Descriptive of the Bahai Temple
Illustrative of an exhibition of
preliminary designs for the first
Mashrak-El-Azkar to be built in
America, showing nine varying
treatments in different styles of
CHARLES MASON REMEY
IN the Persian and Arabic languages each letter has
a numerical value and each name or word has as
its numerical value the sum of the values of its com
ponent letters. 13-2 A- 1 H-5 A- 1 . Thus 9
is the numerical value of the name "Baha". This
number, which is the greatest of simple numbers, is
used by the Bahais as a symbol of name.
DESIGNS AND TEXT
CHARLES MASON REMEY
Copies of this book may be obtained from the
BAHAI PUBLISHING SOCIETY
P. O. BOX 283, CHICAGO. ILL.
Weight of book 2 pounds.
J D. MILANS & SONS
WASHINGTON. D. C
Literally translated from the Persian "The Dawning Point
of the Mentionings (or commemorations) of God."
It is the Bahai Temple with its various auxiliary institutions
educational and philanthropic
To ABDUL BAHA
THE SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD
THESE DESIGNS ARE HUMBLY OFFERED
Those portions of the text of this book which pertain to the Bahai
Movement are quoted from various authentic and approved Bahai publications.
I. Introduction. A historical sketch of the Bahai Movement.
II. The Mashrak-El-Azkar.
III. The Mashrak-El-Azkar, of Eshkhabad.
IV. Words of Abdul Baha regarding the Mashrak-El-Azkar in America.
V. The site for the first Mashrak-El-Azkar in America.
VI. The Architectural Problem.
VII. Styles of Architecture and Descriptions of Designs
Design No. 1. Roman Classic.
Design No. 2. Byzantine.
Design No. 3. Arabian Moorish.
Design No. 4. Persian.
Design No. 5. Indian
Design No. 6. Romanesque.
Design No. 7. Gothic.
Design No. 8. Renaissance.
Design No. 9. Modern.
This book is descriptive of the Mashrak-El-Azkar and is illustrative
of an exhibition of nine preliminary designs for the first Mashrak-El-
Azkar to be built in America.
These drawings, which represent study and work done at intervals
during the past seven or eight years, are offered to Abdul Baha, and
intrusted to the keeping of the "Bahai Temple Unity, the organization
which has for its object the erection of the first Mashrak-El-Azkar in
America, in the hope that some of the elements of these architectural
compositions may be of service when the time arrives for formulating
and composing the building design for the Mashrak-El-Azkar.
C. M. R.
Washington, D. C.
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE BAHAI MOVEMENT.
Quoted from "Constructive Principles of the Bahai Teachings."
THE BAHAI MOVEMENT.
Religion, which is inherent in man, dates in general essence before
the dawn of written history, each religious movement in its purity of
truth being a phase of the one great Universal divine religion.
The particular present latter-day phase of religion that we are here
considering, the Bahai Movement, began over seventy years ago, when
its first teacher arose in the year 1844, in the southern part of Persia,
teaching under the title of The Bab, which term signifies door or gate.
He proclaimed the approaching advent of One, a great world teacher,
whose divine mission was the uniting in one great spiritual brotherhood
of the peoples of all nations, races, and religions, and the establishment
of a new spiritual era of oneness of all humanity in spiritual knowledge,
and in brotherhood and peace.
The Bab s teaching dwelt upon the coming of the Great Manifesta
tion, of whom He spoke as "He Whom God Would Manifest," exhorting
the people to prepare, and purify themselves to meet this Promised One,
and to be ready to serve Him when He should appear.
Many seeking souls were attracted by The Bab through His purity
and illumination of spirit, for in Him the people not only saw the fore
runner of the great universal Messiah, but they realized in Him "The
First Point" of the great new age of God in the world.
To The Bab flocked people from the great religions of Persia. Much
enthusiasm was manifested by all, and the Mohammedan clergy watched
the growth of the movement with jealousy, because they saw thousands
of their own people going out from Islam and from the superstitions
and forms which they taught. Seeing their own religious hold over the
people waning before this teaching, these priests of Islam sought to
exterminate the new movement. They incited the fanatical Moslems to
pillage, arson, and murder. Thousands of the Babis, followers of The
Bab, as they were then called, were massacred, their homes burned, and
possessions destroyed; but notwithstanding this persecution the cause
continued to grow, the blood of the martyrs being the seed.
The Bab, Himself, was among the first to suffer. Scarcely had His
mission begun than He was placed under military surveillance, and after
two years of teaching under this difficulty was cast into prison, where He
remained for four years, and at the expiration of that time He - .
for heresy before a clerical court, was condemned, and suffered a martyr s
Not long after the martyrdom of The Bab, the great world teacher
appeared in the person of Baha o llah, "He Whom God Manifested."
Surrounded by countless fanatical enemies, who strove to destroy Him
and His Cause, Baha o llah was first known as a leader among the much
persecuted Babis; then, later, as His power became manifest to all He
was generally acknowledged to be The One Whose Coming The Bab had
From that time on the cause became known as the Bahai Cause, and
the followers, as Bahais, while the Babi Cause, as a separate movement,
ceased to exist, The Bab s mission and the teaching which He established
being not an end in itself but preparatory to the coming of Baha o llah.
The Mission of Baha o llah lasted forty years, during which time He
withstood all manner of trials and persecutions. He was sent out from
His home in Persia as an exile and a prisoner to Bagdad in Asiatic Tur
key, then to Constantinople in Turkey in Europe, and later to Adrianople
in Roumelia, where He remained for five years, afterward enduring, with
His family and about seventy followers, men, women, and children, a
still more distant exile imprisonment in the fortress of Akka, in the Holy
Land. In that country, ever made sacred by God s prophets and Holy
Messengers, within view of Mount Carmel, upon which Elijah and others
of the prophets had taught, and within a few miles of Nazareth, where
Jesus had lived, Baha o llah completed the latter half of His active
ministrations to humanity.
During the first years of his captivity in Akka, Baha o llah and His
followers suffered great privations. Confined in the barrack prison under
conditions the most unsanitary, illness broke out, and the suffering was
so intense that, without the faith and the assurance of soul of all incar
cerated, the spirit of the community would have been quite broken, but
in reality their persecution and trouble had the effect of increasing their
miraculous faith and devotion.
As years passed, the officials of the prison fortress city realized that
Baha o llah manifested love and harmony, and they became friendly, so,
little by little, the condition of the Bahai exiled community was bettered.
Baha o llah was first given the liberty of the city, and later He was
allowed by the governor to reside beyond the walls. The followers from
various countries came to receive teachings from Him, returning again
to their own lands and peoples fired with the desire to share with others
the spiritual pearls of great price which they had found, and thus the
cause spread throughout various of the oriental countries.
Baha o llah gave His teaching and planted His Cause amid humanity,
thus completing His work in this world. Then, for further guidance and
development, and for the interpretation and explanation of His teachings.
He designated as His successor, His son Abdul Baha.
With the passing from this world of Baha o llah, in the late Spring
of 1892, began Abdul Baha s mission as the Center of The Bahai Cause.
The title of servitude which he chose for himself, namely, "Abdul Baha,"
means "The Servant of God." Abdul Baha seeks neither honor nor glory
for himself other than servant of those who are serving God, yet in the
texts of Baha o llah the spiritual station of Abdul Baha is clearly set forth
as the Center of the Bahai Covenant to humanity.
From his earliest childhood Abdul Baha s life has been devoted to
the service of God and humanity. He was with Baha o llah during the
sixteen years of exile and travel prior to His arrival in Akka, and then
began Abdul Baha s long exile of forty years in that fortress, to which
the Sultans of Turkey of the old regime used to send their most dreaded
enemies, so that its terrible conditions of filth and disease might speedily
accomplish their destruction.
It was in August, 1868, that Abdul Baha arrived in Akka with Baha
o llah. In August, 1908, when the Turks revolted against former rule,
and established a constitutional form of government, Abdul Baha was
officially freed ; but, during those years of trial, Abdul Baha had accom
plished his work, despite the persecution of his enemies, while held, as
Baha o llah was held, prisoner by the law of Islam because of his progress
in teachings. With each added trouble came spiritual growth and
strength to the cause. Throughout the years that Abdul Baha was in
Akka he labored constantly with his pen, and was able, from time to
time, to receive visits from truth seekers of Europe and America, as well
as of the near and far East. Now the Bahai Cause is firmly planted in
both the Occident and the Orient, and souls are constantly arising to
promote Abdul Baha s work.
Some little time after the revolution in Turkey, that brought to
Abdul Baha freedom from prison confinement in Akka, he went down
into Egypt, and from there visited Paris and London, and later, in the
Spring of 1912, he came to these United States, where he spent eight
months. He traveled from coast to coast and visited many places where
he had friends, and where there were people who wished to hear his
explanations of religious questions, and who were desirous of coming
into closer touch with that vital illuminating spiritual force which so
characterizes his presence.
In America, as well as in England and in France, and, subsequently
upon his return to Europe, in both Germany and Austria, the pulpits of
Christian churches of many denominations, institutions of learning, and
the platforms of philosophical societies and of progressive humanitarian
movements of various kinds, sought Abdul Baha, welcomed his message
of peace and world oneness, and were rejoiced by the spirit which he
In his many addresses, most of which have been published, Abdul
Baha treats of the creative function of the religion of God, of the great
world problems of this present day, and of the solution of these great
human difficulties through the application of the true spirit of religion
in the lives of the people. Upon all occasions he has taught of the coming
of the great world teacher and Manifestation of The Spirit, Baha o llah,
and of the new spiritual era upon earth that Baha o llah inaugurated.
Abdul Baha invites all people to approach the Bahai Cause, and for them
selves seek and partake of this divine bounty, and to become servants of
God and of humanity in carrying this message of the Lord to all peoples.
Those who have seen Abdul Baha, with quickened spiritual eyes of
the soul, have realized in him the life-giving spirit of Baha o llah, and in
Abdul Baha s life of service to humanity the manifested fruit of The
Cause of Baha o llah.
The Bab was the precursor and "The First Point" of this religious
cause in the world today. Baha o llah and His teaching formed the root
of the movement, which has been compared to a tree, Abdul Baha the
branch springing from the root that is Baha o llah. As the branch of the
tree bears the leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, so in the life of Abdul
Baha is the world witnessing the budding forth and flowering of the
Bahai principles of religion and their application to the needs of humanity.
Quoted from "Constructive Principles of the Bahai Teachings."
In every age true religion has produced certain institutions that have
served spiritual and practical needs of the people of that time. Such
institutions have been a material expression of the spiritual quickening
and of the cementing together of the people by the organic, cohesive
force of truth. They have naturally grouped themselves about the places
of religious worship and meeting, which temples have been the geo
graphic centers of human progress and activity, and the mothers of archi
tecture and the other arts.
Throughout the years of the earliest prophets the people led nomadic
lives, going up into the mountains at stated times for their religious
observances; thus the open-air altars on the mountains were the recog
nized religious centers of the collective life of the people.
While the children of Israel were migrating from Egypt to the Holy
Land, the tabernacle occupied the central position in their encampment,
and later on, in their capital city, Jerusalem, the temple of the Lord
crowned the highest hill, and was the center of the intellectual, material,
and religious life of the people.
In the typical Christian city of long ago the cathedral has been the
great central edifice about which the other buildings of the city, religious
and secular, were grouped. The religious life of the people of this epoch
was all-important, and this principle was expressed in the architectural
development of their cities.
The temple of each religion and civilization is always found to be the
focal point of the city architectural. The acropolii of the Greek cities,
upon the summits of which were the temples, the forums of the Roman
cities, with their many temples, the mosques of the Moslem cities, the
fire altars of the Zoroastrians, the pagodas of the Buddhists, and the tem
ples of the Hindus, all testify that each religion has been creative of its
own art and civilization in the evolution of an epochal temple.
In times past true religion has been the chief motive force for
advancement, learning, and culture. The Bahais now anticipate the day
when great universal temples of God will be built, the result of the spir
itual quickening of the people, which will signify and further all phases
of universal human advancement, spiritual, moral, and physical, of this
new age of humanity.
The "Mashrak-El-Azkar," which, translated from the Persian, liter
ally means "The Dawning Point of the Mentionings of God," is the Bahai
temple of worship and service to humanity. It consists of a central build
ing for worship, the temple proper, surrounded by schools, hospitals and
hospices, homes and asylums for the orphan, for the incurable, and for
the aged, and by colleges and universities. The temple of the Mashrak-
El-Azkar is for reading, meditation, and prayer, not an auditorium for
preaching. It is essentially a place for worship and drawing near in spirit
to God. Thus it will be a center of spiritual power and attraction, exert
ing a divine influence in the world.
Its many surrounding institutions are for the practical, moral, and
physical service to humanity. The Bahais appreciate that man should
glorify God in deed as well as by word of mouth, therefore this principle
is embodied in its fullest expression in the Mashrak-El-Azkar.
Some years ago, the first large Mashrak-El-Azkar was built. It is
located in the city of Eshkhabad, in Oriental Russia, which has a consider
able following of the Bahai Movement, and where the Russian royal gov
ernment has been friendly to the cause. First, the temple proper was
erected, an imposing structure in the oriental style of architecture, and
then a school was founded, and a hospice, and now other institutional
buildings are being added as the necessary ways and means are available.
Not long past, the friends of the Bahai Movement endeavored to
unite in establishing a Mashrak-El-Azkar in America. Contributions
were received from the far parts of the world, sent by persons of different
countries, races, and religions for the building of this great universal tem
ple, in which peoples of every race and of all religions might find a wel
come, and worship there in spirit, and in deed. A very beautiful building
site at Chicago, on the shore of Lake Michigan, has been selected and
purchased, and it is hoped that sufficient offerings will soon make it pos
sible to begin the work of construction.
When this Mashrak-El-Azkar, with its institutional groups is estab
lished, it will be as an ensign to all those who are seeking the great uni
versal spirit of religion, and it will be a practical demonstration of the
spirit and of the working principle of service to humanity in the Bahai
Cause. Resulting from the united efforts of the friends in its erection,
the completed Mashrak-El-Azkar will be a center from which spiritual
illumination will radiate, and it will be a haven that will attract seeking
and spiritual souls.
THE MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR, OF ESHKHABAD.
Quoted from a letter written in October, 1908, by a Bahai who had traveled
in the Orient.
Published in "THE STAR OF THE WEST."
Vol. VI., No. 18.
To the House of Spirituality of Bahais, Chicago, Ill., Brothers in the
Service of Abha:
As you have arisen for the construction of the first Mashrak-El-
Azkar in America, and, as I have recently visited Eshkhabad and seen
there the great Mashrak-El-Azkar of the East, of which we in the West
have heard so much, I take it upon myself to write to you a description
of this edifice, hoping to share with you the great blessing of meeting
with the friends in those parts, and of beholding this temple, which is a
testimony of their sacrifice and unity.
As you know, Eshkhabad is in Russian Turkistan, just north of the
Elbruz mountains, which separate the desert plain of western Turkistan
on the north, from Persia on the south. The city itself lies on the plain
a short distance from the mountains, which here are quite rugged and
rocky. The town is quite modern in aspect, being laid off with gardens
and broad streets meeting at right angles. Rows of trees along the side
walks remind one of a western city, while the buildings and the water
ways, which flank the streets and are fed with water coming from the
nearby mountains, are strikingly oriental.
I could hardly believe that this city had sprung up almost entirely
during the past half century. It was but a huddle of mud huts when
Baha o llah first directed some of His followers to settle there. Now this
former village is replaced by a large and prosperous city built of brick
The Mashrak-El-Azkar stands in the center of the city, surrounded
by a large garden, which is bounded by four streets. It rises high above
the surrounding buildings and trees, its dome being visible for miles, as
the traveller approaches the city over the plain. The building in plan is
a regular polygon of nine sides. One large doorway and portico, flanked
by turrets, facing the direction of the Holy Land, forms the principal
motive of the fagade, while the dome dominates the whole composition.
The walls of the temple are of brick covered with a firm and hard
stucco, which in that climate resists quite well the action of the elements,
while the floors are concrete supported by iron or steel beams.
In plan the building is composed of three sections ; namely, the cen
tral rotunda, the aisle or ambulatory which surrounds it, and the loggia
which surrounds the entire building.
The interior of the rotunda is five stories in height. The first, or
main floor story, consists of nine arches, supported by piers, which
separate the ambulatory from the rotunda proper. The second story con
sists of a similar treatment of arches and piers and balustrades, which
separate the triforium gallery, which is directly above the ambulatory,
from the wall of the rotunda. The third story is decorated with nine
blank arcades, between which are shields, upon which is inscribed, in
Persian characters, *"Ya-Baha-el-Abha." The fourth story contains nine
large windows, while the wall of the fifth story, which is not as high as the
others, is pierced by eighteen bull s-eye windows.
Above, there is the dome which is hemispherical in shape. The
rotunda from the floor to the top of the dome is elaborately decorated
with fretwork and other designs, all in relief. We were told that the
ultimate aim was that color and gilding should be added to this interior
The inner dome is of iron or steel and concrete, while the outer dome
or roof is entirely of metal. The intention is that this shall be gilded.
The main portico of the temple is two stories in the clear, while the
loggias, which surround the building, are on two floors, the lower being
on the main floor level, while the upper one is on the level of the triforium
gallery. This upper loggia is reached by two staircases, one to the right
and one to the left of the main entrance, and the gallery is entered from
On the main floor the principal entrance is through the large door
way, but there are also several minor doors, which connect the ambula
tory with the loggia. An abundance of light is admitted through the
windows in the upper part of the rotunda, as well as through the windows
of the upper gallery and ambulatory, which open upon the loggias.
The Persian style of architecture has been used in treating the
details and decorations of the buildings.
At present the stucco work is not quite completed. The interior of
the rotunda is finished, but the decoration of the loggias and gallery and
ambulatory is only done in part. However, the work is continuing and
it will not be long before all will be complete.
From what I saw and heard in Eshkhabad, I found that those be
lievers who superintended the building of the temple were competent
business men and that, although they had undertaken a large enterprise,
every possible economy was made, yet at the same time no expense
seemed to be spared when necessary for the beauty and solidity of the
* "O Thou, The Most Glorious of The Glorious."
The layout of the garden is not yet complete. Nine avenues of
approach lead to the Mashrak-El-Azkar. The main avenue of the nine,
leading to the entrance portico, will be entered from the street by a
monumental gateway. Last July they were completing the plans for this
principal gateway of the grounds.
At the four corners of the garden are four buildings. One is a school,
one is a house where traveling Bahais are entertained, one is to be used
as a hospital, and the other is for workmen, storage, etc. Much of the
property in the immediate vicinity of this enclosure belongs to Bahais, so
the Mashrak-El-Azkar is the center of the community materially, as well
That which impressed me more than all else, as I stood before this
Mashrak-El-Azkar, was the fact that the Bahais of the East had all
worked with one accord and had given freely toward its erection.
The temple in America can be accomplished only as we give up self
and unite in this service. The beloved in the East made their offerings
and left them with all personal desires upon the altar of sacrifice. Now
we in this country must do likewise! We need something more than
money for the Mashrak-El-Azkar. It must be built of the material of
sacrifice and cemented together by the spirit of unity.
In the building of the Mashrak-El-Azkar every one should lay before
God his material offering together with his ideas, desires, and aspirations,
give them to the Lord completely, and then, as we come together to
construct the material building we will find that we have ample means
both spiritual and material for the work in hand.
Each one of us has sufficient means for the work which God has
given us to perform. We need not trouble thinking that we may not
have enough means, but rather we should seek to apply to the best
advantage the means which God has given us.
WORDS OF ABDUL BAHA REGARDING THE
MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR IN AMERICA.
Compiled from articles published in "THE STAR OF THE WEST."
Vol. V., No. 5, and Vol. VI., No. 17, and in the program pamphlet of the
eighth annual Mashrak-El-Azkar convention.
WORDS OF ABDUL BAHA.
I send you the glad tidings of the erection of the Mashrak-El-Azkar,
the Bahai Temple, in Eshkhabad, with all joy and great happiness. The
friends of God assembled together with rejoicing, and conveyed the stones
themselves upon their backs, while attracted by the love of God, and for
the glory of God. Soon that great temple will be completed and the voice
of prayer and praise shall ascend to the Sublime Kingdom.
I was rejoiced through your endeavors in this glorious cause, made
with joy and good interest. I pray God to aid you in exalting His Word,
and in establishing the temple of worship, through His grace and ancient
mercy. Verily, ye are the first to arise for this glorious cause in that vast
region. Soon will ye see the spread of this enterprise in the world, and
its resounding voice shall go through the ears of the people in all parts.
Exert your energy in accomplishing what ye have undertaken, so
that this glorious temple may be built, that the beloved of God may
assemble therein, and that they may pray and offer glory to God for
guiding them to His Kingdom.
Now the day has arrived in which the edifice of God, the divine
sanctuary, the spiritual temple, shall be erected in America. I entreat
God to assist the confirmed believers in accomplishing this great service,
and with entire zeal to rear this mighty structure, which shall be re
nowned throughout the world. The support of God will be with those
believers in that district, that they may be successful in their undertaking.
For the cause is great, because this is the first Mashrak-El-Azkar in that
country, and from it the praise of God shall ascend to the Kingdom of
Mystery, and the tumult of His exaltation and greeting from the whole
world shall be heard.
Whosoever arises for the service of this building shall be assisted
with great power from His Supreme Kingdom, and upon him spiritual
and heavenly blessings shall descend, which shall fill his heart with won
derful consolation and enlighten his eyes by beholding the Glorious and
When the Mashrak-El-Azkar is accomplished, when the lights are
emanating therefrom, the righteous ones are presenting themselves
therein, the prayers are performed with supplication towards the myste-
rious Kingdom of Heaven, the voice of glorification is raised to the Lord,
the Supreme; then the believers shall rejoice, and the hearts shall be
dilated and overflowed with the love of the All-Living and Self-Existent
The people shall hasten to worship in that heavenly temple, the
fragrances of God will be elevated, and the divine teachings will be estab
lished in the hearts like the establishment of the spirit in mankind. The
people will then stand firm in the cause of your Lord, the Merciful.
To have the Mashrak-El-Azkar built is most important. Some
material things have spiritual effect, and the Mashrak-El-Azkar is a
material thing that will have great effect upon the spirits of the people.
Not only does the building of the Mashrak-El-Azkar have an effect upon
those who build it, but upon the whole world.
The Mashrak-El-Azkar, though outwardly a material foundation,
is possessed of spiritual effect and causes the union of hearts and the
gathering of souls.
In the days of the Manifestation (prophet) any city wherein a temple
was founded afforded the means of promulgation of the cause, and the
confirmation of the hearts and the confidence of souls, for in those dwell
ings the Name of God is ever mentioned and always commemorated, and,
for the tranquility and repose of the hearts, there is no other means save
the commemoration of Almighty God.
Praise be to God ! The erection of the Mashrak-El-Azkar has a great
effect in all grades, or states. It was tested in the East, and so, evidently
and plainly, was it proved. Even when in a village a house was called
the Mashrak-El-Azkar it possessed a different effect. How much more
its building and organization!
Therefore, O ye friends and maid-servants of the Merciful ! As long
as ye can, endeavor with life and heart, so that the Mashrak-El-Azkar of
Chicago may soon be built, organized, and confirmed.
If all the friends in America, in all cities and hamlets, assist, and by
the means of a building commission help, this offering will prove most
acceptable in the Kingdom of the Sun of the Horizons.
Among the most important affairs is the founding of the Mashrak-
El-Azkar, although weak minds may not grasp its importance ; nay, per
chance, they imagine this Mashrak-El-Azkar to be a temple like other
They may say to themselves: "Every nation has a hundred thousand
gigantic temples. What result have they yielded, that now this one
Mashrak-El-Azkar is said to cause the manifestation of signs and prove
a source of light?" They are ignorant of the fact that the founding of
this Mashrak-El-Azkar is to be in the inception of the organization of the
Therefore, it is important and is an expression of the uprising of the
Evident Standard, which is waving in the center of that continent, the
results and effects of which will become manifest in the hearts and
spirits. No soul will be aware of this mature wisdom save after trial.
When the Mashrak-El-Azkar was founded in Eshkhabad, its clamor
affected all the cities of the Orient and caused souls to awaken to the call.
Most of the souls who investigated and heard the explanation were
attracted to the Kingdom of God.
The greatest interrelation and communication exists between the
sons of men, without which peace, life, and existence are entirely impos
sible. For a soul independent of all the other souls, and without receiv
ing assistance from other sources, cannot live for the twinkling of an eye ;
nay, rather, he will become non-existent and reduced to nothingness,
especially among the believers of God, between whom material and spir
itual communication is developed up to the highest point of perfection.
It is this real communication, the essential necessity and requirement
of which is mutual helpfulness, cooperation, and confirmation. Without
the complete establishment of this divine principle in the hearts of the
friends of God nothing can be accomplished, for they are the hyacinths
of one garden, the waves of one sea, the stars of one heaven, and the rays
of one sun. From every standpoint the essential unity, the luminous
unity, the religious unity, and the material unity are founded and organ
ized between them.
In these times the utmost hope and wish of the friends of the West
is the erection of the Mashrak-El-Azkar, and in those regions the mate
rials for construction and building are expensive and costly. A large
sum of money is needed for the building of a residence, then how much
more is needed for the foundation of the Mashrak-El-Azkar, which must
be erected with the utmost splendor, beauty, and magnificence !
Therefore, the friends of God must arise in every part of the world
to raise contributions, and with their hearts and souls strive to gather
these funds to be sent to the Occident, that it may become known and
evident throughout the universe that the Bahais of the East and West
are as members of one household, and the children of the one Lord!
The Turks and the Persians, the Parsee and the American, the Hindu
and the African; all of them are one army and one cohort, and without
any distinction they arise for the assistance and aid of each other.
This praiseworthy movement is beloved and accepted at the thresh
old of the forgiving Lord. Truly, I say, in the erection of the Mashrak-
El-Azkar in Eshkhabad the friends of God have laid the foundation of
the oneness of the kingdom of humanity, and they worked nobly together
until now, and it is nearly completed. Praise be to God, that, at this
moment, from every country in the world, according to their various
means, contributions are continually being sent toward the fund of the
Mashrak-El-Azkar in America.
In reality, this magnanimity of the believers is worthy of great praise
and thankfulness ; for, from Teheran, Khorossan, Shiraz, Jahram, Espha-
han, even from the towns and villages of Khorassan, Shiraz, and Yazd
contributions were sent. This donation in the path of ihe Orb of Regions
is conducive to the happiness of the souls of the spiritual ones.
From the day of Adam until now such an event has never even been
witnessed by man ; that, from the farthermost country of Asia, contri
butions were forwarded to the farthermost country of America. From
Rangoon, India, donations are sent to Chicago, and from Jahram, a little
village of Shiraz, and Kheirol-Gora of Tarshiz, money is transmitted for
the Mashrak-El-Azkar in America. This is through the bounty and provi
dence of the Blessed Perfection, the assistance and confirmation of the
Sun of Truth, and the victory and triumph of the Luminary of Effulgence,
who has united so marvelously the regions of the world together. Glory
belongs to the Lord of Hosts. Sovereignty belongs to the compassionate
God. Power and might belong to the living, Selfsubsistent One, who
has united the people of the world and assembled them together like
unto the brilliant stars of the horizon of adoration.
The accessories of the Mashrak-El-Azkar are numerous. Among
them are the school for orphans, the great college for the higher arts,
hospital, and home for the cripples and hospice. The doors of these
places are to be opened to all sects no differentiations. When these
accessories are completed, and, by God s help and aid, the departments
fully systematized, it will be proved that the Mashrak-El-Azkar is to
human society a great bounty and a great blessing.
In brief, through the unlimited bounties of God I am hopeful that
the beloved ones of God in America may be aided and confirmed in
founding this mighty and solid foundation, and gradually annex thereto
When these institutions, college, hospital, hospice and establish
ments for the incurables, university for the study of higher sciences,
giving post-graduate courses, and other philanthropic buildings are built
their doors will be opened to all the nations and religions. There will be
absolutely no line of demarcation drawn. Its charities will be dispensed
irrespective of color or race. Its gates will be flung wide open to man
kind; prejudice toward none, love for all. The central building will be
devoted to the purpose of prayer and worship. Thus, for the first time,
religion will become harmonized with science, and science will be the
handmaid of religion, both showering their material and spiritual gifts
on all humanity."
ADDRESS OF ABDUL BAHA AT THE DEDICATION OF THE
Chicago, High Noon, May 1, 1912.
Today you have endured considerable difficulty in coming out, with
standing the cold and wind, but the power which has gathered you here
is truly a colossal power. It is the extraordinary power. It is a divine
power which gathers you here. It is the divine favor of Baha o llah which
gathered you together. Therefore, we praise God that this power does
assemble people in this fashion.
Thousands of Mashrak-El-Azkars, which mean the Dawning Points
of Praise for all religionists, will be built in the world. In the Orient and
in the Occident of the world will they be built, but this Mashrak-El-Azkar,
being the first one in the Occident, has great importance. In after years
there will be many Mashrak-El-Azkars ; even in this city of Chicago many
will be established. In Asia there will be many. In Europe there will
be many. Even in Africa there will be many. Even in Australia and
New Zealand, but this one in America is of great importance. In Eshkha-
bad, Russia, the Mashrak-El-Azkar has the same great importance, being
the first one built there. In Persia there are many Mashrak-El-Azkars.
Some are houses, which have been rented for that purpose. Others have
given their homes entirely for that purpose, and in some places temporary
and small places have been built therefor. In all the cities of Persia
there are Mashrak-El-Azkars, but the great Mashrak-El-Azkar was
founded in Eshkhabad. Because it was the first Mashrak-El-Azkar it
possesses the superlative degree of importance. All the friends of Esh-
khabad agreed and put forth the greatest effort. His holiness the Afnan*
devoted all his wealth to it. Everything he had he gave for it. Hence,
such an imposing edifice was built. A colossal effort was put forth. Not
withstanding their contributions to that Mashrak-El-Azkar they have, as
you know, contributed to the one here in this city. Now that one is
almost complete ; that is to say, with all its gardens. That Mashrak-El-
Azkar is centrally located. It has nine avenues, nine gardens, nine foun
tains, so it is nine on nine, all nines. It is like a beautiful bouquet. Just
imagine an edifice of that beauty in the center, very lofty, surrounded by
gardens, variegated flowers, with nine avenues interlacing nine gardens,
nine pools, and nine fountains, and think how delightful it must be ! That
is the way it should be. It is matchless, most beautiful! Such is the
design, and now they are at work building a hospital and a school for
orphans, and a home for cripples, and a large dispensary and a hospice.
They are now planning, thinking of these things. When that, God will
ing, shall be completed, it will be a Paradise ! There will be no greater
geometry than this, and I hope that in Chicago it shall be like this. It
will be even so.
* A Relative of The Bab.
THE SITE FOR THE FIRST MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR IN AMERICA.
The site for the Mashrak-El-Azkar, now free from all encumbrances,
is in the borough of Wilmette, Chicago, bordering on Lake Michigan.
Compared with the flat character of the surrounding country the
Mashrak-El-Azkar land is high, affording a commanding view of the
lake. This tract of about nine acres is divided into two unequal parts
by Sheridan Road, which is the lake-side boulevard connecting Chicago
and Milwaukee. It is planned to build the temple proper of the Mashrak-
El-Azkar upon the larger of the two tracts, which measures about six
acres and lies to the west of Sheridan Road, which here runs north and
south, while the smaller tract, of about three acres, extending east from
the road down to the lake shore is to be improved and laid out as a park,
thus giving an approach by water to the Mashrak-El-Azkar with its
THE ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEM.
Its requirements and conditions.
The temple proper of The Mashrak-El-Azkar will eventually be the
central feature of a group of buildings housing auxiliary, philanthropic,
and charitable institutions which will be erected as the ways and means
are available, all of which taken together form the Mashrak-El-Azkar ;
however, for the present the architectural problem may be considered to
be confined to the one main edifice, the temple, the entire site so far
acquired being intended exclusively for this one building with its parks,
gardens, and approaches.
In general, the requirements of the temple of the Mashrak-El-Azkar
are : that it should be built upon the plan of a polygon of nine sides, that
it should be surmounted by a dome, that the interior rotunda with encir
cling galleries should be supported by nine piers, that the building should
have one principal portal facing the east, and that the edifice should be
surrounded by a park divided into nine gardens, each with a fountain, by
nine avenues radiating from the building. Beyond these simple general
conditions no authoritative data has as yet been given out.
In making the following designs the architect has tried to vary the
different treatments to present a number of motives and compositions, in
order to show some of the many varying architectural solutions appli
cable to this problem of a Mashrak-El-Azkar.
STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESCRIPTIONS OF
STYLES. Preceding each of the following designs for the Mash-
rak-El-Azkar is a brief outline of the history and character of the style of
architecture in which the problem is conceived.
DRAWINGS. Each of these designs comprises a set of four draw
ings, showing in elevation, plans, and section the arrangement of the
building with its various parts as described in the text.
THE EAST ELEVATION shows the general exterior architectural
treatment with the main portal and its approach.
THE GENERAL PLAN shows the arrangement of the main floor
of the building, together with the surrounding terraces, gardens, foun
tains, walks, drives, and other approaches.
THE ROOF PLAN shows a horizontal section taken through the
upper part, looking down upon the lower part of the building.
In design 2 a plan of the foundations and crypt has been shown in
place of a roof plan.
THE SECTION taken vertically east and west through the center of
the building shows the interior arrangement of the entrance, portico,
rotunda, ambulatory, crypt, domes, vaults, and galleries, with minor stair
cases and elevators built in the thicknesses of the walls, which connect
the different floor levels of the building.
In designs 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 a development has been given to the east
bay of the building in order to accentuate the main portal.
This has been accomplished in the following way: A circle was de
scribed and divided into nineteen equal sectors. The area of three of these
was taken for the development of the east bay of the building, thus having
the area of two sectors for the development of each of the other eight
With the exception of design 9, which is symmetrical as viewed from
any of its faces, each of the designs calls for a projection of the eastern
bay in order to accommodate in plan the main portal, or vestibule.
DESIGN NO. 1.
ROMAN CLASSIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE ROMAN CLASSIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE, product
of the civilization of ancient Rome, the fundamental elements of which
the Romans borrowed from the Greeks and earlier peoples, is exemplified
in the many Roman remains extant in various parts of Europe and
northern Africa. Some Roman ruins of vast proportions are found as far
east as Baalbek and Palmyra in Syria.
Roman architecture covered a very broad field, including buildings
religious and secular. The forums of cities with their temples, tombs,
theatres, amphitheatres, baths, palaces, basilicas, gateways, triumphal
arches, bridges, and aqueducts were richly embellished, to the point of
The Roman style, with modifications adapts itself readily to certain
of the big architectural problems of this present day. "The Pantheon
and the "Church of the Madeleine" in Paris, as well as many other edifices
in the various European cities, the Capitol at Washington, and a number
of State Houses and other public buildings in America, are successful
applications of the Roman classic to suit modern conditions.
The decorative possibilities of this style are varied. Marbles of
various colors, mosaics, painting, and sculpture are equally applicable and
DESCRIPTION. ROMAN CLASSIC.
The architect has imagined this building in the Roman classic style,
to be constructed of masonry with steel reinforcements and supports in
the construction of the dome and roofs.
The exterior walls, turrets, dome, and roof are of light toned granite.
The interior is finished in stone and colored marbles, with scultpured
ornament and frescoes. The floors are of mosaic.
The arches of the rotunda support two superimposed stories of
galleries. Surrounding the rotunda on the main floor level is an ambula
tory, from which open eight large apses.
The exterior is dominated by the dome, while at each corner of the
building is a turret surmounted by a small dome. From the faces of the
building project semicircular bays roofed by half domes and surrounded
by colonnades forming the apses.
DESIGN NO. 2.
BYZANTINE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE BYZANTINE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE followed the
classic period, and was the first matured style of Christian architecture.
Attaining its finest development in the Sixth century, it flourished in
Turkey, Greece, and Syria, while some examples of the epoch are found
as far east as Armenia, and others on the west in Italy. The Byzantine
of southern France is of a somewhat later date.
The mosque of "Santa Sophia," originally a Christian church at
Constantinople, is without doubt the most beautiful, famous, and admired
example of Byzantine, while "S. Vitalae," at Ravenna, and "St. Marks,"
at Venice, as well as the cathedral of "St. Front" at Perigeux in southern
France these latter two of the llth century are fine examples of the
application of this style.
Among the successful and well-known examples of the adaptation of
Byzantine to modern buildings for worship are the cathedrals of West
minster and of Marseilles, and the recently completed basilica of the
"Sacred Heart" on the Butte of Montmartre in Paris. This latter, though
decoratively less florid than some other examples of the style, like those
of the earlier French Byzantine, produces nevertheless an effect of im
pressive dignity which cannot be questioned.
The Byzantine, though massive in construction, calls in its most com
plete development for sculptured ornament, and interior decorations of
marble and mosaic, rich in color, which relieve it from any seeming struc
The architect has imagined this building in the Byzantine style, to be
constructed entirely of masonry.
The exterior is of light granite, including the domes as well as the
roofs, which are formed of slabs supported by the interior vaulting.
The interior, of stone and marble, relieved by sculptured ornament
and richly decorated with mosaics, is entered through a high arched
portico. Upon either side of the vestibule are staircases leading to the
crypt below, which is so designed as to serve for religious purposes, sup
plementing the main part of the building. In a sub-crypt below the vesti
bule provision has been made for a vault for the storage of records and
The rotunda, entered from the vestibule, is encircled by piers and
arches which support two stories of galleries. Surrounding the rotunda
on the main floor level, is an ambulatory, from which opens out a series
The exterior of the building is dominated by the great dome, which
surmounts the central rotunda, about the base of which rise nine small
domes which are above the ambulatory. From the faces of the building
project the semicircular walls forming the apses of the interior, and upon
the exterior these are encircled bysemicircular arcaded porticoes, to which
there is access from the interior. Above these portions are open balconies
upon a level with and entered from the galleries. A semicircular retain
ing wall, with a colonnade supporting a terrace above on the level of the
main gardens, is arranged in the rear of the building, with staircases con
necting the levels.
DESIGN NO. 3.
ARABIAN-MOORISH STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE ARABIAN AND MOORISH STYLES of architecture were
evolved by the Moslem civilization, reaching their perfection, respect
ively, in northern Africa and in Spain.
The palace of the Alhambra at Grenada, and the great mosque at
Cordova, now transformed and used as a cathedral, are the finest and
best known examples of Moorish art.
The mosques of Cairo represent the finest examples of pure Arabian
architecture, while many tombs and houses of Cairo testify to the beauty
of the Arabian period.
The Arabian buildings attained a grandeur of size, general propor
tions, and composition not reached in the Moorish style, yet the Moors
attained an elegance and a refinement in decoration which is not found in
Arabian art. The architectural and decorative elements of these two
styles can be used together in harmonious composition.
The decoration of the Arabian and Moorish buildings is carried out
in marbles, colored tiles, and very elaborate fretwork designs in colors
and gold, producing an effect gorgeous, but at the same time dignified
and harmonious. The horseshoe arch is one of the most striking features
of these styles.
The architect has imagined this building in the Arabian-Moorish
style to be of masonry, with steel reinforcements and supports in the
construction of the dome and roof.
The exterior wall surfaces, dome, roof, and retaining walls of sur
rounding terraces are of white sandstone.
The interior is finished in stone and colored marbles, with sculptural
and plastic ornament in gold and colors.
The building is entered by a vestibule portal, upon either side of
which are staircases leading to the loggias upon the floor above.
The rotunda is encircled by nine arches, which support a gallery of
nineteen bays, and the dome above is pierced by an equal number of
star-shaped openings. Surrounding the rotunda is a narrow aisle or
ambulatory, and then a second one of more ample dimensions, above
which is a spacious gallery giving upon a series of loggias which over
look the terraces and gardens.
The exterior of the building in general lines is extremely simple,
with decoration in low though crisp relief. The most striking feature ot
the main fagade is the high triple arched portal. The entire building rests
upon a high terrace surrounded by retaining walls and abutments with
stair approaches. Fountains are set into large grotto niches in the ter
race-retaining wall, and from these fountains radiate avenues and
DESIGN NO. 4.
PERSIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE PERSIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE was developed
under the influence brought into Persia by the early Moslem civiliza
tion. Some of its grandest applications are found in the mosques of
Esphahan, Khoum, Kashan, and Khazvin, while the same style is found
in those and other cities, successfully applied to such buildings as bazaars,
caravansaries, palaces, colleges, gateways, bridges, and other civic struc
The lower wall surfaces of the more elegant of these buildings are
often revetted with slabs of marble, while the main walls and upper parts
are usually in brick, terra cotta, and brightly colored tiles. Though some
of these buildings have stood for centuries, the coloring in many instances
remains quite fresh and even brilliant.
The richness in color decoration of the domes and minarets of Per
sian mosques, rising from a foreground of gardens and silhouetted against
a cloudless sky, is very memorable and beautiful. This style of decora
tion, so in harmony with its oriental environment, has a charm of its own,
to which many Persian writers, as well as foreigners traveling in that
country, have testified.
The architect has imagined this building in the Persian style to be
of a masonry construction of concrete and brick faced with colored tiles
and terra cotta.
The exterior is finished with tiles and terra cotta, and the lower
parts faced with slabs of colored marbles.
The interior is finished in materials similar to those utilized upon the
exterior, to which is added mosaic. A high rotunda with galleries forms
the central motive of the composition of the interior.
About the central rotunda is a series of nine smaller rotundas, while
upon the main floor a loggia passageway encircles the entire building,
uniting the main portico with each of the minor porticoes.
The exterior of the building is so proportioned that the dome rises
high above the other parts of the building, so that it will dominate the
landscape. Each facade contains three large and spacious niches, which
form the loggia porticoes through which the building is entered.
DESIGN NO. 5.
INDIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE INDIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE had its richest de
velopment during the Mogul rule in India. In this civilization art and
architecture show a strong Persian influence. Some of the finest exam
ples of this style are found in the vicinity of Delhi, India s ancient capital,
while the world-famous Taj-Mahal, near the city of Agra, though not
so pure in details as other mosques of the period, nevertheless is without
doubt the best known and by many the most admired building of the
The Taj-Mahal is finished within and without with white marble
inlaid with jasper, lapis lazuli, and other semi-precious stones. It is
surrounded by a garden intersected by waterways separated by richly
colored flowers and foliage, and produces an effect of beauty beyond the
power of words to describe.
The architect has imagined this building in the Indian Style to be
constructed of masonry, with the exception of the inner and outer shells
of the dome, which require steel reinforcing. Both the exterior and the
interior would be finished in white marble, in the latter to be relieved
here and there by inlays of colored marbles, and decorated with sculp
In conceiving this design the architect has in mind a structure much
less in dimensions than others here illustrated. It will be seen from the
drawings, therefore, that both the exterior and interior arrangements
are simple in the extreme.
The rotunda is encircled by nine columns, which support a gallery
of nineteen bays. Upon the main floor the central space is surrounded
by deep windowed alcoves, which are connected by passageways piercing
the walls behind the columns, while above is a gallery story similarly
treated. Upon either side of the main entrance are staircases leading to
The dome is the most striking feature of the exterior. Engaged
with the building at each corner are minaret turrets terminating in minia
ture domes. The interior arrangement of main and gallery floors is
indicated on the exterior by the two stories of windows.
DESIGN NO. 6.
ROMANESQUE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE ROMANESQUE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE is peculiar
to the buildings of the period which was transitional between the Roman
and the Gothic epochs.
As with all transitional periods of art, the examples of the Roman
esque are most varied, and exhibit the influence of the inventiveness and
the traditions, and the culture of the people in the several European
countries, as well as in the few near eastern lands in which its monu
ments are found, its development extending over an age of constructive
ingenuity beginning with the late and decadent classic, and leading up
to the most highly structurally developed of all styles yet evolved the
In its earliest stages the Romanesque still retains much of the classic,
and in some of the countries where abounded buildings and remains of
the classic period the traditions of the people were 1 such that it was never
freed from this influence, while in its latter stages of evolution, notably
exemplified in the churches of northern France, are to be found elements
which exhibit in rudiment the principles of the Gothic structural system.
The monuments of this epoch are very widespread. Some fine exam
ples of the Romanesque development are found in Auvergne in south cen
tral France, of which the church of "Notre-Dame-du-Port," at Clermont-
Ferrand, is one of the best examples. The churches in northern France,
in particular the abbys of Caen and the church of "St. Etienne," at Beau-
vais, show important developments in the evolution of the style.
In Germany the cathedrals of Mayence, Speyer, and Worms are
grand examples of the character of the Romanesque peculiar to the
Rhenish provinces, while in Belgium the cathedral of Tournai is one of
the most striking monuments of this epoch.
Latterly in France the Romanesque has been successfully used in
some large churches, among which are "St. Pierre de Montrouge" in
Paris and "St. Jean" at Bar-le-Duc.
In America there was a brief period during which, in some cities,
the Romanesque was applied to various buildings. Without doubt the
happiest and most admired application of this style to the religious needs
of modern America is found in Trinity Church, Boston, which shows
traces of the influence of some of the late Romanesque churches of south
ern France and Spain.
The architect has imagined this building in the Romanesque style
to be constructed entirely of masonry.
The exterior is of light granite, including the conical roof of the
cupola as well as the other roofs which are formed of slabs supported by
the interior vaulting.
The interior is finished in a light colored stone with sculptured
ornament, while a rich color effect will be obtained by stained glass.
The high central space is surrounded by an ambulatory divided by
columns and piers (carrying the roof) into three aisles, from which open
out large apses, each surrounded by a small ambulatory containing stair
cases connecting the main floor with the basement entrances. The upper
stories of the central space or rotunda contain interior galleries, while
about the base of the high central portion of the building runs a low
exterior gallery enclosed by nineteen bays of five arcades each.
In making this design the architect has tried to retain the feeling
of the Romanesque, which is somewhat more severe and less florid and
exubriant than the Oriental styles and those of a later date of the
DESIGN NO. 7.
THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE found its origin in
the Romanesque period. Like other styles, its character has been greatly
influenced by local conditions, temperamental, cultural, military, national,
and, above all, religious. The forms peculiar to it are found in different
stages of evolution in various parts of Great Britain and Europe, but
nowhere did it attain the grandeur and structural development reached
in northern France in the twelfth century. This was brought about by
a people working under the influence of a common religious ideal, a
mixed people in whom were combined and balanced the artistic and
intellectual traits of southern, central, and western Europe under social
and political conditions which made possible the building of such monu
ments as the cathedrals of Paris, Amiens, Rheims, and Chartres which,
together with many other less generally known cathedrals and churches,
testify to this period, brief in length, of the perfection of the Gothic style.
To the casual observer, the Gothic style is characterized by the
pointed arch, windows filled with tracery, ribbed and groined vaulting,
spires and turrets, flying buttresses, and mouldings and ornaments of a
distinctive type; but to the student of this art the chiefest and most
distinguishing characteristic which it embodies, and which no other style
of architecture embodies, is its structural system of active mechanical
parts so arranged that a perfect equilibrium is attained by the neutraliza
tion of opposing and balanced thrusts. Thus in the typical Gothic cathe
dral this principle of mechanical structure differentiates that style from
previous styles wherein the stability of buildings depended upon the
inert massiveness of walls to overcome any internal or external thrusts.
In the Gothic wall surfaces have almost ceased to exist, the structure
being one vast stone skeleton of piers, arches, and ribs which support
the vaults of the roof. The tracery, taking the place of the walls, carries
the protecting glass.
Gothic architecture in its complete structural development never
existed outside of a comparatively small area in northern France,
yet in many other parts of Europe the churches and cathedrals of that
epoch attained grandeur, beauty, and charm not to be questioned, and
the development of many motives and details peculiar to the period but
secondary to the unique structural principle attained by the French.
In mentioning the Gothic, the cathedral of Cologne in Germany
should not be overlooked. This building was directly prompted by the
French examples at Amiens and Beauvais. It is not structurally related
to any local architectural development, so cannot be considered to have
been evolved upon German soil.
In the western ecclesiastical world there has been a reversion to
certain characteristics of Gothic in many of the churches recently built.
In America almost every city and town has several so-called "Gothic
churches," but when one examines these structures he finds they are not
really Gothic. They carry certain decorative features peculiar to the
Gothic style, yet structurally they cannot be classed as Gothic because
they do not conform to the principle of this style.
In France in recent decades Gothic has been revived according to
the true construction of the original epoch in the Church of "Ste. Clo-
tilde" at Paris. Completed some sixty years ago this church is perhaps
the best known example of pure modern Gothic. It is structurally car
ried out in accord with the perfected Gothic principle. The Pilgrim
church of "Bonsecours" at Rouen, and the churches of "St. Epvre" at
Nancy, and "St. Vincent-de-Paul" at Marseilles, though smaller than
"Ste. Clotilde," are good examples of the modern French revival of thir
teenth century Gothic.
The architect has imagined this building in the Gothic style to be
constructed entirely of masonry, with the exception of the roofs, which
will be of a light metal construction resting upon the structural masonry.
Both the exterior and interior will be of light standstone, sparingly but
richly decorated with sculptured ornament, the color effect in the inte
rior to be obtained by a richness of stained glass, the windows being
so developed as practically to eliminate the wall space, which arrange
ment is characteristic of the Gothic.
The high central space contains two stories of triforium galleries,
and upon the main floor is surrounded by an ambulatory divided by
piers, which carry the overhead vaults into three aisles, out from which
open polygonal apses forming, as it were, a series of chapels surrounding
The exterior of the edifice is dominated by the central portion,
which rises high above the roofs of ambulatory and chapels, the most
striking feature of which is without doubt the flying buttresses, counter
acting the thrust of the interior vaults, which, with the turrets and other
structural as well as decorative elements of the design, give the building
the character peculiar to the Gothic.
DESIGN NO. 8.
RENAISSANCE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.
THE RENAISSANCE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE, or the
application of classic forms to the needs of building, began with the
revival of classic culture and traditions in Europe in the fourteenth, fif
teenth, and sixteenth centuries, which had been latent and practically
forgotten during the mediaeval ages.
With its general awakening first in Italy it spread to all parts of
Europe, assuming many and various forms in different countries and
under varying conditions, ranging from the simplicity of the almost pure
classic through many variations to the flamboyant forms of Rococo and
Louis XV, then to the more restrained Georgian and Colonial styles, and
yet again to the florid extremes of the modern French Renaissance.
Some of the world-known ecclesiastical buildings of the Renaissance
are "St. Peter s" church and "St. John Lateran," the cathedral of Rome,
the "Escorial in Spain, the "Tomb of Napoleon," the church of the
"Sorbonne," and the more modern ones of "La Sainte Trinite" and "St.
Vincent-de-Paul," and others in Paris, and St. Paul s Cathedral in London.
In addition to these and other well known buildings practically every city
where modern architecture has attained any development contains build
ings, with Renaissance forms to some degree, so widespread in this day
is the influence of this style.
The decorative possibilities of the Renaissance are without doubt
more varied than those of any other style, this style having such a wide
range of forms that there are practically no restrictions as to the mate
rials which are in character with it.
- FAST- ElEVATION -
The architect has imagined this building in the Renaissance style
to be constructed of masonry, the exterior to be of light granite, the
interior to be of stone and marbles, with sculptured ornament and mosaic
While the architectural details of this design are Renaissance, the
general lines of the building approach the more eastern or oriental
forms, which feeling the designer wishes to express in the interior treat
ment as well as upon the exterior of the building.
The high central rotunda, with its interior galleries, is surmounted
upon the exterior by a dome with massive buttresses, about the base of
which is a series of smaller domes which cover a corresponding number
of smaller rotundas which encircle the central rotunda already described.
A series of large apses surround the building and are visible from
the outside by their encircling porticoes and the half domes which cover
DESIGN NO. 9.
MODERN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURAL CONSTRUCTION.
THE MODERN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURAL CONSTRUC
TION, product of the exigencies of building in America, but now being
emulated in other countries as well, as an art is yet in its earliest stages
of development. Structurally it is an application to present day needs
of the simple principles of timber construction known more or less to
builders in all ages, but which attained the highest architectural develop
ment and beauty in the so-called "half timbered" houses of the mediaeval
In this period the art and the science of timber construction were so
happily combined as to have produced an architectural composition in
which the construction was apparent and the decoration so applied as
not to mask or to interfere with the mechanical structure, but to conform
to it, and to enhance its value by making it a thing of beauty. The
houses were built of timber, to which a light filling of masonry was
added to form the enclosing walls and partitions, and sometimes the
floors. When completed, these houses presented structures bony in
character, the parts of little resistance and the weight of the building
being carried by the timber framework. The difference between this
and the ordinary masonry and timber construction commonly built now-
a-days is that in these latter the enclosing walls of masonry are self-
supporting, and these not only carry their own weight, but also the
weight of the floors, roofs, and other parts of the building which rest
In the business center of the typical American city it has been neces
sary to erect, for commercial purposes, buildings which are in many cases
great in height and small in lateral dimensions. This necessity, together
with considerations of economy of space and of building materials, has
produced the evolution of, first, the steel frame, and later the reinforced
concrete building now finding their development in the typical American
In the fireproof "sky piercer," and in the ordinary building con
structed of timber, the structural principle is the same ; namely, that there
are no self-supporting walls, but that the structural framework of the
building carries alike the walls, partitions, floors, and roof, and other
parts of the building. While the modern steel and concrete construction
is having its beginning in buildings of a type more utilitarian than beau
tiful, and up to this present time the best known examples of architecture
applied to this principle of construction are found in the factory and in
office buildings, rarely objects of beauty, yet there is every reason why
architects should seek to apply appropriate architectural treatments to
structures of this type, thus giving the modern steel and concrete struc
ture architectural treatment which shall add to a building science already
quite perfected the art of architecture which shall make these structures
pleasing to the aesthetic sense of the passer-by in the measure that they
are already practical and utilitarian.
In this style of architecture the possibilities of surface decoration,
both exterior and interior, are almost without limit. Stucco, stone facing,
brick, terra cotta, mosaic, etc., are all applicable and in harmony with the
character of the structure.
S[ -EAST -ELEVATION-
The architect has imagined this building to be of reinforced concrete
of the most improved and modern construction.
The exterior is to be encrusted with terra cotta and tiles, with stone
casing near the ground. The interior to be likewise, treated with terra
cotta and tiles, enriched by marble casings and mosaic decorations.
The high central rotunda with its galleries is surrounded by a s cries
of smaller rotundas, and these in turn, upon the main floor, by a loggia
which encircles the building, connecting the nine porticoes.
As in character with this style of construction, it will be seen that the
wall supports in the plans are quite small in comparison with the floor
areas, thus giving an air of lightness of structure attained in no other
style, though approached in the Gothic.
In this design the architect has attempted to show frankly in the
exterior and interior treatment of surfaces the character and lines of
the internal structure of the skeleton and walls, thus trying to put into
one homogeneous whole the architectural decoration and the mechanical
is only lately that the architects have
in such w.ise been showing their works.
A few months ago Thomas Hastings, B
the well known architect of New York
and membr of the Federal Commis
sion of Fine Arts , exhibited a group
of his architectural desiirna at Colum
Now Charles Mason Remey is show
ing a series of studies in design for
the Bahai Temple, proposed for erec
tion In Chicago, at thft National Mu
seum in the rooms of th National Gal
lery. According to th present plan
this modern temple, representing a
world religion, a to be erected on the
shore of Lak Michigan, In Chicago.
In the way of study and experimenta
tion, in order to secure the best and
most appropriate design, Mr. Ramey
has made not on*, but nine, designs,
each In a different style, thus varying
the treatment and demonstrating the
possibility of varied architectural so
lutions of this single problam. The
styles he has used are Roman-classic,
Byzantine. Arabian-Moorish, Persian,
Indian, Romanesque, Gothic, renais
sance and modern. Each is worked out
and shown in colored perspectives.
With but two exceptions, the Some Is
made a dominant feature these are,
obviously, th* Romanesque and Gothic.
It is enormously interesting 1 to see
how the same problem can be expressed
in such varied terms and while yet In
a measure possessing so much unity
Mr. Remey was, it will be remem
bered, assistant professor in architec
ture at George Washington University
and completed the course of study at
the Eco .e cles Beaux ArtF in Paris.
To students 0,1 architecture, as well
as students of history And art, this
series of drawings, showing most In
teresting solutions of a difficult prob
lem, Vlll prove of very genuine In
* * .
From tomorrow for one week Bft S .