than of the true believers, we will cause him to obtain that to which he is inclined,z and will cast him to be burned in hell; and an unhappy journey shall it be thither. Verily GOD will not pardon the giving him a companion, but he will pardon any crime besides that, unto whom he pleaseth: and he who giveth a companion unto GOD is surely led aside into a wide mistake; the infidels invoke beside him only female deities;a and only invoke rebellious Satan. GOD cursed him; and he said, Verily I will take of thy servants a part cut off from the rest,b and I will seduce them, and will insinuate vain desires into them, and I will command them and they shall cut off the ears of cattle;c and I will command them and they shall change GOD'S creature.d But whoever taketh Satan for his patron, besides GOD,e shall surely perish with a manifest destruction. He maketh them promises, and insinuateth into them vain desires; yet Satan maketh them only deceitful promises. The receptacle of these shall be hell, they shall find no refuge from it. But they who believe, and do good works, we will surely lead them into gardens, through which rivers flow, they shall continue therein forever, according to the true promise of GOD; and who is more true than GOD in what he saith? It shall not be according to your desires, nor according to the desires of those who have received the scriptures.f Whoso doth evil shall be rewarded for it; and shall not find any patron or helper, beside GOD; but whoso doth good works, whether he be male or female, and is a true believer, they shall be admitted into paradise, and shall not in the least be unjustly dealt with. Who is better in point of religion than he who resigneth himself unto GOD, and is a worker of righteousness, and followeth the law of Abraham the orthodox? since GOD took Abraham for his friend:g and to God belongeth whatsoever is in

      z viz., Error, and false notions of religion.
      a Namely, Allât, al Uzza, and Menât, the idols of the Meccans; or the angels, whom they called the daughters of GOD.4
      b Or, as the original may be translated, a part destined or predetermined to be seduced by me.
      c Which was done out of superstition by the old pagan Arabs. Some more of this custom in the notes to the fifth chapter.
      d Either by maiming it, or putting it to uses not designed by the Creator. Al Beidâwi supposes the text to intend not only the superstitious amputations of the ears and other parts of cattle, but the castration of slaves, the marking their bodies with figures, by pricking and dyeing them with wood or indigo (as the Arabs did and still do), the sharpening their teeth by filing; and also sodomy, and the unnatural amours between those of the female sex, the worship of the sun, moon, and other parts of nature, and the like.
      e i.e., By leaving the service of GOD, and doing the works of the devil.
      f That is, the promises of GOD are not to be gained by acting after your own fancies, nor yet after the fancies of the Jews or Christians, but by obeying the commands of GOD. This passage, they say, was revealed on a dispute which arose between those of the three religions, each preferring his own, and condemning the others. Some, however, suppose the persons here spoken to in the second person were not the Mohammedans, but the idolaters.1
      g Therefore the Mohammedans usually call that patriarch, as the scripture also does, Khalîl Allah, the Friend of God, and simply al Khalîl; and they tell the following story: That Abraham in a time of dearth sent to a friend of his in Egypt for a supply of corn; but the friend denied him, saying in his excuse, that though there was a famine in their country also, yet had it been for Abraham’s own family, he would have sent what he desired, but he knew he wanted it only to entertain his guests and give away to the poor, according to his usual hospitality. The servants whom Abraham had sent on this message, being ashamed to return

      4 See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. I. 1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya,

heaven and on earth; GOD comprehendeth all things. They will consult thee concerning women;h Answer, GOD instructeth you concerning them,i and that which is read unto you in the book of the Koran concerning female orphans, to whom ye give not that which is ordained them, neither will ye marry them,k and concerning weak infants,l and that ye observe justice towards orphans: whatever good ye do, GOD knoweth it. If a woman fear ill usage, or aversion from her husband, it shall be no crime in them if they agree the matter amicably between themselves;m for a reconciliation is better than a separation. Men's souls are naturally inclined to covetousness:n but if ye be kind towards women, and fear to wrong them, GOD is well acquainted with what ye do. Ye can by no means carry yourselves equally between women in all respects, although ye study to do it; therefore turn not from a wife with all manner of aversion,o nor leave her like one in suspense:p if ye agree, and fear to abuse your wives, GOD is gracious and merciful; but if they separate, GOD will satisfy them both of his abundance;q for GOD is extensive and wise, and unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth. We have already commanded those unto whom the scriptures were given before you, and we command you also, saying, Fear GOD; but if ye disbelieve, unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is self-sufficient,r and to be praised; for unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and GOD is a sufficient protector. If he pleaseth he will take you away, O men, and will produce others in your stead;s for GOD is able to do this. Whoso desireth the reward of this world, verily with GOD is the reward

empty, to conceal the matter from their neighbours, filled their sacks with fine white sand, which in the east pretty much resembles meal. Abraham being informed by his servants, on their return of their ill success, the concern he was under threw him into a sleep; and in the meantime Sarah, knowing nothing of what had happened, opening one of the sacks, found good flour in it, and immediately set out about making of bread. Abraham awaking and smelling the new bread, asked her whence she had the flour? Why, says she, from your friend in Egypt. Nay, replied the Patriarch, it must have come from no other than my friend GOD Almighty.2
      h i.e., As to the share they are to have in the distribution of the inheritances of their deceased relations; for it seems that the Arabs were not satisfied with Mohammed’s decision on this point, against the old customs.
      i i.e., He hath already made his will known unto you, by revealing the passages concerning inheritances in the beginning of this chapter.
      k Or the words may be rendered in the affirmative, and whom ye desire to marry. For the pagan Arabs used to wrong their female orphans in both instances; obliging them to marry against their inclinations, if they were beautiful or rich; or else not suffering them to marry at all, that they might keep what belonged to them.3
      l That is, male children of tender years, to whom the Arabs, in the time of paganism, used to allow no share in the distribution of their parents’ estate.4
      m By the wife’s remitting part of her dower or other dues.
      n So that the woman, on the one side, is unwilling to part with any of her right; and the husband, on the other, cares not to retain one he has no affection for; or, if he should retain her, she can scarce expect he will use her in all respects as he ought.1
      o i.e., Though you cannot use her equally well with a beloved wife, yet observe some measures of justice towards her; for if a man is not able perfectly to perform his duty, he ought not, for that reason, entirely to neglect it.2
      p Or like one that neither has a husband, nor is divorced, and at liberty to marry elsewhere.
      q That is, either will bless them with a better and more advantageous match, or with peace and tranquility of mind.3
      r Wanting the service of no creature.
      s i.e., Either another race of men or a different species of creatures.

      2 Al Beidâwi. See D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 14, and Morgan’s Mahometism Explained, vol. i. p. 132. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 See before, p. 54, note c. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem.

of this world, and also of that which is to come; GOD both heareth and seeth. O true believers, observe justice when ye bear witness before GOD, although it be against yourselves, or your parents, or relations; whether the party be rich, or whether he be poor; for GOD is more worthy than them both: therefore follow not your own lust in bearing testimony so that ye swerve from justice. And whether ye wrest your evidence, or decline giving it, GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. O true believers, believe in GOD and his apostle, and the book which he hath caused to descend unto his apostle, and the book which he hath formerly sent down.t And whosoever believeth not in GOD, and his angels, and his scriptures, and his apostles, and the last day, he surely erreth in a wide mistake. Moreover they who believed, and afterwards became infidels, and then believed again, and after that disbelieved, and increased in infidelity,u GOD will by no means forgive them, nor direct them into the right way. Declare unto the ungodlyx that they shall suffer a painful punishment. They who take the unbelievers for their protectors, besides the faithful, do they seek for power with them? since all power belongeth unto GOD. And he hath already revealed unto you, in the book of the Korân,y the following passage–When ye shall hear the signs of GOD, they shall not be believed, but they shall be laughed to scorn. Therefore sit not with them who believe not, until they engage in different discourse; for if ye do ye will certainly become like unto them. GOD will surely gather the ungodly and the unbelievers together in hell. They who wait to observe what befalleth you, if victory be granted you from GOD, say, Were we not with you?z But if any advantage happen to the infidels, they say unto them, Were we not superior to you,a and have we not defended you against the believers? GOD shall judge between you on the day of resurrection: and GOD will not grant the unbelievers means to prevail over the faithful. The hypocrites act deceitfully with GOD, but he will deceive them; and when they stand up to pray, they stand carelessly, affecting to be seen of men, and remember not GOD, unless a little,b wavering between faith and infidelity, and adhering neither unto these nor unto those:c and for him whom GOD shall lead astray thou shalt find no true path. O true believers, take not the unbelievers for your protectors besides the faithful. Will ye furnish GOD with an evident argument of impiety against you? Moreover the hypocrites

      t It is said that Abda’llah Ebn Salâm and his companions told Mohammed that they believed in him, and his Korân, and in Moses, and the Pentateuch, and in Ezra, but no farther; whereupon this passage was revealed, declaring that a partial faith is little better than none at all, and that a true believer must believe in all GOD’S prophets and revelations without exception.4
      u These were the Jews, who first believed in Moses, and afterwards fell into idolatry by worshiping the golden calf; and though they repented of that, yet in after ages rejected the prophets who were sent to them, and particularly Jesus, the son of Mary, and now filled up the measure of their unbelief by rejecting of Mohammed.5
      x Mohammed here means those who hypocritically pretended to believe in him but really did not, and by their treachery did great mischief to his party.1
      y Cap. 6.
      z i.e., Did we not assist you? Therefore give us part of the spoil.2
      a Would not our army have cut you off if it had not been for our faint assistance, or rather desertion, of the Moslems, and our disheartening them?3
      b That is, with the tongue, and not with the heart.
      c Halting between two opinions, and being staunch friends neither to the Moslems nor the infidels.

      4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Idem. 1 Idem. 2. Idem. 3 Idem.

shall be in the lowest bottom of hell fire,d and thou shalt not find any to help them thence. But they who repent and amend, and adhere firmly unto GOD, and approve the sincerity of their religion to GOD, they shall be numbered with the faithful; and GOD will surely give the faithful a great reward. And how should GOD go about to punish you, if ye be thankful and believe? for GOD is grateful and wise. (VI.) GOD loveth not the speaking ill of any one in public, unless he who is injured call for assistance; and GOD heareth and knoweth: whether ye publish a good action, or conceal it, or forgive evil, verily GOD is gracious and powerful. They who believe not in GOD, and his apostles, and would make a distinction between GOD and his apostles,e and say, We believe in some of the prophets and reject others of them, and seek to take a middle way in this matter; these are really unbelievers: and we have prepared for the unbelievers an ignominious punishment. But they who believe in GOD and his apostles, and make no distinction between any of them, unto those will we surely give their reward; and GOD is gracious and merciful. They who have received the scripturesf will demand of thee, that thou cause a book to descend unto them from heaven: they formerly asked of Moses a greater thing than this: for they said, Show us GOD visibly.g Wherefore a storm of fire from heaven destroyed them, because of their iniquity. Then they took the calf for their God,h after that evident proofs of the divine unity had come unto them: but we forgave them that, and gave Moses a manifest power to punish them.i And we lifted the mountain of Sinai over them,k when we exacted from them their covenant; and said unto them, Enter the gate of the city worshipping.l We also said unto them, Transgress not on the Sabbath-day. And we received from them a firm covenant, that they would observe these things. Therefore for thatm they have made void their covenant, and have not believed in the signs of GOD, and have slain the prophets unjustly, and have said, Our hearts are circumcised; (but GOD hath sealed them up, because of their unbelief; therefore they shall not believe, except a few of them:) and for that they have not believed in Jesus, and have spoken against Mary a grievous calumny;n and have said, Verily we have slain Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the apostle of GOD; yet they slew him not, neither crucified him, but he was represented by one in his likeness;o and verily they

      d See the Preliminary Discourse, Sect. IV.
      e See c. 2, p. 31, note h.
      f That is, the Jews; who demanded of Mohammed, as a proof of his mission, that they might see a book of revelations descend to him from heaven, or that he would produce one written in a celestial character, like the two tables of Moses.
      g See chapter 2, p. 6.
      This story seems to be an addition to what Moses says of the seventy elders, who went up to the mountain with him, and with Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and saw the GOD of Israel.1
      h See chapter 2, p. 6.
      i See ibid. p. 6, note m.
      k See ibid. p. 8.
      l See ibid. p. 7.
      m There being nothing in the following words of this sentence, to answer to the causal for that, Jallalo’ddin supposes something to be understood to complete the sense, as therefore we have cursed them, or the like.
      n By accusing her of fornication.2
      o See chapter 3, p. 38, and the notes there.

      1 Exod. xxiv. 9, 10, 11. 2 See the Kor. c. 19, and that virulent book entitled Toldoth Jesu.

who disagreed concerning himp were in a doubt as to this matter, and had no sure knowledge thereof, but followed only an uncertain opinion. They did not really kill him; but GOD took him up unto himself: and GOD is mighty and wise. And there shall not be one of those who have received the scriptures, who shall not believe in him, before his death;q and on the day of resurrection he shall be a witness against them.r Because of the iniquity of those who Judaize, we have forbidden them good things, which had been formerly allowed them;s and because they shut out many from the way of GOD, and have taken usury, which was forbidden them by the law, and devoured men's substance vainly: we have prepared for such of them as are unbelievers a painful punishment. But those among them who are well grounded in knowledge,t and the faithful, who believe in that which hath been sent down unto thee, and that which hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee, and who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, and believe in GOD and the last day unto these will we give a great reward. Verily we have revealed our will unto thee, as we have revealed it unto Noah and the prophets who succeeded him; and as we revealed it unto Abraham, and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and unto Jesus, and Job, and Jonas, and Aaron, and Solomon; and we have given thee the Koran, as we gave the psalms unto David: some apostles have we sent, whom we have formerly mentioned unto thee; and other apostles have we sent, whom we have not mentioned unto thee; and GOD spake unto Moses, discoursing with him; apostles declaring good tidings, and denouncing threats, lest men should have an argument of excuse against GOD, after the apostles had been sent unto them; GOD is mighty and wise. GOD is witness of that revelation which he hath sent down unto thee; he sent it down with his special knowledge: the angels also are witnesses thereof; but GOD is a sufficient witness. They who believe not,

      p For some maintained that he was justly and really crucified; some insisted that it was not Jesus who suffered, but another who resembled him in the face, pretending the other parts of his body, by their unlikeness, plainly discovered the imposition; some said he was taken up into heaven; and others, that his manhood only suffered, and that his godhead ascended into heaven.3
      q This passage is expounded two ways.
      Some, referring the relative his, to the first antecedent, take the meaning to be, that no Jew or Christian shall die before he believes in Jesus: for they say, that when one of either of those religions is ready to breathe his last, and sees the angel of death before him, he shall then believe in that prophet as he ought, though his faith will not then be of any avail. According to a tradition of Hejâj, when a Jew is expiring, the angels will strike him on the back and face, and say to him, O thou enemy of GOD, Jesus was sent as a prophet unto thee, and thou didst not believe on him; to which he will answer, I now believe him to be the servant of GOD; and to a dying Christian they will say, Jesus was sent as a prophet unto thee, and thou hast imagined him to be GOD, or the son of GOD; whereupon he will believe him to be the servant of GOD only, and his apostle.
      Others, taking the above-mentioned relative to refer to Jesus, suppose the intent of the passage to be, that all Jews and Christians in general shall have a right faith in that prophet before his death, that is, when he descends from heaven and returns into the world, where he is to kill Antichrist, and to establish the Mohammedan religion, and a most perfect tranquility and security on earth.1
      r i.e., Against the Jews, for rejecting him; and against the Christians, for calling him GOD, and the son of GOD.2
      s See chapter 3, p. 38 and 42, and the notes there.
      t As Abda’llah Ebn Salâm, and his companions.3

      3 Al Beidâwi. 1 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, al Zamakhshari, and al Beidâwi. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem.

and turn aside others from the way of GOD, have erred in a wide mistake. Verily those who believe not, and act unjustly, GOD will by no means forgive, neither will he direct them into any other way, than the way of hell; they shall remain therein forever: and this is easy with GOD. O men, now is the apostle come unto you, with truth from your LORD; believe therefore, it will be better for you. But if ye disbelieve, verily unto GOD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is knowing and wise. O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,u neither say of GOD any other than the truth. Verily Christ Jesus the son of Mary is the apostle of GOD, and his Word, which he conveyed into Mary, and a spirit proceeding from him. Believe therefore in GOD, and his apostles, and say not, There are three Gods;x forbear this; it will be better for you. GOD is but one GOD. Far be it from him that he should have a son! unto him belongeth whatever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is a sufficient protector. Christ doth not proudly disdain to be a servant unto GOD; neither the angels who approach near to his presence: and whoso disdaineth his service, and is puffed up with pride, God will gather them all to himself, on the last day. Unto those who believe, and do that which is right, he shall give their rewards, and shall superabundantly add unto them of his liberality: but those who are disdainful and proud, he will punish with a grievous punishment; and they shall not find any to protect or to help them, besides GOD. O men, now is an evident proof come unto you from your LORD, and we have sent down unto you manifest light.y They who believe in GOD and firmly adhere to him, he will lead them into mercy from him, and abundance; and he will direct them in the right way to himself.z They will consult thee for thy decision in certain cases; say unto them, GOD giveth you these determinations, concerning the more remote degrees of kindred.a If a man die without issue, and have a sister, she shall have the half of what he shall leave:b and he shall be heir to her,c in case she have no issue. But if there be two sisters they shall have between them two third parts of what he shall leave; and if there be several, both brothers and sisters, a male shall have as much as the portion of two females. GOD declareth unto you these precepts, lest ye err: and GOD knoweth all things.

      u Either by rejecting and contemning of Jesus as the Jews do; or raising him to an equality with GOD, as do the Christians.4
      x Namely, God, Jesus, and Mary.1 For the eastern writers mention a sect of Christians which held the Trinity to be composed of those three;2 but it is allowed that this heresy has been long since extinct.3 The passage, however, is equally levelled against the Holy Trinity, according to the doctrine of the orthodox Christians, who, as al Beidâwi acknowledges, believe the divine nature to consist of three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; by the Father understanding GOD’S essence; by the Son his knowledge, and by the Holy Ghost his life.
      y That is, Mohammed and his Korân.
      z viz., Into the religion of Islâm, in this world, and the way to paradise in the next.4
      a See the beginning of this chapter, p. 53.
      b And the other half will go to the public treasury.
      c That is, he shall inherit her whole substance.

      4 Al Beidâwi. 1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya. 2 Elmacin. p. 227. Eutych. p. 120. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II 3 Ahmed Ebn Abd’al Halim. 4 Al Beidâwi.

CHAPTER V.

ENTITLED, THE TABLE;d REVEALED AT MEDINA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


O TRUE believers, perform your contracts. Ye are allowed to eat the brute cattle,e other than what ye are commanded to abstain from; except the game which ye are allowed at other times, but not while ye are on pilgrimage to Mecca; GOD ordaineth that which he pleaseth. O true believers, violate not the holy rites of GOD,f nor the sacred month,g nor the offering, nor the ornaments hung thereon,h nor those who are travelling to the holy house, seeking favor from their LORD, and to please him. But when ye shall have finished your pilgrimage; then hunt. And let not the malice of some, in that they hindered you from entering the sacred temple,i provoke you to transgress, by taking revenge on them in the sacred months. Assist one another according to justice and piety, but assist not one another in injustice and malice: therefore fear GOD; for GOD is severe in punishing. Ye are forbidden to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that on which the name of any besides GOD hath been invocated;k and that which hath been strangled, or killed by a blow, or by a fall, or by the horns of another beast, and that which hath been eaten by a wild beast,l except what ye shall kill yourselves;m and that which hath been sacrificed unto idols.n It is likewise unlawful for you to make division by casting lots with arrows.o This is an impiety. On this day,p woe be unto those who have apostatized from their religion; therefore fear not them, but fear me. This day have I perfected your religion for you,q and have completed my mercy upon

      d The title is taken from the Table, which, towards the end of the chapter, is fabled to have been let down from heaven to Jesus. It is sometimes also called the chapter of Contracts, which word occurs in the first verse.
      e As camels, oxen, and sheep; and also wild cows, antelopes, &c.;1 but not swine, nor what is taken in hunting during the pilgrimage.
      f i.e., The ceremonies used in the pilgrimage of Mecca.
      g See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VII.
      h The offering here meant is the sheep led to Mecca, to be there sacrificed, about the neck of which they used to hang garlands, green boughs, or some other ornament, that it may be distinguished as a thing sacred.2
      i In the expedition of Al Hodeibiya.3
      k For the idolatrous Arabs used, in killing any animal for food, to consecrate it, as it were, to their idols, by saying, In the name of Allât, or al Uzza.4
      l Or by a creature trained up to hunting.5
      m That is, unless ye come up time enough to find life in the animal, and to cut its throat.
      n The word also signifies certain stones, which the pagan Arabs used to set up near their houses, and on which they superstitiously slew animals, in honour of their gods.6
      o See Prelim. Disc. Sect. V.
      p This passage, it is said, was revealed on Friday evening, being the day of the pilgrims visiting Mount Arafat, the last time Mohammed visited the temple of Mecca, therefore called the pilgrimage of valediction.7
      q And therefore the commentators say, that after this time, no positive or negative precept was given.1

      1 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. 4 See c. 2, p. 18. 5 Al Beidâwi. 6 Idem. 7 Idem. See Prid. Life of Mahom. p. 99. 1 Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 131.


you;r and I have chosen for you Islam, to be your religion. But whosoever shall be driven by necessity through hunger, to eat of what we have forbidden, not designing to sin, surely GOD will be indulgent and merciful unto him. They will ask thee what is allowed them as lawful to eat? Answer, Such things as are goods are allowed you; and what ye shall teach animals of prey to catch,t training them up for hunting after the manner of dogs, and teaching them according to the skill which GOD hath taught you. Eat therefore of that which they shall catch for you; and commemorate the name of GOD thereon;u and fear GOD, for GOD is swift in taking an account. This day are ye allowed to eat such things as are good, and the food of those to whom the scriptures were givenx is also allowed as lawful unto you; and your food is allowed as lawful unto them. And ye are also allowed to marry free women that are believers, and also free women of those who have received the scriptures before you, when ye shall have assigned them their dower; living chastely with them, neither committing fornication, nor taking them for concubines. Whoever shall renounce the faith, his work shall be vain, and in the next life he shall be of those who perish. O true believers, when ye prepare yourselves to pray, wash your faces, and your hands unto the elbows; and rub your heads, and your feet unto the ankles; and if ye be polluted by having lain with a woman, wash yourselves all over. But if ye be sick, or on a journey, or any of you cometh from the privy, or if ye have touched women, and ye find no water, take fine clean sand, and rub your faces and your hands therewith; GOD would not put a difficulty upon you; but he desireth to purify you, and to complete his favor upon you, that ye may give thanks. Remember the favor of GOD towards you, and his covenant which he hath made with you, when ye said, We have heard, and will obey.y Therefore fear God, for God knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. O true believers, observe justice when ye appear as witnesses before GOD, and let not hatred towards any induce you to do wrong: but act justly; this will approach nearer unto piety; and fear GOD, for GOD is fully acquainted with what ye do. GOD hath promised unto those who believe, and do that which is right, that they shall receive pardon and a great reward. But they who believe not, and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell. O true believers, remember God's favor towards you, when certain men designed to stretch forth their hands against you, but he restrained their hands from hurting you;z therefore fear GOD and in

      r By having given you a true and perfect religion; or, by the taking of Mecca, and the destruction of idolatry.
      s Not such as are filthy, or unwholesome.
      t Whether beasts or birds.
      u Either when ye let go the hound, hawk, or other animal, after the game; or when ye kill it.
      x viz., Slain or dressed by Jews or Christians.
      y These words are the form used at the inauguration of a prince; and Mohammed here intends the oath of fidelity which his followers had taken to him at al Akaba.2
      z The commentators tell several stories as the occasion of this passage. One says, that Mohammed and some of his followers being at Osfân (a place not far from Mecca, in the way to Medina), and performing their noon devotions, a company of idolaters, who were in view, repented they had not taken that opportunity of attacking them, and therefore waited till the hour of evening prayer, intending to fall upon them then: but GOD defeated their design, by

       2 Vide Abulfed. ibid. p. 43, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II.

GOD let the faithful trust. GOD formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and we appointed out of them twelve leaders: and GOD said, Verily I am with you:a if ye observe prayer, and give alms, and believe in my apostles, and assist them, and lend unto GOD on good usury,b I will surely expiate your evil deeds from you, and I will lead you into gardens, wherein rivers flow: but he among you who disbelieveth after this, erreth from the straight path. Wherefore because they have broken their covenant, we have cursed them, and hardened their hearts; they dislocate the words of the Pentateuch from their places, and have forgotten part of what they were admonished; and thou wilt not cease to discover deceitful practices among them, except a few of them. But forgive them,c and pardon them, for GOD loveth the beneficent. And from those who say, We are Christians, we have received their covenant; but they have forgotten part of what they were admonished; wherefore we have raised up enmity and hatred among them, till the day of resurrection; and GOD will then surely declare unto them what they have been doing. O ye who have received the scriptures, now is our apostle come unto you, to make manifest unto you many things which ye concealed in the scriptures;d and to pass overe many things. Now is light and a perspicuous book of revelations come unto you from God. Thereby will GOD direct him who shall follow his good pleasure, into the paths of peace; and shall lead them out of darkness into light, by his will, and shall direct them in the right way. They are infidels, who say, Verily GOD is Christ the son of Mary. Say unto them, And who could obtain anything from GOD to the contrary, if he pleased to destroy Christ the son of Mary, and his mother, and all those who are on the earth? For unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and whatsoever is con-

revealing the verse of fear. Another relates, that the prophet going to the tribe of Koreidha (who were Jews) to levy a fine for the blood of two Moslems, who had been killed by mistake, by Amru Ebn Ommeya al Dimri, they desired him to sit down and eat with them, and they would pay the fine; Mohammed complying with their request, while he was sitting, they laid a design against his life, one Amru Ebn Jahâsh undertaking to throw a millstone upon him; but GOD withheld his hand, and Gabriel immediately descended to acquaint the prophet with their treachery, upon which he rose up and went his way. A third story is, that Mohammed having hung up his arms on a tree, under which he was resting himself, and his companions being dispersed some distance from him, an Arab of the desert came up to him and drew his sword, saying, Who hindereth me from killing thee? To which Mohammed answered, GOD; and Gabriel beating the sword out of the Arab’s hand, Mohammed took it up, and asked him the same question, Who hinders me from killing thee? the Arab replied, nobody, and immediately professed Mohammedism.1 Abûlfeda2 tells the same story, with some variation of circumstances.
      a After the Israelites had escaped from Pharaoh, GOD ordered them to go against Jericho, which was then inhabited by giants, of the race of the Canaanites, promising to give it into their hands; and Moses, by the divine direction, appointed a prince or captain over each tribe, to lead them in that expedition,3 and when they came to the borders of the land of Canaan, sent the captains as spies to get information of the state of the country, enjoining them secresy; but they being terrified at the prodigious size and strength of the inhabitants, disheartened the people by publicly telling them what they had seen, except only Caleb the son of Yufanna (Jephunneh) and Joshua the son of Nun.4
      b By contributing towards this holy war.
      c That is, if they repent and believe, or submit to pay tribute. Some, however, think these words are abrogated by the verse of the sword.5
      d Such as the verse of stoning adulterers,6 the description of Mohammed, and Christ’s prophecy of him by the name of Ahmed.7
      e i.e., Those which it was not necessary to restore.

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Vit. Moh. p. 73. 3 See Numb. i. 4. 5. 4 Al Beidâwi. Numb. xiii. and xiv 5 Al Beidâwi. 6 See c. 3, p. 34. 7 Al Beidâwi.

tained
between them; he createth what he pleaseth, and GOD is almighty. The Jews and the Christians say, We are the children of GOD and his beloved. Answer, Why therefore doth he punish you for your sins? Nay, but ye are men, of those whom he hath created. He forgiveth whom he pleaseth, and punisheth whom he pleaseth; and unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth, and of what is contained between them both; and unto him shall all things return. O ye who have received the scriptures, now is our apostle come unto you, declaring unto you the true religion, during the cessation of apostles,f lest ye should say, There came unto us no bearer of good tidings, nor any warner: but now is a bearer of good tidings, and a warner come unto you; for GOD is almighty. Call to mind when Moses said unto his people, O my people, remember the favor of GOD towards you, since he hath appointed prophets among you, and constituted you kings,g and bestowed on you what he hath given to no other nation in the world.h O my people, enter the holy land, which GOD hath decreed you, and turn not your backs, lest ye be subverted and perish. They answered, O Moses, verily there are a gigantic people in the land;i and we will by no means enter it, until they depart thence; but if they depart thence, then will we enter therein. And two menk of those who feared GOD, unto whom GOD had been gracious, said, Enter ye upon them suddenly by the gate of the city; and when ye shall have entered the same, ye shall surely be victorious: therefore trust in GOD, if ye are true believers. They replied, O Moses, we will never enter the land, while they remain therein: go therefore thou, and thy LORD, and fight; for we will sit here. Moses said, O LORD, surely I am not master of any except myself, and my brother; therefore make a distinction between us and the ungodly people. GOD answered, Verily the land shall be forbidden them forty years; during which time they shall wander like men astonished on the earth;l therefore be not thou solicitous for the ungodly people. Relate unto them also the history of the two sons of Adam,m with truth. When they offeredn their

      f The Arabic word al Fatra signifies the intermediate space of time between two prophets, during which no new revelation or dispensation was given; as the interval between Moses and Jesus, and between Jesus and Mohammed, at the expiration of which last, Mohammed pretended to be sent.
      g This was fulfilled either by GOD’S giving them a kingdom, and a long series of princes; or by his having made them kings or masters of themselves, by delivering them from the Egyptian bondage.
      h Having divided the Red Sea for you, and guided you by a cloud, and fed you with quails and manna, &c.1
      i The largest of these giants, the commentators say, was Og, the son of Anak; concerning whose enormous stature, his escaping the Flood, and the manner of his being slain by Moses, the Mohammedans relate several absurd fables.2
      k Namely, Caleb and Joshua.
      l The commentators pretend that the Israelites, while they thus wandered in the desert, were kept within the compass of about eighteen (or as some say twenty-seven) miles; and that though they travelled from morning to night, yet they constantly found themselves the next day at the place from whence they set out.1
      m viz., Cain and Abel, whom the Mohammedans call Kâbil and Hâbil.
      n The occasion of their making this offering is thus related, according to the common tradition in the east.2 Each of them being born with a twin sister, when they were grown up, Adam, by God’s direction, ordered Cain to marry Abel’s twin sister, and that Abel should

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Vide Marraacc. in Alcor. p. 231, &c. D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 336. 1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Vide Abulfarag, p. 6, 7; Eutych. Annal. p. 15, 16; and D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Cabil.

offering, and it was accepted from one of them,o and was not accepted from the other, Cain said to his brother, I will certainly kill thee. Abel answered, GOD only accepteth the offering of the pious; if thou stretchest forth thy hand against me, to slay me, I will not stretch forth my hand against thee, to slay thee; for I fear GOD, the LORD of all creatures.p I choose that thou shouldest bear my iniquity and thine own iniquity; and that thou become a companion of hell fire; for that is the reward of the unjust.q But his soul suffered him to slay his brother, and he slew him;r wherefore he became of the number of those who perish. And GOD sent a raven, which scratched the earth, to show him how he should hide the shame of his brother,s and he said, Woe is me! am I unable to be like this raven, that I may hide my brother's shame? and he became one of those who repent. Wherefore we commanded the children of Israel, that he who slayeth a soul, without having slain a soul, or committed wickedness in the earth,t shall be as if he had slain all mankind:u but he who saveth a soul alive, shall be as if he had saved the lives of all mankind. Our apostles formerly came unto them, with evident miracles; then were many of them after this, transgressors on the earth. But the recompense of those who fight against GOD and his apostle, and study to act corruptly in the earth, shall be, that they shall be slain, or crucified, or have their hands and their feet cut off on the opposite sides, or be banished the land.x This shall be their disgrace in this world, and in the next world they shall suffer a grievous punishment; except those who shall repent, before ye prevail against them; for know that GOD is inclined to forgive, and

marry Cain’s (for it being the common opinion that marriages ought not to be had in the nearest degrees of consanguinity, since they must necessarily marry their sisters, it seemed reasonable to suppose they ought to take those of the remoter degree), but this Cain refusing to agree to, because his own sister was the handsomest, Adam ordered them to make their offerings to GOD, thereby referring the dispute to his determination.3 The commentators say Cain’s offering was a sheaf of the very worst of his corn, but Abel’s a fat lamb, of the best of his flock.
      o Namely, from Abel, whose sacrifice GOD declared his acceptance of in a visible manner, by causing fire to descend from heaven and consume it, without touching that of Cain.4
      p To enhance Abel’s patience, al Beidâwi tells us, that he was the stronger of the two, and could easily have prevailed against his brother.
      q The conversation between the two brothers is related somewhat to the same purpose in the Jerusalem Targum and that of Jonathan ben Uzziel.
      r Some say he knocked out his brains with a stone;5 and pretend that as Cain was considering which way he should effect the murder, the devil appeared to him in a human shape, and showed him how to do it, by crushing the head of a bird between two stones.6
      s i.e., His dead corpse. For Cain, having committed this fratricide, became exceedingly troubled in his mind, and carried the dead body about on his shoulders for a considerable time, not knowing where to conceal it, till it stank horridly; and then God taught him to bury it by the example of a raven, who having killed another raven in his presence, dug a pit with his claws and beak, and buried him therein.7 For this circumstance of the raven Mohammed was beholden to the Jews, who tell the same story, except only that they make the raven to appear to Adam, and that he thereupon buried his son.8
      t Such as idolatry, or robbing on the highway.1
      u Having broken the commandment which forbids the shedding of blood.
      x The lawyers are not agreed as to the applying of these punishments. But the commentators suppose that they who commit murder only are to be put to death in the ordinary way; those who murder and rob too, to be crucified; those who rob without committing murder, to have their right hand and their left foot cut off; and they who assault persons and put them in fear, to be banished.2 It is also a doubt whether they who are to be crucified shall be crucified alive, or be first put to death, or whether they shall hang on the cross till they die.3

      3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 5 Vide Eutych. ubi supra. 6 Vide D’Herbelot, ubi sup. 7 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 8 Vide R. Eliezer, Pirke, c. 20. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 3 Al Beidâwi.

merciful. O true believers, fear GOD, and earnestly desire a near conjunction with him, and fight for his religion, that ye may be happy. Moreover they who believe not, although they had whatever is in the earth, and as much more withal, that they might therewith redeem themselves from punishment on the day of resurrection; it shall not be accepted from them, but they shall suffer a painful punishment. They shall desire to go forth from the fire, but they shall not go forth from it, and their punishment shall be permanent. If a man or a woman steal, cut off their hands,y in retribution for that which they have committed; this is an exemplary punishment appointed by GOD; and GOD is mighty and wise. But whoever shall repent after his iniquity, and amend, verily GOD will be turned unto him,z for GOD is inclined to forgive, and merciful. Dost thou not know that the kingdom of heaven and earth is GOD'S? He punisheth whom he pleaseth, and he pardoneth whom he pleaseth; for GOD is almighty. O apostle, let not them grieve thee, who hasten to infidelity,a either of those who say, We believe, with their mouths, but whose hearts believe not;b or of the Jews, who hearken to a lie, and hearken to other people;c who come unto thee: they pervert the words of the law from their true places,d and say, If this be brought unto you, receive it; but if it be not brought unto you, beware of receiving aught else;e and in behalf of him whom GOD shall resolve to seduce, thou shalt not prevail with GOD at all. They whose hearts GOD shall not please to cleanse shall suffer shame in this world, and a grievous punishment in the next: who hearken to a lie, and eat that which is forbidden.f But if they come unto thee for judgment, either judge between them, or leave them;g and if thou leave them, they shall not hurt thee at all. But

      y But this punishment, according to the Sonna, is not to be inflicted, unless the value of the thing stolen amount to four dinârs, or about forty shillings. For the first offence, the criminal is to lose his right hand, which is to be cut off at the wrist; for the second offence, his left foot, at the ankle; for the third, his left hand; for the fourth, his right foot; and if he continue to offend, he shall be scourged at the discretion of the judge.4
      z That is, GOD will not punish him for it hereafter; but his repentance does not supersede the execution of the law here, nor excuse him from making restitution. Yet, according to al Shâfeï, he shall not be punished if the party wronged forgive him before he be carried before a magistrate.5
      a i.e., Who take the first opportunity to throw off the mask, and join the unbelievers.
      b viz., The hypocritical Mohammedans.
      c These words are capable of two senses; and may either mean that they attended to the lies and forgeries of their Rabbins, neglecting the remonstrances of Mohammed; or else, that they came to hear Mohammed as spies only, that they might report what he said to their companions, and represent him as a liar.1
      d See chapter 4, p. 59, note e.
      e That is, if what Mohammed tells you agrees with scripture, as corrupted and dislocated by us, then you may accept it as the word of GOD; but if not, reject it. These words, it is said, relate to the sentence pronounced by that prophet on an adulterer and an adulteress,2 both persons of some figure among the Jews. For they, it seems, though they referred the matter to Mohammed, yet directed the persons who carried the criminals before him, that if he ordered them to be scourged, and to have their faces blackened (by way of ignominy), they should acquiesce in his determination; but in case he condemned them to be stoned, they should not. And Mohammed pronouncing the latter sentence against them, they refused to execute it, till Ebn Sûriya (a Jew), who was called upon to decide the matter, acknowledged the law to be so–whereupon they were stoned at the door of the mosque.3
      f Some understand this of unlawful meats; but others of taking or devouring, as it is expressed, of usury and bribes.4
      i.e., Take thy choice, whether thou wilt determine their differences or not. Hence al Shâfeï

      4 Jallalo’ddin, Al Beidâwi. 5 Idem. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 See c. 3, p. 34, note r. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem.

if thou undertake to judge, judge between them with equity; for GOD loveth those who observe justice. And how will they submit to thy decision, since they have the law, containing the judgment of GOD?h Then will they turn their backs, after this;i but those are not true believers.k We have surely sent down the law, containing direction, and light: thereby did the prophets, who professed the true religion, judge those who judaized; and the doctors and priests also judged by the book of GOD, which had been committed to their custody; and they were witnesses thereof.l Therefore fear not men, but fear me; neither sell my signs for a small price. And whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are infidels. We have therein commanded them, that they should give life for life,m and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth; and that wounds should also be punished by retaliation:n but whoever should remit it as alms, it should be accepted as an atonement for him. And whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are unjust. We also caused Jesus the son of Mary to follow the footsteps of the prophets, confirming the law which was sent down before him; and we gave him the gospel, containing direction and light; confirming also the law which was given before it, and a direction and admonition unto those who fear God: that they who have received the gospel might judge according to what GOD hath revealed therein: and whoso judgeth not according to what GOD hath revealed, they are transgressors. We have also sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that scripture which was revealed before it; and preserving the same safe from corruption. Judge therefore between them according to that which GOD hath revealed; and follow not their desires, by swerving from the truth which hath come unto thee. Unto every of you have we given a law, and an open path; and if GOD had pleased, he had surely made you one people;o but he hath thought fit to give you different laws, that he might try you in that which he hath given you respectively. Therefore strive to excel each other in good works: unto GOD shall ye all return, and then will he declare unto you that concerning which ye have disagreed. Wherefore do thou, O pro-

was of opinion that a judge was not obliged to decide causes between Jews or Christians; though if one or both of them be tributaries, or under the protection of the Mohammedans, they are obliged: this verse not regarding them. Abu Hanîfa, however, thought that the magistrates were obliged to judge all cases which were submitted to them.6
      h In the following passage Mohammed endeavours to answer the objections of the Jews and Christians, who insisted that they ought to be judged, the former by the law of Moses, and the latter by the gospel. He allows that the law was the proper rule of judging till the coming revelation of the Korân, which is so far from being contradictory to either of the former, that it is more full and explicit; declaring several points which had been stifled or corrupted therein, and requiring a rigorous execution of the precepts in both, which had been too remissly observed, or rather neglected, by the latter professors of those religions.
      i That is, notwithstanding their outward submission, they will not abide by thy sentence, though conformable to the law, if it contradict their own false and loose decisions.
      k As gainsaying the doctrine of the books which they acknowledge for scripture.
      l That is, vigilant, to prevent any corruptions therein.
      m The original word is soul.
      n See Exod. xxi. 24, &c.
      o i.e., He had given you the same laws, which should have continued in force through all ages, without being abolished or changed by new dispensations; or he could have forced you all to embrace the Mohammedan religion.1

       6 Idem. 1 Idem.

phet,
judge between them according to that which GOD hath revealed, and follow not their desires; but beware of them, lest they cause thee to errp from part of those precepts which GOD hath sent down unto thee; and if they turn back,q know that GOD is pleased to punish them for some of their crimes; for a great number of men are transgressors. Do they therefore desire the judgment of the time of ignorance?r but who is better than GOD, to judge between people who reason aright? O true believers, take not the Jews or Christians for your friends; they are friends the one to the other; but whoso among you taketh them for his friends, he is surely one of them: verily GOD directeth not unjust people. Thou shalt see those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, to hasten unto them, saying, We fear lest some adversity befall us;s but it is easy for GOD to give victory, or a command from him,t that they may repent of that which they concealed in their minds. And they who believe will say, Are these the men who have sworn by GOD, with a most firm oath, that they surely held with you?u their works are become vain, and they are of those who perish. O true believers, whoever of you apostatizeth from his religion, GOD will certainly bring other people to supply his place,x whom he will love, and who will love him; who shall be

      p It is related that certain of the Jewish priests came to Mohammed with a design to entrap him; and having first represented to him that if they acknowledged him for a prophet, the rest of the Jews would certainly follow their example, made this proposal–that if he would give judgment for them in a controversy of moment which they pretended to have with their own people, and which was agreed to be referred to his decision, they would believe him; but this Mohammed absolutely refused to comply with.2
      q Or refuse to be judged by the Korân.
      r That is, to be judged according to the customs of paganism, which indulge the passions and vicious appetites of mankind: for this, it seems, was demanded by the Jewish tribes of Koreidha and al Nadîr.3
      s These were the words of Ebn Obba, who, when Obâdah Ebn al Sâmat publicly renounced the friendship of the infidels, and professed that he took GOD and his apostle for his patrons, said that he was a man apprehensive of the fickleness of fortune, and therefore would not throw off his old friends, who might be of service to him hereafter.1
      t To extirpate and banish the Jews; or to detect and punish the hypocrites.
      u These words may be spoken by the Mohammedans either to one another or to the Jews, since these hypocrites had given their oaths to both.2
      x This is one of those accidents which, it is pretended, were foretold by the Korân long before they came to pass. For in the latter days of Mohammed, and after his death, considerable numbers of the Arabs quitted his religion, and returned to Paganism, Judaism, or Christianity. Al Beidâwi reckons them up in the following order. 1. Three companies of Banu Modlaj, seduced by Dhu’lhamâr al Aswad al Ansi, who set up for a prophet in Yaman, and grew very powerful there.3 2. Banu Honeifa, who followed the famous false prophet Moseilama.4 3. Banu Asad, who acknowledged Toleiha Ebn Khowailed, another Banu Asad, who acknowledged Toleiha Ebn Khowailed, another pretender to divine revelation,5 for their prophet. All these fell off in Mohammed’s lifetime. The following, except only the last, apostatized in the reign of Abu Becr. 4. Certain of the tribe of Fezârah, headed by Oyeyma Ebn Hosein. 5. Some of the tribe of Ghatfân, whose leader was Korrah Ebn Salma. 6. Banu Soleim, who followed al Fajâah Ebn Ad Yalîl. 7. Banu Yarbu, whose captain was Malec Ebn Noweirah Ebn Kais. 8. Part of the tribe of Tamîm, the proselytes of Sajâj the daughter of al Mondhar, who gave herself out for a prophetess.6 9. The tribe of Kendah, led by al Asháth Ebn Kais. 10. Banu Becr Ebn al Wayel, in the province of Bahrein, headed by al Hotam Ebn Zeid. And, 11. Some of the tribe of Ghassân, who with their prince Jabalah Ebn al Ayham, renounced Mohammedism in the time of Omar, and returned to their former profession of Christianity.7
But as to the persons who fulfilled the other part of this prophecy, by supplying the loss of so many renegades, the commentators are not agreed. Some will have them to be the inhabitants of Yaman, and others the Persians; the authority of Mohammed himself being vouched for both opinions. Others, however, suppose them to be 2,000 of the tribe of al Nakhá (who dwelt in Yaman), 5,000 of those of Kendah and Bajîlah, and 3,000 of unknown descent,8 who

      2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VIII. 4 See ibid. 5 See Ibid. 6 See ibid. 7 See ibid. Sect I. 8 Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 226.

humble towards the believers; but severe to the unbelievers: they shall fight for the religion of GOD, and shall not fear the obloquy of the detractor. This is the bounty of GOD, he bestoweth it on whom he pleaseth: GOD is extensive and wise. Verily your protector is GOD, and his apostle, and those who believe, who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, and who bow down to worship. And whoso taketh GOD, and his apostle, and the believers for his friends, they are the party of GOD, and they shall be victorious. O true believers, take not such of those to whom the scriptures were delivered before you, or of the infidels, for your friends, who make a laughing-stock, and a jest of your religion;y but fear GOD, if ye be true believers; nor those who when ye call to prayer, make a laughing-stock and a jest of it;z this they do, because they are people who do not understand. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, do ye reject us for any other reason than because we believe in GOD, and that revelation which hath been sent down unto us, and that which was formerly sent down, and for that the greater part of you are transgressors? Say, Shall I denounce unto you a worse thing than this, as to the reward which ye are to expect with GOD? He whom GOD hath cursed, and with whom he hath been angry, having changed some of them into apes and swine,a and who worship Taghût,b they are in the worse condition, and err more widely from the straightness of the path. When they came unto you, they said, We believe: yet they entered into your company with infidelity, and went forth from you with the same; but GOD well knew what they concealed. Thou shalt see many of them hastening unto iniquity and malice, and to eat things forbidden;c and woe unto them for what they have done. Unless their doctors and priests forbid them uttering wickedness, and eating things forbidden; woe unto them for what they shall have committed. The Jews say, The hand of GOD is tied up.d Their hands shall be tied up,e and they shall be cursed for that which they have said. Nay his hands are both stretched forth;

were present at the famous battle of Kadesia, fought in the Khalîfat of Omar, and which put an end to the Persian empire.9
      y This passage was primarily intended to forbid the Moslems entering into a friendship with two hypocrites named Refâa Ebn Zeid, and Soweid Ebn al Hareth, who, though they had embraced Mohammedism, yet ridiculed it on all occasions, and were notwithstanding greatly beloved among the prophet’s followers.
      z These words were added on occasion of a certain Christian, who hearing the Muadhdhin, or crier, in calling to prayers, repeat this part of the usual form, I profess that Mohammed is the apostle of GOD, said aloud, May GOD burn the liar: but a few nights after his own house was accidentally set on fire by a servant, and himself and his family perished in the flames.1
      a The former were the Jews of Ailah, who broke the sabbath;2 and the latter those who believed not in the miracle of the table which was let down from heaven to Jesus.3 Some, however, imagine that the Jews of Ailah only are meant in this place, pretending that the young men among them were metamorphosed into apes, and the old men into swine.4
      b See chap. 2, p. 28.
      c See before, p. 73.
      d That is, he is become niggardly and close-fisted. These were the words of Phineas Ebn Azûra (another indecent expression of whom, almost to the same purpose, is mentioned elsewhere)5 when the Jews were much impoverished by a dearth, which the commentators will have to be a judgment on them for their rejecting of Mohammed; and the other Jews who heard him, instead of reproving him, expressed their approbation of what he had said.6
      e i.e., They shall be punished with want and avarice. The words may also allude to the manner wherein the reprobates shall appear at the last day, having their right hands tied up to their necks;7 which is the proper signification of the Arabic word.

      9 Al Beidâwi. 1 Idem. 2 See c. 2, p. 8. 3 See towards the end of this chapter 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Cap. 3, p. 51. 6 Al Beidâwi. 7 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.

he bestoweth as he pleaseth: that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORDf shall increase the transgression and infidelity of many of them; and we have put enmity and hatred between them, until the day of resurrection. So often as they shall kindle a fire for war GOD shall extinguish it;g and they shall set their minds to act corruptly in the earth, but GOD loveth not the corrupt doers. Moreover if they who have received the scriptures believe, and fear God, we will surely expiate their sins from them, and we will lead them into gardens of pleasure; and if they observe the law, and the gospel, and the other scriptures which have been sent down unto them from their LORD, they shall surely eat of good things both from above them, and from under their feet.h Among them there are people who act uprightly; but how evil is that which many of them do work! O apostle, publish the whole of that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD: for if thou do not, thou dost not in effect publish any part thereof;i and GOD will defend thee against wicked men;k for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, ye are not grounded on anything, until ye observe the law and the gospel and that which hath been sent down unto you from your LORD. That which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD will surely increase the transgression and infidelity of many of them: but be not thou solicitous for the unbelieving people. Verily they who believe, and those who Judaize, and the Sabians, and the Christians, whoever of them believeth in GOD and the last day, and doth that which is right, there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved.l We formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, and sent apostles unto them. So often as an apostle came unto them with that which their souls desired not, they accused some of them of imposture, and some of them they killed: and they imagined that there should be no punishment for those crimes, and they became blind, and deaf.m Then was GOD turned unto them;n afterwards many of them again became blind and deaf; but GOD saw what they did. They are surely infidels, who say, Verily GOD is Christ the son of Mary; since Christ said, O children of Israel, serve GOD, my LORD and your LORD; whoever shall give a companion unto GOD, GOD shall exclude him from paradise, and his habitation shall be hell fire; and the ungodly shall have none to help them. They are certainly infidels, who say, GOD is

      f viz., The Korân.
      g Either by raising feuds and quarrels among themselves, or by granting the victory to the Moslems. Al Beidâwi adds, that on the Jews neglecting the true observance of their law, and corrupting their religion, GOD has successively delivered them into the hands, first of Bakht Nasr or Nebuchadnezzar, then of Titus the Roman, and afterwards of the Persians, and has now at last subjected them to the Mohammedans.
      h That is, they shall enjoy the blessings both of heaven and earth.
      i That is, if thou do not complete the publication of all thy revelations without exception, thou dost not answer the end for which they were revealed; because the concealing of any part, renders the system of religion which GOD has thought fit to publish to mankind by thy ministry lame and imperfect.1
      k Until this verse was revealed, Mohammed entertained a guard of armed men for his security, but on his receiving this assurance of GOD’S protection, he immediately dismissed them.2
      l See chap. 2, p. 8.
      m Shutting their eyes and ears against conviction and the remonstrance of the law; as when they worshipped the calf.
      n i.e., Upon their repentance.

       1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem.

the third of three:o for there is no GOD, besides one GOD; and if they refrain not from what they say, a painful torment shall surely be inflicted on such of them as are unbelievers. Will they not therefore be turned unto GOD, and ask pardon of him? since GOD is gracious and merciful. Christ the son of Mary is no more than an apostle; other apostles have preceded him; and his mother was a woman of veracity:p they both ate food.q Behold, how we declare unto them the signs of God's unity; and then behold how they turn aside from the truth. Say unto them, Will ye worship, besides GOD, that which can cause you neither harm nor profit? GOD is he who heareth and seeth. Say, O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,r by speaking beside the truth; neither follow the desires of people who have heretofore erred, and who have seduced many, and have gone astray from the straight path.s Those among the children of Israel who believe not were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus the son of Mary.t This befell them because they were rebellious and transgressed: they forbade not one another the wickedness which they committed; and woe unto them for what they committed. Thou shalt see many of them take for their friends those who believe not. Woe unto them for what their souls have sent before them,u for that GOD is incensed against them, and they shall remain in torment forever. But, if they had believed in GOD, and the prophet, and that which hath been revealed unto him, they had not taken them for their friends; but many of them are evil-doers. Thou shalt surely find the most violent of all men in enmity against the true believers to be the Jews, and the idolaters: and thou shalt surely find those among them to be the most inclinable to entertain friendship for the true believers, who say, We are Christians. This cometh to pass, because there are priests and monks among them; and because they are not elated with pride:x (VII.) And when they hear that which hath been sent down to the apostle read unto them, thou shalt see their eyes overflow with tears, because of the truth which they perceive therein,y saying,

      o See chap. 4, p. 72.
      p Never pretending to partake of the divine nature, or to be the mother of GOD.3
      q Being obliged to support their lives by the same means, and being subject to the same necessities and infirmities as the rest of mankind, and therefore no Gods.1
      r See chap. 4, p. 72. But here the words are principally directed to the Christians.
      s That is, of their prelates and predecessors, who erred in ascribing divinity to Christ, before the mission of Mohammed.2
      t See before, p. 81, note a.
      u See chap. 2, p. 11, note r.
      x Having not that high conceit of themselves, as the Jews have; but being humble and well disposed to receive the truth; qualities, says al Beidâwi, which are to be commended even in infidels.
      y The persons directly intended in this passage were, either Ashama, king of Ethiopia, and several bishops and priests, who, being assembled for that purpose, heard Jaafar Ebn Abi Taleb, who fled to that country in the first flight,3 read the 29th and 30th, and afterwards the 18th and 19th chapters of the Korân; on hearing of which the king and the rest of the company burst into tears, and confessed what was delivered therein to be conformable to truth; that prince himself, in particular, becoming a proselyte to Mohammedism:4 or else, thirty, or as others say, seventy persons, sent ambassadors to Mohammed by the same king of Ethiopia, to whom the prophet himself read the 36th chapter, entitled Y.S. Whereupon they began to weep, saying, How like is this to that which was revealed unto Jesus! and immediately professed themselves Moslems.5

      2 Jallalo’ddin. 1 Idem, al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. 4 Al Beidâwi, al Thalabi. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moham. p. 25, &c. Marracc. Prodr. ad Refut. Alcor. part i. p. 45. 5 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. Vide Marracc. ubi sup.

O LORD, we believe; write us down therefore with those who bear witness to the truth, and what should hinder us from believing in GOD, and the truth which hath come unto us, and from earnestly desiring that our LORD would introduce us into paradise with the righteous people? Therefore hath GOD rewarded them, for what they have said, with gardens through which rivers flow; they shall continue therein forever; and this is the reward of the righteous. But they who believe not, and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell. O true believers, forbid not the good things which GOD hath allowed you;z but transgress not, for GOD loveth not the transgressors. And eat of what GOD hath given you for food that which is lawful and good: and fear GOD, in whom ye believe. GOD will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths;a but he will punish you for what ye solemnly swear with deliberation. And the expiation of such an oath shall be the feeding of ten poor men with such moderate food as ye feed your own families withal; or to clothe them;b or to free the neck of a true believer from captivity: but he who shall not find wherewith to perform one of these three things shall fast three days.c This is the expiation of your oaths, when ye swear inadvertently. Therefore keep your oaths. Thus GOD declareth unto you his signs, that ye may give thanks. O true believers, surely wine, and lots,d and images,e and divining arrows,f are an abomination of the work of Satan; therefore avoid them that ye may prosper. Satan seeketh to sow dissension and hatred among you, by means of wine and lots, and to divert you from remembering GOD, and from prayer: will ye not therefore abstain from them? Obey GOD, and obey the apostle, and take heed to yourselves: but if ye turn back, know that the duty of our apostle is only to preach publicly.g In those who believe and do good works, it is no sin that they have tasted wine or gaming before they were forbidden; if they fear God, and believe, and do good works, and shall for the future fear God, and believe, and shall persevere to fear him, and to do good;h for GOD loveth those who do good. O true believers, GOD will surely prove you in offering you plenty of game, which ye may take with your hands or

      z These words were revealed when certain of Mohammed’s companions agreed to oblige themselves to continual fasting and watching, and to abstain from women, eating flesh, sleeping on beds, and other lawful enjoyments of life, in imitation of some self-denying Christians; but this the prophet disapproved, declaring that he would have no monks in his religion.1
      a See chap. 2, p. 24.
      b The commentators give us the different opinions of the doctors, as to the quantity of food and clothes to be given in this case; which I think scarce worth transcribing.
      c That is, three days together, says Abu Hanîfa. But this is not observed in practice, being neither explicitly commanded in the Korân, nor ordered in the Sonna.2
      d That is, all inebriating liquors, and games of chance. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V. and chap. 2, p. 23.
      e Al Beidâwi and some other commentators expound this of idols; but others, with more probability, of the carved pieces or men, with which the pagan Arabs played at chess, being little figures of men, elephants, horses, and dromedaries; and this is supposed to be the only thing Mohammed disliked in that game: for which reason the Sonnites play with plain pieces of wood or ivory; but the Persians and Indians, who are not so scrupulous, still make use of the carved ones.3
      f See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. V.
      g See ibid. Sect. II.
      h The commentators endeavour to excuse the tautology of this passage, by supposing the threefold repetition of fearing and believing refers either to the three parts of time, past, present, and future, or to the threefold duty of man, towards GOD, himself, and his neighbour, &c.4

      1 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Vide Prelim Disc. Sect. V. 4 Al Beidâwi.

your lances,i that GOD may know who feareth him in secret; but whoever transgresseth after this shall suffer a grievous punishment. O true believers, kill no game while ye are on pilgrimage;k whosoever among you shall kill any designedly shall restore the like of what he shall have killed, in domestic animals,l according to the determination of two just persons among you, to be brought as an offering to the Caaba; or in atonement thereof shall feed the poor; or instead thereof shall fast, that he may taste the heinousness of his deed. GOD hath forgiven what is past, but whoever returneth to transgress, GOD will take vengeance on him; for GOD is mighty and able to avenge. It is lawful for you to fish in the sea,m and to eat what ye shall catch, as a provision for you and for those who travel; but it is unlawful for you to hunt by land, while ye are performing the rights of pilgrimage;n therefore fear GOD, before whom ye shall be assembled at the last day. GOD hath appointed the Caaba, the holy house, an establishment for mankind; and hath ordained the sacred month,q and the offering, and the ornaments hung thereon.q This hath he done that ye might know that GOD knoweth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth, and that GOD is omniscient. Know that GOD is severe in punishing, and that GOD is also ready to forgive, and merciful. The duty of our apostle is to preach only;r and GOD knoweth that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal. Say, Evil and good shall not be equally esteemed of, though the abundance of evil pleaseth thee;s therefore fear GOD, O ye of understanding, that ye may be happy. O true believers, inquire not concerning things, which, if they be declared unto you, may give you pain;t but if ye ask concerning them when the Koran is sent down,

      i This temptation or trial was at al Hodeibiya, where Mohammed’s men, who had attended him thither with an intent to perform a pilgrimage to the Caaba, and had initiated themselves with the usual rites, were surrounded by so great a number of birds and beasts that they impeded their march; for which unusual accident, some of them concluded that GOD had allowed them to be taken; but this passage was to convince them of the contrary.1
      k Literally, while ye are Mohrims, or have actually initiated yourselves as pilgrims, by putting on the garment worn at that solemnity. Hunting and fowling are hereby absolutely forbidden to persons in this state, though they are allowed to kill certain kinds of noxious animals.2
      l That is, he shall bring an offering to the temple of Mecca, to be slain there and distributed among the poor, of some domestic or tame animal, equal in value to what he shall have killed; as a sheep, for example, in lieu of an antelope, a pigeon for a partridge, &c. And of this value two prudent persons were to be judges. If the offender was not able to do this, he was to give a certain quantity of food to one or more poor men; or, if he could not afford that, to fast a proportionable number of days.3
      m This, says Jallalo’ddin, is to be understood of fish that live altogether in the sea, and not of those that live in the sea and on land both, as crabs, &c. The Turks, who are Hanifites, never eat this sort of fish; but the sect of Malec Ebn Ans, and perhaps some others, make no scruple of it.
      n See above, note k.
      o That is, the place where the practice of their religious ceremonies is chiefly established; where those who are under any apprehension of danger may find a sure asylum, and the merchant certain gain, &c.4
      p Al Beidâwi understands this of the month of Dhu’lhajja, wherein the ceremonies of the pilgrimage are performed; but Jallalo’ddin supposes all the four sacred months are here intended.5
      q See before, p. 73.
      r See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. II.
      s For judgment is to be made of things not from their plenty or scarcity, but from their intrinsic good or bad qualities.6
      t The Arabs continually teasing their prophet with questions, which probably he was not

      1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V. 3 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi
4 Idem. 5 See the Prelim Disc. Sect. VII 6 Al Beidâwi.

they will be declared unto you: GOD pardoneth you as to these matters; for GOD is ready to forgive, and gracious. People who have been before you formerly inquired concerning them; and afterwards disbelieved therein. God hath not ordained anything concerning Bahîra, nor Sâïba, nor Wasîla, nor Hâmi,u but the unbelievers have invented a lie against GOD: and the greater part of them do not understand. And when it was said unto them, Come unto that which GOD hath revealed, and to the apostle; they answered, That religion which we found our fathers to follow is sufficient for us. What, though their fathers knew nothing and were not rightly directed? O true believers, take care of your souls! He who erreth shall not hurt you, while ye are rightly directed:x unto GOD shall ye all return, and he will tell you that which ye have done. O true believers, let witnesses be taken between you, when death approaches any of you, at the time of making the testament; let there be two witnesses, just men, from among you;y or two others of a different tribe or faith from yourselves,z if ye be journeying in the earth, and the accident of death befall you. Ye shall shut them both up, after the afternoon prayer,a and they shall swear by GOD, if ye doubt them, and they shall say, We will not sell our evidence for a bribe, although the person concerned be one who is related to us, neither will we conceal the testimony of GOD, for then should we certainly be of the number of the wicked. But if it appear that both have been guilty of iniquity, two others shall stand up in their place, of those who have convicted them of falsehood, the two nearest in blood, and they shall swear by GOD, saying, Verily our testimony is more true than the testimony of these two, neither have we prevaricated; for then should we become of the number of the unjust. This will be easier, that men may give testimony according to the plain intention thereof, or fear lest a different oath be given, after their oath. Therefore fear GOD, and hearken; for GOD directeth not the unjust people.b

always prepared to answer, they are here ordered to wait, till GOD should think fit to declare his pleasure by some farther revelation; and, to abate their curiosity, they are told, at the same time, that very likely the answers would not be agreeable to their inclinations. Al Beidâwi says, that when the pilgrimage was first commanded, Sorâka Ebn Malec asked Mohammed whether they were obliged to perform it every year? To this question the prophet at first turned a deaf ear, but being asked it a second and a third time, he at last said, No; but if I had said yes it would have become a duty, and, if it were a duty, ye would not be able to perform it; therefore give me no trouble as to things wherein I give you none: whereupon this passage was revealed.
      u These were the names given by the pagan Arabs to certain camels or sheep which were turned loose to feed, and exempted from common services, in some particular cases; having their ears slit, or some other mark, that they might be known; and this they did in honour of their gods.1 Which superstitions are here declared to be no ordinances of God, but the inventions of foolish men.
      x This was revealed when the infidels reproached those who embraced Mohammedism and renounced their old idolatry, that by so doing they arraigned the wisdom of their forefathers.2
      y That is, of your kindred or religion.
      z They who interpret these words of persons of another religion, say they are abrogated, and that the testimony of such ought not to be received against a Moslem.3
      a In case there was any doubt, the witnesses were to be kept apart from company, lest they should be corrupted, till they gave their evidence, which they generally did when the afternoon prayer was over, because that was the time of people’s assembling in public, or, say some, because the guardian angels then relieve each other, so that there would be four angels to witness against them if they gave false evidence. But others suppose they might be examined after the hour of any other prayer, when there was a sufficient assembly.4
      b The occasion of the preceding passage is said to have been this. Tamîn al Dâri and Addi

      1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. V 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Idem.

On a certain dayc shall GOD assemble the apostles, and shall say unto them, What answer was returned you, when ye preached unto the people to whom ye were sent? They shall answer, We have no knowledge, but thou art the knower of secrets.d When GOD shall say, O Jesus son of Mary, remember my favor towards thee, and towards thy mother; when I strengthened thee with the holy spirit,e that thou shouldest speak unto men in the cradle, and when thou wast grown up;f and when I taught thee the scripture, and wisdom and the law, and the gospel: and when thou didst create of clay as it were the figure of a bird, by my permission, and didst breathe thereon, and it became a bird, by my permission, and thou didst heal one blind from his birth, and the leper, by my permission;g and when thou didst bring forth the dead from their graves by my permission; and when I withheld the children of Israel from killing thee,h when thou hadst come unto them with evident miracles, and such of them as believed not said, This is nothing but manifest sorcery. And when I commanded the apostles of Jesus saying, Believe in me, and in my messenger; they answered, We do believe; and do thou bear witness that we are resigned unto thee. Remember when the apostles said, O Jesus son of Mary, is thy LORD able to cause a table to descend unto us from heaven?i He

Ebn Yâzid, both Christians, took a journey into Syria to trade, in company with Bodeil, the freed man of Amru Ebn al As, who was a Moslem. When they came to Damascus, Bodeil fell sick, and died, having first wrote down a list of his effects on a piece of paper, which he hid in his baggage, without acquainting his companions with it, and desired them only to deliver what he had to his friends of the tribe of Sahm. The survivors, however, searching among his goods, found a vessel of silver of considerable weight, and inlaid with gold, which they concealed, and on their return delivered the rest to the deceased’s relations, who, finding the list of Bodeil’s writing, demanded the vessel of silver of them, but they denied it; and the affair being brought before Mohammed, these words, viz., O true believers, take witnesses, &c., were revealed, and he ordered them to be sworn at the pulpit in the mosque, just as afternoon prayer was over, and on their making oath that they knew nothing of the plate demanded, dismissed them. But afterwards, the vessel being found in their hands, the Sahmites, suspecting it was Bodeil’s, charged them with it, and they confessed it was his, but insisted that they had bought it of him, and that they had not produced it because they had no proof of the bargain. Upon this they went again before Mohammed, to whom these words, And if it appear, &c., were revealed; and thereupon Amru Ebn al As and al Motalleb Ebn Abi Refâa, both of the tribe of Sahm, stood up, and were sworn against them; and judgment was given accordingly.1
      c That is, on the day of judgment.
      d That is, we are ignorant whether our proselytes were sincere, or whether they apostatized after our deaths; but thou well knowest, not only what answer they gave us, but the secrets of their hearts, and whether they have since continued firm in their religion or not.
      e See chapter 2, p. 10.
      f See chapter 3, p. 37.
      g See ibid.
      h See ibid. p. 38.
      i This miracle is thus related by the commentators. Jesus having, at the request of his followers, asked it of God, a red table immediately descended, in their sight, between two clouds, and was set before them; whereupon he rose up, and having made the ablution, prayed, and then took off the cloth which covered the table, saying, In the name of GOD, the best provider of food. What the provisions were with which this table was furnished is a matter wherein the expositors are not agreed. One will have them to be nine cakes of bread and nine fishes; another bread and flesh; another, all sorts of food, except flesh; another all sorts of food, except bread and flesh; another, all except bread and fish; another, one fish, which had the taste of all manner of food; and another, fruits of paradise; but the most received tradition is that when the table was uncovered, there appeared a fish ready dressed, without scales or prickly fins, dropping with fat, having salt placed at its head and vinegar at its tail, and round it all sorts of herbs, except leeks, and five loaves of bread, on one of which there were olives, on the second honey, on the third butter, on the fourth cheese, and on the fifth dried flesh. They add that Jesus, at the request of the apostles, showed them another miracle, by restoring

       1 Al Beidâwi.

answered, Fear GOD, if ye be true believers. They said, We desire to eat thereof, and that our hearts may rest at ease, and that we may know that thou hast told us the truth, and that we may be witnesses thereof. Jesus the son of Mary said, O GOD our LORD, cause a table to descend unto us from heaven, that the day of its descent may become a festival dayk unto us, unto the first of us, and unto the last of us, and a sign from thee; and do thou provide food for us, for thou art the best provider. GOD said, Verily I will cause it to descend unto you; but whoever among you shall disbelieve hereafter, I will surely punish him with a punishment, wherewith I will not punish any other creature. And when GOD shall say unto Jesus, at the last day, O Jesus son of Mary, hast thou said unto men, Take me and my mother for two gods, beside GOD? He shall answer, Praise be unto thee! it is not for me to say that which I ought not; if I had said so, thou wouldest surely have known it: thou knowest what is in me, but I know not what is in thee; for thou art the knower of secrets. I have not spoken to them any other than what thou didst command me; namely, Worship GOD, my LORD and your LORD: and I was a witness of their actions while I staid among them; but since thou hast taken me to thyself,l thou hast been the watcher over them; for thou art witness of all things. If thou punish them, they are surely thy servants; and if thou forgive them, thou art mighty and wise. GOD will say, This day shall their veracity be of advantage unto those who speak truth; they shall have gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever: GOD hath been well pleased in them, and they have been well pleased in him. This shall be great felicity. Unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth, and of whatever therein is; and he is almighty.

the fish to life, and causing its scales and fins to return to it, at which the standers-by being affrighted, he caused it to become as it was before; that 1,300 men and women, all afflicted with bodily infirmities or poverty, ate of these provisions, and were satisfied, the fish remaining whole as it was at first; that then the table flew up to heaven in the sight of all; and every one who had partaken of this food were delivered from their infirmities and misfortunes; and that it continued to descend for forty days together at dinner-time, and stood on the ground till the sun declined, and was then taken up into the clouds. Some of the Mohammedan writers are of opinion that this table did not really descend, but that it was only a parable; but most think the words of the Korân are plain to the contrary. A further tradition is, that several men were changed into swine for disbelieving this miracle, and attributing it to magic art; or, as others pretend, for stealing some of the victuals from off it.1 Several other fabulous circumstances are also told, which are scarce worth transcribing.2
      k Some say the table descended on a Sunday, which was the reason of the Christians observing that day as sacred. Others pretend this day is still kept among them as a very great festival; and it seems as if the story had its rise from an imperfect notion of Christ’s last supper and the institution of the Eucharist.
      i Or, since thou hast caused me to die: but as it is a dispute among the Mohammedans whether Christ actually died or not, before his assumption,3 and the original may be translated either way, I have chosen the former expression, which leaves the matter undecided.

      Idem, al Thalabi. 2 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 238, &c. 3 See cap. 3, p. 38.

CHAPTER VI.

ENTITLED, CATTLE;m REVEALED AT MECCA.n

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       PRAISE be unto GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth, and hath ordained the darkness and the light; nevertheless they who believe not in the LORD equalize other gods with him. It is he who hath created you of clay; and then decreed the term of your lives; and the prefixed term is with him:o yet do ye doubt thereof. He is GOD in heaven and in earth; he knoweth what ye keep secret, and what ye publish, and knoweth what ye deserve. There came not unto them any sign, of the signs of their LORD, but they retired from the same; and they have gainsaid the truth, after that it hath come unto them: but a message shall come unto them, concerning that which they have mocked at.p Do they not consider how many generations we have destroyed before them? We had established them in the earth in a manner wherein we have not established you;q we sent the heaven to rain abundantly upon them, and we gave them rivers which flowed under their feet: yet we destroyed them in their sins, and raised up other generations after them. Although we had caused to descend unto thee a book written on paper, and they had handled it with their hands, the unbelievers had surely said, This is no other than manifest sorcery. They said, Unless an angel be sent down unto him, we will not believe. But if we had sent down an angel, verily the matter had ben decreed,r and they should not have been borne with, by having time granted them to repent. And if we had appointed an angel for our messenger, we should have sent him in the form of a man,s and have clothed him before them, as they are clothed. Other apostles have been laughed to scorn before thee, but the judgment which they made a jest of encompassed those who laughed them to scorn. Say, Go through the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those, who accused our prophets of imposture. Say, Unto whom belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and earth? Say, Unto GOD, He hath prescribed unto himself mercy. He will surely gather you together on the

      m This chapter is so entitled, because some superstitious customs of the Meccans, as to certain cattle, are therein incidentally mentioned.
      n Except only six verses, or, say others, three verses, which are taken notice of in the notes.
      o By the last term some understand the time of the resurrection. Others think that by the first term is intended the space between creation and death, and by the latter, that between death and the resurrection.
      p That is, they shall be convinced of the truth which they have made a jest of, when they see the punishment which they shall suffer for so doing, both in this world and the next; or when they shall see the glorious success of Mohammedism.
      q i.e., We had blessed them with greater power and length of prosperity than we have granted you, O men of Mecca.1 Mohammed seems here to mean the ancient and potent tribes of Ad and Thamûd, &c.2
      r That is to say, As they would not have believed, even if an angel had descended to them from heaven, GOD has shown his mercy in not complying with their demands; for if he had, they would have suffered immediate condemnation, and would have been allowed no time for repentance.
      s As Gabriel generally appeared to Mahommed; who, though a prophet, was not able to

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 5, &c.


day of resurrection; there is no doubt of it. They who destroy their own souls are those who will not believe. Unto him is owing whatsoever happeneth by night or by day; it is he who heareth and knoweth. Say, Shall I take any other protector than GOD, the creator of heaven and earth, who feedeth all and is not fed by any? Say, Verily I am commanded to be the first who professeth Islâm,t and it was said unto me, Thou shalt by no means be one of the idolaters. Say, Verily I fear, if I should rebel against my LORD, the punishment of the great day: from whomsoever it shall be averted on that day, God will have been merciful unto him; this will be manifest salvation. If GOD afflict thee with any hurt, there is none who can take it off from thee, except himself; but if he cause good to befall thee, he is almighty; he is the supreme Lord over his servants, and he is wise and knowing. Say, What thing is the strongest in bearing testimony?u Say, GOD; he is witness between me and you. And this Koran was revealed unto me, that I should admonish you thereby, and also those unto whom it shall reach. Do ye really profess that there are other gods together with GOD? Say, I do not profess this. Say, Verily he is one GOD; and I am guiltless of what ye associate with him. They unto whom we have given the scripture know our apostle, even as they know their own children;x but they who destroy their own souls will not believe. Who is more unjust than he who inventeth a lie against GOD,y or chargeth his signs with imposture? Surely, the unjust shall not prosper. And on the day of resurrection we will assemble them all; then will we say unto those who associated others with God, Where are your companions,z whom ye imagined to be those of God? But they shall have no other excuse, than that they shall say, by GOD our LORD, we have not been idolaters. Behold, how they lie against themselves, and what they have blasphemously imagined to be the companion of God flieth from them.a There is of them who hearkeneth unto thee when thou readest the Korân;b but we have cast veils over their hearts, that they should not understand it, and a deafness in their ears: and though they should see all kinds of signs, they will not believe therein; and their infidelity will arrive to that height that they will even come unto thee, to dispute with thee. The unbelievers will say, This is nothing but silly fables of ancient times. And they will

bear the sight of him when he appeared in his proper form, much less would others be able to support it.
      t That is, the first of my nation.1
      u This passage was revealed when the Koreish told Mohammed that they had asked the Jews and Christians concerning him, who assured them they found no mention or description of him in their books of scripture, Therefore, said they, who bears witness to thee, that thou art the apostle of GOD?2
      x See chapter 2, p. 16.
      y Saying the angels are the daughters of GOD, and intercessors for us with him, &c.3
      z i.e., Your idols and false gods.
      a That is, their imaginary deities prove to be nothing, and disappear like vain phantoms and chimeras.
      b The persons here meant were Abu Sofiân, al Walîd, al Nodar, Otha, Abu Jahl, and their comrades, who went to hear Mohammed repeat some of the Korân; and Nodar being asked what he said, answered, with an oath, that he knew not, only that he moved his tongue, and told a parcel of foolish stories, as he had done to them.4

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem.

forbid others from believing therein, and will retire afar off from it; but they will destroy their own souls only, and they are not sensible thereof. If thou didst see when they shall be set over the fire of hell! and they shall say, Would to GOD we might be sent back into the world; we would not charge the signs of our LORD with imposture, and we would become true believers: nay, but that is become manifest unto them, which they formerly concealed;c and though they should be sent back into the world, they would surely return to that which was forbidden them; and they are surely liars. And they said, There is no other life than our present life; neither shall we be raised again. But if thou couldest see, when they shall be set before their LORD!d He shall say unto them, Is not this in truth come to pass? They shall answer, Yea, by our LORD. God shall say, Taste therefore the punishment due unto you, for that ye have disbelieved. They are lost who reject as a falsehood the meeting of GOD in the next life, until the houre cometh suddenly upon them. Then will they say, Alas! for that we have behaved ourselves negligently in our lifetime; and they shall carry their burdens on their backs;f will it not be evil which they shall be loaden with? This present life is no other than a play and a vain amusement; but surely the future mansion shall be better for those who fear God: will they not therefore understand? Now we know that what they speak grieveth thee: yet they do not accuse thee of falsehood; but the ungodly contradict the signs of GOD.g And apostles before thee have been accounted liars: but they patiently bore their being accounted liars, and their being vexed, until our help came unto them; for there is none who can change the words of GOD: and thou hast received some information concerning those who have been formerly sent from him.h If their aversion to thy admonitions be grievous unto thee, if thou canst seek out a den whereby thou mayest venetrate into the inward parts of the earth, or a ladder by which thou mayest ascend into heaven, that thou mayest show them a sign, do so, but thy search will be fruitless; for if GOD pleased he would bring them

      c Their hypocrisy and vile actions; nor does their promise proceed from any sincere intention of amendment, but from the anguish and misery of their condition.5
      d viz., In order for judgment.
      e The last day is here called the hour, as it is in scripture;6 and the preceding expression of meeting GOD on that day is also agreeable to the same.7
      f When an infidel comes forth from his grave, says Jallalo’ddin, his works shall be represented to him under the ugliest form that ever he beheld, having a most deformed countenance, a filthy smell, and a disagreeable voice; so that he shall cry out, GOD defend me from thee, what art thou? I never saw anything more detestable! To which the figure will answer, Why dost thou wonder at my ugliness? I am thy evil works;1 thou didst ride upon me while thou wast in the world; but now will I ride upon thee, and thou shalt carry me. and immediately it shall get upon him; and whatever he shall meet shall terrify him, and say, Hail, thou enemy of God, thou art he who was meant by (these words of the Korân), and they shall carry their burdens, &c.2
      g That is, it is not thou but GOD whom they injure by their impious gainsaying of what has been revealed to thee. It is said that Abu Jahl once told Mohammed that they did not accuse him of falsehood, because he was known to be a man of veracity, but only they did not believe the revelations which he brought them; which occasioned this passage.3
      h i.e., Thou has been acquainted with the stories of several of the preceding prophets; what persecutions they suffered from those to whom they were sent, and in what manner GOD supported them and punished their enemies, according to his unalterable promise.4

      5 Idem. 6 1 John v. 25, &c. 7 1 Thess. iv. 17. 1 See Milton’s Paradise Lost, bk. ii v. 737, &c. 2 See also cap. 3, p. 48. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem.

all to the true direction: be not therefore one of the ignorant. He will give a favorable answer unto those only who shall hearken with attention: and GOD will raise the dead; then unto him shall they return. The infidels say, Unless some sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe: answer, Verily GOD is able to send down a sign: but the greater part of them know it not.k There is no kind of beast on earth, nor fowl which flieth with its wings, but the same is a people like unto you;l we have not omitted anything in the book of our decrees: then unto their LORD shall they return.n They who accuse our signs of falsehood are deaf and dumb, walking in darkness: GOD will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and whom he pleaseth he will put in the right way. Say, What think ye? if the punishment of GOD come upon you, or the hour of the resurrection come upon you, will ye call upon any other than GOD, if ye speak truth? yea, him shall ye call upon, and he shall free you from that which ye shall ask him to deliver you from, if he pleaseth; and ye shall forget that which ye associated with him.o We have already sent messengers unto sundry nations before thee, and we afflicted them with trouble and adversity that they might humble themselves: yet when the affliction which we sent came upon them, they did not humble themselves; but their hearts became hardened, and Satan prepared for them that which they committed. And when they had forgotten that concerning which they had been admonished, we opened unto them the gates of all things;p until, while they were rejoicing for that which had been given them, we suddenly laid hold on them, and behold, they were seized with despair; and the utmost part of the people which had acted wickedly was cut off: praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures! Say, what think ye? if GOD should take away your hearing and your sight, and should seal up your hearts; what god besides GOD will restore them unto you? See how variously we show forth the signs of God's unity;q yet do they turn aside from them. Say unto them, What think ye? if the punishment of GOD come upon you suddenly, or in open view;r will any perish, except the ungodly people? We send not our messengers otherwise than bearing good tidings and denouncing threats. Whoso

      i In this passage Mohammed is reproved for his impatience in not bearing with the obstinacy of his countrymen, and for his indiscreet desire of effecting what GOD hath not decreed, namely, the conversion and salvation of all men.5
      k Being both ignorant of GOD’S almighty power, and of the consequence of what they ask, which might prove their utter destruction.
      l Being created and preserved by the same omnipotence and providence as ye are.
      m That is, in the preserved table, wherein GOD’S decrees are written, and all things which come to pass in this world, as well the most minute as the more momentous, are exactly registered.6
      n For, according to the Mohammedan belief, the irrational animals will also be restored to life at the resurrection, that they may be brought to judgment, and have vengeance taken on them for the injuries they did one another while in this world.7
      o That is, ye shall then forsake your false gods, when ye shall be effectually convinced that GOD alone is able to deliver you from eternal punishment. But others rather think that this forgetting will be the effect of the distress and terror which they will then be in.8
      p That is, we gave them all manner of plenty; that since they took no warning by their afflictions, their prosperity might become a snare to them, and they might bring down upon themselves swifter destruction.
      q Laying them before you in different views, and making use of arguments and motives drawn from various considerations.
      r That is, says al Beidâwi, either without any previous notice, or after some warning given.

      5 Idem. 6 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. 7 See ibid. p. 67. 8 Al Beidâwi.

therefore shall believe and amend, on them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved: but whoso shall accuse our signs of falsehood, a punishment shall fall on them, because they have done wickedly. Say, I say not unto you, The treasures of GOD are in my power: neither do I say, I know the secrets of God: neither do I say unto you, Verily I am an angel: I follow only that which is revealed unto me. Say, Shall the blind and the seeing be held equal? do ye not therefore consider? Preach it unto those who fear that they shall be assembled before their LORD: they shall have no patron nor intercessor, except him; that peradventure they may take heed to themselves. Drive not away those who call upon their LORD morning and evening, desiring to see his face;s it belongeth not unto thee to pass any judgment on them,t nor doth it belong unto them to pass any judgment on thee: therefore if thou drive them away, thou wilt become one of the unjust. Thus have we proved some part of them by other part, that they may say, Are these the people among us unto whom GOD hath been gracious?u Doth not GOD most truly know those who are thankful? And when they who believe in our signs shall come unto thee, say, Peace be upon you. Your LORD hath prescribed unto himself mercy; so whoever among you worketh evil through ignorance, and afterwards repenteth and amendeth; unto him will he surely be gracious and merciful. Thus have we distinctly propounded our signs, that the path of the wicked might be made known. Say, Verily I am forbidden to worship the false deities which ye invoke, besides GOD. Say, I will not follow your desires; for then should I err, neither should I be one of those who are rightly directed. Say, I behave according to the plain declaration, which I have received from my LORD; but ye have forged lies concerning him. That which ye desire should be hastened, is not in my power;x judgment belongeth only unto GOD; he will determine the truth; and he is the best discerner. Say, If what ye desire should be hastened were in my power, the matter had been determined between me and you:y but GOD well knoweth the unjust. With him are the keys of the secret things; none knoweth them besides himself: he knoweth that which is on the dry land and in the sea; there falleth no leaf, but he knoweth it; neither is there a single grain in the dark parts of the earth, neither a green thing, nor a dry thing, but it is

      s These words were occasioned when the Koreish desired Mohammed not to admit the poor or more inferior people, such as Ammâr, Soheib, Khobbâb, and Salmân, into his company, pretending that then they would come and discourse with him; but he refusing to turn away any believers, they insisted at least that he should order them to rise up and withdraw when they came, which he agreed to do. Others say that the chief men of Mecca expelled all the poor out of their city, bidding them go to Mohammed; which they did, and offered to embrace his religion; but he made some difficulty to receive them, suspecting their motive to be necessity, and not real conviction;1 whereupon this passage was revealed.
      t i.e., Rashly to decide whether their intentions be sincere or not; since thou canst not know their heart, and their faith may possibly be more firm than that of those who would persuade thee to discard them.
      u That is to say, the noble by those of mean extraction, and the rich by the poor; in that GOD chose to call the latter to the faith before the former.2
      x This passage is an answer to the audacious defiances of the infidels, who bad Mohammed, if he were a true prophet, to call for a shower of stones from heaven, or some other sudden and miraculous punishment, to destroy them.3
      y For I should ere now have destroyed you, out of zeal for GOD’S honour, had it been in my power.4

      1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Idem.

written in the perspicuous book.z It is he who causeth you to sleep by night, and knoweth what ye merit by day; he also awaketh you therein, that the prefixed term of your lives may be fulfilled; then unto him shall ye return, and he shall declare unto you that which ye have wrought. He is supreme over his servants, and sendeth the guardian angels to watch over you,a until, when death overtaketh one of you, our messengersb cause him to die: and they will not neglect our commands. Afterwards shall they return unto GOD, their true LORD: doth not judgment belong unto him? he is the most quick in taking an account.c Say, Who delivereth you from the darknessd of the land, and of the sea, when ye call upon him humbly and in private, saying, Verily if thou deliver use from these dangers, we will surely be thankful? Say, GOD delivereth you from them, and from every grief of mind; yet afterwards ye give him companions.f Say, He is able to send on you a punishment from above you,g or from under your feet,h or to engage you in dissension, and to make some of you taste the violence of others. Observe how variously we show forth our signs, that peradventure they may understand. This people hath accused the revelation which thou hast brought of falsehood, although it be the truth. Say, I am not a guardian over you: every prophecy hath its fixed time of accomplishment; and he will hereafter know it. When thou seest those who are engaged in cavilling at, or ridiculing our signs, depart from them, until they be engaged in some other discourse: and if Satan cause thee to forget this precept, do not sit with the ungodly people after recollection. They who fear God are not at all accountable for them, but their duty is to remember that they may take heed to themselves.i Abandon those who make their religion a sport and a jest; and whom the present life hath deceived: and admonish them by the Koran, that a soul becometh liable to destruction for that which it committeth: it shall have no patron nor intercessor besides GOD: and if it could pay the utmost price of redemption, it would not be accepted from it. They who are delivered over to perdition for that which they have committed shall have boiling water to drink, and shall suffer a grievous punishment, because they have disbelieved. Say, Shall we call upon that, besides GOD, which can neither profit us, nor hurt us? and shall we turn back on our heels, after that GOD hath directed us; like him whom the devils have infatuated,

      z i.e., The preserved table, or register of GOD’S decrees.
      a See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      b That is, the angel of death and his assistants.5
      c See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      d That is, the dangers and distresses.
      e The Cufic copies read it in the third person, if he deliver us, &c.
      f Returning to your old idolatry.
      g That is, by storms from heaven, as he destroyed the unbelieving people of Noah, and of Lot, and the army of Abraha, the lord of the elephant.1
      h Either by drowning you, as he did Pharaoh and his host, or causing the earth to open and swallow you up, as happened to Korah, or (as the Mohammedans name him) Karun.2
      i And therefore need not be troubled at the indecent and impious talk of the infidels, provided they take care not to be infected by them. When the preceding passage was revealed, the Moslems told their prophet that if they were obliged to rise up whenever the idolaters spoke irreverently of the Korân, they could never sit quietly in the temple, nor perform their devotions there; whereupon these words were added.3

      5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sec. IV. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

wandering amazedly in the earth, and yet having companions who call him into the true direction, saying, Come unto us? Say, the direction of GOD is the true direction; we are commanded to resign ourselves unto the LORD of all creatures; and it is also commanded us, saying, Observe the stated times of prayer, and fear him; for it is he before whom ye shall be assembled. It is he who hath created the heavens and the earth in truth; and whenever he saith unto a thing, Be, it is. His word is the truth; and his will be the kingdom on the day whereon the trumpet shall be sounded:k he knoweth whatever is secret, and whatever is public; he is the wise, the knowing. Call to mind when Abraham said unto his father Azer,l Dost thou take images for gods?m Verily I perceive that thou and thy people are in a manifest error. And thus did we show unto Abraham the kingdom of heaven and earth, that he might become one of those who firmly believe.n And when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star, and he said, This is my LORD;o but when it set, he said, I like not gods which set. And when he saw the moon rising, he said, This is my LORD; but when he saw it set, he

      k See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      l This is the name which the Mohammedans give to Abraham’s father, named in scripture Terah. However, some of their writers pretend that Azer was the son of Terah,1 and D’Herbelot says that the Arabs always distinguish them in their genealogies as different persons; but that because Abraham was the son of Terah according to Moses, it is therefore supposed (by European writers) that Terah is the same with the Azer of the Arabs.2 How true this observation may be in relation to some authors, I cannot say, but I am sure it cannot be true of all; for several Arab and Turkish writers expressly make Azer and Terah the same person.3 Azer, in ancient times, was the name of the planet Mars, and the month of March was so called by the most ancient Persians; for the word originally signifying fire (as it still does,) it was therefore given by them and the Chaldeans to that planet,4 which partaking, as was supposed, of a fiery nature, was acknowledged by the Chaldeans and Assyrians as a god or planetary deity, whom in old times they worshipped under the form of a pillar: whence Azer became a name among the nobility, who esteemed it honourable to be denominated from their gods,5 and is found in the composition of several Babylonish names. For these reasons a learned author supposes Azer to have been the heathen name of Terah, and that the other was given him on his conversion.6 Al Beidâwi confirms this conjecture, saying that Azer was the name of the idol which he worshipped. It may be observed that Abraham’s father is also called Zarah in the Talmud and Athar by Eusebius.
      m That Azer, or Terah, was an idolater is allowed on all hands; nor can it be denied, since he is expressly said in scripture to have served strange gods.7 The eastern authors unanimously agree that he was a statuary, or carver of idols; and he is represented as the first who made images of clay, pictures only having been in use before,8 and taught that they were to be adored as gods.9 However, we are told his employment was a very honourable one,10 and that he was a great lord, and in high favour with Nimrod, whose son-in-law he was,11 because he made his idols for him, and was excellent in his art. Some of the Rabbins say Terah was a priest, and chief of the order.12
      n That is, we gave him a right apprehension of the government of the world and of the heavenly bodies, that he might know them all to be ruled by GOD, by putting him on making the following reflections.
      o Since Abraham’s parents were idolaters, it seems to be a necessary consequence that himself was one also in his younger years; the scripture not obscurely intimates as much,1 and the Jews themselves acknowledge it.2 At what age he came to the knowledge of the true God and left idolatry, opinions are various. Some Jewish writers tell us he was then but three years old,3 and the Mohammedans likewise suppose him very young, and that he asked his father and mother several shrewd questions when a child.4 Others, however, allow him to have been

      1 Tarîkh Montakhab, apud D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 12. 2 D’Herbel. ibid. 3 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, Ebn Shohnah, Mirat Kainat, &c. Vide etiam Pharhang Jehang-hiri, apud Hyde de Rel. Vet. Persar. p. 68. 4 Hyde, ibid. p. 63. 5 Idem, ibid. p. 64. 6 Idem, ibid. p. 62. 7 Josh. xxiv. 2, 14. 8 Epiphan. adv. Hær. l. r, p. 7, 8. 9 Suidas in Lexico, voce …epúx. 10 Vide Hyde, ubi sup. p. 63. 11 D’Herbel. ubi sup. 12 Shalshel. hakkab. p. 94. 1 Vide Josh. xxiv. 2, 14, and Hyde, ubi sup. p. 59. 2 Joseph. Ant. l. I, c. 7. Maimon. More Nev. part iii. c. 29, et Yad Hazzak. de Id. c. I, &c. 3 Tanchuma, Talmud, Nedarim, 32, I, et apud Maimon. Yad Hazz. ubi sup. 4 Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Abraham.

said, Verily if my LORD direct me not, I shall become one of the people who go astray. And when he saw the sun rising, he said, This is my LORD, this is the greatest; but when it set, he said, O my people, verily I am clear of that which ye associate with God: I direct my face unto him who hath created the heavens and the earth; I am orthodox, and am not one of the idolaters. And his people disputed with him: and he said, Will ye dispute with me concerning GOD? since he hath now directed me, and I fear not that which ye associate with him, unless that my LORD willeth a thing; for my LORD comprehendeth all things by his knowledge:p will ye not therefore consider? And how should I fear that which ye associate with God, since ye fear not to have associated with GOD that concerning which he hath sent down unto you no authority? which therefore of the two parties is the more safe, if ye understand aright? They who believe, and clothe not their faith with injustice,q they shall enjoy security, and they are rightly directed. And this is our argument wherewith we furnished Abraham that he might make use of it against his people: we exalt unto degrees of wisdom and knowledge whom we please; for thy LORD is wise and knowing. And we gave unto them Isaac and Jacob; we directed them both: and Noah had we before directed, and of his posterityr David and Solomon; and Job,s and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron: thus do we reward the righteous: and Zacharias, and John, and Jesus, and Elias;t all of them were upright men: and Ismael, and Elisha,u and Jonas,u and Lot;y all these have we favored above the rest of the world; and also divers of their fathers, and their issue, and their brethren; and we chose them, and directed them into the right way.

a middle-aged man at that time.5 Maimonides, in particular, and R. Abraham Zacuth think him to have been forty years old, which age is also mentioned in the Korân. But the general opinion of the Mohammedans is that he was about fifteen or sixteen.6 As the religion wherein Abraham was educated was the Sabian, which consisted chiefly in the worship of the heavenly bodies,7 he is introduced examining their nature and properties, to see whether they had a right to the worship which was paid them or not; and the first which he observed was the planet Venus, or, as others will have it, Jupiter.8 This method of Abraham’s attaining to the knowledge of the supreme Creator of all things, is conformable to what Josephus writes, viz.: That he drew his notions from the changes which he had observed in the earth and the sea, and in the sun and the moon, and the rest of the celestial bodies; concluding that they were subject to the command of a superior power, to whom alone all honour and thanks are due.9 The story itself is certainly taken from the Talmud.10 Some of the commentators, however, suppose this reasoning of Abraham with himself was not the first means of his conversion, but that he used it only by way of argument to convince the idolaters among whom he then lived.
      p That is, I am not afraid of your false gods, which cannot hurt me, except GOD permitteth it, or is pleased to afflict me himself.
      q By injustice, in this place, the commentators understand idolatry, or open rebellion against GOD.
      r Some refer the relative his to Abraham, the person chiefly spoken of in this passage; some to Noah, the next antecedent, because Jonas and Lot were not (say they) of Abraham’s seed; and others suppose the persons named in this and the next verse are to be understood as the descendants of Abraham, and those in the following verse as those of Noah.11
      s The Mohammedans say he was of the race of Esau. See chapters 21 and 38.
      t See chapter 37.
      u This prophet was the successor of Elias, and, as the commentators will have it, the son of Okhtûb, though the scripture makes him the son of Shaphat.
      x See chapters 10, 21, and 37.
      y See chapter 7, &c.

      5 Maimon. ubi sup. R. Abr. Zacuth in Sefer Juchasin, Shalshel. hakkab, &c. 6 Vide Hyde, ubi sup. p. 60, 61, et Hotting. Smegma Orient. p. 290, &c. Genebr. in Chron. 7 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 11. 8 Al Beidâwi. 9 Joseph. Ant. l. I, c. 7. 10 R. Bechai, in Midrash. Vide Bartolocc. Bibl. Rabb. part i. p. 640. 11 Al Beidâwi.

This is the direction of GOD, he directeth thereby such of his servants as he pleaseth; but if they had been guilty of idolatry, that which they wrought would have become utterly fruitless unto them. Those were the persons unto whom we gave the scripture, and wisdom, and prophecy; but if thesez believe not therein, we will commit the care of them to a people who shall not disbelieve the same. Those were the persons whom GOD hath directed, therefore follow their direction. Say unto the inhabitants of Mecca, I ask of you no recompense for preaching the Koran; it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures. They make not a due estimation of GOD,a when they say, GOD hath not sent down unto man anything at all:b Say, Who sent down the book which Moses brought, a light and a direction unto men; which ye transcribe on papers, whereof ye publish some part, and great part whereof ye conceal? and ye have been taught by Mohammed what ye knew not, neither your fathers. Say, GOD sent it down: then leave them to amuse themselves with their vain discourse. This book which we have sent down is blessed; confirming that which was revealed before it; and is delivered unto thee that thou mayest preach it unto the metropolis of Mecca and to those who are round about it. And they who believe in the next life will believe therein, and they will diligently observe their times of prayer. Who is more wicked than he who forgeth a lie concerning GOD?c or saith This was revealed unto me; when nothing hath been revealed unto him?d and who saith, I will produce a revelation like unto that which GOD hath sent down?e If thou didst see when the ungodly are in the pangs of death, and the angelsf reach out their hands saying, Cast forth your souls; this day shall ye receive an ignominious punishment for that which ye have falsely spoken concerning GOD; and because ye have proudly rejected his signs. And now are ye come unto us alone,g as we created you at first,h and ye have

      z That is, the Koreish.1
      a That is, they know him not truly, nor have just notions of his goodness and mercy towards man. The persons here meant, according to some commentators, are the Jews, and according to others, the idolaters.2
      This verse and the two next, as Jallalo’ddin thinks, were revealed at Medina.
      b By these words the Jews (if they were the persons meant) chiefly intended to deny the Korân to be of divine revelation, though they might in strictness insist that GOD never revealed, or sent down, as the Korân expresses it, any real composition or material writing from heaven in the manner that Mohammed pretended his revelations were delivered,3 if we except only the Decalogue, GOD having left to the inspired penmen not only the labour of writing, but the liberty, in a great measure at least, of putting the truths into their own words and manner of expression.
      c Falsely pretending to have received revelations from him, as did Moselama, al Aswad al Ansi, and others.
      d As did Abda’llah Ebn Saad Ebn Abi Sarah, who for some time was the prophet’s amanuensis, and when these words were dictated to him as revealed, viz., We created man of a purer kind of clay, &c.,4 cried out, by way of admiration, Blessed be GOD the best Creator! and being ordered by Mohammed to write these words down also, as part of the inspired passage, began to think himself as great a prophet as his master.5 Whereupon he took upon himself to corrupt and alter the Korân according to his own fancy, and at length apostatizing, was one of the ten who were proscribed at the taking of Mecca,6 and narrowly escaped with life on his recantation, by the interposition of Othmân Ebn Affán, whose foster-brother he was.7
      e For some Arabs, it seems, had the vanity to imagine, and gave out, that, if they pleased, they could write a book nothing inferior to the Korân.
      f See before, p. 94, note b.
      g That is, without your wealth, your children, or your friends, which ye so much depended on in your lifetime.
      h i.e., Naked and helpless.

      1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 50, &c. 4 Kor. c. 23. 5 Al Beidâwi. 6 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 43. 7 Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 109.
       16–2

left that which we had bestowed on you, behind your backs; neither do we see with you your intercessors,i whom ye thought to have been partners with God among you: now is the relation between you cut off, and what ye imagined hath deceived you.k GOD causeth the grain and the date-stone to put forth: he bringeth forth the living from the dead, and he bringeth forth the dead from the living.l This is GOD. Why therefore are ye turned away from him? He causeth the morning to appear; and hath ordained the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for the computing of time. This is the disposition of the mighty, the wise God. It is he who hath ordained the stars for you, that ye may be directed thereby in the darkness of the land and of the sea. We have clearly shown forth our signs, unto people who understand. It is he who hath produced you from one soul; and hath provided for you a sure receptacle and a repository.m We have clearly shown forth our signs, unto people who are wise. It is he who sendeth down water from heaven, and we have thereby produced the springing buds of all things, and have thereout produced the green thing, from which we produce the grain growing in rows, and palm-trees from whose branches proceed clusters of dates hanging close together; and gardens of grapes, and olives, and pomegranates, both like and unlike to one another. Look on their fruits, when they bear fruit, and their growing to maturity. Verily herein are signs, unto people who believe. Yet they have set up the geniin as partners with GOD, although he created them: and they have falsely attributed unto him sons and daughters,o without knowledge. Praise be unto him; and far be that from him which they attribute unto him! He is the maker of heaven and earth: how should he have issue since he hath no consort? he hath created all things, and he is omniscient. This is GOD your LORD; there is no GOD but he, the creator of all things; therefore serve him: for he taketh care of all things. The sight comprehendeth him not, but he comprehendeth the sight; he is the gracious,p the wise. Now have evident demonstrations come unto you from your LORD; whoso seeth them, the advantage thereof will redound to his own soul: and whoso is wilfully blind, the consequence will be to himself. I am not a keeper over you. Thus do we variously explain our signs; that they may say, Thou hast studied diligently;q and that we may declare them unto people of understanding. Follow that which hath

Or false gods.
      k Concerning the intercession of your idols, or the disbelief of future rewards and punishments.
      l See chapter 3, p. 34.
      m Namely, in the loins of your fathers, and the wombs of your mothers.1
      n This word signifies properly the genus of rational, invisible beings, whether angels, devils, or that intermediate species usually called genii. Some of the commentators therefore, in this place, understand the angels, whom the pagan Arabs worshipped; and others the devils, either because they became their servants by adoring idols at their instigation, or else because, according to the Magian system, they looked on the devil as a sort of creator, making him the author and principle of all evil, and GOD the author of good only.2
      o See the Prelim. Discourse, p. 14 and 30.
      p Or, as the word may be translated, the incomprehensible.3
      q That is, Thou hast been instructed by the Jews and Christians in these matters, and only retailest to us what thou hast learned of them. For this the infidels objected to Mohammed, thinking it impossible for him to discourse on subjects of so high a nature, and in so clear and pertinent a manner, without being well versed in the doctrines and sacred writings of those people.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem.

been revealed unto thee from thy LORD; there is no GOD but he: retire therefore from the idolaters. If GOD had so pleased, they had not been guilty of idolatry. We have not appointed thee a keeper over them; neither art thou a guardian over them. Revile not the idols which they invoke besides GOD, lest they maliciously revile GOD, without knowledge. Thus have we prepared for every nation their works: hereafter unto GOD shall they return, and he shall declare unto them that which they have done. They have sworn by GOD, by the most solemn oath, that if a sign came unto them, they would certainly believe therein: Say, Verily signs are in the power of GOD alone; and he permitteth you not to understand, that when they come, they will not believe.r And we will turn aside their hearts and their sight from the truth, as they believed not thereins the first time; and we will leave them to wander in their error. (VIII.) And though we had sent down angels unto them, and the dead had spoken unto them, and we had gathered together before them all things in one view;t they would not have believed, unless GOD had so pleased: but the greater part of them know it not. Thus have we appointed unto every prophet an enemy; the devils of men, and of genii: who privately suggest the one to the other specious discourses to deceive; but if thy LORD pleased, they would not have done it. Therefore leave them, and that which they have falsely imagined; and let the hearts of those be inclined thereto, who believe not in the life to come; and let them please themselves therein, and let them gain that which they are gaining. Shall I seek after any other judge besides GOD to judge between us? It is he who hath sent down unto you the book of the Koran distinguishing between good and evil; and they to whom we gave the scripture know that it is sent down from thy LORD, with truth. Be not therefore one of those who doubt thereof. The words of thy LORD are perfect, in truth and justice; there is none who can change his words:u he both heareth and knoweth. But if thou obey the greater part of them who are in the earth, they will lead thee aside from the path of GOD: they follow an uncertain opinion only,x and speak nothing but lies; verily thy LORD well knoweth those who go astray from his path, and well knoweth those who are rightly directed. Eat of that whereon the name of GOD hath been commemorated,y if ye believe in his signs: and why do ye not eat of that whereon the name of GOD hath been commemorated? since he hath plainly declared unto you what he hath forbidden you; except that which ye be compelled to eat of by neces-

      r In this passage Mohammed endeavours to excuse his inability of working a miracle, as had been demanded of him; declaring that GOD did not think fit to comply with their desires; and that if he had so thought fit, yet it had been in vain, because if they were not convinced by the Korân, they would not be convinced by the greatest miracle.4
      s i.e., In the Korân.
      t For the Meccans required that Mohammed should either show them an angel descending from heaven in their sight, or raise their dead fathers, that they might discourse with them, or prevail on GOD and his angels to appear to them in a body.
      u Some interpret this of the immutability of GOD’S decree, and the certainty of his threats and promises; others, of his particular promise to preserve the Korân from any such alterations or corruptions as they imagine to have happened to the Pentateuch and the Gospel;1 and others, of the unalterable duration of the Mohammedan law, which they hold is to last till the end of the world, there being no other prophet, law, or dispensation to be expected after it.
      x Imagining that the true religion was that which their idolatrous ancestors professed.
      y See chap. 2, p. 18, and chap. 5, p. 73.

       4 Confer Luke xvi. 31. 1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 58, and Kor. c. 15.

sity; many lead others into error, because of their appetites, being void of knowledge; but thy LORD well knoweth who are the transgressors. Leave both the outside of iniquity and inside thereof:z for they who commit iniquity shall receive the reward of that which they shall have gained. Eat not therefore of that whereon the name of GOD hath not been commemorated; for this is certainly wickedness: but the devils will suggest unto their friends, they they dispute with you concerning this precept; but if ye obey them, ye are surely idolaters. Shall he who hath been dead, and whom we have restored unto life, and unto whom we have ordained a light, whereby he may walk among men, be as he whose similitude is in darkness, from whence he shall not come forth?a Thus was that which the infidels are doing prepared for them. And thus have we placed in every city chief leaders of the wicked men thereof,b that they may act deceitfully therein; but they shall act deceitfully against their own souls only; and they know it not. And when a signc cometh unto them, they say, We will by no means believe until a revelation be brought unto us, like unto that which hath been delivered unto the messengers of GOD.d GOD best knoweth whom he will appoint for his messenger.e Vileness in the sight of GOD shall fall upon those who deal wickedly, and a grievous punishment, for that they have dealt deceitfully. And whomsoever GOD shall please to direct, he will open his breast to receive the faith of Islam: but whomsoever he shall please to lead into error, he will render his breast straight and narrow, as though he were climbing up to heaven.f Thus doth GOD inflict a terrible punishment on those who believe not. This is the right way of thy LORD. Now have we plainly declared our signs unto those people who will consider. They shall have a dwelling of peace with their LORD, and he shall be their patron, because of that which they have wrought. Think on the day whereon God shall gather them all together, and shall say, O company of genii,g ye have been much concerned with mankind;h and their friends from among mankind shall say, O LORD, the one of us hath received advantage from the other,i and we are arrived at our limited termk which thou hast appointed us. God will say, Hell fire shall be your habitation, therein shall ye remain forever; unless as GOD shall please

      z That is, both open and secret sins.
      a The persons primarily intended in this passage, were Hamza, Mohammed’s uncle, and Abu Jahl; others, instead of Hamza, name Omar, or Ammâr
      b In the same manner as we have done in Mecca.
      c i.e., Any verse or passage of the Korân.
      d These were the words of the Koreish, who thought that there were persons among themselves more worthy of the honour of being GOD’S messenger than Mohammed.
      e Literally, Where he will place his commission. GOD, says al Beidâwi, bestows not the gift of prophecy on any one on account of his nobility or riches, but for their spiritual qualifications; making choice of such of his servants as he pleases, and who he knows will execute their commissions faithfully.
      f Or had undertaken the most impossible thing in the world. In like manner shall the heart of such a man be incapable of receiving the truth.
      g That is, of devils.1
      h In tempting and seducing them to sin.
      i The advantage which men received from the evil spirits, was their raising and satisfying their lusts and appetites; and that which the latter received in return, was the obedience paid them by the former, &c.2
      k viz., The day of resurrection, which we believed not in the other world.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

to mitigate your pains,l for thy LORD is wise and knowing. Thus do we set some of the unjust over others of them, because of that which they have deserved. O company of genii and men, did not messengers from among yourselves come unto you,m rehearsing my signs unto you, and forewarning you of the meeting of this your day? They shall answer, We bear witness against ourselves: the present life deceived them: and they shall bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. This hath been the method of God's dealing with his creatures, because thy LORD would not destroy the cities in their iniquity, while their inhabitants were careless.n Every one shall have degrees of recompense of that which they shall do; for thy LORD is not regardless of that which they do, and thy LORD is self-sufficient and endued with mercy. If he pleaseth he can destroy you, and cause such as he pleaseth to succeed you, in like manner as he produced you from the posterity of other people. Verily that which is threatened you, shall surely come to pass; neither shall ye cause it to fail. Say unto those of Mecca, O my people, act according to your power; verily I will act according to my duty:o and hereafter shall ye know whose will be the reward of paradise. The ungodly shall not prosper. Those of Mecca set apart unto GOD a portion of that which he hath produced of the fruits of the earth, and of cattle; and say, This belongeth unto GOD (according to their imagination), and this unto our companions.p And that which is destined for their companions cometh not unto GOD; yet that which is set apart unto GOD cometh unto their companions.q How ill do they judge! In like manner have their companions induced many of the idolaters to slay their children,r that they might bring them to perdition, and that they might render their religion obscure and confused unto them.s But if GOD had pleased, they had not done this: therefore leave them and that which they falsely imagine. They also say, These cattle and fruits of the earth are sacred;

      l The commentators tell us that this alleviation of the pains of the damned will be when they shall be taken out of the fire to drink the boiling water,3 or to suffer the extreme cold, called al Zamharîr, which is to be one part of their punishment; but others think the respite which God will grant to some before they are thrown into hell, is here intended.4 According to the exposition of Ebn Abbas, these words may be rendered, Unless him whom GOD shall please to deliver thence.5
      m It is the Mohammedan belief that apostles were sent by GOD for the conversion both of genii and of men; being generally of humane race (as Mohammed, in particular, who pretended to have a commission to preach to both kinds); according to this passage, it seems there must have been prophets of the race of genii also, though their mission be a secret to us.
      n Or considered not their danger; but GOD first sent some prophet to them to warn them of it, and to invite them to repentance.
      o That is, ye may proceed in your rebellion against GOD and your malice towards me, and be confirmed in your infidelity; but I will persevere to bear your insults with patience, and to publish those revelations which GOD has commanded me.1
      p i.e., Our idols. In which sense this word is to be taken through the whole passage.
      q As to this custom of the pagan Arabs, see the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 13. To what is there said we may add, that the share set apart for GOD was employed chiefly in relieving the poor and strangers; and the share of the idols, for paying their priests, and providing sacrifices for them.2
      r Either by that inhuman custom, which prevailed among those of Kendah and some other tribes, of burying their daughters alive, so soon as they were born, if they apprehended they could not maintain them;3 or else be offering them to their idols, at the instigation of those who had the custody of their temples.4
      s By corrupting with horrid superstitions that religion which Ismael had left to his posterity.5

      3 Jallalo’ddin. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 72, &c. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 3 See cap. 81. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Idem.

none shall eat thereof but who we pleaset (according to their imagination); and there are cattle whose backs are forbidden to be rode on, or laden with burdens;u and there are cattle on which they commemorate not the name of GOD when they slay them;x devising a lie against him; God shall reward them for that which they falsely devise. And they say, That which is in the bellies of these cattley is allowed to our males to eat, and is forbidden to our wives: but if it prove abortive, they they are both partakers thereof.z God shall give them the reward of their attributing these things to him: he is knowing and wise. They are utterly lost who have slain their children foolishly,a without knowledge;b and have forbidden that which GOD hath given them for food, devising a lie against GOD. They have erred, and were not rightly directed. He it is who produceth gardens of vines, both those which are supported on trails of wood, and those which are not supported,c and palm-trees, and the corn affording various food, and olives, and pomegranates, alike and unlike unto one another. Eat of their fruit, when they bear fruit, and pay the due thereof on the day whereon ye shall gather it;d but be not profuse,e for GOD loveth not those who are too profuse. And God hath given you some cattle fit for bearing of burdens, and some fit for slaughter only. Eat of what GOD hath given you for food; and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your declared enemy. Four pairf of cattle hath God given you; of sheep one pair, and of goats one pair. Say unto them, Hath God forbidden the two males, of sheep and of goats, or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females contain? Tell me with certainty, if ye speak truth. And of camels hath God given you one pair, and of oxen one pair. Say, Hath he forbidden the two males of these, or the two females; or that which the wombs of the two females contain?g Were ye present when GOD commanded you this? And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD,h that he may seduce

      t That is, those who serve our idols, and are of the male sex; for the women were not allowed to eat of them.6
      u Which they superstitiously exempted from such services, in some particular cases, as they did the Bahîra, the Sâïba, and the Hâmi.7
      x See c. 5, p. 73.
      y That is, the foetus or embryos of the Bahîra and the Sâïba, which shall be brought forth alive.
      z For if those cattle cast their young, the women might eat thereof as well as the men.
      a See above, note r.
      b Not having a due sense of GOD’S providence.
      c Or, as some choose to interpret the words, Trees or plants which are planted by the labour of man, and those which grow naturally in the deserts and on mountains.
      d That is, give alms thereof to the poor. And these alms, as al Beidâwi observes, were what they used to give before the Zacât, or legal alms, was instituted, which was done after Mohammed had retired from Mecca, where this verse was revealed. Yet some are of another opinion, and for this very reason will have the verse to have been revealed at Medina.
      e i.e., Give not so much thereof in alms as to leave your own families in want, for charity begins at home.
      f Or, literally, eight males and females paired together; that is, four of each sex, and two of every distinct kind.
      g In this passage Mohammed endeavours to convince the Arabs of their superstitious folly in making it unlawful, one while, to eat the males of these four kinds of cattle; another while, the females; and at another time, their young.1
      h The person particularly intended here, some say, was Amru Ebn Lohai, king of Hejâz, a great introducer of idolatry and superstition among the Arabs.2

      6 Idem. 7 See cap. 5, p. 86, and Prelim. Disc. Sect. V. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. See Prelim. Disc. p. 15, and Pocock Spec. p. 80.

men without understanding? Verily GOD directed not unjust people. Say, I find not in that which hath been revealed unto me anything forbidden unto the eater, that he eat it not, except it be that which dieth of itself, or blood poured forth,i or swine's flesh: for this is an abomination: or that which is profane, having been slain in the name of some other than of GOD. But whoso shall be compelled by necessity to eat of these things, not lusting, nor wilfully transgressing, verily thy LORD will be gracious unto him and merciful. Unto the Jews did we forbid every beast having an undivided hoof; and of bullocks and sheep, we forbade them the fat of both; except that which should be on their backs, or their inwards,k or which should be intermixed with the bone.l This have we rewarded them with, because of their iniquity; and we are surely speakers of truth. If they accuse thee of imposture, say, Your LORD is endued with extensive mercy; but his severity shall not be averted from wicked people. The idolaters will say, If GOD had pleased, we had not been guilty of idolatry, neither our fathers; and pretend that we have not forbidden them anything. Thus did they who were before them accuse the prophets of imposture, until they tasted our severe punishment. Say, Is there with you any certain knowledge of what ye allege, that ye may produce it unto us? Ye follow only a false imagination; and ye utter only lies. Say, therefore, Unto GOD belongeth the most evident demonstration; for if he had pleased, he had directed you all. Say, Produce your witnesses, who can bear testimony that GOD hath forbidden this. But if they bear testimony of this, do not thou bear testimony with them, nor do thou follow the desires of those who accuse our signs of falsehood, and who believe not in the life to come, and equalize idols with their LORD. Say, Come;m I will rehearse that which your LORD hath forbidden you; that is to say, that ye be not guilty of idolatry, and that ye show kindness to your parents, and that ye murder not your children for fear lest ye be reduced to poverty; we will provide for you and them; and draw not near unto heinous crimes,n neither openly nor in secret; and slay not the soul which God hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause.o This hath he enjoined you that ye may understand. And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, otherwise than for the improving thereof, until he attain his age of strength: and use a full measure, and a just balance. We will not impose a task on any soul beyond its ability. And when ye pronounce judgment observe justice, although it be for or against one who is near of kin, and fulfil the covenant of GOD. This hath God commanded you, that ye may be admonished; and that ye may know that this is my right way: therefore follow it, and follow not the path of others, lest ye be scattered from the path of God. This hath he com-

      i That is, fluid blood; in opposition to what the Arabs suppose to be also blood, but not fluid, as the liver and the spleen.3
      k See Levit. vii. 23, and iii. 16.
      l viz., The fat of the rumps or tails of sheep, which are very large in the east, a small one weighing ten or twelve pounds, and some no less than threescore.
      m This and the two following verses Jallalo’ddin supposes to have been revealed at Medina.
      n The original word signifies peculiarly fornication and avarice.
      o As for murder, apostacy, or adultery.4

       3 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 4 Al Beidâwi.

manded you that ye may take heed. We gave also unto Moses the book of the law; a perfect rule unto him who should do right, and a determination concerning all things needful, and a direction, and mercy; that the children of Israel might believe the meeting of their LORD. And this book which we have now sent down is blessed; therefore follow it, and fear God that ye may obtain mercy: lest ye should say, The scriptures were only sent down unto two peoplep before us; and we neglected to peruse them with attention:q or lest ye should say, If a book of divine revelations had been sent down unto us, we would surely have been better directed than they.r And now hath a manifest declaration come unto you from your LORD, and a direction and mercy: and who is more unjust than he who deviseth lies against the signs of GOD, and turneth aside from them? We will reward those who turn aside from our signs with a grievous punishment, because they have turned aside. Do they wait for any other than that the angels should come unto them, to part their souls from their bodies; or that thy LORD should come to punish them; or that some of the signs of thy LORD should come to pass, showing the day of judgment to be at hand?s On the day whereon some of thy LORD'S signs shall come to pass, its faith shall not profit a soul which believed not before, or wrought not good in its faith.t Say, Wait ye for this day; we surely do wait for it. They who make a division in their religion,u and become sectaries, have thou nothing to do with them; their affair belongeth only unto GOD. Hereafter shall he declare unto them that which they have done. He who shall appear with good works, shall receive a tenfold recompense for the same; but he who shall appear with evil works, shall receive only an equal punishment for the same; and they shall not be treated unjustly. Say, Verily my LORD hath directed me into a right way, a true religion, the sect of Abraham the orthodox; and he was no idolater. Say, Verily my prayers, and my worship, and my life, and my death are dedicated unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures: he hath no companion. This have I been commanded: I am the first Moslem.x Say, shall I desire any other LORD besides GOD? since he is the LORD of all things; and no soul shall acquire any merits or demerits but for itself; and no burdened soul shall bear the

      p That is, the Jews and the Christians.
      q Either because we knew nothing of them, or did not understand the language wherein they were written.
      r Because of the acuteness of our wit, the clearness of our understanding, and our facility of learning sciences–as appears from our excelling in history, poetry, and oratory, notwithstanding we are illiterate people.5
      s Al Beidâwi, from a tradition of Mohammed, says that ten signs will precede the last day, viz., the smoke, the beast of the earth, an eclipse in the east, another in the west, and a third in the peninsula of Arabia, the appearance of anti-Christ, the sun’s rising in the west, the eruption of Gog and Magog, the descent of Jesus on earth, and fire which shall break forth from Aden.1
      t For faith in the next life will be of no advantage to those who have not believed in this; nor yet faith in this life without good works.
      u That is, who believe in part of it, and disbelieve other parts of it, or who form schisms therein. Mohammed is reported to have declared that the Jews were divided into seventy-one sects, and the Christians into seventy-two; and that his own followers would be split into seventy-three sects; and that all of them would be damned, except only one of each.2
      x See before, p. 90.

      5 Idem. 1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 62, &c. 2 Al Beidâwi.

burden of another.y Moreover unto your LORD shall ye return; and he shall declare unto you that concerning which ye now dispute. It is he who hath appointed you to succeed your predecessors in the earth, and hath raised some of you above others by various degrees of worldly advantages, that he might prove you by that which he hath bestowed on you. Thy LORD is swift in punishing; and he is also gracious and merciful.


_______




CHAPTER VII

ENTITLED, AL ARAF;z REVEALED AT MECCA.a

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       AL. M. S.b A book hath been sent down unto thee: and therefore let there be no doubt in thy breast concerning it; that thou mayest preach the same, and that it may be an admonition unto the faithful. Follow that which hath been sent down unto you from your LORD; and follow no guides besides him: how little will ye be warned! How many cities have we destroyed; which our vengeance overtook by night,c or while they were reposing themselves at noon-day!d And their supplication, when our punishment came upon them, was no other than that they said, Verily we have been unjust. We will surely call those to an account, unto whom a prophet hath been sent; and we will also call those to account who have been sent unto them. And we will declare their actions unto them with knowledge; for we are not absent from them. The weighing of men's actions on that day shall be just;e and they whose balances laden with their good works shall be heavy, are those who shall be happy; but they whose balances shall be light, are those who have lost their souls, because they injured our signs. And now have we placed you on the earth, and have provided you food therein: but how little are ye thankful! We created you, and afterwards formed you; and then said unto the angels, Worship Adam; and they all worshipped him, except Eblis, who was not one of those who worshipped.f God said unto him, What hindered thee from worshipping Adam, since I had commanded thee? He answered,

      y This was revealed in answer to the pressing instances of the idolaters, who offered to take the crime upon themselves, if Mohammed would conform to their worship.3
      z Al Arâf signifies the partition between paradise and hell, which is mentioned in this chapter.1
      a Some, however, except five or eight verses, begin at these words, And ask them concerning the city, &c.
      b The signification of those letters the more sober Mohammedans confess GOD alone knows. Some, however, imagine they stand for Allah, Gabriel, Mohammed, on whom be peace.
      c As it did the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, to whom Lot was sent.
      d As happened to the Midianites, to whom Shoaib preached.
      e See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 69.
      f See chapter 2, p. 5, &c.

       3 Idem. 1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 74.


I am more excellent than he: thou hast created me of fire, and hast created him of clay. God said, Get thee down therefore from paradise; for it is not fit that thou behave thyself proudly therein: get thee hence; thou shalt be one of the contemptible. He answered, Give me respite until the day of resurrection. God said, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited.g The devil said, Because thou hast depraved me, I will lay wait for men in thy strait way; then will I come upon them from before, and from behind, and from their right hands, and from their left;h and thou shalt not find the greater part of them thankful. God said unto him, Get thee hence, despised, and driven far away: verily whoever of them shall follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you all: but as for thee, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in paradise; and eat of the fruit thereof wherever ye will; but approach not this tree, lest ye become of the number of the unjust. And Satan suggested to them both, that he would discover unto them their nakedness, which was hidden from them; and he said, Your LORD hath not forbidden you this tree, for any other reason but lest ye should become angels, or lest ye become immortal. And he sware unto them, saying, Verily I am one of those who counsel you aright. And he caused them to fall through deceit.i And when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared unto them;k and they began to join together the leaves of paradise,l to cover themselves. And their LORD called to them, saying, Did I not forbid you this tree: and did I not say unto you, Verily Satan is your declared enemy? They answered, O LORD, we have dealt unjustly with our own souls; and if thou forgive us not, and be not merciful unto us, we shall surely be of those who perish. God said, Get ye down, the one of you an enemy unto the other; and ye shall have a dwelling-place upon the earth, and a provision for a season. He said, Therein shall ye live, and therein shall ye die, and from thence shall ye be taken forth at the resurrection. O children of Adam, we have sent down unto you apparel,m to conceal your naked-

      g As the time till which the devil is reprieved is not particularly expressed, the commentators suppose his request was not wholly granted; but agree that he shall die, as well as other creatures, at the second sound of the trumpet.2
      h i.e., I will attack them on every side that I shall be able. The other two ways, viz., from above and from under their feet, are omitted, say the commentators, to show that the devil’s power is limited.3
      i The Mohammedan gospel of Barnabas tells us that the sentence which GOD pronounced on the serpent for introducing the devil into paradise4 was, that he should not only be turned out of paradise, but that he should have his legs cut off by the angel Michael, with the sword of GOD; and that the devil himself, since he had rendered our first parents unclean, was condemned to eat the excrements of them and all their posterity; which two last circumstances I do not remember to have read elsewhere. The words of the manuscript are these: Y llamó [Dios] a la serpiente, y a Michael, aquel que tiene la espada de Dios, y le dixo; Aquesta sierpe es acelerada, echala la primera del parayso, y cortale las piernas, y si quisiere caminar, arrastrara la vida por tierra. Y llamó à Satanas, el qual vino riendo, y dixole; Porque tu reprobo has engañado a aquestos, y los has hecho immundos? Yo quiero que toda immundicia suya, y de todos sus hijos, en saliendo de sus cuerpos entre por tu boca, porque en verdad ellos haran penitencia, y tu quedaras harto de immundicia.
k Which they had not perceived before; being clothed, as some say, with light, or garments of paradise, which fell from them on their disobedience. Yahya imagines their nakedness was hidden by their hair.5
      l Which it is said were fig-leaves.6
      m Not only proper materials, but also ingenuity of mind and dexterity of hand to make use of them.7

      2 Al Beidâwi. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 65, and D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Eblis. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 See the notes to cap. 2, p. 5. 5 Idem. 6 Idem. 7 Idem.

ness, and fair garments; but the clothing of piety is better. This is one of the signs of God; that peradventure ye may consider. O children of Adam, let not Satan seduce you, as he expelled your parents out of paradise, by stripping them of their clothing, that he might show them their nakedness: verily he seeth you, both he and his companions, whereas ye see not them.n We have appointed the devils to be patrons of those who believe not: and when they commit a filthy action, they say, We found our fathers practising the same; and GOD hath commanded us to do it. Say, Verily GOD commandeth not filthy actions. Do ye speak concerning GOD that which ye know not? Say, My LORD hath commanded me to observe justice; therefore set your faces to pray at every place of worship, and call upon him, approving unto him the sincerity of your religion. As he produced you at first, so unto him shall ye return. A part of mankind hath he directed; and a part hath been justly led into error, because they have taken the devils for their patrons besides GOD, and imagine they are rightly directed. O children of Adam, take your decent apparel at every place of worship,o and eat and drink,p but be not guilty of excess; for he loveth not those who are guilty of excess. Say, Who hath forbidden the decent apparel of GOD, which he hath produced for his servants, and the good things which he hath provided for food? Say, these things are for those who believe, in this present life, but peculiarly on the day of resurrection.q Thus do we distinctly explain our signs unto people who understand. Say, Verily my LORD hath forbidden filthy actions, both that which is discovered thereof, and that which is concealed, and also iniquity, and unjust violence; and hath forbidden you to associate with GOD that concerning which he hath sent you down no authority, or to speak of GOD that which ye know not. Unto every nation there is a prefixed term; therefore when their term is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, neither shall they be anticipated. O children of Adam, verily apostles from among you shall come unto you, who shall expound my signs unto you: whosoever therefore shall fear God and amend, there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. But they who shall accuse our signs of falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, they shall be the companions of hell fire; they shall remain therein forever. And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning GOD, or accuseth his signs of imposture? Unto these shall be given their portion of worldly happiness, according

      n Because of the subtlety of their bodies, and their being void of all colour.8
      o This passage was revealed to reprove an immodest custom of the pagan Arabs, who used to encompass the Caaba naked, because clothes, they said, were the signs of their disobedience to GOD.1 The Sonna orders that, when a man goes to prayers, he should put on his better apparel, out of respect to the divine majesty before whom he is to appear. But as the Mohammedans think it indecent, on the one hand, to come into GOD’S presence in a slovenly manner, so they imagine, on the other, that they ought not to appear before him in habits too rich or sumptuous, and particularly in clothes adorned with gold or silver, lest they should seem proud.
      p The sons of Amer, it is said, when they performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, used to eat no more than was absolutely necessary, and that not of the more delicious sort of food neither, which abstinence they looked upon as a piece of merit, but they are here told the contrary.2
      q Because then the wicked, who also partook of the blessings of this life, will have no share in the enjoyments of the next.

       8 Jallalo’ddin. 1 idem, al Beidâwi. 2 Idem.

to what is written in the book of God's decrees, until our messengersr come unto them, and shall cause them to die; saying, Where are the idols which ye called upon, besides GOD? They shall answer, They have disappeared from us. And they shall bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. God shall say unto them at the resurrection, Enter ye with the nations which have preceded you, of genii and of men, into hell fire; so often as one nation shall enter, it shall curse its sister,s until they shall all have successively entered therein. The latter of them shall say of the former of them: O LORD, these have seduced us; therefore inflict on them a double punishment of the fire of hell. God shall answer, It shall be doubled unto all:t but ye know it not: and the former of them shall say unto the latter of them, Ye have not therefore any favor above us; taste the punishment for that which ye have gained. Verily they who shall charge our signs with falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, the gates of heaven shall not be opened unto them,u neither shall they enter into paradise, until a camel pass through the eye of a needle,x and thus will we reward the wicked doers. Their couch shall be in hell, and over them shall be coverings of fire; and thus will we reward the unjust. But they who believe, and do that which is right (we will not load any soul but according to its ability,) they shall be the companions of paradise; they shall remain therein forever. And we will remove all grudges from their minds;y rivers shall run at their feet, and they shall say, Praised be GOD, who hath directed us unto this felicity, for we should not have been rightly directed, if GOD had not directed us; now are we convinced by demonstration that the Apostles of our LORD came unto us with truth. And it shall be proclaimed unto them, This is paradise, whereof ye are made heirs, as a reward for that which ye have wrought. And the inhabitantsz of paradise shall call out to the inhabitants of hell fire, saying, Now have we found that which our LORD promised us to be true: have ye also found that which your LORD promised you to be true? They shall answer, Yea. And a criera shall proclaim between them, The curse of GOD shall be on the wicked; who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who deny the life to come. And between the blessed and the damned there shall be a veil; and men shall stand on Al Arâfb who shall know

      r viz., The angel of death and his assistants.
      s That is, the nation whose example betrayed them into their idolatry and other wickedness.
      t Unto those who set the example, because they not only transgressed themselves, but were also the occasion of the others’ transgression; and unto those who followed them, because of their own infidelity and their imitating an ill example.1
      u That is, when their souls shall, after death, ascend to heaven, they shall not be admitted, but shall be thrown down into the dungeon under the seventh earth.2
      x This expression was probably taken from our Saviour’s words in the gospel,3 though it be proverbial in the east.
      y So that, whatever differences or animosities there had been between them in their lifetime, they shall now be forgotten, and give place to sincere love and amity. This Ali is said to have hoped would prove true to himself and his inveterate enemies, Othmân, Telha, and al Zobeir.4
      z Literally, the companions.
      a This crier, some say, will be the angel Israfil.
      b Al Arâf is the name of the wall or partition which, as Mohammed taught, will separate paradise from hell.5 But as to the persons who are to be placed thereon the commentators differ, as has been elsewhere observed.6

      1 Idem. 2 Jallalo’ddin. See the Prelim. Disc. ubi sup. p. 61. 3 Matth. xix. 24 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 74. 6 See ibid.

every one of them by their marks;c and shall call unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying, Peace be upon you: yet they shall not enter therein, although they earnestly desire it.d And when they shall turn their eyes towards the companions of hell fire, they say, O LORD, place us not with the ungodly people! And those who stand on Al Arâf shall call unto certain men,e whom they shall know by their marks, and shall say, What hath your gathering of riches availed you, and that ye were puffed up with pride? Are these the men on whom ye sware that GOD would not bestow mercy?f Enter ye into paradise; there shall come no fear on you, neither shall ye be grieved.g And the inhabitants of hell fire shall call unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying, Pour upon us some water, or of those refreshments which GOD hath bestowed on you.h They shall answer, Verily GOD hath forbidden them unto the unbelievers; who made a laughing-stock and a sport of their religion, and whom the life of the world hath deceived: therefore this day will we forget them, as they did forget the meeting of this day, and for that they denied our signs to be from God. And now have we brought unto those of Mecca a book of divine revelations: we have explained it with knowledge; a direction and mercy unto people who shall believe. Do they wait for any other than the interpretation thereof?i On the day whereon the interpretation thereof shall come, they who had forgotten the same before shall say, Now are we convinced by demonstration that the messengers of our LORD came unto us with truth: shall we therefore have any intercessors, who will intercede for us? or shall we be sent back into the world, that we may do other works than what we did in our life-time? But now have they lost their souls; and that which they impiously imagined hath fled from them.k Verily, your LORD is GOD, who created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended his throne: he causeth the night to cover the day; it succeedeth the same swiftly: he also created the sun and the moon, and the stars, which are absolutely subject unto his command. Is not the whole creation, and the empire thereof, his? Blessed be GOD, the LORD of all creatures! Call upon your LORD

      c i.e., Who shall distinguish the blessed from the damned by their proper characteristics; such as the whiteness and splendour of the faces of the former, and the blackness of those of the latter.1
      d From this circumstance, it seems that their opinion is the most probable who make this intermediate partition a sort of purgatory for those who, though they deserve not to be sent to hell, yet have not merits sufficient to gain them immediate admittance into paradise, and will be tantalized here for a certain time with a bare view of the felicity of that place.
      e That is, the chiefs and ringleaders of the infidels.2
      f These were the inferior and poorer among the believers, whom they despised in their lifetimes as unworthy of God’s favour.
      g These words are directed, by an apostrophe, to the poor and despised believers above mentioned. Some commentators, however, imagine these and the next preceding words are to be understood of those who will be confined in al Arâf; and that the damned will, in return for their reproachful speech, swear that they shall never enter paradise themselves; whereupon GOD of his mercy shall order them to be admitted by these words.3
      h i.e., Of the other liquors or fruits of paradise. Compare this passage with the parable of Dives and Lazarus.
      i That is, the event of the promises and menaces therein.
      k See chapter 6, p. 90, note a.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem

humbly and in secret; for he loveth not those who transgress.l And act not corruptly in the earth, after its reformation;m and call upon him with fear and desire: for the mercy of GOD is near unto the righteous. It is he who sendeth the winds, spread abroadn before his mercy,o until they bring a cloud heavy with rain, which we drive into a dead country;p and we cause water to descend thereon, by which we cause all sorts of fruits to spring forth. Thus will we bring forth the dead from their graves;q that peradventure ye may consider. From a good country shall its fruit spring forth abundantly, by the permission of its LORD; but from the land which is bad, it shall not spring forth otherwise than scarcely. Thus do we explain the signs of divine providence unto people who are thankful. We formerly sent Noahr unto his people: and he said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no other GOD than him.s Verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day.t The chiefs of his people answered him, We surely perceive thee to be in a manifest error. He replied, O my people, there is no error in me; but I am a messenger from the LORD of all creatures. I bring unto you the messages of my LORD; and I counsel you aright: for I know from GOD, that which ye know not. Do ye wonder that an admonition hath come unto you from your LORD by a manu from among you, to warn you, that ye may take heed to yourselves, and that peradventure ye may obtain mercy? And they accused him of imposture: but we delivered him and those who were with him in

      l Behaving themselves arrogantly while they pray; or praying with an obstreperous voice, or a multitude of words and vain repetitions.1
      m i.e., After that GOD hath sent his prophets, and revealed his laws, for the reformation and amendment of mankind.
      n Or ranging over a large extent of land. Some copies, instead of noshran, which is the reading I have here followed, have boshran, which signifies good tidings; the rising of the wind in such a manner being the forerunner of rain.
      o That is, rain. For the east wind, says al Beidâwi, raises the clouds, the north wind drives them together, the south wind agitates them, so as to make the rain fall, and the west wind disperses them again.2
      p Or a dry and parched land.
      q See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      r Noah the son of Lamech, according to the Mohammedan writers, was one of the six principal prophets,3 though he had no written revelations delivered to him,4 and the first who appeared after his great-grandfather Edrîs or Enoch. They also say he was by trade a carpenter, which they infer from his building the ark, and that the year of his mission was the fiftieth, or, as others say, the fortieth of his age.5
      That Noah was a preacher of righteousness unto the wicked antediluvians is testified by scripture.6 The eastern Christians say that when God ordered Noah to build the ark, he also directed him to make an instrument of wood, such as they make use of at this day in the east, instead of bells, to call the people to church, and named in Arabic Nâkûs, and in modern Greek Semandra; on which he was to strike three times every day, not only to call together the workmen that were building the ark, but to give him an opportunity of daily admonishing his people of the impending danger of the Deluge, which would certainly destroy them if they did not repent.7
      Some Mohammedan authors pretend Noah was sent to convert Zohâk, one of the Persian kings of the first race, who refused to hearken to him; and that he afterwards preached GOD’s unity publicly.8
      s From these words, and other passages of the Korân where Noah’s preaching is mentioned, it appears that, according to Mohammed’s opinion, a principal crime of the antediluvians was idolatry.9
      t viz., Either the day of resurrection, or that whereon the Flood was to begin.
      u For, said they, if GOD had pleased, he would have sent an angel, and not a man; since we never heard of such an instance in the times of our fathers.10

      1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 59. 4 Vide Reland. de Relig. Moh. p. 34. 5 Al Zamakhshari. 6 2 Pet. ii. 5. 7 Eutych. Annal. p. 37. 8 Vide D’Herbal. Bibl. Orient. p. 675. 9 See c. 71, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 14. 10 Al Beidâwi.

the ark,x and we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood; for they were a blind people. And unto the tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hûd.z He said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no other GOD than him; will ye not fear him? The chiefs of those among his people who believed not,a answered, Verily we perceive that thou art guided by folly; and we certainly esteem thee to be one of the liars. He replied, O my people, I am not guided by folly; but I am a messenger unto you from the LORD of all creatures: I bring unto you the messages of my LORD; and I am a faithful counsellor unto you. Do ye wonder that an admonition hath come unto you from your LORD, by a man from among you, that he may warn you? Call to mind how he hath appointed you successors unto the people of Noah,b and hath added unto you in stature largely.c Remember the benefits of GOD, that ye may prosper. They said, Art thou come unto us, that we should worship GOD alone, and leave the deities which our fathers worshipped? Now bring down that judgment upon us, with which thou threatenest us, if thou speakest truth. Hud answered, Now shall there suddenly fall upon you from your LORD vengeance and indignation. Will ye dispute with me concerning the names which ye have named,d and your fathers; as to which GOD hath not revealed unto you any authority? Do ye wait therefore, and I will be one of those who wait with you. And we delivered him, and them who believed with him by our mercy; and we cut off the uttermost part of those who charged our signs with falsehood, and were not believers.e And unto the tribe of Thamûd we

      x That is, those who believed on him, and entered into that vessel with him. Though there be a tradition among the Mohammedans, said to have been received from the prophet himself, and conformable to the scripture, that eight persons, and no more, were saved in the ark, yet some of them report the number variously. One says they were but six, another ten, another twelve, another seventy-eight, and another four-score, half men and half women,1 and that one of them was the elder Jorham,2 the preserver, as some pretend, of the Arabian language.3
      y Ad was an ancient and potent tribe of Arabs,4 and zealous idolaters.5 They chiefly worshipped four deities, Sâkia, Hâfedha, Râzeka and Sâlema; the first, as they imagined, supplying them with rain, the second preserving them from all dangers abroad, the third providing food for their sustenance, and the fourth restoring them to health when afflicted with sickness,6 according to the signification of the several names.
      z Generally supposed to be the same person with Heber;7 but others say he was the son of Abda’llah, the son of Ribâh, the son of Kholûd, the son of Ad, the son of Aws or Uz, the son of Aram, the son of Sem.8
      a These words were added because some of the principal men among them believed on Hûd, one of whom was Morthed Ebn Saad.9
      b Dwelling in the habitations of the antediluvians, who preceded them not many centuries, or having the chief sway in the earth after them. For the kingdom of Shedâd, the son of Ad, is said to have extended from the sands of Alaj to the trees of Omân.10
      c See the Prelim. Disc. p. 5.
      d That is, concerning the idols and imaginary objects of your worship, to which ye wickedly gave the names, attributes, and honour due to the only true GOD.
      e The dreadful destruction of the Adites we have mentioned in another place,1 and shall only add here some further circumstances of that calamity, and which differ a little from what is there said; for the Arab writers acknowledge many inconsistencies in the histories of these ancient tribes.2
      The tribe of Ad having been for their incredulity previously chastised with a three years’ drought, sent Kail Ebn Ithar and Morthed Ebn Saad, with seventy other principal men, to the temple of Mecca to obtain rain. Mecca was then in the hands of the tribe of Amalek

      1 Al Zamakhshari, Jallalo’ddin, Ebn Shohnah. 2 Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect I. p. 6. 3 Vide Pocock. Orat. Præfix. Carm. Tograi. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 5. 5 Abulfeda. 6 Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Houd. 7 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 5. 1 Al Beidâwi. 9 Idem. 10 Idem. 1 Prelim. Disc. p. 5. 2 Al Beidâwi. Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl Orient. Art. Houd.

sent
f their brother Sâleh.g He said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no GOD besides him. Now hath a manifest proof come unto you from your LORD. This she-camel of GOD is a sign unto you:h therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in GOD's earth; and do her no hurt, lest a painful punishment seize you. And call to mind how he hath appointed you successors unto the tribe of Ad, and hath given you a habitation on earth; ye build yourselves castles on the plains thereof, and cut out the mountains into houses.i Remember therefore the benefits of GOD, and commit not violence in the earth, acting corruptly. The chiefs among his people who were puffed up with pride, said unto those who were esteemed weak, namely unto those who believed among them, Do ye know that Sâleh hath been sent from his LORD? They answered, We do surely believe in that wherewith he hath been sent. Those who were elated with pride replied, Verily we believe not in that wherein ye believe. And they cut off the feet of the camel,k and inso-

whose prince was Moâwiyah Ebn Becr; and he, being without the city when the ambassadors arrived, entertained them there for a month in so hospitable a manner that they had forgotten the business they came about had not the king reminded them of it, not as from himself, lest they should think he wanted to be rid of them, but by some verses which he put into the mouth of a singing woman. At which, being roused from their lethargy, Morthed told them the only way they had to obtain what they wanted would be to repent and obey their prophet; but this displeasing the rest, they desired Moâwiyah to imprison him, lest he should go with them; which being done, Kail with the rest entering Mecca, begged of GOD that he would send rain to the people of Ad. Whereupon three clouds appeared, a white one, a red one, and a black one; and a voice from heaven ordered Kail to choose which he would. Kail failed not to make choice of the last, thinking it to be laden with the most rain; but when this cloud came over them, it proved to be fraught with the divine vengeance, and a tempest broke forth from it which destroyed them all.3
      f Thamûd was another tribe of the ancient Arabs who fell into idolatry. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 5.
      g Al Beidâwi deduces his genealogy thus: Sâleh, the son of Obeid, the son of Asaf, the son of Masekh, the son of Obeid, the son of Hâdher, the son of Thamûd.4
      h The Thamûdites, insisting on a miracle, proposed to Sâleh that he should go with them to their festival, and that they should call on their gods, and he on his, promising to follow that deity which should answer. But after they had called on their idols a long time to no purpose, Jonda Ebn Amru, their prince, pointed to a rock standing by itself, and bade Sâleh cause a she-camel big with young to come forth from it, solemnly engaging that, if he did, he would believe, and his people promised the same. Whereupon Sâleh asked it of GOD, and presently the rock, after several throes as if in labour, was delivered of a she-camel answering the description of Jonda, which immediately brought forth a young one, ready weaned, and, as some say, as big as herself. Jonda, seeing this miracle, believed on the prophet, and some few with him; but the greater part of the Thamûdites remained, notwithstanding, incredulous. Of this camel the commentators tell several very absurd stories: as that, when she went to drink, she never raised her head from the well or river till she had drunk up all the water in it, and then she offered herself to be milked, the people drawing from her as much milk as they pleased; and some say that she went about the town crying aloud, If any wants milk let him come forth.5
i The tribe of Thamûd dwelt first in the country of the Adites, but their numbers increasing, they removed to the territory of Hejr for the sake of the mountains, where they cut themselves habitations in the rocks, to be seen at this day.
      k This extraordinary camel frighting the other cattle from their pasture, a certain rich woman named Oneiza Omm Ganem, having four daughters, dressed them out and offered one Kedâr his choice of them if he would kill the camel. Whereupon he chose one, and with the assistance of eight other men, hamstrung and killed the dam, and pursuing the young one, which fled to the mountain, killed that also and divided his flesh among them.1 Others tell the story somewhat differently, adding Sadaka Bint al Mokhtâr as a joint conspiratress with Oneiza, and pretending that the young one was not killed; for they say that having fled to a certain mountain named Kâra, he there cried three times, and Sâleh bade them catch him if they could, for then there might be hopes of their avoiding the divine vengeance; but this they were not able to do, the rock opening after he had cried, and receiving him within it.2

      3 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 5. 4 Abulfeda, al Zamakhshari. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Sâleh. 5 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 6. 1 Abulfeda. 2 Al Beidâwi. Vide D’Herbel. ubi supra.

lently transgressed the command of their LORD,l and said, O Sâleh, cause that to come upon us which thou hast threatened us, if thou art one of those who have been sent by God. Whereupon a terrible noise from heavenm assailed them; and in the morning they were found in their dwellings prostrate on their breasts and dead.n And Sâleh departed from them, and said,o O my people, now have I delivered unto you the message of my LORD and I advised you well, but ye love not those who advise you well. And remember Lot,p when he said unto his people, Do ye commit a wickedness, wherein no creature hath set you an example? Do ye approach lustfully unto men, leaving the women? Certainly ye are people who transgress all modesty. But the answer of his people was no other than that they said the one to the other, Expel themq your city; for they are men who preserve themselves pure from the crimes which ye commit. Therefore we delivered him and his family, except his wife; she was one of those who stayed behind:r and we rained a shower of stones upon them.s Behold therefore what was the end of the wicked. And unto Madiant we sent their brother Shoaib.u He said unto them, O my people, worship GOD; ye

      l Defying the vengeance with which they were threatened; because they trusted in their strong dwellings hewn in the rocks, saying that the tribe of Ad perished only because their houses were not built with sufficient strength.3
      m Like violent and repeated claps of thunder, which some say was no other than the voice of the angel Gabriel,4 and which rent their hearts.5 It is said that after they had killed the camel, Sâleh told them that on the morrow their faces should become yellow, the next day red, and the third day black, and that on the fourth GOD’S vengeance should light on them; and that the first three signs happening accordingly, they sought to put him to death, but GOD delivered him by sending him into Palestine.6
      n Mohammed, in the expedition of Tabûc, which he undertook against the Greeks in the ninth year of the Hejra, passing by Hejr, where this ancient tribe had dwelt, forbade his army, though much distressed with heat and thirst, to draw any water there, but ordered them if they had drunk of that water to bring it up again, or if they had kneaded any meal with it, to give it to their camels;7 and wrapping up his face in his garment, he set spurs to his mule, crying out, Enter not the houses of those wicked men, but rather weep, lest that happen unto you which befell them; and having so said, he continued galloping full speed with his face muffled up, till he had passed the valley.8
      o Whether this speech was made by Sâleh to them at parting, as seems most probable, or after the judgment had fallen on them, the commentators are not agreed.
      p The commentators say, conformably to the scripture, that Lot was the son of Haran, the son of Azer or Terah, and consequently Abraham’s nephew, who brought him with him from Chaldea into Palestine, where they say he was sent by GOD to reclaim the inhabitants of Sodom and the other neighbouring cities which were overthrown with it, from the unnatural vice to which they were addicted.9 And this Mohammedan tradition seems to be countenanced by the words of the apostle, that this righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearinng vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful deeds;10 whence it is probable that he omitted no opportunity of endeavouring their reformation. The story of Lot is told with further circumstances in the eleventh chapter.
      q viz., Lot, and those who believe on him.
      r See chap. II.
      s See ibid.
      t Or Midian, was a city of Hejâz, and the habitation of a tribe or the same name, the descendants of Midian, the son of Abraham by Keturah,1 who afterwards coalesced with the Ismaelites, as it seems; Moses naming the same merchants who sold Joseph to Potiphar, in one place Ismaelites,2 and in another Midianites.3
      This city was situated on the Red Sea, south-east of Mount Sinai, and is doubtless the same with the Modiana of Ptolemy; what was remaining of it in Mohammed’s time was soon after demolished in the succeeding wars,4 and it remains desolate to this day. The people of the country pretend to show the well whence Moses watered Jethro’s flocks.5
      u Some Mohammedan writers make him the son of Mikaïl, the son of Yashjar, the son of

      3 Al Kessai. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 6. 5 Abulfeda, al Beidâwi. 6 Al Beidâwi. 7 Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 124. 8 Al Bokhari. 9 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Loth. 10 2 Pet. ii. 8. 1 Gen. xxv. 2. 2 Gen. xxxix. I. 3 Gen. xxxvii. 36. 4 Vide Golii not. in Alfrag. p. 143. 5 Abulfed Desc. Arab. p. 42. Geogr. Nub. p. 10

have no GOD besides him. Now hath an evident demonstrationx come unto you from your LORD. Therefore give full measure and just weight, and diminish not unto men aught of their matters:y neither act corruptly in the earth, after its reformation.z This will be better for you, if ye believe. And beset not every way, threatening the passenger;a and turning aside from the path of GOD him who believeth in him, and seeking to make it crooked. And remember, when ye were few, and God multiplied you: and behold, what hath been the end of those who acted corruptly. And if part of you believe in that wherewith I am sent, and part believe not, wait patiently until GOD judge between us; for he is the best judge. (IX.) The chiefs of his people, who were elated with pride, answered, We will surely cast thee, O Shoaib, and those who believe with thee, out of our city: or else thou shalt certainly return unto our religion. He said, What, though we be averse thereto? We shall surely imagine a lie against GOD, if we return unto your religion, after that GOD hath delivered us from the same: and we have no reason to return unto it, unless GOD our LORD shall please to abandon us. Our LORD comprehendeth every thing by his knowledge. In GOD do we put our trust. O LORD do thou judge between us and our nation with truth; for thou art the best judge. And the chiefs of his people who believed not said, If ye follow Shoaib, ye shall surely perish. Therefore a storm from heavenb assailed them, and in the morning they were found in their dwellings dead and prostrate. They who accused Shoaib of imposture became as though they had never dwelt therein; they who accused Shoaib of imposture perished themselves. And he departed from them, and said, O my people, now have I performed unto you the messages of my LORD; and I advised you aright: but why should I be grieved for an unbelieving people. We have never sent any prophet unto a city, but we afflicted the inhabitants thereof with calamity and adversity, that they might humble themselves. Then we gave them in exchange good in lieu of evil, until they abounded, and said, Adversity and prosperity formerly happened unto our fathers, as unto us. Therefore we took

Madian;6 and they generally suppose him to be the same person with the father-in-law of Moses, who is named in scripture Reuel or Raguel, and Jethro.7 But Ahmed Ebn Abd’alhalim charges those who entertain this opinion with ignorance. Al Kessâi says that his father’s name was Sanûn, and that he was first called Boyûn, and afterwards Shoaib: and adds that he was a comely person, but spare and lean, very thoughtful and of few words. Doctor Prideaux writes this name, after the French translation, Chaib.8
      x This demonstration the commentators suppose to have been a power of working miracles, though the Korân mentions none in particular. However, they say (after the Jews) that he gave his son-in-law that wonder-working rod,9 with which he performed all those miracles in Egypt and the desert, and also excellent advice and instructions,10 whence he had the surname of Khatîb al anbiyâ, or the preacher to the prophets.11
      y For one of the great crimes which the Midianites were guilty of was the using of diverse measures and weights, a great and a small, buying by one and selling by another.12
      z See before, p. 110, note m.
      a Robbing on the highway, it seems, was another crying sin frequent among these people. But some of the commentators interpret this passage figuratively, of their besetting the way of truth, and threatening those who gave ear to the remonstrances of Shoaib.13
      b Like that which destroyed the Thamûdites. Some suppose it to have been an earthquake, for the original word signifies either or both; and both these dreadful calamities may well be supposed to have jointly executed the divine vengeance.

      6 Al Beidâwi, Tarikh Montakhab. 7 Exod. ii. 18; iii. I. 8 Life of Mah. p. 24. 9 Al Beidâwi. Vide Shalshel hakkab. p. 12. 10 Exod. xviii. 13, &c. 11 Vide D’Herbelot. Bibl. Orient. Art. Schoaib. 12 Vide ibid. al Beidâwi. See Deut. xxv. 13, 14. 13 Idem.

vengeance on them suddenly, and they perceived it not beforehand. But if the inhabitants of those cities had believed and feared God, we would surely have opened to them blessings both from heaven and earth. But they charged our apostles with falsehood, wherefore we took vengeance on them, for that which they had been guilty of. Were the inhabitants therefore of those cities secure that our punishment should not fall on them by night, while they slept? Or were the inhabitants of those cities secure that our punishment should not fall on them by day, while they sported? Were they therefore secure from the stratagem of GOD?c But none will think himself secure from the stratagem of GOD, except the people who perish. And hath it not manifestly appeared unto those who have inherited the earth after the former inhabitants thereof, that if we please, we can afflict them for their sins? But we will seal up their hearts; and they shall not hearken. We will relate unto thee some stories of these cities. Their apostles had come unto them with evident miracles, but they were not disposed to believe in that which they had before gainsaid. Thus will GOD seal up the hearts of the unbelievers. And we found not in the greater part of them any observance of their covenant; but we found the greater part of them wicked doers. Then we sent after the above named apostles, Moses with our signs unto Pharaohd and his princes; who treated them unjustly:e but behold what was the end of the corrupt doers. And Moses said, O Pharaoh, verily I am an apostle sent from the LORD of all creatures. It is just that I should not speak of GOD other than the truth. Now am I come unto you with an evident sign from your LORD: send therefore the children of Israel away with me. Pharaoh answered, If thou comest with a sign, produce it, if thou speakest truth. Wherefore he cast down his rod; and behold, it became a visible serpent.f And he drew forth his

      c Hereby is figuratively expressed the manner of GOD’S dealing with proud and ungrateful men, by suffering them to fill up the measure of their iniquity, without vouchsafing to bring them to a sense of their condition by chastisements and afflictions till they find themselves utterly lost, when they least expect it.1
      d This was the common title or name of the kings of Egypt (signifying king in the Coptic tongue), as Ptolemy was in after times; and as Cæsar was that of the Roman emperors, and Khosrû that of the kings of Persia. But which of the kings of Egypt this Pharaoh of Moses was, is uncertain. Not to mention the opinions of the European writers, those of the east generally suppose him to have been al Walîd, who, according to some, was an Arab of the tribe of Ad, or, according to others, the son of Masáb, the son of Riyân, the son of Walîd,2 the Amalekite.3 There are historians, however, who suppose Kabûs, the brother and predecessor of al Walîd, was the prince we are speaking of; and pretend he lived six hundred and twenty years, and reigned four hundred. Which is more reasonable, at least, than the opinion of those who imagine it was his father Masáb, or grand-father Riyân.4 Abulfeda says that Masáb being one hundred and seventy years old, and having no child, while he kept the herds saw a cow calve, and heard her say, at the same time, O Masáb, be not grieved, for thou shalt have a wicked son, who will be at length cast into hell. And he accordingly had this Walîd, who afterwards coming to be king of Egypt, proved an impious tyrant.
      e By not believing therein.
      f The Arab writers tell enormous fables of this serpent or dragon. For they say that he was hairy, and of so prodigious a size, that when he opened his mouth, his jaws were fourscore cubits asunder, and when he laid his lower jaw on the ground, his upper reached to the top of the palace; that Pharaoh seeing this monster make toward him, fled from it, and was so terribly frightened that he befouled himself; and that the whole assembly also betaking themselves to their heels, no less than twenty-five thousand of them lost their lives in the press. They add that Pharaoh upon this adjured Moses by GOD who had sent him, to take away the

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 7. 3 Abulfeda, &c. 4 Kitâb tafsir lebâb, and al Keshâf.

hand out of his bosom; and behold, it appeared white unto the spectators.g The chiefs of the people of Pharaoh said, This man is certainly an expert magician: he seeketh to dispossess you of your land; what therefore do ye direct? They answered, Put off him and his brother by fair promises for some time, and in the mean while send unto the cities persons who may assemble and bring unto thee every expert magician. So the magiciansh came unto Pharaoh; and they said, Shall we surely receive a reward, if we do overcome? He answered, Yea; and ye shall certainly be of those who approach near unto my throne. They said, O Moses, either do thou cast down thy rod first, or we will cast down ours. Moses answered, Do ye cast down your rods first. And when they had cast them down, they enchanted the eyes of the men who were present, and terrified them: and they performed a great enchantment.i And we spake by revelation unto Moses, saying, Throw down thy rod. And behold, it swallowed up the rods which they had caused falsely to appear changed into serpents.k Wherefore the truth was confirmed, and that which they had wrought vanished. And Pharaoh and his magicians were overcome there, and were rendered contemptible. And the magicians prostrated themselves, worshipping; and they said, We believe in the LORD of all creatures, the LORD of Moses and Aaron.l Pharaoh said, Have ye believed on him, before I have given you permission? Verily this is a plot which ye have contrived in the city, that ye might cast forth from thence

serpent, and promised he would believe on him, and let the Israelites go; but when Moses had done what he requested, he relapsed, and grew as hardened as before.5
      g There is a tradition that Moses was a very swarthy man; and that when he put his hand into his bosom, and drew it out again, it became extremely white and splendid, surpassing the brightness of the sun.6 Marracci7 says we do not read in scripture that Moses showed this sign before Pharaoh. It is true, the scripture does not expressly say so, but it seems to be no more than a necessary inference from that passage where GOD tells Moses that if they will not hearken to the first sign, they will believe the latter sign, and if they will not believe these two signs, then directs him to turn the water into blood.8
      h The Arabian writers name several of these magicians, besides their chief priest Simeon, viz., Sadûr and Ghadûr, Jaath and Mosfa, Warân and Zamân, each of whom came attended with their disciples, amounting in all to several thousands.9
      i They provided themselves with a great number of thick ropes and long pieces of wood, which they contrived, by some means, to move, and make them twist themselves one over the other, and so imposed on the beholders, who at a distance took them to be true serpents.1
      k The expositors add, that when this serpent had swallowed up all the rods and cords, he made directly towards the assembly, and put them into so great a terror that they fled, and a considerable number were killed in the crowd; then Moses took it up, and it became a rod in his hand as before. Whereupon the magicians declared that it could be no enchantment, because in such case their rods and cords would not have disappeared.2
      l It seems probable that all the magicians were not converted by this miracle, for some writers introduce Sadûr and Ghadûr only, acknowledging Moses’s miracle to be wrought by the power of GOD. These two, they say, were brothers, and the sons of a famous magician, then dead; but on their being sent for to court on this occasion, their mother persuaded them to go to their father’s tomb to ask his advice. Being come to the tomb, the father answered their call; and when they had acquainted him with the affair, he told them that they should inform themselves whether the rod of which they spoke became a serpent while its masters slept, or only when they were awake; for, said he, enchantments have no effect while the enchanter is asleep, and therefore if it be otherwise in this case, you may be assured that they act by a divine power. These two magicians then, arriving at the capital of Egypt, on inquiry found, to their great astonishment, that when Moses and Aaron went to rest, their rod became a serpent, and guarded them while they slept.3 And this was the first step towards their conversion.

      5 Al Beidâwi. 6 Idem. 7 In Alc. p. 284. 8 Exod. iv. 8, 9. 9 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Mousa. p. 643, &c. Al Kessâi. 1 Al Beidâwi. Vide D’Herbelot, ubi sup. and Kor. c. 20. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Vide D’Herbel. ubi. sup.

the inhabitants thereof.m But ye shall surely know that I am your master; for I will cause your hands and your feet to be cut off on the opposite sides,n then will I cause you all to be crucified.o The magicians answered, We shall certainly return unto our LORD, in the next life; for thou takest vengeance on us only because we have believed in the signs of our LORD, when they have come unto us. O LORD, pour on us patience; and cause us to die Moslems.p And the chiefs of Pharaoh's people said, Wilt thou let Moses and his people go, that they may act corruptly in the earth, and leave thee and thy gods?q Pharaoh answered, We will cause their male children to be slain, and we will suffer their females to live;r and by that means we shall prevail over them. Moses said unto his people, Ask assistance of GOD, and suffer patiently: for the earth is God's, he giveth it for an inheritance unto such of his servants as he pleaseth; and the prosperous end shall be unto those who fear him. They answered, We have been afflicted by having our male children slain, before thou camest unto us, and also since thou hast come unto us. Moses said, Peradventure it may happen that our LORD will destroy your enemy, and will cause you to succeed him in the earth, that he may see how ye will act therein. And we formerly punished the people of Pharaoh with dearth and scarcity of fruits, that they might be warned. Yet when good happened unto them, they said, This is owing unto us: but if evil befell them, they attributed the same to the ill luck of Moses, and those who were with him.s Was not their ill luck with GOD?t But most of them knew it not. And they said unto Moses, Whatever sign thou show unto us, to enchant us therewith, we will not believe on thee. Wherefore we sent upon them a floodu and locusts, and lice,x and frogs, and blood; dis-

      m i.e., This is a confederacy between you and Moses, entered into before ye left the city to go to the place of appointment, to turn out the Copts, or native Egyptians, and establish the Israelites in their stead.4
      n That is, your right hands and your left feet.
      o Some say Pharaoh was the first inventor of this ignominious and painful punishment.
      p Some think these converted magicians were executed accordingly; but others deny it, and say that the king was not able to put them to death, insisting on these words of the Korân,5 You two, and they who follow you, shall overcome.
      q Which were the stars, or other idols. But some of the commentators, from certain impious expressions of this prince, recorded in the Korân,1 whereby he sets up himself as the only god of his subjects, suppose that he was the object of their worship, and therefore instead of alihataca, thy gods, read ilahataca, thy worship.2
      r That is, we will continue to make use of the same cruel policy to keep the Israelites in subjection, as we have hitherto done. The commentators say that Pharaoh came to this resolution because he had either been admonished in a dream, or by the astrologers or diviners, that one of that nation should subvert his kingdom.3
      s Looking on him and his followers as the occasion of those calamities. The original word properly signifies to take an ominous and sinister presage of any future event, from the flight of birds, or the like.
      t By whose will and decree they were so afflicted, as a punishment for their wickedness.
      u This inundation, they say, was occasioned by unusual rains, which continued eight days together, and the overflowing of the Nile; and not only covered their lands, but came into their houses, and rose as high as their backs and necks; but the children of Israel had no rain in their quarters.4 As there is no mention of any such miraculous inundation in the Mosaic writings, some have imagined this plague to have been either a pestilence, or the small-pox, or some other epidemical distemper.5 For the word tufân, which is used in this place, and is generally rendered a deluge, may also signify any other universal destruction or mortality.
      x Some will have these insects to have been a larger sort of tick; others, the young locusts before they have wings.6

      4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Cap. 28. 1 Ibid. and c. 26, &c. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 4 Idem, Abulfed. 5 Al Beidâwi. 6 Idem.

tinct miracles: but they behaved proudly, and became a wicked people. And when the plaguey fell on them, they said, O Moses, entreat thy LORD for us, according to that which he hath covenanted with thee; verily if thou take the plague from off us, we will surely believe thee, and we will let the children of Israel go with thee. But when we had taken the plague from off them until the term which God had granted them was expired, behold they broke their promise. Wherefore we took vengeance on them, and drowned them in the Red Sea;z because they charged our signs with falsehood, and neglected them. And we caused the people who had been rendered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the earth and the western parts thereof,a which we blessed with fertility; and the gracious word of thy LORD was fulfilled on the children of Israel, for that they had endured with patience: and we destroyed the structures which Pharaoh and his people had made, and that which they had erected.b And we caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea, and they came unto a people who gave themselves up to the worship of their idols,c and they said, O Moses, make us a god, in like manner as these people have gods. Moses answered, Verily ye are an ignorant people: for the religion which these follow will be destroyed, and that which they do is vain. He said, Shall I seek for you any other god than GOD; since he hath preferred you to the rest of the world? And remember when we delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed you; they slew your male children, and let your females live: therein was a great trial from your LORD. And we appointed unto Moses a fast of thirty nights before we gave him the law,d and we completed them by adding of ten more; and the stated time of his LORD was fulfilled in forty nights. And Moses said unto his brother Aaron, Be thou my deputy among my people during my absence; and behave uprightly, and follow not the way of the corrupt doers. And when Moses came at our appointed time, and his LORD spake unto him,e he said, O LORD, show me thy glory, that I may behold thee. God answereth, Thou shalt in no wise behold me;

      y viz., Any of the calamities already mentioned, or the pestilence which GOD sent upon them afterwards.
      z See this wonderful event more particularly described in the tenth and twentieth chapters.
      a That is, the land of Syria, of which the eastern geographers reckon Palestine a part, and wherein the commentators say the children of Israel succeeded the kings of Egypt and the Amalekites.1
      b Particularly the lofty tower which Pharaoh caused to be built, that he might attack the GOD of Moses.2
      c These people some will have to be of the tribe of Amalek, whom Moses was commanded to destroy, and others of the tribe of Lakhm. Their idols, it is said, were images of oxen, which gave the first hint to the making of the golden calf.3
      d The commentators say that GOD, having promised Moses to give him the law, directed him to prepare himself for the high favour of speaking with GOD in person by a fast of thirty days; and that Moses accordingly fasted the whole month of Dhu’lkaada; but not liking the savour of his breath, he rubbed his teeth with a dentrifice, upon which the angels told him that his breath before had the odour of musk,4 but that his rubbing his teeth had taken it away. Whereupon GOD ordered him to fast ten days more, which he did; and these were the first ten days of the succeeding month Dhu’lhajja. Others, however, suppose that Moses was commanded to fast and pray thirty days only, and that during the other ten GOD discoursed with him.5
      e Without the mediation of any other, and face to face, as he speaks unto the angels.6

      1 Idem. 2 Vide Kor. c. 28 and 40. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV 5 Al Beidâwi. Jallalo’ddin. 6 Al Beidâwi. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 650.

but look towards the mountain,f and if it stand firm in its place, then thou shalt see me. But when his LORD appeared with glory in the mount,g he reduced it to dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. And when he came to himself, he said, Praise be unto thee! I turn unto thee with repentence, and I am the first of true believers.h God said unto him, O Moses, I have chosen thee above all men, by honouring thee with my commissions, and by my speaking unto thee: receive therefore that which I have brought thee, and be one of those who give thanks.i And we wrote for him on the tablesk an admonition concerning every matter, and a decision in every case,l and said, Receive this with reverence; and command thy people that they live according to the most excellent precepts thereof. I will show you the dwelling of the wicked.m I will turn aside from my signs those who behave themselves proudly in the earth, without justice: and although they see every sign, yet they shall not believe therein; and although they see the way of righteousness, yet they shall not take that way; but if they see the way of error, they shall take that way. This shall come to pass because they accuse our signs of imposture, and neglect the same. But as for them who deny the truth of our signs and the meeting of the life to come, their works shall be vain: shall they be rewarded otherwise than according to what they shall have wrought? And the people of Moses, after his departure, took a corporeal calf,n made of their ornaments,o which lowed.p Did they not see that it spake not unto them, neither directed them in the way? yet they took it for their god, and acted wickedly. But when they repented with sorrow,q and saw that they had gone astray, they said, Verily if our LORD have not mercy upon us, and forgive us not, we shall certainly become of the number of those who perish. And when Moses returned unto his people, full of wrath and indignation, he said, An evil thing is it that ye have committed after my departure; have ye hastened the command

      f This mountain the Mohammedans name al Zabir.
      g Or, as it is literally, unto the mount. For some of the expositors pretend that GOD endued the mountain with life and the sense of seeing.
      h This is not to be taken strictly. See the like expression in chapter 6, p. 90.
      i The Mohammedans have a tradition that Moses asked to see GOD on the day of Arafat, and that he received the law on the day they slay the victims at the pilgrimage of Mecca, which days are the ninth and tenth of Dhu’lhajja.
      k These tables, according to some, were seven in number, and according to others ten. Nor are the commentators agreed whether they were cut out of a kind of lote-tree in paradise called al Sedra, or whether they were chrysolites, emeralds, rubies or common stone.1 But they say that they were each ten or twelve cubits long; for they suppose that not only the ten commandments but the whole law was written thereon: and some add that the letters were cut quite through the tables, so that they might be read on both sides2–which is a fable of the Jews.
      l That is, a perfect law comprehending all necessary instructions, as well in regard to religious and moral duties, as the administration of justice.
      m viz., The desolate habitations of the Egyptians, or those of the impious tribes of Ad and Thamûd, or perhaps hell, the dwelling of the ungodly in the other world.
      n That is, as some understand it, consisting of flesh and blood; or, as others, being a mere body or mass of metal, without a soul.3
      o Such as their rings and bracelets of gold and silver.4
      p See chapter 20, and the notes to chapter 2, p. 6.
      q Father Marracci seems not to have understood the meaning of this phrase, having literally translated the Arabic words, wa lamma sokita fi eidîhim, without any manner of sense, Et cum cadere factus fuisset in manibus eorum.

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Vide D’Herbel. ubi sup. 3 Al Beidâwi. See cap. 20, and the notes to cap. 2, p. 6. 4 Vide ibid.

of your LORD?r And he threw down the tables,s and took his brother by the hair of the head, and dragged him unto him. And Aaron said unto him, Son of my mother, verily the people prevailed against me,t and it wanted little but they had slain me: make not my enemies therefore to rejoice over me, neither place me with the wicked people. Moses said, O LORD, forgive me and my brother, and receive us into thy mercy; for thou art the most merciful of those who exercise mercy. Verily as for them who took the calf for their god, indignation shall overtake them from their LORD,u and ignominy in this life: thus will we reward those who imagine falsehood. But unto them who do evil, and afterwards repent, and believe in God, verily thy LORD will thereafter be clement and merciful. And when the anger of Moses was appeased, he took the tables;x and in what was written thereon was a direction and mercy, unto those who feared their LORD. And Moses chose out of his people seventy men, to go up with him to the mountain at the time appointed by us: and when a storm of thunder and lightning had taken them away,y he said, O LORD, if thou hadst pleased, thou hadst destroyed them before, and me also; wilt thou destroy us for that which the foolish men among us have committed? This is only thy trial; thou wilt thereby lead into error whom thou pleasest, and thou wilt direct whom thou pleasest. Thou art our protector, therefore forgive us, and be merciful unto us; for thou art the best of those who forgive. And write down for us good in this world, and in the life to come; for unto thee are we directed. God answered, I will inflict my punishment on whom I please; and my mercy extendeth over all things; and I will write down good unto those who shall fear me, and give alms, and who shall believe in our signs; who shall follow the apostle, the illiterate prophet,z whom they shall find written downa with them in the law and the gospel: he will command them that which is just, and will forbid them that which is evil; and will allow them as lawful the good things which were before forbidden,b and will prohibit those which are bad;c and he will ease them of their heavy burden, and of the yokes which were upon them.d And those who believe in him, and honour him, and assist him, and follow the light, which hath been sent down with him, shall be happy. Say, O men, Verily I am the messenger of GOD unto you all:e unto him belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth; there is no GOD but he: he giveth life, and he causeth to die. Believe therefore in GOD and his apostle, the illiterate prophet, who believeth in GOD and his word; and follow him, that ye may be rightly

      r By neglecting his precepts, and bringing down his swift vengeance on you.
      s Which were all broken and taken up to heaven, except one only; and this, they say, contained the threats and judicial ordinances, and was afterwards put into the ark.1
      t Literally, rendered me weak.
      u See chapter 2, p. 6.
      x Or the fragments of that which was left.
      y See chapter 2, p. 6, and chapter 4, p. 70.
      z That is, Mohammed. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II.
      a i.e., Both foretold by name and certain description.
      b See chapter 3, p. 37.
      c As the eating of blood and swine’s flesh, and the taking of usury, &c.
      d See chapter 2, p. 31.
      e That is, to all mankind in general, and not to one particular nation, as the former prophets were sent.

       1 Al Beidâwi. Vide D’Herbel. ubi sup. p. 649.

directed. Of the people of Moses there is a partyf who direct others with truth, and act justly according to the same. And we divided them into twelve tribes, as into so many nations. And we spake by revelation unto Moses, when his people asked drink of him, and we said, Strike the rock with thy rod; and there gushed thereout twelve fountains,g and men knew their respective drinking-place. And we caused clouds to overshadow them, and manna and quailsh to descend upon them, saying, Eat of the good things which we have given you for food: and they injured not us, but they injured their own souls. And call to mind when it was said unto them, Dwell in this city,i and eat of the provisions thereof wherever ye will, and say, Forgiveness; and enter the gate worshipping: we will pardon you your sins, and will give increase unto the well-doers. But they who were ungodly among them changed the expression into another,k which had not been spoken unto them. Wherefore we went down upon them indignation from heaven, because they transgressed. And ask them concerning the city,l which was situate on the sea, when they transgressed on the Sabbath-day: when their fish came unto them on their Sabbath-day, appearing openly on the water: but on the day whereon they celebrated no Sabbath, they came not unto them. Thus did we prove them, because they were wicked-doers. And when a party of themm said unto the others, Why do ye warn a people whom GOD will destroy, or will punish with a grievous punishment? They answered, This is an excuse for us unto your LORD,n and peradventure they will beware. But when they had forgotten the admonitions which had been given them, we delivered those who forbade them to do evil; and we inflicted on those who had transgressed a severe punishment, because they had acted wickedly. And when they proudly refused to desist from what had been forbidden them, we said unto them, Be ye transformed into apes, driven away from the society of men. And remember when thy LORD declared that he would surely send against the Jews until the day of resurrection,

      f viz., Those Jews who seemed better disposed than the rest of their brethren to receive Mohammed’s law; or perhaps such of them as had actually received it. Some imagine they were a Jewish nation dwelling somewhere beyond China, which Mohammed saw the night he made his journey to heaven, and who believed on him.1
      g See chapter 2, p. 7.
      To what is said in the notes there, we may add that, according to a certain tradition, the stone on which this miracle was wrought was thrown down from paradise by Adam, and came into the possession of Shoaib, who gave it with the rod to Moses; and that, according to another, the water issued thence by three orifices on each of the four sides of the stone, making twelve in all, and that it ran in so many rivulets to the quarter of each tribe in the camp.2
      h See chapter 2, p. 7.
      i See this passage explained, ibid.
      k Professor Sike says, that being prone to leave spiritual for worldly matters, instead of Hittaton they said Hintaton, which signifies wheat,3 and comes much nearer the true word than the expression I have in the last place quoted, set down from Jallalo’ddin. Whether he took this from the same commentator or not does not certainly appear, though he mentions him just before; but if he did, his copy must differ from that which I have followed.
      l This city was Ailah or Elath, on the Red Sea; though some pretend it was Midian, and others Tiberias. The whole story is already given in the notes to chapter 2, p. 8. Some suppose the following five or eight verses to have been revealed at Medina.
      m viz., The religious persons among them, who strictly observed the Sabbath, and endeavoured to reclaim the others, till they despaired of success. But some think these words were spoken by the offenders, in answer to the admonitions of the others.
      n That we have done our duty in dissuading them from their wickedness.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Sike, in not. ad Evang. Infant. p. 71.

some nation who should afflict them with a grievous oppression:o for thy LORD is swift in punishing, and he is also ready to forgive, and merciful: and we dispersed them among the nations in the earth. Some of them are upright persons, and some of them are otherwise. And we proved them with prosperity and with adversity, that they might return from their disobedience; and a succession of their posterity hath succeeded after them, who have inherited the book of the law, who receive the temporal goods of this world,p and say, It will surely be forgiven us: and if a temporal advantage like the former be offered them, they accept it also. Is it not the covenant of the book of the law established with them, that they should not speak of GOD aught but the truth?q Yet they diligently read that which is therein. But the enjoyment of the next life will be better for those who fear God than the wicked gains of these people: (Do ye not therefore understand?) and for those who hold fast the book of the law, and are constant at prayer: for we will by no means suffer the reward of the righteous to perish. And when we shook the mountain of Sinai over them,r as though it had been a covering, and they imagined, that it was falling upon them; and we said, Receive the law which we have brought you with reverence; and remember that which is contained therein, that ye may take heed. And when thy LORD drew forth their posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam,s and took them to witness against themselves, saying, Am not I your LORD? They answered, Yea: we do bear witness. This was done lest ye should say, at the day of resurrection, Verily we were negligent as to this matter, because we were not apprised thereof: or lest ye should say, Verily our fathers were formerly guilty of idolatry, and we are their posterity who have succeeded them; wilt thou therefore destroy us for that which vain men have committed? Thus do we explain our signs, that they may return from their vanities. And relate unto the Jews the history of him unto whom we brought our signs,t and the departed from them; wherefore Satan followed him,

      o See chapter 5, p. 82, note g.
      p By accepting of bribes for wresting judgment, and for corrupting the copies of the Pentateuch, and by extorting of usury, &c.1
      q Particularly by giving out that GOD will forgive their corruption without sincere repentance and amendment.
      r See chapter 2, p. 8, note z.
      s This was done in the plain of Dahia in India, or as others imagine, in a valley near Mecca. The commentators tell us that God stroked Adam’s back, and extracted from his loins his whole posterity, which should come into the world until the resurrection, one generation after another; that these men were actually assembled all together in the shape of small ants, which were endued with understanding; and that after they had, in the presence of angels, confessed their dependence on GOD, they were again caused to return into the loins of their great ancestor.2 From this fiction it appears that the doctrine of pre-existence is not unknown to the Mohammedans; there is some little conformity between it and the modern theory of generation ex animalculis in semine marium.
      t Some suppose the person here intended to be a Jewish rabbi, or one Ommeya Ebn Abi’lsalt, who read the scriptures, and found thereby that GOD would send a prophet about that time, and was in hopes that he might be the man; but when Mohammed declared his mission, believed not on him through envy. But according to the more general opinion, it was Balaam, the son of Beor, of the Canaanitish race, well acquainted with part at least of the scripture, having even been favoured with some revelations from GOD; who being requested by his nation to curse Moses and the children of Israel, refused it at first, saying, How can I curse those who are protected by the angels? But afterwards he was prevailed on by gifts; and he had no sooner done it, than he began to put out his tongue like a dog, and it hung down upon his breast.3

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. Yahya. Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 54. 3 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, al Zamakhshari. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Balaam.

and he became one of those who were seduced. And if we had pleased, we had surely raised him thereby unto wisdom; but he inclined unto the earth, and followed his own desire.u Wherefore his likeness as the likeness of a dog, which, if thou drive him away, putteth forth his tongue, or, if thou let him alone, putteth forth his tongue also. This is the likeness of the people, who accuse our signs of falsehood. Rehearse therefore this history unto them, that they may consider. Evil is the similitude of those people who accuse our signs of falsehood, and injure their own souls. Whomsoever GOD shall direct, he will be rightly directed; and whomsoever he shall lead astray, they shall perish. Moreover we have created for hell many of the genii and of men; they have hearts by which they understand not, and they have eyes by which they see not: and they have ears by which they hear not. These are like the brute beasts; yea they go more astray: these are the negligent. GOD hath most excellent names;x therefore call on him by the same; and withdraw from those who use his name perversely:y they shall be rewarded for that which they shall have wrought. And of those whom we have created there are a people who direct others with truth, and act justly according thereto.z But those who devise lies against our signs, we will suffer them to fall gradually into ruin, by a method which they knew not:a and I will grant them to enjoy a long and prosperous life; for my stratagem is effectual. Do they not consider that there is no devil in their companion?b He is no other than a public preacher. Or do they not contemplate the kingdom of heaven and earth, and the things which GOD hath created; and consider that peradventure it may be that their end draweth nigh? And in what new declaration will they believe, after this?c He whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have no director; and he shall leave them in their impiety, wandering in confusion. They will ask thee concerning the last hour; at what time its coming is fixed? Answer, Verily the knowledge thereof is with my LORD; none shall declare the fixed time thereof, except he. The expectation thereof is grievous in heaven and on earth:d it shall come upon you no otherwise than suddenly. They will ask thee, as though thou wast well acquainted therewith. Answer, Verily the knowledge

      u Loving the wages of unrighteousness, and running greedily after error for reward.4
      x Expressing his glorious attributes. Of these the Mohammedan Arabs have no less than ninety-nine, which are reckoned up by Marracci.5
      y As did Walid Ebn al Mogheira, who hearing Mohammed give GOD the title of al Rahmân, or the merciful, laughed aloud, saying he knew none of that name, except a certain man who dwelt in Yamama;1 or as the idolatrous Meccans did, who deduced the names of their idols from those of the true GOD; deriving, for example, Allât from Allah, al Uzza from al Azîz, the mighty, and Manât from al Mannân, the bountiful.2
      z As it is said a little above that GOD hath created many to eternal misery, so here he is said to have created others to eternal happiness.3
      a By flattering them with prosperity in this life, and permitting them to sin in an uninterrupted security, till they find themselves unexpectedly ruined.4
      b viz., In Mohammed, whom they gave out to be possessed when he went up to Mount Safâ, and from thence called to the several families of each respective tribe in order, to warn them of GOD’S vengeance if they continued in their idolatry.5
      c i.e., After they have rejected the Korân. For what more evident revelation can they hereafter expect?6
      d Not only to men and genii, but to the angels also.

      4 2 Peter ii. v.; Jude II. 5 In Alc. p. 414. 1 Marrac. Vit. Moh. p. 19. 2 Al Beidâwi. Jallalo’ddin. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 14. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. 5 Idem. 6 Idem.

thereof is with GOD alone: but the greater part of men know it not. Say, I am able neither to procure advantage unto myself, nor to avert mischief from me, but as GOD pleaseth. If I knew the secrets of God, I should surely enjoy abundance of good, neither should evil befall me. Verily I am no other than a denouncer of threats, and a messenger of good tidings unto people who believe. It is he who hath created you from one person, and out of him produced his wife, that he might dwell with her: and when he had known her, she carried a light burden for a time, wherefore she walked easily therewith. But when it became more heavy,e she called upon GOD their LORD, saying, If thou give us a child rightly shaped, we will surely be thankful. Yet when he had given them a child rightly shaped, they attributed companions unto him, for that which he had given them.f But far be that from GOD, which they associated with him! Will they associate with him false gods which create nothing but are themselves created: and can neither give them assistance, nor help themselves? And if ye invite them to the true direction, they will not follow you: it will be equal unto you, whether ye invite them, or whether ye hold your peace. Verily the false deities whom ye invoke besides GOD are servants like unto you.g Call therefore upon them, and let them give you an answer, if ye speak truth. Have they feet, to walk with? Or have they hands, to lay hold with? Or have they eyes, to see with? Or have they ears, to hear with? Say, Call upon your companions, and then lay a snare for me, and defer it not; for GOD is my protector, who sent down the book of the Koran; and he protecteth the righteous. But they whom ye invoke besides him cannot assist you, neither do they help themselves; and if ye call on them to direct you, they will not hear. Thou seest them look towards thee, but they see not. Use indulgence,h and

      e That is, when the child grew bigger in her womb.
      f For the explaining of this whole passage, the commentators tell the following story:–
      They say, that when Eve was big with her first child, the devil came to her and asked her whether she knew what she carried within her, and which way she should be delivered of it, suggesting that possibly it might be a beast. She, being unable to give an answer to this question, went in a fright to Adam, and acquainted him with the matter, who, not knowing what to think of it, grew sad and pensive. Whereupon the devil appeared to her again (or, as others say, to Adam), and pretended that he by his prayers would obtain of GOD that she might be safely delivered of a son in Adam’s likeness, provided they would promise to name him Abda’lhareth, or the servant of al Hareth (which was the devil’s name among the angels), instead of Abd’allah, or the servant of GOD, as Adam had designed. This proposal was agreed to, and accordingly, when the child was born, they gave it that name, upon which it immediately died.1 And with this Adam and Eve are here taxed, as an act of idolatry. The story looks like a rabbinical fiction, and seems to have no other foundation than Cain’s being called by Moses Obed adâmah, that is, a tiller of the ground, which might be translated into Arabic by Abd’alhareth.
      But al Beidâwi, thinking it unlikely that a prophet (as Adam is, by the Mohammedans, supposed to have been) should be guilty of such an action, imagines the Korân in this place means Kosai, one of Mohammed’s ancestors, and his wife, who begged issue of GOD, and having four sons granted them, called their names Abd Menâf, Abd Shams, Abd’al Uzza, and Abd’al Dâr, after the names of the four principal idols of the Koreish. And the following words also he supposes to relate to their idolatrous posterity.
      g Being subject to the absolute command of GOD. For the chief idols of the Arabs were the sun, moon, and stars.2
      h Or, as the words may also be translated, Take the superabundant overplus–meaning that Mohammed should accept such voluntary alms from the people as they could spare. But the passage, if taken in this sense, was abrogated by the precept of legal alms, which was given at Medina.

      1 Idem, Yahya. Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 438, et Selden. de Jure Nat. Sec. Hebr. l. 5, c. 8. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 12, &c.

command that which is just, and withdraw far from the ignorant. And if an evil suggestion from Satan be suggested unto thee, to divert thee from thy duty, have recourse unto GOD: for he heareth and knoweth. Verily they who fear God, when a temptation from Satan assaileth them, remember the divine commands, and behold, they clearly see the danger of sin and the wiles of the devil. But as for the brethren of the devils, they shall continue them in error; and afterwards they shall not preserve themselves therefrom. And when thou bringest not a verse of the Koran unto them, they say, Hast thou not put it together?i Answer, I follow that only which is revealed unto me from my LORD. This book containeth evident proofs from your LORD, and is a direction and mercy unto people who believe. And when the Koran is read, attend thereto, and keep silence; that ye may obtain mercy. And meditate on thy LORD in thine own mind, with humility and fear, and without loud speaking, evening and morning; and be not one of the negligent. Moreover the angels who are with my LORD do not proudly disdain his service, but they celebrate his praise and worship him.


_______




CHAPTER VIII.


ENTITLED, THE SPOILS;k REVEALED AT MEDINA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       THEY will ask thee concerning the spoils: Answer, The division of the spoils belongeth unto GOD and the apostle.m Therefore fear GOD, and compose the matter amicably among you: and obey GOD and his apostle, if ye are true believers. Verily the true believers are those whose hearts fear when GOD is mentioned, and whose faith increaseth when his signs are rehearsed unto them, and who trust in

      i i.e., Hast thou not yet contrived what to say; or canst thou obtain no revelation from GOD
      k This chapter was occasioned by the high disputes which happened about the division of the spoils taken at the battle of Bedr,1 between the young men who had fought, and the old men who had stayed under the ensigns; the former insisting they ought to have the whole, and the latter that they deserved a share.2 To end the contention, Mohammed pretended to have received orders from heaven to divide the booty among them equally, having first taken thereout a fifth part for the purposes which will be mentioned hereafter.
      l Except seven verses, beginning at these words, And call to mind when the unbelievers plotted against thee, &c. Which some think were revealed at Mecca.
      m It is related that Saad Ebn Abi Wakkâs, one of the companions, whose brother Omair was slain in this battle, having killed Saîd Ebn al As, took his sword, and carrying it to Mohammed, desired that he might be permitted to keep it; but the prophet told him that it was not his to give away, and ordered him to lay it with the other spoils. At this repulse, and the loss of his brother, Saad was greatly disturbed; but in a very little while this chapter was revealed, and thereupon Mohammed gave him the sword, saying, You asked this sword of me when I had no power to dispose of it, but now I have received authority from GOD to distribute the spoils, you may take it.3

      1 See cap. 3, p. 33. 2 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 3 Al Beidâwi.


their LORD; who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms out of that which we have bestowed on them. These are really believers: they shall have superior degrees of felicity with their LORD, and forgiveness, and an honourable provision. As thy LORD brought thee forth from thy house,n with truth; and part of the believers were averse to thy directions:o they disputed with thee concerning the truth, after it had been made known unto them;p no otherwise than as if they had been led forth to death, and had seen it with their eyes.q And call to mind when GOD promised you one of the two parties, that it should be delivered unto you,r and ye desired that the party which was not furnished with armss should be delivered unto you: but GOD purposed to make known the truth in his words, and to cut off the uttermost part of the unbelievers;t that he might verify the truth, and destroy falsehood, although the wicked were averse thereto. When ye asked assistance of your LORD,u and he answered you, Verily I will assist

      n i.e., From Medina. The particle as having nothing in the following words to answer it, al Beidâwi supposes the connection to be that the division of the spoils belonged to the prophet, notwithstanding his followers were averse to it, as they had been averse to the expedition itself.
      o For the better understanding of this passage, it will be necessary to mention some further particulars relating to the expedition of Bedr.
      Mohammed having received private information (for which he pretended he was obliged to the angel Gabriel) of the approach of a caravan belonging to the Koreish, which was on its return from Syria with a large quantity of valuable merchandise, and was guarded by no more than thirty, or, as others say, forty men, set out with a party to intercept it. Abu Sofiân, who commanded the little convoy, having notice of Mohammed’s motions, sent to Mecca for succours; upon which Abu Jahl, and all the principal men of the city, except only
Abu Laheb, marched to his assistance, with a body of nine hundred and fifty men. Mohammed had no sooner received advice of this, than Gabriel descended with a promise that he should either take the caravan or beat the succours; whereupon he consulted with his companions which of the two he should attack. Some of them were for setting upon the caravan, saying that they were not prepared to fight such a body of troops as were coming with Abu Jahl: but this proposal Mohammed rejected, telling them that the caravan was at a considerable distance by the seaside, whereas Abu Jahl was just upon them. The others, however, insisted so obstinately on pursuing the first design of falling on the caravan, that the prophet grew angry, but by the interposition of Abu Becr, Omar, Saad Ebn Obadah, and Mokdâd Ebn Amru, they at length acquiesced in his opinion. Mokdâd in particular assured him they were all ready to obey his orders, and would not say to him, as the children of Israel did to Moses, Go thou and thy LORD to fight, for we will sit here;1 but, Go thou and thy LORD to fight, and we will fight with you. At this Mohammed smiled, and again sat down to consult with them, applying himself chiefly to the Ansârs or helpers, because they were the greater part of his forces, and he had some apprehension lest they should not think themselves obliged by the oath they had taken to him at al Akaba,2 to assist him against any other than such as should attack him in Medina. But Saad Ebn Moâdh, in the name of the rest, told him that they had received him as the apostle of GOD, and had promised him obedience, and were therefore all to a man ready to follow him where he pleased, though it were into the sea. Upon which the prophet ordered them in GOD’S name to attack the succours, assuring them of the victory.3
      p That is, concerning their success against Abu Jahl and the Koreish; notwithstanding they had GOD’S promise to encourage them.
      q The reason of this great backwardness was the smallness of their number, in comparison of the enemy, and their being unprepared; for they were all foot, having but two horses among them, whereas the Koreish had no less than a hundred horse.4
      r That is, either the caravan or the succours from Mecca. Father Marracci mistaking al îr and al nafîr, which are appellatives and signify the caravan and the troop or body of succours, for proper names, has thence coined two families of the Koreish never heard of before, which he calls Airenses and Naphirenses.5
      s viz., The caravan, which was guarded by no more than forty horse; whereas the other party was strong and well appointed.
      t As if he had said, Your view was only to gain the spoils of the caravan, and to avoid danger; but God designed to exalt his true religion by extirpating its adversaries.6
      u When Mohammed’s men saw they could not avoid fighting, they recommended themselves

      1 Kor. c. 5, p. 76. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 37. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. Vide Abulfed, Vit. Moh. p. 56. 5 Marracc. in Alc. p. 297. 6 Al Beidâwi.

you with a thousandx angels, following one another in order. And this GOD designed only as good tidingsy for you, and that your hearts might thereby rest secure: for victory is from GOD alone; and GOD is mighty and wise. When a sleep fell on you as a security from him, and he sent down upon you water from heaven, that he might thereby purify you, and take from you the abomination of Satan,z and that he might confirm your hearts, and establish your feet thereby. Also when thy LORD spake unto the angels, saying, Verily I am with you; wherefore confirm those who believe. I will cast a dread into the hearts of the unbelievers. Therefore strike off their heads, and strike off all the ends of their fingers.a This shall they suffer, because they have resisted GOD and his apostle: and whosoever shall oppose GOD and his apostle, verily GOD will be severe in punishing him. This shall be your punishment; taste it therefore: and the infidels shall also suffer the torment of hell fire. O true believers, when ye meet the unbelievers marching in great numbers against you, turn not your backs unto them: for whoso shall turn his back unto them in that day, unless he turneth aside to fight, or retreateth to another party of the faithful,b shall draw on himself the indignation of GOD, and his abode shall be in hell; an ill journey shall it be thither! And ye slew not those who were slain at Bedr yourselves, but GOD slew them.c Neither didst thou, O Mohammed cast the gravel into their eyes, when thou didst seem to cast it; but GOD cast it,d that he might prove the true believers by a gracious trial from himself, for GOD heareth and knoweth. This was done that GOD might also weaken the crafty devices of the unbelievers. If ye desire a decision of the matter between us, now hath a decision come unto you:e and if ye desist from opposing the apostle, it will be better for you. But if ye return to attack him, we will also return to his assistance; and your forces shall not be of advantage unto

to GOD’S protection; and their prophet prayed with great earnestness, crying out, O GOD, fulfil that which thou hast promised me: O GOD, if this party be cut off, thou wilt no more be worshipped on earth. And he continued to repeat these words till his cloak fell from off his back.7
      x Which were afterwards reinforced with three thousand more.8 Wherefore some copies instead of a thousand, read thousands in the plural.
      y See chap. 3, p. 45.
      z It is related, that the spot where Mohammed’s little army lay was a dry and deep sand, into which their feet sank as they walked, the enemy having the command of the water; and that having fallen asleep, the greater part of them were disturbed with dreams, wherein the devil suggested to them that they could never expect God’s assistance in the battle, since they were cut off from the water, and besides suffering the inconvenience of thirst, must be obliged to pray without washing, though they imagined themselves to be the favourites of God, and that they had his apostle among them. But in the night rain fell so plentifully that it formed a little brook, and not only supplied them with water for all their uses, but made the sand between them and the infidel army firm enough to bear them; whereupon the diabolical suggestions ceased.1
      a This is the punishment expressly assigned the enemies of the Mohammedan religion; though the Moslems did not inflict it on the prisoners they took at Bedr, for which they are reprehended in this chapter.
      b That is, if it be not downright running away, but done either with design to rally and attack the enemy again, or by way of feint or stratagem, or to succour a party which is hard pressed, &c.2
      c See c. 3, p. 32, note n.
      d See ibid.
      e These words are directed to the people of Mecca, whom Mohammed derides, because the

      7 Idem. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 58. 8 See cap. 3, p. 33 and 45. 1 Al Beidâwi. 9 Idem.

you at all, although they be numerous; for GOD is with the faithful. O true believers, obey GOD and his apostle, and turn not back from him, since ye hear the admonitions of the Korân. And be not as those who say, We hear, when they do not hear. Verily the worst sort of beasts in the sight of GOD are the deaf and the dumb, who understand not. If GOD had known any good in them, he would certainly have caused them to hear:f and if he had caused them to hear, they would surely have turned back, and have retired afar off. O true believers, answer GOD and his apostle, when he inviteth you unto that which giveth you life; and know that GOD goeth between a man and his heart,g and that before him ye shall be assembled. Beware of sedition;h it will not affect those who are ungodly among you particularly, but all of you in general; and know that GOD is severe in punishing. And remember when ye were few, and reputed weak in the land;i ye feared lest men should snatch you away: but God provided you a place of refuge, and he strengthened you with his assistance, and bestowed on you good things, that ye might give thanks. O true believers, deceive not GOD and his apostle;k neither violate your faith against your own knowledge. And know that your wealth and your children are a temptation unto you;l and that with GOD is a great reward. O true believers, if ye fear GOD, he will grant you a distinction,m and will expiate your sins from you, and will forgive you; for GOD is endued with great liberality. And call to mind when the unbelievers plotted against thee, that they might either detain thee in bonds, or put to death, or expel thee the city;n and they plotted

Koreish, when they were ready to set out from Mecca, took hold of the curtains of the Caaba, saying O GOD, grant the victory to the superior army, the party that is most rightly directed, and the most honourable.1
      f That is, to hearken to the remonstrances of the Korân. Some say that the infidels demanded of Mohammed that he should raise Kosai, one of his ancestors, to life, to bear witness to the truth of his mission, saying he was a man of honour and veracity, and they would believe his testimony: but they are here told that it would have been in vain.2
      g Not only knowing the innermost secrets of his heart, but overruling a man’s designs, and disposing him either to belief or infidelity.
      h The original word signifies any epidemical crime, which involves a number of people in its guilt; and the commentators are divided as to its particular meaning in this place.
      i viz., At Mecca. The persons here spoken to are the Mohâjerîn, or refugees who fled from thence to Medina.
      k Al Beidâwi mentions an instance of such treacherous dealing in Abu Lobâba, who was sent by Mohammed to the tribe of Koreidha, then besieged by that prophet for having broken their league with him and perfidiously gone over to the enemies at the war of the ditch,3 to persuade them to surrender at the discretion of Saad Ebn Moadh, prince of the tribe of Aws, their confederates, which proposal they had refused. But Abu Lobâba’s family and effects being in the hands of those of Koreidha, he acted directly contrary to his commission, and instead of persuading them to accept Saad as their judge, when they asked his advice about it, drew his hand across his throat, signifying that he would put them all to death. However, he had no sooner done this than he was sensible of his crime, and going into a mosque, tied himself to a pillar, and remained there seven days without meat or drink, till Mohammed forgave him.
      l As they were to Abu Lobâba.
      m i.e., A direction that you may distinguish between truth and falsehood; or success in battle to distinguish the believers from the infidels; or the like.
      n When the Meccans heard of the league entered into by Mohammed with those of Medina, being apprehensive of the consequence, they held a council, whereat they say the devil assisted in the likeness of an old man of Najd. The point under consideration being what they should do with Mohammed, Abu’lbakhtari was of opinion that he should be imprisoned, and the

      1 Idem. 2 Idem. See c. 6, p. 99. 3 See Prid. Life of Mah. p. 85. Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 76, and the notes to c. 33.

against thee: but GOD laid a plot against them;o and GOD is the best layer of plots. And when our signs are repeated unto them, they say, We have heard; if we pleased we would certainly pronounce a composition like unto this: this is nothing but fables of the ancients.p And when they said, O GOD, if this be the truth from thee, rain down stones upon us from heaven, or inflict on us some other grievous punishment.r But GOD was not disposed to punish them, while thou wast with them: nor was GOD disposed to punish them when they asked pardon.s But they have nothing to offer in excuse why GOD should not punish them, since they hindered the believers from visiting the holy temple,t although they are not the guardians thereof.u The guardians thereof are those only who fear God; but the greater part of them know it not. And their prayer at the house of God is no other than whistling and clapping of the hands.x Taste therefore the punishment, for that ye have been unbelievers. They who believe not expend their wealth to obstruct the way of GOD:y they shall expend it, but afterwards it shall become matter of sighing and regret unto them, and at length they shall be overcome; and the unbelievers shall be gathered together into hell; that GOD may distinguish the wicked from the good, and may throw the wicked one upon the other, and may gather them all in a heap, and cast them into hell. These are they who shall perish. Say unto the unbelievers, that if they desist from opposing thee, what is already past shall be forgiven them; but if they return to attack thee, the exemplary punishment of the former opposers of the prophets is already past, and the like shall be inflicted on them. Therefore fight against them until there be no opposition in favor of idolatry, and the religion be wholly GOD'S. If they desist, verily GOD seeth that which they do: but if

room walled up, except a little hole, through which he should have necessaries given him, till he died. This the devil opposed, saying that he might probably be released by some of his own party. Heshâm Ebn Amru was for banishing him, but his advice also the devil rejected, insisting that Mohammed might engage some other tribes in his interest, and make war on them. At length Abu Jahl gave his opinion for putting him to death, and proposed the manner, which was unanimously approved.1
      o Revealing their conspiracy to Mohammed, and miraculously assisting him to deceive them and make his escape;2 and afterwards drawing them to the battle of Bedr.
      p See chapter 6, p. 90.
      r This was the speech of Al Nodar Ebn al Hareth.3
      s Saying, GOD forgive us! Some of the commentators, however, suppose the persons who asked pardon were certain believers who stayed among the infidels; and others think the meaning to be, that GOD would not punish them, provided they asked pardon.
      t Obliging them to fly from Mecca, and not permitting them so much as to approach the temple, in the expedition of al Hodeibiya.4
      u Because of their idolatry and indecent deportment there. For otherwise the Koreish had a right to the guardianship of the Caaba, and it was continued in their tribe and in the same family even after the taking of Mecca.5
      x It is said that they used to go round the Caaba naked,6 both men and women, whistling at the same time through their fingers, and clapping their hands. Or, as others say, they made this noise on purpose to disturb Mohammed when at his prayers, pretending to be at prayers also themselves.7
      y The persons particularly meant in this passage were twelve of the Koreish, who gave each of them ten camels every day to be killed for provisions for their army in the expedition of Bedr; or, according to others, the owners of the effects brought by the caravan, who gave great part of them to the support of the succours from Mecca. It is also said that Abu Sofiân, in the expedition of Ohod, hired two thousand Arabs, who cost him a considerable sum, besides the auxiliaries which he had obtained gratis.8

      1 Al Beidâwi. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 39. 2 See ibid. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 41. 5 See c. 4, p. 60, note x. 6 See c. 7, p. 107. 7 Al Beidâwi. 8 Idem.

they turn back, know that GOD is your patron; he is the best patron, and the best helper. (X.) And know that whenever ye gain any spoils, a fifth part thereof belongeth unto GOD, and to the apostle, and his kindred, and the orphans, and the poor, and the traveller;z if ye believe in GOD, and that which we have sent down unto our servant on the day of distinction,a on the day whereon the two armies met: and GOD is almighty. When ye were encamped on the hithermost side of the valley,b and they were encamped on the farther side, and the caravan was below you;c and if ye had mutually appointed to come to a battle ye would certainly have declined the appointment;d but ye were brought to an engagement without any previous appointment, that GOD might accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done;e that he who perisheth hereafter may perish after demonstrative evidence, and that he who liveth may live by the same evidence; GOD both heareth and knoweth. When thy LORD caused the enemy to appear unto thee in thy sleep few in number;f and if he had caused them to appear numerous unto thee, ye would have been disheartened, and would have disputed concerning the matter:g but GOD preserved you from this; for he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men. And when he caused them to appear unto you when ye met, to be few in your eyes;h and diminished your numbers in their eyes;i that GOD might accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done; and unto GOD shall all things return. O true believers, when ye meet a party of the infidels, stand firm, and remember GOD frequently, that ye may prosper: and obey GOD and his apostle, and be not refractory, lest ye be discouraged, and your success depart from you; but persevere with patience, for GOD is with those who persevere. And be not as those who went out of their houses in an insolent manner, and to appear with ostentation unto men,k and

      z According to this law, a fifth part of the spoils is appropriated to the particular uses here mentioned, and the other four-fifths are to be equally divided among those who were present at the action: but in what manner or to whom the first fifth is to be distributed, the Mohammedan doctors differ, as we have elsewhere observed.1 Though it be the general opinion that this verse was revealed at Bedr, yet there are some who suppose it was revealed in the expedition against the Jewish tribe of Kainokâ, which happened a little above a month after.2
      a i.e., Of the battle of Bedr; which is so called because it distinguished the true believers from the infidels.
      b Which was much more inconvenient than the other, because of the deep sand and want of water.
      c By the seaside, making the best of their way to Mecca.
      d Because of the great superiority of the enemy, and the disadvantages ye lay under.
      e By granting a miraculous victory to the faithful, and overthrowing their enemies; for the conviction of the latter, and the confirmation of the former.3
      f With which vision Mohammed acquainted his companions for their encouragement.
      g Whether ye should attack the enemy or fly.
      h It is said that Ebn Masúd asked the man who was next him whether he did not see them to be about seventy, to which he replied that he took them to be a hundred.4
      i This seeming contradictory to a passage in the third chapter,5 where it is said that the Moslems appeared to the infidels to be twice their own number, the commentators reconcile the matter by telling us that, just before the battle began, the prophet’s party seemed fewer than they really were, to draw the enemy to an engagement; but that so soon as the armies were fully engaged, they appeared superior, to terrify and dismay their adversaries. It is related that Abu Jahl at first thought them so inconsiderable a handful, that he said one camel would be as much as they could all eat.6
      k These were the Meccans, who, marching to the assistance of the caravan, and being come as far as Johfa, were there met by a messenger from Abu Sofiân, to acquaint them that he

      1 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VI. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Idem. 5 Page 33 6 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya.

turned aside from the way of GOD; for GOD comprehendeth that which they do. And remember when Satan prepared their works for them,l and said, No man shall prevail against you to-day; and I will surely be near to assist you. But when the two armies appeared in sight of each other, he turned back on his heels, and said, Verily I am clear of you: I certainly see that which ye see not; I fear GOD, for GOD is severe in punishing.m When the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts there was an infirmity, said, Their religion hath deceived these men:n but whosoever confideth in GOD cannot be deceived; for GOD is mighty and wise. And if thou didst behold when the angels caused the unbelievers to die: they strike their faces and their backs,o and say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning: this shall ye suffer for that which your hands have sent before you;p and because GOD is not unjust towards his servants. These have acted according to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who disbelieved in the signs of GOD: therefore GOD took them away in their iniquity; for GOD is mighty and severe in punishing. This hath come to pass because GOD changeth not his grace, wherewith he hath favored any people, until they change that which is in their souls; and for that GOD both heareth and seeth. According to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those before them, who charged the signs of their LORD with imposture, have they acted: wherefore we destroyed them in their sins, and we drowned the people of Pharaoh; for they were all unjust persons. Verily the worst cattle in the sight of GOD are those who are obstinate infidels, and will not believe. As to those who enter into a league with thee, and afterwards violate their league at every

thought himself out of danger, and therefore they might return home; upon which, Abu Jahl, to give the greater opinion of the courage of himself and his comrades, and of their readiness to assist their friends, swore that they would not return till they had been at Bedr, and had there drunk wine and entertained those who should be present, and diverted themselves with singing women.1 The event of which bravado was very fatal, several of the principal Koreish, and Abu Jahl in particular, losing their lives in the expedition.
      l By inciting them to oppose the prophet.
      m Some understand this passage figuratively, of the private instigation of the devil, and of the defeating of his designs and the hopes with which he had inspired the idolaters. But others take the whole literally, and tell us that when the Koreish, on their march, bethought themselves of the enmity between them and the tribe of Kenâna, who were masters of the country about Bedr, that consideration would have prevailed on them to return, had not the devil appeared in the likeness of Sorâka Ebn Malec, a principal person of that tribe, and promised them that they should not be molested, and that himself would go with them. But when they came to join battle, and the devil saw the angels descending to the assistance of the Moslems, he retired; and al Hareth Ebn Heshâm, who had him then by the hand, asking him whither he was going, and if he intended to betray them at such a juncture, he answered, in the words of this passage: I am clear of you, for I see that which ye see not; meaning the celestial succours. They say further, that when the Koreish, on their return, laid the blame of their overthrow on Sorâka, he swore that he did not so much as know of their march till he heard they were routed: and afterwards, when they embraced Mohammedism, they were satisfied it was the devil.2
      n In tempting them to so great a piece of folly, as to attack so large a body of men with such a handful.
      o This passage is generally understood of the angels who slew the infidels at Bedr, and who fought (as the commentators pretend) with iron maces, which shot forth flames of fire at every stroke.3 Some, however, imagine that the words hint, at least, at the examination of the sepulchre, which the Mohammedans believe every man must undergo after death, and will be very terrible to the unbelievers.4
      p See chapter 2, p. 11, note r.

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 3 Idem. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 50, &c.

convenient opportunity,q and fear not God; if thou take them in war, disperse, by making them an example, those who shall come after them, that they may be warned; or if thou apprehend treachery from any people, throw back their league unto them with like treatment; for GOD loveth not the treacherous. And think notr that the unbelievers have escaped God's vengeance,s for they shall not weaken the power of God. Therefore prepare against them what force ye are able, and troops of horse, whereby ye may strike a terror into the enemy of GOD, and your enemy, and into other infidels besides them, whom ye know not, but GOD knoweth them. And whatsoever ye shall expend in the defence of the religion of GOD, it shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly. And if they incline unto peace, do thou also incline thereto; and put thy confidence in GOD, for it is he who heareth and knoweth. But if they seek to deceive thee, verily GOD will be thy support. It is he who hath strengthened thee with his help, and with that of the faithful; and hath united their hearts. If thou hadst expended whatever riches are in the earth, thou couldst not have united their hearts,t but GOD united them; for he is mighty and wise. O prophet, GOD is thy support, and such of the true believers who followeth thee.u O prophet stir up the faithful to war: if twenty of you persevere with constancy, they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be one hundred of you, they shall overcome a thousand of those who believe not; because they are a people which do not understand. Now hath GOD eased you, for he knew that ye were weak. If there be an hundred of you who persevere with constancy, they shall overcome two hundred; and if there be a thousand of you, they shall overcome two thousand,x by the permission of GOD; for GOD is with those who persevere. It hath not been granted unto any prophet, that he should possess captives, until he hath made a great slaughter of the infidels in the earth.y Ye seek the accidental goods of this world, but GOD regardeth the life to come; and GOD is mighty and wise. Unless a revelation had been previously delivered from GOD, verily a severe punishment had been inflicted on you, for the ransom which ye took from the captives at Bedr.z Eat therefore of what ye have acquir-

      q As did the tribe of Koreidha.1
      r Some copies read it in the third person, Let not the unbelievers think, &c.
      s viz., Those who made their escape from Bedr.
      t Because of the inveterate enmity which reigned among many of the Arab tribes; and therefore this reconciliation is reckoned by the commentators as no inconsiderable miracle, and a strong proof of their prophet’s mission.
      u This passage, as some say, was revealed in a plain called al Beidâ, between Mecca and Medina, during the expedition of Bedr; and, as others, in the sixth year of the prophet’s mission, on the occasion of Omar’s embracing Mohammedism.
      x See Levit. xxvi. 8; Josh xxiii. 10.
      y Because severity ought to be used where circumstances require it, though clemency be more preferable where it may be exercised with safety. While the Mohammedans, therefore, were weak, and their religion in its infancy, GOD’S pleasure was that the opposers of it should be cut off, as is particularly directed in this chapter. For which reason, they are here upbraided with their preferring the lucre of the ransom to their duty
      z That is, had not the ransom been, in strictness, lawful for you to accept, by GOD’S having in general terms allowed you the spoil and the captives, ye had been severely punished.
      Among the seventy prisoners which the Moslems took in this battle were Al Abbâs, one of Mohammed’s uncles, and Okail, the son of Abu Tâleb and brother of Ali. When they were brought before Mohammed, he asking the advice of his companions what should be done with

       1 See before, p. 128, and c. 33.

ed,a that which is lawful and good; for GOD is gracious and merciful. O prophet, say unto the captives who are in your hands. If GOD shall know any good to be in your hearts, he will give you better than what hath been taken from you;b and he will forgive you, for GOD is gracious and merciful. But if they seek to deceive thee,c verily they have deceived GOD; wherefore he hath given thee power over them: and GOD is knowing and wise. Moreover, they who have believed, and have fled their country, and employed their substance and their persons in fighting for the religion of GOD, and they who have given the prophet a refuge among them, and have assisted him, these shall be deemed the one nearest of kin to the other.d But they who have believed, but have not fled their country, shall have no right of kindred at all with you, until they also fly. Yet if they ask assistance of you on account of religion, it belongeth unto you to give them assistance; except against a people between whom and yourselves there shall be a league subsisting: and GOD seeth that which ye do. And as to the infidels let them be deemed of kin the one to the other. Unless ye do this, there will be a sedition in the earth, and grievous corruption. But as for them who have believed, and left their country, and have fought for GOD's true religion, and who have allowed the prophet a retreat among them, and have assisted him, these are really believers; they shall receive mercy, and an honourable provision. And they who

them, Abu Becr was for releasing them on their paying ransom, saying, that they were near relations to the prophet, and GOD might possibly forgive them on their repentance; but Omar was for striking off their heads, as professed patrons of infidelity. Mohammed did not approve of the latter advice, but observed that Abu Becr resembled Abraham, who interceded for offenders, and that Omar was like Noah, who prayed for the utter extirpation of the wicked antediluvians; and thereupon it was agreed to accept a ransom from them and their fellow-captives. Soon after which, Omar, going into the prophet’s tent, found him and Abu Becr weeping, and, asking them the reason of their tears, Mohammed acquainted him that this verse had been revealed, condemning their ill-timed lenity towards their prisoners, and that they had narrowly escaped the divine vengeance for it, adding that, if GOD had not passed the matter over, they had certainly been destroyed to a man, excepting only Omar and Saad Ebn Moadh, a person of as great severity, and who was also for putting the prisoners to death.1 Yet did not this crime go absolutely unpunished neither: for in the battle of Ohod the Moslems lost seventy men, equal to the number of prisoners taken at Bedr, 2 which was so ordered by GOD, as a retaliation or atonement for the same.
      a i.e., Of the ransom which ye have received of your prisoners. For it seems, on this rebuke, they had some scruple of conscience whether they might convert it to their own use or not.3
      b That is, if ye repent and believe, GOD will make you abundant retribution for the ransom ye have now paid. It is said that this passage was revealed on the particular account of al Abbâs, who, being obliged by Mohammed, though his uncle, to ransom both himself and his two nephews, Okail and Nawfal Ebn al Hareth, complained that he should be reduced to beg alms of the Koreish as long as he lived. Whereupon Mohammed asked him what was become of the gold which he delivered to Omm al Fadl when he left Mecca, telling her that he knew not what might befall him in the expedition, and therefore, if he lost his life, she might keep it herself for the use of her and her children? Al Abbâs demanded who told him this, to which Mohammed replied that GOD had revealed it to him. And upon this al Abbâs immediately professed Islâmism, declaring that none could know of that affair except GOD, because he gave her the money at midnight. Some years after, al Abbâs reflecting on this passage, confessed it to be fulfilled; for he was then not only possessed of a large substance, but had the custody of the well Zemzem, which, he said, he preferred to all the riches of Mecca.4
      c By not paying the ransom agreed on.
      d And shall consequently inherit one another’s substance, preferably to their relations by blood. And this, they say, was practised for some time, the Mohâjerin and Ansârs being judged heirs to one another, exclusive of the deceased’s other kindred, till this passage was abrogated by the following: Those who are related by blood shall be deemed the nearest of kin to each other.

      1 Idem. 2 See c. 3, p. 46. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Abbâs.

have believe since, and have fled their country, and have fought with you, these also are of you. And those who are related by consanguinity shall be deemed the nearest of kin to each other preferably to strangers according to the book of GOD; GOD knoweth all things.

________

CHAPTER IX.

ENTITLED, THE DECLARATION OF IMMUNITY;e REVEALED AT MEDINA.


A DECLARATION of immunity from GOD and his apostle, unto the idolaters, with whom ye have entered into league.f Go to and fro in the earth securely four months;g and know that ye shall not weaken GOD, and that GOD will disgrace the unbelievers. And a declaration from GOD and his apostle unto the people, on the day of the greater pilgrimage,h that GOD is clear of the idolaters, and his

      e The reason why the chapter had this title appears from the first verse. Some, however, give it other titles, and particularly that of Repentance, which is mentioned immediately after.
      It is observable that this chapter alone has not the auspicatory form, In the name of the most merciful GOD, prefixed to it; the reason of which omission, as some think, was, because these words imply a concession of security, which is utterly taken away by this chapter, after a fixed time; wherefore some have called it the chapter of Punishment; others say that Mohammed (who died soon after he had received this chapter), having given no direction where it should be placed, nor for the prefixing the Bismillah to it, as had been done to the other chapters; and the argument of this chapter bearing a near resemblance to that of the preceding, his companions differed about it, some saying that both chapters were but one, and together made the seventh of the seven long ones, and others that they were two distinct chapters; whereupon, to accommodate the dispute, they left a space between them, but did not interpose the distinction of the Bismillah.1
      It is agreed that this chapter was the last which was revealed; and the only one, as Mohammed declared, which was revealed entire and at once, except the hundred and tenth.
      Some will have the two last verses to have been revealed at Mecca.
      f Some understand this sentence of the immunity or security therein granted to the infidels for the space of four months; but others think that the words properly signify that Mohammed for the space of four months; but others think that the words properly signify that Mohammed is here declared by GOD to be absolutely free and discharged from all truce or league with them, after the expiration of that time;2 and this last seems to be the truest interpretation.
      Mohammed’s thus renouncing all league with those who would not receive him as the apostle of GOD, or submit to become tributary, was the consequence of the great power to which he was now arrived. But the pretext he made use of was the treachery he had met with among the Jewish, and idolatrous Arabs–scarce any keeping faith with him, except Banu Damra, Banu Kenâna, and a few others.3
      g These months were Shawâl, Dhu’lkaada, Dhu’lhajja, and Moharram; the chapter being revealed in Shawâl. Yet others compute them from the tenth of Dhu’lhajja, when the chapter was published at Mecca, and consequently make them expire on the tenth of the former Rabî.4
      h viz., The tenth of Dhu’lhajja, when they slay the victims at Mina; which day is their great feast, and completes the ceremonies of the pilgrimage. Some suppose the adjective greater is added here to distinguish the pilgrimage made at the appointed time from lesser pilgrimages, as they may be called, or visitations of the Caaba, which may be performed at any time of the year; or else because the concourse at the pilgrimage this year was greater than ordinary, both Moslems and idolaters being present at it.
      The promulgation of this chapter was committed by Mohammed to Ali, who rode for that purpose on the prophet’s slit-eared camel from Medina to Mecca; and on the day above mentioned, standing up before the whole assembly at al Akaba, told them that he was the

      1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya, &c. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Idem, al Zamaksh., Jallalo’ddin.


apostle also. Wherefore if ye repent, this will be better for you; but if ye turn back, know that ye shall not weaken GOD: and denounce unto those who believe not, a painful punishment. Except such of the idolaters with whom ye shall have entered into a league, and who afterwards shall not fail you in any instance, nor assist any other against you.i Wherefore perform the covenant which ye shall have made with them, until their time shall be elapsed; for GOD loveth those who fear him. And when the months wherein ye are not allowed to attack them shall be past, kill the idolaters wheresoever ye shall find them,k and take them prisoners, and besiege them, and lay wait for them in every convenient place. But if they shall repent, and observe the appointed times of prayer, and pay the legal alms, dismiss them freely: for GOD is gracious and merciful. And if any of the idolaters shall demand protection of thee, grant him protection, that he may hear the word of GOD: and afterwards let him reach the place of his security.l This shalt thou do, because they are people which know not the excellency of the religion thou preachest. How shall the idolaters be admitted into a league with GOD and with his apostle; except those with whom ye entered into a league at the holy temple?m So long as they behave with fidelity towards you, do ye also behave with fidelity towards them; for GOD loveth those who fear him. How can they be admitted into a league with you, since, if they prevail against you, they will not regard in you either consanguinity or faith? They will please you with their mouths, but their hearts will be averse from you; for the greater part of them are wicked doers. They sell the signs of GOD for a small price, and obstruct his way; it is certainly evil which they do. They regard not in a believer either consanguinity or faith; and these are the transgressors. Yet if they repent, and observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms, they shall be deemed your brethren in religion. We distinctly propound our signs unto people who understand. But if they violate their oaths, after their league, and revile your religion, oppose the leaders of infidelity (for there is no trust in them), that they may desist from their treachery. Will ye not fight against people who have violated their oaths, and conspired to expel the apostle of God; and who of their own accord assaulted you the first time?n Will ye fear them? But it is more just that ye should fear GOD, if ye are true believers. Attack them therefore; GOD shall punish them by your

messenger of the apostle of GOD unto them. Whereupon they asking him what was his errand, he read twenty or thirty verses of the chapter to them, and then said, I am commanded to acquaint you with four things: I. That no idolater is to come near the temple of Mecca after this year; 2. That no man presume to compass the Caaba naked for the future;5 3. That none but true believers shall enter paradise; and 4. That public faith is to be kept.6
      i So that notwithstanding Mohammed renounces all league with those who had deceived him, he declares himself ready to perform his engagements to such as had been true to him.
      k Either within or without the sacred territory.
      l That is, you shall give him a safe-conduct, that he may return home again securely, in case he shall not think fit to embrace Mohammedism.
      m These are the persons before excepted.
      n As did the Koreish in assisting the tribe of Becr against those of Khozâah,7 and laying a design to ruin Mohammed, without any just provocation; and as several of the Jewish tribes did, by aiding the enemy, and endeavouring to oblige the prophet to leave Medina, as he had been obliged to leave Mecca.8

      5 See before, cap. 7, p. 107. 6 Al Beidâwi. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 127, &c. 7 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 42. 8 Al Beidâwi.

hands, and will cover them with shame, and will give you the victory over them; and he will heal the breasts of the people who believe,o and will take away the indignation of their hearts: for GOD will be turned unto whom he pleaseth; and GOD is knowing and wise. Did ye imagine that ye should be abandoned, whereas GOD did not yet know those among you who fought for his religion, and took not any besides GOD, and his apostle, and the faithful for their friends? GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do. It is not fitting that the idolaters should visit the temples of GOD, being witnesses against their own souls of their infidelity. The works of these men are vain: and they shall remain in hell fire forever. But he only shall visit the temples of GOD, who believeth in GOD and the last day, and is constant at prayer, and payeth the legal alms, and feareth GOD alone. These perhaps may become of the number of those who are rightly directed.p Do ye reckon the giving drink to the pilgrims, and the visiting of the holy temple, to be actions as meritorious as those performed by him who believeth in GOD and the last day, and fighteth for the religion of GOD?q They shall not be held equal with GOD: for GOD directeth not the unrighteous people. They who have believed, and fled their country and employed their substance and their persons in the defence of GOD'S true religion, shall be in the highest degree of honour with GOD; and these are they who shall be happy. Their LORD sendeth them good tidings of mercy from him, and good will, and of gardens wherein they shall enjoy lasting pleasure: they shall continue therein forever; for with GOD is a great reward. O true believers, take not your fathers or your brethren for friends, if they love infidelity above faith; and whosoever among you shall take them for his friends, they will be unjust doers. Say, if your fathers, and your sons, and your brethren, and your wives, and your relations, and your substance which ye have acquired, and your merchandise which ye apprehend may not be sold off, and your dwellings wherein ye delight, be more dear unto you than GOD, and his apostle, and the advancement of his religion; wait until GOD shall send his command:r for GOD directeth not the ungodly people. Now hath GOD assisted you in many engagements, and particularly at the battle of Honein,s when ye pleased yourselves in

      o viz., Those of Khozâah; or, as others say, certain families of Yaman and Saba, who went to Mecca, and there professed Mohammedism, but were very injuriously treated by the inhabitants; whereupon they complained to Mohammed, who bade them take comfort, for that joy was approaching.1
      p These words are to warn the believers from having too great a confidence in their own merits, and likewise to deter the unbelievers; for if the faithful will but perhaps be saved, what can the others hope for?2
      q This passage was revealed on occasion of some words of al Abbâs, Mohammed’s uncle, who, when he was taken prisoner, being bitterly reproached by the Moslems, and particularly by his nephew Ali, answered: You rip up our ill actions, but take no notice of our good ones; we visit the temple of Mecca, and adorn the Caaba with hangings, and give drink to the pilgrims (of Zemzem water, I suppose) and free captives.3
      r Or shall punish you. Some suppose the taking of Mecca to be here intended.4
      s This battle was fought in the eighth year of the Hejra, in the valley of Honein, which lies about three miles from Mecca towards Tâyef, between Mohammed, who had an army of twelve thousand men, and the tribes of Hawâzen and Thakîf, whose forces did not exceed four thousand. The Mohammedans, seeing themselves so greatly superior to their enemies, made sure of the victory; a certain person, whom some suppose to have been the prophet himself, crying out, These can never be overcome by so few. But GOD was so highly displeased with this con-

       1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Idem

your multitude, but it was no manner of advantage unto you, and the earth became too strait for you,t notwithstanding it was spacious; then did ye retreat, and turn your backs. Afterwards GOD sent down his securityu upon his apostle and upon the faithful, and sent down troops of angels,x which ye saw not; and he punished those who disbelieved; and this was the reward of the unbelievers. Nevertheless GOD will hereafter be turned unto whom he pleaseth;y for GOD is gracious and merciful. O true believers, verily the idolaters are unclean; let them not therefore come near unto the holy temple after this year.z And if ye fear want, by the cutting off trade and communication with them, GOD will enrich you of his abundance,a if he pleaseth; for GOD is knowing and wise. Fight against them who believe not in GOD, nor the last day,b and forbid not that which GOD and his apostle have forbidden, and profess not the true religion, of those unto whom the scriptures have been delivered, until they pay tribute by right of subjection,c and they be reduced low. The Jews say, Ezra is the son of

fidence, that in the first encounter the Moslems were put to flight,5 some of them running away quite to Mecca, so that none stood their ground except Mohammed himself, and some few of his family; and they say the prophet’s courage was so great, that his uncle al Abbâs, and his cousin Abu Sofiân Ebn al Hareth, had much ado to prevent his spurring his mule into the midst of the enemy, by laying hold of the bridle and stirrup. Then he ordered al Abbâs, who had the voice of a Stentor, to recall his flying troops; upon which they rallied, and the prophet throwing a handful of dust against the enemy, they attacked them a second time, and by the divine assistance gained the victory.6
      t For the valley being very deep, and encompassed by craggy mountains, the enemy placed themselves in ambush on every side, attacking them in the straits and narrow passages, and from behind the rocks, with great advantage.1
      u The original word is Sakînat, which the commentators interpret in this sense; but it seems rather to signify the divine presence, or Shechinah, appearing to aid the Moslems.2
      x As to the number of these celestial auxiliaries, the commentators differ; some say they were five thousand, some eight thousand, and others sixteen thousand.3
      y Besides a great number of proselytes who were gained by this battle, Mohammed, on their request, was so generous as to restore the captives (which were no less than six thousand) to their friends, and offered to make amends himself to any of his men who should not be willing to part with his prisoners; but they all consented to it.4
      z Which was the ninth year of the Hejra. In consequence of this prohibition, neither Jews nor Christians, nor those of any other religion, are suffered to come near Mecca to this day.
      a This promise, says al Beidâwi, was fulfilled by GOD’S sending plenty of rain, and disposing the inhabitants of Tebâla and Jorash, two towns in Yaman, to embrace Islâm, who thereupon brought sufficient provisions to Mohammed’s men; and also by the subsequent coming in of the Arabs from all quarters to him.
      b That is, who have not a just and true faith in these matters; but either believe a plurality of gods, or deny the eternity of hell torments,5 or the delights of paradise as described in the Korân. For as it appears by the following words, the Jews and Christians are the persons here chiefly meant.
      c This I think the true meaning of the words an yadin, which literally signify by or out of hand, and are variously interpreted: some supposing they mean that the tribute is to be paid readily, or by their own hands and not by another; or that tribute is to be exacted of the rich only, or those who are able to pay it, and not of the poor; or else that it is to be taken as a favour that the Mohammedans are satisfied with so small an imposition, &c.6
      That the Jews and Christians are, according to this law, to be admitted to protection on payment of tribute, there is no doubt: though the Mohammedan doctors differ as to those of other religions. It is said that Omar at first refused to accept tribute from a Magian, till Abd’alrahmân Ebn Awf assured him that Mohammed himself had granted protection to a Magian, and ordered that the professors of that religion should be included among the people of the book, or those who found their religion on some book which they suppose to be of divine original. And it is the more received opinion that these three religions only ought to be tolerated on the condition of paying tribute: others, however, admit the Sabians also. Abu Hanîfa

      5 See Prid. Life of Mahomet, p. 96, &c. Hotting. Hist. Orient. p. 271, &c. D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 601. 6 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 112, &c. 1 Ebn Ishak. 2 See cap. 2, p. 27, note k. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. 5 See cap. 2, p. 10, and cap. 3, p. 34.
6 Vide al Beidâwi.

GOD:d and the Christians say, Christ is the Son of GOD. This is their saying in their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who were unbelievers in former times. May GOD resist them. How are they infatuated! They take their priests and their monks for their lords, besides GOD,e and Christ the son of Mary; although they are commanded to worship one GOD only: there is no GOD but he; far be that from him which they associate with him! They seek to extinguish the light of GOD with their mouths; but GOD willeth no other than to perfect his light, although the infidels be averse thereto. It is he who hath sent his apostle with the direction, and true religion: that he may cause it to appear superior to every other religion; although the idolaters be averse thereto. O true believers, verily many of the priests and monks devour the substance of men in vanity,f and obstruct the way of GOD. But unto those who treasure up gold and silver, and employ it not for the advancement of GOD'S true religion, denounce a grievous punishment. On the day of judgment their treasures shall be intensely heated in the fire of hell, and their foreheads, and their sides, and their backs shall be stigmatized therewith; and their tormentors shall say, This is what ye have treasured up for your souls; taste therefore that which ye have treasured up. Moreover, the complete number

supposed people of any religion might be suffered, except the idolatrous Arabs; and Malec excepted only apostates from Mohammedism.
      The least tribute that can be taken from every such person, is generally agreed to be a dinâr or about ten shillings, a year; nor can he be obliged to pay more unless he consent to it; and this, they say, ought to be laid as well on the poor as on the rich.1 But Abu Hanîfa decided that the rich should pay forty-eight dirhems (twenty, and sometimes twenty-five, of which made a dinâr) a year; one in middling circumstances half that sum; and a poor man, who was able to get his living, a quarter of it: but that he who was not able to support himself should pay nothing.2
      d This grievous charge against the Jews the commentators endeavour to support by telling us that it is meant of some ancient heterodox Jews, or else of some Jews of Medina; who said so for no other reason than for that the law being utterly lost and forgotten during the Babylonish captivity, Ezra, having been raised to life after he had been dead one hundred years,3 dictated the whole anew to the scribes, out of his own memory; at which they greatly marvelled, and declared that he could not have done it unless he were the son of GOD.4 Al Beidâwi, adds that the imputation must be true, because this verse was read to the Jews, and they did not contradict it; which they were ready enough to do in other instances.
      That Ezra did thus restore not only the Pentateuch, but also the other books of the Old Testament, by divine revelation, was the opinion of several of the Christian fathers, who are quoted by Dr. Prideaux,5 and of some other writers;6 which they seem to have first borrowed from a passage in that very ancient apocryphal book, called (in our English Bible) the second book of Esdras.7 Dr. Prideaux8 tells us that herein the fathers attributed more to Ezra than the Jews themselves, who suppose that he only collected and set forth a correct edition of the scriptures, which he laboured much in, and went a great way in the perfecting of it. It is not improbable, however, that the fiction came originally from the Jews, though they be now of another opinion, and I cannot fix it upon them by any direct proof. For, not to insist on the testimony of the Mohammedans (which yet I cannot but think of some little weight in a point of this nature), it is allowed by the most sagacious critics that the second book of Ezra was written by a Christian indeed,9 but yet one who had been bred a Jew, and was intimately acquainted with the fables of the Rabbins;10 and the story itself is perfectly in the taste and way of thinking of those men.
      e See the chap. 3, p. 39, note e.
      f By taking of bribes, says al Beidâwi; meaning, probably, the money they took for dispensing with the commands of GOD, and by way of commutation.

      1 Vide Reland. de Jure Militari Mohammedanor. p. 17 and 50. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 See cap. 2, p. 28. 4 Al Beidâwi, al Zamakhshari, &c. 5 Connect. part i. l. 5, p. 329. 6 Athanasius junior, in Synopsi S. Script. tom. ii. p. 86. Leontius Byzantin. de Sectis, p. 428. 7 Cap. xiv. 20, &c. 8 Loco citat. 9 See 2 Esdras ii. 43–47; and vii. 28, &c. 10 Vide Dodwelli Dissert. Cyprian. Dissert. 4, § 2. Whiston’s Essay on the Apostolical Constit. p. 34, 76, and 304, &c.; et Fabricii Codic. Apocryph. Novi Test. part ii. p. 936, &c.

of months with GOD, is twelve months,g which were ordained in the book of GOD,h on the day whereon he created the heavens and the earth: of these, four are sacred.i This is the right religion: therefore deal not unjustly with yourselves therein. But attack the idolaters in all the months, as they attack you in all;k and know that GOD is with those who fear him. Verily the transferring of a sacred month to another month, is an additional infidelity.l The unbelievers are led into an error thereby: they allow a month to be violated one year, and declare it sacred another year,m that they may agree in the number of months which GOD hath commanded to be kept sacred; and they allow that which GOD hath forbidden. The evil of their actions hath been prepared for them: for GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. O true believers, what ailed you, that when it was said unto you, Go forth to fight for the religion of GOD, ye inclined heavily towards the earth?n Do ye prefer the present life to that which is to come? But the provision of this life, in respect of that which is to come, is but slender. Unless ye go forth when ye are summoned to war, God will punish you with a grievous punishment; and he will place another people in your stead,o and ye shall not hurt him at all; for GOD is almighty. If ye assist not the prophet, verily GOD will assist him, as he assisted him formerly, when the unbelievers drove him out of Mecca, the second of two:p when they were both in the cave: when he said unto his companion, Be not grieved, for GOD is with us.q And GOD sent down his securityr upon him, and strengthened him with armies of angels, whom ye saw not.s And he made the word of those who believed not to be

      g According to this passage, the intercalation of a month every third or second year, which the Arabs had learned of the Jews, in order to reduce their lunar years to solar years, is absolutely unlawful. For by this means they fixed the time of the pilgrimage and of the fast of Ramadân to certain seasons of the year which ought to be ambulatory.1
      h viz., The preserved table.
      i See the Prelim. Discourse, Sect. VII.
      k For it is not reasonable that you should observe the sacred months with regard to those who do not acknowledge them to be sacred, but make war against you therein.2
      l This was an invention or innovation of the idolatrous Arabs, whereby they avoided keeping a sacred month, when it suited not their conveniency, by keeping a profane month in its stead; transferring, for example, the observance of Moharram to the succeeding month Safar. The first man who put this in practice, they say, was Jonâda Ebn Awf, of the tribe of Kenâna.3
      These ordinances relating to the months were promulgated by Mohammed himself at the pilgrimage of valediction.4
      m As did Jonâda, who made public proclamation at the assembly of pilgrims, that their gods had allowed Moharram to be profane, whereupon they observed it not; but the next year he told them that the gods had ordered it to be kept sacred.5
      n viz., In the expedition of Tabûc, a town situate about half-way between Medina and Damascus, which Mohammed undertook against the Greeks, with an army of thirty thousand men, in the ninth year of the Hejra. On this expedition the Moslems set out with great unwillingness, because it was undertaken in the midst of the summer heats, and at a time of great drought and scarcity; whereby the soldiers suffered so much, that this army was called the distressed army: besides, their fruits were just ripe, and they had much rather have stayed to have gathered them.6
      o See chap. 5, p. 80.
      p That is, having only Abu Becr with him.
      q See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 39.
      r See before, p. 137, note u.
      s Who, as some imagine, guarded him in the cave. Or the words may relate to the succours

      1 See Prid. Life of Mahomet, p. 65, &c., and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. and VII. 2 See cap. 2, p. 20. 3 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. Vide Poc. Spec. p. 323, and the Prelim. Disc. Sect. VII. 4 Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 132. 5 Al Beidâwi. 6 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. Vide Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. p. 123.

abased, and the word of GOD was exalted: for GOD is mighty and wise. Go forth to battle, both light and heavy,t and employ your substance and your persons for the advancement of GOD's religion. This will be better for you, if ye know it. If it had been a near advantage, and a moderate journey, they had surely followed thee;u but the way seemed tedious unto them: and yet they will swear by GOD, saying, If we had been able, we had surely gone forth with you. They destroy their own souls; for GOD knoweth that they are liars. GOD forgive thee! why didst thou give them leave to stay at home,x until they who speak the truth, when they excuse themselves, had become manifested unto thee, and thou hadst known the liars. They who believe in GOD and the last day, will not ask leave of thee to be excused from employing their substance and their persons for the advancement of GOD's true religion; and GOD knoweth those who fear him. Verily they only will ask leave of thee to stay behind, who believe not in GOD and the last day, and whose hearts doubt concerning the faith: wherefore they are tossed to and fro in their doubting. If they had been willing to go forth with thee, they had certainly prepared for that purpose a provision of arms and necessaries: but GOD was averse to their going forth; wherefore he rendered them slothful, and it was said unto them, Sit ye still with those who sit still.y If they had gone forth with you, they had only been a burden unto you, and had run to and fro between you, stirring you up to sedition; and there would have been some among you, who would have given ear unto them: and GOD knoweth the wicked. They formerly sought to raise a sedition,z and they disturbed thy affairs, until the truth came, and the decree of GOD was made manifest; although they were adverse thereto. There is of them who saith unto thee, Give me leave to stay behind, and expose me not to temptation.a Have they not fallen into temptation at home?b But hell will surely encompass the unbelievers. If good happen unto thee, it grieveth them: but if a misfortune befall thee, they say, We ordered our business before;c and they turn their backs, and rejoice at thy mishap. Say, Nothing shall befall us, but what GOD hath decreed for us; he is our patron; and on GOD let the faithful trust. Say, Do ye expect any other should befall us, than one of the two most excellent things; either

from heaven which Mohammed pretended to have received in several encounters; as at Bedr, the war of the ditch, and the battle of Honein.
      t i.e., Whether the expedition be agreeable or not; or whether ye have sufficient arms and provisions or not; or whether ye be on horseback or on foot, &c.
      u That is, had there been no difficulties to surmount in the expedition of Tabûc, and the march thither had been short and easy, so that the plunder might have cost them little or no trouble, they would not have been so backward.
      x For Mohammed excused several of his men, on their request, from going on this expedition; as Abda’llah Ebn Obba and his hypocritical adherents, and also three of the Ansârs, for which he is here reprehended.
      y i.e., With the women and children, and other impotent people.
      z As they did at the battle of Ohod.1
      a By obliging me to go, against my will, on an expedition, the hardships of which may tempt me to rebel or to desert. It is related that one Jadd Ebn Kais said that the Ansârs well knew he was much given to women, and he dared not trust himself with the Greek girls; wherefore he desired he might be left behind, and he would assist them with his purse.2
      b Discovering their hypocrisy by their backwardness to go to war for the promotion of the true religion.
      c That is, we took care to keep out of harm’s way by staying at home.

       1 See cap. 3, p. 45, &c. 2 Al Beidâwi.

victory or martyrdom?
But we expect concerning you, that GOD inflict a punishment on you, either from himself, or by our hands.d Wait, therefore, to see what will be the end of both; for we will wait for you. Say, Expend your money in pious uses, either voluntarily, or by constraint, it shall not be accepted of you; because ye are wicked people. And nothing hindereth their contributions from being accepted of them, but that they believe not in GOD and his apostle, and perform not the duty of prayer, otherwise than sluggishly; and expend not their money for God's service, otherwise than unwillingly. Let not therefore their riches, or their children cause thee to marvel. Verily GOD intendeth only to punish them by these things in this world; and that their souls may depart while they are unbelievers. They swear by GOD that they are of you;e yet they are not of you, but are people who stand in fear.f If they find a place of refuge, or caves, or a retreating hole, they surely turn towards the same, and in a headstrong manner, haste thereto. There is of them also who spreadeth ill reports of thee, in relation to thy distribution of the alms: yet if they receive part thereof, they are well pleased; but if they receive not a part thereof, behold, they are angry.g But if they had been pleased with that which GOD and his apostle had given them, and had said, GOD is our support; GOD will give unto us of his abundance, and his prophet also; verily unto GOD do we make our supplications: it would have been more decent. Alms are to be distributedh only unto the poor, and the needy,i and those who are employed in collecting and distributing the same, and unto those whose hearts are reconciled,k and for the redemption of captives, and unto those who are in debt and insolvent, and for the advancement of GOD'S religion, and unto the traveller. This is an ordinance from GOD: and GOD is knowing and wise. There are some of them who injure the prophet, and say, He is an ear.l Answer, He is an ear of good unto you:m he believeth in GOD, and giveth credit to the faithful, and is a mercy unto such of you who believe. But they

      d i.e., Either by some signal judgment from heaven, or by remitting their punishment to the true believers.
      e viz., Staunch Moslems.
      f Hypocritically concealing their infidelity, lest ye should chastise them, as ye have done the professed infidels and apostates; and yet ready to avow their infidelity, when they think they may do it with safety.
      g This person was Abu’l Jowâdh the hypocrite, who said Mohammed gave them away among the keepers of sheep only; or, as others suppose, Ebn Dhi’lkhowaisara, who found fault with the prophet’s distribution of the spoils taken at Honein, because he gave them all among the Meccans, to reconcile and gain them over to his religion and interest.3
      h See what is said as to this point in the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      i The commentators make a distinction between these two words in the original, fakîr and meskîn; one, they say, signifies him who is utterly destitute both of money and means of livelihood; the other, one who is in want indeed, but is able to get something towards his own support. But to which of the two words either of these different significations properly belongs, the critics differ.
      k That is, who were lately enemies to the faithful, but have now embraced Mohammedism, and entered into amity with them. For Mohammed, to gain their hearts and confirm them in his religion, made large presents to the chief of the Koreish out of the spoils at Honein, as has been just now mentioned.4 But this law they say became of no obligation when the Mohammedan faith was established, and stood not in need of such methods for its support.
      l i.e., He hears everything that we say; and gives credit to all the stories that are carried to him.
      m Giving credit to nothing that may do you hurt.

       3 Idem. Vide Abulfeda. Vit. Moh. p. 118, 119. 4 Abulfeda, ibid.

who injure the apostle of GOD, shall suffer a painful punishment. They swear unto you by GOD, that they may please you; but it is more just that they should please GOD and his apostle, if they are true believers. Do they not know that he who opposeth GOD and his apostle, shall without doubt be punished with the fire of hell; and shall remain therein forever? This will be great ignominy. The hypocrites are apprehensive lest a Suran should be revealed concerning them, to declare unto them that which is in their hearts. Say unto them, Scoff ye; but GOD will surely bring to light that which ye fear should be discovered. And if thou ask them the reason of this scoffing, they say, Verily we were only engaged in discourse; and jesting among ourselves.o Say, Do ye scoff at GOD and his signs, and at his apostle? offer not an excuse: now are ye become infidels, after your faith. If we forgive a part of you, we will punish a part, for that they have been wicked doers. Hypocritical men and women are the one of them of the other: they command that which is evil, and forbid that which is just, and shut their hands from giving alms. They have forgotten GOD; wherefore he hath forgotten them: verily the hypocrites are those who act wickedly. GOD denounceth unto the hypocrites, both men and women, and to the unbelievers, the fire of hell; they shall remain therein forever: this will be their sufficient reward; GOD hath cursed them, and they shall endure a lasting torment. As they who have been before you, so are ye. They were superior to you in strength, and had more abundance of wealth and of children; and they enjoyed their portion in this world; and ye also enjoy your portion here, as they who have preceded you enjoyed their portion. And ye engage yourselves in vain discourses, like unto those wherein they engaged themselves. The works of these are vain both in this world and in that which is to come; and these are they who perish. Have they not been acquainted with the history of those who have been before them? of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of Thamud, and of the people of Abraham, and of the inhabitants of Madian, and of the cities which were overthrown?p Their apostles came unto them with evident demonstrations: and GOD was not disposed to treat them unjustly; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls. And the faithful men, and the faithful women, are friends one to another: they command that which is just, and they forbid that which is evil; and they are constant at prayer, and pay their appointed alms; and they obey GOD and his apostle: unto these will GOD be merciful; for he is mighty and wise. GOD promiseth unto the true believers, both men and women, gardens through which rivers flow, wherein they shall remain forever; and delicious dwellings in gardens

      n So the Mohammedans call a chapter of the Korân.5
      o It is related that in the expedition of Tabûc, a company of hypocrites passing near Mohammed, said to one another, Behold that man! he would take the strongholds of Syria. Away! away!–which being told the prophet, he called them to him, and asked them why they had said so? Whereto they replied with an oath that they were not talking of what related to him or his companions, but were only diverting themselves with indifferent discourse to beguile the tediousness of the way.6
      p Namely, Sodom and Gomorrah, and the other cities which shared their fate, and are thence called al Motakifât, or the subverted.7

      5 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. 6 Al Beidâwi. 7 See cap. II.

of perpetual abode:q but good-will from GOD shall be their most excellent reward. This will be great felicity. O prophet, wage war against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be severe unto them: for their dwelling shall be hell; an unhappy journey shall it be thither! They swear by GOD that they said not what they are charged with: yet they spake the word of infidelity, and became unbelievers after they had embraced Islâm.r And they designed that which they could not effect;s and they did not disapprove the design for any other reason than because GOD and his apostle had enriched them of his bounty.t If they repent, it will be better for them; but if they relapse, GOD will punish them with a grievous torment, in this world and in the next; and they shall have no portion on earth, nor any protector. There are some of them who made a covenant with GOD, saying, Verily if he give us of his abundance, we will give alms, and become righteous people.u Yet when they had given unto him of his abundance, they became covetous thereof, and turned back, and retired afar off. Wherefore he hath caused hypocrisy to succeed in their hearts, until the day whereon they shall meet him; for that they failed to perform unto GOD that which they had promised him, and for that they prevaricated. Do they not know that GOD knoweth whatever they conceal, and their private discourses; and that GOD is the knower of secrets? They who traduce such of the believers as are liberal in giving alms beyond what they are obliged, and those who find nothing to give, but what they gain by their industry;x and therefore scoff at them: GOD

      q Literally, gardens of Eden; but the commentators do not take the word Eden in the sense which it bears in Hebrew, as has been elsewhere observed.8
      r It is related that al Jallâs Ebn Soweid hearing some passages of this chapter, which sharply reprehend those who refused to go on the above-mentioned expedition of Tabûc, declared that if what Mohammed said of his brethren was true, they were worse than asses; which coming to the prophet’s ear, he sent for him; and he denied the words upon oath. But on the immediate revelation of this passage, he confessed his fault, and his repentance was accepted.9
      s The commentators tell us that fifteen men conspired to kill Mohammed in his return from Tabûc by pushing him from his camel into a precipice, as he rode by night over the highest part of al Akaba. But when they were going to execute their design, Hodheifa, who followed and drove the prophet’s camel, which was led by Ammâr Ebn Yâser, hearing the tread of camels and the clashing of arms, gave the alarm, upon which they fled. Some, however, suppose the design here meant was a plot to expel Mohammed from Medina.10
      t For Mohammed’s residing at Medina was of great advantage to the place, the inhabitants being generally poor, and in want of most conveniences of life; but on the prophet’s coming among them, they became possessed of large herds of cattle and money also. Al Beidâwi says that the above-named al Jallâs in particular, having a servant killed, received by Mohammed's order no less than ten thousand dirhems, or about three hundred pounds, as a fine for the redemption of his blood.
      u An instance of this is given in Thalaba Ebn Hateb, who came to Mohammed and desired him to beg of GOD that he would bestow riches on him. The prophet at first advised him rather to be thankful for the little he had than to covet more, which might become a temptation to him; but on Thalaba’s repeated request and solemn promise that he would make a good use of his riches, he was at length prevailed on, and preferred the petition to GOD. Thalaba in a short time grew vastly rich, which, Mohammed being acquainted with, sent two collectors to gather the alms. Other people readily paid them; but, when they came to Thalaba, and read the injunction to him out of the Korân, he told them that it was not alms, but tribute, or next kin to tribute, and bid them go back till he had better considered of it. Upon which this passage was revealed; and when Thalaba came afterwards and brought his alms, Mohammed told him that GOD had commanded him not to accept it, and threw dust upon his head, saying, This is what thou hast deserved. He then offered his alms to Abu Becr, who refused to accept them, as did Omar some years after, when he was Khalîf.1
      x Al Beidâwi relates that Mohammed, exhorting his followers to voluntary alms, among others, Abda’lrahmân Ebn Awf gave four thousand dirhems, which was one-half of what he

      8 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 75. 9 Al Beidâwi. 10 Idem. 1 Idem.

shall scoff at them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. Ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them; it will be equal. If thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times, GOD will by no means forgive them.y This is the divine pleasure, for that they believe not in GOD, and his apostle; and GOD directeth not the ungodly people. They who were left at home in the expedition of Tabûc, were glad of their staying behind the apostle of GOD, and were unwilling to employ their substance and their persons for the advancement of GOD's true religion; and they said, Go not forth in the heat.z Say, the fire of hell will be hotter; if they understood this. Wherefore let them laugh little, and weep much, as a reward for that which they have done. If GOD bring thee back unto some of them,a and they ask thee leave to go forth to war with thee, say, Ye shall not go forth with me for the future, neither shall ye fight an enemy with me; ye were pleased with sitting at home the first time; sit ye at home therefore with those who stay behind. Neither do thou ever pray over any of them who shall die,b neither stand at his gravec for that they believed not in GOD and his apostle, and die in their wickedness. Let not their riches or their children cause thee to marvel: for GOD intendeth only to punish them therewith in this world, and that their souls may depart, while they are infidels. When a Surad is sent down, wherein it is said, Believe in GOD, and go forth to war with his apostle; those who are in plentiful circumstances among them ask leave of thee to stay behind, and say, Suffer us to be of the number of those who sit at home. They are well pleased to be with those who stay behind, and their hearts are sealed up; wherefore they do not understand. But the apostle, and

had; Asem Ebn Adda gave a hundred beasts’ loads of dates; and Abu Okail a saá, which is no more than a sixtieth part of a load, of the same fruit, but was the half of what he had earned by a night’s hard work. This Mohammed accepted: whereupon the hypocrites said that Abda’lrahmân and Asem gave what they did out of ostentation, and that GOD and his apostle might well have excused Abu Okail’s mite; which occasioned this passage.
      I suppose this collection was made to defray the charge of the expedition of Tabûc, towards which, as another writer tells us, Abu Becr contributed all that he had, and Othmân very largely, viz., as it is said, three hundred camels for slaughter, and a thousand dinârs of gold.2
      y In the last sickness of Abda’llah Ebn Obba, the hypocrite (who died in the ninth year of the Hejra), his son, named also Abda’llah, came and asked Mohammed to beg pardon of GOD for him, which he did, and thereupon the former part of this verse was revealed. But the prophet, not taking that for a repulse, said he would pray seventy times for him; upon which the latter part of the verse was revealed, declaring it would be absolutely in vain. It may be observed that the numbers seven, and seventy, and seven hundred, are frequently used by the eastern writers, to signify not so many precisely, but only an indefinite number, either greater or lesser,3 several examples of which are to be met with in the scripture.4
      z This they spoke in a scoffing manner to one another, because, as has been observed, the expedition of Tabûc was undertaken in a very hot and dry season.
      a That is, if thou return in safety to Medina to the hypocrites, who are here called some of them who stayed behind, because they were not all hypocrites. The whole number is said to have been twelve.1
      b This passage was also revealed on account of Abda’llah Ebn Obba. In his last illness he desired to see Mohammed, and, when he was come, asked him to beg forgiveness of GOD for him, and requested that his corpse might be wrapped up in the garment that was next his body (which might have the same efficacy with the habit of a Franciscan), and that he would pray over him when dead. Accordingly, when he was dead, the prophet sent his shirt, or inner vestment, to shroud the corpse, and was going to pray over it, but was forbidden by these words. Some say they were not revealed till he had actually prayed for him.2
      c Either by assisting at his funeral, or visiting his sepulchre.
      d See before, p. 142, note n.

      2 Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 123. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Matth. xviii. 22. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem.

those who have believed with him, expose their fortunes and their lives for God's service; they shall enjoy the good things of either life, and they shall be happy. GOD hath prepared for them gardens through which rivers flow; they shall remain therein forever. This will be great felicity. And certain Arabs of the desert came to excuse themselves,e praying that they might be permitted to stay behind; and they sat at home who had renounced GOD and his apostle. But a painful punishment shall be inflicted on such of them as believe not. In those who are weak, or are afflicted with sickness, or in those who find not wherewith to contribute to the war,f it shall be no crime if they stay at home; provided they behave themselves faithfully towards GOD and his apostle. There is no room to lay blame on the righteous; for GOD is gracious and merciful: nor on those, unto whom, when they came unto thee, requesting that thou wouldest supply them with necessaries for travelling, thou didst answer, I find not wherewith to supply you, returned, their eyes shedding tears for grief, that they found not wherewith to contribute to the expedition.g But there is reason to blame those who ask leave of thee to sit at home, when they are rich. They are pleased to be with those who stay behind, and GOD hath sealed up their hearts; wherefore they do not understand. (XI.) They will excuse themselves unto you, when ye are returned unto them. Say, Excuse not yourselves; we will by no means believe you: GOD hath acquainted us with your behavior; and GOD will observe his actions, and his apostle also: and hereafter shall ye be brought before him who knoweth that which is hidden, and that which is manifest; and he will declare unto you that which ye have done. They will swear unto you by GOD, which ye have done. They will swear unto you by GOD, when ye are returned unto them, that ye may let them alone.h Let them alone, therefore, for they are an abomination, and their dwelling shall be hell, a reward for that which they have deserved. They will swear unto you, that ye may be well pleased with them; but if ye be well pleased with them, verily GOD will not be well pleased with people who prevaricate. The Arabs of the desert are more obstinate in their unbelief and hypocrisy; and it is easier for them to be ignorant of the ordinances of that which GOD hath sent down unto his apostle;i and GOD is knowing and wise. Of the Arabs of the desert there is who reckoneth that which he expendeth for the service of God, to be as tribute,k and waiteth that some change of fortunel may befall you.

      e These were the tribes of Asad and Ghatfân, who excused themselves on account of the necessities of their families, which their industry only maintained. But some write they were the family of Amer Ebn al Tofail, who said that if they went with the army, the tribe of Tay would take advantage of their absence, and fall upon their wives and children, and their cattle.3
      f By reason of their extreme poverty; as those of Joheina, Mozeina, and Banu Odhra.4
      g The persons here intended were seven men of the Ansârs, who came to Mohammed and begged he would give them some patched boots and soled shoes, it being impossible for them to march so far barefoot in such a season; but he told them he could not supply them; whereupon they went away weeping. Some, however, say these were the Banu Mokren; and others, Abu Musa and his companions.5
      h And not chastise them.
      i Because of their wild way of life, the hardness of their hearts, their not frequenting people of knowledge, and the few opportunities they have of being instructed.6
      k Or a contribution exacted by force, the payment of which he can in no wise avoid.
      l Hoping that some reverse may afford a convenient opportunity of throwing off the burden

      3 Idem. 4 Idem. 5 Idem. 6 Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. p. 10 and 23.

A change for evil shall happen unto them; for GOD both heareth and knoweth. And of the Arabs of the desert there is who believeth in GOD, and in the last day; and esteemeth that which he layeth out for the service of God to be the means of bringing him near unto GOD, and the prayers of the apostle. Is it not unto them the means of a near approach? GOD shall lead them into his mercy; for GOD is gracious and merciful.m As for the leaders and the first of the Mohâjerîn, and the Ansârs,n and those who have followed them in well doing; GOD is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased in him: and he hath prepared for them gardens watered by rivers; they shall remain therein forever. This shall be great felicity. And of the Arabs of the desert who dwell round about you, there are hypocritical persons:o and of the inhabitants of Medina there are some who are obstinate in hypocrisy. Thou knowest them not, O prophet, but we know them: we will surely punish them twice:p afterwards shall they be sent to a grievous torment. And others have acknowledged their crimes.q They have mixed a good action with another which is bad:r peradventure GOD will be turned unto them; for GOD is gracious and merciful. Take alms of their substance, that thou mayest cleanse them, and purify them thereby;s and pray for them: for thy prayers shall be a security of mind unto them; and GOD both heareth and knoweth. Do they not know that GOD accepteth repentance from his servants, and accepteth alms; and that GOD is easy to be reconciled, and merciful? Say unto them, Work as ye will; but GOD will behold your work, and his apostle also, and the true believers: and ye shall be brought before him who knoweth that which is kept secret, and that which is made public: and he will declare unto you whatever ye have done. And there are others who wait with suspense the decree of GOD: whether he will punish them, or whether he will be turned unto

      m The Arabs meant in the former of these two passages, are said to have been the tribes of Asad, Ghatfân, and Banu Tamim; and those intended in the latter, Abdallah, surnamed Dhû’lbajâdîn, and his people.1
      n The Mohâjerîn, or refugees, were those of Mecca, who fled thence on account of their religion; and the Ansârs, or helpers, were those of Medina, who received Mohammed and his followers into their protection, and assisted them against their enemies. By the leaders of the Mohâjerîn are meant those who believed on Mohammed before the Hejra, or early enough to pray towards Jerusalem, from which the Kebla was changed to the temple of Mecca in the second year of the Hejra, or else such of them as were present at the battle of Bedr. The leaders of the Ansârs were those who took the oath of fidelity to him at al Akaba, either the first or the second time.2
      o i.e., In the neighbourhood of Medina. These were the tribes of Joheina, Mozeina, Aslam, Ashjá, and Ghifâr.3
      p Either by exposing them to public shame, and putting them to death; or by either of those punishments, and the torment of the sepulchre: or else by exacting alms of them by way of fine, and giving them corporal punishment.4
      q Making no hypocritical excuses for them. These were certain men, who, having stayed at home instead of accompanying Mohammed to Tabûc, as soon as they heard the severe reprehensions and threats of this chapter against those who had stayed behind, bound themselves to the pillars of the mosque, and swore that they would not loose themselves till they were loosed by the prophet. But when he entered the mosque to pray, and was informed of the matter, he also swore that he would not loose them without a particular command from GOD; whereupon this passage was revealed, and they were accordingly dismissed.5
      r Though they were backward in going to war, and held with the hypocrites, yet they confessed their crime and repented.
      s When these persons were loosed, they prayed Mohammed to take their substance, for the sake of which they had stayed at home, as alms, to cleanse them from their transgression; but he told them he had no orders to accept anything from them: upon which this verse was sent down, allowing him to take their alms.6

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Idem. 5 Idem. 6 Idem.

them:t but GOD is knowing and wise, There are some who have built a temple to hurt the faithful, and to propagate infidelity, and to foment division among the true believers,u and for a lurking place for him who hath fought against GOD and his apostle in time past;x and they swear, saying, Verily we intended no other than to do for the best: but GOD is witness that they do certainly lie. Stand not up to pray therein forever. There is a temple founded on piety,y from the first day of its building. It is more just that thou stand up to pray therein: therein are men who love to be purified;z for GOD loveth the clean. Whether therefore is he better, who hath founded his building on the fear of GOD and his good will; or he who hath founded his building on the brink of a bank of earth which is washed away by waters, so that it falleth with him into the fire of hell? God directeth not the ungodly people. Their building which they have built will not cease to be an occasion of doubting in their hearts, until their hearts be cut in pieces;a and GOD is knowing and wise. Verily GOD hath purchased of the true believers their souls, and their substance, promising them the enjoyment of paradise; on condition that they fight for the cause of GOD: whether they slay or be slain, the promise for

      t The persons here intended were the three Ansârs whose pardon is granted a little below.
      u When Banu Amru Ebn Awf had built the temple or mosque of Kobâ, which will be mentioned by-and-bye, they asked Mohammed to come and pray in it, and he complied with their request. This exciting the envy of their brethren, Banu Ganem Ebn Awf, they also built a mosque, intending that the Imâm or priest who should officiate there should be Abu Amer, a Christian monk; but he dying in Syria, they came to Mohammed and desired he would consecrate, as it were, their mosque by praying in it. The prophet accordingly prepared himself to go with them, but was forbidden by the immediate revelation of this passage, discovering their hypocrisy and ill design; whereupon he sent Malec Ebn al Dokhshom, Maan Ebn Addi, Amer Ebn al Sacan, and al Wahsha, the Ethiopian, to demolish and burn it, which they performed, and made it a dunghill. According to another account, this mosque was built a little before the expedition of Tabûc, with a design to hinder Mohammed’s men from engaging therein; and when he was asked to pray there, he answered that he was just setting out on a journey, but that when he came back, with GOD’S leave, he would do what they desired; but when they applied to him again, on his return, this passage was revealed.1
      x That is, Abu Amer, the monk, who was a declared enemy to Mohammed, having threatened him at Ohod, that no party should appear in the field against him, but he would make one of them; and, to be as good as his word, he continued to oppose him till the battle of Honein, at which he was present, and being put to flight with those of Hawâzen, he retreated into Syria, designing to obtain a supply of troops from the Grecian emperor to renew the war, but he died at Kinnisrîn. Others say that this monk was a confederate at the war of the ditch, and that he fled thence into Syria.2
      y viz., That of Kobâ, a place about two miles from Medina, where Mohammed rested four days before he entered that city, in his flight from Mecca, and where he laid the foundation of a mosque,3 which was afterwards built by Banu Amru Ebn Awf. But according to a different tradition, the mosque here meant was that which Mohammed built at Medina.
      z Al Beidâwi says, that Mohammed walking once with the Mohâjerîn to Kobâ, found the Ansârs sitting at the mosque door, and asked them whether they were believers; and, on their being silent, repeated the question: whereupon Omar answered, that they were believers; and Mohammed demanding whether they acquiesced in the judgment Omar had made of them, they said yes. He then asked them whether they would be patient in adversity and thankful in prosperity; to which they answering in the affirmative, he swore by the LORD of the Caaba that they were true believers. Afterwards he examined them as to their manner of performing the legal washings, and, particularly, what they did after easing themselves; they told him that in such a case they used three stones, and after that washed with water: upon which he repeated these words of the Korân to them.
      a Some interpret these words of their being deprived of their judgment and understanding; and others of the punishment they are to expect, either of death in this world, or of the rack of the sepulchre, or the pains of hell.

      1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem. 3 Idem, Ebn Shohnah. Vide Abulfed. Vit. Moh. p. 52. Where the translator, taking this passage of the Korân, which is there cited, for the words of his author, has missed the true sense.

the same is assuredly due by the law, and the gospel, and the Koran. And who performeth his contract more faithfully than GOD? Rejoice therefore in the contract which ye have made. This shall be great happiness. The penitent, and those who serve God, and praise him, and who fast, and bow down, and worship; and who command that which is just, and forbid that which is evil, and keep the ordinances of GOD, shall likewise be rewarded with paradise: wherefore bear good tidings unto the faithful. It is not allowed unto the prophet, nor those who are true believers, that they pray for idolaters,b although they be of kin, after it is become known unto them, that they are inhabitants of hell.c Neither did Abraham ask forgiveness for his father, otherwise than in pursuance of a promise which he had promised unto him:d but when it became known unto him, that he was an enemy unto GOD, he declared himself clear of him.e Verily Abraham was pitiful and compassionate. Nor is GOD disposed to lead people into error,f after that he hath directed them, until that which they ought to avoid is become known unto them; for GOD knoweth all things. Verily unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth; he giveth life, and he causeth to die; and ye have no patron or helper besides GOD. GOD is reconciled unto the prophet, and unto the Mohâjerîn and the Ansârs,g who followed him in the hour of distress,h after that it had wanted little but that the hearts of a part of them had swerved from their duty: afterwards was he turned unto them: for he was compassionate and merciful towards them. And he is also reconciled unto the three who were left behind,i so that the

      b This passage was revealed, as some think, on account of Abu Taleb, Mohammed’s uncle and great benefactor; who, on his death-bed, being pressed by his nephew to speak a word which might enable him to plead his cause before GOD, that is, to profess Islâm, absolutely refused. Mohammed, however, told him that he would not cease to pray for him, till he should be forbidden by GOD; which he was by these words. Others suppose the occasion to have been Mohammed’s visiting his mother Amena’s sepulchre at al Abwâ, soon after the taking of Mecca; for they say that while he stood at the tomb he burst into tears, and said, I asked leave of GOD to visit my mother’s tomb, and he granted it me; but when I asked leave to pray for her, it was denied me.1
      c By their dying infidels. For otherwise it is not only lawful, but commendable, to pray for unbelievers, while there are hopes of their conversion.
      d viz., To pray that GOD would dispose his heart to repentance. Some suppose this was a promise made to Abraham by his father, that he would believe in GOD. For the words may be taken either way.
      e Desisting to pray for him, when he was assured by inspiration that he was not to be converted; or after he actually died an infidel. See c. 6, p. 96.
      f i.e., To consider or punish them as transgressors. This passage was revealed to excuse those who had prayed for such of their friends as had died idolaters, before it was forbidden; or else to excuse certain people who had ignorantly prayed towards the first Kebla, and drank wine, &c.
      g Having forgiven the crime they committed, in giving the hypocrites leave to be absent from the expedition to Tabûc; or for the other sins which they might, through inadvertence, have been guilty of. For the best men have need of repentance.2
      h viz., In the expedition of Tabûc; wherein Mohammed’s men were driven to such extremities that (besides what they endured by reason of the excessive heat) ten men were obliged to ride by turns on one camel, and provisions and water were so scarce that two men divided a date between them, and they were obliged to drink the water out of the camels’ stomachs.3
      i Or, as it may be translated, who were left in suspense, whether they should be pardoned or not.4 These were three Ansârs, named Caab Ebn Malec, Helâl Ebn Omeyya, and Merâra Ebn Rabî, who went not with Mohammed to Tabûc, and were therefore, on his return, secluded from the fellowship of the other Moslems; the prophet forbidding any to salute them, or to hold discourse with them. Under which interdiction they continued fifty days, till, on their sincere repentance, they were at length discharged from it, by the revelation of this passage.5

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 See before, p. 147, note t. 5 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 133, 126.

earth became too straight for them, notwithstanding its spaciousness, and their souls became straightened within them, and they considered that there was no refuge from GOD, otherwise than by having recourse unto him. Then was he turned unto them, that they might repent; for GOD is easy to be reconciled and merciful. O true believers, fear GOD and be with the sincere. There was no reason why the inhabitants of Medina, and the Arabs of the desert who dwell around them, should stay behind the apostle of GOD, or should prefer themselves before him.k This is unreasonable: because they are not distressed either by thirst, or labor, or hunger, for the defence of GOD'S true religion; neither do they stir a step, which may irritate the unbelievers; neither do they receive from the enemy any damage, but a good work is written down unto them for the same; for GOD suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. And they contribute not any sum either small or great, nor do they pass a valley; but it is written down unto them that GOD may reward them with a recompense exceeding that which they have wrought. The believers are not obliged to go forth to war altogether: if a part of every band of them go not forth, it is that they may diligently instruct themselves in their religion;l and may admonish their people, when they return unto them, that they may take heed to themselves. O true believers, wage war against such of the infidels as are near you;m and let them find severityn in you: and know that GOD is with those who fear him. Whenever a Sura is sent down, there are some of them who say, Which of you hath this caused to increase in faith? It will increase the faith of those who believe, and they shall rejoice: but unto those in whose hearts there is an infirmity, it will add further doubt unto their present doubt; and they shall die in their infidelity. Do they not see that they are tried every year once or twice?o yet they repent not, neither are they warned. And whenever a Sura is sent down, they look at one another, saying, Doth any one see you?p then do they turn aside. GOD shall

      k By not caring to share with him the dangers and fatigues of war. Al Beidâwi tells us, that after Mohammed had set out for Tabûc, one Abu Khaithama, sitting in his garden, where his wife, a very beautiful woman, had spread a mat for him in the shade, and had set new dates and fresh water before him, after a little reflection, cried out: This is not well that I should thus take my ease and pleasure, while the apostle of GOD is exposed to the scorching of the sunbeams and the inclemencies of the war; and immediately mounting his camel, took his sword and lance, and went to join the army.
      l That is, if some of every tribe of town be left behind, the end of their being so left is that they may apply themselves to study, and attain a more exact knowledge of the several points of their religion, so as to be able to instruct such as, by reason of their continual employment in the wars, have no other means of information. They say, that after the preceding passages were revealed, reprehending those who had stayed at home during the expedition of Tabûc, every man went to war, so that the study of religion, which is rather more necessary for the defence and propagation of the faith than even arms themselves, became wholly laid aside and neglected; to prevent which, for the future, a convenient number are hereby directed to be left behind, that they may have leisure to prosecute their studies.
      m Either of your kindred or neighbours; for these claim your pity and care in the first place, and their conversion ought first to be endeavoured. The persons particularly meant in this passage are supposed to have been the Jews of the tribes of Koreidha and Nadhîr, and those of Khaibar; or else the Greeks of Syria.1
      n Or fierceness in war.
      o i.e., By various kinds of trials, or by being called forth to war, and by being made witnesses of GOD’S miraculous protection of the faithful.
      p They wink at one another to rise and leave the prophet’s presence, if they think they can

       1 Al Beidâwi.

turn aside their hearts from the truth; because they are a people who do not understand. Now hath an apostle come unto you of our own nation,q an excellent person: it is grievous unto him that ye commit wickedness; he is careful over you, and compassionate and merciful towards the believers. If they turn back, say, GOD is my support: there is no GOD but he. On him do I trust; and he is the LORD of the magnificent throne.


________


CHAPTER X.

ENTITLED, JONAS;r REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       AL. R.s These are the signs of the wise book. Is it a strange thing unto the men of Mecca, that we have revealed our will unto a man from among them,t saying, Denounce threats unto men if they believe not; and bear good tidings unto those who believe, that on the merit of their sincerity they have an interest with their LORD? The unbelievers say, This is manifest sorcery.u Verily your LORD is GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended his throne, to take on himself the government of all things. There is no intercessor, but by his permission.x This is GOD, your LORD; therefore serve him. Will ye not consider? Unto him shall ye all return according to the certain promise of GOD; for he produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return again; that he may reward those who believe and do that which is right, with equity. But as for the unbelievers, they shall drink boiling water, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment, for that they have disbelieved. It is he who hath ordained the sun to shine by day, and the moon for a light by night; and had appointed her stations, that ye might know the number of years, and the computation of time. GOD hath not created this, but with truth. He explaineth his signs unto people who understand. Moreover in the vicissitudes of night and day, and whatever GOD hath created in heaven and earth, are surely signs unto men who fear him.

do it without being observed, to avoid hearing the severe and deserving reproofs which they apprehended in every new revelation. The persons intended are the hypocritical Moslems.
      q See chapter 3, p. 49, note n
      r This prophet is mentioned towards the end of the chapter.
      s See the Prelim. Disc. Sec. III. p. 46, 47.
      t And not one of the most powerful among them neither; so that the Koreish said it was a wonder GOD could find out no other messenger than the orphan pupil of Abu Taleb.2
      u Meaning the Korân. According to the reading of some copies, the words may be rendered, This man (i.e., Mohammed) is no other than a manifest sorcerer.
      x These words were revealed to refute the foolish opinion of the idolatrous Meccans, who imagined their idols were intercessors with GOD for them.

       2 Idem.


Verily they who hope not to meet us at the last day, and delight in this present life, and rest securely in the same, and who are negligent of our signs; their dwelling shall be hell fire, for that which they have deserved. But as to those who believe, and work righteousness, their LORD will direct them because of their faith; they shall have rivers flowing through gardens of pleasure. Their prayer therein shall be Praise be unto thee O GOD! and their salutationy therein shall be Peace! and the end of their prayer shall be, Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures! If GOD should cause evil to hasten unto men, according to their desire of hastening good, verily their end had been decreed. Wherefore we suffer those who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, to wander amazedly in their error. When evil befalleth a man, he prayeth unto us lying on his side, or sitting, or standing:z but when we deliver him from his affliction, he continueth his former course of life, as though he had not called upon us to defend him against the evil which had befallen him. Thus was that which the transgressors committed prepared for them. We have formerly destroyed the generations who were before you, O men of Mecca, when they had acted unjustly, and our apostles had come unto them with evident miracles and they would not believe. Thus do we reward the wicked people. Afterwards did we cause you to succeed them in the earth; that we might see how ye would act. When our evident signs are recited unto them, they who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, say, Bring a different Koran from this; or make some change therein. Answer, It is not fit for me, that I should change it at my pleasure: I follow that only which is revealed unto me. Verily I fear if I should be disobedient unto my LORD, the punishment of the great day. Say, If GOD had so pleased, I had not read it unto you, neither had I taught you the same. I have already dwelt among you to the age of forty years,a before I received it. Do ye not therefore understand? And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD, or accuseth his signs of falsehood? Surely the wicked shall not prosper. They worship besides GOD, that which can neither hurt them or profit them, and they say, These are our intercessors with GOD.b Answer, Will ye tell GOD that which he knoweth not, neither in heaven nor in earth?c Praise be unto him! and far be that from him, which they associate with him! Men were professors of one religion only,d but they dis-

      y Either the mutual salutation of the blessed to one another, or that of the angels to the blessed.
      z i.e., In all postures, and at all times.
      a For so old was Mohammed before he took upon him to be a prophet;1 during which time his fellow-citizens well knew that he had not applied himself to learning of any sort, nor frequented learned men, nor had ever exercised himself in composing verses or orations whereby he might acquire the art of rhetoric, or elegance of speech.2 A flagrant proof, says al Beidâwi, that this book could be taught him by none but God.
      b See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 12, &c.
      c viz., That he hath equals or companions either in heaven or on earth; since he acknowledgeth none.
      d That is to say, the true religion, or Islâm, which was generally professed, as some say, till Abel was murdered, or, as others, till the days of Noah. Some suppose the first ages after the Flood are here intended: others, the state of religion in Arabia, from the time of Abraham to that of Amru Ebn Lohai, the great introducer of idolatry into that country.

1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 33. Abulfeda, Vit. Moh. c. 7. 2 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 21, &c.

sented therefrom; and if a decree had not previously issued from thy LORD, deferring their punishment, verily the matter had been decided between them, concerning which they disagreed. They say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Verily that which is hidden is known only unto GOD: wait, therefore, the pleasure of God; and I also will wait with you. And when we caused the men of Mecca to taste mercy, after an affliction which had befallen them, behold, they devised a stratagem against our signs.e Say unto them, GOD is more swift in executing a stratagem, than ye. Verily our messengersf write down that which ye deceitfully devise. It is he who hath given you conveniences for travelling by land and by sea; so that ye be in ships, which sail with them, with a favorable wind, and they rejoice therein. And when a tempestuous wind overtaketh them, and waves come upon them from every side, and they think themselves encompassed with inevitable dangers; they call upon GOD, exhibiting the pure religion unto him,g and saying, Verily if thou deliver us from this peril, we will be of those who give thanks. But when he hath delivered them, behold, they behave themselves insolently in the earth, without justice. O men, verily the violence which ye commit against your own souls, is for the enjoyment of this present life only; afterwards unto us shall ye return, and we will declare unto you that which ye have done. Verily the likeness of this present life is no other than as water, which we send down from heaven, and wherewith the productions of the earth are mixed, of which men eat, and cattle also, until the earth receive its vesture, and be adorned with various plants: the inhabitants thereof imagine that they have power over the same; but our command cometh unto it by night, or by day, and we render it as though it had been mowen, as though it had not yesterday abounded with fruits. Thus do we explain our signs unto people who consider. GOD inviteth unto the dwelling of peace,h and directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. They who do right shall receive a most excellent reward, and a superabundant addition;i neither blacknessk nor shame shall cover their faces. These shall be the inhabitants of paradise; they shall continue therein forever. But they who commit evil shall receive the reward of evil, equal thereunto,l and they shall be covered with shame, (for they shall have no protector against GOD); as though their faces were covered with the profound darkness of the night. These shall be the inhabitants of hell fire: they shall remain therein forever. On the day of the resurrection we will gather them altogether; then will we say unto the idolaters, Get ye to your place,

      e For it is said that they were afflicted with a dearth for seven years, so that they were very near perishing; but no sooner relieved by GOD’S sending them plenty, than they began again to charge Mohammed with imposture, and to ridicule his revelations.3
      f i.e., The guardian angels.
      g That is, applying themselves to GOD only, and neglecting their idols; their fears directing them in such an extremity to ask help of him only who could give it.
      h viz., Paradise.
      i For their reward will vastly exceed the merit of their good works. Al Ghazâli supposes this additional recompense will be the beatific vision.4
      k See the Prelim. Disc. p. 67, &c.
      l i.e., Though the blessed will be rewarded beyond their deserts, yet GOD will not punish any beyond their demerits, but treat them with the exactest justice.

       3 Al Beidâwi. 4 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 78.

ye and your companions:m and we will separate them from one another; and their companions will say unto them, Ye do not worship us;n and GOD is a sufficient witness between us and you; neither did we mind your worshipping of us. There shall every soul experienceo that which it shall have sent before it;p and they shall be brought before GOD their true LORD; and the false deities which they vainly imagined, shall disappear from before them. Say, Who provideth you food from heaven and earth? or who hath the absolute power over the hearing and the sight? and who bringeth forth the living from the dead, and bringeth forth the dead from the living? and who governeth all things? They will surely answer, GOD. Say, Will ye not therefore fear him? This is therefore GOD your true LORD: and what remaineth there after truth, except error? How therefore are ye turned aside from the truth? Thus is the word of thy LORD verified upon them who do wickedly; that they believe not. Say, Is there any of your companions who produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return unto himself? Say, GOD produceth a creature, and then causeth it to return unto himself. How therefore are ye turned aside from his worship? Say, Is there any of your companions who directeth unto the truth. Say, GOD directeth unto the truth. Whether is he, therefore, who directeth unto the truth, more worthy to be followed; or he who directeth not, unless he be directed? What aileth you therefore, that ye judge as ye do? And the greater part of them follow an uncertain opinion only; but a mere opinion attaineth not unto any truth. Verily GOD knoweth that which they do. This Koran could not have been composed by any except GOD; but it is a confirmation of that which was revealed before it, and an explanation of the scripture; there is no doubt thereof; sent down from the LORD of all creatures. Will they say, Mohammed hath forged it? Answer, Bring therefore a chapter like unto it; and call whom you may to your assistance, besides GOD, if ye speak truth. But they have charged that with falsehood, the knowledge whereof they do not comprehend, neither hath the interpretation thereof come unto them. In the same manner did those who were before them accuse their prophets of imposture; but behold, what was the end of the unjust! There are some of them who believe therein; and there are some of them who believe not therein:q and thy LORD well knoweth the corrupt doers. If they accuse thee of imposture, say, I have my work, and ye have your work; ye shall be clear of that which I do, and I will be clear of that which ye do. There are some of them who hearken unto thee; but wilt thou

      m That is, your idols, or the companions which ye attributed unto GOD.
      n But ye really worshipped your own lusts, and were seduced to idolatry, not by us, but by your own superstitious fancies. It is pretended that GOD will, at the last day, enable the idols to speak, and that they will thus reproach their worshippers, instead of interceding for them, as they hoped. Some suppose the angels, who were also objects of the worship of the pagan Arabs, are particularly intended in this place.
      o Some copies instead of tablu, read tatiu , i.e., shall follow, or meditate upon.
      p See chapter 2, p. 11, note r.
      q i.e., There are some of them who are inwardly well satisfied of the truth of thy doctrine, though they are so wicked as to oppose it; and there are others of them who believe it not, through prejudice and want of consideration. Or the passage may be understood in the future tense, of some who should afterwards believe, and repent, and of others who should die infidels.1

       1 Al Beidâwi.

make the deaf to hear, although they do not understand? And there are some of them who look at thee; but wilt thou direct the blind, although they see not?r Verily GOD will not deal unjustly with men in any respect: but men deal unjustly with their own souls.s On a certain day he will gather them together, as though they had not tarriedt above an hour of a day: they shall know one another.u Then shall they perish who have denied the meeting of GOD; and were not rightly directed. Whether we cause thee to see a part of the punishment wherewith we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before thou see it; unto us shall they return: then shall GOD be witness of that which they do. Unto every nation hath an apostle been sent; and when their apostle came, the matter was decided between them with equity;x and they were not treated unjustly. The unbelievers say, When will this threatening be made good, if ye speak truth? Answer, I am able neither to procure advantage unto myself, nor to avert mischief from me, but as GOD pleaseth. Unto every nation is a fixed term decreed; when their term therefore is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, neither shall their punishment be anticipated. Say, Tell me, if the punishment of GOD overtake you by night, or by day, what part thereof will the ungodly wish to be hastened? When it falleth on you, do ye then believe it? Now do ye believe, and wish it far from you, when as ye formerly desired it should be hastened? Then shall it be said unto the wicked, Taste the punishment of eternity; would ye receive other than the reward of that which ye have wrought? They will desire to know of thee, whether this be true. Answer, Yea, by my LORD, it is certainly true; neither shall ye weaken God's power so as to escape it. Verily, if every soul which hath acted wickedly had whatever is on the earth, it would willingly redeem itself therewith at the last day. Yet they will conceal their repentance,y after they shall have seen the punishment; and the matter shall be decided between them with equity, and they shall not be unjustly treated. Doth not whatsoever is in heaven and on earth belong unto GOD? Is not the promise of GOD true? But the greater part of them know it not. He giveth life, and he causeth to die: and unto him shall ye all return. O men, now hath an admonition come unto you from your LORD, and a remedy for the doubts which are in your breasts; and a direction, and mercy unto the true believers. Say, Through the grace of GOD, and his mercy; therein therefore let them rejoice; this will be better than

      r These words were revealed on account of certain Meccans, who seemed to attend while Mohammed read the Korân to them, or instructed them in any point of religion, but yet were as far from being convinced or edified, as if they had not heard him at all.2
      s For GOD deprives them not of their senses or understanding; but they corrupt and make an ill use of them.
      t Either in the world or in the grave.
      u As if it were but a little while since they parted. But this will happen during the first moments only of the resurrection; for afterwards the terror of the day will disturb and take from them all knowledge of one another.3
      x By delivering the prophet and those who believed on him, and destroying the obstinate infidels.
      y To hide their shame and regret;4 or because their surprise and astonishment will deprive them of the use of speech.5 Some, however, understand the verb which is here rendered will conceal, in the contrary signification, which it sometimes bears; and then it must be translated–They will openly declare their repentance, &c.

      2 Idem. See cap. 6, p. 90. 3 Idem. 4 Jallalo’ddin. 5 Al Beidâwi.

what they heap together of worldly riches. Say, Tell me; of that which GOD hath sent down unto you for food, have ye declared part to be lawful,z and other part to be unlawful? Say, Hath GOD permitted you to make this distinction? or do ye devise a lie concerning GOD? But what will be the opinion of those who devise a lie concerning GOD, on the day of the resurrection? Verily GOD is endued with beneficence towards mankind; but the greater part of them do not give thanks. Thou shalt be engaged in no business, neither shalt thou be employed in meditating on any passage of the Koran; nor shall ye do any action, but we will be witnesses over you, when ye are employed therein. Nor is so much as the weight of an anta hidden from thy LORD, in earth or in heaven: neither is there anything lesser than that, or greater, but it is written in the perspicuous book.b Are not the friends of GOD the persons on whom no fear shall come, and who shall not be grieved? They who believe and fear God shall receive good tidings in this life, and in that which is to come. There is no change in the words of GOD. This shall be great felicity. Let not their discoursec grieve thee; for all might belongeth unto GOD: he both heareth and knoweth. Is not whoever dwelleth in heaven and on earth subject unto GOD? What therefore do they follow, who invoke idols, besides GOD? They follow nothing but a vain opinion; and they only utter lies. It is he who hath ordained the night for you, that ye may take your rest therein, and the clear day for labor: verily herein are signs unto people who hearken. They say, GOD hath begotten children; GOD forbid! He is self-sufficient. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: ye have no demonstrative proof of this. Do ye speak of GOD that which ye know not? Say, Verily they who imagine a lie concerning GOD shall not prosper. They may enjoy a provision in this world; but afterwards unto us shall they return, and we will then cause them to taste a grievous punishment, for that they were unbelievers. Rehearse unto them the history of Noah:d when he said unto his people, O my people, if my standing forth among you, and my warning you of the signs of GOD, be grievous unto you; in GOD do I put my trust. Therefore lay your design against me, and assemble your false gods; but let not your design be carried on by you in the dark: then come forth against me, and delay not. And if ye turn aside from my admonitions, I ask not any reward of you for the same;e I expect my reward from GOD alone, and I am commanded to be one of those who are resigned unto him. But they accused him of imposture, wherefore we delivered him, and those who were with him in the ark, and we caused them to survive the flood, but we drowned those who charged our signs with falsehood. Behold therefore, what was the end of those who were warned by Noah. Then did we send, after him, apostles unto their respective people,f and they came unto

      z See chapter 6, p. 101, &c.
      a See chapter 4, p. 58, note y.
      b The preserved table, wherein GOD’S decrees are recorded.
      c The impious and rebellious talk of the infidels.
      d See chapter 7, p. 110, &c.
      e Therefore ye cannot excuse yourselves by saying that I am burdensome to you.
      f As Hûd, Sâleh, Abraham, Lot, and Shoaib, to those of Ad, Thamûd, Babel, Sodom, and Midian.

them with evident demonstrations: yet they were not disposed to believe in that which they had before rejected as false. Thus do we seal up the hearts of the transgressors. Then did we send, after them, Moses and Aaron unto Pharaoh and his princes with our signs:g but they behaved proudly, and were a wicked people. And when the truth from us had come unto them, they said, Verily this is manifest sorcery. Moses said unto them, Do ye speak this of the truth, after it hath come unto you? Is this sorcery? but sorcerers shall not prosper. They said, Art thou come unto us to turn us aside from that religion, which we found our fathers practise; and that ye two may have the command in the land? But we do not believe you. And Pharaoh said, Bring unto me every expert magician. And when the magicians were come, Moses said unto them, Cast down that which ye are about to cast down. And when they had cast down their rods and cords, Moses said unto them, The enchantment which ye have performed shall GOD surely render vain; for GOD prospereth not the work of the wicked doers, and GOD will verify the truth of his words, although the wicked be adverse thereto. And there believed not any on Moses, except a generation of his people,h for fear of Pharaoh and of his princes, lest he should afflict them. And Pharaoh was lifted up with pride in the earth, and was surely one of the transgressors. And Moses said, O my people, if ye believe in GOD, put your trust in him, if ye be resigned to his will. They answered, We put our trust in GOD: O LORD, suffer us not to be afflicted by unjust people; but deliver us, through thy mercy, from the unbelieving people. And we spake by inspiration unto Moses and his brother, saying, Provide habitations for your people in Egypt, and make your houses a place of worship,i and be constant at prayer: and bear good news unto the true believers. And Moses said, O LORD, verily thou hast given unto Pharaoh and his people pompous ornaments,k and riches in this present life, O LORD, that they may be seduced from thy way: O LORD, bring their riches to nought, and harden their hearts; that they may not believe, until they see their grievous punishment. God said, Your petition is hear;l be ye upright therefore,m and follow not the way of those who are ignorant. And we caused the children of Israel to pass through the sea; and Pharaoh and his army followed them in

      g See chapter 7, p. 115, &c.
      h For when he first began to preach, a few of the younger Israelites only believed on him; the others not giving ear to him, for fear of the king. But some suppose the pronoun his refers to Pharaoh, and that these were certain Egyptians, who, together with his wife Asia, believed on Moses.1
      i So Jallalo’ddin expounds the original word Kebla, which properly signifies that place or quarter toward which one prays. Wherefore al Zamakhshari supposes that the Israelites are here ordered to dispose their oratories in such a manner that, when they prayed, their faces might be turned towards Mecca; which he imagines was the Kebla of Moses, as it is that of the Mohammedans. The former commentator adds that Pharaoh had forbidden the Israelites to pray to GOD; for which reason they were obliged to perform that duty privately in their houses.
      k As magnificent apparel, chariots, and the like.
      l The pronoun is in the dual number; the antecedent being Moses and Aaron. The commentators say that, in consequence of this prayer, all the treasures of Egypt were turned into stones.2
      m Or, as al Beidâwi interprets it, Be ye constant and steady in preaching to the people. The Mohammedans pretend that Moses continued in Egypt no less than forty years after he had first published his mission: which cannot be reconciled to scripture.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Jallalo’ddin.

a violent and hostile manner; until, when he was drowning, he said, I believe that there is no GOD but he, on whom the children of Israel believe; and I am one of the resigned.n Now dost thou believe; when thou hast been hitherto rebellious, and one of the wicked doers? This day will we raise thy bodyo from the bottom of the sea, that thou mayest be a sign unto those who shall be after thee; and verily a great number of men are negligent of our signs. And we prepared for the children of Israel an established dwelling in the land of Canaan, and we provided good things for their sustenance; and they differed not in point of religion, until knowledge had come unto them;p verily thy LORD will judge between them on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein they disagreed. If thou art in a doubt concerning any part of that which we have sent down unto thee,q ask them who have read the book of the law before thee. Now hath the truth come unto thee from thy LORD; be not therefore one of those who doubt; neither be thou one of those who charge the signs of GOD with falsehood, lest thou become one of those who perish. Verily those against whom the word of thy LORD is decreed, shall not believe, although there come unto them every kind of miracle, until they see the grievous punishment prepared for them. And if it were not so, some city, among the many which have been destroyed, would have believed; and the faith of its inhabitants would have been of advantage unto them; but none of them believed, before the execution of their sentence, except the people of Jonas.r When they believed, we delivered them from the punishment of shame in this world, and suffered them to enjoy their lives and possessions for a time.s But if thy LORD had pleased, verily all who are in the earth would have believed in general. Wilt thou therefore forcibly compel men to be true believers? No soul can believe, but by the permission of GOD: and he shall pour out his indignation on those who will not understand. Say, Consider whatever is in heaven and on earth: but signs are of no avail, neither preachers, unto people who

      n These words, it is said, Pharaoh repeated often in his extremity, that he might be heard. But his repentance came too late; for Gabriel soon stopped his mouth with mud, lest he should obtain mercy; reproaching him at the same time in the words which follow.
      o Some of the children of Israel doubting whether Pharaoh was really drowned. Gabriel, by GOD’S command, caused his naked corpse to swim to shore, that they might see it.3 The word here translated body, signifying also a coat of mail, some imagine the meaning to be, that his corpse floated armed with his coat of mail, which they tell us was of gold, by which they knew that it was he.
      p i.e., After the law had been revealed, and published by Moses.
      q That is, concerning the truth of the histories which are here related. The commentators doubt whether the person here spoken to be Mohammed himself or his auditor.
      r viz., The inhabitants of Ninive, which stood on or near the place where al Mawsel now stands. This people having corrupted themselves with idolatry, Jonas the son of Mattai (or Amittai, which the Mohammedans suppose to be the name of his mother), an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin, was sent by God to preach to and reclaim them. When he first began to exhort them to repentance, instead of hearkening to him, they used him very ill, so that he was obliged to leave the city; threatening them, at his departure, that they should be destroyed within three days, or, as others say, within forty.1 But when the time drew near, and they saw the heavens overcast with a black cloud, which shot forth fire, and filled the air with smoke, and hung directly over their city, they were in a terrible consternation, and getting into the fields with their families and cattle, they put on sackcloth, and humbled themselves before God, calling aloud for pardon, and sincerely repenting of their past wickedness. Whereupon God was pleased to forgive them, and the storm blew over.2
      s i.e., Until they died according to the ordinary course of nature.

      3 See Exod. xiv. 30. 1 See Jonah iii. 4. 2 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, Abulfeda. See cap. 21 and 37.

will not believe. Do they therefore expect any other than some terrible judgment, like unto the judgments which have fallen on those who have gone before them? Say, Wait ye the issue; and I also will wait with you; then will we deliver our apostles and those who believe. Thus is it a justice due from us, that we should deliver the true believers. Say, O men of Mecca, if ye be in doubt concerning my religion, verily I worship not the idols which ye worship, besides GOD; but I worship GOD, who will cause you to die: and I am commanded to be one of the true believers. And it was said unto me, Set thy face towards the true religion, and be orthodox; and by no means be one of those who attribute companions unto God; neither invoke, besides GOD, that which can neither profit thee nor hurt thee: for if thou do, thou wilt then certainly become one of the unjust. If GOD afflict thee with hurt, there is none who can relieve thee from it, except he; and if he willeth thee any good, there is none who can keep back his bounty: he will confer it on such of his servants as he pleaseth; and he is gracious and merciful. Say, O men, now hath the truth come unto you from your LORD. He therefore who shall be directed, will be directed to the advantage of his own soul: but he who shall err, will err only against the same. I am no guardian over you. Do thou, O prophet, follow that which is revealed unto thee: and persevere with patience, until GOD shall judge; for he is the best judge.



________




CHAPTER XI.

ENTITLED, HUD;t REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       AL. R.u THIS book, the verses whereof are guarded against corruption, and are also distinctly explained,y is a revelation from the wise, the knowing God: that ye serve not any other GOD: (verily I am a denouncer of threats, and a bearer of good tidings unto you from

      t The story of which prophet is repeated in this chapter.
      u See the Prelim. Disc. p. 46, &c.
      x According to the various senses which the verb ohkimat, in the original, may bear, the commentators suggest as many different interpretations. Some suppose the meaning to be, according to our version, that the Korân is not liable to be corrupted,1 as the law and the gospel have been, in the opinion of the Mohammedans; others, that every verse in this particular chapter is in full force, and not one of them abrogated; others, that the verses of the Korân are disposed in a clear and perspicuous method, or contain evident and demonstrative arguments; and others, that they comprise judicial declarations, to regulate both faith and practice.2
      y The signification of the verb fossilat, which is here used, being also ambiguous, the meaning of this passage is supposed to be, either that the verses are distinctly proposed or expressed in a clear manner; or that the subject matter of the whole may be distinguished or divided into laws, monitions, and examples; or else that the verses were revealed by parcels.

       1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 53. 2 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, al Zamakhshari, &c.


him;) and that ye ask pardon of your LORD, and then be turned unto him. He will cause you to enjoy a plentiful provision, until a prefixed time: and unto every one that hath merit by good works will he give his abundant reward. But if ye turn back, verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day: unto GOD shall ye return; and he is almighty. Do they not double the folds of their breasts,z that they may conceal their designs from him? When they cover themselves with their garments, doth not he know that which they conceal, and that which they discover? For he knoweth the innermost parts of the breasts of men.a (XII.) There is no creature which creepeth on the earth, but GOD provideth its food; and he knoweth the place of its retreat, and where it is laid up.b The whole is written in the perspicuous book of his decrees. It is he who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days, (but his throne was above the waters before the creation thereof),c that he might prove you, and see which of you would excel in works. If thou say, Ye shall surely be raised again, after death; the unbelievers will say, This is nothing but manifest sorcery. And verily if we defer their punishment unto a determined season, they will say, What hindereth it from falling on us? Will it not come upon them on a day, wherein there shall be none to avert it from them; and that which they scoffed at shall encompass them? Verily, if we cause man to taste mercy from us, and afterwards take it away from him; he will surely become desperate,d and ungrateful. And if we cause him to taste favor, after an affliction hath befallen him, he will surely say, The evils which I suffered are passed from me, and he will become joyful and insolent: except those who persevere with patience, and do that which is right; they shall receive pardon, and a great reward. Peradventure thou wilt omit to publish part of that which hath been revealed unto thee, and thy breast will become straitened, lest they say, Unless a treasure be sent down unto him, or an angel come with him, to bear witness unto him, we will not believe. Verily thou art a preacher only; and GOD is the governor of all things. Will they say, He hath forged the Koran? Answer, Bring therefore ten chapterse like unto it, forged by

      z Or, as it may be translated, Do they not turn away their breasts, &c.
      a This passage was occasioned by the words of certain of the idolaters, who said to one another, When we let down our curtains (such as the women use in the east to screen themselves from the sight of the men when they happen to be in the room), and wrap ourselves up in our garments, and fold up our breasts, to conceal our malice against Mohammed, how should he come to the knowledge of it? Some suppose the passage relates to certain hypocritical Moslems; but this opinion is generally rejected, because the verse was revealed at Mecca, and the birth of hypocrisy among the Mohammedans happened not till after the Hejra.
      b i.e., Both during its life and after its death; or the repository of every animal, before its birth, in the loins and wombs of the parents.
      c For the Mohammedans suppose this throne, and the waters whereon it stands, which waters they imagine are supported by a spirit or wind, were, with some other things, created before the heavens and earth. This fancy they borrowed from the Jews, who also say that the throne of glory then stood in the air, and was borne on the face of the waters, by the breath of GOD’S mouth.1
      d Casting aside all hopes of the divine favour, for want of patience and trust in GOD.
      e This was the number which he first challenged them to compose; but they not being able to do it, he made the matter still easier, challenging them to produce a single chapter only,2 comparable to the Korân in doctrine and eloquence.

      1 Rashi, ad Gen. i. 2. Vide Reland. de Relig. Moh. p. 50, &c. 2 See c. 2, p. 3; c. 10, p. 153, &c.

yourselves:
and call on whomsoever ye may to assist you, except GOD, if ye speak truth. But if they whom ye call to your assistance hear you not; know that this book hath been revealed by the knowledge of GOD only,f and that there is no GOD but he. Will ye therefore become Moslems? Whoso chooseth the present life, and the pomp thereof, unto them will we give the recompense of their works therein, and the same shall not be diminished unto them. These are they for whom no other reward is prepared in the next life, except the fire of hell: that which they have done in this life shall perish; and that which they have wrought shall be vain. Shall he therefore be compared with them, who followeth the evident declaration of his LORD, and whom a witness from himg attendeth, preceded by the book of Moses,h which was revealed for a guide, and out of mercy to mankind? These believe in the Koran: but whosoever of the confederate infidels believeth not therein, is threatened the fire of hell, which threat shall certainly be executed: be not therefore in a doubt concerning it; for it is the truth from thy LORD: but the greater part of men will not believe. Who is more unjust than he who imagineth a lie concerning GOD? They shall be set before the LORD, at the day of judgment, and the witnessesi shall say, These are they who devised lies against their LORD. Shall not the curse of GOD fall on the unjust; who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come? These were not able to prevail against God on earth, so as to escape punishment; neither had they any protectors besides GOD: their punishment shall be doubled unto them.k They could not hear, neither did they see. These are they who have lost their souls; and the idols which they falsely imagined have abandoned them. There is no doubt but they shall be most miserable in the world to come. But as for those who believe and do good works, and humble themselves before their LORD, they shall be the inhabitants of paradise; they shall remain therein forever. The similitude of the two partiesl is as the blind and the deaf, and as he who seeth and heareth: shall they be compared as equal? Will ye not therefore consider? We formerly sent Noahm unto his people; and he said, Verily I am a public preacher unto you; that ye worship GOD alone; verily I fear for you the punishment of the terrible day. But the chiefs of the people, who believed not, answered, We see thee to be no other than a man, like unto us; and we do not see that any follow thee, except those who are the most abject among us, who have believed on thee by a rash judgment;n neither do we perceive any excellence in you above us: but we esteem you to be liars. Noah said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed

      f Or containing several passages wrapped up in dark and mysterious expressions, which can proceed from and are perfectly comprehended by none but GOD.3
      g The Korân; or, as others suppose, the angel Gabriel.
      h Which bears testimony thereto.
      i That is, the angels, and prophets, and their own members.
      k For they shall be punished both in this life and in the next.
      l i.e., The believers and the infidels.
      m See chapter 7, p. 110, &c.
      n For want of mature consideration, and moved by the first impulse of their fancy.

       3 See c. 3, p. 32.

on me mercy from himself, which is hidden from you, do we compel you to receive the same, in case ye be averse thereto? O my people, I ask not of you riches, for my preaching unto you: my reward is with GOD alone. I will not drive away those who have believed:o verily they shall meet their LORD, at the resurrection; but I perceive that ye are ignorant men. O my people, who shall assist me against GOD, if I drive them away? Will ye not therefore consider? I say not unto you, The treasures of GOD are in my power; neither do I say, I know the secrets of God: neither do I say, Verily I am an angel;p neither do I say of those whom your eyes do contemn, GOD will by no means bestow good on them: (GOD best knoweth that which is in their souls;) for then should I certainly be one of the unjust. They answered, O Noah, thou hast already disputed with us, and hast multiplied disputes with us; now therefore do thou bring that punishment upon us wherewith thou hast threatened us, if thou speakest truth. Noah said, Verily GOD alone shall bring it upon you, if he pleaseth; and ye shall not prevail against him, so as to escape the same. Neither shall my counsel profit you, although I endeavor to counsel you aright, if GOD shall please to lead you into error. He is your LORD, and unto him shall ye return. Will the Meccans say, Mohammed hath forged the Koran? Answer, If I have forged it, on me be my guilt: and let me be clear of that which ye are guilty of. And it was revealed unto Noah, saying, Verily none of thy people shall believe, except he who hath already believed: be not therefore grieved, for that which they are doing. But make an ark in our presence, according to the form and dimensions which we have revealed unto thee: and speak not unto me in behalf of those who have acted unjustly; for they are doomed to be drowned. And he built the ark; and so often as a company of his people passed by him, they derided him:q but he said, Though ye scoff at us now, we will scoff at you hereafter, as ye scoff at us; and ye shall surely know on whom a punishment shall be inflicted, which shall cover him with shame, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall. Thus were they employed until our sentence was put in execution, and the oven poured forth water.r And we said unto Noah, Carry into the ark of every species

      o For this they asked him to do, because they were poor mean people. The same thing the Koreish demanded of Mohammed, but he was forbidden to comply with their request.1
      p See chapter 6, p. 93.
      q For building a vessel in an inland country, and so far from the sea; and for that he was turned carpenter after he had set up for a prophet.2
      r Or, as the original literally signifies, boiled over; which is consonant to what the Rabbins say, that the waters of the Deluge were boiling hot.
      This oven was, as some say, at Cûfa, in a spot whereon a mosque now stands; or, as others rather think, in a certain place in India, or else at Ain warda in Mesopotamia;3 and its exundation was the sign by which Noah knew the flood was coming.4 Some pretend that it was the same oven which Eve made use of to bake her bread in, being of a form different from those we use, having the mouth in the upper part, and that it descended from patriarch to patriarch, till it came to Noah.5 It is remarkable that Mohammed, in all probability, borrowed this circumstance from the Persian Magi, who also fancied that the first waters of the Deluge gushed out of the oven of a certain old woman named Zala Cûfa.6
      But the word tannûr, which is here translated oven, also signifying the superficies of the earth, or a place whence waters spring forth, or where they are collected, some suppose it means no more in this passage than the spot or fissure whence the first eruption of waters brake forth.

      1 See cap. 6, p. 93. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Jallalo’ddin, &c. 5 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. Art. Noah. 6 Vide Hyde, de Rel. Vet. Persar, and Lord’s Account of the Relig. of the Persees, p. 9.

of animals
one pair;s and thy family,t (except him on whom a previous sentence of destruction hath passed),u and those who believe.x But there believed not with him except a few.y And Noah said, Embark thereon, in the name of GOD; while it moveth forward, and while it standeth still;z for my LORD is gracious and merciful. And the ark swam with them between waves like mountains:a and Noah called unto his son,b who was separated from him, saying, Embark with us, my son, and stay not with the unbelievers. He answered, I will get on a mountain, which will secure me from the water. Noah replied, There is no security this day from the decree of GOD, except for him on whom he shall have mercy. And a wave passed between them, and he became one of those who were drowned. And it was said, O earth, swallow up thy waters, and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain. And immediately the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the ark rested on the mountain Al Judi;c and it was said, Away with

      s Or, as the words may also be rendered, and some commentators think they ought, two pair, that is, two males and two females of each species; wherein they partly agree with divers Jewish and Christian writers,1 who from the Hebrew expression, seven and seven and two and two, the male and his female,2 suppose there went into the ark fourteen pair of every clean, and two pair of every unclean species. There is a tradition that GOD gathered together unto Noah all sorts of beasts, birds, and other animals (it being indeed difficult to conceive how he should come by them all without some supernatural assistance), and that as he laid hold on them, his right hand constantly fell on the male, and his left on the female.3
      t Namely, thy wife, and thy sons and their wives.4
      u This was an unbelieving son of Noah,5 named Canaan,6 or Yam;7 though others say he was not the son of Noah, but his grandson by his son Ham, or his wife’s son by another husband; nay, some pretend he was related to him no farther than by having been educated and brought up in his house.8 The best commentators add, that Noah’s wife, named Wâïla, who was n infidel, was also comprehended in this exception, and perished with her son.9
      x Noah’s family being mentioned before, it is supposed that by these words are intended the other believers, who were his proselytes, but not of his family: whence the common opinion among the Mohammedans, of a greater number than eight being saved in the ark, seems to have taken its rise.10
      y viz., His other wife, who was a true believer, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and their wives, and seventy-two persons more.11
      z That is, omit no opportunity of getting on board. According to a different reading, the latter words may be rendered, Who shall cause it to move forward, and to stop, as there shall be occasion. The commentators tell us that the ark moved forwards, or stood still, as Noah would have it, on his pronouncing only the words, In the name of GOD.12
      It is to be observed that the more judicious commentators make the dimensions of the ark to be the same with those assigned by Moses:13 Notwithstanding, others have enlarged them most extravagantly,14 as some Christian writers15 have also done. They likewise tell us that Noah was two years in building the ark, which was framed of Indian plane-tree,16 that it was divided into three stories, of which the lower was designed for the beasts, the middle one for the men and women, and the upper for the birds;17 and that the men were separated from the women by the body of Adam, which Noah had taken into the ark.18 This last is a tradition of the eastern Christians,19 some of whom pretend that the matrimonial duty was superseded and suspended during the time Noah and his family were in the ark;20 though Ham has been accused of not observing continency on that occasion, his wife, it seems, bringing forth Caanan in the very ark.21
      a The waters prevailing fifteen cubits above the mountains.22
      b See above, note u.
      c This mountain is one of those which divide Armenia, on the south, from Mesopotamia, and that part of Assyria which is inhabited by the Curds, from whom the mountains took the name

      1 Aben Ezra, Justin Martyr, Origen, &c. 2 Gen. vii. 2. 3 Jallalo’ddin. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Yahya. 6 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 7 Ebn Shohnah. 8 Al Zamakhshari. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 676. 9 Jallalo’ddin, al Zamakhshari, al Beidâwi. 10 See c. 7, p. 111. 11 See ibid. note x. 12 Al Beidâwi, &c. 13 Idem, &c. 14 Yahya. Vide Marracc. in Alcor. p. 340. 15 Origen. Contr. Cels. l. 4. Vide Kircher. de Arca Noe, c. 8. 16 Al Beidâwi. Vide D’Herbel. p. 675, and Eutych. p. 34. 17 Al Beidâwi. Vide Eutych. Annal. p. 34. 18 Yahya. 19 Jacob, Edessenus, apud Barcepham de Parad. part i. c. 14. Eutych. ubi sup. Vide etiam Eliezer. pirke c. 23. 20 Ambros. de Noa et Arca, c. 21. 21 Vide Heidegger. Hist. Patriarchar. vol. i. p. 409. 22 Al Beidâwi.

the ungodly people! And Noah called upon his LORD, and said, O LORD, verily my son is of my family, and thy promise is true;d for thou art the most just of those who exercise judgment. God answered, O Noah, verily he is not of thy family;e this intercession of thine for him is not a righteous work.f Ask not of me therefore that wherein thou hast no knowledge: I admonish thee that thou become not one of the ignorant. Noah said, O LORD, I have recourse unto thee for the assistance of thy grace, that I ask not of thee that wherein I have no knowledge; and unless thou forgive me, and be merciful unto me, I shall be one of those who perish. It was said unto him, O Noah, come down from the ark,g with peace from us, and blessings upon thee, and upon part of those who are with thee:h but as for a part of them,i we will suffer them to enjoy the provision of this world; and afterwards shall a grievous punishment from us be inflicted on them, in the life to come. This is a secret history, which we reveal unto thee: thou didst not know it, neither did thy people, before this. Wherefore persevere with patience: for the prosperous issue shall attend the pious. And unto the tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hud.k He said, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him: ye only imagine false-

of Cardu, or Gardu, by the Greeks turned into Gordyæi, and other names.1 Mount al Jûdi (which name seems to be a corruption, though it be constantly so written by the Arabs, for Jordi, or Giordi) is also called Thamanin,2 probably from a town at the foot of it,3 so named from the number of persons saved in the ark, the word thamanin signifying eighty, and overlooks the country of Diyâr Rabîah, near the cities of Mawsel, Forda, and Jazîrat Ebn Omar, which last place one affirms to be but four miles from the place of the ark, and says that a Mohammedan temple was built there with the remains of that vessel, by the Khalif Omar Ebn Abd’alaziz, whom he by mistake calls Omar Ebn al Khattâb.4
      The tradition which affirms the ark to have rested on these mountains, must have been very ancient, since it is the tradition of the Chaldeans themselves:5 the Chaldee paraphrasts consent to their opinion,6 which obtained very much formerly, especially among the eastern Christians.7 To confirm it, we are told that the remainders of the ark were to be seen on the Gordyæan mountains: Berosus and Abydenus both declare there was such a report in their time;8 the first observing that several of the inhabitants thereabouts scraped the pitch off the planks as a rarity, and carried it about them for an amulet: and the latter saying that they used the wood of the vessel against many diseases with wonderful success. The relics of the ark were also to be seen here in the time of Epiphanius, if we may believe him;9 and we are told the emperor Heraclius went from the town of Thamanin up to the mountain al Jûdi, and saw the place of the ark.10 There was also formerly a famous monastery, called the monastery of the ark, upon some of these mountains, where the Nestorians used to celebrate a feast day on the spot where they supposed the ark rested; but in the year of Christ 776, that monastery was destroyed by lightning, with the church, and a numerous congregation in it.11 Since which time it seems the credit of this tradition hath declined, and given place to another, which obtains at present, and according to which the ark rested on Mount Masis, in Armenia, called by the Turks Aghir dagh, or the heavy or great mountain, and situate about twelve leagues south-east of Erivan.12
      d Noah here challenges GOD’S promise that he would save his family.
      e Being cut off from it on account of his infidelity.
      f According to a different reading, this passage may be rendered, For he hath acted unrighteously.
      g The Mohammedans say that Noah went into the ark on the tenth of Rajeb, and came out of it the tenth of al Moharram, which therefore became a fast. So that the whole time of Noah’s being in the ark, according to them, was six months.1
      h viz., Such of them as continued in their belief.
      i That is, such of his posterity as should depart from the true faith, and fall into idolatry.
      k See chapter 7, p. 111.

      1 See Bochart. Phaleg. l. I, c. 3. 2 Geogr. Nub. p. 202. 3 Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. p. 404 and 676, and Agathiam, l. 14, p. 135. 4 Benjamin. Itiner. p. 61. 5 Berosus, apud Joseph. Antiq. l. I, c. 4. 6 Onkelos et Jonathan, in Gen. viii. 4. 7 Vide Eutych. Annal. p. 41. 8 Berosus, apud Joseph. ubi sup. Abydenus, apud Euseb. Præp. Ev. l. 9, c.4. 9 Epiph. Hæres. 18. 10 Elmacin. l. I, c. I. 11 Vide Chronic. Dionysii Patriarch. Jacobitar. apud Asseman. Bibl. Orient. t. 2, p. 113. 12 Al Beidâwi. 1 Idem. See D’Herbel. ubi sup.

hood, in setting up idols and intercessors of your own making. O my people, I ask not of you for this my preaching, any recompense: my recompense do I expect from him only who hath created me. Will ye not therefore understand? O my people, ask pardon of your LORD; and be turned unto him: he will send the heaven to pour forth rain plentifully upon you,l and he will increase your strength by giving unto you farther strength:m therefore turn not aside, to commit evil. They answered, O Hud, thou hast brought us no proof of what thou sayest; therefore we will not leave our gods for thy saying, neither do we believe thee. We say no other than that some of our gods have afflicted thee with evil.n He replied, Verily I call GOD to witness, and do ye also bear witness that I am clear of that which ye associate with God, besides him. Do ye all therefore join to devise a plot against me, and tarry not; for I put my confidence in GOD, my LORD and your LORD. There is no beast, but he holdeth it by its forelock:o verily my LORD proceedeth in the right way. But if ye turn back, I have already declared unto you that with which I was sent unto you: and my LORD shall substitute another nation in your stead; and ye shall not hurt him at all: for my LORD is guardian over all things. And when our sentence came to be put in execution, we delivered Hud, and those who had believed with him,p through our mercy; and we delivered them from a grievous punishment. And this tribe of Ad wittingly rejected the signs of their LORD, and were disobedient unto his messengers, and they followed the command of every rebellious perverse person. Wherefore they were followed in this world by a curse, and they shall be followed by the same on the day of resurrection. Did not Ad disbelieve in their LORD? Was it not said, Away with Ad, the people of Hud? And unto the tribe of Thamud we sent their brother Saleh.q He said unto them, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him. It is he who hath produced you out of the earth, and hath given you an habitation therein. Ask pardon of him therefore, and be turned unto him; for my LORD is near, and ready to answer. They answered, O Saleh, thou wast a person on whom we placed our hopes before this.r Dost thou forbid us to worship that which our fathers worshipped? But we are certainly in doubt concerning the religion to which thou dost invite us, as justly to be suspected. Saleh said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me mercy from himself; who will protect me from the vengeance of GOD, if I be disobedient unto him? For ye shall not add unto me, other than loss. And he said, O my people, this she-camel of GOD is a sign unto you;

      l For the Adites were grievously distressed by a drought for three years.2
      m By giving you children; the wombs of their wives being also rendered barren during the time of the drought, as well as their lands.3
      n Or madness; having deprived thee of thy reason for the indignities thou hast offered them.
      o That is, he exerciseth an absolute power over it. A creature held in this manner being supposed to be reduced to the lowest subjection.
      p Who were in number four thousand.4
      q See chapter 7, p. 112.
      r Designing to have made thee our prince, because of the singular prudence and other good qualities which we observed in thee; but thy dissenting from us in point of religious worship has frustrated those hopes.5

      2 See the notes to cap. 7, p. 111. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. 5 Idem.

therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in GOD'S earth, and do her no harm, lest a swift punishment seize you. Yet they killed her; and Saleh said, Enjoy yourselves in your dwellings for three days:s after which ye shall be destroyed. This is an infallible prediction. And when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Saleh and those who believed with him, through our mercy, from the disgrace of that day; for thy LORD is the strong, the mighty God. But a terrible noise from heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses, lying dead and prostrate: as though they had never dwelt therein. Did not Thamud disbelieve in their LORD? Was not Thamud cast far away? Our messengerst also came formerly unto Abraham, with good tidings: they said, Peace be upon thee. And he answered, and on you be Peace! And he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. And when he saw that their hands did not touch the meat, he misliked them, and entertained a fear of them.u But they said, Fear not: for we are sent unto the people of Lot.x And his wife Sarah was standing by,y and she laughed;z and we promised her Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob. She said, Alas! shall I bear a son, who am old; this my husband also being advanced in years?a Verily this would be a wonderful thing. The angels answered, Dost thou wonder at the effect of the command of GOD? The mercy of God and his blessings be upon you, the family of the house:b for he is praiseworthy, and to be glorified. And when his apprehension had departed from Abraham, and the good tidings of Isaac's birth had come unto him, he disputed with us concerning the people of Lot;c for Abraham was a pitiful, compassionate, and devout person. The angels said unto him, O Abraham, abstain from this; for now is the command of thy LORD come, to put their sentence in execution, and an inevitable punishment is ready to fall upon them. And when our messengers came

      s viz., Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday.1 See chapter 7, p. 113, note m.
      t These were the angels who were sent to acquaint Abraham with the promise of Isaac, and to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. Some of the commentators pretend they were twelve, or nine, or ten in number; but others, agreeably to scripture, say they were but three, viz., Gabriel, Michael and Israfîl.2
      u Apprehending they had some ill design against him, because they would not eat with him.
      x Being angels, whose nature needs not the support of food.3
      y Either behind the curtain, or door of the tent; or else waiting upon them.
      z The commentators are so little acquainted with scripture, that, not knowing the true occasion of Sarah’s laughter, they strain their invention to give some reason for it. One says that she laughed at the angels discovering themselves, and ridding Abraham and herself of their apprehensions; and another, that it was at the approaching destruction of the Sodomites (a very probable motive in one of her sex). Some, however, interpret the original word differently, and will have it that she did not laugh, but that her courses, which had stopped for several years, came upon her at this time, as a previous sign of her future conception.4
      a Al Beidâwi writes that Sarah was then ninety or ninety-nine years old, and Abraham a hundred and twenty.
      b Or the stock whence all the prophets were to proceed for the future. Or the expression may perhaps refer to Abraham and Ismael’s building the Caaba, which is often called, by way of excellence, the house.
      c That is, he interceded with us for them.5 Jallalo’ddin, instead of the numbers mentioned by Moses, says that Abraham first asked whether GOD would destroy those cities if three hundred righteous persons were found therein, and so fell successively to two hundred, forty, fourteen, and at last came to one: but there was not one righteous person to be found among them, except only Lot and his family.

      1 Idem. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. See Gen. xviii. 3 Idem. 4 Idem, Jallalo’ddin, al Zamakhshari. 5 Vide Gen. xviii. 23, &c.

unto Lot, he was troubled for them,d and his arm was straightened concerning them;e and he said, This is a grievous day. And his people came unto him, rushing upon him, and they had formerly been guilty of wickedness. Lot said unto them, O my people, these my daughters are more lawful for you: therefore fear GOD, and put me not to shame by wronging my guests. Is there not a man of prudence among you? They answered, Thou knowest that we have no need of thy daughters; and thou well knowest what we would have. He said, If I had strength sufficient to oppose you, or I could have recourse unto a powerful support, I would certainly do it. The angels said, O Lot, verily we are the messengers of thy LORD; they shall by no means come in unto thee.f Go forth, therefore, with thy family, in some part of the night, and let not any of you turn back: but as for thy wife,g that shall happen unto her, which shall happen unto them. Verily the prediction of their punishment shall be fulfilled in the morning: is not the morning near? And when our command came, we turned those cities upside down,h and we rained upon them stones of baked clay,i one following another, and being markedk from thy LORD; and they are not far distant from those who act unjustly.l And unto Madian we sent their brother Shoaib:m he said, O people, worship GOD: ye have no GOD but him: and diminish not measure and weight. Verily I see you to be in a happy condition:n but I fear for you the punishment of the day which will encompass the ungodly. O my people, give full measure and just weight; and diminish not unto men aught of their matters; neither commit injustice in the earth, acting corruptly. The residue which shall remain unto you as the gift of GOD, after ye shall have done justice to others, will be better for you, than wealth gotten by fraud, if ye be true believers. I am no guardian over you. They answered, O

      d Because they appeared in the shape of beautiful young men, which must needs tempt those of Sodom to abuse them.6
      e i.e., He knew himself unable to protect them against the insults of his townsmen.
      f Al Beidâwi says that Lot shut his door, and argued the matter with the riotous assembly from behind it; but at length they endeavoured to get over the wall: whereupon Gabriel, seeing his distress, struck them on the face with one of his wings, and blinded them; so that they moved off, crying out for help, and saying that Lot had magicians in his house.
      g This seems to be the true sense of the passage; but according to a different reading of the vowel, some interpret it, Except thy wife; the meaning being that Lot is here commanded to take his family with him except his wife. Wherefore the commentators cannot agree whether Lot’s wife went forth with him or not; some denying it, and pretending that she was left behind and perished in the common destruction; and others affirming it, and saying that when she heard the noise of the storm and overthrow of the cities, she turned back lamenting their fate, and was immediately struck down and killed by one of the stones mentioned a little lower.1 A punishment she justly merited for her infidelity and disobedience to her husband.2
      h For they tell us that Gabriel thrust his wing under them, and lifted them up so high, that the inhabitants of the lower heaven heard the barking of the dogs and the crowing of the cocks; and then, inverting them, threw them down to the earth.3
      i The kiln wherein they were burned some imagine to have been hell.
      k That is, as some suppose, streaked with white and red, or having some other peculiar mark to distinguish them from ordinary stones. But the common opinion is that each stone had the name of the person who was to be killed by it written thereon.4 The army of Abraha al Ashram was also destroyed by the same kind of stones.
      l This is a kind of threat to other wicked persons, and particularly to the infidels of Mecca, who deserved and might justly apprehend the same punishment.
      m See chap. 7, p. 113, &c.
      n That is, enjoying plenty of all things; and therefore having the less occasion to defraud one another, and being the more strongly bound to be thankful and obedient unto GOD.

      6 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. Vide Joseph. Ant. l. I, c. II. 1 Idem interpretes. 2 See cap. 66. 3 Jallalo’ddin, al Beidâwi. 4 Idem.

Shoaib, do thy prayers enjoin thee, that we should leave the gods which our fathers worshipped; or that we should not do what we please with our substance?o Thou only, it seems, art the wise person, and fit to direct. He said, O my people, tell me: if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me an excellent provision, and I will not consent unto you in that which I forbid you; do I seek any other than your reformation, to the utmost of my power? My support is from GOD alone: on him do I trust, and unto him do I turn me. O my people, let not your opposing of me draw on you a vengeance like unto that which fell on the people of Noah, or the people of Hud, or the people of Saleh: neither was the people of Lot far distant from you.p Ask pardon, therefore, of your LORD; and be turned unto him: for my LORD is merciful and loving. They answered, O Shoaib, we understand not much of what thou sayest; and we see thee to be a man of no powerq among us: if it had not been for the sake of thy family,r we had surely stoned thee, neither couldst thou have prevailed against us. Shoaib said, O my people, is my family more worthy in your opinion than GOD? and do ye cast him behind you with neglect? Verily my LORD comprehendeth that which ye do. O my people, do ye work according to your condition; I will surely work according to my duty.s And ye shall certainly know on whom will be inflicted a punishment which shall cover him with shame, and who is a liar. Wait, therefore, the event; for I also will wait it with you. Wherefore, when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Shoaib and those who believed with him, through our mercy: and a terrible noise from Heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses lying dead and prostrate, as though they had never dwelt therein. Was not Madian removed from off the earth, as Thamud had been removed? And we formerly sent Moses with our signs, and manifest power unto Pharaoh and his princes;t but they followed the command of Pharaoh; although the command of Pharaoh did not direct them aright. Pharaoh shall precede his on the day of resurrection, and he shall lead them into hell fire; an unhappy way shall it be which they shall be led. They were followed in this life by a curse, and on the day of resurrection miserable shall be the gift which shall be given them. This is a part of the histories of the cities, which we rehearse unto thee. Of them there are some standing; and others which are utterly demolished.u And we treated them not unjustly,

      o For this liberty they imagined was taken from them, by his prohibition of false weights and measures, or to diminish or adulterate their coin.5
      p For Sodom and Gomorrah were situate not a great way from you, and their destruction happened not many ages ago; neither did they deserve it, on account of their obstinacy and wickedness, much more than yourselves.
      q The Arabic word daîf, weak, signifying also, in the Hamyaritic dialect, blind, some suppose that Shoaib was so, and that the Midianites objected that to him as a defect which disqualified him for the prophetic office.
      r i.e., For the respect we bear to thy family and relations, whom we honour as being of our religion, and not for any apprehension we have of their power to assist you against us. The original word, here translated family, signifies any number from three to seven or ten, but not more.6
      s See chapter 6, p. 101, note o.
      t See chapter 7, p. 115, &c.
      u Literally, mown down; the sentence presenting the different images of corn standing, and cut down, which is also often used by the sacred writers.

       5 Al Beidâwi. 6 Idem.

but they dealt unjustly with their own souls: and their gods which they invoked, besides GOD, were of no advantage unto them at all, when the decree of thy LORD came to be executed on them, neither were they any other than a detriment unto them. And thus was the punishment of thy LORD inflicted, when he punished the cities which were unjust; for his punishment is grievous and severe. Verily herein is a sign unto him who feareth the punishment of the last day: that shall be a day, whereon all men shall be assembled, and that shall be a day whereon witness shall be borne; we defer it not, but to a determined time. When that day shall come, no soul shall speak to excuse itself, or to intercede for another, but by the permission of God. Of them, one shall be miserable, and another shall be happy. And they who shall be miserable, shall be thrown into hell fire; there shall they wail and bemoan themselves:x they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth shall endure;y except what thy LORD shall please to remit of their sentence;z for thy LORD effecteth that which he pleaseth. But they who shall be happy, shall be admitted into paradise; they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth endure: besides what thy LORD shall please to add unto their bliss; a bounty which shall not be interrupted. Be not therefore in doubt concerning that which these men worship: they worship no other than what their fathers worshipped before them; and we will surely give them their full portion, not in the least diminished. We formerly gave unto Moses the book of the law; and disputes arose among his people concerning it: and unless a previous decree had proceeded from thy LORD, to bear with them during this life, the matter had been surely decided between them. And thy people are also jealous and in doubt concerning the Koran. But unto every one of them will thy LORD render the reward of their works; for he well knoweth that which they do. Be thou steadfast, therefore, as thou hast been commanded; and let him also be steadfast who shall be converted with thee; and transgress not; for he seeth that which ye do. And incline not unto those who act unjustly, lest the fire of hell touch you: for ye have no protectors, except GOD; neither shall ye be assisted against him. Pray regularly morning and evening;a and in the former part of the night,b for good works drive away evils. This is an admonition unto those who consider: wherefore persevere with patience; for GOD suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. Were such of the generations before you, endued with understanding and virtue, who forbade the acting corruptly in the earth, any more than a few only of those whom we delivered; but they who were un-

      x The two words in the original signify properly the vehement drawing in and expiration of one’s breath, which is usual to persons in great pain and anguish; and particularly the reciprocation of the voice of an ass when he brays.
      y This is not to be strictly understood as if either the punishment of the damned should have an end, or the heavens and the earth should endure for ever; the expression being only used by way of image or comparison, which need not agree in every point with the thing signified. Some, however, think the future heavens and earth, into which the present shall be changed, are here meant.1
      z See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 72, 73.
      a Literally, in the two extremities of the day.
      b That is, after sunset and before supper, when the Mohammedans say their fourth prayer, called by them Salât al moghreb, or the evening prayer.2

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem.

just followed the delights which they enjoyed in this world,c and were wicked doers:d and thy LORD was not of such a disposition as to destroy the cities unjustly,e while their inhabitants behaved themselves uprightly. And if thy LORD pleased, he would have made all men of one religion: but they shall not cease to differ among themselves, unless those on whom thy LORD shall have mercy: and unto this hath he created them; for the word of thy LORD shall be fulfilled, when he said, Verily I will fill hell altogether with genii and men. The whole which we have related of the histories of our apostles do we relate unto thee, that we may confirm thy heart thereby; and herein is the truth come unto thee, and an admonition, and a warning unto the true believers. Say unto those who believe not, Act ye according to your condition; we surely will act according to our duty:f and wait the issue; for we certainly wait it also. Unto GOD is known that which is secret in heaven and earth; and unto him shall the whole matter be referred. Therefore worship him, and put thy trust in him; for thy LORD is not regardless of that which ye do.


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CHAPTER XII.

ENTITLED, JOSEPH;g REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       AL. R.h These are the signs of the perspicuous book; which we have sent down in the Arabic tongue, that, peradventure, ye might understand. We relate unto thee a most excellent history, by revealing unto thee this Korân,i whereas thou wast before one of thek negli-

      c Making it their sole business to please their luxurious desires and appetites, and placing their whole felicity therein.
      d Al Beidâwi says that this passage gives the reason why the nations were destroyed of old; viz., for their violence and injustice, their following their own lusts, and for their idolatry and unbelief.
      e Or, as the commentator just named explains it, for their idolatry only, when they observed justice in other respects.
      f See chapter 6, p. 110, note o.
      g The Koreish, thinking to puzzle Mohammed, at the instigation and by the direction of certain Jewish Rabbins, demanded of him how Jacob’s family happened to go down into Egypt, and that he would relate to them the history of Joseph, with all its circumstances: whereupon he pretended to have received this chapter from heaven, containing the story of that patriarch.1 It is said, however, to have been rejected by two Mohammedan sects, branches of the Khârejites, called the Ajâredites and the Maimûnians, as apocryphal and spurious.
      h See the Prelim. Disc. p. 46, &c.
      i Or this particular chapter. For the word Korân, as has been elsewhere observed,2 properly signifying no more than a reading or lecture, is often used to denote, not only the whole volume, but any distinct chapter or section of it.
      k i.e., So far from being acquainted with the story, that it never so much as entered into thy thoughts; a certain argument, says al Beidâwi, that it must have been revealed to him from heaven.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 44.


gent. When Joseph said unto his father,l O my father, verily I saw in my dream eleven stars,m and the sun and the moon; I saw them make obeisance unto me: Jacob said, O my child, tell not thy vision to thy brethren, lest they devise some plot against thee;n for the devil is a professed enemy unto man; and thus, according to thy dream, shall thy LORD choose thee, and teach thee the interpretation of dark sayings,o and he shall accomplish his favor upon thee and upon the family of Jacob, as he hath formerly accomplished it upon thy fathers Abraham and Isaac; for thy LORD is knowing and wise. Surely in the history of Joseph and his brethren there are signs of God's providence to the inquisitive; when they said to one another, Joseph and his brotherp are dearer to our father than we, who are the greater number: our father certainly maketh a wrong judgment. Wherefore slay Joseph, or drive him into some distant or desert part of the earth, and the face of your father shall be cleared towards you;q and ye shall afterwards be people of integrity. One of themr spoke and said; Slay not Joseph, but throw him to the bottom of the well; and some travellers will take him up, if ye do this. They said unto Jacob, O father, why dost thou not intrust Joseph with us, since we are sincere well-wishers unto him? Send him with us to-morrow, into the field, that he may divert himself, and sport,s and we will be his guardians. Jacob answered, It grieveth me that ye take him away; and I fear lest the wolf devour him,t while ye are negligent of him. They said, Surely if the wolf devour him, when there are so many of us, we shall be weak indeed.u And when they had carried him with them, and agreed to set him at the bottom of the well,x they executed their design: and we sent a revelation unto

      l Who was Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham.3
      m The commentators give us the names of these stars (which I think it needless to trouble the reader with), as Mohammed repeated them, at the request of a Jew, who thought to entrap him by the question.2
      n For they say, Jacob, judging that Joseph’s dream portended his advancement above the rest of the family, justly apprehended his brethren’s envy might tempt them to do him some mischief.
      o That is, of dreams; or, as others suppose, of the profound passages of scripture, and all difficulties respecting either religion or justice.
      p viz., Benjamin, his brother by the same mother.
      q Or, he will settle his love wholly upon you, and ye will have no rival in his favour.
      r This person, as some say, was Judah, the most prudent and noble-minded of them all; or, according to others, Reuben, whom the Mohammedan writers call Rubîl.3 And both these opinions are supported by the account of Moses, who tells us that Reuben advised them not to kill Joseph, but to throw him into a pit privately, intending to release him;4 and that afterwards Judah, in Reuben’s absence, persuaded them not to let him die in the pit, but to sell him to the Ishmaelites.5
      s Some copies read, in the first person plural, that we may divert ourselves, &c.
      t The reason why Jacob feared this beast in particular, as the commentators say, was, either because the land was full of wolves, or else because Jacob had dreamed he saw Joseph devoured by one of those creatures.6
      u i.e., It will be an instance of extreme weakness and folly in us, and we shall be justly blamed for his loss.
      x This well, say some, was a certain well near Jerusalem, or not far from the river Jordan; but others call it the well of Egypt or Midian. The commentators tell us that, when the sons of Jacob had gotten Joseph with them in the field, they began to abuse and to beat him so unmercifully, that they had killed him, had not Judah, on his crying out for help, insisted on the promise they had made not to kill him, but to cast him into the well. Whereupon they let him down a little way; but, as he held by the sides of the well, they bound him, and took off his inner garment, designing to stain it with blood, to deceive their father. Joseph begged hard to have his garment returned him, but to no purpose, his brothers telling him, with a

      1 Al Beidâwi, &c. 2 Idem, al Zamakhshari. 3 Idem. 4 Gen. xxxvii. 21, 22. 5 Ibid. v. 26, 27. 6 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, al Zamakhshari.

him,y saying, Thou shalt hereafter declare this their action unto them; and they shall not perceive thee to be Joseph. And they came to their father at even, weeping, and said, Father, we went and ran races with one another,z and we left Joseph with our baggage, and the wolf hath devoured him; but thou wilt not believe us, although we speak the truth. And they produced his inner garment stained with false blood. Jacob answered, Nay, but ye yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes:a however patience is most becoming, and GOD'S assistance is to be implored to enable me to support the misfortune which ye relate. And certain travellersb came, and sent onec to draw water for them; and he let down his bucket,d and said, Good news!e this is a youth. And they concealed him,f that they might sell him as a piece of merchandise: but GOD knew that which they did. And they sold him for a mean price, for a few pence,g and valued him lightly. And the Egyptian who bought himh said to his wife,i Use him

sneer, that the eleven stars and the sun and the moon might clothe him and keep him company. When they had let him down half-way, they let him fall thence to the bottom, and, there being water in the well (though the scripture says the contrary), he was obliged to get upon a stone, on which, as he stood weeping, the angel Gabriel came to him with the revelation mentioned immediately.1
      y Joseph being then but seventeen years old, al Beidâwi observes that herein he resembled John the Baptist and Jesus, who were also favoured with the divine communication very early. The commentators pretend that Gabriel also clothed him in the well with a garment of silk of paradise. For they say that when Abraham was thrown into the fire by Nimrod,2 he was stripped; and that Gabriel brought this garment and put it on him; and that from Abraham it descended to Jacob, who folded it up and put it into an amulet, which he hung about Joseph’s neck, whence Gabriel drew it out.3
      z These races they used by way of exercise; and the commentators generally understand here that kind of race wherein they also showed their dexterity in throwing darts, which is still used in the east.
      a This Jacob had reason to suspect, because, when the garment was brought to him, he observed that, though it was bloody, yet it was not torn.4
      b viz., A caravan or company travelling from Midian to Egypt, who rested near the well three days after Joseph had been thrown into it.
      c The commentators are so exact as to give us the name of this man, who, as they pretend, was Malec Ebn Dhór, of the tribe of Khozâah.5
      d And Joseph, making use of the opportunity, took hold of the cord, and was drawn up by the man.
      e The original words are Ya boshra: the latter of which some take for the proper name of the water-drawer’s companion, whom he called to his assistance; and then they must be translated, O Boshra.
      f The expositors are not agreed whether the pronoun they relates to Malec and his companions or to Joseph’s brethren. They who espouse the former opinion say that those who came to draw water concealed the manner of their coming by him from the rest of the caravan, that they might keep him to themselves, pretending that some people of the place had given him to them to sell for them in Egypt. And they who prefer the latter opinion tell us that Judah carried victuals to Joseph every day while he was in the well, but not finding him there on the fourth day, he acquainted his brothers with it; whereupon they all went to the caravan and claimed Joseph as their slave, he not daring to discover that he was their brother, lest something worse should befall him; and at length they agreed to sell him to them.6
      g Namely, twenty or twenty-two dirhems, and those not of full weight neither; for having weighed one ounce of silver only, the remainder was paid by tale, which is the most unfair way of payment.1
      h His name was Kitfîr, or Itfîr (a corruption of Potiphar); and he was a man of great consideration, being superintendent of the royal treasury.2
      The commentators say that Joseph came into his service at seventeen, and lived with him thirteen years; and that he was made prime minister in the thirty-third year of his age, and died at a hundred and twenty.
      They who suppose Joseph was twice sold differ as to the price the Egyptian paid for him; some saying it was twenty dinârs of gold, a pair of shoes, and two white garments; and others, that it was a large quantity of silver or of gold.
      i Some call her Raïl; but the name she is best known by is that of Zoleikha.

      1 Idem. 2 See cap. 21. 3 Al Beidâwi, al Zamakhshari. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Idem. 6 Idem. 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem.

honourably; peradventure he may be serviceable to us, or we may adopt him for our son.k Thus did we prepare an establishment for Joseph in the earth, and we taught him the interpretation of dark sayings: for GOD is well able to effect his purpose; but the greater part of men do not understand. And when he had attained his age of strength, we bestowed on him wisdom, and knowledge; for thus do we recompense the righteous. And she, in whose house he was, desired him to lie with her; and she shut the doors and said, Come hither. He answered, GOD forbid! verily my lordl hath made my dwelling with him easy; and the ungrateful shall not prosper. But she resolved within herself to enjoy him, and he would have resolved to enjoy her, had he not seen the evident demonstration of his LORD.m So we turned away evil and filthiness from him, because he was one of our sincere servants. And they ran to get one before the other to the door;n and she rent his inner garment behind. And they met her lord at the door. She said, What shall be the reward of him who seeketh to commit evil in thy family, but imprisonment, and a painful punishment? And Joseph said, She asked me to lie with her. And a witness of her familyo bore witness, saying, If his garment be rent before, she speaketh truth, and he is a liar: but if his garment be rent behind, she lieth, and he is a speaker of truth. And when her husband saw that his garment was torn behind, he said, This is a cunning contrivance of your sex; for surely your cunning is great. O Joseph, take no farther notice of this affair: and thou, O woman, ask pardon for thy crime; for thou art a guilty person. And certain women said publiclyp in the city, The nobleman's wife asked her servant to lie with her; he hath inflamed her breast with his love; and we perceive her to be in manifest error. And when she heard of their subtle behaviour, she sent unto them,q and prepared a banquet for them, and she gave to each of them a

      k Kitfîr having no children. It is said that Joseph gained his master’s good opinion so suddenly by his countenance, which Kitfîr, who, they pretend, had great skill in physiognomy, judged to indicate his prudence and other good qualities.
      l viz., Kitfîr. But others understand it to be spoken of GOD.
      m That is, had he not seriously considered the filthiness of whoredom, and the great guilt thereof. Some, however, suppose that the words mean some miraculous voice or apparition, sent by GOD to divert Joseph from executing the criminal thoughts which began to possess him. For they say that he was so far tempted with his mistress’s beauty and enticing behaviour that he sat in her lap, and even began to undress himself, when a voice called to him, and bade him beware of her; but he taking no notice of this admonition, though it was repeated three times, at length the angel Gabriel, or, as others will have it, the figure of his master, appeared to him: but the more general opinion is that it was the apparition of his father Jacob, who bit his fingers’ ends, or, as some write, struck him on the breast, whereupon his lubricity passed out at the ends of his fingers.3
      For this fable, so injurious to the character of Joseph, the Mohammedans are obliged to their old friends the Jews,4 who imagine that he had a design to lie with his mistress, from these words of Moses,5 And it came to passthat Joseph went into the house to do his business, &c.
      n He flying from her, and she running after to detain him.
      o viz., A cousin of hers, who was then a child in the cradle.6
      p These women, whose tongues were so free with Zoleikha’s character on this occasion, were five in number, and the wives of so many of the king’s chief officers–viz., his chamberlain, his butler, his baker, his jailer, and his herdsman.1
      q The number of all the women invited was forty, and among them were the five ladies above mentioned.2

      3 Idem, al Zamakhshari, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya. 4 Talm. Babyl. Sed. Nashim, p. 36. Vide Bartolocc. Bibl. Rabb. part iii. p. 509. 5 Gen. xxxix. II. 6 Supra citati interpretes 1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem.

knife; and she said unto Joseph, Come forth unto them. And when they saw him, they praised him greatly;r and they cut their own hands,s and said, O GOD! this is not a mortal; he is no other than an angel, deserving the highest respect. And his mistress said, This is he, for whose sake ye blamed me: I asked him to lie with me, but he constantly refused. But if he do not perform that which I command him, he shall surely be cast into prison, and he shall be made one of the contemptible. Joseph said, O LORD, a prison is more eligible unto me than the crime to which they invite me; but unless thou turn aside their snares from me, I shall youthfully incline unto them, and I shall become one of the foolish. Wherefore his LORD heard him, and turned aside their snare from him; for he both heareth and knoweth. And it seemed good unto themt even after they had seen the signs of innocency, to imprison him for a time. And there entered into the prison with him two of the king's servants.u One of themx said, it seemed to me in my dream that I pressed wine out of grapes. And the other said, It seemed unto me in my dream that I carried bread on my head, whereof the birds did eat. Declare unto us the interpretation of our dreams, for we perceive that thou art a beneficent person. Joseph answered, No food, wherewith ye may be nourished, shall come unto you, but I will declare unto you the interpretation thereof, before it come unto you.y This knowledge is a part of that which my LORD hath taught me: for I have left the religion of people who believe not in GOD, and who deny the life to come; and I follow the religion of my fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. It is not lawful for us to associate anything with GOD. This knowledge of the divine unity hath been given us of the bounty of GOD towards us, and towards mankind; but the greater part of men are not thankful. O my fellow-prisoners, are sundry lords better, or the only true and mighty GOD? Ye worship not, besides him other than the names which ye have named,z ye and your fathers, concerning which GOD

      r The old Latin translators have strangely mistaken the sense of the original word acbarnaho, which they render menstruatoe sunt; and then rebuke Mohammed for the indecency, crying out demurely in the margin, O fœdum et obscœnum prophetam! Erpenius3 thinks that there is not the least trace of such a meaning in the word; but he is mistaken: for the verb cabara in the fourth conjugation, which is here used, has that import, though the subjoining of the pronoun to it here (which possibly the Latin translators did not observe) absolutely overthrows that interpretation.
      s Through extreme surprise at the wonderful beauty of Joseph; which surprise Zoleikha foreseeing, put knives into their hands, on purpose that this accident might happen. Some writers have observed, on occasion of this passage, that it is customary in the east for lovers to testify the violence of their passion by cutting themselves, as a sign that they would spend their blood in the service of the person beloved; which is true enough, but I do not find that any of the commentators suppose these Egyptian ladies had any such design.
      t That is, to Kitfîr and his friends. The occasion of Joseph’s imprisonment is said to be, either that they suspected him to be guilty, notwithstanding the proofs which had been given of his innocence, or else that Zoleikha desired it, feigning, to deceive her husband, that she wanted to have Joseph removed from her sight, till she could conquer her passion by time; though her real design was to force him to compliance.
      u viz., His chief butler and baker, who were accused of a design to poison him.
      x Namely, the butler.
      y The meaning of this passage seems to be, either that Joseph, to show he used no arts of divination or astrology, promises to interpret their dreams to them immediately, even before they should eat a single meal; or else, he here offers to prophesy to them beforehand, the quantity and quality of the victuals which should be brought them, as a taste of his skill.
      z See c. 7, p. 111, note d.

       3 In not. ad Hist. Josephi.

hath sent down no authoritative proof: yet judgment belongeth unto GOD alone; who hath commanded that ye worship none besides him. This is the right religion; but the greater part of men know it not. O my fellow-prisoners, verily the one of you shall serve wine unto his lord, as formerly; but the other shall be crucified, and the birds shall eat from off his head. The matter is decreed, concerning which ye seek to be informed. And Joseph said unto him whom he judged to be the person who should escape of the two, Remember me in the presence of thy lord. But the devil caused him to forget to make mention of Joseph unto his lord;a wherefore he remained in the prison some years.b And the king of Egyptc said, Verily, I saw in my dream seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured, and seven green ears of corn, and other seven withered ears. O nobles, expound my vision unto me, if ye be able to interpret a vision. They answered, They are confused dreams, neither are we skilled in the interpretation of such kind of dreams. And Joseph's fellow-prisoner who had been delivered, said, (for he remembered Joseph after a certain space of time,) I will declare unto you the interpretation thereof; wherefore let me go unto the person who will interpret it unto me. And he went to the prison, and said, O Joseph, thou man of veracity, teach us the interpretation of seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured; and of seven green ears of corn, and other seven withered ears, which the king saw in his dream; that I may return unto the men who have sent me, that peradventure they may understand the same. Joseph answered, Ye shall sow seven years as usual: and the corn which ye shall reap, do ye leave in its ear,d except a little whereof ye may eat. Then shall there come, after this, seven grievous years of famine, which shall consume what ye shall have laid up as a provision for the same, except a little which ye shall have kept. Then shall there come, after this, a year wherein men shall have plenty of rain,e and wherein they shall press wine and oil. And when the chief butler had reported this, the king said, Bring him unto me. And when the messenger came unto Joseph, he said, Return unto thy lord, and ask

      a According to the explication of some, who take the pronoun him to relate to Joseph, this passage may be rendered, But the devil caused him (i.e., Joseph) to forget to make his application unto his Lord; and to beg the good offices of his fellow-prisoner for his deliverance, instead of relying on GOD alone, as it became a prophet, especially, to have done.1
      b The original word signifying any number from three to nine or ten, the common opinion is that Joseph remained in prison seven years, though some say he was confined no less than twelve years.2
      c This prince, as the oriental writers generally agree, was Riyân, the son of al Walîd, the Amalekite,3 who was converted by Joseph to the worship of the true GOD, and died in the lifetime of that prophet. But some pretend that the Pharaoh of Joseph and of Moses were one and the same person, and that he lived (or rather reigned) four hundred years.4
      d To preserve it from the weevil.5
      e Notwithstanding what some ancient authors write to the contrary,6 it often rains in winter in the lower Egypt, and even snow has been observed to fall at Alexandria, contrary to the express assertion of Seneca.7 In the upper Egypt, indeed, towards the cataracts of Nile, it rains very seldom.8 Some, however, suppose that the rains here mentioned are intended of those which should fall in Ethiopia, and occasion the swelling of the Nile, the great cause of the fertility of Egypt; or else of those which should fall in the neighbouring countries, which were also afflicted with famine during the same time.

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 7. 4 Al Beidâwi. See c. 7, p. 115, note d. 5 Idem. 6 Plato, in Timæo. Pomp. Mela. 7 Nat. Quæst. l. 4. 8 See Greaves’s Descr. of the Pyramids, p. 74, &c. Ray’s Collection of Travels, tom. ii. p. 92.

of him, what was the intent of the women who cut their hands;f for my LORD well knoweth the snare which they laid for me.g And when the women were assembled before the king, he said unto them, What was your design, when ye solicited Joseph to unlawful love? They answered, GOD be praised! we know not any ill of him. The nobleman's wife said, Now is the truth become manifest: I solicited him to lie with me; and he is one of those who speak truth. And when Joseph was acquainted therewith, he said, This discovery hath been made, that my lord might know that I was not unfaithful unto him in his absence, and that God directeth not the plot of the deceivers. (XIII.) Neither do I absolutely justify myself:h since every soul is prone unto evil, except those on whom my LORD shall show mercy; for my LORD is gracious and merciful. And the king said, Bring him unto me: I will take him into my own peculiar service. And when Joseph was brought unto the king, and he had discoursed with him, he said, Thou art this day firmly established with us, and shalt be intrusted with our affairs.i Joseph answered, Set me over the storehouses of the land; for I will be a skilful keeper thereof. Thus did we establish Joseph in the land, that he might provide himself a dwelling therein, where he pleased. We bestow our mercy on whom we please, and we suffer not the reward of the righteous to perish: and certainly the reward of the next life is better, for those who believe, and fear God. Moreover, Joseph's brethren came,k and

      f Joseph, it seems, cared not to get out of prison till his innocence was publicly known and declared. It is observed by the commentators that Joseph does not bid the messenger move the king to inform himself of the truth of the affair, but bids him directly to ask the king, to incite him to make the proper inquiry with the greater earnestness. They also observe that Joseph takes care not to mention his mistress, out of respect and gratitude for the favours he had received while in her house.1
      g Endeavouring both by threats and persuasion to entice me to commit folly with my mistress.
      h According to a tradition of Ebn Abbâs, Joseph had no sooner spoken the foregoing words, asserting his innocency, than Gabriel said to him, What, not when thou wast deliberating to lie with her? Upon which Joseph confessed his frailty.2
      i The commentators say that Joseph being taken out of prison, after he had washed and changed his clothes, was introduced to the king, whom he saluted in the Hebrew tongue, and on the king’s asking what language that was, he answered that it was the language of his fathers. This prince, they say, understood no less than seventy languages, in every one of which he discoursed with Joseph, who answered him in the same; at which the king greatly marvelling, desired him to relate his dream, which he did, describing the most minute circumstances: whereupon the king placed Joseph by him on his throne, and made him his Wazîr, or chief minister. Some say that his master Kitfîr dying about this time, he not only succeeded him in his place, but, by the king’s command, married the widow, his late mistress, whom he found to be a virgin, and who bare him Ephraim and Manasses.3 So that according to this tradition, she was the same woman who is called Asenath by Moses. This supposed marriage, which authorized their amours, probably encouraged the Mohammedan divines to make use of the loves of Joseph and Zoleikha, as an allegorical emblem of the spiritual love between the Creator and the creature, GOD and the soul; just as the Christians apply the Song of Solomon to the same mystical purpose.4
      k Joseph, being made Wazîr, governed with great wisdom; for he not only caused justice to be impartially administered, and encouraged the people to industry and the improvement of agriculture during the seven years of plenty, but began and perfected several works of great benefit; the natives at this day ascribing to the patriarch Joseph almost all the ancient works of public utility throughout the kingdom; as particularly the rendering the province of al Feyyûm, from a standing pool or marsh, the most fertile and best cultivated land in all Egypt.5 When the years of famine came, the effects of which were felt not only in Egypt, but in Syria

      1 Al Beidâwi, &c. 2 Idem, &c. 3 Idem, Kitab Tafasir, &c. 4 Vide D’Herbelot. Bibl. Orient. Art. Jousouf. 5 Vide Golii not. in Alfragan. p. 175, &c. Kircher. Oedip. Ægypt vol. i. p. 8. Lucas, Voy. tom. ii. p. 205, and tom. iii. p. 53.

went in unto him; and he knew them, but they knew not him. And when he had furnished them with their provisions, he said, Bring unto me your brother, the son of your father; do ye not see that I give full measure, and that I am the most hospitable receiver of guests? But if ye bring him not unto me, there shall be no corn measured unto you from me, neither shall ye approach my presence. They answered, We will endeavor to obtain him of his father, and we will certainly perform what thou requirest. And Joseph said to his servants, Put their money,l which they have paid for their corn; into their sacks, that they may perceive it, when they shall be returned to their family: peradventure they will come back unto us. And when they were returned unto their father, they said, O father, it is forbidden to measure out corn unto us any more, unless we carry our brother Benjamin with us: wherefore send our brother with us, and we shall have corn measured unto us; and we will certainly guard him from any mischance. Jacob answered, Shall I trust him with you with any better success than I trusted your brother Joseph with you heretofore? But GOD is the best guardian; and he is the most merciful of those that show mercy. And when they opened their provision, they found their money had been returned unto them; and they said, O father, what do we desire farther? this our money hath been returned unto us; we will therefore return, and provide corn for our family: we will take care of our brother; and we shall receive a camel's burden more than we did the last time. This is a small quantity.m Jacob said, I will by no means send him with you, until ye give me a solemn promise, and swear by GOD that ye will certainly bring him back unto me, unless ye be encompassed by some inevitable impediment. And when they had given him their solemn promise, he said, GOD is witness of what we say. And he said, My sons, enter not into the city by one and the same gate; but enter by different gates. But this precaution will be of no advantage

and the neighbouring countries, the inhabitants were obliged to apply to Joseph for corn, which he sold to them, first for their money, jewels, and ornaments, then for their cattle and lands, and at length for their persons; so that all the Egyptians in general became slaves to the king, though Joseph, by his consent, soon released them, and returned them their substance. The dearth being felt in the land of Canaan, Jacob sent all his sons, except only Benjamin, into Egypt for corn. On their arrival, Joseph (who well knew them) asked them who they were, saying he suspected them to be spies; but they told him they came only to buy provisions, and that they were all the sons of an ancient man, named Jacob, who was also a prophet. Joseph then asked how many brothers there were of them; they answered, Twelve; but that one of them had been lost in a desert. Upon which he inquired for the eleventh brother, there being no more than ten of them present. They said he was a lad, and with their father, whose fondness for him would not suffer him to accompany them in their journey. At length Joseph asked them who they had to vouch for their veracity; but they told him they knew no man who could vouch for them in Egypt. Then, replied he, one of you shall stay behind with me as a pledge, and the others may return home with their provisions; and when ye come again, ye shall bring your younger brother with you, that I may know ye have told me the truth. Whereupon, it being in vain to dispute the matter, they cast lots who should stay behind, and the lot fell upon Simeon. When they departed, Joseph gave each of them a camel, and another for their brother.1
      l The original word signifying not only money, but also goods bartered or given in exchange for other merchandise, some commentators tell us, that they paid for their corn, not in money, but in shoes and dressed skins,2
      m The meaning may be, either that the corn they now brought was not sufficient for the support of their families, so that it was necessary for them to take another journey, or else, that a camel’s load, more or less, was but a trifle to the king of Egypt. Some suppose these to be the words of Jacob, declaring it was too mean a consideration to induce him to part with his son.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem.

unto you against the decree of GOD; for judgment belongeth unto GOD alone: in him do I put my trust, and in him let those confide who seek in whom to put their trust. And when they entered the city, as their father had commanded them, it was of no advantage unto them against the decree of GOD; and the same served only to satisfy the desire of Jacob's soul, which he had charged them to perform: for he was endued with knowledge of that which we had taught him; but the greater part of men do not understand. And when they entered into the presence of Joseph, he received his brother Benjamin as his guest, and said, Verily I am thy brother,n be not therefore afflicted for that which they have committed against us. And when he had furnished them with their provisions, he put his cupo in his brother Benjamin's sack. Then a crier cried after them, saying, O company of travellers, ye are surely thieves. They said, (and turned back unto them,) What is it that ye miss? They answered, We miss the prince's cup: and unto him who shall produce it, shall be given a camel's load of corn, and I will be surety for the same. Joseph's brethren replied, By GOD, ye do well know, that we come not to act corruptly in the land,p neither are we thieves. The Egyptians said, What shall be the reward of him, who shall appear to have stolen the cup, if ye be found liars? Joseph's brethren answered, As to the reward of him, in whose sack it shall be found, let him become a bondman in satisfaction of the same: thus do we reward the unjust, who are guilty of theft.q Then he began by their sacks, before he searched the sack of his brother;r and he drew out the cup from his brother's sack. Thus did we furnish Joseph with a stratagem. It was not lawful for him to take his brother for a bondman, by the law of the king of Egypt,s had not GOD pleased to allow it, according to the offer of his brethren. We exalt to degrees of knowledge and honour whom we please: and there is one who is knowing above all those who are endued with knowledge. His brethren said, If Benjamin be guilty of theft, his brother Joseph hath been also guilty of theft heretofore.t But Joseph concealed these things in his mind,

      n It is related that Joseph, having invited his brethren to an entertainment, ordered them to be placed two and two together, by which means Benjamin, the eleventh, was obliged to sit alone, and bursting into tears, said, If my brother Joseph were alive, he would have sat with me. Whereupon Joseph ordered him to be seated at the same table with himself, and when the entertainment was over, dismissed the rest, ordering that they should be lodged two and two in a house, but kept Benjamin in his own apartment, where he passed the night. The next day Joseph asked him whether he would accept of himself for his brother, in the room of him whom he had lost, to which Benjamin replied, Who can find a brother comparable unto thee? yet thou art not the son of Jacob and Rachel. And upon this Joseph discovered himself to him.1
      o Some imagine this to be a measure holding a saá (or about a gallon), wherein they used to measure corn or give water to the beasts. But others take it to be a drinking-cup of silver or gold.
      p Both by our behaviour among you, and our bringing again our money, which was returned to us without our knowledge.
      q This was the method of punishing theft used by Jacob and his family; for among the Egyptians it was punished in another manner.
      r Some suppose this search was made by the person whom Joseph sent after them; others by Joseph himself, when they were brought back to the city.
      s For there the thief was not reduced to servitude, but was scourged, and obliged to restore the double of what he had stolen.2
      t The occasion of this suspicion, it is said, was, that Joseph having been brought up by his

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

and did not discover them unto them: and he said within himself, Ye are in a worse condition than us two; and GOD best knoweth what ye discourse about. They said unto Joseph, Noble lord, verily this lad hath an aged father; wherefore take one of us in his stead; for we perceive that thou art a beneficent person. Joseph answered, GOD forbid that we should take any other than him with whom we found our goods; for then should we certainly be unjust. And when they despaired of obtaining Benjamin, they retired to confer privately together. And the elder of themu said, Do ye not know that your father hath received a solemn promise from you, in the name of GOD, and how perfidiously ye behaved heretofore towards Joseph? Wherefore I will by no means depart the land of Egypt, until my father give me leave to return unto him, or GOD maketh known his will to me; for he is the best judge. Return ye to your father, and say, O father, verily thy son hath committed theft; we bear witness of no more than what we know, and we could not guard against what we did not foresee: and do thou inquire in the city, where we have been, and of the company of merchants, with whom we are arrived, and thou wilt find that we speak the truth. And when they were returned, and had spoken thus to their father, he said, Nay, but rather ye yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes, but patience is most proper for me; peradventure GOD will restore them allx unto me; for he is knowing and wise. And he turned from them and said, Oh how I am grieved for Joseph! And his eyes became white with mourning,y he being oppressed with deep sorrow. His sons said, By GOD, thou wilt not cease to remember Joseph until thou be brought to death's door, or thou be actually destroyed by excessive affliction. He answered, I only represent my grief, which I am not able to contain, and my sorrow unto GOD, but I know by revelation from GOD that which ye know not.z O my sons, go and make inquiry after Joseph and his brother; and despair not of the mercy of GOD; for none despaireth of GOD's mercy, except the unbelieving people. Wherefore Joseph's brethren returned into Egypt: and when they came into his presence, they said, Noble lord, the famine is felt by us and our family, and we are come with a small sum of money:a yet give unto us full measure, and bestow

father’s sister, she became so fond of him that, when he grew up, and Jacob designed to take him from her, she contrived the following stratagem to keep him: –Having a girdle which had once belonged to Abraham, she girt it about the child, and then, pretending she had lost it, caused strict search to be made for it; and it being at length found on Joseph, he was adjudged, according to the above-mentioned law of the family, to be delivered to her as her property. Some, however, say that Joseph actually stole an idol of gold, which belonged to his mother’s father, and destroyed it; a story probably taken from Rachel’s stealing the images of Laban: and others tell us that he once stole a goat, or a hen, to give to a poor man.3
      u viz., Reuben. But some think Simeon or Judah to be here meant; and instead of the elder, interpret it the most prudent of them.
      x i.e., Joseph, Benjamin, and Simeon.
      y That is, the pupils lost their deep blackness and became of a pearl colour (as happens in suffusions), by his continual weeping: which very much weakened his sight, or, as some pretend, made him quite blind.4
      z viz., That Joseph is yet alive, of which some tell us he was assured by the angel of death in a dream; though others suppose he depended on the completion of Joseph’s dream, which must have been frustrated had he died before his brethren had bowed down before him.5
      a Their money being clipped and adulterated. Some, however, imagine they did not bring money, but goods to barter, such as wool and butter, or other commodities of small value.6

       3 Jallalo’ddin. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Idem. 6 Idem.

corn upon us as alms; for GOD rewardeth the almsgivers. Joseph said unto them, Do ye know what ye did unto Joseph and his brother, when ye were ignorant of the consequences thereof?b They answered, Art thou really Joseph?c He replied, I am Joseph; and this is my brother. Now hath GOD been gracious unto us. For whoso feareth God, and persevereth with patience, shall at length find relief; since GOD will not suffer the reward of the righteous to perish. They said, By GOD, now hath GOD chosen thee above us; and we have surely been sinners. Joseph answered, Let there be no reproach cast on you this day. GOD forgiveth you; for he is the most merciful of those who show mercy. Depart ye with this my inner garment,d and throw it on my father's face; and he shall recover his sight: and then come unto me with all your family. And when the company of travellers was departed from Egypt on their journey towards Canaan, their father said, unto those who were about him, Verily I perceive the smell of Joseph;e although ye think that I dote. They answered, By GOD, thou art in thy old mistake.f But when the messenger of good tidingsg was come with Joseph's inner garment, he threw it over his face; and he recovered his eyesight. And Jacob said, Did I not tell you that I knew from GOD, that which ye knew not? They answered, O father, ask pardon of our sins for us, for we have surely been sinners. He replied, I will surely ask pardon for you of my LORD;h for he is gracious and merciful. And when Jacob and his family arrived in Egypt, and were introduced unto Joseph, he received his parents unto him,i and said, Enter ye into Egypt, by GOD'S favor, in full security. And he raised his parents to the seat of state, and they, together with

      b The injury they did Benjamin was the separating him from his brother; after which they kept him in so great subjection, that he durst not speak to them but with the utmost submission. Some say that these words were occasioned by a letter which Joseph’s brethren delivered to him from their father, requesting the releasement of Benjamin, and by their representing his extreme affliction at the loss of him and his brother. The commentators observe that Joseph, to excuse his brethren’s behaviour towards him, attributes it to their ignorance, and the heat of youth.1
      c They say this question was not the effect of a bare suspicion that he was Joseph, but that they actually knew him, either by his face and behaviour, or by his foreteeth, which he showed in smiling, or else by putting off his tiara, and discovering a whitish mole on his forehead.2
      d Which the commentators generally suppose to be the same garment with which Gabriel invested him in the well; which having originally come from paradise, had preserved the odour of that place, and was of so great virtue as to cure any distemper in the person who was touched with it.3
      e This was the odour of the garment above mentioned, brought by the wind to Jacob, who smelt it, as is pretended, at the distance of eighty parasangs;4 or, as others will have, three, or eight days’ journey off.5
      f Being led into this imagination by the excessive love of Joseph.
      g viz., Judah, who, as he had formerly grieved his father by bringing him Joseph’s coat stained with blood, now rejoiced him as much by being the bearer of this vest, and the news of Joseph’s prosperity.6
      h Deferring it, as some fancy, till he should see Joseph, and have his consent.
      i viz., His father and Leah, his mother’s sister, whom he looked on as his mother after Rachel’s death.7
      Al Beidâwi tells us that Joseph sent carriages and provisions for his father and his family; and that he and the king of Egypt went forth to meet them. He adds that the number of the children of Israel who entered Egypt with him was seventy-two; and that when they were led out thence by Moses, they were increased to six hundred thousand five hundred and seventy men and upwards, besides the old people and children.

      1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 4 Idem. 5 Jallalo’ddin. 6 Al Beidâwi. 7 Idem. See Gen. xxxvii. 10.

his brethren
, fell down and did obeisance unto him.k And he said, O my father, this is the interpretation of my vision, which I saw heretofore: now hath my LORD rendered it true. And he hath surely been gracious unto me, since he took me forth from the prison, and hath brought you hither from the desert; after that the devil had sown discord between me any my brethren: for my LORD is gracious unto whom he pleaseth; and he is the knowing, the wise God. O LORD, thou hast given me a part of the kingdom, and hast taught me the interpretation of dark sayings. The Creator of heaven and earth! thou art my protector in this world, and in that which is to come: make me to die a Moslem, and join me with the righteous.l This is a secret history which we reveal unto thee, O Mohammed, although thou wast not present with the brethren of Joseph, when they concerted their design, and contrived a plot against him. But the greater part of men, although they earnestly desire it, will not believe. Thou shalt not demand of them any reward for thy publishing the Koran; it is no other than an admonition unto all creatures. And how many signs soever there be of the being, unity, and providence of God, in the heavens and the earth; they will pass by them, and will retire afar off from them. And the greater part of them believe not in GOD, without being also guilty of idolatry.m Do they not believe that some overwhelming affliction shall fall on them, as a punishment from GOD; or that the hour of judgment shall overtake them suddenly, when they consider not its approach? Say unto those of Mecca, This is my way: I invite you unto GOD, by an evident demonstration; both I and he who followeth me; and, praise be unto GOD! I am not an idolater. We sent not any apostles before thee, except men, unto whom we revealed our will, and whom we chose out of those who dwelt in cities.n Will they not go through the earth, and see what hath been the end of those who have preceded them? But the dwelling of the next life shall surely be better for those who fear God. Will they not therefore understand? Their predecessors were borne with for a time, until, when our apostles despaired of their conversion, and they thought that they were liars, our help came unto them, and we delivered whom we pleased; but our vengeance was not turned away from the wicked people. Verily in the histories of the prophets and their people, there is an instructive example unto those who are endued with understanding.

      k A transposition is supposed to be in these words, and that he seated his father and mother after they had bowed down to him, and not before.1
      l The Mohammedan authors write that Jacob dwelt in Egypt twenty-four years, and at his death ordered his body to be buried in Palestine by his father, which Joseph took care to perform; and then returning into Egypt, died twenty-three years after. They add that such high disputes arose among the Egyptians concerning his burial, that they had like to have come to blows; but at length they agreed to put his body into a marble coffin, and to sink it in the Nile–out of a superstitious imagination, that it might help the regular increase of the river, and deliver them from famine for the future; but when Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt, he took up the coffin, and carried Joseph’s bones with him into Canaan, where he buried them by his ancestors.2
      m For this crime Mohammed charges not only on the idolatrous Meccans, but also on the Jews and Christians, as has been already observed more than once.
      n And not of the inhabitants of the deserts; because the former are more knowing and compassionate, and the latter more ignorant and hard-hearted.3

      1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 24.

The Koran is not a new invented fiction: but a confirmation of those scriptures which have been revealed before it, and a distinct explication of everything necessary in respect either to faith or practice, and a direction and mercy unto people who believe.



________




CHAPTER XIII.

ENTITLED, THUNDER;o REVEALED AT MECCA.p

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       AL. M. R.q These are the signs of the book of the Koran: and that which hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD is the truth; but the greater part of men will not believe. It is GOD who hath raised the heavens without visible pillars; and then ascended his throne, and compelled the sun and the moon to perform their services; every of the heavenly bodies runneth an appointed course. He ordereth all things. He showeth his signs distinctly, that ye may be assured ye must meet your LORD at the last day. It is he who hath stretched forth the earth, and placed therein steadfast mountains, and rivers; and hath ordained therein of every fruit two different kinds.r He causeth the night to cover the day. Herein are certain signs unto people who consider. And in the earth are tracts of land of different natures,s though bordering on each other; and also vineyards, and seeds, and palm-trees springing several from the same root, and singly from distinct roots. They are watered with the same water, yet we render some of them more excellent than others to eat. Herein are surely signs unto people who understand. If thou dost wonder at the infidels denying the resurrection, surely wonderful is their saying, After we shall have been reduced to dust, shall we be restored in a new creature? These are they who believe not in their LORD: these shall have collars on their necks,t and these shall be the inhabitants of hell fire: therein shall they

      o This word occurs in the next page.
      p Or, according to some copies, at Medina.
      q The meaning of these letters is unknown. Of several conjectural explications which are given of them, the following is one: I am the most wise and knowing GOD.
      r As sweet and sour, black and white, small and large, &c.1
      s Some tracts being fruitful and others barren, some plain and others mountainous, some proper for corn and others for trees, &c.2
      t The collar here mentioned is an engine something like a pillory, but light enough for the criminal to walk about with. Besides the hole to fix it on the neck, there is another for one of the hands, which is thereby fastened to the neck.3 And in this manner the Mohammedans suppose the reprobates will appear at the day of judgment.4 Some understand this passage figuratively, of the infidels being bound in the chains of error and obstinacy.5

      1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Idem. 3 Vide Chardin, Voy. de Perse, tom. ii. p. 220. 4 See cap. 5, p. 81. 5 Al Beidâwi.


abide for ever. They will ask of thee to hasten evil rather than good:u although there have already been examples of the divine vengeance before them. Thy LORD is surely endued with indulgence towards men, notwithstanding their iniquity; but thy LORD is also severe in punishing. The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Thou art commissioned to be a preacher only, and not a worker of miracles: and unto every people hath a director been appointed. GOD knoweth what every female beareth in her womb; and what the wombs want or exceed of their due time, or number of young. With him is everything regulated according to a determined measure. He knoweth that which is hidden, and that which is revealed. He is the great, the most high. He among you who concealeth his words, and he who proclaimeth them in public; he also who seeketh to hide himself in the night, and he who goeth forth openly in the day, is equal in respect to the knowledge of God. Each of them hath angels mutually succeeding each other, before him, and behind him; they watch him by the command of GOD.x Verily GOD will not change his grace which is in men, until they change the disposition in their souls by sin. When GOD willeth evil on a people there shall be none to avert it; neither shall they have any protector beside him. It is he who causeth the lightning to appear unto you, to strike fear, and to raise hope,y and who formeth the pregnant clouds. The thunder celebrateth his praise,z and the angels also, for fear of him. He sendeth his thunderbolts, and striketh therewith whom he pleaseth, while they dispute concerning GOD;a for he is mighty in power. It is he who ought of right to be invoked; and the idols, which they invoke besides him, shall not hear them at all; otherwise than as he is heard, who stretcheth forth his hands to the water that it may ascend to his mouth, when it cannot ascend thither: the supplication of the unbelievers is utterly erroneous. Whatsoever is in heaven and on earth worshippeth GOD, voluntarily or of force;b and their shadows also, morning and evening.c Say, Who is the LORD of heaven and earth? Answer, GOD.

      u Provoking and daring thee to call down the divine vengeance on them for their impenitency.
      x See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 56.
      y Thunder and lightning being the sign of approaching rain; a great blessing, in the eastern countries more especially.
      z Or causeth those who hear it to praise him. Some commentators tell us that by the word thunder, in this place, is meant the angel who presides over the clouds, and drives them forwards with twisted sheets of fire.6
      a This passage was revealed on the following occasion: Amer Ebn al Tofail and Arbad Ebn Rabîah, the brother of Labîd, went to Mohammed with an intent to kill him; and Amer began to dispute with him concerning the chief points of his doctrine, while Arbad, taking a compass, went behind him to dispatch him with his sword; but the prophet, perceiving his design, implored GOD’S protection; whereupon Arbad was immediately struck dead by thunder, and Amer was struck with a pestilential boil, of which he died in a short time, in a miserable condition.7
      Jallalo’ddin, however, tells another story saying that Mohammed, having sent one to invite a certain man to embrace his religion, the person put this question to the missionary, Who is this apostle, and what is God? Is he of gold, or of silver, or of brass? Upon which a thunderbolt struck off his skull, and killed him.
      b The infidels and devils themselves being constrained to humble themselves before him, though against their will, when they are delivered up to punishment.
      c This is an allusion to the increasing and diminishing of the shadows, according to the height

      6 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 7 Al Beidâwi. Vide Golii. not. in Adagia Arab. adject. ad Gram Erpenii, p. 99.

Say, Have ye, therefore, taken unto yourselves protectors beside him, who are unable either to help, or to defend themselves from hurt? Say, Shall the blind and the seeing be esteemed equal? or shall darkness and light be accounted the same? or have they attributed companions unto GOD who have created as he hath created, so that their creation bear any resemblance unto his? Say, GOD is the creator of all things; he is the one, the victorious God. He causeth water to descend from heaven, and the brooks flow according to their respective measure, and the floods bear the floating froth: and from the metals which they melt in the fire, seeking to cast ornaments or vessels for use, there ariseth a scum like unto it. Thus GOD setteth forth truth and vanity. But the scum is thrown off, and that which is useful to mankind remaineth on the earth. Thus doth GOD put forth parables. Unto those who obey their LORD shall be given the most excellent reward: but those who obey him not, although they were possessed of whatever is in the whole earth and as much more, they would give it all for their ransom. These will be brought to a terrible account: their abode shall be hell; an unhappy couch shall it be! Shall he, therefore, who knoweth that what hath been sent down unto thee from thy LORD, is truth, be rewarded as he who is blind? The prudent only will consider; who fulfil the covenant of GOD, and break not their contract; and who join that which GOD hath commanded to be joined,d and who fear their LORD, and dread an ill account; and who persevere out of a sincere desire to please their LORD, and observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms out of what we have bestowed on them, in secret and openly, and who turn away evil with good: the reward of these shall be paradise, gardens of eternal abode,e which they shall enter, and also whoever shall have acted uprightly, of their fathers, and their wives, and their posterity: and the angels shall go in unto them by every gate, saying, Peace be upon you, because ye have endured with patience; how excellent a reward is paradise! But as for those who violate the covenant of GOD, after the establishment thereof, and who cut in sunder that which GOD hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the earth, on them shall a curse fall, and they shall have a miserable dwelling in hell. GOD giveth provision in abundance unto whom he pleaseth, and is sparing unto whom he pleaseth. Those of Mecca rejoice in the present life; although the present life, in respect of the future, is but a precarious provision. The infidels say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD, we will not believe. Answer, Verily, GOD will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and will direct unto himself him who repenteth, and those who believe, and whose hearts rest securely in the meditation of GOD; shall not men's hearts rest securely in the meditation of GOD? They who believe and do that which is right shall enjoy blessedness, and partake of a happy resurrection. Thus have we sent thee to a nation which other nations

of the sun; so that, when they are the longest, which is in the morning and the evening, they appear prostrate on the ground, in the posture of adoration.
      d By believing in all the prophets, without exception, and joining thereto the continual practice of their duty, both towards GOD and man.1
      e Literally, gardens of Eden. See chapter 9, p. 143.

       1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin, Yahya.

have preceded unto whom prophets have likewise been sent, that thou mayest rehearse unto them that which we have revealed unto thee, even while they believe not in the merciful God. Say unto them, He is my LORD; there is no GOD but he: in him do I trust, and unto him must I return. Though a Koran were revealed by which mountains should be removed, or the earth cleaved in sunder, or the dead be caused to speak,f it would be in vain. But the matter belongeth wholly unto GOD. Do not, therefore, the believers know, that if GOD pleased, he would certainly direct all men? Adversity shall not cease to afflict the unbelievers for that which they have committed, or to sit down near their habitations,g until GOD'S promise come;h for GOD is not contrary to the promise. Apostles before thee have been laughed to scorn; and I permitted the infidels to enjoy a long and happy life: but afterwards I punished them; and how severe was the punishment which I inflicted on them! Who is it, therefore, that standeth over every soul, to observe that which it committeth? They attribute companions unto GOD. Say, Name them: will ye declare unto him that which he knoweth not in the earth? or will ye name them in outward speech only?i But the deceitful procedure of the infidels was prepared for them; and they are turned aside from the right path: for he whom GOD shall cause to err, shall have no director. They shall suffer a punishment in this life; but the punishment of the next shall be more grievous: and there shall be none to protect them against GOD. This is the description of paradise, which is promised to the pious. It is watered by rivers; its food is perpetual, and its shade also: this shall be the reward of those who fear God. But the reward of the infidels shall be hell fire. Those to whom we have given the scriptures, rejoice at what hath been revealed unto thee.k Yet there are some of the confederates who deny part thereof.l Say unto them, Verily I am com-

      f These are miracles which the Koreish required of Mohammed; demanding that he would, by the power of his Korân, either remove the mountains from about Mecca, that they might have delicious gardens in their room, or that he would oblige the wind to transport them, with their merchandise, to Syria (according to which tradition, the words here translated, or the earth cleaved in sunder, should be rendered, or the earth be travelled over in an instant); or else raise to life Kosai Ebn Kelâb,1 and others of their ancestors, to bear witness to him; whereupon this passage was revealed.
      g It is supposed by some that these words are spoken to Mohammed, and then they must be translated in the second person, Nor shall thou cease to sit down, &c. For they say this verse relates to the idolaters of Mecca, who were afflicted with a series of misfortunes for their ill-usage of their prophet, and were also continually annoyed and harassed by his parties, which frequently plundered their caravans and drove off their cattle, himself sitting down with his whole army near the city in the expedition of al Hodeibîya.2
      h i.e., Till death and the day of judgment overtake them; or, according to the exposition in the preceding note, until the taking of Mecca.3
      i That is, calling them the companion of GOD, without being able to assign any reason, or give any proof why they deserve to be sharers in the honour and worship due from mankind to him.4
      k viz., The first proselytes to Mohammedism from Judaism and Christianity; or the Jews and Christians in general, who were pleased to find the Korân so consonant to their own scriptures.5
      l That is, such of them as had entered into a confederacy to oppose Mohammed; as did Caab Ebn al Ashraf, and the Jews who followed him, and al Seyid al Najrâni, al Akib, and several other Christians; who denied such parts of the Korân as contradicted their corrupt doctrines and traditions.6

      1 See cap. 8, p. 128, note f. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Idem. 5 See cap. 3, p. 52. 6 Idem.

manded to worship GOD alone; and to give him no companion: upon him do I call, and unto him shall I return. To this purpose have we sent down the Koran a rule of judgment, in the Arabic language. And verily, if thou follow their desires, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, there shall be none to defend or protect thee against GOD. We have formerly sent apostles before thee, and bestowed on them wives and children;m and no apostle had the power to come with a sign, unless by the permission of GOD. Every age hath its book of revelation: GOD shall abolish and shall confirm what he pleaseth. With him is the original of the book.n Moreover, whether we cause thee to see any part of that punishment wherewith we have threatened them, or whether we cause thee to die before it be inflicted on them, verily unto thee belongeth preaching only, but unto us inquisition. Do they not see that we come into their land, and straighten the borders thereof, by the conquests of the true believers? When GOD judgeth, there is none to reverse his judgment: and he will be swift in taking an account. Their predecessors formerly devised subtle plots against their prophets; but GOD is master of every subtle device. He knoweth that which every soul deserveth: and the infidels shall surely know, whose will be the reward of paradise. The unbelieverso will say, Thou art not sent of God. Answer, GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you, and he who understandeth the scriptures.

      m As we have on thee. This passage was revealed in answer to the reproaches which were cast on Mohammed, on account of the great number of his wives. For the Jews said that if he was a true prophet, his care and attention would be employed about something else than women and the getting of children.7 It may be observed that it is a maxim of the Jews that nothing is more repugnant to prophecy than carnality.8
      n Literally, the mother of the book; by which is meant the preserved table, from which all the written revelations which have been from time to time published to mankind, according to the several dispensations, are transcripts.
      o The persons intended in this passage, it is said, were the Jewish doctors.9

      7 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya. 8 Vide Maimon. More Nev. part ii. c. 36, &c. 9 Al Beidâwi.




CHAPTER XIV.

ENTITLED, ABRAHAM;a REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       AL. R.b This book have we sent down unto thee, that thou mayest lead men forth from darkness into light, by the permission of their LORD, into the glorious and laudable way. GOD is he unto whom belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth: and woe be to the infidels, because a grievous punishment waiteth them; who love the present life above that which is to come, and turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked: these are in an error far distant from the truth. We have sent no apostle but with the language of his people, that he might declare their duty plainly unto them;c for GOD causeth to err whom he pleaseth, and directeth whom he pleaseth; and he is the mighty, the wise. We formerly sent Moses with our signs, and commanded him saying, Lead forth thy people from darkness into light, and remind them of the favors of GOD:d verily therein are signs unto every patient and grateful person. And call to mind when Moses said unto his people, Remember the favor of GOD towards you, when he delivered you from the people of Pharaoh: they grievously oppressed you; and they slew your male children, but let your females live:e therein was a great trial from your LORD. And when your LORD declared by the mouth of Moses, saying, If ye be thankful, I will surely increase my favors towards you; but if ye be ungrateful, verily my punishment shall be severe. And Moses said, If ye be ungrateful, and all who are in the earth likewise; verily GOD needeth not your thanks, though he deserveth the highest praise. Hath not the history of the nations your predecessors reached you; namely, of the people of Noah, and of Ad, and of Thamud,f and of those who succeeded them; whose number none knoweth except GOD? Their apostles came unto them with evident miracles; but they clapped their hands to their mouths out of indignation, and said, We do not believe the message with which ye pretend to be sent; and we are in a doubt concerning the religion to which ye invite us, as justly to be suspected. Their apostles answered, Is there any doubt concerning GOD, the creator of heaven and earth? He inviteth you to the true faith that

      a Mention is made of this patriarch towards the end of the chapter.
      b See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III p. 46, &c.
      c That so they might not only perfectly and readily understand those revelations themselves, but might also be able to translate and interpret them unto others.1
      d Literally, the days of GOD; which may also be translated, the battles of GOD (the Arabs using the word day to signify a remarkable engagement, as the Italians do giornata, and the French, journée), or his wonderful acts manifested in the various success of former nations in their wars.2
      e See chapter 7, p. 117, &c.
      f See ibid. p. 111, &c.

       1 Idem. 2 Idem.


he may forgive you part of your sins,g and may respite your punishment, by granting you space to repent, until an appointed time. They answered, Ye are but men, like unto us: ye seek to turn us aside from the gods which our fathers worshipped: wherefore bring us an evident demonstration by some miracle, that ye speak truth. Their apostles replied unto them, We are no other than men like unto you; but GOD is bountiful unto such of his servants as he pleaseth: and it is not in our power to give you a miraculous demonstration of our mission, unless by the permission of GOD; in GOD therefore let the faithful trust. And what excuse have we to allege, that we should not put our trust in GOD; since he hath directed us our paths? Wherefore we will certainly suffer with patience the persecution wherewith ye shall afflict us: in GOD therefore let those put their confidence who seek in whom to put their trust. And those who believed not said unto their apostles, We will surely expel you out of our land; or ye shall return unto our religion. And their LORD spake unto them by revelation, saying, We will surely destroy the wicked doers; and we will cause you to dwell in the earth, after them. This shall be granted unto him who shall dread the appearance at my tribunal, and shall fear my threatening. And they asked assistance of God,h and every rebellious perverse person failed of success. Hell lieth unseen before him, and he shall have filthy wateri given him to drink: he shall sup it up by little and little, and he shall not easily let it pass his throat because of its nauseousness; death also shall come upon him from every quarter, yet he shall not die; and before him shall there stand prepared a grievous torment. This is the likeness of those who believe not in their LORD. Their works are as ashes, which the wind violently scattereth in a stormy day: they shall not be able to obtain any solid advantage from that which they have wrought. This is an error most distant from truth. Dost thou not see that GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in wisdom? If he please, he can destroy you, and produce a new creature in your stead: neither will this be difficult with GOD. And they shall all come forth into the presence of GOD at the last day: and the weak among them shall say unto those who behaved themselves arrogantly,j Verily we were your followers on earth; will ye not therefore avert from us some part of the divine vengeance? They shall answer, If GOD had directed us aright, we had certainly directed you.k It is equal unto

      g That is, such of them as were committed directly against GOD, which are immediately cancelled by faith, or embracing Islâm; but not the crimes of injustice, and oppression, which were committed against man:1 for to obtain remission of these last, besides faith, repentance and restitution, according to a man’s ability, are also necessary.
      h The commentators are uncertain whether these were the prophets, who begged assistance against their enemies; or the infidels, who called for GOD’S decision between themselves and them; or both. And some suppose this verse has no connection with the preceding, but is spoken of the people of Mecca, who begged rain in a great drought with which they were afflicted at the prayer of their prophet, but could not obtain it.2
      i Which will issue from the bodies of the damned, mixed with purulent matter and blood.
      j i.e., The more simple and inferior people shall say to their teachers and princes who seduced them to idolatry, and confirmed them in their obstinate infidelity.
      k That is, We made the same choice for you, as we did for ourselves: and had not GOD permitted us to fall into error, we had not seduced you.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem.

us whether we bear our torments impatiently, or whether we endure them with patience: for we have no way to escape. And Satan shall say, after judgment shall have been given, Verily GOD promised you a promise of truth: and I also made you a promise; but I deceived you. Yet I had not any power over you to compel you; but I called you only, and ye answered me: wherefore accuse not me, but accuse yourselves.l I cannot assist you; neither can ye assist me. Verily I do now renounce your having associated me with God heretofore.m A grievous punishment is prepared for the unjust. But they who shall have believed and wrought righteousness shall be introduced into gardens, wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein forever, by the permission of their LORD; and their salutation therein shall be, Peace!n Dost thou not see how GOD putteth forth a parable; representing a good word, as a good tree, whose root is firmly fixed in the earth, and whose branches reach unto heaven; which bringeth forth its fruit in all seasons, by the will of its LORD? GOD propoundeth parables unto men, that they may be instructed. And the likeness of an evil word is as an evil tree; which is torn up from the face of the earth, and hath no stability.o GOD shall confirm them who believe, by the steadfast word of faith, both in this life and in that which is to come:p but GOD shall lead the wicked into error; for GOD doth that which he pleaseth. Hast thou not considered those who have changed the grace of GOD to infidelity,q and cause their people to descend into the house of perdition, namely, into hell? They shall be thrown to burn therein; and an unhappy dwelling shall it be. They also set up idols as co-partners with GOD, that they might cause men to stray from his path. Say, unto them, Enjoy the pleasures of this life for a time; but your departure hence shall be into hell fire. Speak unto my servants who have believed, that they be assiduous at prayer, and give alms out of that which we have

      l Lay not the blame on my temptations, but blame your own folly in obeying and trusting in me, who had openly professed myself your irreconcilable enemy.
      m Or I do now declare myself clear of your having obeyed me, preferably to GOD, and worshipped idols at my instigation. Or the words may be translated, I believed not heretofore in that Being with whom ye did associate me; intimating his first disobedience in refusing to worship Adam at GOD’S command.1
      n See chapter 10, p. 151.
      o What is particularly intended in this passage by the good word, and the evil word, the expositors differ. But the first seems to mean the profession of GOD’S unity; the inviting others to the true religion, or the Korân itself; and the latter, the acknowledging a plurality of gods, the seducing of others to idolatry, or the obstinate opposition of GOD’S prophets.2
      p Jallalo’ddin supposes the sepulchre to be here understood; in which place when the true believers come to be examined by the two angels concerning their faith, they will answer properly and without hesitation; which the infidels will not be able to do.3
      q That is, who requite his favours with disobedience and incredulity. Or, whose ingratitude obliged GOD to deprive them of the blessings he had bestowed on them; as he did the Meccans, who though GOD had placed them in the sacred territory, and given them the custody of the Caaba, and abundant provision of all necessaries and conveniences of life, and had also honoured them by the mission of Mohammed, yet in return for all this became obstinate unbelievers, and persecuted his apostle; for which they were not only punished by a famine of seven years, but also by the loss and disgrace they sustained at Bedr; so that they who had before been celebrated for their prosperity, were not stripped of that, and become conspicuous only for their infidelity.4 If this be the drift of the passage, it could not have been revealed at Mecca, as the rest of the chapter is agreed to be; wherefore some suppose this verse and the next to have been revealed at Medina.

      1 Idem. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 59. 4 Al Beidâwi.

bestowed on them, both privately and in public; before the day cometh, wherein there shall be no buying nor selling, neither any friendship. It is GOD who hath created the heavens and the earth; and causeth water to descend from heaven, and by means thereof produceth fruits for your sustenance: and by his command he obligethr the ships to sail in the sea for your service; and he also forceth the rivers to supply your uses: he likewise compelleth the sun and the moon, which diligently perform their courses, to serve you; and hath subjected the day and the night to your service. He giveth you of everything which ye ask him; and if ye attempt to reckon up the favors of GOD, ye shall not be able to compute the same. Surely man is unjust and ungrateful. Remember when Abraham said, O LORD, make this lands a place of security; and grant that I and my childrent may avoid the worship of idols; for they, O LORD, have seduced a great number of men. Whoever therefore shall follow me, he shall be of me; and whosoever shall disobey me, verily thou wilt be gracious and merciful.u O LORD, I have caused some of my offspringx to settle in an unfruitful valley, near the holy house, O LORD, that they may be constant at prayer. Grant, therefore, that the hearts of some meny may be affected with kindness toward them; and do thou bestow on them all sorts of fruits,z that they may give thanks. O LORD, thou knowest whatsoever we conceal, and whatsoever we publish; for nothing is hidden from GOD, either on earth or in heaven. Praise be unto GOD, who hath given me, in my old age, Israel and Isaac: for my LORD is the hearer of supplication. O LORD, grant that I may be an observer of prayer, and a part of my posterity also,a O LORD, and receive my supplication. O LORD, forgive me, and my parents,b and the faithful, on the day whereon an account shall be taken. Think not, O prophet,

      r The word used here, and in the following sentences, is sakhkhara, which signifies forcibly to press into any service.1
      s viz., The territory of Mecca. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV.
      t This prayer, it seems, was not heard as to all his posterity, particularly as to the descendants of Ismael; though some pretend that these latter did not worship images, but only paid a superstitious veneration to certain stones, which they set up and compassed, as representations of the Caaba.2
      u That is, by disposing him to repentance. But Jallalo’ddin supposes these words were spoken by Abraham before he knew that GOD would not pardon idolatry.
      x i.e., Ismael and his posterity. The Mohammedans say, that Hagar, his mother, belonged to Sarah, who gave her to Abraham; and that, on her bearing him this son, Sarah became so jealous of her, that she prevailed on her husband to turn them both out of doors; whereupon he sent them to the territory of Mecca, where GOD caused the fountain of Zemzem to spring forth for their relief, in consideration of which the Jorhamites, who were the masters of the country, permitted them to settle among them.3
      y Had he said the hearts of men, absolutely, the Persians and the Romans would also have treated them as friends; and both the Jews and Christians would have made their pilgrimages to Mecca.4
      z This part of the prayer was granted; Mecca being so plentifully supplied, that the fruits of spring, summer, and autumn, are to be found there at one and the same time.5
      a For he knew by revelation that somme of them would be infidels.
      b Abraham put up this petition to GOD before he knew that his parents were the enemies of GOD.6 Some suppose his mother was a true believer, and therefore read it in the singular, and my father. Others fancy that by his parents the patriarch here means Adam and Eve.7

      1 See chapter 2, p. 17, note c. 2 Al Beidâwi. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. I. p. 13-16. 3 Idem. 4 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 5 Idem. 6 See chapter 9, p. 148. 7 Jallalo’ddin, Al Beidâwi.

that GOD is regardless of what the ungodly do. He only deferreth their punishment unto the day whereon men's eyes shall be fixed: they shall hasten forward, at the voice of the angel calling to judgment, and shall lift up their heads; they shall not be able to turn their sight from the object whereon it shall be fixed, and their hearts shall be void of sense, through excessive terror. Wherefore do thou threaten men with the day, whereon their punishment shall be inflicted on them, and whereon those who have acted unjustly shall say, O LORD, give us respite unto a term near at hand; and we will obey thy call, and we will follow thy apostles. But it shall be answered unto them, Did ye not swear heretofore, that no reverse should befall you?c yet ye dwelt in the dwellings of those who had treated their own souls unjustly;d and it appeared plainly unto you how we had dwelt with them;e and we propounded their destruction as examples unto you. They employ their utmost subtlety to oppose the truth; but their subtlety is apparent unto GOD, who is able to frustrate their designs; although their subtlety were so great, that the mountains might be moved thereby. Think not, therefore, O prophet, that GOD will be contrary to his promise of assistance, made unto his apostles; for GOD is mighty, able to avenge. The day will come, when the earth shall be changed into another earth, and the heavens into other heavens;f and men shall come forth from their graves to appear before the only, the mighty GOD. And thou shalt see the wicked on that day bound together in fetters: their inner garments shall be of pitch, and fire shall cover their faces; that GOD may reward every soul according to what it shall have deserved; for GOD is swift in taking an account. This is a sufficient admonition unto men, that they may be warned thereby, and that they may know that there is but one GOD; and that those who are endued with understanding may consider.

      c That is, That ye should not taste of death, but continue in this world for ever; or that ye should not after death be raised to judgment.1
      d viz., Of the Adites and Thamûdites.
      e Not only by the histories of those people revealed in the Korân, but also by the monuments remaining of them (as the houses of the Thamûdites, and the traditions preserved among you of the terrible judgments which befell them.
      f This the Mohammedans suppose will come to pass at the last day; the earth becoming white and even, or, as some will have it, of silver; and the heavens of gold.2

      1 Iidem, Al Zamakhshari, Yahya. 2 Iidem. Vide Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV, p. 67.




CHAPTER XV.

ENTITLED, AL HEJR;g REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       A. L. R.h These are the signs of the book, and of the perspicuous Koran. The time may come when the unbelievers shall wish that they had been Moslems.i Suffer them to eat, and to enjoy themselves in this world; and let hope entertain them, but they shall hereafter know their folly. We have not destroyed any city, but a fixed term of repentance was appointed them. No nation shall be punished before their time shall be come; neither shall they be respited after. The Meccans say, O thou to whom the admonitionj hath been sent down, thou art certainly possessed with a devil: wouldest thou not have come unto us with an attendance of angels, if thou hadst spoken truth? Answer, We send not down the angels, unless on a just occasion;k nor should they be then respited any longer. We have surely sent down the Koran; and we will certainly preserve the same from corruption.l We have heretofore sent apostles before thee among the ancient sects: and there came no apostle unto them, but they laughed him to scorn. In the same manner will we put it into the hearts of the wicked Meccans to scoff at their prophet: they shall not believe on him; and the sentence of the nations of old hath been executed heretofore. If we should open a gate in the heaven above them, and they should ascend theretom all the day long, they should rather say, Our eyes are only dazzled; or rather we are a people deluded by enchantments. We have placed the twelve signs in the heaven, and have set them out in various figures, for the observation of spectators: and we guard them from every deviln driven away with stones;o except him who listeneth by

      g Al Hejr is a territory in the province of Hejaz, between Medina and Syria, where the tribe of Thamûd dwelt;1 and is mentioned towards the end of the chapter.
      h See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 46, &c.
      i viz., When they shall see the success and prosperity of the true believers; or when they shall come to die; or at the resurrection.
      j i.e., The revelations which compose the Korân.
      k When the divine wisdom shall judge it proper to use their ministry, as in bearing his revelations to the prophets, and the executing his sentence on wicked people; but not to humour you with their appearance in visible shapes, which, should your demand be complied with, would only increase your confusion, and bring GOD’S vengeance on you the sooner.
      l See the Prelim. Disc. IV. p. 57.
      m i.e., The incredulous Meccans themselves; or, as others rather think, the angels in visible forms.
      n For the Mohammedans imagine that the devils endeavour to ascend to the constellations, to pry into the actions and overhear the discourse of the inhabitants of heaven, and to tempt them. They also pretend that these evil spirits had the liberty of entering any of the heavens till the birth of JESUS, when they were excluded three of them; but that on the birth of Mohammed they were forbidden the other four.2
      o See chapter 3, p. 35, note b.

       1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 4. 2 Al Beidâwi.


stealth, at whom a visible flame is darted.p We have also spread forth the earth, and thrown thereon stable mountains, and we have caused every kind of vegetable to spring forth in the same, according to a determinate weight: and we have provided therein necessaries of life for you, and for him whom ye do not sustain.q There is no one thing but the storehouses thereof are in our hands; and we distribute not the same otherwise than in a determinate measure. We also send the winds driving the pregnant clouds, and we send down from heaven water, whereof we give you to drink, and which ye keep not in store. Verily we give life, and we put to death: and we are the heirs of all things.r We know those among you who go before; and we know those who stay behind.s And thy LORD shall gather them together at the last day: for he is knowing and wise. We created man of dried clay, of black mud, formed into shape:t and we had before created the devil of subtle fire. And remember when thy LORD said unto the angels, Verily I am about to create man of dried clay, of black mud, wrought into shape; when, therefore, I shall have completely formed him, and shall have breathed of my spirit into him; do ye fall down and worship him. And all the angels worshipped Adam together, except Eblis, who refused to be with those who worshipped him. And God said unto him, O Eblis, what hindered thee from being with those who worshipped Adam? He answered, It is not fit that I should worship man, whom thou hast created of dried clay, of black mud, wrought into shape. God said, Get thee therefore hence: for thou shalt be driven away with stones: and a curse shall be on thee, until the day of judgment. The devil said, O LORD, Give me respite until the day of resurrection. God answered, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited until the day of the appointed time.u The devil replied, O LORD, because thou hast seduced me, I will surely tempt them to disobedience in the earth; and I will seduce such of them as shall be thy chosen servants. God said, This is the right way with me.x Verily as to my servants, thou shalt have no power over them; but over those only who shall be seduced, and who shall follow thee. And hell is surely denounced unto them all: it hath seven gates; unto every gate a distinct company of them shall be

      p For when a star seems to fall or shoot, the Mohammedans suppose the angels, who keep guard in the constellations, dart them at the devils who approach too near.
      q viz., Your family, servants, and slaves, whom ye wrongly imagine that ye feed yourselves; though it is GOD who provides for them as well as you:1 or, as some rather think, the animals, of whom men take no care.2
      r i.e., Alone surviving, when all creatures shall be dead and annihilated.
      s What these words particularly drive at is uncertain. Some think them spoken of the different times of men’s several entrance into this world, and their departure out of it; others of the respective forwardness and backwardness of Mohammed’s men in battle; and a third says, the passage was occasioned by the different behaviour of Mohammed’s followers, on seeing a very beautiful woman at prayers behind the prophet; some of them going out of the Mosque before her, to avoid looking on her more nearly, and others staying behind, on purpose to view her.3
      t See chapter 2, p. 4, &c.
      u See ibid. and chapter 7, p. 106.
      x viz., The saving of the elect, and the utter reprobation of the wicked, according to my eternal decree.

       1 Idem. 2 Jallalo’ddin. 3 Al Beidâwi.

assigned
.y But those who fear God shall dwell in gardens, amidst fountains. The angels shall say unto them, Enter ye therein in peace and security, and we will remove all grudges from their breasts;z they shall be as brethren, sitting over against one anothera on couches; weariness shall not affect them therein, neither shall they be cast out thence forever. Declare unto my servants that I am the gracious, the merciful God; and that my punishment is a grievous punishment. And relate unto them the history of Abraham's guests.b When they went in unto him, and said, Peace be unto thee, he answered, Verily we are afraid of you:c and they replied, Fear not; we bring thee the promise of a wise son. He said, Do ye bring me the promise of a son now old age hath overtaken me? what is it therefore that ye tell me? They said, We have told thee the truth; be not therefore one of those who despair. He answered, And who despaireth of the mercy of GOD, except those who err? And he said, What is your errand, therefore, O messengers of God? They answered, Verily we are sent to destroy a wicked people; but as for the family of Lot, we will save them all, except his wife; we have decreed that she shall be one of those who remain behind to be destroyed with the infidels. And when the messengers came to the family of Lot, he said unto them, Verily ye are a people who are unknown to me. They answered, But we are come unto thee to execute that sentence, concerning which your fellow-citizens doubted: we tell thee a certain truth; and we are messengers of veracity. Therefore lead forth thy family, in some time of the night; and do thou follow behind them, and let none of you turn back; but go whither ye are commanded.d And we gave him this command; because the utmost remnant of those people was to be cut off in the morning. And the inhabitants of the city came unto Lot, rejoicing at the news of the arrival of some strangers. And he said unto them, Verily these are my guests: wherefore do not disgrace me by abusing them; but fear GOD, and put me not to shame. They answered, Have we not forbidden thee from entertaining or protecting any man? Lot replied, These are my daughters: therefore rather make use of them, if ye be resolved to do what ye purpose. As thou livest they wander in their folly.e Wherefore a terrible storm from heaven assailed them at sunrise, and we turned the city upside down: and we rained on them stones of baked clay. Verily herein are signs unto men of sagacity: and those cities were punished, to point out a right way for men to walk in. Verily herein is a sign unto the true believers. The

      y See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 71
      z That is, all hatred and ill-will which they bore each other in their lifetime; or, as some choose to expound it, all envy or heart-burning on account of the different degrees of honour and happiness to which the blessed will be promoted according to their respective merits.
      a Never turning their backs to one another;2 which might be construed a sign of contempt.
      b See chapter 11, p. 165, &c.
      c What occasioned Abraham’s apprehension was, either their sudden entering without leave or their coming at an unseasonable time; or else their not eating with him.
      d Which was into Syria; or into Egypt.
      e Some will have these words spoken by the angels to Lot; others, by GOD to Mohammed.

      1 See chapter 7, p. 108, note, 7. 2 Jallalo’ddin. 3 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin.

inhabitants of the wood near Midianf were also ungodly. Wherefore we took vengeance on them.g And both of them were destroyed, to serve as a manifest rule for men to direct their actions by. And the inhabitants of Al Hejrh likewise heretofore accused the messengers of God of imposture: and we produced our signs unto them, but they retired afar off from the same. And they hewed houses out of the mountains, to secure themselves. But a terrible noise from heaven assailed them in the morning; neither was what they had wrought of any advantage unto them. We have not created the heavens and the earth, and whatever is contained between them, otherwise than in justice: and the hour of judgment shall surely come. Wherefore O Mohammed, forgive thy people with a gracious forgiveness.i Verily thy LORD is the creator of thee and of them, and knoweth what is most expedient. We have already brought unto thee seven verses which are frequently to be repeated,j and the glorious Koran. Cast not thine eyes on the good things which we have bestowed on several of the unbelievers, so as to covet the same:k neither be thou grieved on their account. Behave thyself with meekness towards the true believers; and say, I am a public preacher. If they believe not, we will inflict a like punishment on them, as we have inflicted on the dividers,l who distinguished the Koran into different parts, for by thy LORD, we will demand an account from them all of that which they have wrought. Wherefore publish that which thou hast been commanded, and withdraw from the idolaters. We will surely take thy part against the scoffers,m who associate with

      f To whom Shoaib was also sent, as well as to the inhabitants of Midian. Abulfeda says these people dwelt near Tabûc, and that they were not of the same tribe with Shoaib. See also Geog. Nub. 110.
      g Destroying them, for their incredulity and disobedience, by a hot suffocating wind.1
      h Who were the tribe of Thamûd.2
      i This verse, it is said, was abrogated by that of the sword.
      j That is, the first chapter of the Korân, which consists of so many verses: though some suppose the seven long chapters3 are here intended.
      k That is, Do not envy or covet their worldly prosperity, since thou hast received, in the Korân, a blessing, in comparison whereof all that we have bestowed on them ought to be contemned as of no value. Al Beidâwi mentions a tradition, that Mohammed meeting at Adhriât (a town of Syria) seven caravans, very richly laden, belonging to some Jews of the tribes of Koreidha and al Nadîr, his men had a great mind to plunder them, saying, That those riches would be of great service for the propagation of GOD’S true religion. But the prophet represented to them, by this passage, that they had no reason to repine, GOD having given them the seven verses, which were infinitely more valuable than those seven caravans.4
      l Some interpret the original word, the obstructers, who hindered men from entering Mecca, to visit the temple, lest they should be persuaded to embrace Islâm: and this, it is said, was done by ten men, who were all slain at Bedr. Others translate the word, who bound themselves by oath; and suppose certain Thamûdites, who swore to kill Saleh by night, are here meant. But the sentence more probably relates to the Jews and Christians, who (say the Mohammedans) receive some part of the scriptures, and reject others; and also approved of some passages of the Korân, and disapproved of others, according to their prejudices; or else to the unbelieving Meccans, some of whom called the Korân a piece of witchcraft; others, flights of divination; others, old stories; and others, a poetical composition.5
      m This passage, it is said, was revealed on account of five noble Koreish, whose names were al Walîd Ebn al Mogheira, al As Ebn Wayel, Oda Ebn Kais, al Aswad Ebn Abd Yaghûth, and al Aswad Ebn al Motalleb. These were inveterate enemies of Mohammed, continually persecuting him, and turning him into ridicule; wherefore at length Gabriel came and told him that he was commanded to take his part against them; and on the angel’s making a sign towards them one after another, al Walîd passing by some arrows, one of

      1 Iidem. 2 See chapter 7, p. 113, &c., and Prel. Disc. p. 5. 3 See chapter 9, p. 134, note e. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

GOD another god; they shall surely know their folly. And now we well know that thou art deeply concerned on account of that which they say; but do thou celebrate the praise of thy LORD; and be one of those who worship; and serve thy LORD until deathn shall overtake thee.


_______




CHAPTER XVI.

ENTITLED, THE BEE;o REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       THE sentence of GOD will surely come to be executed; wherefore do not hasten it. Praise be unto him! and far be that from him which they associate with him! He shall cause the angels to descend with a revelation by his command, unto such of his servants as he pleaseth, saying, Preach that there is no GOD, except myself; therefore fear me. He hath created the heavens and the earth, to manifest his justice; far be that from him which they associate with him! He hath created man of seed; and yet behold he is a professed disputer against the resurrection.q He hath likewise created the cattle for you; from them ye have wherewith to keep yourselves warm,r and other advantages; and of them do ye also eat. And they are likewise a credit unto you,s when ye drive them home in the evening, and when ye lead them forth to feed in the morning: and they carry your burdens to a distant country, at which ye could not otherwise arrive, unless with great difficulty to yourselves; for your LORD is compassionate and merciful. and he hath also created horses, and mules, and asses, that ye may ride thereon, and for an ornament unto you; and he likewise created other things which ye know not. It appertaineth unto GOD to instruct men in the right way; and there is who turneth aside from the same: but if he had pleased, he would certainly have directed you all. It is he who sendeth down from heaven rain water, whereof ye have to drink, and from which plants, whereon ye feed your cattle, receive their nourishment. And by means thereof he causeth corn,

them hitched in his garment, and he, out of pride, not stooping to take it off, but walking forward, the head of it cut a vein in his heel, and he bled to death; al As was killed with a thorn, which stuck into the sole of his foot, and caused his leg to swell to a monstrous size; Oda died with violent and perpetual sneezing; al Aswad Ebn Abd Yaghûth ran his head against a thorny tree and killed himself; and al Aswad Ebn al Motalleb was struck blind.1
      n Literally, That which is certain.
      o This insect is mentioned about the middle of the chapter.
      p Except the three last verses.
      q The person particularly intended in this place was Obba Ebn Khalf, who came to Mohammed with a rotten bone, and asked him whether it was possible for GOD to restore it to life.2
      r viz., Their skins, wool, and hair, which serve you for clothing.
      s Being a grace to your court-yards, and a credit to you in the eyes of your neighbours.3

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem.


and olives, and palm-trees, and grapes, and all kinds of fruits, to spring forth for you. Surely herein is a sign of the divine power and wisdom unto people who consider. And he hath subjected the night and the day to your service; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, which are compelled to serve by his command. Verily herein are signs unto people of understanding. And he hath also given you dominion over whatever he hath created for you in the earth, distinguished by its different colour.t Surely herein is a sign unto people who reflect. It is he who hath subjected the sea unto you, that ye might eat fishu thereout, and take from thence ornamentsx for you to wear; and thou seest the ships ploughing the waves thereof, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance, by commerce; and that ye might give thanks. And he hath thrown upon the earth mountains firmly rooted, lest it should move with you,y and also rivers, and paths, that ye might be directed: and he hath likewise ordained marks whereby men may know their way; and they are directed by the stars.z Shall God therefore, who createth, be as he who createth not? Do ye not therefore consider? If ye attempt to reckon up the favors of GOD, ye shall not be able to compute their number; GOD is surely gracious and merciful; and GOD knoweth that which ye conceal, and that which ye publish. But the idols which ye invoke, besides GOD, create nothing, but are themselves created. They are dead, and not living; neither do they understand when they shall be raised.a Your GOD is one GOD. As to those who believe not in the life to come, their hearts deny the plainest evidence, and they proudly reject the truth. There is no doubt but GOD knoweth that which they conceal and that which they discover. Verily he loveth not the proud. And when it is said unto them, What hath your LORD sent down unto Mohammed? they answer, Fables of ancient times. Thus are they given up to error, that they may bear their own burdens without diminution on the day of resurrection, and also a part of the burdens of those whom they caused to err, without knowledge. Will it not be an evil burden which they shall bear? Their predecessors devised plots heretofore: but GOD came into their building, to overthrow it from the foundations; and the roof fell on them from above, and a punishment came upon them, from whence they did not expect.b Also on the day of

      t That is, of every kind; the various colour of things being one of their chief distinctions.1
      u Literally, fresh flesh; by which fish is meant, as being naturally more fresh, and sooner liable to corruption, than the flesh of birds and beasts. The expression is thought to have been made use of here the rather, because the production of such fresh food from salt water is an instance of GOD’S power.2
      x As pearls and coral.
      y The Mohammedans suppose that the earth, when first created, was smooth and equal, and thereby liable to a circular motion as well as the celestial orbs; and that the angels asking, who could be able to stand on so tottering a frame, God fixed it the next morning by throwing the mountains on it.
      z Which are their guides, not only at sea, but also on land, when they travel by night through the deserts. The stars which they observe for this purpose, are either the Pleiades, or some of those near the Pole.
      a i.e., At what time they or their worshippers shall be raised to receive judgment.
      b Some understand this passage figuratively, of God’s disappointing their wicked designs; but others suppose the words literally relate to the tower which Nimrod (whom the Mohammedans will have to be the son of Caanan, the son of Ham, and so the nephew of Cush, and

       1 Idem. 2 Idem.

resurrection he will cover them with shame; and will say, Where are my companions, concerning whom ye disputed? Those unto whom knowledge shall have been given,c shall answer, This day shall shame and misery fall upon the unbelievers. They whom the angels shall cause to die, having dealt unjustly with their own souls, shall offer to make their peaced in the article of death, saying, We have done no evil. But the angels shall reply. Yea; verily GOD well knoweth that which ye have wrought: wherefore enter the gates of hell, therein to remain forever; and miserable shall be the abode of the proud. And it shall be said unto those who shall fear God, What hath your LORD sent down? They shall answer, Good; unto those who do right shall be given an excellent reward in this world; but the dwelling of the next life shall be better; and happy shall be the dwelling of the pious! namely gardens of eternal abode,e into which they shall enter; rivers shall flow beneath the same; therein shall they enjoy whatever they wish. Thus will GOD recompense the pious. Unto the righteous, whom the angels shall cause to die, they shall say, Peace be upon you; enter ye into paradise, as a reward for that which ye have wrought. Do the unbelievers expect any other than that the angels come unto them, to part their souls from their bodies; or that the sentence of thy LORD come to be executed on them? So did they act who were before them; and GOD was not unjust towards them in that he destroyed them; but they dealt unjustly with their own souls: the evils of that which they committed reached them; and the divine judgment which they scoffed at fell upon them. The idolaters say, If GOD had pleased, we had not worshipped anything besides him, neither had our fathers: neither had we forbidden anything, without him.f So did they who were before them. But is the duty of the apostles any other than public preaching? We have heretofore raised up in every nation an apostle to admonish them, saying, Worship GOD, and avoid TAGHUT.g And of them there were some whom GOD directed, and there were others of them who were decreed to go astray. Wherefore go through the earth, O tribe of Koreish, and see what hath been the end of those who accused their apostles of imposture. If thou, O prophet, dost earnestly wish for their direction; verily GOD will not direct him whom he hath resolved to lead into error; neither shall they have any helpers. And they swear most solemnly by GOD, saying, GOD will not raise the dead. Yea; the promise thereof is true: but the greater part of men know it not. He

not his son) built in Babel, and carried to an immense height (five thousand cubits, say some), foolishly purposing thereby to ascend to heaven and wage war with the inhabitants of that place; but God frustrated his attempt, utterly overthrowing the tower by a violent wind and earthquake.1
      c viz., The prophets, and the teachers and professors of GOD’S unity; or, the angels.
      d Making their submission, and humbly excusing their evil actions, as proceeding from ignorance, and not from obstinacy or malice.2
      e Literally, gardens of Eden. See chapter 9, p. 142.
      f This they spoke of in a scoffing manner, justifying their idolatry and superstitious abstaining from certain cattle,3 by pretending, that had these things been disagreeable to GOD, he would not have suffered them to be practised.
      g See chapter 2, p. 28.

      1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. Vide D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Nimrod 2 Iidem Interp 3 See chapter 6, p. 102, &c.

will raise them
that he may clearly show them the truth concerning which they now disagree, and that the unbelievers may know that they are liars. Verily our speech unto anything, when we will the same, is, that we only say unto it, Be; and it is. As for those who have fled their country for the sake of GOD, after they had been unjustly persecuted;h we will surely provide them an excellent habitation in this world, but the reward of the next life shall be greater; if they knew it.i They who persevere patiently, and put their trust in their LORD, shall not fail of happiness in this life and in that which is to come. We have not sent any before thee, as our apostles, other than men,j unto whom we spake by revelation. Inquire therefore of those who have the custody of the scriptures, if ye know not this to be truth. We sent them with evident miracles, and written revelations; and we have sent down unto thee this Korân,k that thou mayest declare unto mankind that which hath been sent down unto them, and that they may consider. Are they who have plotted evil against their prophet secure that GOD will not cause the earth to cleave under them, or that a punishment will not come upon them, from whence they do not expect; or that he will not chastise them while they are busied in travelling from one place to another, and in traffic? (for they shall not be able to elude the power of God,) or that he will not chastise them by a gradual destruction? But your LORD is truly gracious and merciful in granting you respite. Do they not consider the things which GOD hath created; whose shadows are cast on the right hand and on the left, worshipping God,l and become contracted? Whatever moveth both in heaven and on earth worshippeth GOD, and the angels also; and they are not elated with pride, so as to disdain his service: they fear their LORD, who is exalted above them, and perform that which they are commanded. GOD said, Take not unto yourselves two gods; for there is but one GOD: and revere me. Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and unto him is obedience eternally due. Will ye therefore fear any besides GOD? Whatever favors ye have received are certainly from GOD; and when evil afflicteth you, unto him do ye make your supplication; yet when he taketh the evil from off you, behold, a part of you give a companion unto their LORD, to show their ingratitude for the favors we have bestowed on them. Delight yourselves in the enjoyments of this life: but hereafter shall ye know that ye cannot escape the divine vengeance. And they set apart unto idols which have no knowledge,m a part of

      h Some suppose the prophet and the companions of his flight in general, are here intended: others suppose that those are particularly meant in this place, who, after Mohammed’s departure, were imprisoned at Mecca on account of their having embraced his religion, and suffered great persecution from the Koreish; as, Belâl, Soheib, Khabbab, Ammâr, Abes, Abu’l Jandal, and Sohail.1
      i It is uncertain whether the pronoun they relates to the infidels, or to the true believers. If to the former, the consequence would be, that they they would be desirous of attaining to the happiness of the Mohajerîn, by professing the same faith; if to the latter, the knowledge of this is urged as a motive to patience and perseverance.2
      j See chapter 7, p. 110, note r; chapter 12, p. 189, &c.
      k Literally, this admonition.3
      l See chapter 13, p. 182, note c.
      m Or, which they know not; foolishly imagining that they have power to help them, or interest with GOD to intercede for them.

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 44.

the food which we have provided for them. By GOD, ye shall surely be called to account for that which ye have falsely devised. They attribute daughters unto GODn (far be it from him!) but unto themselves children of the sex which they desire.o And when any of them is told the news of the birth of a female, his face becometh black,p and he is deeply afflicted: he hideth himself from the people, because of the ill tidings which have been told him; considering within himself whether he shall keep it with disgrace, or whether he shall bury it in the dust. Do they not make an ill judgment? Unto those who believe not in the next life, the similitude of evil ought to be applied, and unto GOD the most sublime similitude:q for he is mighty and wise. If GOD should punish men for their iniquity, he would not leave on the earth any moving thing: but he giveth them respite unto an appointed time; and when their time shall come, they shall not be respited an hour, neither shall their punishment be anticipated. They attribute unto GOD that which they dislike themselves,r and their tongues utter a lie; namely, that the reward of paradise is for them. There is no doubt but that the fire of hell is prepared for them, and that they shall be sent thither before the rest of the wicked. By GOD, we have heretofore sent messengers unto the nations before thee: but Satan prepared their works for them; he was their patron in this world,s and in that which is to come they shall suffer a grievous torment. We have not sent down the book of the Koran unto thee, for any other purpose, than that thou shouldest declare unto them that truth concerning which they disagree; and for a direction and mercy unto people who believe. GOD sendeth down water from heaven, and causeth the earth to revive after it hath been dead. Verily herein is a sign of the resurrection unto people who hearken. Ye have also in cattle an example of instruction: we give you to drink of that which is in their bellies; a liquor between digested dregs, and blood;t namely, pure milk,u which is swallowed with pleasure by those who drink it. And of the fruits of palm-trees, and of grapes, ye obtain an inebriating liquor, and also good nourish-

As to the ancient Arabs setting apart a certain portion of the produce of their lands for their idols, and their superstitions abstaining from the use of certain cattle, in honour to the same, see chapter 5, p. 86, and chapter 6, p. 102, and the notes there.
      n See the Prelim. Disc. p. 14. Al Beidâwi says, that the tribes of Khozâah and Kenâna, in particular, used to call the angels the daughters of GOD.
      o viz., Sons: for the birth of a daughter was looked on as a kind of misfortune among the Arabs; and they often used to put them to death by burying them alive.1
      p i.e., Clouded with confusion and sorrow.
      q This passage condemns the Meccans’ injudicious and blasphemous application of such circumstances to GOD as were unworthy of him, and not only derogatory to the perfections of the Deity, but even disgraceful to man; while they arrogantly applied the more honourable circumstances to themselves.
      r By giving him daughters, and associates in power and honour; by disregarding his messengers; and by setting apart the better share of the presents and offerings for their idols, and the worse for him.2
      s Or, He is the patron of them (viz. the Koreish) this day, &c.
      t The milk consisting of certain particles of the blood, supplied from the finer parts of the ailment. Ebn Abbas says, that the grosser parts of the food subside into excrement, and that the finer parts are converted into milk, and the finest of all into blood.
      u Having neither the colour of the blood, nor the smell of the excrements.

       1 See chapter 81. 2 Al Beidâwi

ment.x Verily herein is a sign unto people who understand. Thy LORD spake by inspiration unto the bee, saying, Provide thee housesy in the mountains, and in the trees, and of those materials wherewith men build hives for thee: then eat of every kind of fruit, and walk in the beaten paths of thy LORD.z There proceedeth from their bellies a liquor of various colours,a wherein is a medicine for men.b Verily herein is a sign unto people who consider. GOD hath created you, and he will hereafter cause you to die: and some of you shall have his life prolonged to a decrepit age, so that he shall forget whatever he knew; for GOD is wise and powerful. GOD causeth some of you to excel others in worldly possessions: yet they who are caused to excel do not give their wealth unto the slaves whom their right hands possess, that they may become equal sharers therein.c Do they therefore deny the beneficence of GOD? GOD hath ordained you wives from among yourselves,d and of your wives hath granted you children and grand-children; and hath bestowed on you good things for food. Will they therefore believe in that which is vain, and ungratefully deny the goodness of GOD? They worship, besides GOD, idols which possess nothing wherewith to sustain them, either in heaven, or on earth; and have no power. Wherefore liken not anything unto GOD:e for GOD knoweth, but ye know not. GOD propoundeth as a parable a possessed slave, who hath power over nothing, and him on whom we have bestowed a good provision from us, and who giveth alms thereout both secretly and openly:f shall these two be esteemed equal? GOD forbid! But the greater part of men know it not.

      x Not only wine, which is forbidden, but also lawful food, as dates, raisins, a kind of honey flowing from the dates, and vinegar.
      Some have supposed that these words allow the moderate use of wine; but the contrary is the received opinion.
      y So the apartments which the bee builds are here called, because of their beautiful workmanship, and admirable contrivance, which no geometrician can excel.2
      z i.e., The ways through which, by GOD’S power, the bitter flowers passing the bee’s stomach become money; or, the methods of making honey, which he has taught her by instinct; or else the ready way home from the distant places to which that insect flies.3
      a viz., Honey; the colour of which is very different, occasioned by the different plants on which the bees feed; some being white, some yellow, some red, and some black.4
      b The same being not only good food, but a useful remedy in several distempers, particularly those occasioned by phlegm. There is a story, that a man came once to Mohammed, and told him that his brother was afflicted with a violent pain in his belly: upon which the prophet bade him give him some honey. The fellow took his advice; but soon after coming again, told him that the medicine had done his brother no manner of service: Mohammed answered, Go and give him more honey, for God speaks truth, and thy brother’s belly lies. And the dose being repeated, the man, by GOD’S mercy, was immediately cured.5
      c These words reprove the idolatrous Meccans, who could admit created beings to a share of the divine honour, though they suffered not their slaves to share with themselves to what GOD had bestowed on them.6
      d That is, of your own nations and tribes. Some think the formation of Eve from Adam is here intended.
      e Or propound no similitudes or comparisons between him and his creatures. One argument the Meccans employed in defence of their idolatry, it seems, was, that the worship of inferior deities did honour to GOD; in the same manner as the respect showed to the servants of a prince does honour to the prince himself.7
      f The idols are here likened to a slave, who is so far from having anything of his own, that he is himself in the possession of another; whereas GOD is as a rich free man, who provideth for his family abundantly, and also assisteth others who have need, both in public, and in private.8

      1 See chapter 2, p. 23. 2 Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. 4 Idem. 5 Idem. 6 Idem. 7 Idem. 8 Idem, Jallalo’ddin.

GOD also propoundeth as a parable two men; one of them born dumb, who is unable to do or understand anything, but is a burden unto his master; whithersoever he shall send him, he shall not return with any good success: shall this man, and he who hath his speech and understanding, and who commandeth that which is just, and followeth the right way, be esteemed equal?g Unto GOD alone is the secret of heaven and earth known. And the business of the last hourh shall be only as the twinkling of an eye, or even more quick: for GOD is almighty. GOD hath brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers; ye knew nothing, and he gave you the senses of hearing and seeing, and understandings, that ye might give thanks. Do they not behold the fowls which are enabled to fly in the open firmament of heaven? none supporteth them except GOD. Verily herein are signs unto people who believe. GOD hath also provided you houses for habitations for you; and hath also provided you tents of the skins of cattle, which ye find light to be removed on the day of your departure to new quarters, and easy to be pitched on the day of your sitting down therein: and of their wool, and their fur, and their hair, hath he supplied you with furniture and household-stuff for a season. And GOD hath provided for you, of that which he hath created, conveniences to shade you from the sun,i and he hath also provided you places of retreat in the mountains,j and he hath given you garments to defend you from the heat,k and coats of mail to defend you in your wars. Thus doth he accomplish his favor towards you, that ye may resign yourselves unto him. But if they turn back, verily thy duty is public preaching only. They acknowledge the goodness of GOD, and afterwards they deny the same;l but the greater part of them are unbelievers.m On a certain day we will raise a witness out of every nation:n then they who shall have been unbelievers shall not be suffered to excuse themselves, neither shall they be received into favor. And when they who shall have acted unjustly shall see the torment prepared for them; (it shall not be mitigated unto them, neither shall they be respited): and when those who shall have been guilty of idolatry shall see their false gods,o they shall say, O LORD, these are our idols which we invoked, besides thee. But they shall return an answer unto them, saying, Verily ye are liars.p And on that day shall the wicked offer submission unto

      g The idol is here again represented under the image of one who, by a defect in his senses, is a useless burthen to the man who maintains him; and GOD, under that of a person completely qualified either to direct or to execute any useful undertaking. Some suppose the comparison is intended of a true believer and an infidel.
      h That is, The resurrection of the dead.
      i As trees, houses, tents, mountains, &c.
      j viz., Caves and grottos, both natural and artificial.
      k Al Beidâwi says, that one extreme, and that the most insupportable in Arabia, is here put for both; but Jallalo’ddin supposes that by heat we are in this place to understand cold.
      l Confessing God to be the author of all the blessings they enjoy; and yet directing their worship and thanks to their idols, by whose intercession they imagine blessings are obtained.
      m Absolutely denying GOD’S providence, either through ignorance or perverseness.
      n See chapter 4, p. 59, note z.
      o Literally, Their companions.
      p For that we are not the companions of GOD, as ye imagined; neither did ye really serve

GOD; and the false deities which they imagined shall abandon them. As for those who shall have been infidels, and shall have turned aside others from the way of GOD, we will add unto them punishment upon punishment because they have corrupted others. On a certain day we will raise up in every nation a witness against them, from among themselves; and we will bring thee, O Mohammed, as a witness against these Arabians. We have sent down unto thee the book of the Koran, for an explication of everything necessary both as to faith and practice, and a direction, and mercy, and good tidings unto the Moslems. Verily GOD commandeth justice, and the doing of good, and the giving unto kindred what shall be necessary; and he forbiddeth wickedness, and iniquity, and oppression: he admonisheth you that ye may remember.q Perform your covenant with GOD,r when ye enter into covenant with him; and violate not your oaths, after the ratification thereof; since ye have made GOD a witness over you. Verily GOD knoweth that which ye do. And be not like unto her who undoeth that which she hath spun, untwisting it after she hath twisted it strongly;s taking your oaths between you deceitfully, because one party is more numerous than another party.t Verily GOD only tempteth you therein; and he will make that manifest unto you, on the day of resurrection, concerning which ye now disagree. If GOD had pleased, he would surely have made you one people:u but he will lead into error whom he pleaseth, and he will direct whom he pleaseth; and ye shall surely give an account of that which ye have done. Therefore take not your oaths between you deceitfully lest your foot slip, after it hath been steadfastly fixed, and ye taste evil in this life, for that ye have turned aside from the way of GOD; and ye suffer a grievous punishment in the life to come. And sell not the covenant of GOD for a small price;x for with GOD is a better recompense prepared for you, if ye be men of understanding. That which is with you will fail; but that which is with GOD is permanent: and we will surely reward those who shall persevere, according to the

us, but your own corrupt affections and lusts; nor yet were ye led into idolatry by us, but ye fell into it of your own accord.1
      q This verse, which was the occasion of the conversion of Othmân Ebn Matûn, the commentators say, containeth the whole which it is a man’s duty either to perform or to avoid; and is alone a sufficient demonstration of what is said in the foregoing verse. Under the three things here commanded, they understand the belief of GOD’S unity, without inclining to atheism, on the one hand, or polytheism, on the other; obedience to the commands of God; and charity towards those in distress. And under the three things forbidden, they comprehend all corrupt and carnal affections; all false doctrines and heretical opinions; and all injustice towards man.2
      r By persevering in his true religion. Some think that the oath of fidelity taken to Mohammed by his followers is chiefly intended here.
      s Some suppose that a particular woman is meant in this passage, who used (like Penelope) to undo at night the work that she had done in the day. Her name, they say, was Reita Bint Saad Ebn Teym, of the tribe of Koreish.3
      t Of this insincerity in their alliances the Koreish are accused; it being usual with them, when they saw the enemies of their confederates to be superior in force, to renounce their league with their old friends, and strike up one with the others.4
      u Or, of one religion.
      x That is, Be not prevailed on to renounce your religion, or your engagements with your prophet, by any promises or gifts of the infidels. For, it seems, the Koreish, to tempt the poorer Moslems to apostatize, made them offers, not very considerable indeed, but such as they imagined might be worth their acceptance.5

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 Idem. 5 Idem.

utmost merit of their actions. Whoso worketh righteousness, whether he be male or female, and is a true believer, we will surely raise him to a happy life; and we will give them their reward, according to the utmost merit of their actions. When thou readest the Koran, have recourse unto GOD, that he may preserve thee from Satan driven away with stones;y he hath no power over those who believe, and who put confidence in their LORD; but his power is over those only who take him for their patron, and who give companions unto God. When we substitute in the Koran an abrogating verse in lieu of a verse abrogated (and GOD best knoweth the fitness of that which he revealeth), the infidels say, Thou art only a forger of these verses: but the greater part of them know not truth from falsehood. Say, The holy spiritz hath brought the same down from thy LORD with truth; that he may confirm those who believe, and for a direction and good tidings unto the Moslems. We also know that they say, Verily, a certain man teacheth him to compose the Koran. The tongue of the person unto whom they incline is a foreign tongue; but this, wherein the Koran is written, is the perspicuous Arabic tongue.a Moreover

      y Mohammed one day reading in the Korân, uttered a horrid blasphemy, to the great scandal of those who were present, as will be observed in another place;1 to excuse which he assured them that those words were put into his mouth by the devil; and to prevent any such accident for the future, he is here taught to beg GOD’S protection before he entered on that duty.2 Hence the Mohammedans, before they begin to read any part of this book, repeat these words, I have recourse unto God for assistance against Satan driven away with stones.
      z viz., Gabriel. See chapter 2, p. 10.
      a This was a great objection made by the Meccans to the authority of the Korân; for when Mohammed insisted, as a proof of its divine original, that it was impossible a man so utterly unacquainted with learning as himself could compose such a book, they replied, that he had one or more assistants in the forgery; but as to the particular person or persons suspected of this confederacy, the traditions differ. One says it was Jabar, a Greek, servant to Amer Ebn al Hadrami, who could read and write well;3 another, that they were Jabar and Yesâr, two slaves who followed the trade of sword-cutlers at Mecca, and used to read the pentateuch and gospel, and had often Mohammed for their auditor, when he passed that way.4 Another tells us, it was one Aïsh, or Yâïsh, a domestic of al Haweiteb Ebn Abd al Uzza, who was a man of some learning, and had embraced Mohammedism.5 Another supposes it was one Kais, a Christian, whose house Mohammed frequented;6 another, that it was Addâs, a servant of Otba Ebn Rabîa;7 and another, that it was Salmân the Persian.8
      According to some Christian writers,9 Abdallah Ebn Salâm, the Jew who was so intimate with Mohammed (named by one, according to the Hebrew dialect, Abdias Ben Salon and by another, Abdala Celen), was assisting to him in the compiling his pretended revelations. This Jew Dr. Prideaux confounds with Salmân the Persian, who was a very different man, as a late author10 has observed before me; wherefore, and for that we may have occasion to speak of Salmân hereafter, it may be proper to add a brief extract of his story as told by himself. He was of a good family of Ispahan, and, in his younger years, left the religion of his country to embrace Christianity; and travelling into Syria, was advised by a certain monk of Amuria to go into Arabia, where a prophet was expected to arise about that time, who should establish the religion of Abraham; and whom he should know, among other things, by the seal of prophecy between his shoulders. Salmân performed the journey, and meeting with Mohammed at Koba, where he rested in his flight to Medina, soon found him to be the person he sought, and professed Islâm.11
      The general opinion of the Christians, however is, that the chief help Mohammed had in the contriving his Korân, was from a Nestorian monk named Sergius, supposed to be the same person with the monk Boheira, with whom Mohammed in his younger years had some conference, at Bosra, a city of Syria Damascena, where that monk resided.12 To confirm

      1 In not. ad cap. 22. 2 Jallalo’ddin, Al Beidâwi, Yahya, &c. 3 Al Zamakhshari, Al Beidâwi, Yahya. 4 Al Zamakh., Al Beidâwi. See Prid. Life of Mah. p. 32. 5 Iidem. 6 Jallalo’ddin. 7 Al Zamakh., Yahya. 8 Al Zamakh., Al Beidâwi. 9 Ricardi Confut. Legis Saracenicæ, c. 13. Joh. Andreas, de Confus. Sectæ Mahometanæ, c. 2 See Prid. Life of Mah. pp. 33, 34. 10 Gagnier not. in Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 74. 11 Ex Ebn Ishak. Vide Gagnier, ibid 12 See Prid. ubi sup. p. 35, &c. Gagnier, ubi sup. pp. 10, 11. Marrac. de Alcor. p. 37.

as for those who believe not the signs of GOD, GOD will not direct them, and they shall suffer a painful torment: verily they imagine a falsehood who believe not in the signs of GOD, and they are really the liars. Whoever denieth GOD, after he hath believed, except him who shall be compelled against his will, and whose heart continueth steadfast in the faith, shall be severely chastised:b but whoever shall voluntarily profess infidelity, on those shall the indignation of GOD fall, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. This shall be their sentence, because they have loved the present life above that which is to come, and for that GOD directeth not the unbelieving people. These are they whose hearts, and hearing, and sight, GOD hath sealed up; and these are the negligent: there is no doubt but that in the next life they shall perish. Moreover thy LORD will be favorable unto those who have fled their country, after having suffered persecu-

which supposition, a passage has been produced from an Arab writer,1 who says that Boheira’s name in the books of the Christians, is Sergius; but this is only a conjecture; and another2 tells us, his true name was Saïd, or Felix, and his surname Boheira. But be that as it will, if Boheira and Sergius were the same man, I find not the least intimation in the Mohammedan writers that he ever quitted his monastery to go into Arabia (as is supposed by the Christians); and his acquaintance with Mohammed at Bosra was too early to favour the surmise of his assisting him in the Korân, which was composed long after; though Mohammed might, from his discourse, gain some knowledge of Christianity and of the scriptures, which might be of use to him therein.
      From the answer given in this passage of the Korân to the objection of the infidels, viz., that the person suspected by them to have a hand in the Korân spoke a foreign language, and therefore could not, with any face of probability, be supposed to assist in a composition written in the Arabic tongue, and with so great elegance, it is plain this person was no Arabian. The word Ajami, which is here used, signifies any foreign or barbarous language in general; but the Arabs applying it more particularly to the Persian, it has been thence concluded by some that Salmân was the person; however, if it be true that he came not to Mohammed till after the Hejra, either he could not be the man here intended, or else this verse must have been revealed at Medina, contrary to the common opinion.
      b These words were added for the sake of Ammâr Ebn Yaser, and some others, who being taken and tortured by the Koreish, renounced their faith out of fear, though their hearts agreed not with their mouths.3 It seems Ammâr wanted the constancy of his father and mother, Yâser, and Sommeya, who underwent the like trial at the same time with their son, and resolutely refusing to recant, were both put to death, the infidels tying Sommeya between two camels, and striking a lance through her privy parts.4 When news was brought to Mohammed, that Ammâr had denied the faith, he said, it could not be, for that Ammâr was full of faith from the crown of his head to the sole of his foot, faith being mixed and incorporated with his very flesh and blood; and when Ammâr himself came weeping to the prophet, he wiped his eyes, saying, What fault was it of thine, if they forced thee?
But though it be here said, that those who apostatize in appearance only, to avoid death or torments, may hope for pardon from GOD, yet it is unanimously agreed by the Mohammedan doctors, to be much more meritorious and pleasing in the sight of GOD, courageously and nobly to persist in the true faith, and rather to suffer death itself than renounce it, even in words. Nor did the Mohammedan religion want its martyrs, in the strict sense of the word; of which I will here give two instances, besides the above-mentioned. One is that of Khobaib Ebn Ada, who being perfidiously sold to the Koreish, was by them put to death in a cruel manner, by mutilation, and cutting off his flesh piecemeal; and being asked, in the midst of his tortures, whether he did not wish Mohammed was in his place, answered I would not wish to be with my family, my substance, and my children, on condition that Mohammed was only to be pricked with a thorn.5 The other is that of a man who was put to death by Moseilama, on the following occasion. That false prophet having taken two of Mohammed’s followers, asked one of them, what he said of Mohammed? the man answered, That he was the apostle of God: And what sayest thou of me? added Moseilama; to which he replied, Thou also art the apostle of God; whereupon he was immediately dismissed in safety. But the other, having returned the same answer to the former question, refused to give any to the last, though required to do it three several times, but pretended to be deaf, and was therefore slain. It is related that Mohammed, when the story of these two men was told him, said, The first of them threw himself on God’s mercy; but the latter professed the truth; and he shall find his account in it.6

      1 Al Masudi. 2 Abu’l Hasan al Becri in Korân. 3 Al Beidâwi, Al Zamakh., Yahya. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Ebn Shohnah. 6 Al Beidâwi.

tion,c and had been compelled to deny the faith by violence, and who have since fought in defence of the true religion, and have persevered with patience; verily unto these will thy LORD be gracious and merciful, after they shall have shown their sincerity. On a certain day shall every soul come to plead itself,d and every soul shall be repaid that which it shall have wrought; and they shall not be treated unjustly. GOD propoundeth as a parable a citye which was secure and quiet, unto which her provisions came in abundance from every side; but she ungratefully denied the favor of GOD: wherefore GOD caused her to taste the extreme famine, and fear, because of that which they had done. And now is an apostle come unto the inhabitants of Mecca from among themselves; and they accuse him of imposture: wherefore a punishment shall be inflicted on them, while they are acting unjustly. Eat of what GOD hath given you for food, that which is lawful and good; and be thankful for the favors of GOD, if ye serve him. He hath only forbidden you that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that which hath been slain in the name of any, besides GOD.f But unto him who shall be compelled by necessity to eat of these things, not lusting nor wilfully transgressing, GOD will surely be gracious and merciful. And say not that wherein your tongues utter a lie; This is lawful, and this is unlawful;g that ye may devise a lie concerning GOD: for they who devise concerning GOD shall not prosper. They shall have small enjoyment in this world, and in that which is to come they shall suffer a grievous torment. Unto the Jews did we forbid that which we have told thee formally:h and we did them no injury in that respect; but they injured their own souls.i Moreover thy LORD will be favorable unto those who do evil through ignorance, and afterwards repent and amend: verily unto these will thy LORD be gracious and merciful, after their repentance. Abraham was a model of true religion, obedient unto GOD, orthodox, and was not an idolater:j he was also grateful for his benefits: wherefore God chose him, and directed him into the right way. And we bestowed on him good in this world; and in the next he shall surely be one of the righteous. We have also spoken unto thee, O Mohammed, by revelation, saying, Follow the religion of Abraham, who was orthodox, and

      c As did Ammâr, who made one in both the flights. Some, reading the verb with different vowels, render the last words, after having persecuted the true believers; and instance in al Hadrami, who obliged a servant of his to renounce Mohammedism, by force, but afterwards, together with that servant professed the same faith, and fled for it.1
      d That is, Every person shall be solicitous for his own salvation, not concerning himself with the condition of another, but crying out, My own soul, my own soul!2
      e This example is applied to every city which having received great blessings from GOD, becometh insolent and unthankful, and is therefore chastised by some signal judgment; or rather to Mecca in particular, on which the calamities threatened in this passage, viz. both famine and sword, were inflicted.3
      f See chapter 5, p. 73.
      g Allowing what GOD hath forbidden, and superstitiously abstaining from what he hath allowed. See chapter 6, p. 101, &c.
      h viz., In the 6th chapter, p. 103.
      i i.e., They were forbidden things which were in themselves indifferent, as a punishment for their wickedness and rebellion.
      j This was to reprehend the idolatrous Koreish, who pretended that they professed the religion of Abraham.

       1 Idem. 2 Idem. 3 Idem.

was no idolater. The sabbath was only appointed unto those who differed with their prophet concerning it;k and thy LORD will surely judge between them, on the day of resurrection, as to that concerning which they differed. Invite men unto the way of thy LORD, by wisdom, and mild exhortation; and dispute with them in the most condescending manner: for thy LORD well knoweth him who strayeth from his path, and he well knoweth those who are rightly directed. If ye take vengeance on any, take a vengeance proportionable to the wrong which hath been done you;l but if ye suffer wrong patiently, verily this will be better for the patient.m Wherefore, do thou bear opposition with patience; but thy patience shall not be practicable, unless with GOD'S assistance. And be thou not grieved on account of the unbelievers; neither be thou troubled for that which they subtilely devise; for GOD is with those who fear him, and are upright.

_______



CHAPTER XVII.

ENTITLED, THE NIGHT JOURNEY;n REVEALED AT MECCA.

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       PRAISE be unto him who transported his servant by night, from the sacred temple of Mecca to the farther temple of Jerusalem,p the circuit of which we have blessed, that we might show some of our signs; for God is he who heareth, and seeth. And

      k These were the Jews; who being ordered by Moses to set apart Friday (the day now observed by the Mohammedans) for the exercise of divine worship, refused it, and chose the sabbath-day, because on that day GOD rested from his works of creation: for which reason they were commanded to keep the day they had chosen in the strictest manner.1
      l This passage is supposed to have been revealed at Medina, on occasion of Hamza, Mohammed’s uncle, being slain at the battle of Ohod. For the infidels having abused his dead body, by taking out his bowels, and cutting off his ears and his nose, when Mohammed saw it, he swore that if God granted him success, he would retaliate those cruelties on seventy of the Koreish; but he was by these words forbidden to execute what he had sworn, and he accordingly made void his oath.2 Abu’lfeda makes the number on which Mohammed swore to reek his vengeance to be but thirty:3 but it may be observed, by the way, that the translator renders the passage in that author, GOD hath revealed unto me that I shall retaliate, &c., instead of, If GOD grant me victory over the Koreish, I will retaliate, &c., reading Laïn adhharni, for adhfarni; GOD, far from putting this design into the prophet’s head by a revelation, expressly forbidding him to put it in execution.
      m Here, says al Beidâwi, the Korân principally points at Mohammed, who was of all men the most conspicuous for meekness and clemency.
      n The reason of this inscription appears in the first words. Some entitle the chapter, The children of Israel.
      o Some except eight verses, beginning at these words, It wanted little but that the infidels had seduced thee, &c.
      p From whence he was carried through the seven heavens to the presence of GOD, and brought back again to Mecca the same night.
      This journey of Mohammed to heaven is so well known that I may be pardoned if I omit

       1 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 2 Iidem. 3 Abu’lf. Vit. Moh. n. 68.


we gave unto Moses the book of the law, and appointed the same to be a direction unto the children of Israel, commanding them, saying, Beware that ye take not any other patron besides me. O posterity of those whom we carried in the ark with Noah:q verily he was a grateful servant. And we expressly declared unto the children of Israel in the book of the law, saying, Ye will surely commit evil in the earth twice,r and ye will be elated with great insolence. And when the punishment threatened for the first of those transgressions came to be executed, we sent against you our servants,s endued with exceeding strength in war, and they searched the inner apartments of your houses; and the prediction became accomplished. Afterwards we gave you the victory over them,t in your turn, and we granted you increase of wealth and children, and we made you a more numerous people, saying, If ye do well, ye will do well to your own souls; and if ye do evil, ye will do it unto the same. And when the punishment threatened for your latter transgression came to be executed, we sent enemies against you to afflict you,u and to enter the temple, as they entered it the first time, and utterly to destroy that which they

the description of it. The English reader may find it in Dr. Prideaux’s Life of Mahomet,1 and the learned in Abu’lfeda,2 whose annotator has corrected several mistakes in the relation of Dr. Prideaux, and in other writers.
      It is a dispute among the Mohammedan divines, whether their prophet’s night-journey was really performed by him corporally, or whether it was only a dream or vision. Some think the whole was no more than a vision; and allege and express tradition of Moâwiyoh,3 one of Mohammed’s successors, to that purpose. Others suppose he was carried bodily to Jerusalem, but no farther; and that he ascended thence to heaven in spirit only. But the received opinion is, that it was no vision, but that he was actually transported in the body to his journey’s end; and if any impossibility be objected, they think it a sufficient answer to say, that it might easily be effected by an omnipotent agent.4
      q The commentators are put to it to find out the connection of these words with the foregoing. Some think the accusative case is here put for the vocative, as I have translated it: and others interpret the words thus, Take not for your patrons besides me, the posterity of those, &c., meaning, mortal men.
      r Their first transgression was their rejecting the decisions of the law, their putting Isaiah to death,5 and their imprisoning of Jeremiah:6 and the second, was their slaying of Zachariah and John the Baptist, and their imagining the death of JESUS.7
      s These were Jalût, or Goliah, and his forces;8 or Sennacherib the Assyrian; or else Nebuchadnezzar, whom the eastern writers called Bakhtnasr (which was however only his surname, his true name being Gudarz, or Raham), the governor of Babylon under Lohorasp, king of Persia,9 who took Jerusalem, and destroyed the temple.
      t By permitting David to kill Goliah; or by the miraculous defeat of Sennacherib’s army; or for that GOD put it into the heart of Bahman the son of Isfandiyar, when he succeeded his grandfather Lohorasp, to order Kiresh, or Cyrus, then governor of Babylon, to send home the Jews from their captivity, under the conduct of Daniel; which he accordingly did, and they prevailed against those whom Bakhtnasr had left in the land.10
      u Some imagine the army meant in this place was that of Bakhtnasr;11 but others say the Persians conquered the Jews this second time, by the arms of Gudarz (by whom they seem to intend Antiochus Epiphanes), one of the successors of Alexander at Babylon. It is related that the general in this expedition, entering the temple, saw blood bubbling up on the great altar, and asking the reason of it, the Jews told him it was the blood of a sacrifice which had not been accepted of GOD; to which he replied, that they had not told him the truth, and ordered a thousand of them to be slain on the altar; but the blood not ceasing, he told them that if they would not confess the truth, he would not spare one of them; whereupon they acknowledged it was the blood of John: and the general said, Thus hath your Lord taken vengeance on you; and then cried out, O John, my LORD and thy LORD knoweth what hath befallen thy people for thy sake; wherefore let thy blood stop, by GOD’S permission, lest I leave not one of them alive; upon which the blood immediately stopped.12
      These are the explications of the commentators, wherein their ignorance in ancient history

      1 Page 43, &c. See also Morgan’s Mahometism Explained, vol. 2 2 Vit. Moham. cap. 19. 3 Vide ibid, c. 18. 4 Al Beidâwi. 5 Id. m. 6 Jallalo’ddin. 7 Iidem. 8 Jallalo’ddin, Yahya. 9 Al Zamakhshari, Al Beidâwi. 10 Iidem. 11 Yahya, Jallalo’ddin 12 Al Beidâwi.

had conquered. Peradventure your LORD will have mercy on you hereafter: but if ye return to transgress a third time, we also will return to chastise you;x and we have appointed hell to be the prison of the unbelievers. Verily this Koran directeth unto the way which is most right, and declareth unto the faithful, who do good works, that they shall receive a great reward; and that for those who believe not in the life to come, we have prepared a grievous punishment. Man prayeth for evil, as he prayeth for good;y for man is hasty.z We have ordained the night and the day for two signs of our power: afterwards we blot out the sign of the night, and we cause the sign of the day to shine forth, that ye may endeavor to obtain plenty from your LORD by doing your business therein, and that ye may know the number of years, and the computation of time; and everything necessary have we explained by a perspicuous explication. The fatea of every man have we bound about his neck;b and we will produce unto him, on the day of resurrection, a book wherein his actions shall be recorded: it shall be offered him open, and the angels shall say unto him, Read thy book; thine own soul will be a sufficient accountant against thee, this day.c He who shall be rightly directed, shall be directed to the advantage only of his own soul; and he who shall err shall err only against the same: neither shall any laden soul be charged with the burden of another. We did not punish any people, until we had first sent an apostle to warn them. And when we resolved to destroy a city, we commanded the inhabitants thereof, who lived in affluence, to obey our apostle; but they acted corruptly therein: wherefore the sentence was justly pronounced against that city; and we destroyed it with an utter destruction. And how many generations have we consumed since Noah? for thy LORD sufficiently knoweth and seeth the sins of his servants. Whosoever chooseth this transitory life, we will bestow on him therein beforehand that which we please; on him, namely, whom we please: afterwards will

is sufficiently manifest; though perhaps Mohammed himself, in this latter passage, intended the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans.
      x And this came accordingly to pass; for the Jews being again so wicked as to reject Mohammed, and conspire against his life, God delivered them into his hands; and he exterminated the tribe of Koreidha, and slew the chiefs of al Nadîr, and obliged the rest of the Jewish tribes to pay tribute.1
      y Out of ignorance, mistaking evil for good; or making wicked imprecations on himself and others, out of passion and impatience.
      z Or inconsiderate, not weighing the consequence of what he asks.
      It is said that the person here meant is Adam, who, when the breath of life was breathed into his nostrils, and had reached so far as his navel, though the lower part of his body was, as yet, but a piece of clay, must needs try to rise up, and got an ugly fall by the bargain. But others pretend the passage was revealed on the following occasion. Mohammed committed a certain captive to the charge of his wife, Sawda bint Zamáa, who, moved with compassion at the man’s groans, unbound him, and let him escape: upon which the prophet, in the first motions of his anger, wished her hand might fall off; but immediately composing himself, said aloud, O God, I am but a man: therefore turn my curse into a blessing.2
      a Literally, the bird, which is here used to signify a man’s fortune or success; the Arabs, as well as the Greeks and Romans, taking omens from the flight of birds, which they supposed to portend good luck, if they flew from the left to the right, but if from the right to the left, the contrary; the like judgment they also made when certain beasts passed before them.
      b Like a collar, which he cannot by any means get off. See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV p. 80.
      c See ibid. p. 20.

       1 Idem. 2 Jallalo’ddin

we appoint him hell for his abode; he shall be thrown into the same to be scorched, covered with ignominy, and utterly rejected from mercy. But whosoever chooseth the life to come, and directeth his endeavor towards the same, being also a true believer; the endeavor of these shall be acceptable unto God. On all will we bestow the blessings of this life, both on these and on those, of the gift of thy LORD; for the gift of thy LORD shall not be denied unto any. Behold, how we have caused some of them to surpass others in wealth and dignity: but the next life shall be more considerable in degrees of honour, and greater in excellence. Set not up another god with the true GOD, lest thou sit down in disgrace, and destitute. Thy LORD hath commanded that ye worship none besides him; and that ye show kindness unto your parents, whether the one of them, or both of them attain to old age with thee.d Wherefore, say not unto them, Fie on you!e neither reproach them, but speak respectfully unto them and submit to behave humblye towards them, out of tender affection and say, O LORD, have mercy on them both, as they nursed me when I was little. Your LORD well knoweth that which is in your souls; whether ye be men of integrity: and he will be gracious unto those who sincerely return unto him. And give unto him who is of kin to you his due,f and also unto the poor, and the traveller. And waste not thy substance profusely: for the profuse are brethren of the devils:g and the devil was ungrateful unto his LORD. But if thou turn from them, in expectation of the mercy which thou hopest from thy LORD;h at least, speak kindly unto them. And let not thy hand be tied up to thy neck; neither open it with an unbounded expansion,i lest thou become worthy of reprehension, and be reduced to poverty. Verily thy LORD will enlarge the store of whom he pleaseth, and will be sparing unto whom he pleaseth; for he knoweth and regardeth his servants. Kill not your children for fear of being brought to want; we will provide for them and for you; verily the killing them is a great sin. Draw not near unto fornication; for it is wickedness, and an evil way. Neither slay the soul which GOD hath forbidden you to slay, unless for a just cause;k and whosoever shall be slain unjustly, we have given his heir power to demand satisfaction;l but let him not exceed the bounds of moderation in putting to death the murderer

      d That is, receiving their support and maintenance from thee.
      e Literally, Lower the wing of humility, &c.
      f That is, friendship and affection, and assistance in time of need.
      g Prodigality, and squandering away one’s substance in folly or luxury, being a very great sin. The Arabs were particularly guilty of extravagance in killing camels, and distributing them by lot, merely out of vanity and ostentation; which they are forbidden by this passage, and commanded to bestow what they could spare on their poor relations, and other indigent people.1
      h That is, If thy present circumstances will not permit thee to assist others, defer thy charity till GOD shall grant thee better ability.
      i i.e., Be neither niggardly nor profuse, but observe the mean between the two extremes, wherein consists true liberality.2
      j See chapter 6, p. 101 and 103, and chapter 81.
      k The crimes for which a man may justly be put to death are these: apostasy, adultery and murder.3
      l It being at the election of the heir, or next of kin, either to take the life of the murderer or to accept of a fine in lieu of it.4

       1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Idem. 4 See chapter 2, p. 19.

in too cruel a manner, or by revenging his friend's blood on any other than the person who killed him;
since he is assisted by this law.m And meddle not with the substance of the orphan, unless it be to improve it, until he attain his age of strength:n and perform your covenant; for the performance of your covenant shall be inquired into hereafter. And give full measure, when you measure aught; and weigh with a just balance. This will be better, and more easy for determining every man's due.o And follow not that whereof thou hast no knowledge;p for the hearing, and the sight, and the heart, every of these shall be examined at the last day. Walk not proudly in the land, for thou canst not cleave the earth, neither shalt thou equal the mountains in stature. All this is evil, and abominable in the sight of thy LORD. These precepts are a part of the wisdom which they LORD hath revealed unto thee. Set not up any other god as equal unto GOD, lest thou be cast into hell, reproved and rejected. Hath your LORD preferably granted unto you sons, and taken for himself daughters from among the angels?q Verily in asserting this ye utter a grievous saying. And now have we used various arguments and repetitions in this Koran, that they may be warned: yet it only rendereth them more disposed to fly from the truth. Say unto the idolaters, If there were other gods with him, as ye say, they would surely seek an occasion of making some attempt against the possessor of the throne:r GOD forbid! and far, very far, be that from him which they utter! The seven heavens praise him, and the earth, and all who are therein: neither is there anything which doth not celebrate his praise; but ye understand not their celebration thereof: he is gracious and merciful. When thou readest the Koran, we place between thee and those who believe not in the life to come a dark veil; and we put coverings over their hearts, lest they should understand it, and in their ears thickness of hearing. And when thou makest mention, in repeating the Koran, of thy LORD only,s they turn their backs, flying the doctrine of his unity. We well know with what design they hearken, when they hearken unto thee, and when they privately discourse together: when the ungodly say, Ye follow no other than a madman. Behold! what epithets they bestow on thee. But they are deceived; neither can they find any just occasion to reproach thee. They also say, After we shall have become bones and dust, shall we surely be raised a new creature? Answer, Be ye

      m Some refer the pronoun he to the person slain, for the avenging whose death this law was made; some to the heir, who has a right granted him to demand satisfaction for his friend’s blood;1 and others to him who shall be slain by the heir, if he carry his vengeance too far.2
      n See chapter 4, p. 53, 54.
      o Or, more advantageous in the end.3
      p i.e., Vain and uncertain opinions, which thou hast not good reason to believe true, or at least probable. Some interpret the words, Accuse not another of a crime whereof thou hast no knowledge; supposing they forbid the bearing false witness, or the spreading or giving credit to idle reports of others.4
      q See chapter 16, p. 199.
      r i.e., They would in all probability contend with GOD for superiority, and endeavour to dethrone him, in the same manner as princes act with one another on earth.
      s Not allowing their gods to be his associates, nor praying their intercession with him.

      1 Yahya. 2 Vide Al Beidâwi. 3 Idem. Al Zamakh. 4 Iidem.

stones, or iron, or some creature more improbable in your opinions to be raised to life. But they will say, Who shall restore us to life? Answer, He who created you the first time: and they will wag their heads at thee, saying, When shall this be? Answer, Peradventure it is nigh. On that day shall GOD call you forth from your sepulchres, and ye shall obey, with celebration of his praise;t and ye shall think that ye tarriedu but a little while. Speak unto my servants, that they speak mildly unto the unbelievers, lest ye exasperate them; for Satan soweth discord among them, and Satan is a declared enemy unto man. your LORD well knoweth you; if he pleaseth, he will have mercy on you, or, if he pleaseth, he will punish you:x and we have not sent thee to be a steward over them. Thy LORD well knoweth all persons in heaven and on earth.y We have bestowed peculiar favors on some of the prophets, preferably to others; and we gave unto David the psalms.z Say, Call upon those whom ye imagine to be gods besides him; yet they will not be able to free you from harm, or to turn it on others. Those whom ye invoke,a do themselves desire to be admitted to a near conjunction with their LORD; striving which of them shall approach nearest unto him: they also hope for his mercy, and dread his punishment; for the punishment of thy LORD is terrible. There is no city but we will destroy the same before the day of resurrection, or we will punish it with a grievous punishment. This is written in the book of our eternal decrees. Nothing hindered us from sending thee with miracles, except that the former nations have charged them with imposture. We gave unto the tribe of Thamud, at their demand, the she-camel visible to their sight: yet they dealt unjustly with her:b and we send not a prophet with miracles, but to strike terror. Remember when we said unto thee, Verily thy LORD encompasseth men by his knowledge and power. We have appointed the vision which we showed thee,c and

      t The dead, says al Beidâwi, at his call shall immediately rise, and shaking the dust off their heads, shall say, Praise be unto thee, O God.
      u viz., In your graves; or in the world.
      x These words are designed as a pattern for the Moslems to follow, in discoursing with the idolaters; by which they are taught to use soft and dubious expressions, and not to tell them directly that they are doomed to hell fire; which, besides the presumption in offering to determine the sentence of others, would only make them more irreconcilable enemies.1
      y And may choose whom he pleases for his ambassador. This is an answer to the objections of the Koreish, that Mohammed was the orphan pupil of Abu Taleb, and followed by a parcel of naked and hungry fellows.2
      z Which were a greater honour to him than his kingdom; and wherein Mohammed and his people are foretold by these words, among others:3 The righteous shall inherit the earth.4
      a viz., The angels and prophets, who are the servants of GOD as well as yourselves.
      b See chapter 7, p. 112.
      c Mohammed’s journey to heaven is generally agreed to be intended in this place; which occasioned great heats and debates among his followers, till they were quieted by Abu Becr’s bearing testimony to the truth of it.5 The word vision, here used, is urged by those who take this journey to have been no more than a dream, as a plain confirmation of their opinion. Some, however, suppose the vision meant in this passage was not the night-journey, but the dream Mohammed saw at al Hodeibiya, wherein he seemed to make his entrance into Mecca;6 or that at Bedr;7 or else a vision he had relating to the family of Ommeya, whom he saw

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 Idem. 3 Vide Marracc. in Alc. p. 28, &c. Prid. Life of Mah. p. 122. 4 Psal. xxxvii. 28. Al Beid. 5 Vide Abulf. Vit. Moh. p. 39, and not. ibid Prideaux, Life of Mah. p. 50, and Prelim. Disc. Sect. II, p. 36. 6 See Kor. chapter 48. 7 See chapter 8, p. 129.

also the treed cursed in the Koran, only for an occasion of dispute unto men, and to strike them with terror; but it shall cause them to transgress only the more enormously. And remember when we said unto the angels, Worship Adam; and they all worshipped him except Eblis, who said, Shall I worship him whom thou hast created of clay? And he said, What thinkest thou, as to this man whom thou hast honoured above me? verily, if thou grant me respite until the day of resurrection, I will extirpate his offspring, except a few. God answered, Begone, I grant thee respite: but whosoever of them shall follow thee, hell shall surely be your reward; an ample reward for your demerits!e And entice to vanity such of them as thou canst, by thy voice; and assault them on all sides with thy horsemen and thy footmen;f and partake with them in their riches, and their children;g and make them promises; (but the devil shall make them no other than deceitful promises:) as to my servants, thou shalt have no power over them; for thy LORD is a sufficient protector of those who trust in him. It is your LORD who driveth forward the ships for you in the sea, that ye may seek to enrich yourselves of his abundance by commerce; for he is merciful towards you. When a misfortune befalleth you at sea, the false deities whom ye invoke are forgotten by you, except him alone: yet when he bringeth you safe to dry land, ye retire afar off from him, and return to your idols; for man is ungrateful.h Are ye therefore secure that he will not cause the dry land to swallow you up, or that he will not send against you a whirlwind driving the sands to overwhelm you? Then shall ye find none to protect you. Or are ye secure that he will not cause you again to commit yourselves to the sea another time, and send against you a tempestuous wind, and drown you; for that ye have been ungrateful? then shall ye find none to defend you against us, in that distress. And now have we honoured the children of Adam by sundry peculiar privileges and endowments; and we have given them conveniences of carriage by land and by sea, and have provided food for them of good things; and we have preferred them before many of our creatures which we have created, by granting them great prerogatives. On a certain day we will call all men to judgment with their respective leader:i and whosoever shall have his book given him into his right hand, they shall read their book with joy and satisfaction;j and they shall not be wronged a hair.k And whoever hath been blind in this life shall

mount his pulpit, and jump about in it like monkeys; upon which he said, This is their portion in this world, which they have gained by their profession of Islâm.1 But if any of these latter expositions be true, the verse must have been revealed at Medina.
      d Called al Zakkûm, which springs from the bottom of hell.2
      e See chapter 2, p. 5, and chapter 7, p. 106, &c.
      f i.e., With all thy forces.
      g Instigating them to get wealth by unlawful means, and to spend it in supporting vice and superstition; and tempting them to incestuous mixtures, and to give their children names in honour of their idols, as Abd Yaghuth, Abd’ al Uzza, &c.3
      h See chapter 10, p. 152.
      i Some interpret this of the prophet sent to every people; others, of the heads of sects; others, of the various religions professed in the world; others, of the books which shall be given to every man at the resurrection, containing a register of their good and bad actions.
      j See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 70.
      k See chapter 4, p. 60, note o.

      1 Al Beidâwi. 2 See chapter 37. 3 Al Beidâwi.

be also blind in the next, and shall wander more widely from the path of salvation. It wanted little but the unbelievers had tempted thee to swerve from the instructions which we had revealed unto thee, that thou shouldest devise concerning us a different thing;l and then would they have taken thee for their friend: and unless we had confirmed thee, thou hadst certainly been very near inclining unto them a little. Then would we surely have caused thee to taste the punishment of life, and the punishment of death;m and thou shouldest not have found any to protect thee against us. The unbelievers had likewise almost caused thee to depart the land, that they might have expelled thee thence:n but then should they not have tarried therein after thee, except a little while.o This is the method of dealing which we have prescribed ourselves in respect to our apostles, whom we have already sent before thee: and thou shalt not find any change in our prescribed method. Regularly perform thy prayer at the declension of the sun, at the first darkness of the night,q and the prayer of daybreak;r for the prayer of daybreak is borne witness unto by the angels.s And watch some part of the night in the same exercise, as a work of supererogation for thee: peradventure thy LORD will

      l These are generally supposed to have been the tribe of Thakîf, the inhabitants of al Tâyef, who insisted on Mohammed’s granting them several very extraordinary privileges, as the terms of their submission to him; for they demanded that they might be free from the legal contribution of alms, and from observing the appointed times of prayer; that they might be allowed to keep their idol Allât for a certain time,1 and that their territory might be declared a place of security and not be violated, like that of Mecca, &c. And they added, that if the other Arabs asked him the reason of these concessions, he should say, that GOD had commanded him so to do.2 According to which explication it is plain this verse must have been revealed long after the Hejra.
      Some, however, will have the passage to have been revealed at Mecca, on occasion of the Koreish; who told Mohammed they would not suffer him to kiss the black stone in the wall of Caaba, unless he also visited their idols, and touched them with his hand, to show his respect.
      m i.e., Both of this life and the next. Some interpret the first of the punishment in the next world, and the latter of the torture of the sepulchre.3
      n The commentators differ as to the place where this passage was delivered, and the occasion of it. Some think it was revealed at Mecca, and that it refers to the violent enmity which the Koreish bore Mohammed, and their restless endeavours to make him leave Mecca;4 as he was at length obliged to do. But as the persons here spoken of seem not to have prevailed in their project, others suppose that the verse was revealed at Medina, on the following occasion. The Jews, envious of Mohammed’s good reception and stay there, told him, by way of counsel, that Syria was the land of the prophets, and that if he was really a prophet he ought to go thither. Mohammed seriously reflecting on what they had said, began to think they had advised him well; and actually set out, and proceeded a day’s journey in his way to Syria: whereupon GOD acquainted him with their design by the revelation of this verse; and he returned to Medina.5
      o This was fulfilled, according to the former of the above-mentioned explications, by the loss of the Koreish at Bedr; and according to the latter, by the great slaughter of the Jews of Koreidha and al Nadîr.6
      p i.e., At the time of noon prayer, when the sun declines from the meridian; or, as some choose to translate the words, at the setting of the sun, which is the time of the first evening prayer.
      q The time of the last evening prayer.
      r Literally, the reading of the daybreak; whence some suppose the reading of the Korân at that time is here meant.
      s viz., The guardian angels, who, according to some, are relieved at that time; or else the angels appointed to make the change of night into day, &c.7

      1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 14. 2 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. Vide Abulf. Vit. Moham. p. 126, &c. 3 Al Beidâwi. 4 Idem. 5 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 6 Iidem. 7 Al Beidâwi.

raise thee to an honourable station.t And say, O LORD, cause me to enter with a favorable entry, and cause me to come forthu with a favorable coming forth; and grant me from thee an assisting power. And say, Truth is come, and falsehood is vanished: for falsehood is of short continuance.x We send down of the Koran that which is a medicine and mercy unto the true believers; but it shall only increase the perdition of the unjust. When we bestow favors on man, he retireth and withdraweth himself ungratefully from us: but when evil toucheth him, he despaireth of our mercy. Say, Every one acteth after his own manner:y but your LORD best knoweth who is most truly directed in his way. They will ask thee concerning the spirit:z answer, The spirit was created at the command of my LORD:a but ye have no knowledge given unto you, except a little.b If we pleased, we should certainly take away that which we have revealed unto thee;c in such case thou couldst not find any to assist thee therein against us, unless through mercy from thy LORD; for his favor towards thee hath been great. Say, Verily if men and genii were purposely assembled, that they might produce a book like this Koran, they could not produce one like unto it, although the one of them assisted the other. And we have variously propounded unto men in this Koran every kind of figurative argument; but the greater part of men refuse to receive it, merely out of infidelity. And they say, We will by no means believe on thee, until thou cause

      t According to a tradition of Abu Horeira, the honourable station here intended is that of intercessor for others.1
      u That is, Grant that I may enter my grave with peace, and come forth from it, at the resurrection, with honour and satisfaction. In which sense this petition is the same with that of Balaam, Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his.2
      But as the person here spoken to is generally supposed to be Mohammed, the commentators say he was commanded to pray in these words for a safe departure from Mecca, and a good reception at Medina; or for a sure refuge in the cave, where he hid himself when he fled from Mecca;3 or (which is the more common opinion) for a victorious entrance into Mecca, and a safe return thence.4
      x These words Mohammed repeated, when he entered the temple of Mecca, after the taking of that city, and cleansed it of the idols; a great number of which are said to have fallen down on his touching them with the end of the stick he held in his hand.5
      y i.e., According to his judgment or opinion, be it true or false; or according to the bent of his mind, and the natural constitution of his body.6
      z Or the soul of man. Some interpret it of the angel Gabriel, or of the divine revelation.7
      a viz., By the word Kun, i.e., Be; consisting of an immaterial substance, and not generated, like the body. But, according to a different opinion, this passage should be translated, The spirit is of those things, the knowledge of which thy Lord hath reserved to himself. For it is said that the Jews bid the Koreish ask Mohammed to relate the history of those who slept in the cave,8 and of Dhu’lkarnein,9 and to give them an account of the soul of man; adding, that if he pretended to answer all the three questions, or could answer none of them, they might be sure he was no prophet; but if he gave an answer to one or two of the questions and was silent as to the other, he was really a prophet. Accordingly, when they propounded the questions to him, he told them the two histories, but acknowledged his ignorance as to the origin of the human soul.10
      b All your knowledge being acquired from the information of your senses, which must necessarily fail you in spiritual speculations, without the assistance of divine revelation.11
      c viz., The Korân; by razing it both from the written copies, and the memories of men.

      1 Idem. 2 Numb. xxiii. 10. 3 See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. II. p. 39. 4 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin. 5 Iidem. Vide Gagnier, Vie de Mahomet, tom. 2, p. 127. 6 Al Beidâwi. 7 Idem. 8 See the next chapter. 9 See ib. 10 Al Beidâwi. 11 Idem.

a spring of water to gush forth for us out of the earth;d or thou have a garden of palm-trees and vines, and thou cause rivers to spring forth from the midst thereof in abundance; or thou cause the heaven to fall down upon us, as thou hast given out, in pieces; or thou bring down GOD and the angels to vouch for thee; or thou have a house of gold; or thou ascend by a ladder to heaven: neither will we believe thy ascending thither alone,e until thou cause a book to descend unto us, bearing witness of thee, which we may read. Answer My LORD be praised! Am I other than a man, sent as an apostle? And nothing hindereth men from believing, when a direction is come unto them, except that they say, Hath GOD sent a man for his apostle? Answer, If the angels had walked on earth as familiar inhabitants thereof, we had surely sent down unto them from heaven an angel for our apostle. Say, GOD is a sufficient witness between me and you: for he knoweth and regardeth his servants. Whom GOD shall direct, he shall be the rightly directed; and whom he shall cause to err, thou shalt find none to assist, besides him. And we will gather them together on the day of resurrection, creeping on their faces, blind, and dumb, and deaf:f their abode shall be hell; so often as the fire thereof shall be extinguished, we will rekindle a burning flame to torment them.g This shall be their reward, because they disbelieve in our signs, and say, When we shall have been reduced to bones and dust, shall we surely be raised new creatures? Do they not perceive that GOD, who created the heavens and the earth, is able to create other bodies, like their present? And he hath appointed them a limited term;h there is no doubt thereof: but the ungodly reject the truth, merely out of unbelief. Say, If ye possessed the treasures of the mercy of my LORD, ye would surely refrain from using them, for fear of spending them;i for man is covetous. We heretofore gave unto Moses the power of working nine evident signs.j And do thou ask the children of Israel, as to the story of Moses;k when he came unto

      d This and the following miracles were demanded of Mohammed by the Koreish, as proofs of his mission.
      e As thou pretendest to have done in thy night-journey; but of which no man was witness.
      f See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. IV. p. 66.
      g i.e., When the fire shall go out or abate for want of fuel, after the consumption of the skins and flesh of the damned, we will add fresh vigour to the flames by giving them new bodies.1
      h Or life, or resurrection.
      i That is, lest they should be exhausted.
      j These were, the changing his rod into a serpent, the making his hand white and shining, the producing locusts, lice, frogs, and blood, the dividing of the Red Sea, the bringing water out of the rock, and the shaking of Mount Sinai over the children of Israel. In lieu of the three last some reckon the inundation of the Nile, the blasting of the corn, and scarcity of the fruits of the earth.2 These words, however, are interpreted by others, not of nine miracles, but of nine commandments, which Moses gave his people, and were thus numbered up by Mohammed himself to a Jew, who asked him the question, viz., That they should not be guilty of idolatry, nor steal, nor commit adultery or murder, nor practise sorcery or usury, nor accuse an innocent man to take away his life, or a modest woman of whoredom, nor desert the army; to which he added the observing of the sabbath, as a tenth commandment, but which peculiarly regarded the Jews: upon which answer, it is said, the Jew kissed the prophet’s hands and feet.3
      k Some think these words are directed to Moses, who is hereby commanded to demand the children of Israel of Pharaoh, that he might let them go with him.

      1 Al Beidâwi. See chapter 4, p. 60. 2 Idem, Jallalo’ddin. 3 Al Beidâwi.

them, and Pharaoh said unto him, Verily I esteemed thee, O Moses, to be deluded by sorcery. Moses answered, Thou well knowest that none hath sent down these evident signs except the LORD of heaven and earth; and I surely esteem thee, O Pharaoh, a lost man. Wherefore Pharaoh sought to drive them out of the land; but we drowned him and all those who were with him. And we said unto the children of Israel, after his destruction, Dwell ye in the land: and when the promise of the next life shall come to be fulfilled, we will bring you both promiscuously to judgment. We have sent down the Koran with truth, and it hath descended with truth: and we have not sent thee otherwise than to be a bearer of good tidings, and a denouncer of threats. And we have divided the Koran, revealing it by parcels, that thou mightest read it unto men with deliberation: and we have sent it down, causing it to descend as occasion required.l Say, Whether ye believe therein, or do not believe, verily those who have been favored with the knowledge of the scriptures which were revealed before it, when the same is rehearsed unto them, fall down on their faces,m worshipping, and say, Our LORD be praised, for that the promise of our LORD is surely fulfilled! and they fall down on their faces, weeping; and the hearing thereof increaseth their humility. Say, call upon GOD, or call on the Merciful: by whichsoever of the two names ye invoke him, it is equal; for he hath most excellent names.n Pronounce not thy prayer aloud, neither pronounce it with too low a voice,o but follow a middle way between these: and say, Praise be unto GOD, who hath not begotten any child; who hath no partner in the kingdom, nor hath any to protect him from contempt: and magnify him by proclaiming his greatness.

________


CHAPTER XVIII.

ENTITLED, THE CAVE;p REVEALED AT MECCA.q

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.


       PRAISE be unto GOD, who hath sent down unto his servant the book of the Korân, and hath not inserted therein any crookedness, but hath made it a straight rule: that he should threaten a

      l See the Prelim. Disc. Sect. III. p. 50.
      m Literally, on their chins.
      n The infidels hearing Mohammed say, O GOD, and O Merciful, imagined the Merciful was the name of a deity different from GOD, and that he preached the worship of two; which occasioned this passage. See chapter 7, p. 123.
      o Neither so loud, that the infidels may overhear thee, and thence take occasion to blaspheme and scoff; nor so softly as not to be heard by the assistants. Some suppose that by the word prayer, in this place, is meant the reading of the Korân.
      p The chapter is thus inscribed because it makes mention of the cave wherein the seven sleepers concealed themselves.
      q Some except one verse, which begins thus, Behave thyself with constancy, &c.


grievous punishment unto the unbelievers, from his presence; and should bear good tidings unto the faithful, who work righteousness, that they should receive an excellent reward, namely, paradise, wherein they shall remain forever: and that he should warn those who say, GOD hath begotten issue; of which matter they have no knowledge, neither had their fathers. A grievous saying it is, which proceedeth from their mouths: they speak no other than a lie. Peradventure thou wilt kill thyself with grief after them, out of thy earnest zeal for their conversion, if they believe not in this new revelation of the Koran. Verily we have ordained whatsoever is on the earth for the ornament thereof, that we might make trial of men, and see which of them excelleth in works: and we will surely reduce whatever is thereon to dry dust. Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave,r and Al Rakim,s were one of our signs, and a great miracle? When the young men took refuge in the cave, they said, O LORD, grant us mercy from before thee, and dispose our business for us to a right issue. Wherefore we struck their ears with deafness, so that they slept without disturbance in the cave for a great number of years: then we awaked them, that we might know which of the two partiest was more exact in computing the space which they had remained there. We will relate unto thee their history with truth. Verily they were young men who had believed in their LORD: and we had abundantly directed them: and we fortified their hearts with constancy when they stood before the tyrant; and they said, Our LORD is the LORD of heaven and earth: we will by no means call on any god besides him; for then should we surely utter an extravagance. These our fellow people have taken other gods, besides him; although they bring no demonstrative argument for them: and who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning GOD? And they said the one to the other, When ye shall separate yourselves from them, and from the deities which they worship, except GOD,u fly into

      r These were certain Christian youths, of a good family in Ephesus, who, to avoid the persecution of the emperor Decius, by the Arab writers called Decianus, hid themselves in a cave, where they slept for a great number of years.1
      This apocryphal story (for Baronius2 treats it as no better, and Father Marracci3 acknowledges it to be partly false, or at least doubtful, though he calls Hottinger a monster of impiety, and the off-scum of heretics, for terming it a fable4), was borrowed by Mohammed from the Christian traditions,5 but has been embellished by him and his followers with several additional circumstances.6
      s What is meant by this word the commentators cannot agree. Some will have it to be the name of the mountain, or the valley, wherein the cave was; some say it was the name of their dog; and others (who seem to come nearest the true signification) that it was a brass plate, or stone table, placed near the mouth of the cave, on which the names of the young men were written.
      There are some, however, who take the companions of al Rakîm to be different from the seven sleepers; for they say the former were three men who were driven by ill weather into a cave for shelter, and were shut in there by the falling down of a vast stone, which stopped the cave’s mouth; but on their begging GOD’S mercy, and their relating each of them a meritorious action which they hoped might entitle them to it, were miraculously delivered by the rock’s rending in sunder to give them passage.7
      t viz., Of the sleepers themselves, or others, who were divided in opinion as to the length of their stay in the cave.
      u For they, like other idolaters, worshipped the true GOD and idols also.8

      1 Al Beidâwi, Jallalo’ddin, &c. 2 In Martyrol. ad 27 Julii. 3 In Alcor. p. 425. et in Prodr. part. 4, p. 103. 4 Hotting. Hist. Orient. p. 40. 5 Vide Greg. Turon. et Simeon. Metaphrast. 6 Vide D’Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. p. 189. 7 Al Beidâwi, ex trad Noomân Ebn Bashir. 8 Idem.

the cave: your LORD will pour his mercy on you abundantly, and will dispose your business for you to advantage. And thou mightest have seen the sun, when it had risen, to decline from their cave towards the right hand, and when it went down, to leave them on the left hand:x and they were in the spacious part of the cave.y This was one of the signs of GOD. Whomsoever GOD shall direct, he shall be rightly directed: and whomsoever he shall cause to err, thou shalt not find any to defend, or to direct. And thou wouldest have judged them to have been awake,z while they were sleeping; and we caused them to turn themselves to the right hand, and to the left.a And their dogb stretched forth his forelegs in the mouth of the cave: if thou hadst come suddenly upon them, verily thou wouldest have turned thy back and fled from them, and thou wouldest have been filled with fear at the sight of them.c And so we awaked them from their sleep, that they might ask questions of one another. One of them spake and said, How long have ye tarried here? They answered, We have tarried a day, or part of a day. The others said, Your LORD best knoweth the time ye have tarried:d and now send one of you with this your money into the city;e and let him see which of its inhabitants hath the best and cheapest food, and let him bring you provision from him; and let him behave circumspectly, and not discover you to any one. Verily if they come up against you, they will stone you, or force you to return to their religion; and then shall ye not prosper forever. And so we made their people acquainted with what had happened to them; that they might know that the

      x Lest it should be offensive to them, the cave opening towards the south.1
      y i.e., In the midst of it, where they were incommoded neither by the heat of the sun nor the closeness of the cave.2
      z Because of their having their eyes open, or their frequent turning themselves from one side to the other.3
      a Lest their lying so long on the ground should consume their flesh.4
      b This dog had followed them as they passed by him when they fled to the cave, and they drove him away; whereupon GOD caused him to speak, and he said, I love those who are dear unto God; go to sleep therefore, and I will guard you. But some say, it was a dog belonging to a shepherd who followed them, and that the dog followed the shepherd; which opinion is supported by reading, as some do, câlebohom, their dog’s master instead of calbohom, their dog.5 Jallalo’ddin adds, that the dog behaved as his masters did, in turning himself, in sleeping, and in waking.
      The Mohammedans have a great respect for this dog, and allow him a place in paradise with some other favourite brutes; and they have a sort of proverb which they use in speaking of a covetous person, that he would not throw a bone to the dog of the seven sleepers; nay, it is said that they have the superstition to write his name, which they suppose to be Katmîr (though some, as is observed above, think he was called al Rakîm), on their letters which go far, or which pass the sea, as a protection, or kind of talisman, to preserve them from miscarriage.6
      c For that GOD had given them terrible countenances; or else because of the largeness of their bodies, or the horror of the place.
      It is related that the Khalif Moâwiyah, in an expedition he made against Natolia, passed by the cave of the seven sleepers, and would needs send somebody into it, notwithstanding Ebn Abbâs remonstrated to him the danger of it,